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Sample records for resistance training session

  1. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10 groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supplementation plus resistance training, resistance training, and control groups. After supplementation period (600 mg/day, 14 days, resistance training and green tea supplementation plus resistance training groups performed an intensive resistance training session at 75-85 % of one repetition maximum. The malondialdehyde and total thiol were measured as oxidative stress indices. Data were analyzed by using of repeated measure ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.056T. Results: Results showed that after 14 days of green tea consumption, malondialdehyde significantly decreased in green tea supplementation (p=0.03 and green tea supplementation plus resistance training (p=0.01 groups, while total thiol increased significantly (p=0.01 in two green tea supplementation groups. However, an intensive resistance training session increased malondialdehyde (p=0.01 without any significantly changes in total thiol (p=0.426T. Conclusion: It seems that green tea supplementation can inhibit exercise-induced protein and lipid oxidation in non-athletes women via enhancement of antioxidant defense system of the body6T.6T

  2. INFLUENCE OF TWO DIFFERENT REST INTERVAL LENGTHS IN RESISTANCE TRAINING SESSIONS FOR UPPER AND LOWER BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Senna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rest intervals between sets appear to be an important variable that can directly affect training volume and fatigue. The purpose of the present study was to compare the influence of two and five-minute rest intervals on the number of repetitions per set, per exercise and total repetitions in resistance training sessions. Fourteen trained men (23.0 ± 2. 2 yrs; 74.9 ± 4.1 kg; 1.75 ± 0.03 m completed three sets per exercise, with 10RM load in four training sessions. Two sessions involved lower body exercises (leg press, leg extension and leg curl, with two-minute (SEQA and with five-minute interval (SEQB. The other two sessions involved upper body exercises (bench press, pec-deck and triceps pulley, with two (SEQC and five-minute intervals (SEQD. For two-minute, five of six exercises presented reductions in the second set, compared with the first set, and for the third set compared with the first and second sets. For five-minute, three of the six exercises presented reductions in the third set, compared with the first sets, and two of the six for the third set, compared with the second sets. The total number of repetitions in SEQA (66.7 ± 4.9 was significantly smaller than in SEQB (80.9 ± 6.9. Similarly, the total repetitions was significantly lower in SEQC (71.1 ± 4.7 compared with SEQD (83.7 ± 6.1. The results indicate that the training session performance is reduced by shorter intervals, being the initial exercises less affected during the progression of the sets

  3. Kinetics of Hypotension during 50 Sessions of Resistance and Aerobic Training in Hypertensive Patients: a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damorim, Igor Rodrigues; Santos, Tony Meireles; Barros, Gustavo Willames Pimentel; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Cavalcanti

    2017-04-01

    Resistance and aerobic training are recommended as an adjunctive treatment for hypertension. However, the number of sessions required until the hypotensive effect of the exercise has stabilized has not been clearly established. To establish the adaptive kinetics of the blood pressure (BP) responses as a function of time and type of training in hypertensive patients. We recruited 69 patients with a mean age of 63.4 ± 2.1 years, randomized into one group of resistance training (n = 32) and another of aerobic training (n = 32). Anthropometric measurements were obtained, and one repetition maximum (1RM) testing was performed. BP was measured before each training session with a digital BP arm monitor. The 50 training sessions were categorized into quintiles. To compare the effect of BP reduction with both training methods, we used two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) adjusted for the BP values obtained before the interventions. The differences between the moments were established by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The reductions in systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were 6.9 mmHg and 5.3 mmHg, respectively, with resistance training and 16.5 mmHg and 11.6 mmHg, respectively, with aerobic training. The kinetics of the hypotensive response of the SBP showed significant reductions until the 20th session in both groups. Stabilization of the DBP occurred in the 20th session of resistance training and in the 10th session of aerobic training. A total of 20 sessions of resistance or aerobic training are required to achieve the maximum benefits of BP reduction. The methods investigated yielded distinct adaptive kinetic patterns along the 50 sessions. Os treinamentos de força e aeróbio são indicados para o tratamento adjuvante da hipertensão. Entretanto, o número de sessões necessárias até estabilização do efeito hipotensor com o exercício ainda não está claramente estabelecido. Estabelecer a cinética adaptativa das respostas tensionais em função do

  4. Exercise order affects the total training volume and the ratings of perceived exertion in response to a super-set resistance training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balsamo S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sandor Balsamo1–3, Ramires Alsamir Tibana1,2,4, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento1,2, Gleyverton Landim de Farias1,2, Zeno Petruccelli1,2, Frederico dos Santos de Santana1,2, Otávio Vanni Martins1,2, Fernando de Aguiar1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira4, Jéssica Cardoso de Souza4, Jonato Prestes41Department of Physical Education, Centro Universitário UNIEURO, Brasília, 2GEPEEFS (Resistance training and Health Research Group, Brasília/DF, 3Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidade de Brasília (UnB, Brasília, 4Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB, Brasília/DF, BrazilAbstract: The super-set is a widely used resistance training method consisting of exercises for agonist and antagonist muscles with limited or no rest interval between them – for example, bench press followed by bent-over rows. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different super-set exercise sequences on the total training volume. A secondary aim was to evaluate the ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue index in response to different exercise order. On separate testing days, twelve resistance-trained men, aged 23.0 ± 4.3 years, height 174.8 ± 6.75 cm, body mass 77.8 ± 13.27 kg, body fat 12.0% ± 4.7%, were submitted to a super-set method by using two different exercise orders: quadriceps (leg extension + hamstrings (leg curl (QH or hamstrings (leg curl + quadriceps (leg extension (HQ. Sessions consisted of three sets with a ten-repetition maximum load with 90 seconds rest between sets. Results revealed that the total training volume was higher for the HQ exercise order (P = 0.02 with lower perceived exertion than the inverse order (P = 0.04. These results suggest that HQ exercise order involving lower limbs may benefit practitioners interested in reaching a higher total training volume with lower ratings of perceived exertion compared with the leg extension plus leg curl

  5. USING SESSION RPE TO MONITOR DIFFERENT METHODS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D. Egan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare session rating of perceived exertion for different resistance training techniques in the squat exercise. These techniques included traditional resistance training, super slow, and maximal power training. Fourteen college-age women (Mean ± SD; age = 22 ± 3 years; height = 1.68 ± 0. 07 m completed three experimental trials in a randomized crossover design. The traditional resistance training protocol consisted of 6 sets of 6 repetitions of squats using 80% of 1-RM. The super slow protocol consisted of 6 sets of 6 repetitions using 55% of 1-RM. The maximal power protocol consisted of 6 sets of 6 repetitions using 30% of 1-RM. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE measures were obtained following each set using Borg's CR-10 scale. In addition, a session RPE value was obtained 30 minutes following each exercise session. When comparing average RPE and session RPE, no significant difference was found. However, power training had significantly lower (p < 0.05 average and session RPE (4.50 ± 1.9 and 4.5 ± 2.1 compared to both super slow training (7.81 ± 1.75 and 7.43 ± 1.73 and traditional training (7.33 ± 1.52 and 7.13 ± 1.73. The results indicate that session RPE values are not significantly different from the more traditional methods of measuring RPE during exercise bouts. It does appear that the resistance training mode that is used results in differences in perceived exertion that does not relate directly to the loading that is used. Using session RPE provides practitioners with the same information about perceived exertion as the traditional RPE measures. Taking a single measure following a training session would appear to be much easier than using multiple measures of RPE throughout a resistance training workout. However, practitioners should also be aware that the RPE does not directly relate to the relative intensity used and appears to be dependent on the mode of resistance exercise that is used

  6. Attendance at NHS mandatory training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Darren

    2015-02-17

    To identify factors that affect NHS healthcare professionals' attendance at mandatory training sessions. A quantitative approach was used, with a questionnaire sent to 400 randomly selected participants. A total of 122 responses were received, providing a mix of qualitative and quantitative data. Quantitative data were analysed using statistical methods. Open-ended responses were reviewed using thematic analysis. Clinical staff value mandatory training sessions highly. They are aware of the requirement to keep practice up-to-date and ensure patient safety remains a priority. However, changes to the delivery format of mandatory training sessions are required to enable staff to participate more easily, as staff are often unable to attend. The delivery of mandatory training should move from classroom-based sessions into the clinical area to maximise participation. Delivery should be assisted by local 'experts' who are able to customise course content to meet local requirements and the requirements of different staff groups. Improved arrangements to provide staff cover, for those attending training, would enable more staff to attend training sessions.

  7. Safety Training: scheduled sessions in April

    CERN Multimedia

    DGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The following training courses are scheduled in April. You can find the full Safety Training programme on the Safety Training online catalogue. If you are interested in attending any of the below courses, please talk to your supervisor, then apply electronically via EDH from the course description pages, by clicking on SIGN-UP. Registration for all courses is always open – sessions for the less-requested courses are organized on a demand-basis only. Depending on the demand, a session will be organised later in the year. Biocell Training 26-APR-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in French 26-APR-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French Conduite de plates-formes élévatrices mobiles de personnel (PEMP) 28-APR-11 to 29-APR-11 (08.00 – 17.30) in French* Sécurité chimique – Introduction 29-APR-11 (09.00 – 11.30) in French (*) session in French with the possibility of receiving the documentation in English   By Isabelle Cusato (H...

  8. Comparison the effects of one session aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of the coagulation markers of healthy young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Habibian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical training is a useful method to reduce disease of cardiovascular, but the effect of exercise on the coagulation system is under investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the response of one bout exhaustive aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of coagulation markers in healthy young women.Materials and Method: This quasi-experimental research was performed in 2009. Twenty trained volunteer female students of physical education Sari Azad university were selected objectively and availability. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups of aerobic (n=10 and resistance training (n=10. Aerobic group performed an exhaustive workout program on treadmill intensity 65 to75% Vo2max on treadmill. The resistance group completed three sets of 5-7 repetitions of six exercises at an intensity corresponding to 80% of 1RM. Following 12 to 14 hours of nightly fasting, venous blood samples (5 cc were collected pre, immediately after exercise and after 60 min of recovery and analyzed for PT, aPTT and fibrinogen. Participants were matched according to anthropometric measurements, age and Vo2max. Hypothesizes were tested by using independent t, repeated measures and post-hoc test (p 0.05. Results: Both the aerobic and resistance training groups, PT time (p<0.001 and aPTT time significantly decreased (p=0.006, p<0.001 respectively times between the two groups and the effect of resistant training on fibrinogen level immediately after exercise. Also aPTT time higher increased after recovery in comparison with baseline levels in aerobic (p=0.006 and resistance training groups (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in PT and aPTT was higher than aerobic training (p=0.0035.Conclusion: The results show that both of acute aerobic and or anaerobic exercise lead to small and transit coagulation system and increase in coagulation times

  9. Safety Training: scheduled sessions in March

    CERN Multimedia

    DGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The following training courses are scheduled in March. You can find the full Safety Training programme on the Safety Training online catalogue. If you are interested in attending any of the below courses, please talk to your supervisor, then apply electronically via EDH from the course description pages, by clicking on SIGN-UP. Registration for all courses is always open – sessions for the less-requested courses are organized on a demand-basis only. Depending on the demand, a session will be organised later in the year. Biocell Training 08-MAR-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in English 08-MAR-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French 15-MAR-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in French 15-MAR-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French 17-MAR-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in English 17-MAR-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in English 22-MAR-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in French 22-MAR-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French 24-MAR-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in French 24-MAR-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French 29-MAR...

  10. Safety Training: scheduled sessions in May

    CERN Multimedia

    Isabelle Cusato (HSE Unit)

    2011-01-01

    The following training courses are scheduled in March. You can find the full Safety Training programme on the Safety Training online catalogue. If you are interested in attending any of the below courses, please talk to your supervisor, then apply electronically via EDH from the course description pages, by clicking on SIGN-UP. Registration for all courses is always open – sessions for the less-requested courses are organized on a demand-basis only. Depending on the demand, a session will be organised later in the year.   Biocell Training 10-MAY-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in French 10-MAY-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French 12-MAY-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in English 12-MAY-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in English 19-MAY-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in French 19-MAY-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in French 24-MAY-11 (08.30 – 10.00) in English 24-MAY-11 (10.30 – 12.00) in English   Champs Magnétiques 13-MAY-11 (09.30 – 11.30) in French...

  11. Repetition Performance And Blood Lactate Responses Adopting Different Recovery Periods Between Training Sessions In Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Humberto; de Freitas Maia, Marianna; Paz, Gabriel Andrade; de Souza, João A A A; Simão, Roberto; de Araújo Farias, Déborah; Willardson, Jeffrey M

    2017-02-08

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different recovery periods (24h, 48h, and 72h) between repeated resistance training (RT) sessions for the upper body muscles on repetition performance and blood lactate responses in trained men. Sixteen recreationally trained men (age: 26.1 ± 3.1 years; height: 179 ± 4.5 cm; body mass: 82.6 ± 4.0 kg, 4.5 ± 2.2 years of RT experience) participated in this study. Eight-repetition maximum (8-RM) loads were determined for the bench press (BP), 30° incline bench press (BP30), and 45° incline bench press (BP45) exercises. To assess the effects of different recovery periods between repeated training sessions, three protocols were performed in randomized order, including: 24 hours (P24); 48 hours (P48); and 72 hours (P72). Each RT session consisted of performing four repetition maximum sets of BP, BP30, and BP45 with 8-RM loads and 2-minute rest intervals between sets. Blood lactate levels were measured pre-session (PRE), immediately post-session (POST), 3 minutes post-session (P3), and 5 minutes post-session (P5). For the P24 protocol, significant decreases in repetition performance were found between sessions for the BP, BP30, and BP45 exercises, respectively. When considering session 2 only, the total work (repetition x sets) was significantly higher in P48 and P72 versus P24 for the BP30 and BP45 exercises. Blood lactate levels (i.e. POST, P3, and P5) significantly increased for session 2 under the P24 compared to the P48 and P72 protocols, respectively. Therefore, coaches and practitioners who need to accomplish a higher training volume for the upper body muscles should adopt recovery periods longer than 24 hours between sessions that train the same or similar muscle groups.

  12. Fluid and electrolyte balance during two different preseason training sessions in elite rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Samuel D; Love, Thomas D; Brown, Rachel C; Baker, Dane F; Howe, Anna S; Black, Katherine E

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare fluid balance between a resistance and an aerobic training sessions, in elite rugby players. It is hypothesized that resistance exercise will result in a higher prevalence of overdrinking, whereas during the aerobic session, underdrinking will be more prevalent. As with previous fluid balance studies, this was an observational study. Twenty-six players completed the resistance training session, and 20 players completed the aerobic training session. All players were members of an elite rugby union squad competing in the southern hemisphere's premier competition. For both sessions, players provided a preexercise urine sample to determine hydration status, pre- and postexercise measures of body mass, and blood sodium concentration were taken, and the weight of drink bottles were recorded to calculate sweat rates and fluid intake rates. Sweat patches were positioned on the shoulder of the players, and these remained in place throughout each training session and were later analyzed for sodium concentration. The percentage of sweat loss replaced was higher in the resistance (196 ± 130%) than the aerobic training session (56 ± 17%; p = 0.002). Despite this, no cases of hyponatremia were detected. The results also indicated that more than 80% of players started training in a hypohydrated state. Fluid intake seems to differ depending on the nature of the exercise session. In this group of athletes, players did not match their fluid intakes with their sweat loss, resulting in overdrinking during resistance training and underdrinking in aerobic training. Therefore, hydration strategies and education need to be tailored to the exercise session. Furthermore, given the large number of players arriving at training hypohydrated, improved hydration strategies away from the training venue are required.

  13. Session-RPE for quantifying the load of different youth basketball training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, C; Tessitore, A; Gasperi, L; Gomez, Mar

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate youth basketball training, verifying the reliability of the session-RPE method in relation to session duration (session) categories. Six male youth basketball players (age, 16.5±0.5 years; height, 195.5±6.75 cm; body mass, 93.9±10.9 kg; and body mass index, 23.6±2.8 kg.m -2 ) were monitored (HR, type and duration of workouts) during 15 (66 individual) training sessions (80±26 minutes). Edwards' HR method was used as a reference measure of internal training load (ITL); the CR-10 RPE scale was administered 30 minutes after the end of each session. The results obtained showed that all comparisons between different session durations and workout portions revealed effects in term of Edwards' ITLs except for warm-up portions. Moderate to strong relationships between Edwards' and session- RPE methods emerged for all sessions (r = .85, P sessions (r range = .79 - .95, P session durations (session-RPE to monitor the ITL, regardless of session durations and workout portions.

  14. Session-RPE for quantifying the load of different youth basketball training sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Lupo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate youth basketball training, verifying the reliability of the session-RPE method in relation to session duration (< and ≥ 80 minutes and workout typology (reduced and high warm-up, conditioning, technical, tactical, game portions within a single session categories. Six male youth basketball players (age, 16.5±0.5 years; height, 195.5±6.75 cm; body mass, 93.9±10.9 kg; and body mass index, 23.6±2.8 kg.m-2 were monitored (HR, type and duration of workouts during 15 (66 individual training sessions (80±26 minutes. Edwards’ HR method was used as a reference measure of internal training load (ITL; the CR-10 RPE scale was administered 30 minutes after the end of each session. The results obtained showed that all comparisons between different session durations and workout portions revealed effects in term of Edwards’ ITLs except for warm-up portions. Moderate to strong relationships between Edwards’ and session- RPE methods emerged for all sessions (r = .85, P < .001, player’s sessions (r range = .79 - .95, P < .001, session durations (< 80 minutes: r = .67, P < .001; ≥ 80 minutes: r = .75, P < .001, and workout portions (r range = .78 - .89, P range = .002 - < .001. The findings indicated that coaches of youth basketball players can successfully use session-RPE to monitor the ITL, regardless of session durations and workout portions.

  15. Astronauts and cosmonauts during emergency bailout training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Using small life rafts, several cosmonauts and astronauts participating in joint Russia - United States space missions take part in an emergency bailout training session in the JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) 25-feet-deep pool. In the

  16. Astronauts Parise and Jernigan check helmets prior to training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Attired in training versions of the Shuttle partial-pressure launch and entry suits, payload specialist Dr. Ronald A Parise (left) and astronaut Tamara E. Jernigan, payload commander, check over their helmets prior to a training session. Holding the helmets is suit expert Alan M. Rochford, of NASA. The two were about to join their crew mates in a session of emergency bailout training at JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF).

  17. Session-RPE for quantifying load of different youth taekwondo training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Corrado; Capranica, Laura; Cortis, Cristina; Guidotti, Flavia; Bianco, Antonino; Tessitore, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    The session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) proved to be a valuable method to quantify the internal training load (ITL) in taekwondo. However, no study validated this method in youth taekwondo athletes performing different training sessions. Thus this study aimed at evaluating the reliability of the session-RPE to monitor the ITL of prepubescent taekwondo athletes during pre-competitive (PC) and competitive (C) training sessions. Five female (age: 12.0±0.7 y; height: 1.54±0.08 m; body mass: 48.8±7.3 kg) and four male (age: 12.0±0.8 yrs; height: 1.55±0.07 m; body mass: 47.3±5.3 kg) taekwondo athletes were monitored during 100 individual sessions (PC: N.=33; C: N.=67). The Edwards' HR method was used as reference measure of ITL; the CR-10 RPE scale was administered at 1- and 30-minutes from the end of each session. No difference for gender emerged. The ITLs of C (Edwards: 228±40 arbitrary units, AU) resulted higher than that of PC (192±26 AU; P=0.04). Although all training typologies and data collections achieved significant correlations between Edwards' and session-RPE methods, a large relationship (r =0.71, Psessions evaluated at 30 minutes of the recovery phases. Findings support coaches of prepubescent taekwondo athletes to successfully use session-RPE to monitor the ITL of different training typologies. However, PC training evaluated at 30 minutes of the recovery phase represents the best condition for a highly reliable ITL perception.

  18. Astronaut Tamara Jernigan in the CCT during a training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Tamara E. Jernigan, STS-67 payload commander, is shown here in the Shuttle Training Facility at JSC participating in a training session. Jernigan is training with the RMS controls in the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT) of JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  19. STS-32 Commander Brandenstein adjusts IMAX camera during training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-32 Commander Daniel C. Brandenstein adjusts IMAX camera setting during briefing and training session as technician looks on. The session was conducted in the JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9B. The IMAX camera will be used onboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, during the STS-32 mission.

  20. Astronaut Robert L. Crippen prepares for underwater training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Astronaut Robert L. Crippen, STS-7 crew commander, adjusts his extravehicular mobility unit's (EMU) gloves prior to donning his helmet for a training session in the weightless environment test facility (WETF).

  1. The evaluation process of short training sessions in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overschie, M.G.F.; Lukosch, H.K.; De Vries, P.

    This paper presents a critical reflection of the evaluation of learning processes in organizations. Based on learning and evaluation theories and concepts we discuss qualitative and quantitative evaluation processes, and its relationship to short training sessions to foster sustainable development.

  2. Upcoming training sessions (up to end October) - Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Please find below a list of training sessions scheduled to take place up to the end of October with places available.   Safety and Language courses are not included here, you will find an up-to-date list in the Training Catalogue. If you need a course which is not featured  in the catalogue, please contact one of the following: your supervisor, your Departmental Training Officer or the relevant learning specialist. Leadership Training           Training Course Title Next Session Language Duration Available places Needed to maintain the session Driving for Impact and Influence 13-Sep-2016 to 14-Sep-2016 French 2 days 4 0 Essentials of People Management for CERN Supervisors (Adapted from CDP for CERN Supervisors) 22-Sep-2016 to 23-Sep-2016, 18-Nov-2016, 17-Jan-2017 to 18-Jan-2017 English 5 days 5 0 Eléments essentiels de la gestion du personnel pour les superviseurs (adapt&a...

  3. Brief Classroom Training Sessions for Workplace Readiness: Are They Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palesy, Debra

    2017-01-01

    Classroom training sessions for new home care workers (HCWs) are often brief and ad hoc, varying in format and content. Yet the application of this training may be central to worker and client safety. A qualitative approach was adopted for this inquiry, comprising two separate but related practical studies. In the first, exploratory study,…

  4. Training Sessions Provide Working Knowledge of National Animal Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, J. Benton, Jr.; Ahola, Jason K.

    2010-01-01

    One in-service and two train-the-trainer workshops were conducted by University of Idaho Extension faculty, Idaho State Department of Agriculture personnel, and allied industry representatives to increase Extension educators' knowledge and awareness of the National Animal Identification System (NAIS) and related topics. Training sessions included…

  5. Upcoming training sessions (up to end October) - Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Please find below a list of training sessions scheduled to take place up to the end of October with places available.   Safety and Language courses are not included here, you will find an up-to-date list in the Training Catalogue. If you need a course which is not featured  in the catalogue, please contact one of the following: your supervisor, your Departmental Training Officer or the relevant learning specialist.  

  6. Availabilities in the June Safety Training sessions

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    A few places are still available on the safety courses mentioned below. Please consult the Safety training catalogue to obtain all the latest information and to register. Clearance for work with electrical equipment ("Habilitation électrique") for non-electricians (classroom-based course), 9 June, in French, 8 hours from 9.00 am to 5.30 pm (10 places available) Safety in Cryogenics level 1, 14 June, in English, 3 hours from, 9.00 am to 12 noon (5 places available) Lift-truck operation ("Conduite de chariots élévateurs"), 24-25 June, in French, 2 days from 8.00 am to 5.30 pm (3 places available).

  7. Astronaut Wendy Lawrence participates in training session in the CCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Seated in the pilot's seat of a JSC Shuttle trainer, astronaut Wendy B. Lawrence, STS-67 flight engineer, participates in a training session. The 1992 astronaut class graduate is in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) of JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  8. STS-9 payload specialists and backup in training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Two Spacelab 1 payload specialists and a backup for that flight prepare for a training session in the JSC mockup and integration laboratory. Fully decked out in the Shuttle constant wear garments (foreground) are Ulf Merbold, left, and Byron K. Licktenberg, prime crewmembers on the STS-9 team. In civilian clothes is payload specialist backup Michael L. Lampton.

  9. Analysis and comparison of intensity in specific soccer training sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Antonacci Condessa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the exercise intensity of four specific soccer training sessions (friendly and training match, tactical and technical workouts. Ten professional soccer players (24.2 ± 3.7 years, 177.9 ± 7.3 cm, 63.2 ± 4.6 mLO2•kg-1•min-l were recruited. A treadmill progressive interval test was performed to determine the players' VO2max, maximal heart rate (HRmax, HR-VO2 curve, and the heart rate corresponding to blood lactate concentrations of 2 and 4 mmol/L. The heart rate during the training sessions was used to estimate the exercise intensity and to classify them into intensity zones (low-intensity: 4 mmol/L. Exercise intensities were different among training sessions (friendly match: 86.0 ± 5.1% HRmax; training match: 81.2 ± 4.1% HRmax; tactical workout: 70.4 ± 5.3% HRmax; technical workout: 62.1 ± 3.6% HRmax. The friendly match presented the highest percentage of time performed in the high-intensity zone.

  10. STS 51-L crewmembers briefed during training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Five members of the STS 51-L crew and a backup crewmember are briefed during a training session in JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory. From left to right are Astronauts Ellison S. Onizuka, mission specialist; Ronald E. McNair, mission specialist; Gregory Jarvis, Hughes payload specialist; Judith A. Resnik, mission specialist; Sharon Christa McAuliffe, citizen observer/payload specialist representing the Teacher in Space project. Barbara R. Morgan, backup to McAuliffe, is in the right foreground.

  11. Monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial em indivíduos normotensos submetidos a duas sessões únicas de exercícios: resistido e aeróbio Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in normotensive individuals undergoing two single exercise sessions: resistive exercise training and aerobic exercise training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosina Maria Lignani de Miranda Bermudes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a influência de duas sessões únicas de exercício resistido (circuito com pesos e aeróbio sobre as alterações pressóricas, em indivíduos sedentários e normotensos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados pela monitorização numa situação controle, sem realização de exercícios (MAPA 1 25 indivíduos, após exercício resistido (MAPA 2 e após exercício aeróbio (MAPA 3. Os exercícios resistidos foram realizados sob forma de circuito com pesos, com intensidade de 40% da força máxima individual e os exercícios aeróbicos em cicloergômetro, com intensidade entre 60% e 70% da freqüência cardíaca (FC máxima alcançada no teste ergométrico. RESULTADOS: A pressão arterial sistólica (PAS de 24h e sub-períodos vigília e sono não apresentaram variações estatisticamente significantes quando comparada à MAPA2 e MAPA3 e MAPA2 e MAPA3 entre si. A pressão arterial diastólica (PAD de 24h e diurna apresentaram reduções significantes (POBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of 2 single exercise sessions on blood pressure in sedentary normotensive individuals: one of resistive exercise training (circuit weight training and the other of aerobic exercise training. METHODS: Using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, this study assessed 25 individuals as follows: in a controlled situation at rest (ABPM 1; after resistive exercise training (ABPM 2; and after aerobic exercise training (ABPM 3. Resistive exercise training was performed as circuit weight training with an intensity of 40% of each individual's maximum strength. The aerobic exercise training was performed on a cycloergometer with intensity between 60% and 70% of the maximum heart rate (HR reached during previous exercise testing. RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure (SBP values during 24 hours and during subperiods of wakefulness and sleep showed no statistically significant variations when the results obtained at rest were compared with those of ABPM2 and ABPM3, and when

  12. Five training sessions improves 3000 meter running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riiser, A; Ripe, S; Aadland, E

    2015-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two weeks of endurance training on 3000-meter running performance. Secondary we wanted to assess the relationship between baseline running performance and change in running performance over the intervention period. We assigned 36 military recruits to a training group (N.=28) and a control group. The training group was randomly allocated to one of three sub-groups: 1) a 3000 meter group (test race); 2) a 4x4-minutes high-intensity interval group; 3) a continuous training group. The training group exercised five times over a two-week period. The training group improved its 3000 meter running performance with 50 seconds (6%) compared to the control group (P=0.003). Moreover, all sub-groups improved their performance by 37 to 73 seconds (4-8%) compared to the control group (Ptraining group. We conclude that five endurance training sessions improved 3000 meter running performance and the slowest runners achieved the greatest improvement in running performance.

  13. Safety Training: scheduled sessions in September and October 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The following training courses are scheduled in September – October. You can find the full Safety Training programme on the Safety Training online catalogue. If you are interested in attending any of the below courses, please talk to your supervisor, then apply electronically via EDH from the course description pages, by clicking on SIGN-UP. Registration for all courses is always open – sessions for the less-requested courses are organized on a demand-basis only. Depending on the demand, a session will be organised later in the year. Alphabetical order (original course titles are maintained) Conduite de chariots élévateurs 17-OCT-11 to 18-OCT-11, 8.00 – 17.30, in French * Ergonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace 15-SEP-11, 9.00 – 12.30, in French 15-SEP-11, 14.00 – 17.30, in English Habilitation électrique : Personnel électricien effectuant des opérations du domaine de tension BTA...

  14. Safety Training: scheduled sessions in September and October 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    DGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The following training courses are scheduled in September – October. You can find the full Safety Training programme on the Safety Training online catalogue. If you are interested in attending any of the below courses, please talk to your supervisor, then apply electronically via EDH from the course description pages, by clicking on SIGN-UP. Registration for all courses is always open – sessions for the less-requested courses are organized on a demand-basis only. Depending on the demand, a session will be organised later in the year. Alphabetical order (original course titles are maintained) Chemical Safety – Introduction 11-OCT-11, 9.00 – 11.30, in English Conduite de chariots élévateurs 17-OCT-11 to 18-OCT-11, 8.00 – 17.30, in French * Ergonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace 15-SEP-11, 9.00 – 12.30, in French 15-SEP-11, 14.00 – 17.30, in English Habilitation électrique : Personne...

  15. Less is more: latent learning is maximized by shorter training sessions in auditory perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Katharine; Moore, David R; Sohoglu, Ediz; Amitay, Sygal

    2012-01-01

    The time course and outcome of perceptual learning can be affected by the length and distribution of practice, but the training regimen parameters that govern these effects have received little systematic study in the auditory domain. We asked whether there was a minimum requirement on the number of trials within a training session for learning to occur, whether there was a maximum limit beyond which additional trials became ineffective, and whether multiple training sessions provided benefit over a single session. We investigated the efficacy of different regimens that varied in the distribution of practice across training sessions and in the overall amount of practice received on a frequency discrimination task. While learning was relatively robust to variations in regimen, the group with the shortest training sessions (∼8 min) had significantly faster learning in early stages of training than groups with longer sessions. In later stages, the group with the longest training sessions (>1 hr) showed slower learning than the other groups, suggesting overtraining. Between-session improvements were inversely correlated with performance; they were largest at the start of training and reduced as training progressed. In a second experiment we found no additional longer-term improvement in performance, retention, or transfer of learning for a group that trained over 4 sessions (∼4 hr in total) relative to a group that trained for a single session (∼1 hr). However, the mechanisms of learning differed; the single-session group continued to improve in the days following cessation of training, whereas the multi-session group showed no further improvement once training had ceased. Shorter training sessions were advantageous because they allowed for more latent, between-session and post-training learning to emerge. These findings suggest that efficient regimens should use short training sessions, and optimized spacing between sessions.

  16. Influence of training and competitive sessions on peripheral ?-endorphin levels in training show jumping horses

    OpenAIRE

    Cravana, Cristina; Medica, P.; Ragonese, G.; Fazio, E.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of training sessions on circulating ?-endorphin changes in sport horses before and after competition and to ascertain whether competition would affect this response. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 trained jumping horses were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: Group A (competing) and Group B (not competing). To determined plasma ?-endorphin concentrations, two pre- and post-competition training weeks at aerobic workout and two competitive sho...

  17. 75 FR 61485 - Regulatory Training Session With Air Carriers, EPA Regional Partners and Other Interested Parties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9210-6] Regulatory Training Session With Air Carriers, EPA... Agency (EPA) will hold a two-day training session on the regulatory requirements of the Aircraft Drinking... session will be provided in early 2011. ADDRESSES: The training will be held at the Rosslyn Holiday Inn at...

  18. Resistance training during pregnancy and perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Erin; Pivarnik, Jim; Pfeiffer, Karin

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 10% of women engage in resistance training during pregnancy; however there is limited research on this activity. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between resistance training and adverse outcomes. Women completed an online survey and recalled their exercise habits during each trimester of their most recent pregnancy within the previous 5 years. Women also reported pregnancy and birth outcomes. Participants were then categorized into 3 groups based on leisure-time exercise: 1) Resistance + aerobic training (RTAE), 2) Aerobic exercise only (AE), and 3) no exercise (NE). 284 women completed the survey. Women in the RTAE group resistance trained on average 2.9 days/ week for 27.3 minutes/session. The prevalences of hypertensive disorders (HD) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were significantly lower in the RTAE group when compared with the grouping of AE + NE women. Prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) was the strongest factor related to both GDM and HD. There was no difference in the risk of preterm labor, mode of delivery, or gestational age at delivery by exercise status. Our results suggest that women can safely engage in aerobic exercise and resistance training for muscular endurance 3 days/week for 30 minutes throughout gestation.

  19. Metabolic Demand and Internal Training Load in Technical-Tactical Training Sessions of Professional Futsal Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Carolina F; Ramos, Guilherme P; Pacheco, Diogo A S; Santos, Weslley H M; Diniz, Mateus S L; Gonçalves, Gabriela G P; Marins, João C B; Wanner, Samuel P; Silami-Garcia, Emerson

    2016-08-01

    Wilke, CF, Ramos, GP, Pacheco, DAS, Santos, WHM, Diniz, MSL, Gonçalves, GGP, Marins, JCB, Wanner, SP, and Silami-Garcia, E. Metabolic demand and internal training load in technical-tactical training sessions of professional futsal players. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2330-2340, 2016-The aim of the study was to characterize aspects of technical-tactical training sessions of a professional futsal team. We addressed 4 specific aims: characterize the metabolic demands and intensity of these training sessions, compare the training intensity among players of different positions, compare the intensity of different futsal-specific activities (4 × 4, 6 × 4, and match simulation), and investigate the association between an objective (training impulse; TRIMP) and a subjective method (session rating of perceived exertion; sRPE) of measuring a player's internal training load. Twelve top-level futsal players performed an incremental exercise to determine their maximal oxygen consumption, maximal heart rate (HRmax), ventilatory threshold (VT), and respiratory compensation point (RCP). Each player's HR and RPE were measured and used to calculate energy expenditure, TRIMP, and sRPE during 37 training sessions over 8 weeks. The average intensity was 74 ± 4% of HRmax, which corresponded to 9.3 kcal·min. The players trained at intensities above the RCP, between the RCP and VT and below the VT for 20 ± 8%, 28 ± 6%, and 51 ± 10% of the session duration, respectively. Wingers, defenders, and pivots exercised at a similar average intensity but with different intensity distributions. No difference in intensity was found between the 3 typical activities. A strong correlation between the average daily TRIMP and sRPE was observed; however, this relationship was significant for only 4 of 12 players, indicating that sRPE is a useful tool for monitoring training loads but that it should be interpreted for each player individually rather than collectively.

  20. Training Sessions and Materials Present Ways to Improve System Efficiency: OIT Technical Assistance Fact Sheet: Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericksen, E.

    1999-01-01

    Interested in learning about innovative ways to improve the efficiency of your plant's steam, electric motor, and compressed air systems? This US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies fact sheet offers information regarding training sessions, teleconferences, and various training materials to teach you and your company ways to reduce energy use, save money, and reduce waste and pollution through system optimization

  1. Observations of youth football training: How do coaches structure training sessions for player development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Donna; Larkin, Paul; Williams, A Mark

    2018-01-01

    We used systematic observation tools to explore the structure (i.e., activity and inactivity) and sequencing (i.e., the types of activities used) of football coaching sessions in Australia following the implementation of a new National Curriculum. Youth soccer coaches (n = 34), coaching within the Skill Acquisition (U11-U13 n = 19) and Game Training (U14-U17 n = 15) phases of the Football Federation Australia National Curriculum participated. Participants were filmed during a regular coaching session, with systematic observation of the session undertaken to provide a detailed analysis of the practice activities and coach behaviours. Findings indicated a session comprised of Playing Form activities (40.9%), Training Form activities (22.3%), inactivity (31%), and transitions between activities (5.8%). Coaches prescribed more Training Form activities (e.g., individual (5.4%) and drills (15.1%)) early in the session and progressed to Playing Form activities (i.e., small-sided games (15.3%) then larger games (24.8%)) later in the session. Most inactivity reflected the players listening to the coach - either in a team huddle (9.9%) or frozen on the spot during an activity (16.5%). In addition, coaches generally spent over 3 min communicating to players prior to explaining and introducing an activity regardless of when in the session the activity was scheduled.

  2. The Neuromuscular, Biochemical, and Endocrine Responses to a Single-Session Vs. Double-Session Training Day in Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Michael J; Cook, Christian J; Drake, David; Costley, Lisa; Johnston, Julie P; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-11-01

    Johnston, MJ, Cook, CJ, Drake, D, Costley, L, Johnston, JP, and Kilduff, LP. The neuromuscular, biochemical, and endocrine responses to a single-session vs. double-session training day in elite athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3098-3106, 2016-The aim of this study was to compare the acute neuromuscular, biochemical, and endocrine responses of a training day consisting of a speed session only with performing a speed-and-weights training session on the same day. Fifteen men who were academy-level rugby players completed 2 protocols in a randomized order. The speed-only protocol involved performing 6 maximal effort repetitions of 50-m running sprints with 5 minutes of recovery between each sprint, whereas the speed-and-weights protocol involved the same sprinting session but was followed 2 hours later by a lower-body weights session consisting of 4 sets of 5 backsquats and Romanian deadlift at 85% one repetition maximum. Testosterone, cortisol, creatine kinase, lactate, and perceived muscle soreness were determined immediately before, immediately after, 2 hours after, and 24 hours after both the protocols. Peak power, relative peak power, jump height, and average rate of force development were determined from a countermovement jump (CMJ) at the same time points. After 24-hours, muscle soreness was significantly higher after the speed-and-weights protocol compared with the speed-only protocol (effect size η = 0.253, F = 4.750, p ≤ 0.05). There was no significant difference between any of the CMJ variables at any of the posttraining time points. Likewise, creatine kinase, testosterone, and cortisol were unaffected by the addition of a weight-training session. These data indicate that the addition of a weight-training session 2 hours after a speed session, whereas increasing the perception of fatigue the next day does not result in a difference in endocrine response or in neuromuscular capability.

  3. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vandoni

    Full Text Available Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (p<0.05. Consequently, the affective responses to vigorous session were less pleasant than those during moderate session (p<0.05. These results suggest that the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  4. Heavy resistance training and lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Karlsmark, Tonny; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge regarding progressive resistance training during adjuvant chemotherapy and the risk of developing breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Furthermore, no studies have investigated the safety of resistance training with heavy loads (> 80% 1 repetition maximum......) in this population. 'Body and Cancer' is a six-week, nine-hour weekly, supervised, multimodal exercise intervention utilizing progressive resistance training with heavy loads for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of BCRL in former participants......, and identify associations between progressive resistance training with heavy loads, and the development of BCRL. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a descriptive study. POPULATION: Women treated for breast cancer (n = 149), who had participated in the 'Body and Cancer' exercise intervention between 1 January 2010...

  5. Adaptations to short, frequent sessions of endurance and strength training are similar to longer, less frequent exercise sessions when the total volume is the same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilen, Anders; Hjelvang, Line B; Dall, Niels

    2015-01-01

    ]: n = 21) performed nine 15-minute training sessions weekly, whereas a second group ("classical training" [CL]: n = 8) completed exactly the same training on a weekly basis but as three 45-minute sessions. For each group, each session comprised exclusively strength, high-intensity cardiovascular...

  6. Does external pneumatic compression treatment between bouts of overreaching resistance training sessions exert differential effects on molecular signaling and performance-related variables compared to passive recovery? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Cody T; Roberts, Michael D; Romero, Matthew A; Osburn, Shelby C; Mobley, Christopher B; Anderson, Richard G; Goodlett, Michael D; Pascoe, David D; Martin, Jeffrey S

    2017-01-01

    We sought to compare the effects of external pneumatic compression (EPC) and sham when used concurrently with resistance training on performance-related outcomes and molecular measures related to recovery. Twenty (N = 20) resistance-trained male participants (aged 21.6±2.4 years) were randomized to balanced sham or EPC intervention groups. The protocol consisted of 3 consecutive days of heavy, voluminous back squat exercise followed by EPC/sham treatment (Days2-4) and 3 consecutive days of recovery (Days5-7) with EPC/sham only on Days5-6. On Day1 (PRE), and Days3-7, venipuncture, flexibility and pressure-to-pain threshold (PPT) measures were performed. Vastsus lateralis muscle tissue was biopsied at PRE, 1-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day2 (POST1) and 24-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day7 (POST2). Isokinetic peak torque was assessed at PRE and POST2. Peak isokinetic strength did not change from PRE to POST2 in either group. The PPT was significantly lower on Days3-6 with sham, indicating greater muscle soreness, though this was largely abolished in the EPC group. A significant decrease in flexibility with sham was observed on Day3 (+16.2±4.6% knee joint angle; P0.01). Vastus lateralis poly-ubiquitinated proteins significantly increased at the POST2 time point relative to PRE with sham (+66.6±24.6%; Pmuscle oxidative stress and proteolysis markers during recovery from heavy resistance exercise.

  7. Resistance exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Richards, Rachel S; Bidonde, Julia; Schachter, Candice L; Schafer, Laurel A; Danyliw, Adrienne; Sawant, Anuradha; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Rader, Tamara; Overend, Tom J

    2013-12-20

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain that leads to reduced physical function. Exercise training is commonly recommended as a treatment for management of symptoms. We examined the literature on resistance training for individuals with fibromyalgia. Resistance training is exercise performed against a progressive resistance with the intention of improving muscle strength, muscle endurance, muscle power, or a combination of these. To evaluate the benefits and harms of resistance exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We compared resistance training versus control and versus other types of exercise training. We searched nine electronic databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, Current Controlled Trials, World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, AMED) and other sources for published full-text articles. The date of the last search was 5 March 2013. Two review authors independently screened 1856 citations, 766 abstracts and 156 full-text articles. We included five studies that met our inclusion criteria. Selection criteria included: a) randomized clinical trial, b) diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria, c) adult sample, d) full-text publication, and e) inclusion of between-group data comparing resistance training versus a control or other physical activity intervention. Pairs of review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted intervention and outcome data. We resolved disagreements between the two review authors and questions regarding interpretation of study methods by discussion within the pairs or when necessary the issue was taken to the full team of 11 members. We extracted 21 outcomes of which seven were designated as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, tenderness, muscle strength, attrition rates, and adverse effects. We evaluated benefits and harms of the interventions using

  8. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoni, Matteo; Codrons, Erwan; Marin, Luca; Correale, Luca; Bigliassi, Marcelo; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim

    2016-01-01

    Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (psession were less pleasant than those during moderate session (ptraining sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  9. Effect of specific resistance training on musculoskeletal pain symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Andersen, Lars Louis; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2013-01-01

    .16, p = 0.045), and there was a significant dose-response relationship between training volume per session and change in pain index (ß = -0.20, p = 0.034). In contrast, training attendance (mean 1.69 sessions per week, SD = 0.8) was not significantly related to the change in pain index. In conclusion......, achieving higher accumulated training volumes was important for reducing musculoskeletal pain in female office workers. The training volume per session should be optimized by securing a load at 10-15 repetition maximum and adhering to principles of progressive overload.......ABSTRACT: Pedersen, MT, Andersen, LL, Jørgensen, MB, Søgaard, K, and Sjøgaard, G. Effect of specific resistance training on musculoskeletal pain symptoms: Dose-response relationship. J Strength Cond Res 27(1): 229-235, 2013-The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-response of strength...

  10. 77 FR 75491 - Entry-Level Driver Training; Public Listening Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... identified are supported by research and data analyses, including cost/benefit considerations. The session...-27748] Entry-Level Driver Training; Public Listening Session AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public listening session. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that it will...

  11. The first 3 minutes: Optimising a short realistic paediatric team resuscitation training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKittrick, Joanne T; Kinney, Sharon; Lima, Sally; Allen, Meredith

    2018-01-01

    Inadequate resuscitation leads to death or brain injury. Recent recommendations for resuscitation team training to complement knowledge and skills training highlighted the need for development of an effective team resuscitation training session. This study aimed to evaluate and revise an interprofessional team training session which addressed roles and performance during provision of paediatric resuscitation, through incorporation of real-time, real team simulated training episodes. This study was conducted applying the principles of action research. Two cycles of data collection, evaluation and refinement of a 30-40 minute resuscitation training session for doctors and nurses occurred. Doctors and nurses made up 4 groups of training session participants. Their responses to the training were evaluated through thematic analysis of rich qualitative data gathered in focus groups held immediately after each training session. Major themes included the importance of realism, teamwork, and reflective learning. Findings informed important training session changes. These included; committed in-situ training; team diversity; realistic resources; role flexibility, definition and leadership; increased debriefing time and the addition of a team goal. In conclusion, incorporation of interprofessional resuscitation training which addresses team roles and responsibilities into standard medical and nursing training will enhance preparedness for participation in paediatric resuscitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CERN Technical Training 2006: Office Software Curriculum Scheduled Course Sessions (October-December 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Office Software Curriculum of the CERN Technical Training Programme currently offers comprehensive training in Microsoft Office (Word, Excel, Powerpoint, Access, Outlook), MS Project, Frontpage, Dreamweaver, Indesign, LaTeX, and CERN EDMS. There are some places available on the following Microsoft Office 2003 course sessions, currently scheduled until December 2007: EXCEL 2003 - niveau 2 : ECDL - 16-17 October (2 days, session in French) WORD 2003 (Short Course II) - HowTo... Mail merge - 2 November (morning, bilingual session) WORD 2003 (Short Course IV) - HowTo... Work with master document - 2 November (afternoon, bilingual session) OUTLOOK 2003 (Short Course III) - Meetings and Delegation - 3 November (morning, bilingual session) EXCEL 2003 (Short Course IV) - HowTo... Link cells, worksheets and workbooks - 3 November (afternoon, bilingual session) EXCEL 2003 - Level 1: ECDL - 13-14 November (2 days, session in English) ACCESS 2003 - Level 2: ECDL - 5-6 December (2 days, session in English) The abo...

  13. Does external pneumatic compression treatment between bouts of overreaching resistance training sessions exert differential effects on molecular signaling and performance-related variables compared to passive recovery? An exploratory study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody T Haun

    Full Text Available We sought to compare the effects of external pneumatic compression (EPC and sham when used concurrently with resistance training on performance-related outcomes and molecular measures related to recovery.Twenty (N = 20 resistance-trained male participants (aged 21.6±2.4 years were randomized to balanced sham or EPC intervention groups. The protocol consisted of 3 consecutive days of heavy, voluminous back squat exercise followed by EPC/sham treatment (Days2-4 and 3 consecutive days of recovery (Days5-7 with EPC/sham only on Days5-6. On Day1 (PRE, and Days3-7, venipuncture, flexibility and pressure-to-pain threshold (PPT measures were performed. Vastsus lateralis muscle tissue was biopsied at PRE, 1-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day2 (POST1 and 24-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day7 (POST2. Isokinetic peak torque was assessed at PRE and POST2.Peak isokinetic strength did not change from PRE to POST2 in either group. The PPT was significantly lower on Days3-6 with sham, indicating greater muscle soreness, though this was largely abolished in the EPC group. A significant decrease in flexibility with sham was observed on Day3 (+16.2±4.6% knee joint angle; P0.01. Vastus lateralis poly-ubiquitinated proteins significantly increased at the POST2 time point relative to PRE with sham (+66.6±24.6%; P<0.025 and were significantly greater (P<0.025 than those observed with EPC at the same time point (-18.6±8.5%. 4-hydroxynonenal values were significantly lower at POST2 relative to PRE with EPC (-16.2±5.6%; P<0.025 and were significantly lower (P<0.025 than those observed with sham at the same time point (+11.8±5.9%.EPC mitigated a reduction in flexibility and PPT that occurred with sham. Moreover, EPC reduced select skeletal muscle oxidative stress and proteolysis markers during recovery from heavy resistance exercise.

  14. Views of STS-5 crew during a training session in the SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Views of STS-5 crew during a training session in the Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). Astronaut Robert F. Overmyer, STS-5 pilot, participates in training session wearing a communications kit assembly (ASSY). He is dressed in regular flight suit and is studying flight documentation.

  15. Avoiding Surgical Skill Decay : A Systematic Review on the Spacing of Training Sessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Cnossen, Fokie; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Tio, René A

    OBJECTIVE: Spreading training sessions over time instead of training in just 1 session leads to an improvement of long-term retention for factual knowledge. However, it is not clear whether this would also apply to surgical skills. Thus, we performed a systematic review to find out whether spacing

  16. Six Sessions of Sprint Interval Training Improves Running Performance in Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koral, Jerome; Oranchuk, Dustin J; Herrera, Roberto; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2018-03-01

    Koral, J, Oranchuk, DJ, Herrera, R, and Millet, GY. Six sessions of sprint interval training improves running performance in trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 617-623, 2018-Sprint interval training (SIT) is gaining popularity with endurance athletes. Various studies have shown that SIT allows for similar or greater endurance, strength, and power performance improvements than traditional endurance training but demands less time and volume. One of the main limitations in SIT research is that most studies were performed in a laboratory using expensive treadmills or ergometers. The aim of this study was to assess the performance effects of a novel short-term and highly accessible training protocol based on maximal shuttle runs in the field (SIT-F). Sixteen (12 male, 4 female) trained trail runners completed a 2-week procedure consisting of 4-7 bouts of 30 seconds at maximal intensity interspersed by 4 minutes of recovery, 3 times a week. Maximal aerobic speed (MAS), time to exhaustion at 90% of MAS before test (Tmax at 90% MAS), and 3,000-m time trial (TT3000m) were evaluated before and after training. Data were analyzed using a paired samples t-test, and Cohen's (d) effect sizes were calculated. Maximal aerobic speed improved by 2.3% (p = 0.01, d = 0.22), whereas peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) increased by 2.4% (p = 0.009, d = 0.33) and 2.8% (p = 0.002, d = 0.41), respectively. TT3000m was 6% shorter (p training in the field significantly improved the 3,000-m run, time to exhaustion, PP, and MP in trained trail runners. Sprint interval training in the field is a time-efficient and cost-free means of improving both endurance and power performance in trained athletes.

  17. Effects of aging and resistance training in rat tendon remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqueti, Rita C; Durigan, João L Q; Oliveira, Anderson José S; Mekaro, Marcelo Shinyu; Guzzoni, Vinicius; Aro, Andrea A; Pimentel, Edson Rosa; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa S

    2018-01-01

    In elderly persons, weak tendons contribute to functional limitations, injuries, and disability, but resistance training can attenuate this age-related decline. We evaluated the effects of resistance training on the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the calcaneal tendon (CT) in young and old rats and its effect on tendon remodeling. Wistar rats aged 3 mo (young, n = 30) and 20 mo (old, n = 30) were divided into 4 groups: young sedentary, young trained, old sedentary (OS), and old trained (OT). The training sessions were conducted over a 12-wk period. Aging in sedentary rats showed down-regulation in key genes that regulated ECM remodeling. Moreover, the OS group showed a calcification focus in the distal region of the CT, with reduced blood vessel volume density. In contrast, resistance training was effective in up-regulating connective tissue growth factor, VEGF, and decorin gene expression in old rats. Resistance training also increased proteoglycan content in young and old rats in special small leucine-rich proteoglycans and blood vessels and prevented calcification in OT rats. These findings confirm that resistance training is a potential mechanism in the prevention of aging-related loss in ECM and that it attenuates the detrimental effects of aging in tendons, such as ruptures and tendinopathies.-Marqueti, R. C., Durigan, J. L. Q., Oliveira, A. J. S., Mekaro, M. S., Guzzoni, V., Aro, A. A., Pimentel, E. R., Selistre-de-Araujo, H. S. Effects of aging and resistance training in rat tendon remodeling. © FASEB.

  18. Training and Support of Sessional Staff to Improve Quality of Teaching and Learning at Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Gillian; Crane, Linda; Heslop, Ian; Glass, Beverley D

    2015-06-25

    Sessional staff is increasingly involved in teaching at universities, playing a pivotal role in bridging the gap between theory and practice for students, especially in the health professions, including pharmacy. Although sessional staff numbers have increased substantially in recent years, limited attention has been paid to the quality of teaching and learning provided by this group. This review will discuss the training and support of sessional staff, with a focus on Australian universities, including the reasons for and potential benefits of training, and structure and content of training programs. Although sessional staff views these programs as valuable, there is a lack of in-depth evaluations of the outcomes of the programs for sessional staff, students and the university. Quality assurance of such programs is only guaranteed, however, if these evaluations extend to the impact of this training and support on student learning.

  19. STS-46 TCDT Slideware Training and Photo Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The crew of STS-46, Commander Loren J. Shriver, Pilot Andrew M. Allen, Payload Specialist Franco Malerba, Mission Specialists Jeffrey A. Hoffman, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Claude Nicollier, and Marsha S. Ivins are seen introducing themselves and discussing the mission during a photo session. The crew then answers questions from the press.

  20. Locomotor Training and Strength and Balance Exercises for Walking Recovery After Stroke: Response to Number of Training Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Dorian K; Nadeau, Stephen E; Wu, Samuel S; Tilson, Julie K; Dobkin, Bruce H; Pei, Qinglin; Duncan, Pamela W

    2017-11-01

    Evidence-based guidelines are needed to inform rehabilitation practice, including the effect of number of exercise training sessions on recovery of walking ability after stroke. The objective of this study was to determine the response to increasing number of training sessions of 2 interventions-locomotor training and strength and balance exercises-on poststroke walking recovery. This is a secondary analysis of the Locomotor Experience Applied Post-Stroke (LEAPS) randomized controlled trial. Six rehabilitation sites in California and Florida and participants' homes were used. Participants were adults who dwelled in the community (N=347), had had a stroke, were able to walk at least 3 m (10 ft) with assistance, and had completed the required number of intervention sessions. Participants received 36 sessions (3 times per week for 12 weeks), 90 minutes in duration, of locomotor training (gait training on a treadmill with body-weight support and overground training) or strength and balance training. Talking speed, as measured by the 10-Meter Walk Test, and 6-minute walking distance were assessed before training and following 12, 24, and 36 intervention sessions. Participants at 2 and 6 months after stroke gained in gait speed and walking endurance after up to 36 sessions of treatment, but the rate of gain diminished steadily and, on average, was very low during the 25- to 36-session epoch, regardless of treatment type or severity of impairment. Results may not generalize to people who are unable to initiate a step at 2 months after stroke or people with severe cardiac disease. In general, people who dwelled in the community showed improvements in gait speed and walking distance with up to 36 sessions of locomotor training or strength and balance exercises at both 2 and 6 months after stroke. However, gains beyond 24 sessions tended to be very modest. The tracking of individual response trajectories is imperative in planning treatment. Published by Oxford University

  1. Adaptations to Short, Frequent Sessions of Endurance and Strength Training Are Similar to Longer, Less Frequent Exercise Sessions When the Total Volume Is the Same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilen, Anders; Hjelvang, Line B; Dall, Niels; Kruse, Nanna L; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2015-11-01

    The hypothesis that the distribution of weekly training across several short sessions, as opposed to fewer longer sessions, enhances maximal strength gain without compromising maximal oxygen uptake was evaluated. Twenty-nine subjects completed an 8-week controlled parallel-group training intervention. One group ("micro training" [MI]: n = 21) performed nine 15-minute training sessions weekly, whereas a second group ("classical training" [CL]: n = 8) completed exactly the same training on a weekly basis but as three 45-minute sessions. For each group, each session comprised exclusively strength, high-intensity cardiovascular training or muscle endurance training. Both groups increased shuttle run performance (MI: 1,373 ± 133 m vs. 1,498 ± 126 m, p ≤ 0.05; CL: 1,074 ± 213 m vs. 1,451 ± 202 m, p training intervention. In conclusion, similar training adaptations can be obtained with short, frequent exercise sessions or longer, less frequent sessions where the total volume of weekly training performed is the same.

  2. Feasibility of Early-Initiated Progressive Resistance Training after Total Hip Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Mechlenburg, Inger; Petersen, Annemette Krintel

    during the exercises were measured at each training session. Isometric muscle strength was measured before and 4 weeks after the THR. Findings / Results: Pain during exercises and resting pain before and after each training session was unchanged or decreased during the 4 weeks of training. Averaged...... across exercises pain during training decreased from 3.6 (sd: 2.8) at the first session to 1.52 (sd: 1.8) VAS-mm at the last session, ptraining load increased progressively for all 4 exercises during the 4 weeks of training. For example: 2nd, 5th and 8th training session. Hip......Background: Muscle atrophy, reduced hip muscle strength and function are documented within the first weeks after Total Hip Replacement (THR). Purpose / Aim of Study: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of early-initiated progressive resistance training (PRT) after THR...

  3. Elastic Bands as a Component of Periodized Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Jordan M; Lowery, Ryan P; Oliveira de Souza, Eduardo; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-08-01

    Joy, JM, Lowery, RP, Oliveira de Souza, E, and Wilson, JM. Elastic bands as a component of periodized resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2100-2106, 2016-Variable resistance training (VRT) has recently become a component of strength and conditioning programs. Prior research has demonstrated increases in power and/or strength using low loads of variable resistance. However, no study has examined using high loads of variable resistance as a part of a periodized training protocol to examine VRT within the context of a periodized training program and to examine a greater load of variable resistance than has been examined in prior research. Fourteen National Collegiate Athletic Association division II male basketball players were recruited for this study. Athletes were divided equally into either a variable resistance or control group. The variable resistance group added 30% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) as band tension to their prescribed weight 1 session per week. Rate of power development (RPD), peak power, strength, body composition, and vertical jump height were measured pretreatment and posttreatment. No baseline differences were observed between groups for any measurement of strength, power, or body composition. A significant group by time interaction was observed for RPD, in which RPD was greater in VRT posttraining than in the control group. Significant time effects were observed for all other variables including squat 1RM, bench press 1RM, deadlift 1RM, clean 3RM, vertical jump, and lean mass. Although there were no significant group ×-time interactions, the VRT group's percent changes and effect sizes indicate a larger treatment effect in the squat and bench press 1RM values and the vertical jump performed on the force plate and vertec. These results suggest that when using variable resistance as a component of a periodized training program, power and strength can be enhanced. Therefore, athletes who add variable resistance to 1 training

  4. Measuring Resistance to Change at the Within-Session Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonneau, Francois; Rios, Americo; Cabrera, Felipe

    2006-01-01

    Resistance to change is often studied by measuring response rate in various components of a multiple schedule. Response rate in each component is normalized (that is, divided by its baseline level) and then log-transformed. Differential resistance to change is demonstrated if the normalized, log-transformed response rate in one component decreases…

  5. Protein intake during training sessions has no effect on performance and recovery during a strenuous training camp for elite cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Training camps for top-class endurance athletes place high physiological demands on the body. Focus on optimizing recovery between training sessions is necessary to minimize the risk of injuries and improve adaptations to the training stimuli. Carbohydrate supplementation during sessi...

  6. A nuclear training simulator implementing a capability for multiple, concurrent-training sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveld, B.J.; Nannister, D.G.; Estes, K.R.; Johnsen, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Simulator at the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has recently been upgraded to reflect plant installation of a distributed control system (DCS). The ATR Simulator re-design implements traditional needs for software extensibility and plant installation prototyping, but the driving force behind its new design was an instruction requirement for multiple, concurrent-training sessions. Support is provided for up to three concurrent, independent or interacting, training sessions of reactor, balance of plant, and experiment loop operators. This capability has been achieved by modifying the existing design to consistently apply client-server, parent-child, and peer-to-peer processing technologies, and then to encapsulate concurrency software into all interfaces. When the resulting component-oriented design is linked with build and runtime flexibility in a distributed computing environment, traditional needs for extensibility and parallel software and scenario development are satisfied with minimal additional effort. Sensible configuration management practices coupled with the ability to perform piecewise system builds also greatly facilitate prototyping of plant changes prior to installation

  7. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption is unaffected by the resistance and aerobic exercise order in an exercise session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Norton L; Oliveira, Jose

    2011-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare the magnitude and duration of excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after 2 exercise sessions with different exercise mode orders, resistance followed by aerobic exercise (R-A); aerobic by resistance exercise (A-R). Seven young men (19.6 ± 1.4 years) randomly underwent the 2 sessions. Aerobic exercise was performed on a treadmill for 30 minutes (80-85% of reserve heart rate). Resistance exercise consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum on 5 exercises. Previous to the exercise sessions, V(O2), heart rate, V(CO2), and respiratory exchange rate (RER) were measured for 15 minutes and again during recovery from exercise for 60 minutes. The EPOC magnitude was not significantly different between R-A (5.17 ± 2.26 L) and A-R (5.23 ± 2.48 L). Throughout the recovery period (60 minutes), V(O2) and HR values were significantly higher than those observed in the pre-exercise period (p better to start a training session.

  8. Nutrient Administration and Resistance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leutholtz Brian

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skeletal muscle tissue is tightly regulated throughout our bodies by balancing its synthesis and breakdown. Many factors are known to exist that cause profound changes on the overall status of skeletal muscle, some of which include exercise, nutrition, hormonal influences and disease. Muscle hypertrophy results when protein synthesis is greater than protein breakdown. Resistance training is a popular form of exercise that has been shown to increase muscular strength and muscular hypertrophy. In general, resistance training causes a stimulation of protein synthesis as well as an increase in protein breakdown, resulting in a negative balance of protein. Providing nutrients, specifically amino acids, helps to stimulate protein synthesis and improve the overall net balance of protein. Strategies to increase the concentration and availability of amino acids after resistance exercise are of great interest and have been shown to effectively increase overall protein synthesis. 123 After exercise, providing carbohydrate has been shown to mildly stimulate protein synthesis while addition of free amino acids prior to and after exercise, specifically essential amino acids, causes a rapid pronounced increase in protein synthesis as well as protein balance.13 Evidence exists for a dose-response relationship of infused amino acids while no specific regimen exists for optimal dosing upon ingestion. Ingestion of whole or intact protein sources (e.g., protein powders, meal-replacements has been shown to cause similar improvements in protein balance after resistance exercise when compared to free amino acid supplements. Future research should seek to determine optimal dosing of ingested intact amino acids in addition to identifying the cellular mechanistic machinery (e.g. transcriptional and translational mechanisms for causing the increase in protein synthesis.

  9. Implementation of Motor Imagery during Specific Aerobic Training Session in Young Tennis Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric Guillot

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of implementing motor imagery (MI during specific tennis high intensity intermittent training (HIIT sessions on groundstroke performance in young elite tennis players. Stroke accuracy and ball velocity of forehand and backhand drives were evaluated in ten young tennis players, immediately before and after having randomly performed two HIIT sessions. One session included MI exercises during the recovery phases, while the other included verbal encouragements for physical efforts and served as control condition. Results revealed that similar cardiac demand was observed during both sessions, while implementing MI maintained groundstroke accuracy. Embedding MI during HIIT enabled the development of physical fitness and the preservation of stroke performance. These findings bring new insight to tennis and conditioning coaches in order to fulfil the benefits of specific playing HIIT sessions, and therefore to optimise the training time.

  10. Protein intake during training sessions has no effect on performance and recovery during a strenuous training camp for elite cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mette; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Bibby, Bo Martin; Sollie, Ove; Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Madsen, Klavs

    2016-01-01

    Training camps for top-class endurance athletes place high physiological demands on the body. Focus on optimizing recovery between training sessions is necessary to minimize the risk of injuries and improve adaptations to the training stimuli. Carbohydrate supplementation during sessions is generally accepted as being beneficial to aid performance and recovery, whereas the effect of protein supplementation and timing is less well understood. We studied the effects of protein ingestion during training sessions on performance and recovery of elite cyclists during a strenuous training camp. In a randomized, double-blinded study, 18 elite cyclists consumed either a whey protein hydrolysate-carbohydrate beverage (PRO-CHO, 14 g protein/h and 69 g CHO/h) or an isocaloric carbohydrate beverage (CHO, 84 g/h) during each training session for six days (25-29 h cycling in total). Diet and training were standardized and supervised. The diet was energy balanced and contained 1.7 g protein/kg/day. A 10-s peak power test and a 5-min all-out performance test were conducted before and after the first training session and repeated at day 6 of the camp. Blood and saliva samples were collected in the morning after overnight fasting during the week and analyzed for biochemical markers of muscle damage, stress, and immune function. In both groups, 5-min all-out performance was reduced after the first training session and at day 6 compared to before the first training session, with no difference between groups. Peak power in the sprint test did not change significantly between tests or between groups. In addition, changes in markers for muscle damage, stress, and immune function were not significantly influenced by treatment. Intake of protein combined with carbohydrate during cycling at a training camp for top cyclists did not result in marked performance benefits compared to intake of carbohydrates when a recovery drink containing adequate protein and carbohydrate was ingested

  11. Influence of training and competitive sessions on peripheral β-endorphin levels in training show jumping horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cravana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effects of training sessions on circulating β-endorphin changes in sport horses before and after competition and to ascertain whether competition would affect this response. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 trained jumping horses were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: Group A (competing and Group B (not competing. To determined plasma β-endorphin concentrations, two pre- and postcompetition training weeks at aerobic workout and two competitive show jumping event days at anaerobic workout were measured before, 5 and 30 min after exercise. Exercise intensity is described using lactate concentrations and heart rate. The circuit design, intensity, and duration of training sessions were the same for both groups. Results: In Group A, one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures (RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=14.41; p<0.001, only in the post-competition training sessions, while in Group B showed no significant effects. Two-way RM-ANOVA showed, after post-competition training sessions, a significant difference between Group A and Group B (F=6.235; p=0.023, with higher β-endorphin changes in Group A, compared to Group B. During the competitive show jumping sessions, one-way RM ANOVA showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=51.10; p<0.001. The statistical analysis, in Group A, showed a significant difference between postcompetition training and competitive exercise (F=6.32; p=0.024 with higher β-endorphin values in competitive sessions compared to those of post-competition training. Conclusion: Lactate concentrations seem to be the main factors being correlated with the raise of β-endorphin during anaerobic exercise of competitive events. Exercise of low intensity, as well as that one of training sessions, does not appear to stimulate a significant increased release of β-endorphin and it may depend on the duration of the exercise

  12. Inter- and intramuscular differences in training-induced hypertrophy of the quadriceps femoris: association with muscle activation during the first training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakahara, Taku; Ema, Ryoichi; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Kawakami, Yasuo

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether inter- and intramuscular differences in hypertrophy induced by resistance training correspond to differences in muscle activation during the first training session. Eleven young men completed 12 weeks of training intervention for knee extension. Before and after the intervention, T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were recorded to determine the volume and anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA) along the length of the individual muscles of the quadriceps femoris. The T2-weighted MR images were also acquired before and immediately after the first training session. The T2 was calculated for each pixel within the quadriceps femoris, from which the muscle activation was evaluated as %activated volume and area. The results showed that the %activated volume after the first training session was significantly higher in the vastus intermedius than the vastus medialis. However, the relative change in muscle volume after the training intervention was significantly greater in the rectus femoris than the vasti muscles (vastus lateralis, intermedius and medialis). Within the rectus femoris, both the %activated area and relative increase in CSA were significantly greater in the distal region than the proximal region. In contrast, the %activated area and relative increase in CSA of the vasti were nearly uniform along each muscle. These results suggest that the muscle activation during the first training session is associated with the intramuscular difference in hypertrophy induced by training intervention, but not with the intermuscular difference. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The repeated bout effect of typical lower body strength training sessions on sub-maximal running performance and hormonal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma, Kenji; Schumann, Moritz; Sinclair, Wade H; Leicht, Anthony S; Deakin, Glen B; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of two typical strength training sessions performed 1 week apart (i.e. repeated bout effect) on sub-maximal running performance and hormonal. Fourteen resistance-untrained men (age 24.0 ± 3.9 years; height 1.83 ± 0.11 m; body mass 77.4 ± 14.0 kg; VOpeak 48.1 ± 6.1 M kg(-1) min(-1)) undertook two bouts of high-intensity strength training sessions (i.e. six-repetition maximum). Creatine kinase (CK), delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), counter-movement jump (CMJ) as well as concentrations of serum testosterone, cortisol and testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C) were examined prior to and immediately post, 24 (T24) and 48 (T48) h post each strength training bout. Sub-maximal running performance was also conducted at T24 and T48 of each bout. When measures were compared between bouts at T48, the degree of elevation in CK (-58.4 ± 55.6 %) and DOMS (-31.43 ± 42.9 %) and acute reduction in CMJ measures (4.1 ± 5.4 %) were attenuated (p 0.05). Sub-maximal running performance was impaired until T24, although changes were not attenuated following the second bout. The initial bout appeared to provide protection against a number of muscle damage indicators suggesting a greater need for recovery following the initial session of typical lower body resistance exercises in resistance-untrained men although sub-maximal running should be avoided following the first two sessions.

  14. [Training session on healthy environments: evaluation of an intervention for local stakeholders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Virginie; Rivard, Marie-Claude; Trudeau, François

    2016-01-01

    Around the world, various interventions have been developed to encourage the adoption of healthy lifestyles, particularly nutrition and physical activity. Physical, political, economic and socio-cultural environments have a major influence on individual attitudes in relation to healthy lifestyle. However, stakeholders with the greatest impact on improving these environments are not always well informed about the theory and their roles on the creation of environments favourable to healthy lifestyles. Various stakeholders from the province of Quebec were therefore invited to attend training sessions in order to prepare them to act on these four environments. 1) To describe the perceptions of the stakeholders who attended these sessions concerning the content and teaching methods and 2) to identify stakeholders’ changes of perceptions and practices following the training session. Twelve (12) focus groups and 52 individual interviews were conducted across Quebec with stakeholders who attended a training session. Our results indicate increased awareness of stakeholders on the importance of their role but also the need to more precisely target those aspects requiring increased awareness. A content better suited to the level of expertise is therefore proposed to maximize the benefits of these training sessions. Training sessions must be addressed to influential stakeholders with a limited knowledge on the subject, which is often the case for municipal decision-makers known to play a major role in promoting environments favourable to healthy eating and physical activity.

  15. Astronaut Richard H. Truly in training session RMS for STS-2 bldg 9A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Astronaut Richard H. Truly in training session with the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) for STS-2 bldg 9A. Views show Truly working at the command console while watching out the windows. Karen Ehlers, an RMS procedures specialist, can be seen at left side of frame (34314); view from behind Truly as he trains at the RMS console (34315).

  16. Views of STS-4 crew during a training session in the SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Views of STS-4 crew during a training session in the Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) in bldg 5. Astronauts Thomas K. Mattingly, II. (left) and Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr., commander and pilot respectively for STS-4 get in some training time in the SMS.

  17. ASTP crewmen have a meal during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Three ASTP crewmen have a meal in the Apollo Command Module trainer in bldg 35 during Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) joint crew training at JSC. They are, left to right, Cosmonaut Aleksay A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet ASTP first (prime) crew; Astronaut Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot of the American ASTP prime crew; and Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, commander of the American ASTP prime crew.

  18. Safety Training: places available in the forthcoming sessions in May

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2010-01-01

    There are places available in the forthcoming Safety courses. For updates and registrations, please refer to the Safety Training Catalogue. MAY 2010: Confined spaces – for supervisors, 4 May, in French, 1 day, 09:00 – 17:30 Laser safety, 5 May, in French, 4 hours, 13:30 – 17:30 Radiological Protection, 7 May, in English, 4 hours, 13:30 – 17:30 Secourisme - Cours de recyclage, 7 May, in French, 4 hours, 08:30 – 12:30 Secourisme - Cours de recyclage, 7 May, in French, 4 hours, 12:30 – 17:30 Cherry-picker driving (basic course), 10-11 May, in French, 2 days, 08:00 – 17:30 Habilitation électrique : Personnel électricien effectuant des opérations du domaine de tension BTA, 10-11 May, in English, 2 days, 09:00 – 17:30 Biocell Training, 11 May, in French, 1.5 hour, 08:30 – 10:00 Biocell Training, 11 May, in French, 1.5 hour, 10:30 – 12:00 Radiological Protection, 11 May, in English, ...

  19. Interprofessional communication in a simulation-based team training session in healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aase, Ingunn; Aase, Karina; Dieckmann, Gerhard Peter

    2016-01-01

    and attitudes towards interprofessional communication in a simulation-based training session. Methods: The study was designed as an explorative case study based on qualitative content analysis Data was based on observation of two simulation scenarios (“Internal Bleeding”, “Huddle”) and analysis of debriefing...... less explicit in the training session. Conclusion: Exploring the student perspective of interprofessional communication has the following implications for the design and implementation of simulation-based training sessions: (a) to balance clinical exchange and collaborative exchange, (b) to introduce......Background: Interprofessional teamwork and communication training have entered the healthcare education setting, mainly investigated through surveys. However, little is known about the student’s perceptions in more depth. The aim of the study was to investigate healthcare students’ perspectives...

  20. Vitamin C and E supplementation alters protein signalling after a strength training session, but not muscle growth during 10 weeks of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, G; Hamarsland, H; Cumming, K T; Johansen, R E; Hulmi, J J; Børsheim, E; Wiig, H; Garthe, I; Raastad, T

    2014-12-15

    This study investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on acute responses and adaptations to strength training. Thirty-two recreationally strength-trained men and women were randomly allocated to receive a vitamin C and E supplement (1000 mg day(-1) and 235 mg day(-1), respectively), or a placebo, for 10 weeks. During this period the participants' training involved heavy-load resistance exercise four times per week. Muscle biopsies from m. vastus lateralis were collected, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal isometric voluntary contraction force, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and muscle cross-sectional area (magnetic resonance imaging) were measured before and after the intervention. Furthermore, the cellular responses to a single exercise session were assessed midway in the training period by measurements of muscle protein fractional synthetic rate and phosphorylation of several hypertrophic signalling proteins. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis twice before, and 100 and 150 min after, the exercise session (4 × 8RM, leg press and knee-extension). The supplementation did not affect the increase in muscle mass or the acute change in protein synthesis, but it hampered certain strength increases (biceps curl). Moreover, increased phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 and p70S6 kinase after the exercise session was blunted by vitamin C and E supplementation. The total ubiquitination levels after the exercise session, however, were lower with vitamin C and E than placebo. We concluded that vitamin C and E supplementation interfered with the acute cellular response to heavy-load resistance exercise and demonstrated tentative long-term negative effects on adaptation to strength training. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  1. Hydration Status and Fluid Balance of Elite European Youth Soccer Players during Consecutive Training Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Saun M; Sykes, Dave; Gibson, Neil

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM) 70.6 ± 5.0 kg) had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline) and pre- and post-training using urine specific gravity (USG) measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77% on days 1 and 3, and 62% on day 2). There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11) and no influence of training session (p = 0.34) or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16) on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrated, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71% of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (training appears to prevent excessive (≥2% BM) dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guidelines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment. Key PointsThe paper demonstrates a notable inter-participant variation in first morning, pre- and post-training hydration status and fluid balance of elite young European soccer players.On average, elite young European soccer players are hypohydrated upon waking and remain hypohydrated before and after training.Elite young European soccer players display varied fluid intake volumes during training

  2. Influence of training and competitive sessions on peripheral β-endorphin levels in training show jumping horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravana, Cristina; Medica, P; Ragonese, G; Fazio, E

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of training sessions on circulating β-endorphin changes in sport horses before and after competition and to ascertain whether competition would affect this response. A total of 24 trained jumping horses were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: Group A (competing) and Group B (not competing). To determined plasma β-endorphin concentrations, two pre- and post-competition training weeks at aerobic workout and two competitive show jumping event days at anaerobic workout were measured before, 5 and 30 min after exercise. Exercise intensity is described using lactate concentrations and heart rate. The circuit design, intensity, and duration of training sessions were the same for both groups. In Group A, one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures (RM-ANOVA) showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=14.41; prelease of β-endorphin and it may depend on the duration of the exercise program. Moreover, the responses during exercise in the course of post-competition training sessions seem to be significantly different from those the pre-competition training. These data show that the preliminary competitive stress induced additional significant changes of β-endorphin pattern. It would reflect the need of a long-lasting modulation of fatigue and pain perception related to the effect of an additional physical and mental effort for the consecutive competitive and training sessions.

  3. The Specificity of Rugby Union Training Sessions in Preparation for Match Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patrick G; Peake, Jonathan M; Minett, Geoffrey M

    2018-04-01

    Investigations into the specificity of rugby union training practices in preparation for competitive demands have predominantly focused on physical and physiological demands. The evaluation of the contextual variance in perceptual strain or skill requirements between training and matches in rugby union is unclear, yet holistic understanding may assist to optimize training design. This study evaluated the specificity of physical, physiological, perceptual, and skill demands of training sessions compared with competitive match play in preprofessional, elite club rugby union. Global positioning system devices, video capture, heart rate, and session ratings of perceived exertion were used to assess movement patterns, skill completions, physiologic, and perceptual responses, respectively. Data were collected across a season (training sessions n = 29; matches n = 14). Participants (n = 32) were grouped in playing positions as: outside backs, centers, halves, loose forwards, lock forwards, and front row forwards. Greater total distance, low-intensity activity, maximal speed, and meters per minute were apparent in matches compared with training in all positions (P  0.90). Similarly, match heart rate and session ratings of perceived exertion responses were higher than those recorded in training (P  0.8). Key skill completions for forwards (ie, scrums, rucks, and lineouts) and backs (ie, kicks) were greater under match conditions than in training (P  1.50). Considerable disparities exist between the perceptual, physiological, and key skill demands of competitive matches versus training sessions in preprofessional rugby union players. Practitioners should consider the specificity of training tasks for preprofessional rugby players to ensure the best preparation for match demands.

  4. Influence of previous experience on resistance training on reliability of one-repetition maximum test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Avelar, Ademar; Salvador, Emanuel Péricles; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni

    2011-05-01

    The 1-repetition maximum test (1RM) has been widely used to assess maximal strength. However, to improve accuracy in assessing maximal strength, several sessions of the 1RM test are recommended. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of previous resistance training experience on the reliability of 1RM test. Thirty men were assigned to the following 2 groups according to their previous resistance training experience: no previous resistance training experience (NOEXP) and more than 24 months of resistance training experience (EXP). All subjects performed the 1RM tests in bench press and squat in 4 sessions on distinct days. There was a significant session × group effect in bench press (F = 3.09; p reliability of the 1RM test is influenced by the subject's previous experience in resistance training. Subjects without experience in resistance training require more practice and familiarization and show greater increases in maximal strength between sessions than subjects with previous experience in resistance training.

  5. Data organisation & description - presentation. RDM Support basic training course for information specialists session 4

    OpenAIRE

    Selm, Mariette van

    2015-01-01

    Presentation for session 4 of RDM Support. RDM Support is a basic training course in research data management (support) for information specialists. The training course was developed by Mariëtte van Selm for the information specialists of the Library of the University of Amsterdam (UvA), within the framework of the RDM Support project (2013-2015). The training course was held from January to April 2014.

  6. Variable Resistance Training Promotes Greater Strength and Power Adaptations Than Traditional Resistance Training in Elite Youth Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Maxence; Louit, Loic; Strokosch, Alasdair; Seitz, Laurent B

    2017-04-01

    Rivière, M, Louit, L, Strokosch, A, and Seitz, LB. Variable resistance training promotes greater strength and power adaptations than traditional resistance training in elite youth rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 947-955, 2017-The purpose of this study was to examine the strength, velocity, and power adaptations in youth rugby league players in response to a variable resistance training (VRT) or traditional free-weight resistance training (TRAD) intervention. Sixteen elite youth players were assigned to a VRT or TRAD group and completed 2 weekly upper- and lower-body strength and power sessions for 6 weeks. Training programs were identical except that the VRT group trained the bench press exercise with 20% of the prescribed load coming from elastic bands. Bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and bench press mean velocity and power at 35, 45, 65, 75, and 85% of 1RM were measured before and after the training intervention, and the magnitude of the changes was determined using effect sizes (ESs). The VRT group experienced larger increases in both absolute (ES = 0.46 vs. 0.20) and relative (ES = 0.41 vs. 0.19) bench press 1RM. Similar results were observed for mean velocity as well as both absolute and relative mean power at 35, 45, 65, 75, and 85% of 1RM. Furthermore, both groups experienced large gains in both velocity and power in the heavier loads but small improvements in the lighter loads. The improvements in both velocity and power against the heavier loads were larger for the VRT group, whereas smaller differences existed between the 2 groups in the lighter loads. Variable resistance training using elastic bands may offer a greater training stimulus than traditional free-weight resistance training to improve upper-body strength, velocity, and power in elite youth rugby league players.

  7. The effect of session order on the physiological, neuromuscular, and endocrine responses to maximal speed and weight training sessions over a 24-h period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Michael; Johnston, Julia; Cook, Christian J; Costley, Lisa; Kilgallon, Mark; Kilduff, Liam P

    2017-05-01

    Athletes are often required to undertake multiple training sessions on the same day with these sessions needing to be sequenced correctly to allow the athlete to maximize the responses of each session. We examined the acute effect of strength and speed training sequence on neuromuscular, endocrine, and physiological responses over 24h. 15 academy rugby union players completed this randomized crossover study. Players performed a weight training session followed 2h later by a speed training session (weights speed) and on a separate day reversed the order (speed weights). Countermovement jumps, perceived muscle soreness, and blood samples were collected immediately prior, immediately post, and 24h post-sessions one and two respectively. Jumps were analyzed for power, jump height, rate of force development, and velocity. Blood was analyzed for testosterone, cortisol, lactate and creatine kinase. There were no differences between countermovement jump variables at any of the post-training time points (p>0.05). Likewise, creatine kinase, testosterone, cortisol, and muscle soreness were unaffected by session order (p>0.05). However, 10m sprint time was significantly faster (mean±standard deviation; speed weights 1.80±0.11s versus weights speed 1.76±0.08s; p>0.05) when speed was sequenced second. Lactate levels were significantly higher immediately post-speed sessions versus weight training sessions at both time points (ptraining does not affect the neuromuscular, endocrine, and physiological recovery over 24h. However, speed may be enhanced when performed as the second session. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of patients' rights training sessions for nurses on perceptions of nurses and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sanaa A; Hassan, Mona A; Hamouda, Seham Ibrahim; Abd Allah, Nama M

    2017-11-01

    Patients' rights are universal values that must be respected; however, it is not easy to put such values and principles into effect as approaches and attitudes differ from individual to individual, from society to society, and from country to country. If we want to reach a general conclusion about the status of patient rights in the world as whole, we should examine the situation in individual countries. To study the effect of training sessions for nurses about patients' rights on the perceptions of nurses and patients in two Egyptian hospitals. Quasi-experimental with pre- and posttest design was used in this study. Two groups of participants were included in the study: the first with 97 nurses and the second with 135 patients. A questionnaire sheet was used for nurses and patients to assess their perceptions about patients' rights before starting sessions. The training sessions were developed based on the baseline information gathered in the assessment phase and related literature. After the implementation of the sessions, a posttest was immediately conducted for nurses, while for patients the posttest was conducted 1 month after implementation to evaluate the effect of the nurses' training sessions on the patients' perceptions. The same tools were used in pretest and posttest. Ethical considerations: Written approval was sought and obtained from the administrators of the studied hospitals prior to conducting the study. Oral consent was obtained from nurses and patients willing to participate. Confidentiality and anonymity of the participants were strictly maintained through code numbers on the questionnaires. The improvement in nurses' knowledge and perceptions about patients' rights after implementation of the training sessions was remarkable. Moreover, an improvement in patients' perceptions regarding their rights was reported. Repetition of the training sessions is suggested to achieve continuous improvement. Provision of posters and booklets about a bill of

  9. Avoiding Surgical Skill Decay: A Systematic Review on the Spacing of Training Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Cnossen, Fokie; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Tio, René A

    Spreading training sessions over time instead of training in just 1 session leads to an improvement of long-term retention for factual knowledge. However, it is not clear whether this would also apply to surgical skills. Thus, we performed a systematic review to find out whether spacing training sessions would also improve long-term retention of surgical skills. We searched the Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, Eric, and Web of Science online databases. We only included articles that were randomized trials with a sample of medical trainees acquiring surgical motor skills in which the spacing effect was reported. The quality and bias of the articles were assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias assessment tool. With respect to the spacing effect, 1955 articles were retrieved. After removing duplicates and articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria, 11 articles remained. The overall quality of the experiments was "moderate." Trainees in the spaced condition scored higher in a retention test than students in the massed condition. Our systematic review showed evidence that spacing training sessions improves long-term surgical skills retention when compared to massed practice. However, the optimal gap between the re-study sessions is unclear. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modulation of whistle production related to training sessions in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) under human care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Marulanda, Juliana; Adam, Olivier; Delfour, Fabienne

    2016-11-01

    Bottlenose dolphins are highly social cetaceans with an extensive sound production including clicks, burst-pulsed sounds, and whistles. Some whistles, known as signature whistles, are individually specific. These acoustic signatures are commonly described as being emitted in contexts of stress during forced isolation and as group cohesion calls. Interactions between humans and captive dolphins is largely based on positive reinforcement conditioning within several training/feeding sessions per day. Vocal behavior of dolphins during these interactions might vary. To investigate this, we recorded 10 bottlenose dolphins of Parc Asterix dolphinarium (France) before, during and after 10 training sessions for a total duration of 7 hr and 32 min. We detected 3,272 whistles with 2,884 presenting a quality good enough to be categorized. We created a catalog of whistle types by visual categorization verified by five naive judges (Fleiss' Kappa Test). We then applied the SIGID method to identify the signatures whistles present in our recordings. We found 279 whistles belonging to one of the four identified signature whistle types. The remaining 2,605 were classified as non-signature whistles. The non-signature whistles emission rate was higher during and after the training sessions than before. Emission rate of three signature whistles types significantly increased afterwards as compared to before the training sessions. We suggest that dolphins use their signature whistles when they return to their intraspecific social interactions succeeding scheduled and human-organized training sessions. More observations are needed to make conclusions about the function of signature whistles in relation to training sessions. Zoo Biol. 35:495-504, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Does Resistance Training Stimulate Cardiac Muscle Hypertrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the left ventricular structural adaptations induced by resistance/strength exercise, focusing on human work, particularly well-trained strength athletes engaged in regular, moderate- to high-intensity resistance training (RT). The article discusses both genders and examines the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in…

  12. Description of load progression and pain response during progressive resistance training early after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone R; Petersen, Annemette K; Mechlenburg, Inger

    2016-01-01

    events during the initial four weeks of training. RESULTS: The majority of patients experienced only moderate hip pain during exercise (range in median across exercises and sessions: 5-35 mm Visual Analog Scale) and mild pain at rest (median: 1-18 mm Visual Analog Scale), both of which decreased over...... time ( p training load (67%-166 % across exercises, p training sessions, short term pain response (an increase >20 mm Visual Analog Scale) occurred in 13 patients in 24 training sessions. CONCLUSION: Progressive resistance......OBJECTIVE: To describe a progressive resistance training intervention implemented shortly after total hip arthroplasty, including a detailed description of load progression, pain response and adverse events to the training. DESIGN: Secondary analyses of data from the intervention group...

  13. The Comparison of Two Methods of Exercise (intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on Fasting Sugar, Insulin and Insulin Resistance in Women with Mellitus Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bazyar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise is an important component of health and an integral approach to the management of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on fasting sugar, insulin and insulin resistance in women with mellitus diabetes.   Methods: Fifty-two overweight female diabetic type 2 patients (aged 45-60 years old with fasting blood glucose≥ 126 mg/dl were selected to participate in the present study. Participants were assigned to intense interval training group (N=17, concurrent resistance- endurance training group (N=17 and control group (N=18. The exercises incorporated 10 weeks of concurrent resistance- endurance training and intense interval training. Fasting blood sugar, serum insulin concentrations levels were measured. Concurrent training group trained eight weeks, three times a week of endurance training at 60% of maximum heart rate (MHR and two resistance training sessions per week with 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM. Intense interval training group trained for eight weeks, three sessions per week for 4 to 10 repeats Wingate test on the ergometer 30s performed with maximum effort. The control group did no systematic exercise. At the end of experiment 42 subjects were succeed and completed the study period, and 10 subjects were removed due to illness and absence in the exercise sessions. Fasting blood sugar and insulin levels 24 hours before and 48 hours after the last training session was measured.   Results: The findings indicated that in periodic fasting, the blood sugar in intensive training group had a marked decrease (p= 0.000 however, the fasting blood sugar of exercise and power stamina groups reduced significantly (p=0.062. The results showed no significant difference between the groups (171/0 p =0.171. Fasting insulin (p <0.001 and insulin resistance (0001/0 = p=0.001 in periodic intensive training group were

  14. Resistances in the first session of psychodrama psychotherapy group with adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakulić, Aleksandra Mindoljević

    2010-06-01

    Resistance refers to all types of behaviour that oppose the exploration processes in the therapeutic process and inhibit work. Very common types of resistances, such as forgetting the time of session, being late, non-payment of sessions and such are found in every type of psychotherapy, including psychodrama psychotherapy. The attempt to break resistance in order to evoke changes could be dangerous as it represents the necessary defence mechanism and it is also a vital element of the person's functioning in therapy. In psychodrama, which is a type of action method of group psychotherapy, resistance can manifest through continuous verbalization of problems, in not wanting to act out the problem, the protagonist's typical non-verbal message or the most obvious manifestation: the absence of the protagonist. This paper will be on the typical resistance which the therapist has noticed during the first session of psychodrama psychotherapy, with a small group of adult clients. As the group was young and with undeveloped cohesiveness, resistance represented a certain balancing power for maintaining mental homeostasis of the group.

  15. ASTP crewmen in Soyuz orbital module mock-up during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    An interior view of the Soyuz orbital module mock-up in bldg 35 during Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) joint crew training at JSC. The ASTP crewmen are Astronaut Vance D. Brand (on left), command module pilot of the American ASTP prime crew; and Cosmonaut Valeriy N. Kubasov, engineer on the Soviet ASTP first (prime) crew. The training session simulated activities on the second day in Earth orbit.

  16. ASTP crewmen in Docking Module trainer during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    An interior view of the Docking Module trainer in bldg 35 during Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) joint crew training at JSC. Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, commander of the American ASTP prime crew, is on the right. The other crewman is Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet ASTP prime crew. The training session simulated activities on the second day in Earth orbit. The Docking Module is designed to link the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft.

  17. Astronaut Terry J. Hart in training session RMS for STS-2 bldg 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Astronaut Terry J. Hart in training session with the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) for STS-2 bldg 29. Views show Truly working at the command console while watching out the windows. Karen Ehlers, an RMS procedures specialist, can be seen at left side of frame while Astronaut Sally Ride waits on right for her time at the RMS.

  18. STS-48 MS Buchli and MS Gemar on MB SMS middeck during JSC training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) James F. Buchli (left) and MS Charles D. Gemar listen to instructions while on the middeck of JSC's Motion Based (MB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). Buchli and Gemar are reviewing inflight procedures during this preflight familiarization session held in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  19. Astronaut Donald H. Peterson talks with others during training session STS-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Astronaut Donald H. Peterson talks with Astronaut James P. Bagian (almost out of frame at right edge) during a training session for STS-6 crew members in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory. Petterson is wearing the shuttle flight suit and holding his helmet.

  20. STS-71 astronauts and cosmonauts listen to briefing during training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A number of Russian cosmonauts and an American astronaut listen to a briefing on launch and landing emergency situations during a training session in the Systems Integration Facility at JSC. Scheduled to launch aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis with the S

  1. Learning Physical Examination Skills outside Timetabled Training Sessions: What Happens and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvivier, Robbert J.; van Geel, Koos; van Dalen, Jan; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Lack of published studies on students' practice behaviour of physical examination skills outside timetabled training sessions inspired this study into what activities medical students undertake to improve their skills and factors influencing this. Six focus groups of a total of 52 students from Years 1-3 using a pre-established interview guide.…

  2. STS-41 crew is briefed on camera equipment during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-41 crewmembers are briefed on camera equipment during training session at JSC. Trainer Judy M. Alexander explains the use 16mm motion picture equipment to (left to right) Pilot Robert D. Cabana, Mission Specialist (MS) Bruce E. Melnick, and MS Thomas D. Akers.

  3. STS-9 payload specialist Merbold and backup Ockels in training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    STS-9 payload specialist Ulf Merbold, right, a West German physicist and backup Wubbo Ockels, a Dutch scientist, are pictured in a training session in JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory. In this view Ockels appears to be showing Merbold how to operate a camera.

  4. Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, A D; Myer, G D

    2010-01-01

    A literature review was employed to evaluate the current epidemiology of injury related to the safety and efficacy of youth resistance training. Several case study reports and retrospective questionnaires regarding resistance exercise and the competitive sports of weightlifting and powerlifting reveal that injuries have occurred in young lifters, although a majority can be classified as accidental. Lack of qualified instruction that underlies poor exercise technique and inappropriate training loads could explain, at least partly, some of the reported injuries. Current research indicates that resistance training can be a safe, effective and worthwhile activity for children and adolescents provided that qualified professionals supervise all training sessions and provide age-appropriate instruction on proper lifting procedures and safe training guidelines. Regular participation in a multifaceted resistance training programme that begins during the preseason and includes instruction on movement biomechanics may reduce the risk of sports-related injuries in young athletes. Strategies for enhancing the safety of youth resistance training are discussed.

  5. Resistance training during preadolescence. Issues and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blimkie, C J

    1993-06-01

    High intensity resistance training appears to be effective in increasing strength in preadolescents. Children make similar relative (percentage improvement), but smaller absolute, strength gains compared with adolescents and young adults in response to similar resistance training programmes. Resistance training appears to have little if any effect on muscle size, and strength gains during training have been associated with increases in levels of neuromuscular activation and changes in intrinsic contractile characteristics of muscle. Although unsubstantiated, improved motor coordination probably also contributes to the increase in strength, especially for more complex strength manoeuvres. On the basis of limited information, training-induced strength gains are lost during detraining, and the decay in strength has been associated with a reduction in neuromuscular activation. Short term resistance training appears to have no effect on somatic growth (height or weight) and body composition, and no proven positive influence on sports performance, injury rate or recovery from injury during preadolescence. Weightlifting has proved injurious to some children, especially when unsupervised and without instruction in proper weightlifting technique and load selection. In contrast, the risk of injury from prudently prescribed and closely supervised resistance training appears to be low during preadolescence. Lastly, short term resistance training appears to have no detrimental effect during preadolescence on either cardiorespiratory fitness or resting blood pressure.

  6. Acute and session RPE responses during resistance training: Bouts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 21, No 1 (2009) > ... On separate days in a counterbalanced order, subjects performed 3 sets of each exercise to volitional failure at a ... total work and acute RPE were significantly greater (p=0.01) for LI for all exercises.

  7. A single alcohol drinking session is sufficient to enable subsequent aversion-resistant consumption in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott A; Yu, Ji-Hwan; Simms, Jeffrey A; Hopf, F Woodward

    2016-09-01

    Addiction is mediated in large part by pathological motivation for rewarding, addictive substances, and alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) continue to extract a very high physical and economic toll on society. Compulsive alcohol drinking, where intake continues despite negative consequences, is considered a particular obstacle during treatment of AUDs. Aversion-resistant drives for alcohol have been modeled in rodents, where animals continue to consume even when alcohol is adulterated with the bitter tastant quinine, or is paired with another aversive consequence. Here, we describe a two-bottle choice paradigm where C57BL/6 mice first had 24-h access to 15% alcohol or water. Afterward, they drank quinine-free alcohol (alcohol-only) or alcohol with quinine (100 μM), in a limited daily access (LDA) two-bottle-choice paradigm (2 h/day, 5 days/week, starting 3 h into the dark cycle), and achieved nearly binge-level blood alcohol concentrations. Interestingly, a single, initial 24-h experience with alcohol-only enhanced subsequent quinine-resistant drinking. In contrast, mice that drank alcohol-quinine in the 24-h session showed significantly reduced alcohol-quinine intake and preference during the subsequent LDA sessions, relative to mice that drank alcohol-only in the initial 24-h session and alcohol-quinine in LDA sessions. Thus, mice could find the concentration of quinine we used aversive, but were able to disregard the quinine after a single alcohol-only drinking session. Finally, mice had low intake and preference for quinine in water, both before and after weeks of alcohol-drinking sessions, suggesting that quinine resistance was not a consequence of increased quinine preference after weeks of drinking of alcohol-quinine. Together, we demonstrate that a single alcohol-only session was sufficient to enable subsequent aversion-resistant consumption in C57BL/6 mice, which did not reflect changes in quinine taste palatability. Given the rapid development of quinine-resistant

  8. Comparison of between-training-sessions recovery strategies for world-class BMX pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Hausswirth, Christophe; Hays, Arnaud; Vettoretti, Fabrice; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2015-03-01

    To assess the impact of between-training-sessions recovery strategies (passive [PAS], active [ACT], cold-water immersion [CWI], and ingestion of a recovery drink [NUTR]) on maximal cycling performance, perceptions of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and fatigue in world-class BMX riders. Eleven elite BMX athletes, members of the French national team (top country in the 2011 international ranking, 4 medals at the 2012 World Championships, top European country), participated in the study, which involved standardized training periods. Athletes performed 3 maximal-sprint power tests: the first day of the week before the training session and before and after training on the third day of the week (D3). The recovery strategy was randomly assigned to each participant on day 2 immediately after the last training period of the day. Perceptions of DOMS and general fatigue were recorded on D3. After training on D3, the decrease in maximal-sprint power (Pmax) was significantly greater for PAS than with CWI (P=.02) and NUTR (P=.018). Similar results were found with ACT (vs CWI P=.044, and vs NUTR P=.042). Self-reported DOMS and fatigue were significantly greater after PAS than after other strategies. For elite BMX riders, between training days, nutritional and/or CWI recovery strategies appear to be best for reducing muscle fatigue and increasing the capacity to withstand the training schedule.

  9. Validity and reliability of the session-RPE method for quantifying training load in karate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabben, M; Tourny, C; Haddad, M; Chaabane, H; Chamari, K; Coquart, J B

    2015-04-24

    To test the construct validity and reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) method by examining the relationship between RPE and physiological parameters (heart rate: HR and blood lactate concentration: [La --] ) and the correlations between sRPE and two HR--based methods for quantifying internal training load (Banister's method and Edwards's method) during karate training camp. Eighteen elite karate athletes: ten men (age: 24.2 ± 2.3 y, body mass: 71.2 ± 9.0 kg, body fat: 8.2 ± 1.3% and height: 178 ± 7 cm) and eight women (age: 22.6 ± 1.2 y, body mass: 59.8 ± 8.4 kg, body fat: 20.2 ± 4.4%, height: 169 ± 4 cm) were included in the study. During training camp, subjects participated in eight karate--training sessions including three training modes (4 tactical--technical, 2 technical--development, and 2 randori training), during which RPE, HR, and [La -- ] were recorded. Significant correlations were found between RPE and physiological parameters (percentage of maximal HR: r = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.64--0.86; [La --] : r = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.49--0.75; P training load ( r = 0.65--0.95; P reliability of the same intensity across training sessions (Cronbach's α = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.61--0.92). This study demonstrates that the sRPE method is valid for quantifying internal training load and intensity in karate.

  10. Affective Responses to Repeated Sessions of High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saanijoki, Tiina; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Savolainen, Anna M; Vahlberg, Tero; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2015-12-01

    Vigorous exercise feels unpleasant, and negative emotions may discourage adherence to regular exercise. We quantified the subjective affective responses to short-term high-intensity interval training (HIT) in comparison with moderate-intensity continuous training (MIT). Twenty-six healthy middle-age (mean age, 47 ± 5 yr; mean VO2peak, 34.2 ± 4.1 mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) sedentary men were randomized into HIT (n = 13, 4-6 × 30 s of all-out cycling efforts at approximately 180% of peak workload with 4-min recovery) or MIT (n = 13, 40- to 60-min continuous cycling at 60% of peak workload) groups, performing six sessions within two weeks. Perceived exertion, stress, and affective state were recorded before, during, and after each session. Perceived exertion and arousal were higher, and affective state, more negative during the HIT than that during MIT sessions (P training. Peak oxygen consumption increased (P training). Short-term HIT and MIT are equally effective in improving aerobic fitness, but HIT increases experience of negative emotions and exertion in sedentary middle-age men. This may limit the adherence to this time-effective training mode, even though displeasure lessens over time and suggests similar mental adaptations to both MIT and HIT.

  11. Resistance Training: Identifying Best Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    were too small to be important. That argument would be particularly powerful when coupled with the knowledge that training effects increase with...interpretation of those facts convert the evidence to reliable scientific knowledge (Ziman, 1978). No single meta-analysis is likely to establish a...Wisloff, U. (1999). Maximal strength training improves work economy in trained female cross-country skiers . Med Sci Sports Exerc, 31, 870- 877

  12. CERN Technical Training 2006: ANSYS Course Sessions (August-September 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2006-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training'form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received. The following ANSYS course sessions are currently scheduled in the framework of the CERN Technical Training Programme 2006, and in collaboration with CAD-FEM AG (CH): ANSYS DesignModeler (course in French): 29-30.8.2006 (2 days) ANSYS Workbench (course in French): 12-15.9.2006 (4 days, only 3 places available) If you are interested in attending any of the above course sessions, please discuss with your supervisor and/or your DTO, and apply electronically via EDH from the course description pages that can be found at http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=300 under 'Upcoming course sessions', with th...

  13. Relationship between resistance training and selfreported habitual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similar to the non-exercising control group, resistance training resulted in no significant (p > 0.05) changes in the habitual intake of daily intake of total ... as a mode of training may not be an effective mode of exercise to promote overall physical activity in an attempt to modify the patterns of macronutrient and energy intake.

  14. Measuring Learning Resistance to Workplace Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan E.; Lounsbury, John

    2016-01-01

    Training Transfer has been a topic bearing considerable mention over the past several decades. This article focuses on the connection between training transfer and learning resistance and presents research findings describing the design, creation, and testing of the Learning Efficiency Inventory (LEI). The LEI was designed to measure learning…

  15. Session-RPE Method for Training Load Monitoring: Validity, Ecological Usefulness, and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monoem Haddad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this review is to (1 retrieve all data validating the Session-rating of perceived exertion (RPE-method using various criteria, (2 highlight the rationale of this method and its ecological usefulness, and (3 describe factors that can alter RPE and users of this method should take into consideration.Method: Search engines such as SPORTDiscus, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases in the English language between 2001 and 2016 were consulted for the validity and usefulness of the session-RPE method. Studies were considered for further analysis when they used the session-RPE method proposed by Foster et al. in 2001. Participants were athletes of any gender, age, or level of competition. Studies using languages other than English were excluded in the analysis of the validity and reliability of the session-RPE method. Other studies were examined to explain the rationale of the session-RPE method and the origin of RPE.Results: A total of 950 studies cited the Foster et al. study that proposed the session RPE-method. 36 studies have examined the validity and reliability of this proposed method using the modified CR-10.Conclusion: These studies confirmed the validity and good reliability and internal consistency of session-RPE method in several sports and physical activities with men and women of different age categories (children, adolescents, and adults among various expertise levels. This method could be used as “standing alone” method for training load (TL monitoring purposes though some recommend to combine it with other physiological parameters as heart rate.

  16. An analysis of the delivery of anaesthetic training sessions in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A; Tatham, K C; Yentis, S M; Wilson, J; Cox, M

    2017-11-01

    We analysed data from the electronic rota system CLWRota, covering 2,689,962 anaesthetic sessions between 01/01/2014 and 31/12/2015, in 91 UK Trusts, in order to investigate trainees' supervision. There were 8209 trainee attachments analysed, during which 618,695 sessions were undertaken by trainees. The number of supervised sessions per week that trainees worked varied considerably (median (IQR [range]) 2.6 (1.6-3.6 [0-10]) for all grades combined), with senior trainees more likely than junior trainees to be supervised for fewer than the three sessions per week mandated by the Royal College of Anaesthetists. The number of supervised sessions was unrelated to Trusts' size, suggesting that trainees in smaller hospitals receive the same level of supervision as in larger teaching hospitals. Analysis of a dataset of this size should be a good reflection of the delivery of anaesthesia training in the UK. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. Blood phagocyte activity after race training sessions in Thoroughbred and Arabian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cywinska, Anna; Szarska, Ewa; Degorski, Andrzej; Guzera, Maciej; Gorecka, Renata; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester; Schollenberger, Antoni; Winnicka, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Intensive exercise and exertion during competition promote many changes that may result in the impairment of immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of "the first line of defense": neutrophils and monocytes in racing Thoroughbred and Arabian horses after routine training sessions. Twenty-three (12 Thoroughbred and 11 Arabian) horses were examined. Routine haematological (number of red blood cells - RBC, haemoglobin concentration - HGB, haematocrit - HCT, total number of white blood cells - WBC), biochemical (creatine phosphokinase activity - CPK and total protein concentration - TP) parameters, cortisol concentration as well as phagocytic and oxidative burst activity of neutrophils and monocytes were determined. The values of basic parameters and the activity of phagocytes differed between breeds and distinct patterns of exercise-induced changes were observed. The training sessions did not produce the decrease in phagocyte activity that might lead to the suppression of immunity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Resistance Training With Ankle Weight Cuffs Is Feasible in Patients With Acute Exacerbation of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Linette Marie; Døssing, Martin; Steentoft, Johnna

    2017-01-01

    -extension strength training. During training, the patients were seated on the bedside and performed 3 sets of 10-repetition maximum loads, using ankle weight cuffs. The primary outcome was the change in load from the first to last training sessions. The secondary outcomes were changes in maximal isometric knee......-extension strength improved by a mean of 12% (P = .02), whereas the TUG and STS test performances improved by 11% (P = .001) and 19% (P = .03), respectively. Ninety-eight percent of the planned training sessions were completed with no side effects. CONCLUSIONS: Progressive resistance training with ankle weight cuffs...... of progressive knee-extension resistance training, using ankle weight cuffs on patients with AECOPD, based on prespecified criteria for feasibility. METHODS: Thirty-four patients (18 men, mean age 74 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 second = 33% predicted) with AECOPD participated in daily knee...

  19. STS-48 MS Gemar uses laptop during training session in JSC's MB SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) Charles D. Gemar, wearing lightweight headset, enters data into a portable laptop computer on the middeck of JSC's Motion Based (MB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). Gemar is participating in a preflight familiarization session in the MB-SMS located in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. Visible to Gemar's right is a stowed extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and on his left are forward locker mockups.

  20. Recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: resistance and cardiovascular training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, E R; Fitschen, P J; Aragon, A A; Cronin, J; Schoenfeld, B J

    2015-03-01

    The anabolic effect of resistance training can mitigate muscle loss during contest preparation. In reviewing relevant literature, we recommend a periodized approach be utilized. Block and undulating models show promise. Muscle groups should be trained 2 times weekly or more, although high volume training may benefit from higher frequencies to keep volume at any one session from becoming excessive. Low to high (~3-15) repetitions can be utilized but most repetitions should occur in the 6-12 range using 70-80% of 1 repetition maximum. Roughly 40-70 reps per muscle group per session should be performed, however higher volume may be appropriate for advanced bodybuilders. Traditional rest intervals of 1-3 minutes are adequate, but longer intervals can be used. Tempo should allow muscular control of the load; 1-2 s concentric and 2-3 s eccentric tempos. Training to failure should be limited when performing heavy loads on taxing exercises, and primarily relegated to single-joint exercises and higher repetitions. A core of multi-joint exercises with some single-joint exercises to address specific muscle groups as needed should be used, emphasizing full range of motion and proper form. Cardiovascular training can be used to enhance fat loss. Interference with strength training adaptations increases concomitantly with frequency and duration of cardiovascular training. Thus, the lowest frequency and duration possible while achieving sufficient fat loss should be used. Full-body modalities or cycling may reduce interference. High intensities may as well; however, require more recovery. Fasted cardiovascular training may not have benefits over fed-state and could be detrimental.

  1. CERN Technical Training 2006: ANSYS Course Sessions (August-September 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The following ANSYS course sessions are currently scheduled in the framework of the CERN Technical Training Programme 2006, and in collaboration with CAD-FEM AG (CH): ANSYS Design Modeler (course in French): 29-30.8.2006 (2 days) ANSYS Workbench (course in French): 12-15.9.2006 (4 days, only 2 places available) If you are interested in attending any of the above course sessions, please discuss with your supervisor and/or your DTO, and apply electronically via EDH from the course description pages that can be found at under "Upcoming course sessions", with the detailed course programmes. The complete training offer of ANSYS courses at CERN can be found at the same website, under the Mechanical Design curriculum. CERN Technical Training courses are open only to the members of CERN personnel (staff members and fellows; associates, students, users, project associates; apprentices: employees of CERN contractors, with some restrictions). In particular, quoted prices and programmes refer specifically to the CERN ...

  2. Metabolic Response to Four Weeks of Muscular Endurance Resistance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Farrell III

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous investigations have shown that muscular endurance resistance training (MERT is conducive in improving the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA. However, the metabolic response and time course for adaption is still unclear. Objective: The aims of the current study were to evaluate and track the metabolic response to an individual session of MERT as well as to assess performance adaptations of supplementing an aerobic exercise training program with four weeks of MERT. Methods: Seventeen aerobically active men were randomly assigned to either the experimental (EX or control group (CON, 9 EX and 8 CON. Baseline measures included a graded exercise test (GXT and 1-repetition maximum (1RM testing for leg press (LP, leg curl (LC, and leg extension (LE. CON continued their regular aerobic activity while the EX supplemented their regular aerobic exercise with 4 weeks of MERT. Results: No significant group differences were observed for all pre-training variables. Following four weeks of training no significant differences in cardiorespiratory or metabolic variables were observed for either group. However, significant improvements in LC and LE 1-RM were observed in EX compared to CON. Substantial accumulations in blood lactate were observed following each MERT session. Conclusion: Four weeks of MERT did not improve cardiorespiratory or metabolic variables, but did significantly improve LC and LE. MERT was also observed to induce a blood lactate response similar to that of HIIT. These findings suggest greater than four weeks is need to see metabolic adaptations conducive for improved aerobic performance using MERT.

  3. Why do seniors leave resistance training programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton E

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Elissa Burton,1 Anne-Marie Hill,1 Simone Pettigrew,2 Gill Lewin,3 Liz Bainbridge,1 Kaela Farrier,1 Phil Airey,4 Keith D Hill1 1School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, 2School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, 3School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Curtin University, 4Council on the Ageing, Perth, WA, Australia Purpose: The proportion of the population, that is older, is growing at a faster rate than other age groups. Physical activity is important for older people because it assists in living independently. Participating in resistance training on a regular basis (twice weekly is recommended for older people; yet, fewer than 15% of people over 60 years achieve this level. The aim of this article was to investigate the factors contributing to older people’s decisions to stop participation in a resistance training program.Participants and methods: Participants were older people who had chosen to participate in a structured resistance training program specifically designed for seniors and then after a period of time discontinued. This population received a questionnaire in the mail focused on factors contributing to their cessation of resistance training exercise. Qualitative results were analyzed using inductive content analysis.Results: Fifty-six survey responses were received (average age 71.5 years, SD =9.0; 79% females. Injury, illness, and holidaying were the main reasons for ceasing participation. A small but important number of responses (11% reported that they considered they were not provided with sufficient support during the resistance training programs.Conclusions: To attract and retain their senior clients, the results indicate that program organizers need to provide tailored support to return to resistance training after injury and offer flexible and individualized services that accommodate older people’s life choices in retirement. Keywords: older people, strength training, gymnasium, retention, aging

  4. Effects of One Resistance Exercise Session on Vascular Smooth Muscle of Hypertensive Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana, E-mail: marciorvsantos@bol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of N{sup G}-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001) the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01) smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats.

  5. Effects of One Resistance Exercise Session on Vascular Smooth Muscle of Hypertensive Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of N G -nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001) the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01) smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats

  6. Comparing Performance During Morning vs. Afternoon Training Sessions in Intercollegiate Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heishman, Aaron D; Curtis, Michael A; Saliba, Ethan N; Hornett, Robert J; Malin, Steven K; Weltman, Arthur L

    2017-06-01

    Time of day is a key factor that influences the optimization of athletic performance. Intercollegiate coaches oftentimes hold early morning strength training sessions for a variety of factors including convenience. However, few studies have specifically investigated the effect of early morning vs. late afternoon strength training on performance indices of fatigue. This is athletically important because circadian and/or ultradian rhythms and alterations in sleep patterns can affect training ability. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of morning vs. afternoon strength training on an acute performance index of fatigue (countermovement jump height, CMJ), player readiness (Omegawave), and self-reported sleep quantity. We hypothesized that afternoon training sessions would be associated with increased levels of performance, readiness, and self-reported sleep. A retrospective analysis was performed on data collected over the course of the preseason on 10 elite National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 male basketball players. All basketball-related activities were performed in the afternoon with strength and conditioning activities performed either in the morning or in the afternoon. The average values for CMJ, power output (Power), self-reported sleep quantity (sleep), and player readiness were examined. When player load and duration were matched, CMJ (58.8 ± 1.3 vs. 61.9 ± 1.6 cm, p = 0.009), Power (6,378.0 ± 131.2 vs. 6,622.1 ± 172.0 W, p = 0.009), and self-reported sleep duration (6.6 ± 0.4 vs. 7.4 ± 0.25 p = 0.016) were significantly higher with afternoon strength and conditioning training, with no differences observed in player readiness values. We conclude that performance is suppressed with morning training and is associated with a decrease in self-reported quantity of sleep.

  7. The post-activation potentiation effect on sprint performance after combined resistance/sprint training in junior basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimachidis, Constantinos; Patikas, Dimitrios; Galazoulas, Christos; Bassa, Eleni; Kotzamanidis, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a 10-week combined resistance/sprint training programme in the post-activation potentiation of sprint performance before, between and after resistance training sets. Twenty-six junior basketball players were randomly divided into a control and a combined training group. The combined training group performed a combined training programme consisting of 5 sets at 5-8 RM (Repetition Maximum) half-squats with sprints performed between each set. Post-activation potentiation was considered as the increase in sprint velocity in trials executed between and after the resistance sets compared with the sprint trial performed before the resistance sets of the respective first and last training session. For sprint evaluation the running distances 0-10 and 0-30 m were selected. The intervention increased both strength and sprint performance. No post-activation potentiation effect was observed during the first training session in either group. Post-activation potentiation appeared in the combined training group during the last training session of the intervention in both 0-10 and 0-30 m sprint. This study illustrates that post-activation potentiation effect on sprint performance in junior basketball players, who did not previously follow systematic resistance training, emerges after a 10-week resistance/sprint combined training programme.

  8. Effects of creatine supplementation along with resistance training on urinary formaldehyde and serum enzymes in wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Azadeh; Jafari, Afshar

    2016-04-01

    Formaldehyde is a cytotoxic agent produced from creatine through a metabolic pathway, and in this regard, it has been claimed that creatine supplementation could be cytotoxic. Even though the cytotoxic effects of creatine supplementation have been widely studied, yet little is known about how resistance training can alter these toxic effects. This study aimed to determine the effects of short-term creatine supplementation plus resistance training on the level of urinary formaldehyde and concentrations of serum enzymes in young male wrestlers. In a double-blind design twenty-one subjects were randomized into creatine supplementation (Cr), creatine supplementation plus resistance training (Cr + T) and placebo plus resistance training (Pl + T) groups. Participants ingested creatine (0.3 g/kg/day) or placebo for 7 days. The training protocol consisted of 3 sessions in one week, each session including three sets of 6-9 repetitions at 80-85% of one-repetition maximum for whole-body exercise. Urine and blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the supplementation. Creatine supplementation significantly increased the excretion rate of urinary formaldehyde in the Cr and Cr + T groups by 63.4% and 30.4%, respectively (P0.05). These findings indicate that resistance training may lower the increase of urinary formaldehyde excretion induced by creatine supplementation, suggesting that creatine consumption could be relatively less toxic when combined with resistance training.

  9. Oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarker responses after a moderate-intensity soccer training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Rodrigo; Mello, Ricardo; Gomes, Diego; Paz, Gabriel Andrade; Nasser, Igor; Miranda, Humberto; Salerno, Verônica P

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a moderate-intensity soccer training session on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant capacity in athletes along with the biomarkers creatine kinase and transaminases for lesions in muscle and liver cells. Twenty-two male soccer players participated in this study. Blood samples were collected 5 min before and after a moderate-intensity game simulation. The results showed a decrease in the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) from an elevation in the production of ROS that maintained the redox homeostasis. Although the session promoted an elevated energy demand, observed by an increase in lactate and glucose levels, damage to muscle and/or liver cells was only suggested by a significant elevation in the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT). Of the two biomarkers analysed, the results suggest that measurements of the ALT levels could be adopted as a method to monitor recovery in athletes.

  10. How repeated 15-minute assertiveness training sessions reduce wrist cutting in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Masaya

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine a possible treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder who have wrist-cutting syndrome, a condition characterized by repeated, superficial wrist cutting in a non-suicidal fashion. Within the current healthcare system in Japan, the average amount of time a doctor can spend with a psychiatric outpatient is about 8 to 15 minutes. We, therefore, examined whether repeated 15-minute psychotherapy sessions to improve patient assertiveness would be effective for reducing wrist cutting and possibly other forms of self-mutilation. We treated 13 patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder and wrist-cutting syndrome with assertiveness training during 15-minute, biweekly therapy sessions over a course of one to four years. At the conclusion of psychotherapeutic treatment, 69% of outpatients showed a statistically significant reduction in wrist-cutting behavior.

  11. Relationships between rating-of-perceived-exertion- and heart-rate-derived internal training load in professional soccer players: a comparison of on-field integrated training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Vazquez, Miguel Angel; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Gonzalez-Jurado, Jose Antonio; León-Prados, Juan Antonio; Santalla, Alfredo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis

    2015-07-01

    To describe the internal training load (ITL) of common training sessions performed during a typical week and to determine the relationships between different indicators of ITL commonly employed in professional football (soccer). Session-rating-of-perceived-exertion TL (sRPE-TL) and heart-rate- (HR) derived measurements of ITL as Edwards TL and Stagno training impulses (TRIMPMOD) were used in 9 players during 3 periods of the season. The relationships between them were analyzed in different training sessions during a typical week: skill drills/circuit training + small-sided games (SCT+SSGs), ball-possession games+technical-tactical exercises (BPG+TTE), tactical training (TT), and prematch activation (PMa). HR values obtained during SCT+SSGs and BPG+TTE were substantially greater than those in the other 2 sessions, all the ITL markers and session duration were substantially greater in SCT+SSGs than in any other session, and all ITL measures in BPG+TTE were substantially greater than in TT and PMa sessions. Large relationships were found between HR>80% HRmax and HR>90% HRmax vs sRPE-TL during BPG+TTE and TT sessions (r=.61-.68). Very large relationships were found between Edwards TL and sRPE-TL and between TRIMPMOD and sRPE-TL in sessions with BPG+TTE and TT (r=.73-.87). Correlations between the different HR-based methods were always extremely large (r=.92-.98), and unclear correlations were observed for other relationships between variables. sRPE-TL provided variable-magnitude within-individual correlations with HR-derived measures of training intensity and load during different types of training sessions typically performed during a week in professional soccer. Caution should be applied when using RPE- or HR-derived measures of exercise intensity/load in soccer training interchangeably.

  12. CERN Technical Training 2006: Software and System Technologies Curriculum - Scheduled Course Sessions (October-December 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    he Software and System Technologies Curriculum of the CERN Technical Training Programme offers comprehensive training in C++, Java, Perl, Python, XML, OO programming, JCOP/PVSS, database design and Oracle. In the PERL, C++, OO and Java course series there are some places available on the following course sessions, scheduled until the end of this year: Object-Oriented Analysis and Design using UML: 17-19 October 2006 (3 days) JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 1: Web Applications: 19-20 October 2006 (2 days) JAVA - Level 1: 30 Oct. -1 Nov. 2006 (3 days) PERL 5 - Advanced Aspects: 2 November 2006 (1 day) C++ Programming Part 1 - Introduction to Object-Oriented Design and Programming: 14-16 November 2006 (3 days) JAVA - Level 2: 4-7 December 2006 (4 days) C++ Programming Part 2 - Advanced C++ and its Traps and Pitfalls: 12-15 December 2006 (4 days) JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2: Enterprise JavaBeans : 18.20 December 2006 (3 days) All the above sessions will be given in English, at the CERN Training Centre....

  13. Acute hemodynamic responses following a training session with active video game in wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael José Perrier Melo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimed:This study aimed to analyze the hemodynamic responses during an active game session (VGA with the use of a wheelchair. Method: Twelve subjects (6 men and 6 women (24 ± 3.98 years; 22.6 ± 2.17 kg / m2 , apparently healthy (PAR-Q, not wheelchair users. Rest measures for heart rate (HR: bpm, blood pressure (BP;mmHg and calculation of double product (DP; mmHg/bpm were taken following the anthropometric assessment. Subsequently, they performed a session of Kinect Sports Boxing game for 15 minutes. The variables HR, BP and DP were measured at rest, during and after the session. Data was analyzed using the Friedman’s test with Dunn’s post hoc test for no parametric data to compare pre, during and post session. Values of p<0.05 were accepted as significant. Results: Immediately post session data showed significant increases in HR, SBP and DP for both men (HR: 68.00 ± 8.99 vs 105.17 ± 22.55; PAS: 123.67 ± 68 vs 134.17 ± 8.23; DP = 8446.00 ± 1453.54 vs 3628.76 ± 14217.50 and women (HR: 68.00 ± 8.00 vs 126.00 ± 20.44; PAS: 100.33 ± 8.82 vs 113.17 ± 9.15; DP: 6.843 ± 1160.36 vs 3597.45 ± 14 405. Similarly, after the experimental session were observed significant decreases in HR, SBP and DP compared to the immediately post session, for both boys and for girls. (HR: 74.67 ± 9.46 vs 105.17 ± 22.55; SBP: 121 ± 5.62 vs 134.17 ± 8.23; SD: 9066.50 ± 1449.98 vs 14217.50 ± 3628.76 and for women (HR: 76.83 ± 9.02 vs 126.00 ± 20.44; PAS: 100.67 ± 3.01 vs 113.17 ± 9.15; DP= 7745.33 ± 1025.34 vs 3597.45 ± 14.405. Conclusion: The practice of VGAs contributes to increased hemodynamic demands, being a safe alternative in the period of rehabilitation and training for athletes using wheelchair.

  14. Isokinetic eccentric resistance training prevents loss in mechanical muscle function after running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson S. C.; Caputo, Fabrizio; Aagaard, Per

    2013-01-01

    session, subjects performed treadmill running (~35 min) and the previously mentioned measurements were repeated immediately after running. Subsequently, subjects were randomized to training (n = 12) consisting of 24 sessions of maximal IERT knee extensors actions at 180° s(-1), or served as controls (n...... damages. However, IERT may not avoid reductions in explosive muscle actions. In turn, this may allow more intense training sessions to be performed, facilitating the adaptive response to running training.......The aim of the study was to verify whether 8 weeks of resistance training employing maximal isokinetic eccentric (IERT) knee extensor actions would reduce the acute force loss observed after high-intensity treadmill running exercise. It was hypothesized that specific IERT would induce protective...

  15. Augmenting one-session treatment of children's specific phobias with attention training to positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Farrell, Lara J; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Milliner, Ella; Tiralongo, Evelin; Donovan, Caroline L; McConnell, Harry; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the efficacy of combining two promising approaches to treating children's specific phobias, namely attention training and one 3-h session of exposure therapy ('one-session treatment', OST). Attention training towards positive stimuli (ATP) and OST (ATP+OST) was expected to have more positive effects on implicit and explicit cognitive mechanisms and clinical outcome measures than an attention training control (ATC) condition plus OST (ATC+OST). Thirty-seven children (6-17 years) with a specific phobia were randomly assigned to ATP+OST or ATC+OST. In ATP+OST, children completed 160 trials of attention training responding to a probe that always followed the happy face in happy-angry face pairs. In ATC+OST, the probe appeared equally often after angry and happy faces. In the same session, children completed OST targeting their phobic situation/object. Clinical outcomes included clinician, parent and child report measures. Cognitive outcomes were assessed in terms of change in attention bias to happy and angry faces and in danger and coping expectancies. Assessments were completed before and after treatment and three-months later. Compared to ATC+OST, the ATP+OST condition produced (a) significantly greater reductions in children's danger expectancies about their feared situations/object during the OST and at three-month follow-up, and (b) significantly improved attention bias towards positive stimuli at post-treatment, which in turn, predicted a lower level of clinician-rated phobia diagnostic severity three-months after treatment. There were no significant differences between ATP+OST and ATC+OST conditions in clinician, parent, or child-rated clinical outcomes. Training children with phobias to focus on positive stimuli is effective in increasing attention towards positive stimuli and reducing danger expectancy biases. Studies with larger sample sizes and a stronger 'dose' of ATP prior to the OST may reveal promising outcomes on clinical measures

  16. Training sessions for radiation protection. A singular occasion to analyze the risk perception by nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudie, M.

    1986-04-01

    The training sessions for radiation protection - given on the one hand to employees of the decontamination and storage action section, of the nuclear center of Saclay, and on the other hand to technicians of low and medium activity laboratories - represent a goog ground to test hypotheses mentioned at the origin of the analysis of the perception of risk by the nuclear workers undertaken by the Laboratoire d'Etude du Facteur Humain (L.E.F.H., Human Factor Analysis Laboratory) of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA, Atomic Energy Commission of France)

  17. STS-37 crewmembers test CETA hand cart during training session in JSC's WETF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-37 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross and MS Jerome Apt test crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) manual hand over hand cart during underwater session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), Ross pulls the CETA manual cart along the rail while Apt holds onto the back of the cart. The test will determine how difficult it is to maneuver cargo in such a manner when it is done in space on STS-37. The goal is to find the best method for astronauts to move around the exterior of Space Station Freedom (SSF).

  18. Coping modeling problem solving versus mastery modeling: effects on adherence, in-session process, and skill acquisition in a residential parent-training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C E; Davis, J R; Bremner, R; Dunn, K W; Rzasa, T

    1993-10-01

    This trial compared two approaches used to introduce parenting skills in a residential staff training program. Fifty staff were randomly assigned to: mastery modelling in which videotaped models demonstrated new skills, coping modelling problem solving (CMPS) in which participants formulated their own solutions to the errors depicted by videotaped models, or a waiting-list control group. In both, leaders used modelling, role playing, and homework projects to promote mastery and transfer of new skills. The skills of all groups improved, but CMPS participants attended more sessions, were late to fewer sessions, completed more homework, engaged in more cooperative in-session interaction, rated the program more positively, and reported higher job accomplishment scores. These data suggest that CMPS allowing participants to formulate their own solutions may enhance adherence and reduce the resistance observed in more didactic programs.

  19. CERN Technical Training 2005: New Short Course (SC) Sessions on Office Software - July 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2005-01-01

    The following new course sessions are currently scheduled in the framework of the CERN Technical Training Programme 2005, within the Office Software curriculum: OUTLOOK 2003 (Short Course I) - E-mail : 6.7.2005 (morning) OUTLOOK 2003 (Short Course II) - Calendar, Tasks and Notes : 7.7.2005 (morning) OUTLOOK 2003 (Short Course III) - Meetings and Delegation : 8.7.2005 (morning) WORD 2003 (Short Course I) - HowTo... Work with repetitive tasks: 4.7.2005 (afternoon) WORD 2003 (Short Course II) - HowTo... Mail merge : 5.7.2005 (afternoon) WORD 2003 (Short Course III) - HowTo... Work with long documents : 6.7.2005 (afternoon) EXCEL 2003 (Short Course I) - HowTo... Work with formulae : 7.7.2005 (afternoon) EXCEL 2003 (Short Course II) - HowTo... Format your worksheet for printing : 8.7.2005 (afternoon) All the above sessions are organised in the new format of Short Courses (SC): 3 hour sessions (9h30-12h30 or 14h30-17h30), at a nominal cost of 75.- CHF per person per course. Any course can be followed independe...

  20. Changes in blood glucose among trained normoglycemic adults during a mini-trampoline exercise session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Cunha, Raphael; Raiana Bentes, Mariana; Araújo, Victor H; DA Costa Souza, Mayara C; Vasconcelos Noleto, Marcelo; Azevedo Soares, Ademar; Machado Lehnen, Alexandre

    2016-12-01

    Blood glucose changes response during and after exercise are modulated by the postabsorptive state, intensity and duration of exercise, and the level of physical fitness as well. This study focused on the idea that high-intensity interval exercise, as mini-trampoline class, can reduce blood glucose. Thus, we examined acute changes in blood glucose among trained normoglycemic adults during a mini-trampoline exercise session. Twenty-four normoglycemic adult subjects were enrolled in the study. After physical assessment they were randomly assigned to either the experimental (N.=12) or the control group (N.=12). The experimental group performed a 50-minute session of moderate-to-high intensity (70 to 85% HRmax) exercise on a mini-trampoline commonly used in fitness classes. The control group did not perform any exercise, and all procedures were otherwise similar to the experimental group. Capillary blood glucose was measured before and every 15 minutes during the exercise session. The effects of exercise on blood glucose levels (group; time; and group interaction) were estimated using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) followed by Bonferroni's post-hoc Test (Ptrampoline can be used for reducing blood glucose levels and thus can potentially control blood glucose.

  1. Effects of One Resistance Exercise Session on Vascular Smooth Muscle of Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Objective: To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C, hypertensive (H, and exercised hypertensive (EH. Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN, potassium chloride (KCl and sodium nitroprusside (SNP. Results: Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001 in systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and mean arterial pressure (MAP compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001 the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01 smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. Conclusion: One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats.

  2. The effect of frequency and duration of training sessions on acquisition and long-term memory in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Helle; Ladewig, Jan; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg

    2011-01-01

    dogs such as guide dogs and police dogs, also the training of family dogs can benefit from this knowledge. We studied the effect of frequency and duration of training sessions on acquisition and on long-term memory. Forty-four laboratory Beagles were divided into 4 groups and trained by means......Most domestic dogs are subjected to some kind of obedience training, often on a frequent basis, but the question of how often and for how long a dog should be trained has not been fully investigated. Optimizing the training as much as possible is not only an advantage in the training of working...

  3. Effects of interset whole-body vibration on bench press resistance training in trained and untrained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timon, Rafael; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Olcina, Guillermo; Gusi, Narcis

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated positive effects of acute vibration exercise on concentric strength and power, but few have observed the effects of vibration exposure on resistance training. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of whole body vibration applied to the chest via hands on bench press resistance training in trained and untrained individuals. Nineteen participants (10 recreationally trained bodybuilders and 9 untrained students) performed two randomized sessions of resistance training on separate days. Each strength session consisted of 3 bench press sets with a load of 75% 1RM to failure in each set, with 2 minutes' rest between sets. All subjects performed the same strength training with either, vibration exposure (12 Hz, 4 mm) of 30 seconds immediately before each bench press set or without vibration. Number of total repetitions, kinematic parameters, blood lactate and perceived exertion were analyzed. In the untrained group, vibration exposure caused a significant increase in the mean velocity (from 0.36±0.02 to 0.39±0.03 m/s) and acceleration (from 0.75±0.10 to 0.86±0.09 m/s2), as well as a decrease in perceived effort (from 8±0.57 to 7.35±0.47) in the first bench press set, but no change was observed in the third bench press set. In the recreationally trained bodybuilders, vibration exposure did not cause any improvement on the performance of bench press resistance training. These results suggest that vibration exposure applied just before the bench press exercise could be a good practice to be implemented by untrained individuals in resistance training.

  4. Changes in circulating angiogenic factors after an acute training bout before and after resistance training with or without whole-body-vibration training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijer, Åsa; Degens, Hans; May, Francisca; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Joern; Rosenberger, Andre

    2012-07-01

    Both Resistance Exercise and Whole-Body-Vibration training are currently considered as countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Here we investigated the effects of whole-body vibration superimposed upon resistance exercise. Within this context, the present study focuses on changes in circulating angiogenic factors as indicators of skeletal muscle adaption. Methods: Twenty-six healthy male subjects (25.2 ± 4.2 yr) were included in this two-group parallel-designed study and randomly assigned to one of the training interventions: either resistance exercise (RE) or resistance vibration exercise (RVE). Participants trained 2-3 times per week for 6 weeks (completing 16 training sessions), where one session took 9 ± 1 min. Participants trained with weights on a guided barbell. The individual training load was set at 80% of their 1-Repetition-Maximum. Each training session consisted of three sets with 8 squats and 12 heel raises, following an incremental training design with regards to weight (RE and RVE) and vibration frequency (RVE only). The vibration frequency was increased from 20 Hz in the first week till 40 Hz during the last two weeks with 5-Hz weekly increments. At the first and 16 ^{th} training session, six blood samples (pre training and 2 min, 5 min, 15 min, 35 min and 75 min post training) were taken. Circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Endostatin and Matrix Metalloproteinases -2 and -9 (MMPs) were determined in serum using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays. Results: MMP-2 levels increased by 7.0% (SE = 2.7%, P < 0.001) within two minutes after the exercise bout and then decreased to 5.7% below baseline (SE = 2.4%, P < 0.001) between 15 and 75 minutes post exercise. This response was comparable before and after the training programs (P = 0.70) and also between the two intervention groups (P = 0.42). Preliminary analyses indicate that a similar pattern applies to circulating MMP-9, VEGF and

  5. Comparing the predictive capacity of observed in-session resistance to self-reported motivation in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Henny A

    2011-02-01

    Self-report measures of motivation for changing anxiety have been weakly and inconsistently related to outcome in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). While clients may not be able to accurately report their motivation, ambivalence about change may nonetheless be expressed in actual therapy sessions as opposition to the direction set by the therapist (i.e., resistance). In the context of CBT for generalized anxiety disorder, the present study compared the ability of observed in-session resistance in CBT session 1 and two self-report measures of motivation for changing anxiety (the Change Questionnaire & the Client Motivational for Therapy Scale) to (1) predict client and therapist rated homework compliance (2) predict post-CBT and one-year post-treatment worry reduction, and (3) differentiate those who received motivational interviewing prior to CBT from those who received no pre-treatment. Observed in-session resistance performed very well on each index, compared to the performance of self-reported motivation which was inconsistent and weaker relative to observed resistance. These findings strongly support both clinician sensitivity to moments of client resistance in actual therapy sessions as early as session 1, and the inclusion of observational process measures in CBT research. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Protein intake during training sessions has no effect on performance and recovery during a strenuous training camp for elite cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Training camps for top-class endurance athletes place high physiological demands on the body. Focus on optimizing recovery between training sessions is necessary to minimize the risk of injuries and improve adaptations to the training stimuli. Carbohydrate supplementation during sessi...

  7. Dissociated time course between peak torque and total work recovery following bench press training in resistance trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Diogo V; Gentil, Paulo; Ferreira-Junior, João B; Soares, Saulo R S; Brown, Lee E; Bottaro, Martim

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the time course of peak torque and total work recovery after a resistance training session involving the bench press exercise. Repeated measures with a within subject design. Twenty-six resistance-trained men (age: 23.7±3.7years; height: 176.0±5.7cm; mass: 79.65±7.61kg) performed one session involving eight sets of the bench press exercise performed to momentary muscle failure with 2-min rest between sets. Shoulder horizontal adductors peak torque (PT), total work (TW), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and subjective physical fitness were measured pre, immediately post, 24, 48, 72 and 96h following exercise. The exercise protocol resulted in significant pectoralis major DOMS that lasted for 72h. Immediately after exercise, the reduction in shoulder horizontal adductors TW (25%) was greater than PT (17%). TW, as a percentage of baseline values, was also less than PT at 24, 48 and 96h after exercise. Additionally, PT returned to baseline at 96h, while TW did not. Resistance trained men presented dissimilar PT and TW recovery following free weight bench press exercise. This indicates that recovery of maximal voluntary contraction does not reflect the capability to perform multiple contractions. Strength and conditioning professionals should be cautious when evaluating muscle recovery by peak torque, since it can lead to the repetition of a training session sooner than recommended. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. [Training of residents in obstetrics and gynecology: Assessment of an educational program including formal lectures and practical sessions using simulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, A; El Haloui, O; Breaud, J; Chevalier, D; Antomarchi, J; Bongain, A; Boucoiran, I; Delotte, J

    2015-01-01

    Evaluate an educational program in the training of residents in gynecology-obstetrics (GO) with a theory session and a practical session on simulators and analyze their learning curve. Single-center prospective study, at the university hospital (CHU). Two-day sessions were leaded in April and July 2013. An evaluation on obstetric and gynecological surgery simulator was available to all residents. Theoretical knowledge principles of obstetrics were evaluated early in the session and after formal lectures was taught to them. At the end of the first session, a satisfaction questionnaire was distributed to all participants. Twenty residents agreed to participate to the training sessions. Evaluation of theoretical knowledge: at the end of the session, the residents obtained a significant improvement in their score on 20 testing knowledge. Obstetrical simulator: a statistically significant improvement in scores on assessments simulator vaginal delivery between the first and second session. Subjectively, a larger increase feeling was seen after breech delivery simulation than for the cephalic vaginal delivery. However, the confidence level of the resident after breech delivery simulation has not been improved at the end of the second session. Simulation in gynecological surgery: a trend towards improvement in the time realized on the peg-transfer between the two sessions was noted. In the virtual simulation, no statistically significant differences showed, no improvement for in salpingectomy's time. Subjectively, the residents felt an increase in the precision of their gesture. Satisfaction: All residents have tried the whole program. They considered the pursuit of these sessions on simulators was necessary and even mandatory. The approach chosen by this structured educational program allowed a progression for the residents, both objectively and subjectively. This simulation program type for the resident's training would use this tool in assessing their skills and develop

  9. Concentric resistance training increases muscle strength without affecting microcirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Marc-Andre; Hildebrandt, Wulf; Schroeder, Leif; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krix, Martin; Bachert, Peter; Delorme, Stefan; Essig, Marco; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: While the evidence is conclusive regarding the positive effects of endurance training, there is still some controversy regarding the effects of resistance training on muscular capillarity. Thus, the purpose was to assess whether resistance strength training influences resting skeletal muscle microcirculation in vivo. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine middle-aged subjects (15 female, 24 male; mean age, 54 ± 9 years) were trained twice a week on an isokinetic system (altogether 16 sessions lasting 50 min, intensity 75% of maximum isokinetic and isometric force of knee flexors and extensors). To evaluate success of training, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris muscle and its isokinetic and isometric force were quantified. Muscular capillarization was measured in biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. In vivo, muscular energy and lipid metabolites were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and parameters of muscular microcirculation, such as local blood volume, blood flow and velocity, by contrast-enhanced ultrasound analyzing replenishment kinetics. Results: The significant (P 2 after training) and in absolute muscle strength (isometric, 146 ± 44 vs. 174 ± 50 Nm; isokinetic, 151 ± 53 vs. 174 ± 62 Nm) demonstrated successful training. Neither capillary density ex vivo (351 ± 75 vs. 326 ± 62) nor ultrasonographic parameters of resting muscle perfusion were significantly different (blood flow, 1.2 ± 1.2 vs. 1.1 ± 1.1 ml/min/100 g; blood flow velocity, 0.49 ± 0.44 vs. 0.52 ± 0.74 mm s -1 ). Also, the intensities of high-energy phosphates phosphocreatine and β-adenosintriphosphate were not different after training within the skeletal muscle at rest (β-ATP/phosphocreatine, 0.29 ± 0.06 vs. 0.28 ± 0.04). Conclusion: The significant increase in muscle size and strength in response to concentric isokinetic and isometric resistance training occurs without an increase in the in vivo microcirculation of the skeletal muscles at

  10. Concentric resistance training increases muscle strength without affecting microcirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Marc-Andre [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: MarcAndre.Weber@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Hildebrandt, Wulf [Immunochemistry, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Schroeder, Leif [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Kinscherf, Ralf [Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Krix, Martin [Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Bachert, Peter [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan; Essig, Marco [Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Krakowski-Roosen, Holger [National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: While the evidence is conclusive regarding the positive effects of endurance training, there is still some controversy regarding the effects of resistance training on muscular capillarity. Thus, the purpose was to assess whether resistance strength training influences resting skeletal muscle microcirculation in vivo. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine middle-aged subjects (15 female, 24 male; mean age, 54 {+-} 9 years) were trained twice a week on an isokinetic system (altogether 16 sessions lasting 50 min, intensity 75% of maximum isokinetic and isometric force of knee flexors and extensors). To evaluate success of training, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris muscle and its isokinetic and isometric force were quantified. Muscular capillarization was measured in biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. In vivo, muscular energy and lipid metabolites were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and parameters of muscular microcirculation, such as local blood volume, blood flow and velocity, by contrast-enhanced ultrasound analyzing replenishment kinetics. Results: The significant (P < 0.001) increase in CSA (60 {+-} 16 before vs. 64 {+-} 15 cm{sup 2} after training) and in absolute muscle strength (isometric, 146 {+-} 44 vs. 174 {+-} 50 Nm; isokinetic, 151 {+-} 53 vs. 174 {+-} 62 Nm) demonstrated successful training. Neither capillary density ex vivo (351 {+-} 75 vs. 326 {+-} 62) nor ultrasonographic parameters of resting muscle perfusion were significantly different (blood flow, 1.2 {+-} 1.2 vs. 1.1 {+-} 1.1 ml/min/100 g; blood flow velocity, 0.49 {+-} 0.44 vs. 0.52 {+-} 0.74 mm s{sup -1}). Also, the intensities of high-energy phosphates phosphocreatine and {beta}-adenosintriphosphate were not different after training within the skeletal muscle at rest ({beta}-ATP/phosphocreatine, 0.29 {+-} 0.06 vs. 0.28 {+-} 0.04). Conclusion: The significant increase in muscle size and strength in response to concentric isokinetic and isometric

  11. [Simulation as possible training for palliative emergencies: prospective initial data analysis of participants from two simulation training sessions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, C H R; Bosse, G; Schröder, T; Lassen, C L; Bundscherer, A C; Graf, B M; Zausig, Y A

    2015-01-01

    Palliative emergencies describe an acute situation in patients with a life-limiting illness. At present defined curricula for prehospital emergency physician training for palliative emergencies are limited. Simulation-based training (SBT) for such palliative emergency situations is an exception both nationally and internationally. This article presents the preparation of recommendations in the training and development of palliative care emergency situations. A selected literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Medline and the Cochrane database (1990-2013). Reference lists of included articles were checked by two reviewers. Data of the included articles were extracted, evaluated und summarized. In the second phase the participants of two simulated scenarios of palliative emergencies were asked to complete an anonymous 15-item questionnaire. The results of the literature search and the questionnaire-based investigation were compared and recommendations were formulated based on the results. Altogether 30 eligible national and international articles were included. Overall, training curricula in palliative emergencies are currently being developed nationally and internationally but are not yet widely integrated into emergency medical training and education. In the second part of the investigation, 25 participants (9 male, 16 female, 20 physicians and 5 nurses) were included in 4 multiprofessional emergency medical simulation training sessions. The most important interests of the participants were the problems for training and further education concerning palliative emergencies described in the national and international literature. The literature review and the expectations of the participants underlined that the development and characteristics of palliative emergencies will become increasingly more important in outpatient emergency medicine. All participants considered palliative care to be very important concerning the competency for end-of-life decisions

  12. Comparison of home- and gymnasium-based resistance training on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of home- and gymnasium-based resistance training on flexibility in the ... which is especially essential in the maintenance of functional abilities of the ... the effects of a home- and gymnasium-based resistance training programme ...

  13. Resist diabetes: A randomized clinical trial for resistance training maintenance in adults with prediabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda M Davy

    Full Text Available To determine whether a social cognitive theory (SCT-based intervention improves resistance training (RT maintenance and strength, and reduces prediabetes prevalence.Sedentary, overweight/obese (BMI: 25-39.9 kg/m2 adults aged 50-69 (N = 170 with prediabetes participated in the 15-month trial. Participants completed a supervised 3-month RT (2×/wk phase and were randomly assigned (N = 159 to one of two 6-month maintenance conditions: SCT or standard care. Participants continued RT at a self-selected facility. The final 6-month period involved no contact. Assessments occurred at baseline and months 3, 9, and 15. The SCT faded-contact intervention consisted of nine tailored transition (i.e., supervised training to training alone and nine follow-up sessions. Standard care involved six generic follow-up sessions. Primary outcomes were prevalence of normoglycemia and muscular strength.The retention rate was 76%. Four serious adverse events were reported. After 3 months of RT, 34% of participants were no longer prediabetic. This prevalence of normoglycemia was maintained through month 15 (30%, with no group difference. There was an 18% increase in the odds of being normoglycemic for each % increase in fat-free mass. Increases in muscular strength were evident at month 3 and maintained through month 15 (P<0.001, which represented improvements of 21% and 14% for chest and leg press, respectively. Results did not demonstrate a greater reduction in prediabetes prevalence in the SCT condition.Resistance training is an effective, maintainable strategy for reducing prediabetes prevalence and increasing muscular strength. Future research which promotes RT initiation and maintenance in clinical and community settings is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01112709.

  14. Resist diabetes: A randomized clinical trial for resistance training maintenance in adults with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Brenda M; Winett, Richard A; Savla, Jyoti; Marinik, Elaina L; Baugh, Mary Elizabeth; Flack, Kyle D; Halliday, Tanya M; Kelleher, Sarah A; Winett, Sheila G; Williams, David M; Boshra, Soheir

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether a social cognitive theory (SCT)-based intervention improves resistance training (RT) maintenance and strength, and reduces prediabetes prevalence. Sedentary, overweight/obese (BMI: 25-39.9 kg/m2) adults aged 50-69 (N = 170) with prediabetes participated in the 15-month trial. Participants completed a supervised 3-month RT (2×/wk) phase and were randomly assigned (N = 159) to one of two 6-month maintenance conditions: SCT or standard care. Participants continued RT at a self-selected facility. The final 6-month period involved no contact. Assessments occurred at baseline and months 3, 9, and 15. The SCT faded-contact intervention consisted of nine tailored transition (i.e., supervised training to training alone) and nine follow-up sessions. Standard care involved six generic follow-up sessions. Primary outcomes were prevalence of normoglycemia and muscular strength. The retention rate was 76%. Four serious adverse events were reported. After 3 months of RT, 34% of participants were no longer prediabetic. This prevalence of normoglycemia was maintained through month 15 (30%), with no group difference. There was an 18% increase in the odds of being normoglycemic for each % increase in fat-free mass. Increases in muscular strength were evident at month 3 and maintained through month 15 (Pprediabetes prevalence in the SCT condition. Resistance training is an effective, maintainable strategy for reducing prediabetes prevalence and increasing muscular strength. Future research which promotes RT initiation and maintenance in clinical and community settings is warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01112709.

  15. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES AS THE TOOL OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVING OF FUTURE PHYSICS TEACHERS TRAINING TO LABORATORY SESSION IN OPTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharenko T.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the problem of the use of information technologies implementation as the tool of the efficiency improving of future physics teachers training to execution of laboratory session in Optics is considered in the article. The problems and contradictions concerning ICT tools use in higher education institutions, the work of which is aimed at future physics teachers training are described. Due to the specifics of future teachers training in higher education institutions, labor market requirements and public procurement, the main ICT tools are identified, that are effective in students’ self-activity work to laboratory session execution. The developed list of electronic resources is divided into blocks according to the topics of laboratory works in Optics. The methodology of using of ICT tools at future students training for laboratory session on the example of individual topics is considered.

  16. Menopause: highlighting the effects of resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, R D; Prestes, J; Pereira, G B; Shiguemoto, G E; Perez, S E A

    2010-11-01

    The increase in lifespan and in the proportion of elderly women has increased the focus on menopause induced physiological alterations. These modifications are associated with the elevated risk of several pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fat liver disease, among others. Because of estrogen levels decline, many tissue and organs (muscular, bone, adipose tissue and liver) are affected. Additionally, body composition suffers important modifications. In this sense, there is a growing body of concern in understanding the physiological mechanisms involved and establishing strategies to prevent and reverse the effects of menopause. The hormone reposition therapy, diet and physical exercise have been recommended. Among the diverse exercise modalities, resistance training is not commonly used as a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of menopause. Thus, the aim of this review was to analyze the physiological alterations on several organs and systems induced by menopause and ovariectomy (experimental model to reproduce menopause), as well as, to study the effects of resistance training in preventing and reverting these modifications. In conclusion, resistance training promotes beneficial effects on several organs and systems, mainly, on muscular, bone and adipose tissue, allowing for a better quality of life in this population.

  17. A pilot study of a single-session training to promote mindful eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jayme; Cardaciotto, LeeAnn; Block-Lerner, Jennifer; McMahon, Cori

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers have not yet examined the applicability of mindfulness for weight-gain prevention, mindfulness training has the potential to increase an individual's awareness of factors that enable an individual to avoid weight gain caused by overconsumption. The study intended to examine the effects of 1 h of mindfulness training on state mindfulness and food consumption. The research team performed a pilot study. The study occurred at an urban, northeastern, Catholic university. Participants were 26 undergraduate, English-speaking students who were at least 18 y old (77% female, 73% Caucasian). Students with food allergies, an inability to fast, or a current or past diagnosis of an eating disorder were ineligible. Participants fasted for 4 h. Between the third and fourth hours, they attended a 1-h session of mindfulness training that integrated three experiential mindfulness exercises with group discussion. Following training, they applied the skills they learned during a silent lunch. The Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS), the Awareness subscale of the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS-AW), and a modified version of the Acting with Awareness subscale of the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-AW) were used preand posttraining to assess changes in state mindfulness, present-moment awareness, and mealtime awareness, respectively. A postmeal, subjective hunger/fullness Likert scale was used to assess food consumption (healthy vs unhealthy consumption). The study found a statistically significant increase in state mindfulness (P=.002). Eighty-six percent of participants engaged in healthy food consumption. No statistically significant changes occurred in either present-moment awareness (P=.617) or mealtime awareness (P=.483). Preliminary results suggest promising benefits for use of mindfulness training on weight-gain prevention in healthy individuals. More research is needed to understand the impact that mindfulness may have on long-term, weight

  18. CERN Technical Training 2006: LabVIEW Course Sessions (September-December 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The following LabVIEW course sessions are currently scheduled in the framework of the CERN Technical Training Programme 2006, and in collaboration with National Instruments (CH): LabVIEW Basics 1 (course in English): 11-13.9.2006 (3 days, only 3 places available) LabVIEW Basics 2 (course in English): 14-15.9.2006 (2 days) LabVIEW: Working efficiently with LabVIEW 8 (course in English): 18.9.2006 (1 day) **NEW COURSE** LabVIEW Application Development (course in English): 13-15.11.2006 (3 days. Pre-requisite: LabVIEW Basics I ans II, or equivalent experience) LabVIEW Advanced Programming (course in English): 16-17.11.2006 (2 days. Pre-requisite: LabVIEW Application Development, or equivalent experience) LabVIEW Base 1 (course in French): 4-6.12.2006 (3 days, only 1 place available) LabVIEW Base 2 (course in French): 7-8.12.2006 (2 days) If you are interested in attending any of the above course sessions, please discuss with your supervisor and/or your DTO, and apply electronically via EDH from the cour...

  19. CERN Technical Training 2006: LabVIEW Course Sessions (September-December 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The following LabVIEW course sessions are currently scheduled in the framework of the CERN Technical Training Programme 2006, and in collaboration with National Instruments (CH): LabVIEW Basics 1 (course in English): 11-13.9.2006 (3 days, only 3 places available) (course in English): 14-15.9.2006 (2 days) LabVIEW: Working efficiently with LabVIEW 8 (course in English): 18.9.2006 (1 day) **NEW COURSE** LabVIEW Application Development (course in English): 13-15.11.2006 (3 days. Pre-requisite: LabVIEW Basics I ans II, or equivalent experience) LabVIEW Advanced Programming (course in English): 16-17.11.2006 (2 days. Pre-requisite: LabVIEW Application Development, or equivalent experience) LabVIEW Base 1 (course in French): 4-6.12.2006 (3 days, only 1 place available) LabVIEW Base 2 (course in French): 7-8.12.2006 (2 days) If you are interested in attending any of the above course sessions, please discuss with your supervisor and/or your DTO,...

  20. Modeling the Responses to Resistance Training in an Animal Experiment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony G. Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test whether systems models of training effects on performance in athletes can be used to explore the responses to resistance training in rats. 11 Wistar Han rats (277 ± 15 g underwent 4 weeks of resistance training consisting in climbing a ladder with progressive loads. Training amount and performance were computed from total work and mean power during each training session. Three systems models relating performance to cumulated training bouts have been tested: (i with a single component for adaptation to training, (ii with two components to distinguish the adaptation and fatigue produced by exercise bouts, and (iii with an additional component to account for training-related changes in exercise-induced fatigue. Model parameters were fitted using a mixed-effects modeling approach. The model with two components was found to be the most suitable to analyze the training responses (R2=0.53; P<0.001. In conclusion, the accuracy in quantifying training loads and performance in a rodent experiment makes it possible to model the responses to resistance training. This modeling in rodents could be used in future studies in combination with biological tools for enhancing our understanding of the adaptive processes that occur during physical training.

  1. The physiological response to cold-water immersion following a mixed martial arts training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Angus; Carr, Sam; Cross, Sean; Petersen, Carl; Lewis, John G; Gieseg, Steven P

    2017-05-01

    Combative sport is one of the most physically intense forms of exercise, yet the effect of recovery interventions has been largely unexplored. We investigated the effect of cold-water immersion on structural, inflammatory, and physiological stress biomarkers following a mixed martial arts (MMA) contest preparation training session in comparison with passive recovery. Semiprofessional MMA competitors (n = 15) were randomly assigned to a cold-water immersion (15 min at 10 °C) or passive recovery protocol (ambient air) completed immediately following a contest preparation training session. Markers of muscle damage (urinary myoglobin), inflammation/oxidative stress (urinary neopterin + total neopterin (neopterin + 7,8-dihydroneopterin)), and hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) activation (saliva cortisol) were determined before, immediately after, and 1, 2, and 24 h postsession. Ratings of perceived soreness and fatigue, counter movement jump, and gastrointestinal temperature were also measured. Concentrations of all biomarkers increased significantly (p < 0.05) postsession. Cold water immersion attenuated increases in urinary neopterin (p < 0.05, d = 0.58), total neopterin (p < 0.05, d = 0.89), and saliva cortisol after 2 h (p < 0.05, d = 0.68) and urinary neopterin again at 24 h (p < 0.01, d = 0.57) in comparison with passive recovery. Perceived soreness, fatigue, and gastrointestinal temperatures were also lower for the cold-water immersion group at several time points postsession whilst counter movement jump did not differ. Combative sport athletes who are subjected to impact-induced stress may benefit from immediate cold-water immersion as a simple recovery intervention that reduces delayed onset muscle soreness as well as macrophage and HPA activation whilst not impairing functional performance.

  2. Cold-water immersion after training sessions: Effects on fiber type-specific adaptations in muscle K+ transport proteins to sprint-interval training in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Danny; Bishop, David John; Broatch, James R; Bangsbo, Jens; McKenna, Michael John; Murphy, Robyn M

    2018-05-10

    Effects of regular use of cold-water immersion (CWI) on fiber type-specific adaptations in muscle K + transport proteins to intense training, along with their relationship to changes in mRNA levels after the first training session, were investigated in humans. Nineteen recreationally-active men (24{plus minus}6 y, 79.5{plus minus}10.8 kg, 44.6{plus minus}5.8 mL∙kg -1 ∙min -1 ) completed six weeks of sprint-interval cycling either without (passive rest; CON) or with training sessions followed by CWI (15 min at 10{degree sign}C; COLD). Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after training to determine abundance of Na + ,K + -ATPase isoforms (α 1-3 , β 1-3 ) and FXYD1, and after recovery treatments (+0h and +3h) on the first day of training to measure mRNA content. Training increased (ptraining (p>0.05). CWI after each session did not influence responses to training (p>0.05). However, α 2 mRNA increased after the first session in COLD (+0h, p0.05). In both conditions, α 1 and β 3 mRNA increased (+3h; p 0.05) after the first session. In summary, Na + ,K + -ATPase isoforms are differently regulated in type I and II muscle fibers by sprint-interval training in humans, which for most isoforms do not associate with changes in mRNA levels after the first training session. CWI neither impairs nor improves protein adaptations to intense training of importance for muscle K + regulation.

  3. The effects of varying resistance-training loads on intermediate- and high-velocity-specific adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K; Bishop, P; Hunter, G; Fleisig, G

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in velocity-specific adaptations in moderately resistance-trained athletes who trained with either low or high resistances. The study used tests of sport-specific skills across an intermediate- to high-velocity spectrum. Thirty NCAA Division I baseball players were randomly assigned to either a low-resistance (40-60% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) training group or a high-resistance (70-90% 1RM) training group. Both of the training groups intended to maximallv accelerate each repetition during the concentric phase (IMCA). The 10 weeks of training consisted of 4 training sessions a week using basic core exercises. Peak force, velocity, and power were evaluated during set angle and depth jumps as well as weighted jumps using 30 and 50% 1RM. Squat 1RMs were also tested. Although no interactions for any of the jump tests were found, trends supported the hypothesis of velocity-specific training. Percentage gains suggest that the combined use of heavier training loads (70-90% 1RM) and IMCA tend to increase peak force in the lower-body leg and hip extensors. Trends also show that the combined use of lighter training loads (40-60% 1RM) and IMCA tend to increase peak power and peak velocity in the lower-body leg and hip extensors. The high-resistance group improved squats more than the low-resistance group (p training loads and IMCA to increase 1RM strength in the lower bodies of resistance-trained athletes.

  4. Within-session responses to high-intensity interval training in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd Anthony; Thum, Jacob S

    2018-02-01

    Completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake and health status, yet its feasibility in persons with spinal cord injury is unknown. To compare changes in cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables between two interval training regimes and moderate intensity exercise. Nine adults with spinal cord injury (duration = 6.8 ± 6.2 year) initially underwent determination of peak oxygen uptake. During subsequent sessions, they completed moderate intensity exercise, HIIT, or sprint interval training. Oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration were measured. Oxygen uptake and heart rate increased (p  0.05) to moderate intensity exercise. Peak oxygen uptake and heart rate were higher (p HIIT (90% peak oxygen uptake and 99% peak heart rate) and sprint interval training (80% peak oxygen uptake and 96% peak heart rate) versus moderate intensity exercise. Despite a higher intensity and peak cardiorespiratory strain, all participants preferred interval training versus moderate exercise. Examining long-term efficacy and feasibility of interval training in this population is merited, considering that exercise intensity is recognized as the most important variable factor of exercise programming to optimize maximal oxygen uptake. Implications for Rehabilitation Spinal cord injury (SCI) reduces locomotion which impairs voluntary physical activity, typically resulting in a reduction in peak oxygen uptake and enhanced chronic disease risk. In various able-bodied populations, completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been consistently reported to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and other health-related outcomes, although its efficacy in persons with SCI is poorly understood. Data from this study in 9 men and women with SCI show similar changes in oxygen uptake and heart in response to HIIT compared to a prolonged bout of aerobic exercise, although peak values were higher in response to HIIT. Due to

  5. Coordinated Analysis 101: A Joint Training Session Sponsored by LPI and ARES/JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, D. S.; Treiman, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division, part of the Exploration Integration and Science Directorate at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), co-sponsored a training session in November 2016 for four early-career scientists in the techniques of coordinated analysis. Coordinated analysis refers to the approach of systematically performing high-resolution and -precision analytical studies on astromaterials, particularly the very small particles typical of recent and near-future sample return missions such as Stardust, Hayabusa, Hayabusa2, and OSIRIS-REx. A series of successive analytical steps is chosen to be performed on the same particle, as opposed to separate subsections of a sample, in such a way that the initial steps do not compromise the results from later steps in the sequence. The data from the entire series can then be integrated for these individual specimens, revealing important in-sights obtainable no other way. ARES/JSC scientists have played a leading role in the development and application of this approach for many years. Because the coming years will bring new sample collections from these and other planned NASA and international exploration missions, it is timely to begin disseminating specialized techniques for the study of small and precious astromaterial samples. As part of the Cooperative Agreement between NASA and the LPI, this training workshop was intended as the first in a series of similar training exercises that the two organizations will jointly sponsor in the coming years. These workshops will span the range of analytical capabilities and sample types available at ARES/JSC in the Astromaterials Research and Astro-materials Acquisition and Curation Offices. Here we summarize the activities and participants in this initial training.

  6. Basic models modeling resistance training: an update for basic scientists interested in study skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewa, Jason; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; da Silva Teixeira, Tamiris; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Zhi, Xia; de Sá, Rafaele Bis Dal Ponte; Lodetti, Alice; Cardozo, Mayara Quadros; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2014-09-01

    Human muscle hypertrophy brought about by voluntary exercise in laboratorial conditions is the most common way to study resistance exercise training, especially because of its reliability, stimulus control and easy application to resistance training exercise sessions at fitness centers. However, because of the complexity of blood factors and organs involved, invasive data is difficult to obtain in human exercise training studies due to the integration of several organs, including adipose tissue, liver, brain and skeletal muscle. In contrast, studying skeletal muscle remodeling in animal models are easier to perform as the organs can be easily obtained after euthanasia; however, not all models of resistance training in animals displays a robust capacity to hypertrophy the desired muscle. Moreover, some models of resistance training rely on voluntary effort, which complicates the results observed when animal models are employed since voluntary capacity is something theoretically impossible to measure in rodents. With this information in mind, we will review the modalities used to simulate resistance training in animals in order to present to investigators the benefits and risks of different animal models capable to provoke skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Our second objective is to help investigators analyze and select the experimental resistance training model that best promotes the research question and desired endpoints. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Water balance and ad libitum water intake in football players during a training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that hydration plays a crucial performance in sports performance. But a great number of studies assessing hydration during football practice have shown that many players have a dehydration state prior to this sport and that most players are not able to replace water loss by sweating with ad libitum water intake. Objectives: To analyze ad libitum water consumption, water balance, thirst sensation and rate of perceived exertion on a sample of young football players during a training session. Material and Methods: A total of 57 players from three teams in the youth category voluntary participated in this study. Weight was collected at the beginning and at the end of training; thirst sensation, rate of perceived exertion and quantification of ingested water were assessed. We used descriptive statistics, correlational and ratio analysis. Results: Mean global intake of players studied was 844.74±351.95mL and an average loss of body water 1274.56±385.82mL. Average rate of dehydration of the initial weight was 0.63%. Average score of 2.81±1.32 on the scale of thirst sensation was obtained. Discussion and conclusions: Rate of loss of body water similar to previous studies is obtained. The players were not able to replace water loss by drinking liquid ad libitum, so the intake of an amount previously scheduled could become helpful.

  8. TECHNICAL TRAINING PROGRAMME MISE A JOUR AUTOCAD 14 VERS 2002: DERNIERE SESSION - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2002-01-01

    Dans le cadre de la transition vers AutoCAD 2002, le service de l'Enseignement Technique va proposer les 25 et 26 avril prochains la dernière session du cours « Mise à jour AutoCAD 14 vers 2002 ». Le coût du cours est fixé à 400 CHF. Au terme de ce cours, les participants seront capables de mettre en oeuvre toutes les améliorations et nouvelles fonctionnalités offertes par le logiciel. Le cours est ciblé pour tout le personnel ayant à effectuer des études et des dessins techniques, mais n'utilisant pas AutoCAD dans son environnement mécanique. Plus d'information, et possibilité d'inscription par EDH sont accessibles depuis les pages Internet du Technical Training and Mechanical Design sous le chapitre « Conception assistée par ordinateur ». Merci de contacter Technical.Training@cern.ch et/ou Mme Monique Duval (74924) pour tout ren...

  9. CERN Technical Training 2006: Software and System Technologies Curriculum - Scheduled Course Sessions (August-December 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Software and System Technologies Curriculum of the CERN Technical Training Programme offers comprehensive training in C++, Java, Perl, Python, XML, OO programming, JCOP/PVSS, database design and Oracle. In the PERL, C++, OO and Java course series there are some places available on the following course sessions, scheduled until the end of this year: PERL 5 - Introduction: 31.8-1.9.2006 (2 days) C++ for Particle Physicists: 16-20.10.2006 (6 half days, the popular course given by Paul Kunz) Object-Oriented Analysis and Design using UML: 17-19.10.2006 (3 days) JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 1: Web Applications: 19-20.10.2006 (2 days) JAVA - Level 1: 30.10-1.11.2006 (3 days) PERL 5 - Advanced Aspects: 2.11.2006 (1 day) C++ Programming Part 1 - Introduction to Object-Oriented Design and Programming: 14-16.11.2006 (3 days) JAVA - Level 2: 4-7.12.2006 (4 days) C++ Programming Part 2 - Advanced C++ and its Traps and Pitfalls: 12-15.12.2006 (4 days) JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2: Enterprise JavaBea...

  10. CERN Technical Training 2006: Software and System Technologies Curriculum - Scheduled Course Sessions (October 2006-March 2007)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Software and System Technologies Curriculum of the CERN Technical Training Programme offers comprehensive training in C++, Java, Perl, Python, XML, OO programming, JCOP/PVSS, database design and Oracle. In the Oracle, C++, OO and Java course series there are some places available on the following course sessions, currently scheduled until March 2007: Object-Oriented Analysis and Design using UML: 17-19 October 2006 (3 days) JAVA - Level 1: 30 October - 1 November 2006 (3 days) C++ Programming Part 1 - Introduction to Object-Oriented Design and Programming: 14-16 November 2006 (3 days) Oracle Database Server Administration: 23-29 November 2007 (5 days) JAVA - Level 2: 4-7 December 2006 (4 days) C++ Programming Part 2 - Advanced C++ and its Traps and Pitfalls: 12-15 December 2006 (4 days) JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 2: Enterprise JavaBeans: 18-20 December 2006 (3 days) JAVA 2 Enterprise Edition - Part 1: Web Applications: 15-16 January 2007 (2 days) C++ Programming Part 3 - Templates and the STL (St...

  11. CERN Technical Training 2002: Learning for the LHC! INTRODUCTION TO PVSS: FREE SESSION ON 11.11.2002 (AFTERNOON)

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2002-01-01

    A free-of-charge Introduction to PVSS session will be offered at CERN on November 11, 2002 (afternoon). This course is designed for people interested in SCADA-systems, and will provide an overview of PVSS features and possibilities. The programme will include a presentation of what can be done with the SCADA-system PVSS and of how PVSS is being used at CERN. A session of the complete Basic PVSS course would follow on 12-14 November (cost: 600.- CHF). More information, full programme and online registration by EDH are available from the CERN 2002 Technical Training pages or by contacting Technical.Training@cern.ch

  12. A randomised controlled trial of three or one breathing technique training sessions for breathlessness in people with malignant lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Miriam J; Kanaan, Mona; Richardson, Gerry; Nabb, Samantha; Torgerson, David; English, Anne; Barton, Rachael; Booth, Sara

    2015-09-07

    About 90 % of patients with intra-thoracic malignancy experience breathlessness. Breathing training is helpful, but it is unknown whether repeated sessions are needed. The present study aims to test whether three sessions are better than one for breathlessness in this population. This is a multi-centre randomised controlled non-blinded parallel arm trial. Participants were allocated to three sessions or single (1:2 ratio) using central computer-generated block randomisation by an independent Trials Unit and stratified for centre. The setting was respiratory, oncology or palliative care clinics at eight UK centres. Inclusion criteria were people with intrathoracic cancer and refractory breathlessness, expected prognosis ≥3 months, and no prior experience of breathing training. The trial intervention was a complex breathlessness intervention (breathing training, anxiety management, relaxation, pacing, and prioritisation) delivered over three hour-long sessions at weekly intervals, or during a single hour-long session. The main primary outcome was worst breathlessness over the previous 24 hours ('worst'), by numerical rating scale (0 = none; 10 = worst imaginable). Our primary analysis was area under the curve (AUC) 'worst' from baseline to 4 weeks. All analyses were by intention to treat. Between April 2011 and October 2013, 156 consenting participants were randomised (52 three; 104 single). Overall, the 'worst' score reduced from 6.81 (SD, 1.89) to 5.84 (2.39). Primary analysis [n = 124 (79 %)], showed no between-arm difference in the AUC: three sessions 22.86 (7.12) vs single session 22.58 (7.10); P value = 0.83); mean difference 0.2, 95 % CIs (-2.31 to 2.97). Complete case analysis showed a non-significant reduction in QALYs with three sessions (mean difference -0.006, 95 % CIs -0.018 to 0.006). Sensitivity analyses found similar results. The probability of the single session being cost-effective (threshold value of £20,000 per QALY) was over 80 %. There was no

  13. Neuroendocrine Responses and Body Composition Changes Following Resistance Training Under Normobaric Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chycki Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 6 week resistance training protocol under hypoxic conditions (FiO2 = 12.9%, 4000 m on muscle hypertrophy. The project included 12 resistance trained male subjects, randomly divided into two experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 6; age 21 ± 2.4 years; body height [BH] 178.8 ± 7.3 cm; body mass [BM] 80.6 ± 12.3 kg and group 2 (n = 6; age 22 ± 1.5 years; BH 177.8 ± 3.7cm; BM 81.1 ± 7.5 kg. Each group performed resistance exercises alternately under normoxic and hypoxic conditions (4000 m for 6 weeks. All subjects followed a training protocol that comprised two training sessions per week at an exercise intensity of 70% of 1RM; each training session consisted of eight sets of 10 repetitions of the bench press and barbell squat, with 3 min rest periods. The results indicated that strength training in normobaric hypoxia caused a significant increase in BM (p < 0.01 and fat free mass (FFM (p < 0.05 in both groups. Additionally, a significant increase (p < 0.05 was observed in IGF-1 concentrations at rest after 6 weeks of hypoxic resistance training in both groups. The results of this study allow to conclude that resistance training (6 weeks under normobaric hypoxic conditions induces greater muscle hypertrophy compared to training in normoxic conditions.

  14. Exercise in myasthenia gravis: A feasibility study of aerobic and resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Mikkelsen, Erik Elgaard; Overgaard, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: It has not been established whether progressive resistance training (PRT) and aerobic training (AT) are feasible and efficient in myasthenia gravis (MG). Methods: Fifteen subjects with generalized MG (Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) clinical classification II-IV) were...... randomly assigned to 20 training sessions during 8 weeks of either PRT or AT. Feasibility was evaluated based on adherence, drop-out rate, adverse events, and Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis (QMG) score. Results: Twelve subjects (MGFA II, n = 11; MGFA III, n=1) completed the intervention with a mean...

  15. resistance training and changes to plasma lipoproteins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to resistance training, HDL-cholesterol was reduced in women aged 54 - 71 years over 12 weeks. 12 ... the effect of a 24-week progressive resistance training programme on the blood lipid profiles of a sample ..... cise training on cardiovascular risk factors of sedentary, overweight, pre- menopausal and postmenopausal ...

  16. A comparison of assisted, resisted, and common plyometric training modes to enhance sprint and agility performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaei, Kazem; Mohammadi, Abbas; Badri, Neda

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of assisted, resisted and common plyometric training modes to enhance sprint and agility performance. Thirty active young males (age 20.67±1.12, height 174.83±4.69, weight 63.45±7.51) volunteered to participate in this study that 24 completed testing. The participants were randomly assigned into different groups: assisted, resisted and common plyometric exercises groups. Plyometric training involved three sessions per week for 4 weeks. The volume load of plyometric training modes was equated between the groups. The posttest was performed after 48 hours of the last training session. Between-group differences were analyzed with the ANCOVA and LSD post-hoc tests, and within-group differences were analyzed by a paired t-test. The findings of the present study indicated that 0-10-m, 20-30-m sprint time and the Illinois Agility Test time significantly decreased in the assisted and resisted plyometrics modes compared to the common plyometric training mode (P≤0.05). Also, the 0-10-m, 0-30-m sprint time and agility T-test time was significantly reduced with resisted plyometrics modes compared to the assisted and common plyometric modes (P≤0.05). There was no significant difference in the 10-20-m sprint time among the three plyometric training modes. The results of this study demonstrated that assisted and resisted plyometrics modes with elastic bands were effective methods to improve sprint and agility performance than common plyometric training in active males. Also, the resisted plyometrics mode was superior than the assisted plyometrics mode to improving sprint and agility tasks.

  17. Is inertial flywheel resistance training superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in improving muscle strength?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicens-Bordas, J; Esteve, E; Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, A

    2018-01-01

    -dependent resistance training in improving other muscular adaptations. DESIGN: A systematic review with meta-analyses of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials with no publication date...

  18. Within Session Sequence of Balance and Plyometric Exercises Does Not Affect Training Adaptations with Youth Soccer Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Mehdi; Granacher, Urs; Makhlouf, Issam; Hammami, Raouf; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis

    2017-03-01

    The integration of balance and plyometric training has been shown to provide significant improvements in sprint, jump, agility, and other performance measures in young athletes. It is not known if a specific within session balance and plyometric exercise sequence provides more effective training adaptations. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of using a sequence of alternating pairs of exercises versus a block (series) of all balance exercises followed by a block of plyometric exercises on components of physical fitness such as muscle strength, power, speed, agility, and balance. Twenty-six male adolescent soccer players (13.9 ± 0.3 years) participated in an 8-week training program that either alternated individual balance (e.g., exercises on unstable surfaces) and plyometric (e.g., jumps, hops, rebounds) exercises or performed a block of balance exercises prior to a block of plyometric exercises within each training session. Pre- and post-training measures included proxies of strength, power, agility, sprint, and balance such as countermovement jumps, isometric back and knee extension strength, standing long jump, 10 and 30-m sprints, agility, standing stork, and Y-balance tests. Both groups exhibited significant, generally large magnitude (effect sizes) training improvements for all measures with mean performance increases of approximately >30%. There were no significant differences between the training groups over time. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of combining balance and plyometric exercises within a training session on components of physical fitness with young adolescents. The improved performance outcomes were not significantly influenced by the within session exercise sequence.

  19. Within Session Sequence of Balance and Plyometric Exercises Does Not Affect Training Adaptations with Youth Soccer Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Chaouachi, Urs Granacher, Issam Makhlouf, Raouf Hammami, David G Behm, Anis Chaouachi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of balance and plyometric training has been shown to provide significant improvements in sprint, jump, agility, and other performance measures in young athletes. It is not known if a specific within session balance and plyometric exercise sequence provides more effective training adaptations. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of using a sequence of alternating pairs of exercises versus a block (series of all balance exercises followed by a block of plyometric exercises on components of physical fitness such as muscle strength, power, speed, agility, and balance. Twenty-six male adolescent soccer players (13.9 ± 0.3 years participated in an 8-week training program that either alternated individual balance (e.g., exercises on unstable surfaces and plyometric (e.g., jumps, hops, rebounds exercises or performed a block of balance exercises prior to a block of plyometric exercises within each training session. Pre- and post-training measures included proxies of strength, power, agility, sprint, and balance such as countermovement jumps, isometric back and knee extension strength, standing long jump, 10 and 30-m sprints, agility, standing stork, and Y-balance tests. Both groups exhibited significant, generally large magnitude (effect sizes training improvements for all measures with mean performance increases of approximately >30%. There were no significant differences between the training groups over time. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of combining balance and plyometric exercises within a training session on components of physical fitness with young adolescents. The improved performance outcomes were not significantly influenced by the within session exercise sequence.

  20. A Single Resistance Exercise Session Improves Aortic Endothelial Function in Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís de Oliveira Faria

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Physical exercise is an important tool for the improvement of endothelial function. Objective: To assess the effects of acute dynamic resistance exercise on the endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Methods: Ten minutes after exercise, the aorta was removed to evaluate the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS1177 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and to generate concentration-response curves to acetylcholine (ACh and to phenylephrine (PHE. The PHE protocol was also performed with damaged endothelium and before and after NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME and indomethacin administration. The maximal response (Emax and the sensitivity (EC50 to these drugs were evaluated. Results: ACh-induced relaxation increased in the aortic rings of exercised (Ex rats (Emax= -80 ± 4.6%, p < 0.05 when compared to those of controls (Ct (Emax = -50 ± 6.8%. The Emax to PHE was decreased following exercise conditions (95 ± 7.9%, p < 0.05 when compared to control conditions (120 ± 4.2%. This response was abolished after L-NAME administration or endothelial damage. In the presence of indomethacin, the aortic rings' reactivity to PHE was decreased in both groups (EC50= Ex -5.9 ± 0.14 vs. Ct -6.6 ± 0.33 log µM, p < 0.05 / Emax = Ex 9.5 ± 2.9 vs. Ct 17 ± 6.2%, p < 0.05. Exercise did not alter the expression of eNOS and iNOS, but increased the level of p-eNOS. Conclusion: A single resistance exercise session improves endothelial function in hypertensive rats. This response seems to be mediated by increased NO production through eNOS activation.

  1. Resistance Training in Children and Young Adults: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Shenouda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance training is a method used by many athletes to increase their levels of performance. The benefits of this method are known to be increased strength, power and endurance. Resistance training in children has been a topic that has been long debated and there are some widely accepted beliefs and principles that guide clinicians involved in the discipline of sport and exercise medicine. While weight training is a form of resistance training that has proven beneficial effects on health and wellbeing, powerlifting and heavy weight training should be avoided, as lifting maximal weights through various ranges of motion as fast as possible can lead to serious limb injuries. In order to determine the risks and benefits of resistance training in children and adolescents, it is important to review the literature to find a clear consensus. Further prospective research should be completed to determine the long-term sequelae of resistance training in children in comparison to the general population.

  2. Resistance Training in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Severe Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vanerson Passos Neves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Resistance training (RT has been recommended as a non-pharmacological treatment for moderate hypertension. In spite of the important role of exercise intensity on training prescription, there is still no data regarding the effects of RT intensity on severe hypertension (SH. Objective: This study examined the effects of two RT protocols (vertical ladder climbing, performed at different overloads of maximal weight carried (MWC, on blood pressure (BP and muscle strength of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR with SH. Methods: Fifteen male SHR ENT#091;206 ± 10 mmHg of systolic BP (SBPENT#093; and five Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY; 119 ± 10 mmHg of SBP were divided into 4 groups: sedentary (SED-WKY and SHR (SED-SHR; RT1-SHR training relative to body weight (~40% of MWC; and RT2-SHR training relative to MWC test (~70% of MWC. Systolic BP and heart rate (HR were measured weekly using the tail-cuff method. The progression of muscle strength was determined once every fifteen days. The RT consisted of 3 weekly sessions on non-consecutive days for 12-weeks. Results: Both RT protocols prevented the increase in SBP (delta - 5 and -7 mmHg, respectively; p > 0.05, whereas SBP of the SED-SHR group increased by 19 mmHg (p 0.05. Conclusions: Our data indicated that both RT protocols were effective in preventing chronic elevation of SBP in SH. Additionally, a higher RT overload induced a greater increase in muscle strength.

  3. Arterial Stiffness and Autonomic Modulation After Free-Weight Resistance Exercises in Resistance Trained Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, J Derek; Mayo, Xián; Tai, Yu Lun; Fennell, Curtis

    2016-12-01

    Kingsley, JD, Mayo, X, Tai, YL, and Fennell, C. Arterial stiffness and autonomic modulation after free-weight resistance exercises in resistance trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3373-3380, 2016-We investigated the effects of an acute bout of free-weight, whole-body resistance exercise consisting of the squat, bench press, and deadlift on arterial stiffness and cardiac autonomic modulation in 16 (aged 23 ± 3 years; mean ± SD) resistance-trained individuals. Arterial stiffness, autonomic modulation, and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were assessed at rest and after 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 75% 1-repetition maximum on each exercise with 2 minutes of rest between sets and exercises. Arterial stiffness was analyzed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV). Linear heart rate variability (log transformed [ln] absolute and normalized units [nu] of low-frequency [LF] and high-frequency [HF] power) and nonlinear heart rate complexity (Sample Entropy [SampEn], Lempel-Ziv Entropy [LZEn]) were measured to determine autonomic modulation. BRS was measured by the sequence method. A 2 × 2 repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze time (rest, recovery) across condition (acute resistance exercise, control). There were significant increases in cf-PWV (p = 0.05), heart rate (p = 0.0001), normalized LF (LFnu; p = 0.001), and the LF/HF ratio (p = 0.0001). Interactions were also noted for ln HF (p = 0.006), HFnu (p = 0.0001), SampEn (p = 0.001), LZEn (p = 0.005), and BRS (p = 0.0001) such that they significantly decreased during recovery from the resistance exercise compared with rest and the control. There was no effect on ln total power, or ln LF. These data suggest that a bout of resistance exercise using free-weights increases arterial stiffness and reduces vagal activity and BRS in comparison with a control session. Vagal tone may not be fully recovered up to 30 minutes after a resistance exercise bout.

  4. Effects of manipulating the duration and intensity of aerobic training sessions on the physical performance of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Coelho, Francisco; Fonseca, Cletiana Gonçalves; Barbosa, Nicolas Henrique Santos; Vaz, Filipe Ferreira; Cordeiro, Letícia Maria de Souza; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Pires, Washington; Soares, Danusa Dias; Wanner, Samuel Penna

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of manipulating the load components of aerobic training sessions on the physical performance of rats. To achieve this purpose, adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: an untrained control (CON) group and training groups with a predominant overload in intensity (INT) or duration (DUR) or alternating and similar overloads in intensity and duration (ID). Prior to, during, and after 8 weeks of the control or training protocols, the performance of the rats (evaluated by their workload) was determined during fatiguing, incremental-speed treadmill running. Two additional incremental running tests were performed prior to and at the end of the protocols to measure the peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak). As expected, the rats in the trained groups exhibited increased performance, whereas the untrained rats showed stable performance throughout the 8 weeks. Notably, the performance gain exhibited by the DUR rats reached a plateau after the 4th week. This plateau was not present in the INT or ID rats, which exhibited increased performance at the end of training protocol compared with the DUR rats. None of the training protocols changed the VO2peak values; however, these values were attained at faster speeds, which indicated increased running economy. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the training protocols improved the physical performance of rats, likely resulting from enhanced running economy. Furthermore, compared with overload in duration, overload in the intensity of training sessions was more effective at inducing performance improvements across the 8 weeks of the study.

  5. Influence of Resistance Training on Neuromuscular Function and Physical Capacity in ALS Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line; Djurtoft, J.B.; Bech, Rune Dueholm

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. The present study aimed to explore the effect of resistance training in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease characterized by progressive motor neuron loss and muscle weakness. Materials and Methods. Following a 12-week “lead-in” control period, a population...... of ALS patients from Funen, Denmark, completed a 12-week resistance training program consisting of 2-3 sessions/week. Neuromuscular function (strength and power) and voluntary muscle activation (superimposed twitch technique) were evaluated before and after both control and training periods. Physical...... capacity tests (chair rise and timed up and go), the revised ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R) scores, and muscle cross sectional area (histology) were also assessed. Results. Of twelve ALS patients assessed for eligibility, six were included and five completed the study. Training did...

  6. Progressive resistance training in head and neck cancer patients undergoing concomitant chemoradiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lonkvist, Camilla K; Vinther, Anders; Zerahn, Bo

    2017-01-01

    was feasibility measured as attendance to training sessions. Secondary endpoints included changes in functional performance, muscle strength, and body composition measured by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Furthermore, sarcomeric protein content, pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) activity......, and glycolysis were determined in muscle biopsies. Results: Twelve patients with p16 positive oropharyngeal cancer were enrolled. The primary endpoint was met with 9 of the 12 patients completing at least 25 of 36 planned training sessions. The mean attendance rate was 77%. Functional performance was maintained...... resistance training (PRT) program during CCRT is feasible in the clinical setting before planning initiation of a larger randomized study which is the long-term goal. Study design: Prospective pilot study. Methods: Twelve patients receiving CCRT were planned to attend a 12-week PRT program. Primary endpoint...

  7. High-frequency resistance training is not more effective than low-frequency resistance training in increasing muscle mass and strength in well-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Gederson K; Franco, Cristiane M; Nunes, Paulo Ricardo P; Orsatti, Fábio L

    2018-02-27

    We studied the effects of two different weekly frequency resistance training (RT) protocols over eight weeks on muscle strength and muscle hypertrophy in well-trained men. Twenty-three subjects (age: 26.2±4.2 years; RT experience: 6.9±3.1 years) were randomly allocated into the two groups: low frequency (LFRT, n = 12) or high frequency (HFRT, n = 11). The LFRT performed a split-body routine, training each specific muscle group once a week. The HFRT performed a total-body routine, training all muscle groups every session. Both groups performed the same number of sets (10-15 sets) and exercises (1-2 exercise) per week, 8-12 repetitions maximum (70-80% of 1RM), five times per week. Muscle strength (bench press and squat 1RM) and lean tissue mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were assessed prior to and at the end of the study. Results showed that both groups improved (ptrained subjects when the sets and intensity are equated per week.

  8. Regular Formal Evaluation Sessions are Effective as Frame-of-Reference Training for Faculty Evaluators of Clerkship Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Paul A; Dadekian, Gregory A; Terndrup, Christopher; Pangaro, Louis N; Weisbrod, Allison B; Corriere, Mark D; Rodriguez, Rechell; Short, Patricia; Kelly, William F

    2015-09-01

    Face-to-face formal evaluation sessions between clerkship directors and faculty can facilitate the collection of trainee performance data and provide frame-of-reference training for faculty. We hypothesized that ambulatory faculty who attended evaluation sessions at least once in an academic year (attendees) would use the Reporter-Interpreter-Manager/Educator (RIME) terminology more appropriately than faculty who did not attend evaluation sessions (non-attendees). Investigators conducted a retrospective cohort study using the narrative assessments of ambulatory internal medicine clerkship students during the 2008-2009 academic year. The study included assessments of 49 clerkship medical students, which comprised 293 individual teacher narratives. Single-teacher written and transcribed verbal comments about student performance were masked and reviewed by a panel of experts who, by consensus, (1) determined whether RIME was used, (2) counted the number of RIME utterances, and (3) assigned a grade based on the comments. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficients. The authors reviewed 293 individual teacher narratives regarding the performance of 49 students. Attendees explicitly used RIME more frequently than non-attendees (69.8 vs. 40.4 %; p sessions used RIME terminology more frequently and provided more accurate grade recommendations than teachers who did not attend. Formal evaluation sessions may provide frame-of-reference training for the RIME framework, a method that improves the validity and reliability of workplace assessment.

  9. A 12-week resistance training program elicits positive changes in hemodynamic responses in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Campos Salazar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a resistance training program in hemodynamic responses and adaptations in 60 yr. old elderly. Volunteers were 60 healthy-elderly who underwent a training program 3 times/wk. for 12 wk. Participants were randomly assigned to either a control group, an exercise group who trained at 30% intensity of 5 maximal repetitions (5RM (30% of 5RM or an exercise group at an intensity of 70% (70% of 5RM. Hemodynamic variables measured were mean arterial pressure (MAP, calculated before and immediately after the training session, and rate pressure product (RPP, estimated once a month and before and after finishing the program. Results indicated that resistance exercise training at 30% and 70% of 5RM, with a total exercise work of 872.7 and 890.9 kg did not elicited cardiovascular risks for the elderly. A 12-wk resistance exercise training reduced the cardiovascular strain as shown by the RPP (~16% and the MAP (~9%, with no adverse effects throughout the program. Unfortunately, all the hemodynamic benefits were reverted 6 days following completion of the program. In conclusion, a healthy elderly population must perform resistance training exercises to significantly reduce the cardiovascular stress. We suggest to conduct further research that looks into different exercise intensities in longer program duration and to determine the mechanisms responsible for the deleterious effects of the detraining by using physiological, biochemical and biomechanical variables.

  10. EXERCISE IN RESISTANCE-TRAINED MEN

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    RD Calixto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effects of different velocities of eccentric muscle actions on acute blood lactate and serum growth hormone (GH concentrations following free weight bench press exercises performed by resistance-trained men. Sixteen healthy men were divided into two groups: slow eccentric velocity (SEV; n = 8 and fast eccentric velocity (FEV; n = 8. Both groups performed four sets of eight eccentric repetitions at an intensity of 70% of their one repetition maximum eccentric (1RMecc test, with 2-minute rest intervals between sets. The eccentric velocity was controlled to 3 seconds per range of motion for SEV and 0.5 seconds for the FEV group. There was a significant difference (P < 0.001 in the kinetics of blood lactate removal (at 3, 6, 9, 15, and 20 min and higher mean values for peak blood lactate (P = 0.001 for the SEV group (9.1 ± 0.5 mM compared to the FEV group (6.1 ± 0.4 mM. Additionally, serum GH concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.001 at 15 minutes after bench press exercise in the SEV group (1.7 ± 0.6 ng · mL-1 relative to the FEV group (0.1 ± 0.0 ng · mL-1. In conclusion, the velocity of eccentric muscle action influences acute responses following bench press exercises performed by resistance-trained men using a slow velocity resulting in a greater metabolic stress and hormone response.

  11. Effects of endurance training only versus same-session combined endurance and strength training on physical performance and serum hormone concentrations in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Moritz; Mykkänen, Olli-Pekka; Doma, Kenji; Mazzolari, Raffaele; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endurance training only (E, n = 14) and same-session combined training, when strength training is repeatedly preceded by endurance loading (endurance and strength training (E+S), n = 13) on endurance (1000-m running time during incremental field test) and strength performance (1-repetition maximum (1RM) in dynamic leg press), basal serum hormone concentrations, and endurance loading-induced force and hormone responses in recreationally endurance-trained men. E was identical in the 2 groups and consisted of steady-state and interval running, 4-6 times per week for 24 weeks. E+S performed additional mixed-maximal and explosive-strength training (2 times per week) immediately following an incremental running session (35-45 min, 65%-85% maximal heart rate). E and E+S decreased running time at week 12 (-8% ± 5%, p = 0.001 and -7% ± 3%, p force (-5% to -9%, p = 0.032 to 0.001) and testosterone and cortisol responses (18%-47%, p = 0.013 to p benefits when strength training was performed repeatedly after endurance training compared with endurance training only. This was supported by similar acute responses in force and hormonal measures immediately post-endurance loading after the training with sustained 1RM strength in E+S.

  12. OBESITY-RELATED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AFTER LONG- TERM RESISTANCE TRAINING AND GINGER SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvan Atashak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its metabolic consequences are major risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, lifestyle interventions, including exercise training and dietary components may decrease cardiovascular risk. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger supplementation and progressive resistance training on some cardiovascular risk factors in obese men. In a randomized double-blind design, 32 obese Iranian men (BMI > 30 were assigned in to one of four groups: Placebo (PL, n = 8; ginger group (GI, n = 8 that consumed 1 gr ginger/d for 10 wk; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL, n = 8; and 1gr ginger plus resistance exercise (RTGI, n = 8. Progressive resistance training was performed three days per week for 10 weeks and included eight exercises. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition and anthropometric indices were measured. To identify other risk factors, venous blood samples were obtained before and 48-72 hours after the last training session for measurement of blood lipids (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, systemic inflammation (CRP, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. After 10 weeks both RTGI and RTPL groups showed significant decreases in waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, body fat percent, body fat mass, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance (p < 0.05 and a significant increase in fat free mass (FFM (p < 0.05, while it remained unchanged in PL and GI. Further, significant decreases in the mean values of CRP were observed in all groups except PL (p < 0.05. Our results reveal that resistance training is an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk in obese Iranian men. Further, ginger supplementation alone or in combination with resistance training, also reduces chronic inflammation. However more research on the efficacy of this supplement to reduce cardiovascular risk in humans is required.

  13. Intensity of training sessions among professional indoor soccer players: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francimara Budal Arins

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available > This study aimed to characterize physiological responses of indoor soccer (futsal professional players to training sessions, according to playing position. The sample was composed by five players ( X =23.9±3.0 yrs of an adult professional futsal team from Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. The athletes performed a maximal exercise test for measuring oxygen consumption, heart rate (HR and respiratory quotient (RQ, variables used to create regression equations for energy expenditure (EE, kcal prediction and to estimate relative work intensity (% max HR. During the sessions, HR was measured with a S610i Polar® monitor. The results showed that the goalkeeper played at 60% to 70% max HR. The mid-fi elders and the attacker worked at more intense levels (81% to 100%, while the defender varied the intensity at intermediate exercise range (71% to 90%. Total EE was similar among mid-fi elders and attacker ( X =339.5 kcal, while the defender presented lower values ( X =255.0 kcal. The goalkeeper had the lowest EE ( X =106.9 kcal. The results agreed with those reported in soccer studies and facilitate planning and control of an individualized training program according to playing position. ABSTRACT Este estudo objetivou caracterizar as respostas fi siológicas de atletas profissionais de futsal durante o treinamento coletivo, de acordo com a posição tática desempenhada. A amostra foi composta pelos cinco jogadores titulares ( X =23,9±3,0 anos de uma equipe de futsal masculino profi ssional adulto da cidade de Florianópolis, SC. Os atletas foram avaliados por um teste ergoespirométrico máximo, que forneceu o consumo de oxigênio, a freqüência cardíaca (FC e o quociente respiratório (RQ, valores utilizados para gerar equações de regressão para estimativa do gasto calórico (GCal e da intensidade do trabalho (expressa em % FC máxima predita pela idade (% FC máx. Durante os coletivos, a FC foi mensurada com um monitor Polar modelo S610i®. Os

  14. Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure of South African Marathon Runners During Competition Marathon Runs and Training Sessions: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurse, Victoria; Wright, Caradee Y; Allen, Martin; McKenzie, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners spend considerable time in outdoor training for and participating in marathons. Outdoor runners may experience high solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. South Africa, where running is popular, experiences high ambient solar UVR levels that may be associated with adverse health effects. This feasibility study explores the use of personal dosimeters to determine solar UVR exposure patterns and possible related acute health risks of four marathon runners during marathons and training sessions in Cape Town and Pretoria. Runners running marathons that started early in the day, and that did not exceed 4 hours, yielded low total solar UVR exposure doses (mean 0.093 SED per exposure period run, median 0.088 SED, range 0.062-0.136 SED; average of 16.54% of ambient solar UVR). Training sessions run during early morning and late afternoon presented similar results. Several challenges hindered analysis including accounting for anatomical position of personal dosimeter and natural shade. To assess health risks, hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated using a hypothetical runner's schedule. Cumulative, annual solar UVR exposure-calculated acute health risks were low (HQ = 0.024) for training sessions and moderate (HQ = 4.922) for marathon runs. While these data and calculations are based on 18 person-days, one can measure marathon runners' personal solar UVR exposure although several challenges must be overcome. © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.

  15. Effects of order and sequence of resistance and endurance training on body fat in elementary school-aged girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. Alves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of order and sequence of concurrent resistance and endurance training on body fat percentage (BFP in a large sample of elementary school-aged girls. One hundred and twenty-six healthy girls, aged 10-11 years (10.95 ± 0.48 years, were randomly assigned to six groups to perform different training protocols per week for 8 weeks: Resistance-only (R, Endurance-only (E, Concurrent Distinct Endurance-Resistance (CDER, Concurrent Parallel Endurance-Resistance (CPER, Concurrent Parallel Resistance-Endurance (CPRE, and a Control group (C. In R and E, the subjects performed single sessions of resistance or endurance exercises, respectively (two days per week. In CDER, resistance-endurance training was performed on different days each week (four days per week. CPER and CPRE performed single-session combined endurance-resistance training or combined resistance-endurance training, respectively, each week (two days per week. After an 8-week training period, BFP decreased in all experimental groups (CPER: 13.3%, p0.05; and CDER: 5.6%, p>0.05. However, a significant difference was found in CPER and CPRE when compared to CDER, E, and R, indicating that training sequence may influence BFP. All programmes were effective, but CPER and CPRE obtained better results for BFP than CDER, E, or R. The effects of concurrent resistance and endurance training on body fat percentage can be mediated by order and sequence of exercise. These results provide insight into optimization of school-based fat loss exercise programmes in childhood.

  16. One Session of Autogenic Training Increases Acute Subjective Sexual Arousal in Premenopausal Women Reporting Sexual Arousal Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia M; Hixon, J Gregory; Nichols, Lindsey M; Meston, Cindy M

    2018-01-01

    Below average heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction in women. Autogenic training, a psychophysiologic relaxation technique, has been shown to increase HRV. In a recent study, sexually healthy women experienced acute increases in physiologic (ie, genital) and subjective sexual arousal after 1 brief session of autogenic training. To build on these findings by testing the effects of a single session of autogenic training on sexual arousal in a sample of women who reported decreased or absent sexual arousal for at least 6 months. Genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations were assessed in 25 women 20 to 44 years old before and after listening to a 22-minute autogenic training recording. HRV was assessed with electrocardiography. Change in genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations from the pre-manipulation erotic film to the post-manipulation erotic film. Marginally significant increases in discrete subjective sexual arousal (P = .051) and significant increases in perceived genital sensations (P = .018) were observed. In addition, degree of change in HRV significantly moderated increases in subjective arousal measured continuously over time (P autogenic training, and other interventions that aim to increase HRV, could be a useful addition to treatment protocols for women who are reporting a lack of subjective arousal or decreased genital sensations. There are few treatment options for women with arousal problems. We report on a new psychosocial intervention that could improve arousal. Limitations include a relatively small sample and the lack of a control group. Our findings indicate that autogenic training significantly improves acute subjective arousal and increases perceived genital sensations in premenopausal women with self-reported arousal concerns. Stanton AM, Hixon JG, Nichols LM, Meston CM. One Session of

  17. Cold-Water Immersion and Contrast Water Therapy: No Improvement of Short-Term Recovery After Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Christos K; Broatch, James R; Petersen, Aaron C; Polman, Remco; Bishop, David J; Halson, Shona

    2017-08-01

    An athlete's ability to recover quickly is important when there is limited time between training and competition. As such, recovery strategies are commonly used to expedite the recovery process. To determine the effectiveness of both cold-water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT) compared with control on short-term recovery (<4 h) after a single full-body resistance-training session. Thirteen men (age 26 ± 5 y, weight 79 ± 7 kg, height 177 ± 5 cm) were assessed for perceptual (fatigue and soreness) and performance measures (maximal voluntary isometric contraction [MVC] of the knee extensors, weighted and unweighted countermovement jumps) before and immediately after the training session. Subjects then completed 1 of three 14-min recovery strategies (CWI, CWT, or passive sitting [CON]), with the perceptual and performance measures reassessed immediately, 2 h, and 4 h postrecovery. Peak torque during MVC and jump performance were significantly decreased (P < .05) after the resistance-training session and remained depressed for at least 4 h postrecovery in all conditions. Neither CWI nor CWT had any effect on perceptual or performance measures over the 4-h recovery period. CWI and CWT did not improve short-term (<4-h) recovery after a conventional resistance-training session.

  18. No exacerbation of knee joint pain and effusion following preoperative progressive resistance training in patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoffer, Birgit; Dalgas, Ulrik; Maribo, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative progressive resistance training (PRT) is controversial in patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (TKA), because of the concern that it may exacerbate knee joint pain and effusion. OBJECTIVE: To examine if preoperative PRT initiated 5 weeks prior to TKA would 1......) exacerbate pain and knee effusion, 2) allow a progressively increased training load throughout the training period that would subsequently increase muscle strength. DESIGN: Secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial. SETTING: University Hospital and a Regional Hospital. PATIENTS: Thirty patients...... OUTCOME MEASURES: Before and after each training session, knee joint pain rated on an 11-point scale, effusion assessed by measuring the knee joint circumference, and training load were recorded. The first and last training session were initiated by 1RM testing of unilateral leg press, knee extension...

  19. Longitudinal Recovery and Reduced Costs After 120 Sessions of Locomotor Training for Motor Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Sarah A; Lorenz, Douglas; Eskay, Carol P; Forrest, Gail F; Basso, D Michele

    2018-03-01

    To determine the impact of long-term, body weight-supported locomotor training after chronic, incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), and to estimate the health care costs related to lost recovery potential and preventable secondary complications that may have occurred because of visit limits imposed by insurers. Prospective observational cohort with longitudinal follow-up. Eight outpatient rehabilitation centers that participate in the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation NeuroRecovery Network (NRN). Individuals with motor incomplete chronic SCI (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale C or D; N=69; 0.1-45y after SCI) who completed at least 120 NRN physical therapy sessions. Manually assisted locomotor training (LT) in a body weight-supported treadmill environment, overground standing and stepping activities, and community integration tasks. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury motor and sensory scores, orthostatic hypotension, bowel/bladder/sexual function, Spinal Cord Injury Functional Ambulation Inventory (SCI-FAI), Berg Balance Scale, Modified Functional Reach, 10-m walk test, and 6-minute walk test. Longitudinal outcome measure collection occurred every 20 treatments and at 6- to 12-month follow-up after discharge from therapy. Significant improvement occurred for upper and lower motor strength, functional activities, psychological arousal, sensation of bowel movement, and SCI-FAI community ambulation. Extended training enabled minimal detectable changes at 60, 80, 100, and 120 sessions. After detectable change occurred, it was sustained through 120 sessions and continued 6 to 12 months after treatment. Delivering at least 120 sessions of LT improves recovery from incomplete chronic SCI. Because walking reduces rehospitalization, LT delivered beyond the average 20-session insurance limit can reduce rehospitalizations and long-term health costs. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

  20. Effect of Eight Weeks High Intensity Interval Training and Medium Intensity Interval Training and Aloe vera Intake on Serum Vaspin and Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Asgari Hazaveh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The use of herbal supplements and exercise training for the treatment of diabetic has increased.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training and Aloe vera intake on serum vaspin and insulin resistance in diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: During this experimental study, 32 diabetic rats with STZ Wistar were randomly divided into four groups including the control, high intensity interval training +supplement, moderate intensity interval training + supplement and supplement. Training program was planned for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. Each session consisted of 6 to 12 periods of 2-minute activity with the intensity of 90% and 60% with one minute rest (speed: 10m/min. In the supplement groups, 300milligrams Aloe vera solution per kilogram of body weight Gavage was given 5 sessions per week for 8 weeks. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: The results showed that high and moderate intensity interval training with supplement has no significant effect on the of serum vaspin (p=0.112. High intensity interval training with supplement had significant effects on insulin in diabetic male rats (0.000. Conclusion: .Based on the findings of this study, it seems that supplementation of Aloe vera with high intensity interval training can have better effects on serum insulin in diabetic rats.

  1. Will a Short Training Session Improve Multiple-Choice Item-Writing Quality by Dental School Faculty? A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinges, Mark A; Curtis, Donald A

    2017-08-01

    Faculty members are expected to write high-quality multiple-choice questions (MCQs) in order to accurately assess dental students' achievement. However, most dental school faculty members are not trained to write MCQs. Extensive faculty development programs have been used to help educators write better test items. The aim of this pilot study was to determine if a short workshop would result in improved MCQ item-writing by dental school faculty at one U.S. dental school. A total of 24 dental school faculty members who had previously written MCQs were randomized into a no-intervention group and an intervention group in 2015. Six previously written MCQs were randomly selected from each of the faculty members and given an item quality score. The intervention group participated in a training session of one-hour duration that focused on reviewing standard item-writing guidelines to improve in-house MCQs. The no-intervention group did not receive any training but did receive encouragement and an explanation of why good MCQ writing was important. The faculty members were then asked to revise their previously written questions, and these were given an item quality score. The item quality scores for each faculty member were averaged, and the difference from pre-training to post-training scores was evaluated. The results showed a significant difference between pre-training and post-training MCQ difference scores for the intervention group (p=0.04). This pilot study provides evidence that the training session of short duration was effective in improving the quality of in-house MCQs.

  2. The lung cancer exercise training study: a randomized trial of aerobic training, resistance training, or both in postsurgical lung cancer patients: rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Jeffrey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lung Cancer Exercise Training Study (LUNGEVITY is a randomized trial to investigate the efficacy of different types of exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, patient-reported outcomes, and the organ components that govern VO2peak in post-operative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Methods/Design Using a single-center, randomized design, 160 subjects (40 patients/study arm with histologically confirmed stage I-IIIA NSCLC following curative-intent complete surgical resection at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC will be potentially eligible for this trial. Following baseline assessments, eligible participants will be randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1 aerobic training alone, (2 resistance training alone, (3 the combination of aerobic and resistance training, or (4 attention-control (progressive stretching. The ultimate goal for all exercise training groups will be 3 supervised exercise sessions per week an intensity above 70% of the individually determined VO2peak for aerobic training and an intensity between 60 and 80% of one-repetition maximum for resistance training, for 30-45 minutes/session. Progressive stretching will be matched to the exercise groups in terms of program length (i.e., 16 weeks, social interaction (participants will receive one-on-one instruction, and duration (30-45 mins/session. The primary study endpoint is VO2peak. Secondary endpoints include: patient-reported outcomes (PROs (e.g., quality of life, fatigue, depression, etc. and organ components of the oxygen cascade (i.e., pulmonary function, cardiac function, skeletal muscle function. All endpoints will be assessed at baseline and postintervention (16 weeks. Substudies will include genetic studies regarding individual responses to an exercise stimulus, theoretical determinants of exercise adherence, examination of the psychological mediators of the exercise - PRO relationship, and exercise-induced changes

  3. Pyridostigmine Improves the Effects of Resistance Exercise Training after Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, Daniele J.; Coelho-Júnior, Hélio J.; de Oliveira, Juliana C. M. F.; Delbin, Maria A.; Mostarda, Cristiano T.; Dourado, Paulo M. M.; Caperuto, Érico C.; Irigoyen, Maria C. C.; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise training and pharmacological treatments are important strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of MI. However, little is known about the effects of resistance training combined with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) treatment on cardiac and autonomic function, as well as on the inflammatory profile after MI. Thus, in the present study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into: control (Cont); sedentary infarcted (Inf); PYR – treated sedentary infarcted rats (Inf+P); infarcted rats undergoing resistance exercise training (Inf+RT); and infarcted rats undergoing PYR treatment plus resistance training (Inf+RT+P). After 12 weeks of resistance training (15–20 climbs per session, with a 1-min rest between each climb, at a low to moderate intensity, 5 days a week) and/or PYR treatment (0.14 mg/mL of drink water), hemodynamic function, autonomic modulation, and cytokine expressions were evaluated. We observed that 3 months of PYR treatment, either alone or in combination with exercise, can improve the deleterious effects of MI on left ventricle dimensions and function, baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic parameters, as well as systemic and tissue inflammatory profile. Furthermore, additional benefits in a maximal load test and anti-inflammatory state of skeletal muscle were found when resistance training was combined with PYR treatment. Thus, our findings suggest that the combination of resistance training and PYR may be a good therapeutic strategy since they promote additional benefits on skeletal muscle anti-inflammatory profile after MI. PMID:29483876

  4. The Effect of Resistance Training on Cardio-Metabolic Factors in Males with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalavand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes is one of the most important metabolic diseases in the world and exercise is a common advice to manage diabetes and reduce its complications. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training on blood glucose, blood pressure and resting heart rate in males with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods In this semi-experimental study, 20 males with type 2 diabetes with mean age of 46 ± 3.4 years old who met the inclusion criteria were selected. The participants were randomly assigned into resistance training (n = 10 and control (n = 10 groups. Resistance exercise training program was performed for eight weeks, three sessions per week. Cardiovascular and biochemical parameters were measured before and after the intervention. To analyze the measured parameters changes t-test was used at P ≤ 0.05 significance level. Results After eight weeks, a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar (P = 0.002, glycosylated hemoglobin (P = 0.025 and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.022 was observed in the resistance group. In addition, there was a significant difference in blood sugar (P = 0.003 and glycosylated hemoglobin (P = 0.031 between the two groups. Conclusions Findings of this study confirmed the positive influence of resistance training to control blood glucose and blood pressure in males with type 2 diabetes.

  5. The effects of traditional, superset, and tri-set resistance training structures on perceived intensity and physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weakley, Jonathon J S; Till, Kevin; Read, Dale B; Roe, Gregory A B; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Phibbs, Padraic J; Jones, Ben

    2017-09-01

    Investigate the acute and short-term (i.e., 24 h) effects of traditional (TRAD), superset (SS), and tri-set (TRI) resistance training protocols on perceptions of intensity and physiological responses. Fourteen male participants completed a familiarisation session and three resistance training protocols (i.e., TRAD, SS, and TRI) in a randomised-crossover design. Rating of perceived exertion, lactate concentration ([Lac]), creatine kinase concentration ([CK]), countermovement jump (CMJ), testosterone, and cortisol concentrations was measured pre, immediately, and 24-h post the resistance training sessions with magnitude-based inferences assessing changes/differences within/between protocols. TRI reported possible to almost certainly greater efficiency and rate of perceived exertion, although session perceived load was very likely lower. SS and TRI had very likely to almost certainly greater lactate responses during the protocols, with changes in [CK] being very likely and likely increased at 24 h, respectively. At 24-h post-training, CMJ variables in the TRAD protocol had returned to baseline; however, SS and TRI were still possibly to likely reduced. Possible increases in testosterone immediately post SS and TRI protocols were reported, with SS showing possible increases at 24-h post-training. TRAD and SS showed almost certain and likely decreases in cortisol immediately post, respectively, with TRAD reporting likely decreases at 24-h post-training. SS and TRI can enhance training efficiency and reduce training time. However, acute and short-term physiological responses differ between protocols. Athletes can utilise SS and TRI resistance training, but may require additional recovery post-training to minimise effects of fatigue.

  6. The Effect of Training at 2100-m Altitude on Running Speed and Session Rating of Perceived Exertion at Different Intensities in Elite Middle-Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Avish P; Saunders, Philo U; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Clark, Brad; Stanley, Jamie; Robertson, Eileen Y; Thompson, Kevin G

    2017-04-01

    To determine the effect of training at 2100-m natural altitude on running speed (RS) during training sessions over a range of intensities relevant to middle-distance running performance. In an observational study, 19 elite middle-distance runners (mean ± SD age 25 ± 5 y, VO 2 max, 71 ± 5 mL · kg -1 · min -1 ) completed either 4-6 wk of sea-level training (CON, n = 7) or a 4- to 5-wk natural altitude-training camp living at 2100 m and training at 1400-2700 m (ALT, n = 12) after a period of sea-level training. Each training session was recorded on a GPS watch, and athletes also provided a score for session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). Training sessions were grouped according to duration and intensity. RS (km/h) and sRPE from matched training sessions completed at sea level and 2100 m were compared within ALT, with sessions completed at sea level in CON describing normal variation. In ALT, RS was reduced at altitude compared with sea level, with the greatest decrements observed during threshold- and VO 2 max-intensity sessions (5.8% and 3.6%, respectively). Velocity of low-intensity and race-pace sessions completed at a lower altitude (1400 m) and/or with additional recovery was maintained in ALT, though at a significantly greater sRPE (P = .04 and .05, respectively). There was no change in velocity or sRPE at any intensity in CON. RS in elite middle-distance athletes is adversely affected at 2100-m natural altitude, with levels of impairment dependent on the intensity of training. Maintenance of RS at certain intensities while training at altitude can result in a higher perceived exertion.

  7. Effects of Resistance Training on Serum Level of Reproductive Hormones and Sperm Parameters in Type 2 Diabetes Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Parastesh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in fertility indices. Resistance training, on the other hand, through reducing the adverse effects of diabetes, exerts a positive impact on diabetic individuals. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of ten weeks of resistance training on serum levels of reproductive hormones and sperm parameters in Wistar rats with diabetes mellitus type 2. Materials and Methods:In this experimental study, 36 Wistar rats with mean weight of 200±50 were ran-domly assigned to healthy control, diabetic control and diabetic training groups. The diabetic resistance training group received ten weeks of resistance training (climbing up the ladder following the induction of diabetes. Twenty-four hours after the last training session, left epididymis of the rats was examined for studying sperm parameters and blood serum samples were examined for evaluating reproductive hormones. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Turkey’s Post Hoc test at 0.05%. Results: Ten weeks of resistance training induced significant increases in serum testosterone and FSH levels in the resistance training group in comparison to the diabetic group (p<0.007.Resistance training did not have any significant effects on serum LH levels in the resistance training group compared to the diabetic control group. In ad-dition, sperm parameters (sperm count, survival rate and motility presented significant improvements compared to the diabetic group(p<0.05. Conclusion: Resistance training can improve sperm parameters, including sperm count, survival rate and motility, through increasing serum testosterone, LH and FSH levels (reproductive hormones in rats with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  8. A pilot study evaluating a one-session attention modification training to decrease overeating in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Kuckertz, Jennie M; Carlson, Jordan; Amir, Nader

    2014-05-01

    There are a number of neurocognitive and behavioral mechanisms that contribute to overeating and obesity, including an attentional bias to food cues. Attention modification programs, which implicitly train attention away from specific cues, have been used in anxiety and substance abuse, and could logically be applied to food cues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the initial efficacy of a single session attention modification training for food cues (AMP) on overeating in overweight and obese children. Twenty-four obese children who eat in the absence of hunger participated in two visits and were assigned to an attention modification program (AMP) or attentional control program (ACC). The AMP program trained attention away 100% of the time from food words to neutral words. The ACC program trained attention 50% of the time to neutral and 50% of the time to food. Outcome measures included the eating in the absence of hunger free access session, and measures of craving, liking and salivation. Results revealed significant treatment effects for EAH percent and EAH kcal (group by time interactions pattentional bias (group by time interaction p=.073). Changes in craving, liking and saliva were not significantly different between groups (ps=.178-.527). This is the first study to demonstrate that an AMP program can influence eating in obese children. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these results. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Effects of Strength Training Sessions Performed with Different Exercise Orders and Intervals on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Sandro; Figueiredo, Tiago; Marques, Silvio; Leite, Thalita; Cardozo, Diogo; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Simão, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the effect of a strength training session performed at different exercise orders and rest intervals on blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV). Fifteen trained men performed different upper body exercise sequences [large to small muscle mass (SEQA) and small to large muscle mass (SEQB)] in randomized order with rest intervals between sets and exercises of 40 or 90 seconds. Fifteen repetition maximum loads were tested to control the training intensity and the total volume load. The results showed, significant reductions for systolic blood pressure (SBP) for all sequences compared to baseline and, post-exercise: SEQA90 at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes; SEQA40 and SEQB40 at 20 minutes and SEQB90 at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes. For diastolic blood pressure (DBP), significant reductions were found for three sequences compared to baseline and, post-exercise: SEQA90 and SEQA40 at 50 and 60 minutes; SEQB40 at 10, 30 and 60 minutes. For HRV, there were significant differences in frequency domain for all sequences compared to baseline. In conclusion, when performing upper body strength training sessions, it is suggested that 90 second rest intervals between sets and exercises promotes a post-exercise hypotensive response in SBP. The 40 second rest interval between sets and exercises was associated with greater cardiac stress, and might be contraindicated when working with individuals that exhibit symptoms of cardiovascular disease.

  10. Acute Responses of a Physical Training Session with a Nintendo Wii on Hemodynamic Variables of an Individual with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro Junior, Renato Sobral; Dantas, Aretha; de Souza, Cíntia Pereira; da Silva, Elirez Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a neurological illness that decreases motor functions. This disease can cause weakness of cardiorespiratory muscles and impaired functional capacity and quality of life. Therefore it requires preventive treatments. This study investigated the acute responses of a virtual physical training session with the Nintendo(®) (Kyoto, Japan) Wii™ on hemodynamic variables of an individual with multiple sclerosis (relapsing-remitting). A 34-year-old man with multiple sclerosis with previous experience in aerobic, strength, and functional training (2 years) was tested. His Expanded Disability Status Scale was 2.5. We compared the heart rate, blood pressure, and double product obtained at rest and during (heart rate) and after the Nintendo Wii games "Boxing" and "Sword Play." In rest, the variables were measured in the supine position. Our results showed positive hemodynamic alterations after execution of both games. The peak of heart rate was 121 beats per minute (65% of maximal heart rate) and 104 beats per minute (56% of maximal heart rate) for "Boxing" and "Sword Play," respectively. The training session with "Boxing" was able to stimulate the heart rate to achieve the recommended values for the maintenance of physical fitness in accordance with the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines. We conclude that an exercise training program with the Nintendo Wii may improve physical fitness in people with multiple sclerosis. Moreover, these activities could improve affective status and perhaps maintain the individual engaged at treatment program.

  11. Muscular and systemic correlates of resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Bellamy, Leeann; Parise, Gianni; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2013-01-01

    To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR) protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk⁻¹ of resistance training for 16 wk. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period and acutely 1 and 5 h after the first training session. Serum hormones and cytokines were measured immediately, 15, 30 and 60 minutes following the first and last training sessions of the study. Mean fiber area increased by 20% (range: -7 to 80%; P<0.001). Protein content of the AR was unchanged with training (fold change = 1.17 ± 0.61; P=0.19); however, there was a significant correlation between the changes in AR content and fiber area (r=0.60, P=0.023). Phosphorylation of p70S6K was elevated 5 hours following exercise, which was correlated with gains in mean fiber area (r=0.54, P=0.007). There was no relationship between the magnitude of the pre- or post-training exercise-induced changes in free testosterone, GH, or IGF-1 concentration and muscle fiber hypertrophy; however, the magnitude of the post exercise IL-6 response was correlated with muscle hypertrophy (r=0.48, P=0.019). Post-exercise increases in circulating hormones are not related to hypertrophy following training. Exercise-induced changes in IL-6 correlated with hypertrophy, but the mechanism for the role of IL-6 in hypertrophy is not known. Acute increases, in p70S6K phosphorylation and changes in muscle AR protein content correlated with muscle hypertrophy implicating intramuscular rather than systemic processes in mediating hypertrophy.

  12. Effects of adding a weekly eccentric-overload training session on strength and athletic performance in team-handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabido, Rafael; Hernández-Davó, Jose Luis; Botella, Javier; Navarro, Angel; Tous-Fajardo, Julio

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the influence of adding a weekly eccentric-overload training (EOT) session in several athletic performance's tests, 18 team-handball players were assigned either to an EOT (n = 11) or a Control (n = 7) group. Both groups continued to perform the same habitual strength training, but the EOT group added one session/week during a 7-week training programme consisting of four sets of eight repetitions for the bilateral half-squat and unilateral lunge exercises. The test battery included handball throwing velocity, maximum dynamic strength (1RM), countermovement jump (CMJ), 20 m sprint, triple hop for distance, and eccentric/concentric power in both the half-squat and lunge exercises. Data were analysed using magnitude-based inferences. Both groups improved their 1RM in the half squat, 20 m sprint time, and CMJ performance to a similar extent, but the EOT group showed a beneficial effect for both right [(42/58/0), possibly positive] and left [(99/1/0), very likely positive] triple hop for distance performance. In addition, the EOT group showed greater power output improvements in both eccentric and concentric phases of the half-squat (difference in percent of change ranging from 6.5% to 22.0%) and lunge exercises (difference in per cent of change ranging from 13.1% to 24.9%). Nevertheless, no group showed changes in handball throwing velocity. Selected variables related to team-handball performance (i.e. functional jumping performance, power output) can be improved by adding a single EOT session per week, highlighting the usefulness of this low-volume/high-intensity training when aiming at optimizing dynamic athletic performance.

  13. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C.; Irigoyen, M.C.; De Angelis, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation

  14. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation.

  15. The Use of Session RPE to Monitor the Intensity of Weight Training in Older Women: Acute Responses to Eccentric, Concentric, and Dynamic Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro S. Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rating of perceived exertion (RPE is ability to detect and interpret organic sensations while performing exercises. This method has been used to measure the level of effort that is felt during weight-training at a given intensity. The purpose of this investigation was to compare session RPE values with those of traditional RPE measurements for different weight-training muscle actions, performed together or separately. Fourteen women with no former weight-training experience were recruited for the investigation. All participants completed five sessions of exercise: familiarization, maximum force, concentric-only (CONC-only, eccentric-only (ECC-only, and dynamic (DYN = CONC + ECC. The traditional RPE method was measured after each series of exercises, and the session RPE was measured 30 min after the end of the training session. The statistical analyses used were the paired t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and repeated measures analysis of variance. Significant differences between traditional RPE and session RPE for DYN, CONC, and ECC exercises were not found. This investigation demonstrated that session RPE is similar to traditional RPE in terms of weight-training involving concentric, eccentric, or dynamic muscle exercises, and that it can be used to prescribe and monitor weight-training sessions in older subjects.

  16. Effects of resistance training, detraining, and retraining on strength and functional capacity in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakugawa, Raphael Luiz; Moura, Bruno Monteiro; Orssatto, Lucas Bet da Rosa; Bezerra, Ewertton de Souza; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Diefenthaeler, Fernando

    2018-05-17

    The interruption of training (detraining) results in loss of the gains acquired. Partial retention could occur after detraining, and variation in training stimuli may optimize retraining adaptations. To evaluate the effect of a resistance-retraining program on strength and functional capacity performance after a detraining period. Ten elderly men and women (63-68 years) completed 12 weeks of training, 16 weeks of detraining, and 8 weeks of retraining. One-repetition maximum (1-RM) at 45° leg press, maximum isometric knee extension torque, rate of torque development (RTD), 30-s sit-to-stand, timed up and go, and stair ascent and descent tests were assessed. The 1-RM increased after training (p training (p training period (p > 0.05). For RTD and 30-s sit-to-stand, there was an increase after retraining when compared to pre-training values (p training and post-training periods (p functional capacity at the same level obtained after a detraining period. The inclusion of an explosive strength session in retraining period improves RTD and 30-s sit-to-stand performance and can accelerate the recovery of strength after a detraining period.

  17. Acute Effects of Two Different Resistance Circuit Training Protocols on Performance and Perceived Exertion in Semiprofessional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Tomás T; Calleja-González, Julio; Alarcón, Francisco; Alcaraz, Pedro E

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two different resistance circuit training protocols on basketball players' physical and technical performance and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). In a repeated-measures, crossover experimental design, 9 semiprofessional basketball players performed a Power Circuit Training (PCT; 45% 1RM) and a High-Resistance Circuit Training (HRC; 6RM), on consecutive weeks. Vertical and horizontal jump performance, 3-points shooting accuracy, repeated-sprint ability (RSA), agility, and upper body power output were measured before and after training. The RPE was assessed 20 minutes after resistance training. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance showed performance decrements in vertical jump height and peak power, horizontal jump distance, 3-points percentage, bench-press power output, RSA total and ideal time, and agility T-Test at total time following HRC, but not PCT (p ≤ 0.05). The RPE was higher in HRC compared with PCT. The results of this study indicated that HRC was perceived as being harder and produced higher fatigue levels, which in turn lowered acute performance. However, low-to-moderate intensity loads did not negatively affect performance. Thus, completing a PCT session may be the most appropriate option before a practice or game as it avoids acute-resistance-training-induced performance decrements. However, if the objective of the basketball session is to develop or perfect technical skills during fatiguing conditions, HRC may be the more suitable option.

  18. Learning by observing: the effect of multiple sessions of action-observation training on the spontaneous movement tempo and motor resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagravinese, Giovanna; Bisio, Ambra; Ruggeri, Piero; Bove, Marco; Avanzino, Laura

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to explore the changes in motor performance and motor resonance after multiple sessions of action observation (AO) training. Subjects were exposed to the observation of a video showing finger tapping movements executed at 3Hz, a frequency higher than the spontaneous one (2Hz) for four consecutive days. Motor performance and motor resonance were tested before the AO training on the first day, and on the last day. Results showed that multiple sessions of AO training induced a shift of the speed of execution of finger tapping movements toward the observed one and a change in motor resonance. Before the 3Hz-AO training cortical excitability was highest during the observation of the 2Hz video. This motor resonance effect was lost after one single session of 3Hz-AO training whereas after multiple sessions of 3Hz-AO training cortical excitability was highest during the observation of the 3Hz video. Our study shows for the first time that multiple sessions of AO training are able not only to induce performance gains but also to change the way by which the observer's motor system recognizes a certain movement as belonging to the individual motor repertoire. These results may encourage the development of novel rehabilitative protocols based on multiple sessions of action observation aimed to regain a correct movement when its spontaneous speed is modified by pathologies or to modify the innate temporal properties of certain movements. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A Randomized Trial Comparing Two Tongue-Pressure Resistance Training Protocols for Post-Stroke Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M; Bayley, Mark T; Peladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Nagy, Ahmed; Namasivayam, Ashwini M; Stokely, Shauna L; Wolkin, Talia

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of two tongue resistance training protocols. One protocol ("tongue-pressure profile training") emphasized the pressure-timing patterns that are typically seen in healthy swallows by focusing on gradual pressure release and saliva swallowing tasks. The second protocol ("tongue-pressure strength and accuracy training") emphasized strength and accuracy in tongue-palate pressure generation and did not include swallowing tasks. A prospective, randomized, parallel allocation trial was conducted. Of 26 participants who were screened for eligibility, 14 received up to 24 sessions of treatment. Outcome measures of posterior tongue strength, oral bolus control, penetration-aspiration and vallecular residue were made based on videofluoroscopy analysis by blinded raters. Complete data were available for 11 participants. Significant improvements were seen in tongue strength and post-swallow vallecular residue with thin liquids, regardless of treatment condition. Stage transition duration (a measure of the duration of the bolus presence in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation, which had been chosen to capture impairments in oral bolus control) showed no significant differences. Similarly, significant improvements were not seen in median scores on the penetration-aspiration scale. This trial suggests that tongue strength can be improved with resistance training for individuals with tongue weakness following stroke. We conclude that improved penetration-aspiration does not necessarily accompany improvements in tongue strength; however, tongue-pressure resistance training does appear to be effective for reducing thin liquid vallecular residue.

  20. ACTN3 R577X POLYMORPHISM AND NEUROMUSCULAR RESPONSE TO RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gentil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The R577X polymorphism at the ACTN3 gene has been associated with muscle strength, hypertrophy and athletic status. The X allele, which is associated with the absence of ACTN3 protein is supposed to impair performance of high force/velocity muscle contractions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association of the R577X polymorphism with the muscle response to resistance training in young men. One hundred forty one men performed two resistance training sessions per week for 11 weeks. Participants were tested for 1RM bench press, knee extensors peak torque, and knee extensors muscle thickness at baseline and after the training period. Genotyping was conducted using de DdeI restriction enzyme. Genotype distribution was 34.4% for RR, 47% for RX and 18.6% for the XX genotype. According to the results, the R577X polymorphism at the ACTN3 gene is not associated with baseline muscle strength or with the muscle strength response to resistance training. However, only carriers of the R allele showed increases in muscle thickness in response to training

  1. Increased cardiac output and maximal oxygen uptake in response to ten sessions of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; King, Leesa; Gallant, Rachael M; Namm, Samantha; Fischer, Anthony; Wood, Kimi A

    2018-01-01

    Increases in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) are widely reported in response to completion of high intensity interval training (HIIT), yet the mechanism explaining this result is poorly understood. This study examined changes in VO2max and cardiac output (CO) in response to 10 sessions of low-volume HIIT. Participants included 30 active men and women (mean age and VO2max=22.9±5.4 years and 39.6±5.6 mL/kg/min) who performed HIIT and 30 men and women (age and VO2max=25.7±4.5 years and 40.7±5.2 mL/kg/min) who served as non-exercising controls (CON). High intensity interval training consisted of 6-10 s bouts of cycling per session at 90-110 percent peak power output (PPO) interspersed with 75 s recovery. Before and after training, progressive cycling to exhaustion was completed during which CO, stroke volume (SV), and heart rate (HR) were estimated using thoracic impedance. To confirm VO2max attainment, a verification test was completed after progressive cycling at a work rate equal to 110%PPO. Data demonstrated significant improvements in VO2max (2.71±0.63 L/min to 2.86±0.63 L/min, Psessions of HIIT is due to improvements in oxygen delivery.

  2. Skeletal Adaptations to Different Levels of Eccentric Resistance Following Eight Weeks of Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Kirk L.; Loehr, James A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Maddocks, Mary J.; Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Hagan, R. Donald

    2007-01-01

    Coupled concentric-eccentric resistive exercise maintains bone mineral density (BMD) during bed rest and aging. PURPOSE: We hypothesized that 8 wks of lower body resistive exercise training with higher ratios of eccentric to concentric loading would enhance hip and lumbar BMD. METHODS: Forty untrained male volunteers (34.9+/-7.0 yrs, 80.9+/-9.8 kg, 178.2+/-7.1 cm; mean+/-SD) were matched for leg press (LP) 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM) strength and randomly assigned to one of 5 training groups. Concentric load (% 1-RM) was constant across groups, but each group trained with different levels of eccentric load (0, 33, 66, 100, or 138% of concentric) for all training sessions. Subjects performed a periodized supine LP and heel raise (HR) training program 3 d wk-1 for 8 wks using a modified Agaton Fitness System (Agaton Fitness AB, Boden, Sweden). Hip and lumbar BMD (g/sq cm) was measured in triplicate pre- and post-training using DXA (Hologic Discovery ). Pre- and post-training means were compared using the appropriate ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. Within group pre- to post-training BMD was compared using paired t-tests with a Bonferroni adjustment. RESULTS: There was a main effect of training on L1, L2, L3, L4, total lumbar, and greater trochanter BMD, but there were no differences between groups. CONCLUSION: Eights wks of lower body resistive exercise increased greater trochanter and lumbar BMD. Inability to detect group differences may have been influenced by a potentially osteogenic vibration associated with device operation in the 0, 33, and 66% groups.

  3. Resistance Training Using Different Hypoxic Training Strategies: a Basis for Hypertrophy and Muscle Power Development

    OpenAIRE

    Feriche, Bel?n; Garc?a-Ramos, Amador; Morales-Artacho, Antonio J.; Padial, Paulino

    2017-01-01

    The possible muscular strength, hypertrophy, and muscle power benefits of resistance training under environmental conditions of hypoxia are currently being investigated. Nowadays, resistance training in hypoxia constitutes a promising new training strategy for strength and muscle gains. The main mechanisms responsible for these effects seem to be related to increased metabolite accumulation due to hypoxia. However, no data are reported in the literature to describe and compare the efficacy of...

  4. Effect of 24 sessions of high-intensity aerobic interval training carried out at either high or moderate frequency, a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatle, Håvard; Støbakk, Per Kristian; Mølmen, Harald Edvard; Brønstad, Eivind; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Skogvoll, Eirik; Wisløff, Ulrik; Ingul, Charlotte Björk; Rognmo, Øivind

    2014-01-01

    The training response of an intensified period of high-intensity exercise is not clear. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular adaptations of completing 24 high-intensity aerobic interval training sessions carried out for either three or eight weeks, respectively. Twenty-one healthy subjects (23.0±2.1 years, 10 females) completed 24 high-intensity training sessions throughout a time-period of either eight weeks (moderate frequency, MF) or three weeks (high frequency, HF) followed by a detraining period of nine weeks without any training. In both groups, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was evaluated before training, at the 9(th) and 17(th) session and four days after the final 24(th) training session. In the detraining phase VO2max was evaluated after 12 days and thereafter every second week for eight weeks. Left ventricular echocardiography, carbon monoxide lung diffusion transfer factor, brachial artery flow mediated dilatation and vastus lateralis citrate maximal synthase activity was tested before and after training. The cardiovascular adaptation after HF training was delayed compared to training with MF. Four days after ending training the HF group showed no improvement (+3.0%, p = 0.126), whereas the MF group reached their highest VO2max with a 10.7% improvement (ptraining of high-intensity aerobic exercise improves VO2max. The cardiovascular adaptation following a HF programme of high-intensity exercise is however delayed compared to MF training. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00733941.

  5. The effects of endurance and resistance training on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R S; Hirth, V A

    1995-10-01

    There now exists substantial clinical data supporting a blood pressure lowering effect of endurance training. Though the effect is modest (5-10 mmHg), epidemiologic studies indicate the possibility of protection against the development of hypertension and also indicate significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality and increased longevity associated with chronic endurance exercise. The data for blood pressure lowering effects of resistive training are much less compelling, and this area requires additional investigation. However, it appears that resistance training is not associated with chronic elevations in blood pressure. Future studies need to focus on: 1) the relative efficacy of low-, moderate- and high-intensity training on lowering blood pressure; 2) the effect of training on ambulatory blood pressure; 3) targeting of at risk and high responding populations; and 4) the importance of insulinemia, SNS tone and central adiposity in the mechanism of any blood pressure lowering effect of training.

  6. No Exacerbation of Knee Joint Pain and Effusion Following Preoperative Progressive Resistance Training in Patients Scheduled for Total Knee Arthroplasty: Secondary Analyses From a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoffer, Birgit; Dalgas, Ulrik; Maribo, Thomas; Søballe, Kjeld; Mechlenburg, Inger

    2017-11-09

    Preoperative progressive resistance training (PRT) is controversial in patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (TKA), because of the concern that it may exacerbate knee joint pain and effusion. To examine whether preoperative PRT initiated 5 weeks prior to TKA would exacerbate pain and knee effusion, and would allow a progressively increased training load throughout the training period that would subsequently increase muscle strength. Secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial. University Hospital and a Regional Hospital. A total of 30 patients who were scheduled for TKA due to osteoarthritis and assigned as the intervention group. Patients underwent unilateral PRT (3 sessions per week). Exercise loading was 12 repetitions maximum (RM) with progression toward 8 RM. The training program consisted of 6 exercises performed unilaterally. Before and after each training session, knee joint pain was rated on an 11-point scale, effusion was assessed by measuring the knee joint circumference, and training load was recorded. The first and last training sessions were initiated by 1 RM testing of unilateral leg press, unilateral knee extension, and unilateral knee flexion. The median pain change score from before to after each training session was 0 at all training sessions. The average increase in knee joint effusion across the 12 training sessions was a mean 0.16 cm ± 0.23 cm. No consistent increase in knee joint effusion after training sessions during the training period was found (P = .21). Training load generally increased, and maximal muscle strength improved as follows: unilateral leg press: 18% ± 30% (P = .03); unilateral knee extension: 81% ± 156% (P knee flexion: 53% ± 57% (P knee joint pain and effusion, despite a substantial progression in loading and increased muscle strength. Concerns for side effects such as pain and effusion after PRT seem unfounded. To be determined. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Fatigue Resistance Assessed in Five Tasks for a Single Session of Sleep Deprivation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chaiken, Scott R; Harville, Donald L; Harrison, Richard; Fischer, Joe; Fisher, Dion; Whitmore, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    ..., as part of a larger project investigating genetic factors in fatigue-resistance. We considered a rule based on percent-change decrement with fatigue and another rule based on residuals of task performance predicted...

  8. A comparison of the effects of 6 weeks of traditional resistance training, plyometric training, and complex training on measures of strength and anthropometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Christopher J; Lamont, Hugh S; Garner, John C

    2012-02-01

    Complex training (CT; alternating between heavy and lighter load resistance exercises with similar movement patterns within an exercise session) is a form of training that may potentially bring about a state of postactivation potentiation, resulting in increased dynamic power (Pmax) and rate of force development during the lighter load exercise. Such a method may be more effective than either modality, independently for developing strength. The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of resistance training (RT), plyometric training (PT), and CT on lower body strength and anthropometrics. Thirty recreationally trained college-aged men were trained using 1 of 3 methods: resistance, plyometric, or complex twice weekly for 6 weeks. The participants were tested pre, mid, and post to assess back squat strength, Romanian dead lift (RDL) strength, standing calf raise (SCR) strength, quadriceps girth, triceps surae girth, body mass, and body fat percentage. Diet was not controlled during this study. Statistical measures revealed a significant increase for squat strength (p = 0.000), RDL strength (p = 0.000), and SCR strength (p = 0.000) for all groups pre to post, with no differences between groups. There was also a main effect for time for girth measures of the quadriceps muscle group (p = 0.001), the triceps surae muscle group (p = 0.001), and body mass (p = 0.001; post hoc revealed no significant difference). There were main effects for time and group × time interactions for fat-free mass % (RT: p = 0.031; PT: p = 0.000). The results suggest that CT mirrors benefits seen with traditional RT or PT. Moreover, CT revealed no decrement in strength and anthropometric values and appears to be a viable training modality.

  9. Establishing the minimal number of virtual reality simulator training sessions necessary to develop basic laparoscopic skills competence: evaluation of the learning curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jordao Duarte

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Medical literature is scarce on information to define a basic skills training program for laparoscopic surgery (peg and transferring, cutting, clipping. The aim of this study was to determine the minimal number of simulator sessions of basic laparoscopic tasks necessary to elaborate an optimal virtual reality training curriculum. Materials and Methods Eleven medical students with no previous laparoscopic experience were spontaneously enrolled. They were submitted to simulator training sessions starting at level 1 (Immersion Lap VR, San Jose, CA, including sequentially camera handling, peg and transfer, clipping and cutting. Each student trained twice a week until 10 sessions were completed. The score indexes were registered and analyzed. The total of errors of the evaluation sequences (camera, peg and transfer, clipping and cutting were computed and thereafter, they were correlated to the total of items evaluated in each step, resulting in a success percent ratio for each student for each set of each completed session. Thereafter, we computed the cumulative success rate in 10 sessions, obtaining an analysis of the learning process. By non-linear regression the learning curve was analyzed. Results By the non-linear regression method the learning curve was analyzed and a r2 = 0.73 (p < 0.001 was obtained, being necessary 4.26 (∼five sessions to reach the plateau of 80% of the estimated acquired knowledge, being that 100% of the students have reached this level of skills. From the fifth session till the 10th, the gain of knowledge was not significant, although some students reached 96% of the expected improvement. Conclusions This study revealed that after five simulator training sequential sessions the students' learning curve reaches a plateau. The forward sessions in the same difficult level do not promote any improvement in laparoscopic basic surgical skills, and the students should be introduced to a more difficult training

  10. Establishing the minimal number of virtual reality simulator training sessions necessary to develop basic laparoscopic skills competence: evaluation of the learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ricardo Jordão; Cury, José; Oliveira, Luis Carlos Neves; Srougi, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Medical literature is scarce on information to define a basic skills training program for laparoscopic surgery (peg and transferring, cutting, clipping). The aim of this study was to determine the minimal number of simulator sessions of basic laparoscopic tasks necessary to elaborate an optimal virtual reality training curriculum. Eleven medical students with no previous laparoscopic experience were spontaneously enrolled. They were submitted to simulator training sessions starting at level 1 (Immersion Lap VR, San Jose, CA), including sequentially camera handling, peg and transfer, clipping and cutting. Each student trained twice a week until 10 sessions were completed. The score indexes were registered and analyzed. The total of errors of the evaluation sequences (camera, peg and transfer, clipping and cutting) were computed and thereafter, they were correlated to the total of items evaluated in each step, resulting in a success percent ratio for each student for each set of each completed session. Thereafter, we computed the cumulative success rate in 10 sessions, obtaining an analysis of the learning process. By non-linear regression the learning curve was analyzed. By the non-linear regression method the learning curve was analyzed and a r2 = 0.73 (p sessions) to reach the plateau of 80% of the estimated acquired knowledge, being that 100% of the students have reached this level of skills. From the fifth session till the 10th, the gain of knowledge was not significant, although some students reached 96% of the expected improvement. This study revealed that after five simulator training sequential sessions the students' learning curve reaches a plateau. The forward sessions in the same difficult level do not promote any improvement in laparoscopic basic surgical skills, and the students should be introduced to a more difficult training tasks level.

  11. Youth resistance training: past practices, new perspectives, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Myer, Gregory D

    2013-11-01

    Since the publication of the seminal review on youth resistance training by Kraemer and colleagues in 1989, a compelling body of evidence has found that resistance training can be a safe, effective, and worthwhile method of conditioning for children and adolescents. New perspectives for promoting resistance exercise as part of a long-term approach to youth physical development highlight the importance of integrating resistance training into youth fitness programs. Youth who do not enhance their muscular strength and motor skill proficiency early in life may not develop the prerequisite skills and abilities that would allow them to participate in a variety of activities and sports with confidence and vigor later in life. The identification of asymptomatic children with muscular weaknesses or imbalances may facilitate the development of a management plan which should rectify movement limitations and educate children and their families about the importance of daily physical activity.

  12. Construction of a Urologic Robotic Surgery Training Curriculum: How Many Simulator Sessions Are Required for Residents to Achieve Proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Scott; Haddock, Peter; Shichman, Steven; Dorin, Ryan

    2015-11-01

    To define the time needed by urology residents to attain proficiency in computer-aided robotic surgery to aid in the refinement of a robotic surgery simulation curriculum. We undertook a retrospective review of robotic skills training data acquired during January 2012 to December 2014 from junior (postgraduate year [PGY] 2-3) and senior (PGY4-5) urology residents using the da Vinci Skills Simulator. We determined the number of training sessions attended and the level of proficiency achieved by junior and senior residents in attempting 11 basic or 6 advanced tasks, respectively. Junior residents successfully completed 9.9 ± 1.8 tasks, with 62.5% completing all 11 basic tasks. The maximal cumulative success rate of junior residents completing basic tasks was 89.8%, which was achieved within 7.0 ± 1.5 hours of training. Of senior residents, 75% successfully completed all six advanced tasks. Senior residents attended 6.3 ± 3.5 hours of training during which 5.1 ± 1.6 tasks were completed. The maximal cumulative success rate of senior residents completing advanced tasks was 85.4%. When designing and implementing an effective robotic surgical training curriculum, an allocation of 10 hours of training may be optimal to allow junior and senior residents to achieve an acceptable level of surgical proficiency in basic and advanced robotic surgical skills, respectively. These data help guide the design and scheduling of a residents training curriculum within the time constraints of a resident's workload.

  13. Effects of a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Treadmill Training on Corticomotor Excitability following Stroke: Implications for Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Madhavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. High intensity interval treadmill training (HIITT has been gaining popularity for gait rehabilitation after stroke. In this study, we examined the changes in excitability of the lower limb motor cortical representation (M1 in chronic stroke survivors following a single session of HIITT. We also determined whether exercise-induced changes in excitability could be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS enhanced with a paretic ankle skill acquisition task. Methods. Eleven individuals with chronic stroke participated in two 40-minute treadmill-training sessions: HIITT alone and HITT preceded by anodal tDCS enhanced with a skill acquisition task (e-tDCS+HIITT. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS was used to assess corticomotor excitability of paretic and nonparetic tibialis anterior (TA muscles. Results. HIIT alone reduced paretic TA M1 excitability in 7 of 11 participants by ≥ 10%. e-tDCS+HIITT increased paretic TA M1 excitability and decreased nonparetic TA M1 excitability. Conclusions. HIITT suppresses corticomotor excitability in some people with chronic stroke. When HIITT is preceded by tDCS in combination with a skill acquisition task, the asymmetry of between-hemisphere corticomotor excitability is reduced. Significance. This study provides preliminary data indicating that the cardiovascular benefits of HIITT may be achieved without suppressing motor excitability in some stroke survivors.

  14. Effects of isolated or combined carbohydrate and caffeine supplementation between 2 daily training sessions on soccer performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Souza, Victor Amorim; Bertuzzi, Romulo; de Araujo, Gustavo Gomes; Bishop, David; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether isolated or combined carbohydrate (CHO) and caffeine (CAF) supplementation have beneficial effects on performance during soccer-related tests performed after a previous training session. Eleven male, amateur soccer players completed 4 trials in a randomized, double-blind, and crossover design. In the morning, participants performed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST). Then, participants ingested (i) 1.2 g·kg(-1) body mass·h(-1) CHO in a 20% CHO solution immediately after and 1, 2, and 3 h after the LIST; (ii) CAF (6 mg·kg(-1) body mass) 3 h after the LIST; (iii) CHO combined with CAF (CHO+CAF); and (iv) placebo. All drinks were taste-matched and flavourless. After this 4-h recovery, participants performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) test, a Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT), and a repeated-sprint test. There were no main effects of supplementation for CMJ, LSPT total time, or best sprint and total sprint time from the repeated-sprint test (p>0.05). There were also no main effects of supplementation for heart rate, plasma lactate concentration, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), pleasure-displeasure, and perceived activation (p>0.05). However, there were significant time effects (psoccer-related performance tests when performed after a previous training session.

  15. ASTP crewmen in Apollo Command Module Trainer during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The three members of the American ASTP prime crew are photographed inside the Apollo Command Module (CM) trainer in a water tank in bldg 260 during water egress training at JSC. They are, left to right, Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot; and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot (23430); Slayton attaches his life preserver as he egresses an Apollo Command Module trainer in a water tank in bldg 260 during water egresss training at JSC. Astronauts Brand (on left) and Stafford have already egressed the trainer and are seated in a three-man life raft.

  16. Changes in Maximal Strength, Velocity, and Power After 8 Weeks of Training With Pneumatic or Free Weight Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Bronson, Stefanie; Cronin, John B; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    Because free weight (FW) and pneumatic (PN) resistance are characterized by different inertial properties, training with either resistance could afford unique strength, velocity, and power adaptations. Eighteen resistance-trained men completed baseline tests to determine their FW and PN bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM). During the FW session, 4 explosive repetitions were performed at loads of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90% 1RM to assess force, velocity, and power. Participants were then assigned to a FW or PN training group, which involved three 90-minute sessions per week for 8 weeks. Both intervention groups completed identical periodized programs with the exception of the resistance used to perform all bench press movements. Free weight participants significantly increased their FW and PN 1RM (10.4 and 9.4%), and maximum (any load) force (9.8%), velocity (11.6%), and power (22.5%). Pneumatic-trained participants also exhibited increases in FW and PN 1RM (11.6 and 17.5%), and maximum force (8.4%), velocity (13.6%), and power (33.4%). Both interventions improved peak barbell velocity at loads of 15 and 30% 1RM; however, only the PN-trained individuals displayed improvements in peak force and power at these same loads. Training with PN resistance may offer advantages if attempting to improve power at lighter relative loads by affording an opportunity to consistently achieve higher accelerations and velocities (F = ma), in comparison with FW. Exploiting the inertial properties of the resistance, whether mass, elastic or PN, could afford an opportunity to develop mixed-method training strategies and/or elicit unique neuromuscular adaptations to suit the specific needs of athletes from sports characterized by varying demands.

  17. A Single Session of Autogenic Training Increases Acute Subjective and Physiological Sexual Arousal in Sexually Functional Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia; Meston, Cindy

    2017-10-03

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has recently been associated with female sexual function (Stanton, Lorenz, Pulverman, & Meston, 2015). Below-average HRV was identified as a possible risk factor for sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction in women. Based on this newly established relationship between HRV and female sexual function, the present study examined the effect of autogenic training to increase HRV on acute physiological and subjective sexual arousal in women. Specifically, vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), an index of genital sexual arousal, and subjective sexual arousal were assessed in 33 sexually functional women, aged 18 to 27, before and after a short session of autogenic training. Autogenic training, a relaxation technique that restores the balance between the activity of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system, has been shown to significantly increase HRV (Miu, Heilman, & Miclea, 2009). After autogenic training, significant increases in both VPA (p <.05) and subjective sexual arousal (p <.005) were observed. Moreover, change in HRV from pre- to postmanipulation significantly moderated changes in subjective sexual arousal (p <.05) when it was measured continuously during the presentation of the erotic stimulus. This cost-effective, easy-to-administer behavioral intervention may have important implications for increasing sexual arousal in women.

  18. IS ENHANCED-ECCENTRIC RESISTANCE TRAINING SUPERIOR TO TRADITIONAL TRAINING FOR INCREASING ELBOW FLEXOR STRENGTH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Kaminski

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Protocols for strengthening muscle are important for fitness, rehabilitation, and the prevention of myotendinous injuries. In trained individuals, the optimal method of increasing strength remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a traditional method of strengthening with a method that allowed for enhanced-eccentric training, on changes in elbow flexor strength in trained subjects. Thirty-nine (8 male, 31 female trained subjects with normal elbow function participated in this study. Subjects were rank-ordered according to isometric force production and randomly assigned to one of three training groups: control (CONT, traditional concentric/eccentric (TRAD, and concentric/enhanced-eccentric (NEG. The training groups completed 24 training sessions. An evaluator blinded to training group performed all testing. Mixed model ANOVA techniques were used to determine if differences existed in concentric one repetition maximum strength, and isometric force production among groups. Changes in peak and average isokinetic force production were also compared. Type 1 error was maintained at 5%. While both groups improved concentric one repetition maximum (NEG = 15.5%, TRAD = 13.8% neither training group statistically differed from changes demonstrated by the CONT group. Nor did either training group show significant improvements in isometric or isokinetic force production over the CONT group. These results do not support the superiority of enhanced-eccentric training for increasing force production in trained subjects.

  19. Developing Mentoring Competency: Does a One Session Training Workshop Have Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chloe; Ford, Jennifer; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Saperson, Karen; McConnell, Meghan; McCabe, Randi

    2016-06-01

    Mentorship remains vital to the career development, research productivity, and professional advancement of healthcare professionals in all disciplines of academic medicine. Recent studies describe mentor training initiatives aimed at increasing mentoring competency through multisession training curricula. Although the published results of these programs are promising, they require the following: (1) substantial financial resources from the institution, and (2) continuous participation and time commitment from faculty, which may reduce participation and effectiveness. A single, half-day of evidence-based mentor training would represent a more cost-effective and accessible option for educating mentors. The present study investigates the impact of a half-day interactive mentor training workshop on mentoring competency in faculty, staff, and trainees of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences at McMaster University. Overall, participants' self-reported mentoring competency mean scores were significantly higher post-workshop compared to pre-workshop ratings [mean = 4.48 vs. 5.02 pre- and post-workshop, respectively; F(1, 31) = 18.386, P < 0.001, η p2 = 0.37]. Survey respondents gave positive feedback and reported greater understanding of mentorship and specific mentoring changes they planned to apply after attending the workshop. Academic and healthcare institutions may use this framework to guide the development of a half-day mentoring workshop into their education programs.

  20. High-Intensity Interval Training Attenuates Insulin Resistance Induced by Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jorge F T; Dáttilo, Murilo; de Mello, Marco T; Tufik, Sergio; Antunes, Hanna K M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep deprivation can impair several physiological systems and recently, new evidence has pointed to the relationship between a lack of sleep and carbohydrate metabolism, consequently resulting in insulin resistance. To minimize this effect, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is emerging as a potential strategy. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HIIT on insulin resistance induced by sleep deprivation. Method: Eleven healthy male volunteers were recruited, aged 18-35 years, who declared taking 7-8 h sleep per night. All volunteers were submitted to four different conditions: a single night of regular sleep (RS condition), 24 h of total sleep deprivation ( SD condition), HIIT training followed by regular sleep (HIIT+RS condition), and HIIT training followed by 24 h of total sleep deprivation (HIIT+ SD condition). They performed six training sessions over 2 weeks and each session consisted of 8-12 × 60 s intervals at 100% of peak power output. In each experimental condition, tests for glucose, insulin, cortisol, free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity, measured by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), were performed. Results: Sleep deprivation increased glycaemia and insulin levels, as well as the area under the curve. Furthermore, an increase in free fatty acids concentrations and basal metabolism was observed. There were no differences in the concentrations of cortisol. However, HIIT before 24 h of sleep deprivation attenuated the increase of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids. Conclusion: Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation resulted in acute insulin resistance. However, HIIT is an effective strategy to minimize the deleterious effects promoted by this condition.

  1. High-Intensity Interval Training Attenuates Insulin Resistance Induced by Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F. T. de Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep deprivation can impair several physiological systems and recently, new evidence has pointed to the relationship between a lack of sleep and carbohydrate metabolism, consequently resulting in insulin resistance. To minimize this effect, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT is emerging as a potential strategy.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HIIT on insulin resistance induced by sleep deprivation.Method: Eleven healthy male volunteers were recruited, aged 18–35 years, who declared taking 7–8 h sleep per night. All volunteers were submitted to four different conditions: a single night of regular sleep (RS condition, 24 h of total sleep deprivation (SD condition, HIIT training followed by regular sleep (HIIT+RS condition, and HIIT training followed by 24 h of total sleep deprivation (HIIT+SD condition. They performed six training sessions over 2 weeks and each session consisted of 8–12 × 60 s intervals at 100% of peak power output. In each experimental condition, tests for glucose, insulin, cortisol, free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity, measured by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, were performed.Results: Sleep deprivation increased glycaemia and insulin levels, as well as the area under the curve. Furthermore, an increase in free fatty acids concentrations and basal metabolism was observed. There were no differences in the concentrations of cortisol. However, HIIT before 24 h of sleep deprivation attenuated the increase of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids.Conclusion: Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation resulted in acute insulin resistance. However, HIIT is an effective strategy to minimize the deleterious effects promoted by this condition.

  2. High-Intensity Interval Training Attenuates Insulin Resistance Induced by Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jorge F. T.; Dáttilo, Murilo; de Mello, Marco T.; Tufik, Sergio; Antunes, Hanna K. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep deprivation can impair several physiological systems and recently, new evidence has pointed to the relationship between a lack of sleep and carbohydrate metabolism, consequently resulting in insulin resistance. To minimize this effect, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is emerging as a potential strategy. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HIIT on insulin resistance induced by sleep deprivation. Method: Eleven healthy male volunteers were recruited, aged 18–35 years, who declared taking 7–8 h sleep per night. All volunteers were submitted to four different conditions: a single night of regular sleep (RS condition), 24 h of total sleep deprivation (SD condition), HIIT training followed by regular sleep (HIIT+RS condition), and HIIT training followed by 24 h of total sleep deprivation (HIIT+SD condition). They performed six training sessions over 2 weeks and each session consisted of 8–12 × 60 s intervals at 100% of peak power output. In each experimental condition, tests for glucose, insulin, cortisol, free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity, measured by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), were performed. Results: Sleep deprivation increased glycaemia and insulin levels, as well as the area under the curve. Furthermore, an increase in free fatty acids concentrations and basal metabolism was observed. There were no differences in the concentrations of cortisol. However, HIIT before 24 h of sleep deprivation attenuated the increase of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids. Conclusion: Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation resulted in acute insulin resistance. However, HIIT is an effective strategy to minimize the deleterious effects promoted by this condition. PMID:29270126

  3. Eight-week aerobic training effects on Apelin-13 and insulin resistance in overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Soori

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aims: Obesity as a pandemic disease is the high accumulation of adipose tissue which secrets different hormones such as apelin. Apelin as an adipocytokine increases in obesity. Aerobic training induced apelin responses are not clarify well. So, we aimed to determine the effect of eight weeks aerobic training on Apelin-13 and insulin resistance in overweight men. Methods: Current study was quasi-experiment design. Twenty-six overweight men with BMI between 27-30 kg/m2 were randomly enrolled in the present study following public call announcement and match to inclusion criteria. They accidently divided into submaximal-aerobic and control groups. The submaximal-aerobic group carried out exercise training for 24 continuous sessions (with 50-70% of maximum heart rate and 3 sessions/per-week for eight weeks. The anthropometrical, VO2max and blood sampling assessments performed and later assessments were completed 24 hours after last training period. Then, whole of data were analyzed by Stata software at P0.05. In addition, there were direct and significant relationship between anthropometrical indices and HbA1c with Apelin-13 (p<0.05. Conclusions: Obesity increases the possibility of metabolic diseases and insulin resistance. In the current study we represented that the internal factors of exercise, such as intensity, had meaningful effects on anthropometric features of overweight individuals but it was not enough for exercise induced-apelin-13 and insulin resistance changes.  According to this record, longer and higher intense exercise compare with the current study's protocol were recommended to beneficially decrease and control the incidence and catch the type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Hypotensive response after water-walking and land-walking exercise sessions in healthy trained and untrained women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocalini DS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Rodriguez1, Valter Silva2, Jonato Prestes3, Roberta Luksevicius Rica4, Andrey Jorge Serra5, Danilo Sales Bocalini6, Francisco Luciano Pontes Junior71São Judas Tadeu University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2College of Physical Education of Sorocaba, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil; 3Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia-DF, Brazil; 4Department of Physical Education, Arbos College, São Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brazil; 5Department of Physical Education and Laboratory of Rehabilitation Science, Nove de Julho University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 6Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo – Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 7School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, BrazilBackground: The aim of this study was to compare post-exercise hypotension after acute sessions of water-walking and land-walking in healthy trained and untrained women.Methods: Twenty-three untrained (n = 12 and trained (n = 11 normotensive women performed two walking sessions in water and on land at 40% of peak VO2 for 45 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were measured 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after the exercise sessions.Results: No differences were found between the groups for age and anthropometric parameters, but peak VO2 for the trained women (45 ± 8 mL/kg/minute was higher than for the untrained women (31 ± 3 mL/kg/minute. No differences were found between the groups with regard to systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure after water immersion. The heart rate in the trained group (62 ± 3 beats per minute [bpm] was significantly lower (P < 0.05 than in the untrained group (72 ± 4 bpm on land, and after water immersion, this difference disappeared (58 ± 5 bpm in the trained women and 66 ± 5 bpm in the untrained women. Sixty minutes after water-walking, systolic blood pressure (108 ± 8 mmHg vs

  5. Effectiveness of Training Sessions on a Measure of Optimism and Pessimism Concepts among the Kindergarten Children in the District of Al-Shobak in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohtadi, Reham Mohammad; ALdarab'h, Intisar Turki; Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine the effects of training sessions on children's levels of optimism versus pessimism among the kindergarten children in the district of Shobak in Jordan. The sample of the study consisted 21 children whom their ages were between 5 to 6 years old. A training program was applied. The level of optimism and pessimism…

  6. Global plants introductory session. Modern training meeting the future needs of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramdohr, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    For the AREVA group training is more than just transferring knowledge skills. It also means developing attitudes and meeting the changing challenges of people development, of its customer's employees and of its own employees. AREVA wants to meet the world's energy challenges and has therefore taken on the mission of enabling as many as possible to have access to energy that is clean, safe and economical. In order to meet this greatest challenge of the 21 st century with its growing demand for energy, AREVA requires a rapid increase of its global workforce. This means that 45.000 new recruits must be hired by 2012. In particular the rapid growth of AREVA's Reactors and Services division due to its business development produces an increasing demand for effective training services in order to prepare the newly recruited employees for their professional activities. (orig.)

  7. Effects of Dual-Task Management and Resistance Training on Gait Performance in Older Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollesen, Bettina; Mattes, Klaus; Schulz, Sören; Bischoff, Laura L.; Seydell, L.; Bell, Jeffrey W.; von Duvillard, Serge P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dual-task (DT) training is a well-accepted modality for fall prevention in older adults. DT training should include task-managing strategies such as task switching or task prioritization to improve gait performance under DT conditions. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate a balance and task managing training (BDT group) in gait performance compared to a single task (ST) strength and resistance training and a control group, which received no training. A total of 78 older individuals (72.0 ± 4.9 years) participated in this study. The DT group performed task managing training incorporating balance and coordination tasks while the ST group performed resistance training only. Training consisted of 12 weekly sessions, 60 min each, for 12 weeks. We assessed the effects of ST and BDT training on walking performance under ST and DT conditions in independent living elderly adults. ST and DT walking (visual verbal Stroop task) were measured utilizing a treadmill at self-selected walking speed (mean for all groups: 4.4 ± 1 km h-1). Specific gait variables, cognitive performance, and fear of falling were compared between all groups. >Results: Training improved gait performance for step length (p changes in cognitive performance. Both interventions reduced fear of falling (p management strategies into balance and strength training in our population revealed a promising modality to prevent falls in older individuals. Trial registration: German register of clinical trials DRKS00012382. PMID:29326581

  8. Randomised trial of structured antenatal training sessions to improve the birth process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimburg, R D; Vaeth, M; Dürr, J; Hvidman, L; Olsen, J

    2010-07-01

    To compare the birth process in nulliparous women enrolled in a structured antenatal training programme, the 'Ready for Child' programme, with women allocated to routine care. A randomised controlled trial. A Danish university hospital. Thousand hundred and ninety-three nulliparous women, recruited before week 22 + 0. Methods Compliance to the protocol was monitored by questionnaires sent to the women by email, and by data from the local birth cohort database. Data were analysed according to the 'intention-to-treat' principle. Women were randomised to receive 9 hours of antenatal training or no formalised training. Of the 1193 women, 603 were randomised to the intervention group and 590 were allocated to the reference group. Cervix dilatation on arrival at the maternity ward, use of pain relief and medical interventions during the birth process, and the women's birth experience. Women who attended the 'Ready for Child' programme arrived at the maternity ward in active labour more often than the reference group [relative risk (RR) 1.45, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.26-1.65, P less epidural analgesia during labour (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.97, P less pain relief overall (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.94-1.04, P women's self-reported birth experiences were similar in the two groups. We found no adverse effects of the intervention. Attending the 'Ready for Child' programme may help women to cope better with the birth process. Adverse effects are few, if any.

  9. Reliability and smallest worthwhile difference in 1RM tests according to previous resistance training experience in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Amarante do Nascimento

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the familiarization and smallest worthwhile difference (SWD of one-repetition maximum (1RM tests in detrained women according to their previous resistance training experience. Three groups of women with varying amounts of previous resistance training experience were recruited: Novice (n = 27, 1 to 6 months, Intermediate (n = 13, from 7 to 12 months, and Advanced (n = 20, 13 to 24 months. All participants performed four 1RM test sessions in the bench press (BP, squat (SQ, and arm curl (AC. A significant (p< 0.05 (group vs. time interaction was observed in SQ suggesting that more experienced participants needed fewer 1RM test sessions to reach a stable load compared to the less experienced groups. Strength changes (p 0.05, suggesting that experience had no impact on familiarization for these lifts. SWDs suggest that strength gains greater than 2-4% in these lifts would indicate a meaningful improvement in strength beyond random variation from trial to trial no matter the experience of the subject. Women with limited previous resistance training experience do not require more trials to reach load stabilization than those with more experience. Stability of 1RM loads for BP and AC may require only two sessions, while SQ may require at least three trials.

  10. Effects of Heavy Squat Training on a Vibration Platform on Maximal Strength and Jump Performance in Resistance-Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Roger L; Linton, Joshua T; Hammer, Adam M

    2018-03-06

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine maximal strength and jump performance outcomes of heavy squat training on a low-amplitude (<1.0 mm peak-to-peak) vibration platform (VP). Nineteen recreationally resistance-trained college-aged men (22.3 ± 1.66 years) completed the 6-week study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: SQT (n = 10) performed conventional back squats on the floor; SQTV (n = 9) performed back squats on the VP. Supervised training took place over 12 sessions (2 days/week) which utilized an aggressive strength development protocol (85-95 % 1-RM), which was identically followed by both groups. After the intervention, both groups showed (via t-test) a marked increase (p < 0.001) in 1-RM squat strength (SQT = 34.5 kg vs SQTV = 36.2 kg), but there was no significant difference (via mixed ANOVA) between groups (p = 0.875). Standing broad jump performance increased by an average of 5-6 cm, but was not significantly changed in either group (SQT; p = 0.199, SQTV; p = 0.087). In conclusion, squats performed with whole body vibration (WBV) were not superior to conventional squats with respect to maximal strength and jump performance outcomes. It appears that there was no additive effect of superimposed WBV training in strength beyond that caused by strength training alone. This study can help strength conditioning professionals and athletes make an informed decision on whether to invest in a VP and use WBV as an alternative or a complementary mode of training.

  11. Corticosteroid injections, eccentric decline squat training and heavy slow resistance training in patellar tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M.; Kovanen, V.; Aagaard, P.

    2009-01-01

    A randomized-controlled single-blind trial was conducted to investigate the clinical, structural and functional effects of peritendinous corticosteroid injections (CORT), eccentric decline squat training (ECC) and heavy slow resistance training (HSR) in patellar tendinopathy. Thirty-nine male...

  12. Does a single session of high-intensity interval training provoke a transient elevated risk of falling in seniors and adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Donath, Lars; Kurz, Eduard; Roth, Ralf; Hanssen, Henner; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Balance and strength training can reduce seniors' fall risk up to 50%. Available evidence suggests that acute bouts of neuromuscular and endurance exercise deteriorate postural control. High-intensity endurance training has been successfully applied in different populations. Thus, it seemed valuable to examine the acute effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on neuromuscular performance in seniors and young adults.; The acute impact of a HIIT session on balance performance and mus...

  13. Effect of 24 sessions of high-intensity aerobic interval training carried out at either high or moderate frequency, a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvard Hatle

    Full Text Available The training response of an intensified period of high-intensity exercise is not clear. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular adaptations of completing 24 high-intensity aerobic interval training sessions carried out for either three or eight weeks, respectively.Twenty-one healthy subjects (23.0±2.1 years, 10 females completed 24 high-intensity training sessions throughout a time-period of either eight weeks (moderate frequency, MF or three weeks (high frequency, HF followed by a detraining period of nine weeks without any training. In both groups, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was evaluated before training, at the 9(th and 17(th session and four days after the final 24(th training session. In the detraining phase VO2max was evaluated after 12 days and thereafter every second week for eight weeks. Left ventricular echocardiography, carbon monoxide lung diffusion transfer factor, brachial artery flow mediated dilatation and vastus lateralis citrate maximal synthase activity was tested before and after training.The cardiovascular adaptation after HF training was delayed compared to training with MF. Four days after ending training the HF group showed no improvement (+3.0%, p = 0.126, whereas the MF group reached their highest VO2max with a 10.7% improvement (p<0.001: group difference p = 0.035. The HF group reached their highest VO2max (6.1% increase, p = 0.026 twelve days into the detraining period, compared to a concomitant reduction to 7.9% of VO2max (p<0.001 above baseline in the MF group (group difference p = 0.609.Both HF and MF training of high-intensity aerobic exercise improves VO2max. The cardiovascular adaptation following a HF programme of high-intensity exercise is however delayed compared to MF training.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00733941.

  14. EFFECTS OF A SHORT-TERM PLYOMETRIC AND RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAM ON FITNESS PERFORMANCE IN BOYS AGE 12 TO 15 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery D. Faigenbaum

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a six week training period of combined plyometric and resistance training (PRT, n = 13 or resistance training alone (RT, n = 14 on fitness performance in boys (12-15 yr. The RT group performed static stretching exercises followed by resistance training whereas the PRT group performed plyometric exercises followed by the same resistance training program. The training duration per session for both groups was 90 min. At baseline and after training all participants were tested on the vertical jump, long jump, medicine ball toss, 9.1 m sprint, pro agility shuttle run and flexibility. The PRT group made significantly (p < 0.05 greater improvements than RT in long jump (10.8 cm vs. 2.2 cm, medicine ball toss (39.1 cm vs. 17.7 cm and pro agility shuttle run time (-0.23 sec vs. -0.02 sec following training. These findings suggest that the addition of plyometric training to a resistance training program may be more beneficial than resistance training and static stretching for enhancing selected measures of upper and lower body power in boys

  15. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS WITH BLOOD FLOW RESTRICTED RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Kacin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood flow restricted resistance (BFRR training with pneumatic tourniquet has been suggested as an alternative for conventional weight training due to the proven benefits for muscle strength and hypertrophy using relatively low resistance, hence reducing the mechanical stress across a joint. As such, it has become an important part of rehabilitation programs used in either injured or operated athletes. Despite a general consensus on effectiveness of BFRR training for muscle conditioning, there are several uncertainties regarding the interplay of various extrinsic and intrinsic factors on its safety and efficiency, which are being reviewed from a clinical perspective. Among extrinsic factors tourniquet cuff pressure, size and shape have been identified as key for safety and efficiency. Among intrinsic factors, limb anthropometrics, patient history and presence of cardiac, vascular, metabolic or peripheral neurologic conditions have been recognized as most important. Though there are a few potential safety concerns connected to BFRR training, the following have been identified as the most probable and health-hazardous: (a mechanical injury to the skin, muscle, and peripheral nerves, (b venous thrombosis due to vascular damage and disturbed hemodynamics and (c augmented arterial blood pressure responses due to combined high body exertion and increased peripheral vascular resistance. Based on reviewed literature and authors’ personal experience with the use of BFRR training in injured athletes, some guidelines for its safe application are outlined. Also, a comprehensive risk assessment tool for screening of subjects prior to their inclusion in a BFRR training program is being introduced.

  16. Dedicated Barrett's surveillance sessions managed by trained endoscopists improve dysplasia detection rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Joanne; Wilson, Patrick; Walker, Giles; Blaker, Paul; DeMartino, Sabina; O'Donohue, John; Reffitt, David; Lanaspre, Effie; Chang, Fuju; Meenan, John; Dunn, Jason M

    2017-06-01

    Background and study aim  Barrett's esophagus (BE)-associated dysplasia is an important marker for risk of progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and an indication for endoscopic therapy. However, BE surveillance technique is variable. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dedicated BE surveillance lists on dysplasia detection rate (DDR). Patients and methods  This was a prospective study of patients undergoing BE surveillance at two hospitals - community (UHL) and upper gastrointestinal center (GSTT). Four endoscopists (Group A) were trained in Prague classification, Seattle protocol biopsy technique, and lesion detection prior to performing BE surveillance endoscopies at both sites, with dedicated time slots or lists. The DDR was then compared with historical data from 47 different endoscopists at GSTT and 24 at UHL (Group B) who had undertaken Barrett's surveillance over the preceding 5-year period. Results  A total of 729 patients with BE underwent surveillance endoscopy between 2007 and 2012. There was no significant difference in patient age, sex, or length of BE between the two groups. There was a significant difference in detection rate of confirmed indefinite or low grade dysplasia and high grade dysplasia (HGD)/EAC between the two groups: 18 % (26 /142) Group A vs. 8 % (45/587) in Group B ( P  < 0.001). Documentation of Prague criteria and adherence to the Seattle protocol was significantly higher in Group A. Conclusion  This study demonstrated that a group of trained endoscopists undertaking Barrett's surveillance on dedicated lists had significantly higher DDR than a nonspecialist cohort. These findings support the introduction of dedicated Barrett's surveillance lists. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. GH and cortisol responses following an acute session of respiratory muscle endurance training in severely obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorio, A; Agosti, F; Patrizi, A; Gattico, A; Tringali, G; Giunta, M; Muller, E E; Rigamonti, A E

    2013-03-01

    It is well established that obese patients are hypo-responsive to classical GH-releasing stimuli, including aerobic exercise. Recently, we have demonstrated that whole body vibration was able to markedly stimulate GH secretion in obese patients, thus suggesting that this refractoriness is not absolute but dependent on the GH-releasing stimulus. Furthermore, we have shown the ability of a respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) to stimulate GH and cortisol secretion in healthy subjects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of RMET on GH and cortisol responses in severely obese patients. Eight severely obese patients (4 M/4 F, mean age±SEM: 22.8±1.6 years, body mass index, BMI: 39.9±1.1 kg/m2) underwent an incremental progressive RMET protocol of 11 daily sessions, obtained through the use of a specifically designed respiratory device (Spiro Tiger®). The 12th session of RMET (15 min duration: 1 min at a respiration rate of 28 acts/min, 5 min at 32 acts/min, 5 min at 34 acts/min, 4 min at 36 acts/min) was associated with blood samplings for determination of GH, cortisol, and lactate (LA) levels. An age- and sex-matched normal-weighted control group (n=7, 4 M/3 F, age: 26.1±3.1 years, BMI: 22.4±0.6 kg/m2) was also recruited. In both normal-weighted subjects and obese patients, GH secretion significantly increased after a 15-min RMET session. Although serum GH levels at 30 min were higher in normal-weighted subjects than in obese patients, there was no statistically significant difference in either GH peaks or net GH areas under the curve between the 2 groups. RMET significantly increased serum cortisol levels in normal-weighted subjects, but was associated to a progressive cortisol decline in obese patients. RMET stimulated LA production, with no significant differences in normal-weighted subjects and in obese patients. A 15-min RMET session was capable to induce a GH response in severely obese patients, which was comparable to that

  18. Influence of HMB supplementation and resistance training on cytokine responses to resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Hatfield, Disa L; Comstock, Brett A; Fragala, Maren S; Davitt, Patrick M; Cortis, Cristina; Wilson, Jacob M; Lee, Elaine C; Newton, Robert U; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Häkkinen, Keijo; Szivak, Tunde K; Hooper, David R; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; White, Mark T; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a multinutritional supplement including amino acids, β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), and carbohydrates on cytokine responses to resistance exercise and training. Seventeen healthy, college-aged men were randomly assigned to a Muscle Armor™ (MA; Abbott Nutrition, Columbus, OH) or placebo supplement group and 12 weeks of resistance training. An acute resistance exercise protocol was administered at 0, 6, and 12 weeks of training. Venous blood samples at pre-, immediately post-, and 30-minutes postexercise were analyzed via bead multiplex immunoassay for 17 cytokines. After 12 weeks of training, the MA group exhibited decreased interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-10. IL-1β differed by group at various times. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β) changed over the 12-week training period but did not differ by group. Twelve weeks of resistance training alters the cytokine response to acute resistance exercise, and supplementation with HMB and amino acids appears to further augment this result.

  19. Unipedal Postural Balance and Countermovement Jumps After a Warm-up and Plyometric Training Session: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Franco, Natalia; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the immediate effects of a plyometric training protocol on unipedal postural balance and countermovement jumps. In addition, we analyzed the effects of a warm-up on these parameters. Thirty-two amateur male sprinters (24.9 ± 4.1 years; 72.3 ± 10.7 kg; 1.78 ± 0.05 m; 22.6 ± 3.3 kg·m) were randomly sorted into a control group (n = 16) (they did not perform any physical activity) and a plyometric training group (n = 16) (they performed a 15-minute warm-up and a high-intensity plyometric protocol consisting of 10 sets of 15 vertical jumps). Before and after the warm-up, and immediately after and 5 minutes after the plyometric protocol, all athletes indicated the perceived exertion on calf and quad regions on a scale from 0 (no exertion) to 10 (maximum exertion). They also carried out a maximum countermovement jump and a unipedal postural balance test (athletes would remain as still as possible for 15 seconds in a left leg and right leg support stance). Results showed that, in the plyometric group, length and velocity of center-of-pressure movement in right leg support stance increased compared with baseline (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively) and to the control group (p = 0.035 and p = 0.029, respectively) immediately after the plyometric protocol. In addition, the countermovement jump height decreased right after the plyometric protocol (p unipedal postural balance remained unaltered. As a conclusion, high-intensity plyometric exercises blunt unipedal postural balance and countermovement jump performance. The deterioration lasts at least 5 minutes, which may influence future exercises in the training session. Coaches should plan the training routine according to the immediate effects of plyometry on postural balance and vertical jumps, which play a role in injury prevention and sports performance.

  20. Physical Training Improves Insulin Resistance Syndrome Markers in Obese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sik; Gutin, Bernard; Barbeau, Paule; Owens, Scott; Lemmon, Christian R.; Allison, Jerry; Litaker, Mark S.; Le, Ngoc-Anh

    2002-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that physical training (PT), especially high-intensity PT, would favorably affect components of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) in obese adolescents. Data on teens randomized into lifestyle education (LSE) alone, LSE plus moderate -intensity PT, and LSE plus high-intensity PT indicated that PT, especially high-intensity…

  1. Resistance training and predicted risk of coronary heart disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of resistance training, designed to prevent the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) based on the Framingham Risk Assessment (FRA) score. Twenty-five healthy sedentary men with low CHD risk were assigned to participate in a 16-week (three days per week) ...

  2. Resistance training and changes to plasma lipoproteins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. The main purpose of this study was to assess the effect of progressive resistance training on the blood lipid profile in postmenopausal women. Methods. Twenty-six female participants aged 50 - 75 years were selected from the population of Grahamstown, South Africa. All participants were previously sedentary ...

  3. Effects of Low- vs. High-Load Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Well-Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Peterson, Mark D; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Sonmez, Gul T

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of low- versus high-load resistance training (RT) on muscular adaptations in well-trained subjects. Eighteen young men experienced in RT were matched according to baseline strength and then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a low-load RT routine (LL) where 25-35 repetitions were performed per set per exercise (n = 9) or a high-load RT routine (HL) where 8-12 repetitions were performed per set per exercise (n = 9). During each session, subjects in both groups performed 3 sets of 7 different exercises representing all major muscles. Training was performed 3 times per week on nonconsecutive days, for a total of 8 weeks. Both HL and LL conditions produced significant increases in thickness of the elbow flexors (5.3 vs. 8.6%, respectively), elbow extensors (6.0 vs. 5.2%, respectively), and quadriceps femoris (9.3 vs. 9.5%, respectively), with no significant differences noted between groups. Improvements in back squat strength were significantly greater for HL compared with LL (19.6 vs. 8.8%, respectively), and there was a trend for greater increases in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (6.5 vs. 2.0%, respectively). Upper body muscle endurance (assessed by the bench press at 50% 1RM to failure) improved to a greater extent in LL compared with HL (16.6 vs. -1.2%, respectively). These findings indicate that both HL and LL training to failure can elicit significant increases in muscle hypertrophy among well-trained young men; however, HL training is superior for maximizing strength adaptations.

  4. Region specific patella tendon hypertrophy in humans following resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M.; Reitelseder, S; Pedersen, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine if cross-sectional area (CSA) differs along the length of the human patellar tendon (PT), and if there is PT hypertrophy in response to resistance training. METHODS: Twelve healthy young men underwent baseline and post-training assessments. Maximal isometric knee extension strength...... (MVC) was determined unilaterally in both legs. PT CSA was measured at the proximal-, mid- and distal PT level and quadriceps muscle CSA was measured at mid-thigh level using magnetic resonance imaging. Mechanical properties of the patellar tendons were determined using ultrasonography. Subsequently....... CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this study is the first to report tendon hypertrophy following resistance training. Further, the data show that the human PT CSA varies along the length of the tendon....

  5. Muscular and systemic correlates of resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron J Mitchell

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH, insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1 and interleukin 6 (IL-6], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. METHODS: Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk⁻¹ of resistance training for 16 wk. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period and acutely 1 and 5 h after the first training session. Serum hormones and cytokines were measured immediately, 15, 30 and 60 minutes following the first and last training sessions of the study. RESULTS: Mean fiber area increased by 20% (range: -7 to 80%; P<0.001. Protein content of the AR was unchanged with training (fold change = 1.17 ± 0.61; P=0.19; however, there was a significant correlation between the changes in AR content and fiber area (r=0.60, P=0.023. Phosphorylation of p70S6K was elevated 5 hours following exercise, which was correlated with gains in mean fiber area (r=0.54, P=0.007. There was no relationship between the magnitude of the pre- or post-training exercise-induced changes in free testosterone, GH, or IGF-1 concentration and muscle fiber hypertrophy; however, the magnitude of the post exercise IL-6 response was correlated with muscle hypertrophy (r=0.48, P=0.019. CONCLUSION: Post-exercise increases in circulating hormones are not related to hypertrophy following training. Exercise-induced changes in IL-6 correlated with hypertrophy, but the mechanism for the role of IL-6 in hypertrophy is not known. Acute increases, in p70S6K phosphorylation and changes in muscle AR protein content correlated with muscle hypertrophy implicating intramuscular rather than systemic processes in mediating hypertrophy.

  6. Exercise is good for your blood pressure: effects of endurance training and resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagard, R H

    2006-09-01

    1. Although several epidemiological studies have not observed significant independent relationships between physical activity or fitness and blood pressure, others have concluded that blood pressure is lower in individuals who are more fit or active. However, longitudinal intervention studies are more appropriate for assessing the effects of physical activity on blood pressure. 2. Previously, we have performed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials involving dynamic aerobic endurance training or resistance training. Inclusion criteria were: random allocation to intervention and control; physical training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive and/or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of at least 4 weeks; availability of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. 3. The meta-analysis on endurance training involved 72 trials and 105 study groups. After weighting for the number of trained participants, training induced significant net reductions of resting and day time ambulatory blood pressure of 3.0/2.4 mmHg (P hypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; P training has been less well studied. A meta-analysis of nine randomized controlled trials (12 study groups) on mostly dynamic resistance training revealed a weighted net reduction of diastolic blood pressure of 3.5 mmHg (P endurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of systemic vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favourably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, the few available data suggest that resistance training is able to reduce blood pressure.

  7. Delayed Effect of Blood-Flow-Restricted Resistance Training on Rapid Force Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Lindberg; Frandsen, Ulrik; Prokhorova, Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    of knee extensor exercise (20%1RM) to concentric failure during concurrent BFR of the thigh (100mmHg), while eight work-matched controls (21.9±3.0 years) trained without BFR (CON). Twenty-three training sessions were performed within 19 days. Maximal slow and fast knee joint velocity muscle strength......PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and time course of high-frequent low-load resistance training with blood-flow restriction (BFR) on rapid force capacity (i.e. rate of torque development (RTD)). METHODS: Ten male subjects (22.8±2.3 years) performed four sets...... and rapid force capacity (e.g. RTD) as well as evoked twitch contractile parameters was assessed before (Pre) and 5 and 12 days after training (Post5, Post12). Muscle biopsies were obtained Pre, after 8 days (Mid8) and 3 and 10 days post training (Post3, Post10) to examine changes in myofiber area...

  8. Quantification of training load using session RPE method and performance in futsal. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n1p73

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Freitas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need of studies about training load (TL quantification using session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE and its relation to athlete’s performance in futsal. The objective of this study was to describe training load behavior using session-RPE method and to analyze futsal athlete´s performance during a preparatory period and its relation to TL. Twelve male futsal players (age 24,92 ± 5,20 year, weight 73,42 ± 5,70 kg, height 175,83 ± 5,05 cm were submitted to 14 weeks of training quantified by the session-RPE method. It was measured maximum volume of oxygen (VO₂max, velocity, agility and vertical jump (VJ before and after the training period and also the VJ every week. Using the Wilcoxon test, it was observed an increase in VO₂max (p=0,004, VJ (p=0,003, velocity (p=0,003 and agility (p=0,002 after the training period. Using the ANOVA to repeated measures (Tukey post-hoc, it was observed a greater training load (TL in the first mesocycle compared to the others and a greater CT in the second compared to the third mesocycle. It was not found a relation between VJ and TL. It was concluded that the session RPE allowed an effective TL quantification through the training period and the athlete’s performance increased along with the progressive TL reduction description. There wasn’t correlation between the TL and performance.

  9. Quantification of training load using session RPE method and performance in futsal. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n1p73

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Gattas Bara Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need of studies about training load (TL quantification using session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE and its relation to athlete’s performance in futsal. The objective of this study was to describe training load behavior using session-RPE method and to analyze futsal athlete´s performance during a preparatory period and its relation to TL. Twelve male futsal players (age 24,92 ± 5,20 year, weight 73,42 ± 5,70 kg, height 175,83 ± 5,05 cm were submitted to 14 weeks of training quantified by the session-RPE method. It was measured maximum volume of oxygen (VO₂max, velocity, agility and vertical jump (VJ before and after the training period and also the VJ every week. Using the Wilcoxon test, it was observed an increase in VO₂max (p=0,004, VJ (p=0,003, velocity (p=0,003 and agility (p=0,002 after the training period. Using the ANOVA to repeated measures (Tukey post-hoc, it was observed a greater training load (TL in the first mesocycle compared to the others and a greater CT in the second compared to the third mesocycle. It was not found a relation between VJ and TL. It was concluded that the session RPE allowed an effective TL quantification through the training period and the athlete’s performance increased along with the progressive TL reduction description. There wasn’t correlation between the TL and performance.

  10. Immediate effects of a single session of robot-assisted gait training using Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL) for cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Mayumi; Mataki, Yuki; Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Takahashi, Kazushi; Enomoto, Keiko; Sano, Kumiko; Mizukami, Masafumi; Tomita, Kazuhide; Ohguro, Haruka; Iwasaki, Nobuaki

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) using Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL, CYBERDYNE) was previously reported beneficial for stroke and spinal cord injury patients. Here, we investigate the immediate effect of a single session of RAGT using HAL on gait function for cerebral palsy (CP) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve patients (average age: 16.2 ± 7.3 years) with CP received a single session of RAGT using HAL. Gait speed, step length, cadence, single-leg support per gait cycle, hip and knee joint angle in stance, and swing phase per gait cycle were assessed before, during, and immediately after HAL intervention. [Results] Compared to baseline values, single-leg support per gait cycle (64.5 ± 15.8% to 69.3 ± 12.1%), hip extension angle in mid-stance (149.2 ± 19.0° to 155.5 ± 20.1°), and knee extension angle in mid-stance (137.6 ± 20.2° to 143.1 ± 19.5°) were significantly increased immediately after intervention. Further, the knee flexion angle in mid-swing was significantly decreased immediately after treatment (112.0 ± 15.5° to 105.2 ± 17.1°). Hip flexion angle in mid-swing also decreased following intervention (137.2 ± 14.6° to 129.7 ± 16.6°), but not significantly. Conversely, gait speed, step length, and cadence were unchanged after intervention. [Conclusion] A single-time RAGT with HAL improved single-leg support per gait cycle and hip and knee joint angle during gait, therapeutically improving gait function in CP patients.

  11. Resistance training intensity and volume affect changes in rate of force development in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Wang, Ran; Gonzalez, Adam M; Townsend, Jeremy R; Wells, Adam J; Jajtner, Adam R; Beyer, Kyle S; Boone, Carleigh H; Miramonti, Amelia A; LaMonica, Michael B; Fukuda, David H; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2016-12-01

    To compare the effects of two different resistance training programs, high intensity (INT) and high volume (VOL), on changes in isometric force (FRC), rate of force development (RFD), and barbell velocity during dynamic strength testing. Twenty-nine resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either the INT (n = 15, 3-5 RM, 3-min rest interval) or VOL (n = 14, 10-12 RM, 1-min rest interval) training group for 8 weeks. All participants completed a 2-week preparatory phase prior to randomization. Measures of barbell velocity, FRC, and RFD were performed before (PRE) and following (POST) the 8-week training program. Barbell velocity was determined during one-repetition maximum (1RM) testing of the squat (SQ) and bench press (BP) exercises. The isometric mid-thigh pull was used to assess FRC and RFD at specific time bands ranging from 0 to 30, 50, 90, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ms. Analysis of covariance revealed significant (p velocity. Results indicate that INT is more advantageous than VOL for improving FRC and RFD, while changes in barbell velocity during dynamic strength testing are similarly improved by both protocols in resistance-trained men.

  12. Energy expenditure and EPOC between water-based high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training sessions in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Zaccaria; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Praia, Aline Borges de Carvalho; Alberton, Cristine Lima

    2018-02-05

    The present study compared the energy expenditure (EE) during and after two water aerobics protocols, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate continuous training (CONT). A crossover randomized design was employed comprising 11 healthy young women. HIIT consisted of eight 20s bouts at 130% of the cadence associated with the maximal oxygen consumption (measured in the aquatic environment) with 10s passive rest. CONT corresponded to 30 min at a heart rate equivalent to 90-95% of the second ventilatory threshold. EE was measured during and 30 min before and after the protocols and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was calculated. Total EE during session was higher in CONT (227.62 ± 31.69 kcal) compared to HIIT (39.91 ± 4.24 kcal), while EE per minute was greater in HIIT (9.98 ± 1.06 kcal) than in CONT (7.58 ± 1.07 kcal). Post-exercise EE (64.48 ± 3.50 vs. 63.65 ± 10.39 kcal) and EPOC (22.53 ± 4.98 vs.22.10 ± 8.00 kcal) were not different between HIIT and CONT, respectively. Additionally, oxygen uptake had already returned to baseline fifteen minutes post-exercise. These suggest that a water aerobics CONT session results in post-exercise EE and EPOC comparable to HIIT despite the latter supramaximal nature. Still, CONT results in higher total EE.

  13. Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairments Show Less Driving Errors after a Multiple Sessions Simulator Training Program but Do Not Exhibit Long Term Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Normand; Simoneau, Martin; Hudon, Lisa; Germain Robitaille, Mathieu; Moszkowicz, Thierry; Laurendeau, Denis; Bherer, Louis; Duchesne, Simon; Hudon, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The driving performance of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is suboptimal when compared to healthy older adults. It is expected that the driving will worsen with the progression of the cognitive decline and thus, whether or not these individuals should continue to drive is a matter of debate. The aim of the study was to provide support to the claim that individuals with MCI can benefit from a training program and improve their overall driving performance in a driving simulator. Fifteen older drivers with MCI participated in five training sessions in a simulator (over a 21-day period) and in a 6-month recall session. During training, they received automated auditory feedback on their performance when an error was noted about various maneuvers known to be suboptimal in MCI individuals (for instance, weaving, omitting to indicate a lane change, to verify a blind spot, or to engage in a visual search before crossing an intersection). The number of errors was compiled for eight different maneuvers for all sessions. For the initial five sessions, a gradual and significant decrease in the number of errors was observed, indicating learning and safer driving. The level of performance, however, was not maintained at the 6-month recall session. Nevertheless, the initial learning observed opens up possibilities to undertake more regular interventions to maintain driving skills and safe driving in MCI individuals.

  14. At-home resistance tubing strength training increases shoulder strength in the trained and untrained limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, C R A; Boychuk, K; Kim, S Y; Farthing, J P

    2014-06-01

    The purpose was to determine if an at-home resistance tubing strength training program on one shoulder (that is commonly used in rehabilitation settings) would produce increases in strength in the trained and untrained shoulders via cross-education. Twenty-three participants were randomized to TRAIN (strength-trained one shoulder; n = 13) or CONTROL (no intervention; n = 10). Strength training was completed at home using resistance tubing and consisted of maximal shoulder external rotation, internal rotation, scaption, retraction, and flexion 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Strength was measured via handheld dynamometry and muscle size measured via ultrasound. For external rotation strength, the trained (10.9 ± 10.9%) and untrained (12.7 ± 9.6%) arm of TRAIN was significantly different than CONTROL (1.6 ± 13.2%; -2.7 ± 12.3%; pooled across arm; P tubing training program on one limb can produce increases in strength in both limbs, and has implications for rehabilitation after unilateral shoulder injuries. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The influence of resistance training on the magnitude of change in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... however research focusing on the effect of a resistance training intervention in order ... RMR (d = 0.58) and exercise compliance (d = 0.58) while the obese group ... Resting metabolic rate, Resistance training, Body composition, Employees ...

  16. Effect of aquatic resistance training on blood pressure and physical function of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Sattar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4    BACKGROUND: In postmenopausal women, the risk of having cardiac diseases, especially high blood pressure, is increased due to the decrease in secretion of estrogen. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of aquatic resistance training on blood pressure and physical function of postmenopausal women.    METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, 24 postmenopausal women (age: 53-60 years, BMI= 29.23 ± 5.27kg/m2  ( were randomly divided into experimental (n = 14 and control (n = 10 groups. Women in the experimental group participated in an aquatic exercise program for 8 weeks (3 sessions per week in the deep parts of the pool. Training included walking and running in water with water dumbbells weighing 250 grams. Before and after the exercise period, the body composition, blood pressure, dynamic balance, and flexibility of the subjects were measured.    RESULTS: According to the T-score, the average systolic blood pressure in the experimental group significantly decreased (9.29% (P = 0.001. Dynamic balance and flexibility, respectively, significantly increased by 22.02% and 24.4% (P < 0.01. No significant changes were observed in body fat and weight.    CONCLUSION: Due to the positive effect of aquatic resistance training on blood pressure, dynamic balance, and flexibility these exercises are recommended for postmenopausal women.   Keywords: Menopausal Women, Blood Pressure, Flexibility, Aquatic Resistance Training  

  17. Effect of Six Sessions of High Intensity Interval Training on Levels of Hypoxanthine, Xanthine, Hypoxanthine-Guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT and Serum Uric Acid in active young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROHOULLAH HAGHSHENAS GATABI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction and objectives: long-term sport and physical activity results in compatibility in maintaining purine derivatives but the compatibility achieved within a few sessions is not well investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 30-seconds high intensity interval training on Hypoxanthine, xanthine, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT and serum uric acid in young college men. Methods: In this study, 18 untrained healthy men were divided into two control and training groups after homogenization based on their personal characteristics. Training included six sessions (every other day for two weeks with different intervals (4, 7, 6, 6, 5 & 4, respectively with a fixed four-minute rest between each interval, and with a constant load of .6 on the cycle-ergometer. Blood samples were taken before and 48 hours after the last training session, and were used to analyze hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid, and serum HGPRT. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. Results: The results showed that high-intensity interval training for two weeks did not cause significant changes in serum HGPRT (P = .73; likewise, the increase in serum hypoxanthine (P = .170 and serum xanthine (P = .170 was not statistically significant but significant reduction was observed in serum uric acid (P = .025. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study indicated that two-week HIIT training is likely to enhance athletic performance and recovery of purine nucleotide cycle.

  18. The Relation of an International Student Center's Orientation Training Sessions with International Students' Achievement and Integration to University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvendir, Meltem Acar

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to examine the relation of orientation training sessions with integration and achievement of the international students. The study used the Institutional Integration Scales, developed by Pascarella and Terenzini (1980), to examine the integration level of the international students. 181 freshmen undergraduate and…

  19. Report--Training Session on Roles and Responsibilities and Steps in Negotiations for the Board of Directors, New Brunswick Indian Arts and Crafts Corporation. No. 166.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddu, Roland; Nicholas, Darryl

    The Board of Directors of the New Brunswick Indian Arts and Crafts Corporation attended a two-day training session in Presque Isle, Maine, to discuss and clarify roles and responsibilities of the various agencies and position holders of the Provincial and Federal Corporations. In addition, an extensive discussion of negotiations procedures took…

  20. Effects of Dual-Task Management and Resistance Training on Gait Performance in Older Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Wollesen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dual-task (DT training is a well-accepted modality for fall prevention in older adults. DT training should include task-managing strategies such as task switching or task prioritization to improve gait performance under DT conditions.Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate a balance and task managing training (BDT group in gait performance compared to a single task (ST strength and resistance training and a control group, which received no training. A total of 78 older individuals (72.0 ± 4.9 years participated in this study. The DT group performed task managing training incorporating balance and coordination tasks while the ST group performed resistance training only. Training consisted of 12 weekly sessions, 60 min each, for 12 weeks. We assessed the effects of ST and BDT training on walking performance under ST and DT conditions in independent living elderly adults. ST and DT walking (visual verbal Stroop task were measured utilizing a treadmill at self-selected walking speed (mean for all groups: 4.4 ± 1 km h-1. Specific gait variables, cognitive performance, and fear of falling were compared between all groups.>Results: Training improved gait performance for step length (p < 0.001 and gait-line (ST: p < 0.01; DT p < 0.05 in both training groups. The BDT training group showed greater improvements in step length (p < 0.001 and gait-line (p < 0.01 during DT walking but did not have changes in cognitive performance. Both interventions reduced fear of falling (p < 0.05.Conclusion: Implementation of task management strategies into balance and strength training in our population revealed a promising modality to prevent falls in older individuals.Trial registration: German register of clinical trials DRKS00012382.

  1. Changes in myonuclear domain size do not precede muscle hypertrophy during prolonged resistance-type exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, T; Smeets, J S J; van Kranenburg, J; Kies, A K; van Loon, L J C; Verdijk, L B

    2016-02-01

    Muscle fibre hypertrophy is accompanied by an increase in myonuclear number, an increase in myonuclear domain size or both. It has been suggested that increases in myonuclear domain size precede myonuclear accretion and subsequent muscle fibre hypertrophy during prolonged exercise training. In this study, we assessed the changes in muscle fibre size, myonuclear and satellite cell content throughout 12 weeks of resistance-type exercise training in young men. Twenty-two young men (23 ± 1 year) were assigned to a progressive, 12-weeks resistance-type exercise training programme (3 sessions per week). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken before and after 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of exercise training. Muscle fibre size, myonuclear content, myonuclear domain size and satellite cell content were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Type I and type II muscle fibre size increased gradually throughout the 12 weeks of training (type I: 18 ± 5%, type II: 41 ± 6%, P muscle fibres. No changes in type I and type II myonuclear domain size were observed at any time point throughout the intervention. Satellite cell content increased significantly over time in both type I and type II muscle fibres (P muscle fibre hypertrophy during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in vivo in humans. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. acute and session rPe responses during resistance training: Bouts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tive measure of aerobic exercise intensity. While correlating well ... ing intensity in aerobic-type exercise. 7 ... While original work dealt with RPE during an exercise bout, ..... Borg G. Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress. Scan J.

  3. Open Media Training Session

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Marchant, Nadia

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever wondered how the media work and why some topics make it into the news and other don't? Would you like to know how to (and how not to) give an interview to a journalist? With the LHC preparing for first collisions at high energies, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. Follow the webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

  4. Manipulating Carbohydrate Availability Between Twice-Daily Sessions of High-Intensity Interval Training Over 2 Weeks Improves Time-Trial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Andrew J; Myslik, Frank; MacInnis, Martin J; Percival, Michael E; Bishop, David; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2015-10-01

    Commencing some training sessions with reduced carbohydrate (CHO) availability has been shown to enhance skeletal muscle adaptations, but the effect on exercise performance is less clear. We examined whether restricting CHO intake between twice daily sessions of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) augments improvements in exercise performance and mitochondrial content. Eighteen active but not highly trained subjects (peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak] = 44 ± 9 ml/kg/min), matched for age, sex, and fitness, were randomly allocated to two groups. On each of 6 days over 2 weeks, subjects completed two training sessions, each consisting of 5 × 4-min cycling intervals (60% of peak power), interspersed by 2 min of recovery. Subjects ingested either 195 g of CHO (HI-HI group: ~2.3 g/kg) or 17 g of CHO (HI-LO group: ~0.3 g/kg) during the 3-hr period between sessions. The training-induced improvement in 250-kJ time trial performance was greater (p = .02) in the HI-LO group (211 ± 66 W to 244 ± 75 W) compared with the HI-HI group (203 ± 53 W to 219 ± 60 W); however, the increases in mitochondrial content was similar between groups, as reflected by similar increases in citrate synthase maximal activity, citrate synthase protein content and cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV protein content (p > .05 for interaction terms). This is the first study to show that a short-term "train low, compete high" intervention can improve whole-body exercise capacity. Further research is needed to determine whether this type of manipulation can also enhance performance in highly-trained subjects.

  5. Balance maintenance as an acquired motor skill: Delayed gains and robust retention after a single session of training in a virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elion, Orit; Sela, Itamar; Bahat, Yotam; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Karni, Avi

    2015-06-03

    Does the learning of a balance and stability skill exhibit time-course phases and transfer limitations characteristic of the acquisition and consolidation of voluntary movement sequences? Here we followed the performance of young adults trained in maintaining balance while standing on a moving platform synchronized with a virtual reality road travel scene. The training protocol included eight 3 min long iterations of the road scene. Center of Pressure (CoP) displacements were analyzed for each task iteration within the training session, as well as during tests at 24h, 4 weeks and 12 weeks post-training to test for consolidation phase ("offline") gains and assess retention. In addition, CoP displacements in reaction to external perturbations were assessed before and after the training session and in the 3 subsequent post-training assessments (stability tests). There were significant reductions in CoP displacements as experience accumulated within session, with performance stabilizing by the end of the session. However, CoP displacements were further reduced at 24h post-training (delayed "offline" gains) and these gains were robustly retained. There was no transfer of the practice-related gains to performance in the stability tests. The time-course of learning the balance maintenance task, as well as the limitation on generalizing the gains to untrained conditions, are in line with the results of studies of manual movement skill learning. The current results support the conjecture that a similar repertoire of basic neuronal mechanisms of plasticity may underlay skill (procedural, "how to" knowledge) acquisition and skill memory consolidation in voluntary and balance maintenance tasks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training sessions on cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Zaccaria; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Ribeiro, Diego Oliveira; Pinto, Stephanie Santana

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the energy expenditure (EE) during and after two treadmill protocols, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate continuous training (CONT), in young adult men. The sample was comprised by 26 physically active men aged between 18 and 35 years engaged in aerobic training programs. They were divided into two groups: HIIT (n = 14) which performed eight 20 s bouts at 130% of the velocity associated with the maximal oxygen consumption on a treadmill with 10 s of passive rest, or CONT (n = 12) which performed 30 min running on a treadmill at a submaximal velocity equivalent to 90-95% of the heart rate associated with the anaerobic threshold. Data related to oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) and EE were measured during the protocols and the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was calculated for both sessions. No difference was found between groups for mean [Formula: see text] (HIIT: 2.84 ± 0.46 L min -1 ; CONT: 2.72 ± 0.43 L min -1 ) and EE per minute (HIIT: 14.36 ± 2.34 kcal min -1 ; CONT: 13.21 ± 2.08 kcal min -1 ) during protocols. Regarding total EE during session, CONT resulted in higher values compared to HIIT (390.45 ± 65.15; 55.20 ± 9.33 kcal, respectively). However, post-exercise EE and EPOC values were higher after HIIT (69.31 ± 10.88; 26.27 ± 2.28 kcal, respectively) compared to CONT (55.99 ± 10.20; 13.43 ± 10.45 kcal, respectively). These data suggest that supramaximal HIIT has a higher impact on EE and EPOC in the early phase of recovery when compared to CONT.

  7. Effect of whole body resistance training on arterial compliance in young men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakobowchuk, M.; McGowan, C.L.; Groot, P.C.E. de; Bruinsma, D.; Hartman, J.W.; Phillips, S.M.; MacDonald, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of resistance training on arterial stiffening is controversial. We tested the hypothesis that resistance training would not alter central arterial compliance. Young healthy men (age, 23 +/- 3.9 (mean +/- s.e.m.) years; n = 28,) were whole-body resistance trained five times a week for 12

  8. Influence of number of sets on blood pressure and heart rate variability after a strength training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Tiago; Rhea, Matthew R; Peterson, Mark; Miranda, Humberto; Bentes, Claudio M; dos Reis, Victor Machado de Ribeiro; Simão, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of 1, 3, and 5 sets of strength training (ST), on heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure. Eleven male volunteers (age: 26.1 ± 3.6 years; body mass: 74.1 ± 8.1 kg; height: 172 ± 4 cm) with at least 6 months previous experience in ST participated in the study. After determining the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) load for the bench press (BP), lat pull down (LPD), shoulder press (SP), biceps curl (BC), triceps extension (TE), leg press (LP), leg extension (LE), and leg curl (LC), the participants performed 3 different exercise sequences in a random order and 72 hours apart. During the first sequence, subjects performed a single set of 8-10 repetitions, at 70% 1RM, and with 2-minute rest interval between exercises. Exercises were performed in the following order: BP, LPD, SP, BC, TE, LP, LE, and LC. During the second sequence, subjects performed the same exercise sequence, with the same intensity, 2-minute rest interval between sets and exercises, but with 3 consecutive sets of each exercise. During the third sequence, the same protocol was followed but with 5 sets of each exercise. Before and after the training sessions, blood pressure and HRV were measured. The statistical analysis demonstrated a greater duration of postexercise hypotension after the 5-set program vs. the 1 set or 3 sets (p ≤ 0.05). However, the 5-set program promoted a substantial cardiac stress, as demonstrated by HRV (p ≤ 0.05). These results indicate that 5 sets of 8-10 repetitions at 70% 1RM load may provide the ideal stimulus for a postexercise hypotensive response. Therefore, ST composed of upper- and lower-body exercises and performed with high volumes are capable of producing significant and extended postexercise hypotensive response. In conclusion, strength and conditioning professionals can prescribe 5 sets per exercises if the goal is to reduce blood pressure after training. In addition, these findings may have

  9. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen

    2018-01-01

    after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO2 -max) and maximal...

  10. Strategies for Optimizing Strength, Power, and Muscle Hypertrophy in Women: Contribution of Upper Body Resistance Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraemer, William

    1999-01-01

    To determine the performance and physiological effects of various physical conditioning programs in women, total body, upper-body resistance training groups, field training and aerobic training groups (n = 11 to 21...

  11. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen; Sindrup, Søren H; Christiansen, Ingelise; Vissing, John; Andersen, Henning

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Eighteen CIDP patients treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin performed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 12 weeks of resistance exercise after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO 2 -max) and maximal combined isokinetic muscle strength (cIKS) of knee and elbow flexion/extension. VO 2 -max and muscle strength were unchanged during run-in (-4.9% ± 10.3%, P = 0.80 and -3.7% ± 10.1%, P = 0.17, respectively). Aerobic exercise increased VO 2 -max by 11.0% ± 14.7% (P = 0.02). Resistance exercise resulted in an increase of 13.8% ± 16.0% (P = 0.0004) in cIKS. Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training improve fitness and strength in CIDP patients. Muscle Nerve 57: 70-76, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Technical training: Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design' and 'Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE' course sessions, May-June 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2006-01-01

    The next session of the course 'Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design'given in English by Doulos Ltd (UK) will take place at CERN from May 29 through June 2nd (5 days), for a maximum of 14 participants. It will be preceded by an optional, refresher session of the two-day course 'Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE', given on 23-24 May, in French, by Serge Brobecker of IT/DES. For more information, please visit the Technical Training CTA website, http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=300, to consult the detailed course descriptions and to apply via EDH. Organiser: Davide Vitè / HR-PMD / 75141 Davide.Vite@cern.ch ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING technical.training@cern.ch

  13. CERN Technical Training 2006: 'Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design' and 'Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE' course sessions, May-June 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Learning for the LHC! The next session of the course 'Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design' given in English by Doulos Ltd (UK) will take place at CERN from May 29 through June 2nd (5 days), for a maximum of 14 participants. It will be preceded by an optional, refresher session of the two-day course 'Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE', given on 23-24 May, in French, by Serge Brobecker of IT/DES. For more information, please visit the Technical Training CTA website, http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=300, to consult the detailed course descriptions and to apply via EDH. Organiser: Davide Vitè / HR-PMD / 75141 Davide.Vite@cern.ch ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING technical.training@cern.ch

  14. Does progressive resistance strength training as additional training have any measured effect on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Andersen, Christina W.; Pedersen, Sigrid F

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of progressive resistance strength training as additional training measured on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients. DESIGN: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Department of Geriatric Rehabilitation in university hospital...

  15. The efficacy of early initiated, supervised, progressive resistance training compared to unsupervised, home-based exercise after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Peter B; Bogh, Søren B; Kierkegaard, Signe; Sørensen, Henrik; Odgaard, Anders; Søballe, Kjeld; Mechlenburg, Inger

    2017-01-01

    To examine if supervised progressive resistance training was superior to home-based exercise in rehabilitation after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Single blinded, randomized clinical trial. Surgery, progressive resistance training and testing was carried out at Aarhus University Hospital and home-based exercise was carried out in the home of the patient. Fifty five patients were randomized to either progressive resistance training or home-based exercise. Patients were randomized to either progressive resistance training (home based exercise five days/week and progressive resistance training two days/week) or control group (home based exercise seven days/week). Preoperative assessment, 10-week (primary endpoint) and one-year follow-up were performed for leg extension power, spatiotemporal gait parameters and knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS). Forty patients (73%) completed 1-year follow-up. Patients in the progressive resistance training group participated in average 11 of 16 training sessions. Leg extension power increased from baseline to 10-week follow-up in progressive resistance training group (progressive resistance training: 0.28 W/kg, P= 0.01, control group: 0.01 W/kg, P=0.93) with no between-group difference. Walking speed and KOOS scores increased from baseline to 10-week follow-up in both groups with no between-group difference (six minutes walk test P=0.63, KOOS P>0.29). Progressive resistance training two days/week combined with home based exercise five days/week was not superior to home based exercise seven days/week in improving leg extension power of the operated leg.

  16. Resistance training and hormone replacement increase MMP-2 activity, quality and quantity of bone in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus V.C Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIMS The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of resistance training (RT and hormone replacement (HR on MMP-2 activity, biomechanical and physical properties bone of ovariectomized (OVX rats. METHODS Sprague-Dawley female rats were grouped into six experimental groups (n = 11 per group: sham-operated sedentary (SHAM Sed, ovariectomized sedentary (OVX Sed, sham-operated resistance training (SHAM RT, ovariectomized resistance training (OVX RT, ovariectomized sedentary hormone replacement (OVX Sed-HR, and ovariectomized resistance training hormone replacement (OVX RT-HR. HR groups received implanted silastic capsules with a 5% solution of 17β-estradiol (50 mg 17β-estradiol/ml of sunflower oil. In a 12-week RT period (27 sessions; 4-9 climbs the animals climbed a 1.1 m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails. Biomechanical and physical bone analyses were performed using a universal testing machine, and MMP-2 activity analysis was done by zymography. RESULTS Bone density and bone mineral content was higher in the RT and HR groups. The MMP-2 activity was higher in the RT and HR groups. The biomechanical analysis (stiffness, fracture load and maximum load demonstrated better bone tissue quality in the RT associated with HR. CONCLUSION The RT alone as well as when it is associated with HR was efficient in increasing MMP-2 activity, biomechanical and biophysical properties bone of ovariectomized rats.

  17. Factors influencing overweight children's commencement of and continuation in a resistance training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuigan Michael R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In light of the child overweight and obesity problem in Australia, resistance training programs have been trialled as an innovative way of assisting children increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing overweight children's participation in a resistance training trial program. Method Parent-child pairs who participated in the trial program were invited to take part in a follow-up individual interview to discuss their program experiences. In total, 22 semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 parent-child pairs. Results The factors found to be most relevant to program commencement among parents were a desire for their child to lose weight and gain confidence, the proximity of the venue, and no cost for participation. For children, the most relevant factors were the opportunity to build strength and improve fitness and having supportive parents who facilitated program initiation. The factors most relevant to continuation for parents were the quality of the program management, being able to stay for the sessions, the child's improved weight status, coordination, and confidence, and no cost for participation. Weight loss and improved confidence were also motivators for continuation among the children, along with pleasant social interaction with peers and trainers and ongoing parental support. Conclusion Different factors variably influence program commencement and program continuation in both parents and children. This has important implications for future interventions that aim to successfully recruit and retain intervention participants.

  18. The effects of resistance training interventions on vertical jump performance in basketball players: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Paula F; Behringer, Michael; Mester, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Vertical jump performance is one of the key factors in basketball. In order to determine the effectiveness of previously published interventions and their influencing factors we performed a meta-analysis. A computerized search was conducted using the databases PubMed (1966), Web of Science (1900), SPORTDiscus™ (1975),Medline (1966) and SportPilot (2008). Studies involving healthy male or female basketball players at any age and performance level were included. All trials had to investigate the benefits of resistance training programs on jumping performance in basketball players and provide a control group. The effect size (ES) was computed and the relationship between ESs and continuous variables was examined by meta-regressions, whereas subgroup meta-analyses and z-tests were used to assess the impact of categorical moderator variables. The meta-analysis included 14 studies with 20 subgroups and a total of 37 outcomes. A total of 399 participants were examined, N.=157 served as control and N.=242 took part in particular training interventions. The overall weighted ES of 0.78 (95% CI 0.41, 1.15) was significantly greater than zero (Ptraining effect. However, positive correlations were found for training duration (r=0.68; P=0.02). The present meta-analysis demonstrates that resistance training throughout the year, using bodyweight or external weight, significantly improves vertical jump performance in healthy basketball players. Since vertical jump improvements were independent of intervention period but dependent on the duration of each individual training session the total training amount should be based on longer training sessions.

  19. Comparisons of low-intensity versus moderate-intensity combined aerobic and resistance training on body composition, muscle strength, and functional performance in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotsu, Yoko; Yanagita, Masahiko

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training into the same session on body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength in healthy older women. Furthermore, this study compared the effects of different (low- vs moderate-) intensity combined training. A total of 60 healthy older women (age 61-81 y) were randomly assigned to five groups that performed aerobic exercise before low-intensity resistance training (AR-L, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-L, n = 12), performed aerobic exercise before moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-M, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-M, n = 12), or nonintervention control conditions (CON, n = 12). Body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength were evaluated before and after the 10-week training. No effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-L vs RA-L, AR-M vs RA-M) were observed in body composition, functional performance, or muscle strength, whereas the effects of training intensity of combined training (AR-L vs AR-M, RA-L vs RA-M) were observed on functional performance. All combined trainings significantly increased muscle strength and gait ability (P Functional reach test significantly increased in the AR-M and RA-M groups (P training increases muscle strength and improves gait ability, regardless of the exercise order. Also, greater improvement in dynamic balance capacity, a risk factor associated with falling, is observed in moderate-intensity combined training.

  20. Functional and Muscle-Size Effects of Flywheel Resistance Training with Eccentric-Overload in Professional Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto-Izquierdo, Sergio; García-López, David; de Paz, José A

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the effects of 6 week (15 sessions) flywheel resistance training with eccentric-overload (FRTEO) on different functional and anatomical variables in professional handball players. Twenty-nine athletes were recruited and randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group (EXP, n = 15) carried out 15 sessions of FRTEO in the leg-press exercise, with 4 sets of 7 repetitions at a maximum-concentric effort. The control group (CON, n = 14) performed the same number of training sessions including 4 sets of 7 maximum repetitions (7RM) using a weight-stack leg-press machine. The results which were measured included maximal dynamic strength (1RM), muscle power at different submaximal loads (PO), vertical jump height (CMJ and SJ), 20 m sprint time (20 m), T-test time (T-test), and Vastus-Lateralis muscle (VL) thickness. The results of the EXP group showed a substantially better improvement (p handball requires repeated short, explosive effort such as accelerations and decelerations during sprints with changes of direction, these results suggest that FRTEO affects functional and anatomical changes in a way which improves performance in well-trained professional handball players.

  1. Shoulder injuries attributed to resistance training: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolber, Morey J; Beekhuizen, Kristina S; Cheng, Ming-Shun S; Hellman, Madeleine A

    2010-06-01

    The popularity of resistance training (RT) is evident by the more than 45 million Americans who engage in strength training regularly. Although the health and fitness benefits ascribed to RT are generally agreed upon, participation is not without risk. Acute and chronic injuries attributed to RT have been cited in the epidemiological literature among both competitive and recreational participants. The shoulder complex in particular has been alluded to as one of the most prevalent regions of injury. The purpose of this manuscript is to present an overview of documented shoulder injuries among the RT population and where possible discern mechanisms of injury and risk factors. A literature search was conducted in the PUBMED, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and OVID databases to identify relevant articles for inclusion using combinations of key words: resistance training, shoulder, bodybuilding, weightlifting, shoulder injury, and shoulder disorder. The results of the review indicated that up to 36% of documented RT-related injuries and disorders occur at the shoulder complex. Trends that increased the likelihood of injury were identified and inclusive of intrinsic risk factors such as joint and muscle imbalances and extrinsic risk factors, namely, that of improper attention to exercise technique. A majority of the available research was retrospective in nature, consisting of surveys and descriptive epidemiological reports. A paucity of research was available to identify predictive variables leading to injury, suggesting the need for future prospective-based investigations.

  2. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated in four weeks resistance training. Before and after the test period fasting blood samples were obtained to determine anabolic (the growth hormone and testosterone and catabolic (cortisol hormones, and fat mass, lean body mass (LBM and muscular strength were measured. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze data.Results:After the training period, there were no significant differen-ces between the groups with respect to fat mass, LBM and anabolic-catabolic hormones. HMB supplementation resulted in a significantly greater strength gain (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Greater increase in strength for HMB group was not accompanied by body composition and basal circulating anabolic-catabolic hormonal changes. It seems that HMB supplementation may have beneficial effects on neurological adaptations of strength gain.

  3. Exercise in myasthenia gravis: A feasibility study of aerobic and resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Mikkelsen, Erik Elgaard; Overgaard, Kristian; Vinge, Lotte; Andersen, Henning; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-10-01

    It has not been established whether progressive resistance training (PRT) and aerobic training (AT) are feasible and efficient in myasthenia gravis (MG). Fifteen subjects with generalized MG (Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) clinical classification II-IV) were randomly assigned to 20 training sessions during 8 weeks of either PRT or AT. Feasibility was evaluated based on adherence, drop-out rate, adverse events, and Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis (QMG) score. Twelve subjects (MGFA II, n = 11; MGFA III, n=1) completed the intervention with a mean adherence of 95 % ± 8. One dropout (PRT) could potentially be related to PRT. Both groups reported adverse events, including bulbar symptoms (n = 2) and increased fatigue (n = 3), but no change in QMG score was observed in either group. The PRT group showed increases in maximal strength and functional capacity. Eight weeks of moderate to high intensity AT and PRT were feasible for most patients with mild MG. Maximal strength and functional capacity increased in the PRT group. Muscle Nerve 56: 700-709, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effects of Resistance Training on Ventricular Function and Hypertrophy in a Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barauna, Valério Garrone; Rosa, Kaleizu Teodoro; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to follow the ventricular function and cardiac hypertrophy in rats undergoing a resistance-training program for a period of 3 months. Design: Forty animals were divided into two major groups: control (n=16) and resistance trained (n=24). From the resistance-trained group, 12 animals were resistance trained for 1 month and another 12 for 3 months. The resistance-training protocol was performed with 4 sets of 12 repetitions using 65% to 75% of one repetition maximum (maximum lifted weight with the exercise apparatus). Methods: Echocardiographic analysis was performed at the beginning of the resistance-training period and at the end of each month. The repetition maximum was measured every 2 weeks. Cardiac hypertrophy was determined by echocardiography, by the absolute weight of the cardiac chambers and by histology of the left ventricle. Results: Before resistance training, both groups had similar repetition maximums, ranging from 1.8-fold to 2-fold the body weight; however, at the end of the resistance-training period, the repetition maximum of the resistance-trained group was 6-fold greater than the body weight. The left ventricular mass as assessed by echocardiography was 8%, 12% and 16% larger in the resistance-trained group than in the control group in the first, second and third months, respectively. This hypertrophy showed a similar increase in the interventricular septum and in the free posterior wall mass. There was no reduction in the end-diastolic left ventricular internal diameter during the 3-month resistance-training period. Systolic function did not differ between the groups throughout the resistance-training period. Conclusion: Resistance training induces the development of concentric cardiac hypertrophy without ventricular dysfunction or cavity reduction. Although diastolic function was not completely investigated, we cannot exclude the possibility that resistance training results in diastolic dysfunction. PMID

  5. Biochemical changes in response to intensive resistance exercise training in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautmans, Ivan; Njemini, Rose; Vasseur, Sabine; Chabert, Hans; Moens, Lisa; Demanet, Christian; Mets, Tony

    2005-01-01

    It is assumed that low-grade inflammation, characterized by increased circulating IL-6 and TNF-alpha, is related to the development of sarcopenia. Physical exercise, especially high intensity resistance training, has been shown to be effective in restoring the strength deficit in the elderly. Intensive exercise is accompanied by significant release of IL-6 and TNF-alpha into the blood circulation, but does not result in muscle wasting. Exercise-induced changes in heat-shock protein (Hsp), responsible for cellular protection during stressful situations, might interfere with the acute phase reaction and muscle adaptation. To investigate if intensive strength training in elderly persons induces changes in Hsp70 expression, and if these changes are related to changes in the acute phase reaction or muscle adaptation. 31 elderly persons (aged 68.4+/-5.4 years) performed 6 weeks' intensive strength training. At baseline and after 6 weeks, muscle strength, functional performance (physical activity profile, 6-min walk, 30- second chair stand, grip strength, chair sit & reach and back scratch), linear isokinetic leg extension, circulating IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10 and TGF-beta, and Hsp70 in monocytes (M) and lymphocytes (L) immediately after sampling (IAS), after incubation at 37 and 42 degrees C were determined. In 12 participants, cytokines were determined in untrained and trained conditions before and after a single training session. After 6 weeks' training, muscle strength and functional performance improved significantly, together with decreased Hsp70 IAS and Hsp70 37 degrees C and increased Hsp70 42 degrees C (all p42 degrees C in M and L. In an untrained condition, training induced an increase of IL-6 (p<0.05) and a tendency of IL-10 to decrease (p=0.06). In a trained condition the decrease of IL-10 disappeared. Baseline physical activity and 6-min walk distance correlated negatively with circulating IL-6 (p<0.05); except for a negative correlation between TGF-beta and

  6. The Effect of 10 Weeks of Resistance Training on Serum Myostatin and Body Composition Levels in Obese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ebrahim Bahram

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Studies are indicative of negative regulatory role of myostatin in skeletal muscle growth. In the present study, the effect of 10 weeks of resistance training was investigated on serum level of myostatin and body composition in obese adolescents. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 16 students of Mohammad Naraghi Technical and Vocational Institute of Kashan with body mass index of 30-35, were purposefully selected and randomly divided into two groups of experimental and control. Resistance training program included 3 sets of 8-10 reps with 50-90% 1RM for 3 days a week. Before starting the training program and 48 h after the last training session, blood samples were taken from all participants. Before and after the training, plasma level of myostatin were measured. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, dependent t-, and independent t-tests at significance level of p<0.05. Results: In this study, 10 weeks of resistance training resulted in a significant decrease in serum level of myostatin (p=0.0001, weight (p=0.015, body mass index (p=0.02, and fat percentage (p=0.0001 in the experimental group as compared to the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to the findings of the current study, it can be concluded that resistance training-induced changes reduce myostatin level and some anthropometric parameters related to obesity and overweight, which may be effective in the prevention of muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, and can play a role as an autocrine mechanism for guiding mechanical load stimuli in response to the growth of skeletal muscle.

  7. Fasting: a major limitation for resistance exercise training effects in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, W; de Oliveira, L F; da Silva, R P; Alves, C R R; Lancha, A H

    2017-11-17

    Protocols that mimic resistance exercise training (RET) in rodents present several limitations, one of them being the electrical stimulus, which is beyond the physiological context observed in humans. Recently, our group developed a conditioning system device that does not use electric shock to stimulate rats, but includes fasting periods before each RET session. The current study was designed to test whether cumulative fasting periods have some influence on skeletal muscle mass and function. Three sets of male Wistar rats were used in the current study. The first set of rats was submitted to a RET protocol without food restriction. However, rats were not able to perform exercise properly. The second and third sets were then randomly assigned into three experimental groups: 1) untrained control rats, 2) untrained rats submitted to fasting periods, and 3) rats submitted to RET including fasting periods before each RET session. While the second set of rats performed a short RET protocol (i.e., an adaptation protocol for 3 weeks), the third set of rats performed a longer RET protocol including overload (i.e., 8 weeks). After the short-term protocol, cumulative fasting periods promoted loss of weight (P0.05 for all). Despite no effects on EDL mass, soleus muscle displayed significant atrophy in the fasting experimental groups (Pfasting is a major limitation for RET in rats.

  8. Fasting: a major limitation for resistance exercise training effects in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. das Neves

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Protocols that mimic resistance exercise training (RET in rodents present several limitations, one of them being the electrical stimulus, which is beyond the physiological context observed in humans. Recently, our group developed a conditioning system device that does not use electric shock to stimulate rats, but includes fasting periods before each RET session. The current study was designed to test whether cumulative fasting periods have some influence on skeletal muscle mass and function. Three sets of male Wistar rats were used in the current study. The first set of rats was submitted to a RET protocol without food restriction. However, rats were not able to perform exercise properly. The second and third sets were then randomly assigned into three experimental groups: 1 untrained control rats, 2 untrained rats submitted to fasting periods, and 3 rats submitted to RET including fasting periods before each RET session. While the second set of rats performed a short RET protocol (i.e., an adaptation protocol for 3 weeks, the third set of rats performed a longer RET protocol including overload (i.e., 8 weeks. After the short-term protocol, cumulative fasting periods promoted loss of weight (P0.05 for all. Despite no effects on EDL mass, soleus muscle displayed significant atrophy in the fasting experimental groups (P<0.01. Altogether, these data indicate that fasting is a major limitation for RET in rats.

  9. Attentional Focus and Grip Width Influences on Bench Press Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Colado, JuanCarlos; Andersen, Lars L

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different attentional foci for varied grip widths in the bench press. Eighteen resistance-trained men were familiarized with the procedure and performed a one-repetition maximum (1RM) test during Session 1. In Session 2, they used three different standardized grip widths (100%, 150%, and 200% of biacromial width distance) in random order at 50% of 1RM while also engaged in three different attention focus conditions (external focus on the bench press, internal focus on pectoralis major muscles, and internal focus on triceps brachii muscles). Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from the triceps brachii and pectoralis major, and peak EMG of the filtered signals were normalized to maximum EMG of each muscle. Both grip width and focus influenced the muscle activity level, but there were no significant interactions between these variables. Exploratory analyses suggested that an internal focus may slightly (4%-6%) increase pectoralis major activity at wider grip widths and triceps brachii activity at narrower grip widths, but this should be confirmed or rejected in a study with a larger sample size or through a meta-analysis of research to date.

  10. Resistance training, insulin sensitivity and muscle function in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Kjaer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a loss in both muscle mass and in the metabolic quality of skeletal muscle. This leads to sarcopenia and reduced daily function, as well as to an increased risk for development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. A major part, but not all, of these changes......, and likewise to improve muscle strength in both elderly healthy individuals and in elderly individuals with chronic disease. The increased strength is coupled to improved function and a decreased risk for fall injuries and fractures. Elderly individuals have preserved the capacity to improve muscle strength...... are associated with an age-related decrease in the physical activity level and can be counteracted by increased physical activity of a resistive nature. Strength training has been shown to improve insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in both healthy elderly individuals and patients with manifest diabetes...

  11. Functional adaptation of tendon and skeletal muscle to resistance training in three patients with genetically verified classic Ehlers Danlos Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mathias Bech; Kjær, Michael; Svensson, René Brüggebusch

    2014-01-01

    undergoing muscle strength training. We investigated patients with classical Ehlers Danlos Syndrome (EDS) (collagen type V defect) who display articular hypermobility, skin extensibility and tissue fragility. METHODS: subjects underwent strength training 3 times a week for 4 months and were tested before...... and after intervention in regards to muscle strength, tendon mechanical properties, and muscle function. RESULTS: three subjects completed the scheduled 48 sessions and had no major adverse events. Mean isometric leg extension force and leg extensor power both increased by 8 and 11% respectively (358 to 397...... sway-area of the participants decreased by 26% (0.144 to 0.108 m(2)). On the subscale of CIS20 the participants lowered their average subjective fatigue score from 33 to 25. CONCLUSION: in this small pilot study, heavy resistance training was both feasible and effective in classic Ehlers Danlos...

  12. Effect of resistance training on muscle strength and rate of force development in healthy older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizelini, Pedrode Camargo; de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio; Caputo, Fabrizio; Greco, Camila Coelho

    2018-02-01

    Rapid force capacity, identified by rate of rise in contractile force at the onset of contraction, i.e., the rate of force development (RFD), has been considered an important neuromuscular parameter of physical fitness in elderly individuals. Randomized control studies conducted in adults have found that resistance training may elicit different outcomes in terms of RFD and muscle strength. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to review systematically the literature for studies regarding the influence of resistance training on muscle strength and RFD in elderly persons. A literature search was performed in major electronic databases from inception to March 2017. Studies including health individuals with a mean age≥60years, describing the effect of resistance training on RFD and muscle strength were found eligible. The outcomes were calculated as the difference in percentage change between control and experimental groups (% change) and data were presented as mean±95% confidence limits. Meta-analyses were performed using a random-effects model and, in addition, simple and multiple meta-regression analyses were used to identify effects of age, training type, sessions per week and training duration on % change in RFD and muscle strength. Thirteen training effects were collected from 10 studies included in the meta-analysis. The resistance training program had a moderate beneficial effect on both muscle strength (% change=18.40%, 95% CL 13.69-23.30, pchange=26.68, 95% CL 14.41-35.52, pchanges in muscle strength and RFD. It can be concluded that explosive training and heavy strength training are effective resistance training methods aiming to improve both muscle strength and RFD after short-to-medium training period. However, muscle strength and RFD seem to adapt differently to resistance training programs, suggesting caution for their interchangeable use in clinical assessments of the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Effects of In-Season Full-Back Squat, Resisted Sprint Training, and Plyometric Training on Explosive Performance in U-19 Elite Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoyo, Moises; Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Sañudo, Borja; Carrascal, Claudio; Plaza-Armas, Jose R; Camacho-Candil, Fernando; Otero-Esquina, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of 3 different low/moderate load strength training methods (full-back squat [SQ], resisted sprint with sled towing [RS], and plyometric and specific drills training [PLYO]) on sprinting, jumping, and change of direction (COD) abilities in soccer players. Thirty-two young elite male Spanish soccer players participated in the study. Subjects performed 2 specific strength training sessions per week, in addition to their normal training sessions for 8 weeks. The full-back squat protocol consisted of 2-3 sets × 4-8 repetitions at 40-60% 1 repetition maximum (∼ 1.28-0.98 m · s(-1)). The resisted sprint training was compounded by 6-10 sets × 20-m loaded sprints (12.6% of body mass). The plyometric and specific drills training was based on 1-3 sets × 2-3 repetitions of 8 plyometric and speed/agility exercises. Testing sessions included a countermovement jump (CMJ), a 20-m sprint (10-m split time), a 50-m (30-m split time) sprint, and COD test (i.e., Zig-Zag test). Substantial improvements (likely to almost certainly) in CMJ (effect size [ES]: 0.50-0.57) and 30-50 m (ES: 0.45-0.84) were found in every group in comparison to pretest results. Moreover, players in PLYO and SQ groups also showed substantial enhancements (likely to very likely) in 0-50 m (ES: 0.46-0.60). In addition, 10-20 m was also improved (very likely) in the SQ group (ES: 0.61). Between-group analyses showed that improvements in 10-20 m (ES: 0.57) and 30-50 m (ES: 0.40) were likely greater in the SQ group than in the RS group. Also, 10-20 m (ES: 0.49) was substantially better in the SQ group than in the PLYO group. In conclusion, the present strength training methods used in this study seem to be effective to improve jumping and sprinting abilities, but COD might need other stimulus to achieve positive effects.

  14. Closing session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This part makes a summary of the different sessions and discussions of the workshop in a series of slide presentations: Summary of Opening Session; Summary of Session 1: Analysis of External Hazard Potential; Summary of session 2: Specific features of analysis and modeling of particular natural external hazards; Summary of session-3: Practices and research efforts on natural external events PSA; Summary of session 4: Modeling of NPP response to natural external events in PSA; Summary of session 5: Seismic Risk Analysis; Summary of session 6: Use of external events PSA with the focus on regulatory body role; Facilitated discussion 1 summary: Where do we stand in the analysis of external events?; Summary Facilitated Discussion 2: Findings and Good Practices for External Events Analysis

  15. Effects of Added Resistance Training on Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Serum Hormone Concentrations During Eight Weeks of Special Military Training Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, Jani P; Kokko, Juha; Isoranta, Manne; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2015-11-01

    A high volume of military training has been shown to compromise muscle strength development. We examined effects of added low-volume resistance training during special military training (ST) period, which took place after basic training period. Male conscripts (n = 25) were assigned to standardized ST with added resistance training group (TG, n = 13) and group with standardized ST only (control) (CG, n = 12). Standardized ST with added resistance training group performed 2 resistance training sessions per week for 8 weeks: hypertrophic strength (weeks 1-3), maximal strength (weeks 4-6) and power training (weeks 7-8). Maximal strength tests, load carriage performance (3.2 km, 27 kg), and hormone concentrations were measured before and after ST (mean ± SD). Both groups improved similarly in their load carriage performance time (TG: 1,162 ± 116 seconds vs. 1,047 ± 81 seconds; CG: 1,142 ± 95 seconds vs. 1,035 ± 81 seconds) (p < 0.001) but decreased maximal strength of the lower extremities (TG: 5,250 ± 1,110 N vs. 4,290 ± 720 N; CG: 5,170 ± 1,050 N vs. 4,330 ± 1,230 N) and back muscles (TG: 4,290 ± 990 N vs. 3,570 ± 48 N; CG: 3,920 ± 72 N vs. 3,410 ± 53 N) (p ≤ 0.05). Maximal strength of the upper extremities improved in CG (1,040 ± 200 N vs. 1,140 ± 200 N) (p ≤ 0.05) but not in TG. Maximal strength of the abdominal muscles improved in TG (3,260 ± 510 N vs. 3,740 ± 75 N) (p ≤ 0.05) but not in CG. Testosterone concentration increased in CG (15.2 ± 3.6 nmol·L⁻¹ vs. 21.6 ± 5.0 nmol·L⁻¹) (p < 0.01) but not in TG (18.6 ± 4.3 nmol·L⁻¹ vs. 19.5 ± 9.4 nmol·L⁻¹). In conclusion, interference with strength gains might be related to the high volume of aerobic activities and too low volume of resistance training during ST. To develop strength characteristics, careful periodization and individualization should be adopted in ST.

  16. Effects of drop sets with resistance training on increases in muscle CSA, strength, and endurance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Hayao; Kubota, Atsushi; Natsume, Toshiharu; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Abe, Takashi; Machida, Shuichi; Naito, Hisashi

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the effects of a single high-load (80% of one repetition maximum [1RM]) set with additional drop sets descending to a low-load (30% 1RM) without recovery intervals on muscle strength, endurance, and size in untrained young men. Nine untrained young men performed dumbbell curls to concentric failure 2-3 days per week for 8 weeks. Each arm was randomly assigned to one of the following three conditions: 3 sets of high-load (HL, 80% 1RM) resistance exercise, 3 sets of low-load [LL, 30% 1RM] resistance exercise, and a single high-load (SDS) set with additional drop sets descending to a low-load. The mean training time per session, including recovery intervals, was lowest in the SDS condition. Elbow flexor muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) increased similarly in all three conditions. Maximum isometric and 1RM strength of the elbow flexors increased from pre to post only in the HL and SDS conditions. Muscular endurance measured by maximum repetitions at 30% 1RM increased only in the LL and SDS conditions. A SDS resistance training program can simultaneously increase muscle CSA, strength, and endurance in untrained young men, even with lower training time compared to typical resistance exercise protocols using only high- or low-loads.

  17. Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine produces enhanced anaerobic work capacity with reduced lactate accumulation in resistance trained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orem Ihsan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has indicated that short term administration of glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC significantly elevates levels of nitric oxide metabolites at rest and in response to reactive hyperaemia. However, no scientific evidence exists that suggests such supplementation enhances exercise performance in healthy, trained individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of GPLC on the performance of repeated high intensity stationary cycle sprints with limited recovery periods in resistance trained male subjects. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, twenty-four male resistance trained subjects (25.2 ± 3.6 years participated in two test sessions separated by one week. Testing was performed 90 minutes following oral ingestion of either 4.5 grams GPLC or 4.5 grams cellulose (PL, in randomized order. The exercise testing protocol consisted of five 10-second Wingate cycle sprints separated by 1-minute active recovery periods. Peak (PP and mean values (MP of sprint power output and percent decrement of power (DEC were determined per bout and standardized relative to body masss. Heart rate (HR and blood lactate (LAC were measured prior to, during and following the five sprint bouts. Results Significant main effects (p Conclusion These findings indicate that short-term oral supplementation of GPLC can enhance peak power production in resistance trained males with significantly less LAC accumulation.

  18. Resistance Training and Stroke: A Critical Analysis of Different Training Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bavaresco Gambassi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a literature review on the overall benefits of resistance training (RT after stroke and undertake a critical analysis of the resistance exercise programs surveyed (rest interval between sets and exercises, number of sets, number of repetitions, intensity, duration of training, and weekly frequency. To obtain articles for the review, we searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro. Inclusion criteria were considered using the PICO (population, intervention, control/comparison, and outcome variables model. The following characteristics were recorded for all articles: type of study, author, year of publication, participants (time after stroke, sample size, and age, benefits of RT, and structured resistance exercise programs. Positive effects of training were found on anxiety status, quality of life, muscle hypertrophy, cognitive function, strength, and muscle power. Only 5 studies described the main variables of RT in detail. Lack of control of some variables of RT may negatively affect the results of this practice. The findings of the present study may further inform health and physical conditioning professionals on the importance and necessity of using the main variables in the search for benefits for individuals with stroke.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of resistance training skill competence in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan J; DeMarco, Matthew; Kennedy, Sarah G; Kelson, Mark; Barnett, Lisa M; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lubans, David R

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and correlates of adolescents' resistance training (RT) skill competence. Participants were 548 adolescents (14.1 ± 0.5 years) from 16 schools in New South Wales, Australia. RT skills were assessed using the Resistance Training Skills Battery. Demographics, BMI, muscular fitness, perceived strength, RT self-efficacy, and motivation for RT were also assessed. The proportion demonstrating "competence" and "near competence" in each of the six RT skills were calculated and sex differences explored. Associations between the combined RT skill score and potential correlates were examined using multi-level linear mixed models. Overall, the prevalence of competence was low (range = 3.3% to 27.9%). Females outperformed males on the squat, lunge and overhead press, whereas males performed better on the push-up (p fitness was moderately and positively associated with RT skills among both males (β = 0.34, 95%CIs = 0.23 to 0.46) and females (β = 0.36, 95%CIs = 0.23 to 0.48). Our findings support a link between RT skills and muscular fitness. Other associations were statistically significant but small in magnitude, and should therefore be interpreted cautiously.

  20. Implementing Resistance Training in Secondary Schools: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sarah G; Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Peralta, Louisa R; Hilland, Toni A; Eather, Narelle; Lonsdale, Chris; Okely, Anthony D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Salmon, J O; Dewar, Deborah L; Estabrooks, Paul A; Pollock, Emma; Finn, Tara L; Lubans, David R

    2018-01-01

    Guidelines recommend that young people engage in muscle-strengthening activities on at least 3 d·wk. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a school-based intervention focused on resistance training (RT) for adolescents. The "Resistance Training for Teens" intervention was evaluated using a cluster-randomized, controlled trial with 607 adolescents (50.1% girls; 14.1 ± 0.5 yr) from 16 secondary schools. Teachers were trained to deliver the intervention, which included the following: (i) an interactive student seminar; (ii) a structured physical activity program, focused on RT; (iii) lunchtime fitness sessions; and (iv) Web-based smartphone apps. The primary outcome was muscular fitness (MF) and secondary outcomes included body mass index, RT skill competency, flexibility, physical activity, self-efficacy, and motivation. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 months (postprogram; primary end point), and 12 months (follow-up). Outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, with three potential moderators tested using interaction terms (and subgroup analyses where appropriate). For the primary outcome (MF), a group-time effect was observed at 6 months for the upper body (2.0 repetitions; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-3.2), but not the lower body (-1.4 cm; 95% CI, -4.7-1.9). At 6 months, there were intervention effects for RT skill competency and self-efficacy, but no other secondary outcomes. Effects for upper body MF and RT skill competency were sustained at 12 months. Despite overall no effect for body mass index, there was a group-time effect at 12 months among students who were overweight/obese at baseline (-0.55 kg·m; 95% CI, -1.01 to -0.08). The school-based RT intervention resulted in immediate and sustained improvements in upper body MF and RT skill competency, demonstrating an effective and scalable approach to delivering RT within secondary schools.

  1. HORMONAL RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT REST INTERVALS DURING RESISTANCE TRAINING WITH LIGHT LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Mohamad-Panahi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to determine the appropriate rest time between sets during weight training with light load. Material: Seventeen cadet wrestlers (age =16.7В±0.6 yrs.; height =169.2В±8.2 cm; and weight =51.4В±7.9 kg were recruited from wrestling clubs in the Iranian province of Kurdistan and served as subjects in this study. This study was conducted over seven sessions with 48 hours recovery between sessions. In the first session, the characteristic features of subjects were recorded and the one repetition maximum in the bench press test was determined for each subject. On 6 separate occasions, subjects performed a 4 set of bench press at 60% 1RM with a 90 and 240 seconds rest interval until volitional fatigue. The numbers of repetition performed by the subjects, and also, cortisol and testosterone levels and 1RM were recorded. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the sustainability of repetitions during 4 sets bench press with 60 % load between 90 and 240 seconds rest intervals (rest interval effect (p<0.05 as well as with 90% load. Results: Additionally, there was a significant difference in the sustainability of repetitions during 4 sets bench press in 90 and 240 seconds rest intervals, both, between light and heavy loads (load effect. Plasma cortisol concentrations significantly increased after all bench press trials. Also, the rest interval effect was statistically significant in both 60 % and 90% load trials. But, the load effect was only statistically significant in 90 seconds rest interval trial (p<0.05. In contrast, plasma testosterone concentrations significantly increased after 4 sets bench press only in 90 seconds rest interval with heavy load and 240 seconds rest interval with light load (p<0.05. Accordingly, testosterone to cortisol (T:C ratio were significantly decreased after 4 sets bench press in 90 seconds rest interval with light load and 240 seconds rest interval with

  2. HORMONAL RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT REST INTERVALS DURING RESISTANCE TRAINING WITH LIGHT LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Mohamad-Panahi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to determine the appropriate rest time between sets during weight training with light load. Material: Seventeen cadet wrestlers (age =16.7±0.6 yrs.; height =169.2±8.2 cm; and weight =51.4±7.9 kg were recruited from wrestling clubs in the Iranian province of Kurdistan and served as subjects in this study. This study was conducted over seven sessions with 48 hours recovery between sessions. In the first session, the characteristic features of subjects were recorded and the one repetition maximum in the bench press test was determined for each subject. On 6 separate occasions, subjects performed a 4 set of bench press at 60% 1RM with a 90 and 240 seconds rest interval until volitional fatigue. The numbers of repetition performed by the subjects, and also, cortisol and testosterone levels and 1RM were recorded. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the sustainability of repetitions during 4 sets bench press with 60 % load between 90 and 240 seconds rest intervals (rest interval effect (p<0.05 as well as with 90% load. Results: Additionally, there was a significant difference in the sustainability of repetitions during 4 sets bench press in 90 and 240 seconds rest intervals, both, between light and heavy loads (load effect. Plasma cortisol concentrations significantly increased after all bench press trials. Also, the rest interval effect was statistically significant in both 60 % and 90% load trials. But, the load effect was only statistically significant in 90 seconds rest interval trial (p<0.05. In contrast, plasma testosterone concentrations significantly increased after 4 sets bench press only in 90 seconds rest interval with heavy load and 240 seconds rest interval with light load (p<0.05. Accordingly, testosterone to cortisol (T:C ratio were significantly decreased after 4 sets bench press in 90 seconds rest interval with light load and 240 seconds rest interval with heavy

  3. No Effects of Non-invasive Brain Stimulation on Multiple Sessions of Object-Location-Memory Training in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külzow, Nadine; Cavalcanti de Sousa, Angelica Vieira; Cesarz, Magda; Hanke, Julie-Marie; Günsberg, Alida; Harder, Solvejg; Koblitz, Swantje; Grittner, Ulrike; Flöel, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    Object-location memory (OLM) is known to decline with normal aging, a process accelerated in pathological conditions like mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In order to maintain cognitive health and to delay the transition from healthy to pathological conditions, novel strategies are being explored. Tentative evidence suggests that combining cognitive training and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS), both reported to induce small and often inconsistent behavioral improvements, could generate larger or more consistent improvements or both, compared to each intervention alone. Here, we explored the combined efficacy of these techniques on OLM. In a subject-blind sham-controlled cross-over design 32 healthy older adults underwent a 3-day visuospatial training paired with either anodal (20 min) or sham (30 s) atDCS (1 mA, temporoparietal). Subjects were asked to learn the correct object-location pairings on a street map, shown over five learning blocks on each training day. Acquisition performance was assessed by accuracy on a given learning block in terms of percentage of correct responses. Training success (performance on last training day) and delayed memory after 1-month were analyzed by mixed model analysis and were controlled for gender, age, education, sequence of stimulation and baseline performance. Exploratory analysis of atDCS effects on within-session (online) and between-session (offline) memory performance were conducted. Moreover, transfer effects on similar trained (visuospatial) and less similar (visuo-constructive, verbal) untrained memory tasks were explored, both immediately after training, and on follow-up. We found that atDCS paired with OLM-training did not enhance success in training or performance in 1-month delayed memory or transfer tasks. In sum, this study did not support the notion that the combined atDCS-training approach improves immediate or delayed OLM in older adults. However, specifics of the experimental design, and

  4. No Effects of Non-invasive Brain Stimulation on Multiple Sessions of Object-Location-Memory Training in Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Külzow

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Object-location memory (OLM is known to decline with normal aging, a process accelerated in pathological conditions like mild cognitive impairment (MCI. In order to maintain cognitive health and to delay the transition from healthy to pathological conditions, novel strategies are being explored. Tentative evidence suggests that combining cognitive training and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS, both reported to induce small and often inconsistent behavioral improvements, could generate larger or more consistent improvements or both, compared to each intervention alone. Here, we explored the combined efficacy of these techniques on OLM. In a subject-blind sham-controlled cross-over design 32 healthy older adults underwent a 3-day visuospatial training paired with either anodal (20 min or sham (30 s atDCS (1 mA, temporoparietal. Subjects were asked to learn the correct object-location pairings on a street map, shown over five learning blocks on each training day. Acquisition performance was assessed by accuracy on a given learning block in terms of percentage of correct responses. Training success (performance on last training day and delayed memory after 1-month were analyzed by mixed model analysis and were controlled for gender, age, education, sequence of stimulation and baseline performance. Exploratory analysis of atDCS effects on within-session (online and between-session (offline memory performance were conducted. Moreover, transfer effects on similar trained (visuospatial and less similar (visuo-constructive, verbal untrained memory tasks were explored, both immediately after training, and on follow-up. We found that atDCS paired with OLM-training did not enhance success in training or performance in 1-month delayed memory or transfer tasks. In sum, this study did not support the notion that the combined atDCS-training approach improves immediate or delayed OLM in older adults. However, specifics of the experimental

  5. Effect of 8 weeks Resistance Training on BDNF and TrkB in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

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    S Mojtahedi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise enhances the synaptic plasticity and neuroprotective effects in the adult brain. However, it remains unknown that how plasticity molecules change following types of training. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of eight weeks resistance training on protein levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor(BDNF and receptor of TrkB, in the hippocampus of adult male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, twelve adult male rats, 8 weeks of age, with an average weight of 200 to 225 grams were randomly divided into two groups, control and exercise respectively. The exercise was to increase the weight on the ladder. 24 hours after their last training session. The animals were killed and the hippocampus was removed for further testing. ELISA determined changes in protein levels. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: There was a significant difference between train and control groups In protein level of variables statically (p≤0.05. In addition, protein levels of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus of rats increased. Conclusion: Resistance training is beneficial for promoting hippocampal plasticity associated with BDNF signaling and consequently functional and cognitive benefits.

  6. The effects of low-volume resistance training with and without advanced techniques in trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieβsing, Jùrgen; Fisher, James; Steele, James; Rothe, Frank; Raubold, Kristin; Eichmann, Björn

    2016-03-01

    This study examined low-volume resistance training (RT) in trained participants with and without advanced training methods. Trained participants (RT experience 4±3 years) were randomised to groups performing single-set RT: ssRM (N.=21) performing repetitions to self-determined repetition maximum (RM), ssMMF (N.=30) performing repetitions to momentary muscular failure (MMF), and ssRP (N.=28) performing repetitions to self-determined RM using a rest pause (RP) method. Each performed supervised RT twice/week for 10 weeks. Outcomes included maximal isometric strength and body composition using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The ssRM group did not significantly improve in any outcome. The ssMMF and ssRP groups both significantly improved strength (p < 0.05). Magnitude of changes using effect size (ES) was examined between groups. Strength ES's were considered large for ssMMF (0.91 to 1.57) and ranging small to large for ssRP (0.42 to 1.06). Body composition data revealed significant improvements (P<0.05) in muscle and fat mass and percentages for whole body, upper limbs and trunk for ssMMF, but only upper limbs for ssRP. Body composition ES's ranged moderate to large for ssMMF (0.56 to 1.27) and ranged small to moderate for ssRP (0.28 to 0.52). ssMMF also significantly improved (P<0.05) total abdominal fat and increased intracellular water with moderate ES's (-0.62 and 0.56, respectively). Training to self-determined RM is not efficacious for trained participants. Training to MMF produces greatest improvements in strength and body composition, however, RP style training does offer some benefit.

  7. Ad libitum fluid intake does not prevent dehydration in suboptimally hydrated young soccer players during a training session of a summer camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A; Kotsis, Yiannis P; Tsekouras, Yiannis E; Makrillos, Michalis; Bardis, Costas N

    2013-06-01

    There is a lack of studies concerning hydration status of young athletes exercising in the heat. To assess preexercise hydration status in young soccer players during a summer sports camp and to evaluate body- water balance after soccer training sessions. Initial hydration status was assessed in 107 young male soccer players (age 11-16 yr) during the 2nd day of the camp. Seventy-two athletes agreed to be monitored during 2 more training sessions (3rd and 5th days of the camp) to calculate dehydration via changes in body weight, while water drinking was allowed ad libitum. Hydration status was assessed via urine specific gravity (USG), urine color, and changes in total body weight. Mean environmental temperature and humidity were 27.2 ± 2 °C and 57% ± 9%, respectively. According to USG values, 95 of 107 of the players were hypohydrated (USG ≥ 1.020) before practice. The prevalence of dehydration observed was maintained on both days, with 95.8% and 97.2% of the players being dehydrated after the training sessions on the 3rd and 5th days, respectively. Despite fluid availability, 54 of the 66 (81.8%) dehydrated players reduced their body weight (-0.35 ± 0.04 kg) as a response to training, while 74.6% (47 out of the 63) further reduced their body weight (-0.22 ± 0.03 kg) after training on the 5th day. Approximately 90% of the young soccer players who began exercising under warm weather conditions were hypohydrated, while drinking ad libitum during practice did not prevent further dehydration in already dehydrated players.

  8. Concurrent cardiovascular and resistance training in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R H; Reyes, R; Welsch, M A; Favaloro-Sabatier, J; Sabatier, M; Matthew Lee, C; Johnson, L G; Hooper, P F

    2001-10-01

    The recommendations for exercise training and physical activity for older adults include cardiovascular and resistance training components (CVT and RT, respectively). The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the fitness benefits of concurrent CVT and RT with those attained through an equivalent duration of CVT or RT alone. Thirty-six participants (ages 60-84) were assigned to a control group or to one of three exercise treatment groups. The treatment groups exercised three times per week for 12 wk using RT (N = 11), CVT (N = 10), or CVT and RT (BOTH, N = 9). Pre- and post-training, participants performed a submaximal exercise test (GXT), five repetition-maximum strength tests (5RM), and the AAHPERD functional fitness test for older adults. All exercise treatment groups revealed lower resting heart rate and rate-pressure product; lower exercise diastolic blood pressure and rating of perceived exertion; increased GXT duration; increased leg, back, and shoulder 5RM scores; and improved AAHPERD flexibility, coordination, and cardiovascular endurance scores. The exercise treatment groups responded differently on the following: RT and BOTH enhanced arm and chest strength more than CVT; and BOTH enhanced AAHPERD strength and agility scores more than CVT or RT. Concurrent CVT and RT is as effective in eliciting improvements in cardiovascular fitness and 5RM performance as CVT or RT, respectively. Moreover, incorporating both CVT and RT in exercise programs for older adults may be more effective in optimizing aspects of functional fitness than programs that involve only one component.

  9. Effects of Resistance Training on Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in Skeletal Muscles and Blood Circulation During Aging

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    Ivo V. de Sousa Neto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a complex, multifactorial process characterized by the accumulation of deleterious effects, including biochemical adaptations of the extracellular matrix (ECM. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT on metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2 activity in skeletal muscles and, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the blood circulation of young and old rats. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 7 per group: young sedentary (YS; young trained (YT, old sedentary (OS, and old trained (OT. The stair climbing RT consisted of one training session every 2 other day, with 8–12 dynamic movements per climb. The animals were euthanized 48 h after the end of the experimental period. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity was measured by zymography. There was higher active MMP-2 activity in the lateral gastrocnemius and flexor digitorum profundus muscles in the OT group when compared to the OS, YS, and YT groups (p ≤ 0.001. Moreover, there was higher active MMP-2 activity in the medial gastrocnemius muscle in the OT group when compared to the YS and YT groups (p ≤ 0.001. The YS group presented lower active MMP-2 activity in the soleus muscle than the YT, OS, OT groups (p ≤ 0.001. With respect to active MMP-2/9 activity in the bloodstream, the OT group displayed significantly reduced activity (p ≤ 0.001 when compared to YS and YT groups. In conclusion, RT up-regulates MMP-2 activity in aging muscles, while down-regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the blood circulation, suggesting that it may be a useful tool for the maintenance of ECM remodeling.

  10. Feasibility of resistance training in adult McArdle patients: clinical outcomes and muscle strength and mass benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santalla, Alfredo; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Brea-Alejo, Lidia; Pagola-Aldazábal, Itziar; Díez-Bermejo, Jorge; Fleck, Steven J; Ara, Ignacio; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of a 4-month resistance (weight lifting) training program followed by a 2-month detraining period in 7 adult McArdle patients (5 female) on: muscle mass (assessed by DXA), strength, serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and clinical severity. Adherence to training was ≥84% in all patients and no major contraindication or side effect was noted during the training or strength assessment sessions. The training program had a significant impact on total and lower extremities' lean mass (P training by +855 g (95% confidence interval (CI): 30, 1679) and +547 g (95%CI: 116, 978), respectively, and significantly decreasing with detraining. Body fat showed no significant changes over the study period. Bench press and half-squat performance, expressed as the highest value of average muscle power (W) or force (N) in the concentric-repetition phase of both tests showed a consistent increase over the 4-month training period, and decreased with detraining. Yet muscle strength and power detraining values were significantly higher than pre-training values, indicating that a training effect was still present after detraining. Importantly, all the participants, with no exception, showed a clear gain in muscle strength after the 4-month training period, e.g., bench press: +52 W (95% CI: 13, 91); half-squat: +173 W (95% CI: 96, 251). No significant time effect (P > 0.05) was noted for baseline or post strength assessment values of serum CK activity, which remained essentially within the range reported in our laboratory for McArdle patients. All the patients changed to a lower severity class with training, such that none of them were in the highest disease severity class (3) after the intervention and, as such, they did not have fixed muscle weakness after training. Clinical improvements were retained, in all but one patient, after detraining, such that after detraining all patients were classed as class 1 for disease severity.

  11. Noninvasive optical imaging of resistance training adaptations in human muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Robert V.; Cotter, Joshua; Ganesan, Goutham; Le, Lisa; Agustin, Janelle P.; Duarte, Bridgette; Cutler, Kyle; O'Sullivan, Thomas; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2017-12-01

    A quantitative and dynamic analysis of skeletal muscle structure and function can guide training protocols and optimize interventions for rehabilitation and disease. While technologies exist to measure body composition, techniques are still needed for quantitative, long-term functional imaging of muscle at the bedside. We evaluate whether diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) can be used for long-term assessment of resistance training (RT). DOSI measures of tissue composition were obtained from 12 adults before and after 5 weeks of training and compared to lean mass fraction (LMF) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Significant correlations were detected between DXA LMF and DOSI-measured oxy-hemo/myoglobin, deoxy-hemo/myoglobin, total-hemo/myoglobin, water, and lipid. RT-induced increases of ˜6% in oxy-hemo/myoglobin (3.4±1.0 μM, p=0.00314) and total-hemo/myoglobin (4.9±1.1 μM, p=0.00024) from the medial gastrocnemius were detected with DOSI and accompanied by ˜2% increases in lean soft tissue mass (36.4±12.4 g, p=0.01641) and ˜60% increases in 1 rep-max strength (41.5±6.2 kg, p = 1.9E-05). DOSI measures of vascular and/or muscle changes combined with correlations between DOSI and DXA suggest that quantitative diffuse optical methods can be used to evaluate body composition, provide feedback on long-term interventions, and generate new insight into training-induced muscle adaptations.

  12. Basic life support knowledge, self-reported skills and fears in Danish high school students and effect of a single 45-min training session run by junior doctors; a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaberg, Anne Marie Roust; Larsen, Caroline Emilie Brenner; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early recognition and immediate bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation are critical determinants of survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Our aim was to evaluate current knowledge on basic life support (BLS) in Danish high school students and benefits of a single...... training session run by junior doctors. METHODS: Six-hundred-fifty-one students were included. They underwent one 45-minute BLS training session including theoretical aspects and hands-on training with mannequins. The students completed a baseline questionnaire before the training session and a follow...... areas of BLS is poor among high school students. One hands-on training session run by junior doctors seems to be efficient to empower the students to be first responders to OHCA....

  13. Salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase and immunoglobulin a responses to a morning session of basketball or volleyball training in boys aged 14-18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzda-Zwiech, A; Konieczka, M; Hilt, A; Daszkowska, M; Grzegorczyk, J; Szczepańska, J

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether a single session of routine morning basketball or volleyball training affects saliva levels of cortisol, alpha-amylase (sAA) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in boys aged 14–18 years. Twenty-nine boys who participate in basketball or volleyball training, recruited from the Marcin Gortat’s Athletic Championship School in Lodz, were enrolled in the study. The 90-minute routine exercise program included 15 minutes of warm-up followed by basketball or volleyball practice. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected prior to and immediately after the exercise, and were analysed using ELISA. One training session resulted in a significant increase of sAA concentration in all participants, as well as in the volleyball and basketball subgroups (p=0.00022; p=0.0029; p=0.0011; respectively). Post-exercise cortisol levels were significantly lower than pre-exercise levels (p=0.00002) throughout the group, as well as in the volleyball and basketball subgroups (p=0.0048; p=0.0019; p=0.0048; respectively). The exercise protocol did not significantly affect sIgA level, either in the whole examined group or the volleyball subgroup, however a weak significant increase of sIgA was observed in the basketball subgroup (p=0.046). The routine morning training session comprising a warm-up followed by basketball or volleyball practice seems to activate the sympatho-adrenal-medullary system, with a subsequent increase of alpha-amylase, but does not affect oral immunity in 14-18-year-old boys.

  14. Normobaric hypoxia increases the growth hormone response to maximal resistance exercise in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filopoulos, Dean; Cormack, Stuart J; Whyte, Douglas G

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the effect of hypoxia on growth hormone (GH) release during an acute bout of high-intensity, low-volume resistance exercise. Using a single-blinded, randomised crossover design, 16 resistance-trained males completed two resistance exercise sessions in normobaric hypoxia (HYP; inspiratory oxygen fraction, (FiO 2 ) 0.12, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) 82 ± 2%) and normoxia (NOR; FiO 2 0.21, SpO 2 98 ± 0%). Each session consisted of five sets of three repetitions of 45° leg press and bench press at 85% of one repetition maximum. Heart rate, SpO 2 , and electromyographic activity (EMG) of the vastus lateralis muscle were measured throughout the protocol. Serum lactate and GH levels were determined pre-exposure, and at 5, 15, 30 and 60 min post-exercise. Differences in mean and integrated EMG between HYP and NOR treatments were unclear. However, there was an important increase in the peak levels and area under the curve of both lactate (HYP 5.8 ± 1.8 v NOR 3.9 ± 1.1 mmol.L -1 and HYP 138.7 ± 33.1 v NOR 105.8 ± 20.8 min.mmol.L -1 ) and GH (HYP 4.4 ± 3.1 v NOR 2.1 ± 2.5 ng.mL -1 and HYP 117.7 ± 86.9 v NOR 72.9 ± 85.3 min.ng.mL -1 ) in response to HYP. These results suggest that performing high-intensity resistance exercise in a hypoxic environment may provide a beneficial endocrine response without compromising the neuromuscular activation required for maximal strength development.

  15. The effect of Punica granatum L. along with aerobic training on resistin, serum adiponectin and insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Abdi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Factors secreted from adipocytes, such as resistin and adiponectin can affect peripheral insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and pomegranate, which has both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties can affect resistin and adiponectin. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Punica granatum L. along with aerobic training on serum resistin, adiponectin and insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this study, 33 diabetic women with type 2 diabetes were selected from Babol city and were randomly divided into four groups (control, P. granatum L., training and P. granatum L.+ training. The training groups participated in an aerobic training for six weeks, three sessions a week (60% to 75% of the reserved heart rate and for 25 to 45 min. The control groups of P. granatum L. and P. granatum L. + training were fed 150 mL of P. granatum L. for six weeks (at about 18 p.m. Two days before and after the protocol, blood samples were taken. Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference in the serum resistin levels among the three experimental groups. Also, the results showed a significant difference between adiponectin levels and insulin resistance in four groups. Conclusions: It seems that aerobic training and P. granatum L. and combination of both can have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on reduction of adiponectin and insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes.

  16. Evidence for Resistance Training as a Treatment Therapy in Obesity

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    Barbara Strasser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, investigators have paid increasing attention to the effects of resistance training (RT on several metabolic syndrome variables. Evidence suggests that skeletal muscle is responsible for up to 40% of individuals' total body weight and may be influential in modifying metabolic risk factors via muscle mass development. Due to the metabolic consequences of reduced muscle mass, it is understood that normal aging and/or decreased physical activity may lead to a higher prevalence of metabolic disorders. The purpose of this review is to (1 evaluate the potential clinical effectiveness and biological mechanisms of RT in the treatment of obesity and (2 provide up-to-date evidence relating to the impact of RT in reducing major cardiovascular disease risk factors (including dyslipidaemia and type 2 diabetes. A further aim of this paper is to provide clinicians with recommendations for facilitating the use of RT as therapy in obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders.

  17. Importance of mind-muscle connection during progressive resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus Due

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluates whether focusing on using specific muscles during bench press can selectively activate these muscles. METHODS: Altogether 18 resistance-trained men participated. Subjects were familiarized with the procedure and performed one-maximum repetition (1RM) test during...... electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded for the triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscles. Subsequently, peak EMG of the filtered signals were normalized to maximum maximorum EMG of each muscle. RESULTS: In both muscles, focusing on using the respective muscles increased muscle activity at relative loads...... between 20 and 60 %, but not at 80 % of 1RM. Overall, a threshold between 60 and 80 % rather than a linear decrease in selective activation with increasing intensity appeared to exist. The increased activity did not occur at the expense of decreased activity of the other muscle, e.g. when focusing...

  18. Time course of recovery following resistance training leading or not to failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán-Navarro, Ricardo; Pérez, Carlos E; Mora-Rodríguez, Ricardo; de la Cruz-Sánchez, Ernesto; González-Badillo, Juan José; Sánchez-Medina, Luis; Pallarés, Jesús G

    2017-12-01

    To describe the acute and delayed time course of recovery following resistance training (RT) protocols differing in the number of repetitions (R) performed in each set (S) out of the maximum possible number (P). Ten resistance-trained men undertook three RT protocols [S × R(P)]: (1) 3 × 5(10), (2) 6 × 5(10), and (3) 3 × 10(10) in the bench press (BP) and full squat (SQ) exercises. Selected mechanical and biochemical variables were assessed at seven time points (from - 12 h to + 72 h post-exercise). Countermovement jump height (CMJ) and movement velocity against the load that elicited a 1 m s -1 mean propulsive velocity (V1) and 75% 1RM in the BP and SQ were used as mechanical indicators of neuromuscular performance. Training to muscle failure in each set [3 × 10(10)], even when compared to completing the same total exercise volume [6 × 5(10)], resulted in a significantly higher acute decline of CMJ and velocity against the V1 and 75% 1RM loads in both BP and SQ. In contrast, recovery from the 3 × 5(10) and 6 × 5(10) protocols was significantly faster between 24 and 48 h post-exercise compared to 3 × 10(10). Markers of acute (ammonia, growth hormone) and delayed (creatine kinase) fatigue showed a markedly different course of recovery between protocols, suggesting that training to failure slows down recovery up to 24-48 h post-exercise. RT leading to failure considerably increases the time needed for the recovery of neuromuscular function and metabolic and hormonal homeostasis. Avoiding failure would allow athletes to be in a better neuromuscular condition to undertake a new training session or competition in a shorter period of time.

  19. Feasibility of resistance training in adult McArdle patients: Clinical outcomes and muscle strength and mass benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo eSantalla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effects of a 4-month resistance (weight lifting training program followed by a 2-month detraining period in 7 adult McArdle patients (5 female on: muscle mass (assessed by DXA, strength, serum creatine kinase (CK activity and clinical severity. Adherence to training was ≥ 84% in all patients and no major contraindication or side effect was noted during the training or strength assessment sessions. The training program had a significant impact on total and lower extremities’ lean mass (P0.05 was noted for baseline or post strength assessment values of serum CK activity, which remained essentially within the range reported in our laboratory for McArdle patients. All the patients changed to a lower severity class with training, such that none of them were in the highest disease severity class (3 after the intervention and, as such, they did not have fixed muscle weakness after training. Clinical improvements were retained, in all but one patient, after detraining, such that after detraining all patients were classed as class 1 for

  20. A Systematic Review of Resistance Training Versus Endurance Training in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Ringbaek, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE:: Endurance training (ET) as part of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been shown to improve exercise capacity and health-related quality of life, but dyspnea limits the exercise intensity. Therefore, resistance training (RT), which...... may cause less dyspnea, could be an alternative. The purpose of this review was to formulate evidence-based recommendations on the use of RT in pulmonary rehabilitation of patients with COPD. Our primary outcomes were health-related quality of life, activities of daily living, dyspnea, possible harm......, and total mortality. Our secondary outcomes were walking distance, lean body mass, muscle strength, and exercise capacity. METHODS:: We identified randomized controlled trials through a systematic multidatabase search. One author checked titles and abstracts for relevance using broad inclusion criteria...

  1. Four Weekly Ayahuasca Sessions Lead to Increases in “Acceptance” Capacities: A Comparison Study With a Standard 8-Week Mindfulness Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Dominguez-Clavé, Elisabeth; Pascual, Juan C.; Feilding, Amanda; Navarro-Gil, Mayte; García-Campayo, Javier; Riba, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Background: The therapeutic effects of the Amazonian plant tea ayahuasca may relate to its ability to enhance mindfulness capacities. Ayahuasca induces a modified state of awareness through the combined action of its active principles: the psychedelic N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and a series of centrally acting β-carbolines, mainly harmine and tetrahydroharmine. To better understand the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca, here we compared the impact on mindfulness capacities induced by two independent interventions: (a) participation in four ayahuasca sessions without any specific purpose related to improving mindfulness capacities; and (b) participation in a standard mindfulness training course: 8 weeks mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), with the specific goal of improving these skills. Methods: Participants of two independent groups completed two self-report instruments: The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ). The MINDSENS Composite Index was also calculated, including those EQ and FFMQ items that have proven to be the most sensitive to meditation practice. Group A (n = 10) was assessed before and after the last of four closely spaced consecutive ayahuasca sessions. Group B (n = 10) was assessed before and after completion of a standard 8-week MBSR course. Results: MBSR training led to greater increases in overall mindfulness scores after the 8-week period. MBSR but not ayahuasca led to increases in the MINDSENS Composite Index. However, the ayahuasca sessions induced comparable increases in the Non-Judging subscale of the FFMQ, specifically measuring “acceptance.” Improving this capacity allows for a more detached and less judgmental stance toward potentially distressing thoughts and emotions. Results: The present findings suggest that a small number of ayahuasca sessions can be as effective at improving acceptance as more lengthy and costly interventions. Future studies should address the benefits of

  2. Four Weekly Ayahuasca Sessions Lead to Increases in "Acceptance" Capacities: A Comparison Study With a Standard 8-Week Mindfulness Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Dominguez-Clavé, Elisabeth; Pascual, Juan C; Feilding, Amanda; Navarro-Gil, Mayte; García-Campayo, Javier; Riba, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Background: The therapeutic effects of the Amazonian plant tea ayahuasca may relate to its ability to enhance mindfulness capacities. Ayahuasca induces a modified state of awareness through the combined action of its active principles: the psychedelic N,N- dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and a series of centrally acting β-carbolines, mainly harmine and tetrahydroharmine. To better understand the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca, here we compared the impact on mindfulness capacities induced by two independent interventions: (a) participation in four ayahuasca sessions without any specific purpose related to improving mindfulness capacities; and (b) participation in a standard mindfulness training course: 8 weeks mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), with the specific goal of improving these skills. Methods: Participants of two independent groups completed two self-report instruments: The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ). The MINDSENS Composite Index was also calculated, including those EQ and FFMQ items that have proven to be the most sensitive to meditation practice. Group A ( n = 10) was assessed before and after the last of four closely spaced consecutive ayahuasca sessions. Group B ( n = 10) was assessed before and after completion of a standard 8-week MBSR course. Results: MBSR training led to greater increases in overall mindfulness scores after the 8-week period. MBSR but not ayahuasca led to increases in the MINDSENS Composite Index. However, the ayahuasca sessions induced comparable increases in the Non-Judging subscale of the FFMQ, specifically measuring "acceptance." Improving this capacity allows for a more detached and less judgmental stance toward potentially distressing thoughts and emotions. Results: The present findings suggest that a small number of ayahuasca sessions can be as effective at improving acceptance as more lengthy and costly interventions. Future studies should address the benefits of

  3. Four Weekly Ayahuasca Sessions Lead to Increases in “Acceptance” Capacities: A Comparison Study With a Standard 8-Week Mindfulness Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Soler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The therapeutic effects of the Amazonian plant tea ayahuasca may relate to its ability to enhance mindfulness capacities. Ayahuasca induces a modified state of awareness through the combined action of its active principles: the psychedelic N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT and a series of centrally acting β-carbolines, mainly harmine and tetrahydroharmine. To better understand the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca, here we compared the impact on mindfulness capacities induced by two independent interventions: (a participation in four ayahuasca sessions without any specific purpose related to improving mindfulness capacities; and (b participation in a standard mindfulness training course: 8 weeks mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR, with the specific goal of improving these skills.Methods: Participants of two independent groups completed two self-report instruments: The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ. The MINDSENS Composite Index was also calculated, including those EQ and FFMQ items that have proven to be the most sensitive to meditation practice. Group A (n = 10 was assessed before and after the last of four closely spaced consecutive ayahuasca sessions. Group B (n = 10 was assessed before and after completion of a standard 8-week MBSR course.Results: MBSR training led to greater increases in overall mindfulness scores after the 8-week period. MBSR but not ayahuasca led to increases in the MINDSENS Composite Index. However, the ayahuasca sessions induced comparable increases in the Non-Judging subscale of the FFMQ, specifically measuring “acceptance.” Improving this capacity allows for a more detached and less judgmental stance toward potentially distressing thoughts and emotions.Results: The present findings suggest that a small number of ayahuasca sessions can be as effective at improving acceptance as more lengthy and costly interventions. Future studies should address the

  4. The Effect of HMB Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors after Four Weeks of Resistance Training in Amateur Athletes

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    Hamid Arazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional supplements have been widely used in order to enhance athletic performance and improve health. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors after 4 weeks of resistance training in athletes. Patients and Methods: In this double-blind study, 20 male athletes were selected through simple random sampling, were assigned to supplement and control groups, and participated in resistance training 3 sessions a week for 4 weeks. The supplement group consumed 3 g HMB supplement per day and the control group consumed the placebo (rice flour in this period. Before and after the test period, blood pressure was measured and fasting blood samples were obtained to determine blood lipids and hematological parameters. After all, paired and unpaired t-test were used to examine within and between group differences, respectively. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: After the training period, no significant differences were found between HMB and placebo groups regarding blood lipids, blood pressure, and hematological parameters. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that HMB supplementation was safe and did not result in any adverse effects. Thus, HMB can be used safely by human as an ergogenic aid for exercise training.

  5. Does a single gait training session performed either overground or on a treadmill induce specific short-term effects on gait parameters in patients with hemiparesis? A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnyaud, Céline; Pradon, Didier; Zory, Raphael; Bensmail, Djamel; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Roche, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Gait training for patients with hemiparesis is carried out independently overground or on a treadmill. Several studies have shown differences in hemiparetic gait parameters during overground versus treadmill walking. However, few studies have compared the effects of these 2 gait training conditions on gait parameters, and no study has compared the short-term effects of these techniques on all biomechanical gait parameters. To determine whether a gait training session performed overground or on a treadmill induces specific short-term effects on biomechanical gait parameters in patients with hemiparesis. Twenty-six subjects with hemiparesis were randomly assigned to a single session of either overground or treadmill gait training. The short-term effects on spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic gait parameters were assessed using gait analysis before and immediately after the training and after a 20-minute rest. Speed, cadence, percentage of single support phase, peak knee extension, peak propulsion, and braking on the paretic side were significantly increased after the gait training session. However, there were no specific changes dependent on the type of gait training performed (overground or on a treadmill). A gait training session performed by subjects with hemiparesis overground or on a treadmill did not induce specific short-term effects on biomechanical gait parameters. The increase in gait velocity that followed a gait training session seemed to reflect specific modifications of the paretic lower limb and adaptation of the nonparetic lower limb.

  6. Effect of Regular Resistance Training on Motivation, Self-Perceived Health, and Quality of Life in Previously Inactive Overweight Women: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiestad, Hege; Rustaden, Anne Mette; Bø, Kari; Haakstad, Lene A H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim was to investigate the effects of three different types of resistance training implementation. Design. Randomized controlled trial. Methods. Inactive, overweight women (n = 143), mean BMI 31.3 ± 5.2 kg/m(2), mean age 39.9 ± 10.5 years, were randomized to one of the following groups: A (BodyPump group training), B (individual follow-up by a personal trainer), C (nonsupervised exercise), or D (controls). The intervention included 12 weeks of 45-60 minutes' full-body resistance training three sessions per week. The outcomes in this paper are all secondary outcome measures: exercise motivation, self-perceived health, and quality of life. Results. Adherence averaged 26.1 ± 10.3 of 36 prescribed sessions. After the intervention period, all three training groups (A-C) had better scores on exercise motivation (A = 43.9 ± 19.8, B = 47.6 ± 15.4, C = 48.4 ± 17.8) compared to the control group (D) (26.5 ± 18.2) (p training contributed to higher scores in important variables related to exercise motivation and self-perceived health. Low adherence showed that it was difficult to motivate previously inactive, overweight women to participate in regular strength training.

  7. Ensuring implementation success: how should coach injury prevention education be improved if we want coaches to deliver safety programmes during training sessions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peta E; Otago, Leonie; Saunders, Natalie; Romiti, Maria; Donaldson, Alex; Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F

    2014-03-01

    Coaches play a major role in encouraging and ensuring that participants of their teams adopt appropriate safety practices. However, the extent to which the coaches undertake this role will depend upon their attitudes about injury prevention, their perceptions of what the other coaches usually do and their own beliefs about how much control they have in delivering such programmes. Fifty-one junior netball coaches were surveyed about incorporating the teaching of correct (safe) landing technique during their delivery of training sessions to junior players. Overall, >94% of coaches had strongly positive attitudes towards teaching correct landing technique and >80% had strongly positive perceptions of their own control over delivering such programmes. Coaches' ratings of social norms relating to what others think about teaching safe landing were more positive (>94%) than those relating to what others actually do (63-74%). In conclusion, the junior coaches were generally receptive towards delivering safe landing training programmes in the training sessions they led. Future coach education could include role modelling by prominent coaches so that more community-level coaches are aware that this is a behaviour that many coaches can, and do, engage in.

  8. The Effects of Gesture and Movement Training on the Intonation of Children's Singing in Vocal Warm-Up Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Mei-Ying; Davidson, Jane W.

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of gesture and movement training for beginning children's choirs with regard to improving intonation. It was a between-subjects design with one independent variable Training Technique (TT). One dependent variable was measured: intonation in the singing of vocal pattern warm-up…

  9. Changes in emotional distress, short term memory, and sustained attention following 6 and 12 sessions of progressive muscle relaxation training in 10-11 years old primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Zainol, Nurul Ain

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effects of 6 and 12 sessions of relaxation training on emotional distress, short-term memory, and sustained attention in primary school children. Participants (N = 132) aged 10 and 11 years old participated in this study. All participants and their parents provided written informed consent. Participants completed the measurement instruments before and after the completion of relaxation training. Nearly half (49%) of all respondents reported moderate to extremely severe stress, and 80 and 61% reported moderate to extremely severe anxiety and depression, respectively. The results of a one-way analysis of variance revealed a significant difference among the groups in mean changes in short-term memory. A greater memory increase was observed in the 12-session than in the six-session and no-training group. It can be conceived that 12-session of training should be considered when prescribing relaxation regimens as a nonspecific clinical treatment (i.e. for healthy students).

  10. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Beyer, Nina

    2002-01-01

    GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3...

  11. MUSCLE STRENGTH AND DAMAGE FOLLOWING TWO MODES OF VARIABLE RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Jalal Aboodarda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nautilus Machine (NM and Elastic Resistance (ER have gained considerable popularity among athletes and recreational lifters seeking to increase muscle strength. However, there is controversy concerning the use of ER for increasing muscle hypertrophy and strength among healthy-trained individuals. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of repeated near maximal contractions by ER/NM on indicators of muscle damage including: maximal strength decrement (MVIC, rate of muscle soreness (DOMS, concentration of plasma creatine kinase (CK and increased high muscle signal on T2 weighted images using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Nine healthy male subjects completed two modalities of exercise (5 sets × 10RM ER/NM in a counterbalance cross-over study design with three weeks "wash-out" period between experiments. The MVIC was measured and DOMS rated and recorded for 4 consecutive days while blood samples were collected on day 1, 3, 5 and 7. Prior to and forty eight hours after completion of each mode of exercise, subjects underwent MRI scanning. The average of applied forces demonstrated significantly higher value for NM compared with ER (362 ± 34.2 N vs 266.73 ± 44.6 N respectively throughout the 5 sets of dynamic exercise (all p < 0.05. However, the indicators of muscle damage (T2 relaxation time, DOMS, MVIC and serum CK exhibited a very similar response across both modes of training. Plasma CK increased significantly following both modes of training with the peak value on Day 3 (p < 0.05. The time course of muscle soreness reached a significant level after both modes of exercise and showed a peak value on the 2nd day (p < 0.05. The T2 relaxation time demonstrated a statistically significant increase following ER and NM compared with the pre-test value (p < 0.05. The similarity of these responses following both the ER and NM exercise training session suggests that both modes of training provide a similar training stress; despite a considerably

  12. [A longitudinal (3 years) study of the development of four children with autism without mental retardation after 90 sessions of social skills training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liratni, M; Blanchet, C; Pry, R

    2016-12-01

    Few studies on social skills training essentially based on ABA techniques are dedicated to children with autism aged 5 to 10 years whereas autistic disorders can be diagnosed in very early childhood. Generally, the main criticisms about these social skills training are: shortness of programs (around 20 sessions), no manual with precise descriptions of sessions and used techniques, and a lack of generalization of the learned skills in everyday life. To describe the evolution (before/after) of symptoms and sociocommunicative skills of 7 children with autism and no mental retardation (mean age=7.08) who participated in 90 sessions (during 3 years) in a learning group of communication and socialization (or LGCS). To develop these sessions, we referred to intellectual and verbal levels obtained by the children on The Wechsler Intelligence Scales. We proposed activities such as open discussion, telling about events or vacations, learning of and communicative social rules, social games, outdoor exercises at home or in parks/shops/supermarkets/restaurants with known/unknown children/adults/sellers. To target the social and communicative skills, we also referred to their intellectual level and to Assessment of basic language and learning skills (ABBLS). To practice these sessions, we referred to: (1) TEACCH cognitive ergonomics principles (Treatment and education of autistic and related communication handicapped children developed by Schopler); and especially (2) ABA techniques (Applied behavior analysis) which are rarely mentioned as such. In particular, we used techniques such as: (a) concrete reinforcements which were frequently evaluated; (b) precise levels of verbal incentives and (c) error corrections. To measure the changes, we assessed children with psychometric tests before and after 90 sessions (ADOS and VABS). The scores show significant improvements in autistic symptoms related to communication (ADOS, P=0.03) and significant improvements in both

  13. The effects of resistance training prioritization in NCAA Division I Football summer training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Martin, Gerard J; Szivak, Tunde K; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Hooper, David R; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J

    2014-01-01

    Resistance training (RT) is an integral part of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football performance programs. In the sport of football, there are several components that a strength and conditioning coach must be aware of. These include body mass, size, strength, power, speed, conditioning, and injury prevention, among others. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the RT component of a performance program could be prioritized for specific results using a nonlinear training model, grouping athletes by eligibility year. The NCAA Division I football student athletes were placed into 3 separate groups based on the playing year. All subjects participated in a 10-week, 4 days·week-1 off-season summer resistance training program. The training of group 1 (n = 20, age: 18.95 ± 0.76 years, height: 186.63 ± 7.21 cm, body mass: 97.66 ± 18.17 kg, playing year: 1.05 ± 0.22 years) prioritized hypertrophy-based RT to gain body mass. The training of group 2 (n = 20, age: 20.05 ± 1.05 years, height: 189.42 ± 5.49 cm, body mass: 106.99 ± 13.53 kg, and playing year: 2.35 ± 0.75 years) prioritized strength-based RT to gain strength. The training of group 3 (n = 20, age: 21.05 ± 1.10 years, height: 186.56 ± 6.73 cm, body mass: 109.8 ± 19.96 kg, playing year: 4.4 ± 0.50 years) prioritized power-based RT to gain power. Performance tests were evaluated during the first weeks of March (Spring) and August (Fall). The test measures included body mass (kilograms), 1-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (kilograms), 1RM back squat (kilograms), 1RM power clean (kilograms), and countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ) height (centimeters). The primary findings of this investigation were as follows: group 1 saw significant increases in bench press maximum, back squat maximum, and power clean maximum (p ≤ 0.05). Group 2 saw significant increases in bench press maximum, back squat maximum, and power clean maximum (p ≤ 0.05). Group 3 saw a significant

  14. Combined Carbohydrate and Protein Ingestion During Australian Rules Football Matches and Training Sessions Does Not Reduce Fatigue or Accelerate Recovery Throughout a Weeklong Junior Tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nathan A; Fell, James W; Pitchford, Nathan W; Hall, Andrew H; Leveritt, Michael D; Kitic, Cecilia M

    2018-02-01

    Lee, NA, Fell, JW, Pitchford, NW, Hall, AH, Leveritt, MD, and Kitic, CM. Combined carbohydrate and protein ingestion during Australian rules football matches and training sessions does not reduce fatigue or accelerate recovery throughout a weeklong junior tournament. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 344-355, 2018-Australian rules football (ARF) is a physically demanding sport that can induce high levels of fatigue. Fatigue may be intensified during periods where multiple matches are played with limited recovery time. Combined carbohydrate and protein (CHO + PRO) intake during physical activity may provide performance and recovery benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CHO + PRO ingestion during ARF matches and training sessions throughout a tournament would enhance performance or recovery in comparison with CHO-only ingestion. Australian rules football players (n = 21) competing in a 7-day national tournament participated in this randomized and double-blinded study. Beverages containing either CHO (n = 10) or CHO + PRO (n = 11) were provided during matches (day 1, day 4, and day 7) and training sessions (day 2 and day 3). Countermovement jumps (CMJs), ratings of muscle soreness, and autonomic function were assessed throughout the tournament. Gastrointestinal tract (GI) discomfort was measured after matches. Countermovement jump peak velocity increased in the CHO + PRO group (p = 0.01) but not in the CHO group. There were no differences in the other CMJ variables. In both groups, muscle soreness increased from days 0 and 1 to day 2 (p ≤ 0.05) but did not remain elevated. R-R intervals (time elapsed between successive peaks in QRS complexes) increased in both groups from day 1 to day 7 (mean difference = 59.85 ms, p 0.05) between groups. When daily dietary protein is adequate (>1.8 g·kg·d), the ingestion of CHO + PRO during matches and training sessions throughout a tournament does not reduce muscle soreness nor have clear benefits for neuromuscular

  15. The Effect of a 4 Week Isometric Handgrip Training on Changes of Peripheral Resistance and Blood Pressure in Women Suffering from Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Haji Tehrani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to many studies, hypertension is considered as the second leading risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD and cardiac infarction after smoking The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of four weeks of Isometric Handgrip (IHG Training on peripheral resistance and hypertension among hypertensive women. Methods: 14 middle aged women, aged 40 to 55 years old, were randomly selected. The training program included 4 sets of 2 minute IHG training with 1 minute resting between each period, performed 3 days a week for four weeks. Doppler ultrasound method was used to measure the vascular resistance. Data were analyzed using paired t-test. Results: According to the results, there was a significant difference between systolic blood pressure (p=0.006 and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.001 after 4 weeks of training. However, no significant difference was observed in vascular resistance (p=0.66. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that IHG training can reduce blood pressure in the hypertensive patients 24 hours after the last training session. It is also revealed that reduced blood pressure is not always associated with reduced vascular resistance and other influential factors may play a role in this regard.

  16. Changes of explosive strength in professional basketball players after a six week training cycle with plyometric training and resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Explosive strength of the lower extremities and agility are important parts of game performance in basketball. Although numerous studies have focused on the assessment of the training effect of plyometric training, studies focusing on elite players are missing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out what changes in explosive strength of the lower extremities take place after a 6 week strength training with plyometric exercises and resistance exercises in elite basketball players. METHODS: Elite basketball players (n = 12; age 24.71 ± 1.5 years; height 197.0 ± 7.6 cm; weight 95.8 ± 8.1 kg performed during pre-season a 6 week training program with plyometric exercises and resistance exercises which were conducted biweekly during the pre-season. The changes in explosive strength were measured by the squat jump without arms, the counter movement jump without arms, the counter movement jump free arms and the 2 step run up jump. The players participated in two measurements. The 1st (pretesting was performed on the first day of pre-season and the 2nd (posttesting was completed two days after terminating the PT programme. The differences between the average values of the monitored parameters were determined by the Wilcoxon paired test. To calculate the effect size formula according to Fritz, Morris, and Richler (2012: R = Z/√N was used. RESULTS: Analysis of intra-group changes confirmed significant differences between the two measurements in tests of vertical jump squat (Z = 2.58, p = .01, r = .75, vertical jump from the point of the swing arm (Z = 2.49, p = .01, r = .72 and vertical jump from place without the swing arm (Z = 2.75, p = .01, r = .79. In case of the two step run up jump significant differences were not found (Z = 1.60, p = .11, r = .56. Analysis of intra-individual changes showed the significant interindividual differences in the changes of the explosive power of the lower limbs after a 6 week training. The

  17. Format of Basic Instruction Program Resistance Training Classes: Effect on Fitness Change in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, J. P.; Channell, Brian; Pugh, Chip; Tuck, Matt; Pendel, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    New resistance training programs such as CrossFit are gaining favor among college-aged students. CrossFit and related commercial resistance training programs may provide a valuable elective option within basic instruction program (BIP) curricula, but the fitness benefits of this course have not been compared with those of existing BIP resistance…

  18. Acute Effects of Plyometric and Resistance Training on Running Economy in Trained Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcello, Richard T; Greer, Beau K; Greer, Anna E

    2017-09-01

    Marcello, RT, Greer, BK, and Greer, AE. Acute effects of plyometric and resistance training on running economy in trained runners. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2432-2437, 2017-Results regarding the acute effects of plyometrics and resistance training (PRT) on running economy (RE) are conflicting. Eight male collegiate distance runners (21 ± 1 years, 62.5 ± 7.8 ml·kg·min V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak) completed V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) testing. Seven days later, subjects completed a 12 minutes RE test at 60 and 80% V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak, followed by a PRT protocol or a rested condition of equal duration (CON). The PRT protocol consisted of 3 sets of 5 repetitions at 85% 1RM for barbell squats, Romanian deadlifts, and barbell lunges; the same volume was used for resisted lateral lunges, box jumps, and depth jumps. Subjects completed another RE test immediately after the treatments and 24 hours later. Subjects followed an identical protocol 6 days later with condition assignment reversed. Running economy was determined by both relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (ml·kg·min) and energy expenditure (EE) (kcal·min). There was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) between-trial increase in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (37.1 ± 4.2 ml·kg·min PRT vs. 35.5 ± 3.9 ml·kg·min CON) and EE (11.4 ± 1.3 kcal·min PRT vs. 11.0 ± 1.4 kcal·min CON) immediately after PRT at 60% V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak, but no significant changes were observed at 80% V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak. Respiratory exchange ratio was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced 24 hours after PRT (0.93 ± 0.0) as compared to the CON trial (0.96 ± 0.0) at 80% V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak. Results indicate that high-intensity PRT may acutely impair RE in aerobically trained individuals at a moderate running intensity, but that the attenuation lasts less than 24 hours in duration.

  19. The effect of 8 weeks of Circuit Resistance Training on metabolic syndrome risk factors and body composition in women over age 50 with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Amene Azarmehr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM increased significantly in the last three decades, and effective strategies to manage and prevent this disease are urgently needed. Physical activity and exercise training is an effective way for metabolic syndrome risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients. However, the effects of Circuit Resistance Training (CRT program on patients T2DM are unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigation the effect of 8 weeks of Circuit resistance training (CRT on metabolic syndrome and body composition in women over age 50 with T2DM. Methods: Twenty women over 50 years old with diabetes Referred to diabetes Center of 17 Shahrivar hospital in Amol and they were divided randomly into two groups; Circuit resistance (n=10 and Control (n=10. Resistance training consisted of 10 stations for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week (Intensity 60-80% 1RM. Levels of Lipid profile and body composition before and after eight weeks training in both groups were measured. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out by SPSS (v. 22. Results Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS levels (P=0.021, Triglycerides (0.010, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.042, significant decreased in CRT. Also after 8 weeks circuit resistance training, BMI (P= 0.003, WHR (P=0.004 and body fat present (0.019 significant decreased in CRT. Conclusion: According to our results, CRT was an effective approach to improve the Anthropometrics, FBS, lipid profile in women over age 50 with diabetes mellitus type 2. Moreover, CRT did have influence on LDL level.  Keywords: Circuit resistance training, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, body composition

  20. Effect of early supervised progressive resistance training compared to unsupervised home-based exercise after fast-track total hip replacement applied to patients with preoperative functional limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, L R; Mechlenburg, I; Søballe, K

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if 2 weekly sessions of supervised progressive resistance training (PRT) in combination with 5 weekly sessions of unsupervised home-based exercise is more effective than 7 weekly sessions of unsupervised home-based exercise in improving leg-extension power of the operated leg...... 10 weeks after total hip replacement (THR) in patients with lower pre-operative function. METHOD: A total of 73 patients scheduled for THR were randomised (1:1) to intervention group (IG, home based exercise 5 days/week and PRT 2 days/week) or control group (CG, home based exercise 7 days...... of the operated leg, at the primary endpoint 10 weeks after surgery in THR patients with lower pre-operative function. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01214954....

  1. Effects of different volume-equated resistance training loading strategies on muscular adaptations in well-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Peterson, Mark D; Contreras, Bret; Sonmez, G T; Alvar, Brent A

    2014-10-01

    Regimented resistance training has been shown to promote marked increases in skeletal muscle mass. Although muscle hypertrophy can be attained through a wide range of resistance training programs, the principle of specificity, which states that adaptations are specific to the nature of the applied stimulus, dictates that some programs will promote greater hypertrophy than others. Research is lacking, however, as to the best combination of variables required to maximize hypertophic gains. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscular adaptations to a volume-equated bodybuilding-type training program vs. a powerlifting-type routine in well-trained subjects. Seventeen young men were randomly assigned to either a hypertrophy-type resistance training group that performed 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum (RM) with 90 seconds rest or a strength-type resistance training (ST) group that performed 7 sets of 3RM with a 3-minute rest interval. After 8 weeks, no significant differences were noted in muscle thickness of the biceps brachii. Significant strength differences were found in favor of ST for the 1RM bench press, and a trend was found for greater increases in the 1RM squat. In conclusion, this study showed that both bodybuilding- and powerlifting-type training promote similar increases in muscular size, but powerlifting-type training is superior for enhancing maximal strength.

  2. Panel Session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege

    2004-01-01

    In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach.......In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach....

  3. The effects of whey protein with or without carbohydrates on resistance training adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Hulmi, Juha; Laakso, Mia; Mero, Antti; Häkkinen, Keijo; Ahtiainen, Juha; Peltonen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nutrition intake in the context of a resistance training (RT) bout may affect body composition and muscle strength. However, the individual and combined effects of whey protein and carbohydrates on long-term resistance training adaptations are poorly understood. Methods: A four-week preparatory RT period was conducted in previously untrained males to standardize the training background of the subjects. Thereafter, the subjects were randomized into three groups: 30 g of...

  4. Validity and reliability of the session-RPE method for quantifying training in Australian football: a comparison of the CR10 and CR100 scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Tannath J; Black, Cameron R; Quinn, John; Coutts, Aaron J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of the CR10 and CR100 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scales for team sport athletes that undertake high-intensity, intermittent exercise. Twenty-one male Australian football (AF) players (age: 19.0 ± 1.8 years, body mass: 83.92 ± 7.88 kg) participated the first part (part A) of this study, which examined the construct validity of the session-RPE (sRPE) method for quantifying training load in AF. Ten male athletes (age: 16.1 ± 0.5 years) participated in the second part of the study (part B), which compared the test-retest reliability of the CR10 and CR100 RPE scales. In part A, the validity of the sRPE method was assessed by examining the relationships between sRPE, and objective measures of internal (i.e., heart rate) and external training load (i.e., distance traveled), collected from AF training sessions. Part B of the study assessed the reliability of sRPE through examining the test-retest reliability of sRPE during 3 different intensities of controlled intermittent running (10, 11.5, and 13 km·h(-1)). Results from part A demonstrated strong correlations for CR10- and CR100-derived sRPE with measures of internal training load (Banisters TRIMP and Edwards TRIMP) (CR10: r = 0.83 and 0.83, and CR100: r = 0.80 and 0.81, p training load (distance, higher speed running and player load) for both the CR10 (r = 0.81, 0.71, and 0.83) and CR100 (r = 0.78, 0.69, and 0.80) were significant (p reliability for both the CR10 (31.9% CV) and CR100 (38.6% CV) RPE scales after short bouts of intermittent running. Collectively, these results suggest both CR10- and CR100-derived sRPE methods have good construct validity for assessing training load in AF. The poor levels of reliability revealed under field testing indicate that the sRPE method may not be sensible to detecting small changes in exercise intensity during brief intermittent running bouts. Despite this limitation

  5. Effects of Weight Resistance Training on Swimmers with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Víquez Ulate y Andrea Mora Campos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of weight resistance training on strength in swimmers with Down Syndrome (DS. Seven swimmers with DS participated in the study: 6 men and 1 woman, 23.14 years of age ± 4.59 and with 6.14 years ± 2.34 years of swimming. Instruments: One repetition maximum (RM test to determine the individual’s maximum muscular strength. Procedure: the study was conducted for 10 weeks (2 weeks at baseline, 6 weeks of treatment and 2 weeks to see the effects of retention. Results: significantly positive changes were detected in the maximum strength of pectoral muscles (F=5.768; p=0.006, dorsal muscles (F = 26.770; p=7.45e-007, femoral biceps (F = 32.530; p=1.76e-007, quadriceps (F = 8.391; p=0.001, triceps (F = 11.217; p=0.0002 and these adjustments were maintained with no significant changes for two weeks, while the biceps muscle (F=4.145; p=0.021 behaved differently since it suffered no significant adjustments during the program.

  6. Velocity loss as an indicator of neuromuscular fatigue during resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Medina, Luis; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to analyze the acute mechanical and metabolic response to resistance exercise protocols (REP) differing in the number of repetitions (R) performed in each set (S) with respect to the maximum predicted number (P). Over 21 exercise sessions separated by 48-72 h, 18 strength-trained males (10 in bench press (BP) and 8 in squat (SQ)) performed 1) a progressive test for one-repetition maximum (1RM) and load-velocity profile determination, 2) tests of maximal number of repetitions to failure (12RM, 10RM, 8RM, 6RM, and 4RM), and 3) 15 REP (S × R[P]: 3 × 6[12], 3 × 8[12], 3 × 10[12], 3 × 12[12], 3 × 6[10], 3 × 8[10], 3 × 10[10], 3 × 4[8], 3 × 6[8], 3 × 8[8], 3 × 3[6], 3 × 4[6], 3 × 6[6], 3 × 2[4], 3 × 4[4]), with 5-min interset rests. Kinematic data were registered by a linear velocity transducer. Blood lactate and ammonia were measured before and after exercise. Mean repetition velocity loss after three sets, loss of velocity pre-post exercise against the 1-m·s load, and countermovement jump height loss (SQ group) were significant for all REP and were highly correlated to each other (r = 0.91-0.97). Velocity loss was significantly greater for BP compared with SQ and strongly correlated to peak postexercise lactate (r = 0.93-0.97) for both SQ and BP. Unlike lactate, ammonia showed a curvilinear response to loss of velocity, only increasing above resting levels when R was at least two repetitions higher than 50% of P. Velocity loss and metabolic stress clearly differs when manipulating the number of repetitions actually performed in each training set. The high correlations found between mechanical (velocity and countermovement jump height losses) and metabolic (lactate, ammonia) measures of fatigue support the validity of using velocity loss to objectively quantify neuromuscular fatigue during resistance training.

  7. Effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians: cluster randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Jakobsen, Markus D; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians.......To determine the effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians....

  8. The efficacy of early initiated, supervised, progressive resistance training compared to unsupervised, home-based exercise after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Bo; Bogh, Søren B; Kierkegaard, Signe

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if supervised progressive resistance training was superior to home-based exercise in rehabilitation after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. DESIGN: Single blinded, randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Surgery, progressive resistance training and testing was carried out...

  9. Introducing computer-assisted training sessions in the clinical skills lab at the Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Somaya; Mishriky, Adel M; Youssef, Mirella

    2008-01-01

    The Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University clinical skills lab was established in 1981 as the first skills lab in Egypt to cope with innovation in medical education adopted since school inauguration in 1978. Students are trained using their peers or models. Training is done weekly, guided by checklists tested for validity and reliability and updated regularly. Students receive immediate feedback on their performance. Recently, the number of students has increased, leading to challenges in providing adequate supervision and training experiences. A project to design and implement a computer-assisted training (CAT) system seemed to be a plausible solution. To assess the quality of a newly developed CAT product, faculty and students' satisfaction with it, and its impact on the learning process. The project involved preparation of multimedia video-films with a web interface for links of different scientific materials. The project was implemented on second year students. A quality check was done to assess the product's scientific content, and technical quality using questionnaires filled by 84 faculty members (139 filled forms) and 175 students (924 filled forms). For assessment of impact, results of examinations after project implementation were compared with results of 2nd year students of previous 3 years. More faculty (96.3%) were satisfied with the product and considered its quality good to excellent, compared to 93.9% of students, p < 0.001. Most faculty (76.2%) have agreed on its suitability for self-learning, while most students considered the product would be suitable after modification. The percentage of students' failures was lower after project implementation, compared to previous 3 years, p < 0.05. CAT materials developed for training of second year students in skills lab proved to be of good scientific content and quality, and suitable for self-learning. Their use was associated with lower failure rates among students. A randomized trial is recommended

  10. Effects of resistance training on fast- and slow-twitch muscles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Umnova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training (RT on muscle strength, the dependence of that on the fast-twitch (FT and slow-twitch (ST fibers hypertrophy, nuclear domain size, synthesis and degradation rate of contractile proteins and on the expression of myosin isoforms’. 16 weeks old Wistar rats were trained on a vertical treadmill for six days a week during six weeks. The power of exercise increased 4.9% per session. In RT group the mass of studied muscles increased about 10%, hindlimb grip strength increased from 5.20±0.27 N/100g bw to the 6.05±0.29 N/100g bw (p<0.05. Cross-sectional area and number of myonuclei of FT and ST fibers in plantaris (Pla and soleus (Sol muscles increased, myonuclear domain size did not change significantly. RT increased the MyHC IId isoforms relative content and decreased that of IIb and IIa isoforms in Pla muscle, in Sol muscle increased only IIa isoform. In Pla muscle the relative content of myosin light chain (MyLC 1slow and 2slow isoforms decreased and that of MyLC 2fast isoforms increased during RT. MyLC 3 and MyLC 2 ratio did not change significantly in Pla but increased in Sol muscle by 14.3±3.4�0(p<0.01. The rat RT programme caused hypertrophy of FT and ST muscle fibers, increase of myonuclear number via fusion of satellite cells with damaged fibers or formation of new muscle fibers as a result of myoblast fusion and myotubes formation, maintaining myonuclear domain size.

  11. Impact of 12 weeks of resistance training on physical and functional fitness in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mendes Gerage

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n2p145 The objective of the study was to analyze the impact of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT on physical functional fitness in elderly women. Fifty-one elderly women (66.1±4.4 years, apparently healthy, insufficiently active, and without prior experience in RT were randomly assigned into two groups: Training Group (TG = 24 and Control Group (CG = 27. The TG was submitted to a standardized RT program composed of eight exercises, performed in two sets of 10 to 15 repetitions, three times a week, and the CG was submitted to a 12 week stretching exercise program composed by two sessions per week of 30 minutes each. Their physical and functional fitness level was analyzed before and after the intervention period by motor testing to assess Right and Left Upper Limb Endurance (RULE, LULE, Lower Limb Endurance (LLE, Flexibility (FLEX, Manual Skills (MS, Ability to Put on Socks (APS, and Coordination (COORD. The TG had improved performance in LLE (+13.8%, RULE (+24.3%, LULE (+22.9%, and MS (- 0.9 s, whereas the CG improved performance in RULE (+13.9% and LULE (+14.1%, but had increased time in COORD by (+1.5 s, and these were the only tests showing significant interactions of group vs. time (p<0.05. The results suggest that 12 weeks of RT seem to be sufficient to induce positive changes on physical and functional fitness of healthy and previously untrained elderly women.

  12. Effect of Resistance Training using Thera-Band on Muscular Strength and Quality of Life among the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Pourtaghi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of mobility and motor impairments can intensify mental health problems in the elderly. Muscle weakness is one of the most important cause of fall in the old individuals. Muscular performance is regarded as one of the significant components of quality of life in older adults. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect of resistance training using Thera-Band on muscular strength and quality of life among the elderly. Method: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 70 elderly people referring to the health centers of Mashhad in 2016. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups of intervention and control. The intervention group was subjected to lower- and upper-extremity resistance training with Thera-Band performed two thirty-minute sessions a week for six weeks. However, the control group did not receive any training. Data collection was performed using a dynamometer and the short version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life. The data were analyzed in SPSS version 16 using independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, paired t-test, Chi-square test, and exact Chi-square. Results: The mean ages of the individuals in the intervention and control groups were 69.7±6.1 and 77.2±6.2 years, respectively. After intervention, the mean scores of quality of life (P>0.001 and muscular strength in the upper and lower extremities (P>0.001 were significantly higher in the intervention group than those in the control group. Implications for Practice: Resistance training with Thera-Band could enhance muscular strength and improve quality of life in the elderly. It was concluded that the promotion of this exercise program could have a positive effect on the muscular strength and quality of life among this population.

  13. Effects of In-Season Inertial Resistance Training With Eccentric Overload in a Sports Population at Risk for Patellar Tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual, Gabriel; Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Azahara; Romero-Rodríguez, Daniel; Tesch, Per A

    2016-07-01

    Gual, G, Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, A, Romero-Rodríguez, D, and Tesch, PA. Effects of in-season inertial resistance training with eccentric overload in a sports population at risk for patellar tendinopathy. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1834-1842, 2016-Volleyball and basketball players can be considered as a population at risk for patellar tendinopathy. Given the paradox that eccentric training elicits therapeutic benefits yet might provoke such injury, we investigated the influence of a weekly bout of inertial squat resistance exercise offering eccentric overload on lower limb muscle power and patellar tendon complaints. Players of 8 (4 basketball and 4 volleyball) teams (38 women and 43 men) were randomly assigned to either the intervention (IG) or control (CG) group. Although IG and CG maintained scheduled in-season training routines over 24 weeks, IG, in addition, performed 1 weekly session of eccentric overload by 4 sets of 8 repetitions of the squat using flywheel inertial resistance. Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment patellar tendinopathy questionnaire (VISA-p), vertical countermovement jump, and squat power, both concentric (Squat-Con) and eccentric (Squat-Ecc), tests were performed before (T1), during (T2), and after (T3) the 24 weeks of intervention. Neither group suffered from patellar tendinopathy during the study period. VISA-p displayed no differences across groups at any measurement period. Countermovement jump scores significantly (p ≤ 0.05) differed between groups in favor of the IG. Both Squat-Con and Squat-Ecc mean scores from the IG were significantly (p training bout to a regular basketball and volleyball exercise routine enhances lower limb muscle power without triggering patellar tendon complaints. Future studies, using the current exercise paradigm, aim to explore its efficacy to prevent or combat patellar tendinopathy in sports calling for frequent explosive jumps.

  14. Acute attenuation of fatigue after sodium bicarbonate supplementation does not manifest into greater training adaptations after 10-weeks of resistance training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Jason C; Marshall, Paul W M; Finn, Harrison; Cross, Rebecca; Mudie, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    In two concurrent studies, we aimed to a) confirm the acute effect of 0.3 g·kg-1 body weight (BW) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation on central and peripheral mechanisms associated with explosive power (Study 1) and b) determine whether chronic NaHCO3 supplementation would improve the adaptive response of the neuromuscular system during a 10-week resistance training program (Study 2). Eight resistance trained participants volunteered after providing written consent. The experimental design consisted of a week of baseline testing, followed by ten weeks of training with progress measures performed in Week 5. Study 1 involved neuromuscular measurements before and after the leg extension portion of a power based training session performed in Week 1. Changes in maximal torque (MVT) and rates of torque development (RTD), along with other variables derived from femoral nerve stimulation (e.g. voluntary activation, neural recruitment) were analysed to determine the extent of fatigue under NaHCO3 or placebo conditions. Changes in these same variables, coupled with functional 1-repetition maximum leg extension strength, were measured in Study 2 from baseline (Week 0) to Week 5, and again at Week 10. In Study 1, we observed a decline after the leg extension task in both MVT (~ 30%) and rates of torque production (RTD) irrespective of acid-base status, however the decline in maximal RTD (RTDMAX) was nearly 20% less in the NaHCO3 condition when compared to placebo (mean difference of 294.8 ± 133.4 Nm·s-1 (95% CI -583.1 to -6.5 Nm, p < 0.05)). The primary finding in Study 2, however, suggests that introducing NaHCO3 repeatedly during a 10-week RT program does not confer any additional benefit to the mechanisms (and subsequent adaptive processes) related to explosive power production.

  15. Acute attenuation of fatigue after sodium bicarbonate supplementation does not manifest into greater training adaptations after 10-weeks of resistance training exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C Siegler

    Full Text Available In two concurrent studies, we aimed to a confirm the acute effect of 0.3 g·kg-1 body weight (BW sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 supplementation on central and peripheral mechanisms associated with explosive power (Study 1 and b determine whether chronic NaHCO3 supplementation would improve the adaptive response of the neuromuscular system during a 10-week resistance training program (Study 2.Eight resistance trained participants volunteered after providing written consent. The experimental design consisted of a week of baseline testing, followed by ten weeks of training with progress measures performed in Week 5. Study 1 involved neuromuscular measurements before and after the leg extension portion of a power based training session performed in Week 1. Changes in maximal torque (MVT and rates of torque development (RTD, along with other variables derived from femoral nerve stimulation (e.g. voluntary activation, neural recruitment were analysed to determine the extent of fatigue under NaHCO3 or placebo conditions. Changes in these same variables, coupled with functional 1-repetition maximum leg extension strength, were measured in Study 2 from baseline (Week 0 to Week 5, and again at Week 10.In Study 1, we observed a decline after the leg extension task in both MVT (~ 30% and rates of torque production (RTD irrespective of acid-base status, however the decline in maximal RTD (RTDMAX was nearly 20% less in the NaHCO3 condition when compared to placebo (mean difference of 294.8 ± 133.4 Nm·s-1 (95% CI -583.1 to -6.5 Nm, p < 0.05. The primary finding in Study 2, however, suggests that introducing NaHCO3 repeatedly during a 10-week RT program does not confer any additional benefit to the mechanisms (and subsequent adaptive processes related to explosive power production.

  16. Inflammation relates to resistance training-induced hypertrophy in elderly patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norheim, Kristoffer L.; Cullum, Christopher K.; Andersen, Jesper L.

    2017-01-01

    on the relationship between systemic inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and changes in muscle mass, as well as the influence of resistance training upon muscle mass. Method: Unilateral leg press resistance exercise was conducted daily during the hospital period. Outcomes included changes in whole body...... although our findings are potentially affected by changes in hydration status. Resistance training during hospitalization increases skeletal muscle mass, and patients with high levels of systemic inflammation demonstrate less ability to increase or preserve muscle mass in response to resistance training...... = 84.8 T 1.9 yr, mean T SE). Lean mass at the midthigh region of the trained leg increased by 2.4% T 1.1% (P G 0.05) after the intervention period. There was a negative association between changes in midthigh lean mass of the trained leg and CRP (rs = j0.53, P G 0.05). Leg extension power increased...

  17. Protective Effect of Curcumin Supplementation and Light Resistance Exercises on Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme Activity and Malondialdehyde Levels in a Severe Endurance Training Period in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gorzi

    2017-07-01

    Background and aim: Extreme endurance exercises lead to oxidative stress in athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of curcumin supplement supplementation and light resistance training on the activity of SOD and MDA levels of male Wistar rats during a 8-week endurance training. Methods: In the present experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into one of six control groups, curcumin, endurance training, exercise, after one week of information (age 9 weeks and weight 255.62 ± 19.69 grams. Endurance + resistance, endurance training + curcumin and endurance training + curcumin + resistance. Incremental endurance training (8 weeks, 5 sessions per week was performed on a special treadmill. Speed ​​and running time in the last week reached 35 m / min and 70 minutes. Resistance training (8 weeks, 2 sessions per week was performed on vertical ladder by closing the rat's weight to the tail. Rats received supplemental curcumin by intraperitoneal injection (8 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 30 mg / kg body weight. SOD activity of the muscle was measured using ELISA kits and serum MDA levels using Tobartic acid (TBARS method. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (ANOVA.   Results: The antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD in the endometrial muscle of endurance group (1.08 ± 0.222 μg / ml was significantly lower than control group (22.2 ± 0.481 kg (P = 0.043, and SOD activity in the endurance + resistance group (1.87 ± 0.172, p = 0.44, endurance + curcumin (2.24 ± 0.222; P = 0.039, and endurance + curcumin + resistance (0.202 ± 0.15, p = 0.029 was significantly higher than endurance group. The levels of malondialdehyde in the endurance group (4.27 ± 0.438 nmol / ml protein were significantly higher in comparison with the control group (3.42 ± 0.350 (0.331 and Also, serum MDA levels in endurance + resistance groups (± 3.03 ± 0.342, p = 0.003, endurance + curcumin (p = 0.001, p <0.001, and endurance + curcumin

  18. The Effect of Resistance Training on Levels of Interlukine-6 and High-Sensitivity C - reactive protein in Older-Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mardanpour Shahrekordi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is associated with elevated levels of some proinflammatory factors and exercise is a non-invasive intervention to improve immune function among older adults .The aim of the study was to compare resistance training effects on interlukine-6 (IL-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels in older-aged women. Methods: The study was quasi-experimental and forty healthy females were selected and randomly assigned to one of four groups: strength after endurance training (endurance + strength (E + S, n = 9, strength prior to endurance training (strength + endurance (S + E, n = 10, interval resistance-endurance training (Int, n = 12, and control (n = 9 groups. The training program was performed for eight weeks, three times per week. Human TNF-α and IL-6 sandwich ELISA Kit were used. Within-group differences were analyzed using a paired samples t-test and between-group differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Results: The intra-session order had not significantly influence on the adaptive response of waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.55, IL-6 (p = 0.55 and hs-CRP (p = 0.55 throughout the study. However, significant differences were shown following combined training between the S + E, E + S and Int groups for Vo2 max (p = 0.029, body mass (p = 0.016 and BMI (p = 0.023 when comparing pre and posttests. Conclusion: This study confirmed that adaptations to a combination of endurance and resistance training appear to be independent of whether resistance training occurs prior to or following endurance training.

  19. CONARC Training Workshop, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 5-7 October 1971. Volume I. General: Opening, Closing, and Dinner Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-10-01

    Jack and Bobby Kennedy, Jim Plunkett, George Jackson, the Beatles , Janice Joplin, and the growing number of men who have walked on the moon. It...Executive Summary as an Interim Re- port on the CONARC Training Workshop, which was held 5-7 October 1971 at Fort Gordon, Georgia. 3. The report will be...volume will be sent to each addressee to form two complete sets of the report. Requests for additional copies of the separate volumes will be filled

  20. Outcomes of exertional rhabdomyolysis following high-intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, A; Leong, K; Jones, N; Crump, N; Russell, D; Anderson, M; Steinfort, D; Johnson, D F

    2016-05-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HIRT) programmes are increasingly popular amongst personal trainers and those attending gymnasiums. We report the experience of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) at two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. To compare the clinical outcomes of ER with other causes of rhabdomyolysis. Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients presenting with a serum creatine kinase (CK) of greater than 25 000 units/L from 1 September 2013 to 31 August 2014 at two tertiary referral hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Records were examined to identify care measures implemented during hospital stay, clinical outcomes during admission and on subsequent follow up. Thirty four cases of rhabdomyolysis with a CK of greater than 25 000 units/L (normal range: 20-180 units/L) were identified during the 12-month study period. Twelve of the 34 cases (35%) had ER with 10 of 12 related to HIRT. No acute kidney injury, intensive care admission or death were seen among those with ER. All cases were managed conservatively, with 11 admitted and 9 receiving intravenous fluids only. In contrast, patients with rhabdomyolysis from other causes experienced significantly higher rates of intensive care admission (64%, P = 0.0002), acute kidney injury (82%, P = 0.0001) and death (27%, P = 0.069). ER resulting from HIRT appears to have a benign course compared with rhabdomyolysis of other aetiologies in patients with a serum CK greater than 25 000 units/L. Conservative management of ER appears to be adequate, although this requires confirmation in future prospective studies. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  1. Early and late rate of force development: differential adaptive responses to resistance training?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L L; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Zebis, M K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle force. Fifteen healthy young......-intensity resistance training due to differential influences of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations on early and later phases of rising muscle force....... males participated in a 14-week resistance training intervention for the lower body and 10 matched subjects participated as controls. Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and RFD were measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from...

  2. Resistance training associated with the administration of anabolic-androgenic steroids improves insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urtado CB

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Christiano Bertoldo Urtado1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira3, Marilia Bertoldo Urtado4, Érica Blascovi de Carvalho2, Gerson dos Santos Leite1, Felipe Fedrizzi Donatto1, Claudio de Oliveira Assumpção1, Richard Diego Leite3, Carlos Alberto da Silva1, Marcelo Magalhães de Sales5, Ramires Alsamir Tibana5, Silvia Cristina Crepaldi Alves1, Jonato Prestes51Health Sciences, Methodist University of Piracicaba, Piracicaba, SP, 2Center for Investigation in Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, 3Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, 4Laboratory of Orofacial Pain, Division of Oral Physiology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, 5Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, BrazilAbstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids and resistance training (RT on insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized rats. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into ten experimental groups (n = 5 animals per group: (1 sedentary (Sed-Intact; (2 sedentary ovariectomized (Sed-Ovx; (3 sedentary nandrolone (Sed-Intact-ND; (4 sedentary ovariectomized plus nandrolone (Sed-Ovx-ND; (5 trained (TR-Intact; (6 trained nandrolone (TR-Intact-ND; (7 trained ovariectomized (TR-Ovx; (8 trained ovariectomized plus nandrolone; (9 trained sham; and (10 trained ovariectomized plus sham. Four sessions of RT were used, during which the animals climbed a 1.1 m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails. The sessions were performed once every 3 days, with between four and nine climbs and with eight to twelve dynamic movements per climb. To test the sensitivity of insulin in the pancreas, glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. For insulin sensitivity, there was a statistically significant interaction for the TR-Ovx group, which presented higher sensitivity

  3. Breakout Sessions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Participants are split into small groups for detailed discussion on their chosen topic. To register please click on 'See details' link from the agenda and then on the link to send an email to the session for which you would like to book. Please don't change the subject line of the email.

  4. Time-divided ingestion pattern of casein-based protein supplement stimulates an increase in fat-free body mass during resistance training in young untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Andres; Timpmann, Saima; Medijainen, Luule; Vähi, Mare; Oöpik, Vahur

    2009-06-01

    We hypothesized that during prolonged resistance training, time-divided ingestion pattern of casein-based protein supplement is of superior efficiency in comparison with the ingestion of the same supplement immediately before each training session. In a crossover study, 13 men aged 18 to 19 years were evaluated during 2 well-controlled, 8-week training and supplementation periods. In the time-focused supplementation regimen (TFR), the subjects consumed the supplement in the morning and in the afternoon, immediately before the training session. Time-divided supplementation regimen (TDR) included 1 morning dose, whereas the second dose was ingested in the evening, 5 hours after training. The daily dose of the supplement contained approximately 70 g of protein (82% casein) and less than 1 g of carbohydrate and fat. Body mass, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanned), and one-repetition maximum (1RM) for bench press and squat were determined at the beginning and at the end of both 8-week training and supplementation periods. Training produced a significant increase in 1RM strength both in the bench press (9.4% and 7.2%) and the squat exercise (10.7% and 17.8%) in the TFR and TDR, respectively, with no differences between the supplementation regimens. Fat-free mass increased from 62.4 +/- 1.2 to 63.5 +/- 1.3 kg (P = .046) with TDR, whereas no change was evident with TFR. The increase in 1RM strength in the squat exercise was related to the increase in fat-free mass in TDR (r = 0.569; P = .041). These findings may have practical implications for the timing of ingestion of protein supplements to enhance the efficacy of resistance training.

  5. Efficacy of phosphatidic acid ingestion on lean body mass, muscle thickness and strength gains in resistance-trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Jay R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidic acid (PA has been reported to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway and is thought to enhance the anabolic effects of resistance training. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine if oral phosphatidic acid administration can enhance strength, muscle thickness and lean tissue accruement during an 8-week resistance training program. Methods Sixteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to a group that either consumed 750 mg of PA (n = 7, 23.1 ± 4.4 y; 176.7 ± 6.7 cm; 86.5 ± 21.2 kg or a placebo (PL, n = 9, 22.5 ± 2.0 y; 179.8 ± 5.4 cm; 89.4 ± 13.6 kg group. During each testing session subjects were assessed for strength (one repetition maximum [1-RM] bench press and squat and body composition. Muscle thickness and pennation angle were also measured in the vastus lateralis of the subject’s dominant leg. Results Subjects ingesting PA demonstrated a 12.7% increase in squat strength and a 2.6% increase in LBM, while subjects consuming PL showed a 9.3% improvement in squat strength and a 0.1% change in LBM. Although parametric analysis was unable to demonstrate significant differences, magnitude based inferences indicated that the Δ change in 1-RM squat showed a likely benefit from PA on increasing lower body strength and a very likely benefit for increasing lean body mass (LBM. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that a combination of a daily 750 mg PA ingestion, combined with a 4-day per week resistance training program for 8-weeks appears to have a likely benefit on strength improvement, and a very likely benefit on lean tissue accruement in young, resistance trained individuals.

  6. Selective Changes in the Mechanical Capacities of Lower-Body Muscles After Cycle-Ergometer Sprint Training Against Heavy and Light Resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Torrejón, Alejandro; Pérez-Castilla, Alejandro; Morales-Artacho, Antonio J; Jaric, Slobodan

    2018-03-01

    To explore the feasibility of the linear force-velocity (F-V) modeling approach to detect selective changes of F-V parameters (ie, maximum force [F 0 ], maximum velocity [V 0 ], F-V slope [a], and maximum power [P 0 ]) after a sprint-training program. Twenty-seven men were randomly assigned to a heavy-load group (HLG), light-load group (LLG), or control group (CG). The training sessions (6 wk × 2 sessions/wk) comprised performing 8 maximal-effort sprints against either heavy (HLG) or light (LLG) resistances in leg cycle-ergometer exercise. Pre- and posttest consisted of the same task performed against 4 different resistances that enabled the determination of the F-V parameters through the application of the multiple-point method (4 resistances used for the F-V modeling) and the recently proposed 2-point method (only the 2 most distinctive resistances used). Both the multiple-point and the 2-point methods revealed high reliability (all coefficients of variation .80) while also being able to detect the group-specific training-related changes. Large increments of F 0 , a, and P 0 were observed in HLG compared with LLG and CG (effect size [ES] = 1.29-2.02). Moderate increments of V 0 were observed in LLG compared with HLG and CG (ES = 0.87-1.15). Short-term sprint training on a leg cycle ergometer induces specific changes in F-V parameters that can be accurately monitored by applying just 2 distinctive resistances during routine testing.

  7. Effects of Methoxyisoflavone, Ecdysterone, and Sulfo-Polysaccharide Supplementation on Training Adaptations in Resistance-Trained Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenwood Michael

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Methoxyisoflavone (M, 20-hydroxyecdysone (E, and sulfo-polysaccharide (CSP3 have been marketed to athletes as dietary supplements that can increase strength and muscle mass during resistance-training. However, little is known about their potential ergogenic value. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these supplements affect training adaptations and/or markers of muscle anabolism/catabolism in resistance-trained athletes. Methods Forty-five resistance-trained males (20.5 ± 3 yrs; 179 ± 7 cm, 84 ± 16 kg, 17.3 ± 9% body fat were matched according to FFM and randomly assigned to ingest in a double blind manner supplements containing either a placebo (P; 800 mg/day of M; 200 mg of E; or, 1,000 mg/day of CSP3 for 8-weeks during training. At 0, 4, and 8-weeks, subjects donated fasting blood samples and completed comprehensive muscular strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic capacity, and body composition analysis. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. Results No significant differences (p > 0.05 were observed in training adaptations among groups in the variables FFM, percent body fat, bench press 1 RM, leg press 1 RM or sprint peak power. Anabolic/catabolic analysis revealed no significant differences among groups in active testosterone (AT, free testosterone (FT, cortisol, the AT to cortisol ratio, urea nitrogen, creatinine, the blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio. In addition, no significant differences were seen from pre to post supplementation and/or training in AT, FT, or cortisol. Conclusion Results indicate that M, E, and CSP3 supplementation do not affect body composition or training adaptations nor do they influence the anabolic/catabolic hormone status or general markers of catabolism in resistance-trained males.

  8. Aerobic exercise training promotes additional cardiac benefits better than resistance exercise training in postmenopausal rats with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro, Hugo; Buzin, Morgana; Conti, Filipe Fernandes; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Figueroa, Diego; Llesuy, Susana; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; Sanches, Iris Callado; De Angelis, Kátia

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training or resistance exercise training on cardiac morphometric, functional, and oxidative stress parameters in rats with ovarian hormone deprivation and diabetes. Female Wistar rats (200-220 g) were divided into a sham-operated group (euglycemic sham-operated sedentary [ES]; n = 8) and three ovariectomized (bilateral removal of ovaries) and diabetic (streptozotocin 50 mg/kg IV) groups as follows: diabetic ovariectomized sedentary (DOS; n = 8), diabetic ovariectomized undergoing aerobic exercise training (DOTA; n = 8), and diabetic ovariectomized undergoing resistance exercise training (DOTR; n = 8). After 8 weeks of resistance (ladder) or aerobic (treadmill) exercise training, left ventricle function and morphometry were evaluated by echocardiography, whereas oxidative stress was evaluated at the left ventricle. The DOS group presented with increased left ventricle cavity in diastole and relative wall thickness (RWT), and these changes were attenuated in both DOTA and DOTR groups. Systolic and diastolic function was impaired in the DOS group compared with the ES group, and only the DOTA group was able to reverse this dysfunction. Lipoperoxidation and glutathione redox balance were improved in both trained groups compared with the DOS group. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were higher in the DOTA group than in the other studied groups. Correlations were observed between lipoperoxidation and left ventricle cavity in diastole (r = 0.55), between redox balance and RWT (r = 0.62), and between lipoperoxidation and RWT (r = -0.60). Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training promote attenuation of cardiac morphometric dysfunction associated with a reduction in oxidative stress in an experimental model of diabetes and menopause. However, only dynamic aerobic exercise training is able to attenuate systolic and diastolic dysfunction under this condition.

  9. Maximal power output during incremental exercise by resistance and endurance trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivelavan, D S; Sumathilatha, S

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the maximal power output by resistance trained and endurance trained athletes during incremental exercise. Thirty male athletes who received resistance training (Group I) and thirty male athletes of similar age group who received endurance training (Group II) for a period of more than 1 year were chosen for the study. Physical parameters were measured and exercise stress testing was done on a cycle ergometer with a portable gas analyzing system. The maximal progressive incremental cycle ergometer power output at peak exercise and carbon dioxide production at VO2max were measured. Highly significant (P biofeedback and perk up the athlete's performance.

  10. Comparison of Periodized and Non-Periodized Resistance Training on Maximal Strength: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tyler D; Tolusso, Danilo V; Fedewa, Michael V; Esco, Michael R

    2017-10-01

    Periodization is a logical method of organizing training into sequential phases and cyclical time periods in order to increase the potential for achieving specific performance goals while minimizing the potential for overtraining. Periodized resistance training plans are proposed to be superior to non-periodized training plans for enhancing maximal strength. The primary aim of this study was to examine the previous literature comparing periodized resistance training plans to non-periodized resistance training plans and determine a quantitative estimate of effect on maximal strength. All studies included in the meta-analysis met the following inclusion criteria: (1) peer-reviewed publication; (2) published in English; (3) comparison of a periodized resistance training group to a non-periodized resistance training group; (4) maximal strength measured by 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat, bench press, or leg press. Data were extracted and independently coded by two authors. Random-effects models were used to aggregate a mean effect size (ES), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and potential moderators. The cumulative results of 81 effects gathered from 18 studies published between 1988 and 2015 indicated that the magnitude of improvement in 1RM following periodized resistance training was greater than non-periodized resistance training (ES = 0.43, 95% CI 0.27-0.58; P training status (β = -0.59; P = 0.0305), study length (β = 0.03; P = 0.0067), and training frequency (β = 0.46; P = 0.0123) were associated with a change in 1RM. These results indicate that undulating programs were more favorable for strength gains. Improvements in 1RM were greater among untrained participants. Additionally, higher training frequency and longer study length were associated with larger improvements in 1RM. These results suggest that periodized resistance training plans have a moderate effect on 1RM compared to non-periodized training plans. Variation in training stimuli

  11. Effects of high-intensity interval cycling performed after resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitkanou, S; Spengos, K; Stasinaki, A-N; Zaras, N; Bogdanis, G; Papadimas, G; Terzis, G

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week). Muscle strength and quadriceps CSA were significantly and similarly increased after both interventions. Fiber CSA increased significantly and similarly after both RE (type I: 13.6 ± 3.7%, type IIA: 17.6 ± 4.4%, type IIX: 23.2 ± 5.7%, P high-intensity interval cycling performed after heavy-resistance exercise may not inhibit resistance exercise-induced muscle strength/hypertrophy after 2 months of training, while it prompts aerobic capacity and muscle capillarization. The addition of high-intensity cycling after heavy-resistance exercise may decrease RFD partly due to muscle architectural changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Resistance training for activity limitations in older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papa EV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evan V Papa,1 Xiaoyang Dong,2 Mahdi Hassan1 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Physical Therapy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA Abstract: Human aging results in a variety of changes to skeletal muscle. Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of muscle mass and is one of the main contributors to musculoskeletal impairments in the elderly. Previous research has demonstrated that resistance training can attenuate skeletal muscle function deficits in older adults, however few articles have focused on the effects of resistance training on functional mobility. The purpose of this systematic review was to 1 present the current state of literature regarding the effects of resistance training on functional mobility outcomes for older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits and 2 provide clinicians with practical guidelines that can be used with seniors during resistance training, or to encourage exercise. We set forth evidence that resistance training can attenuate age-related changes in functional mobility, including improvements in gait speed, static and dynamic balance, and fall risk reduction. Older adults should be encouraged to participate in progressive resistance training activities, and should be admonished to move along a continuum of exercise from immobility, toward the recommended daily amounts of activity. Keywords: aging, strength training, sarcopenia, mobility, balance

  13. A Scientific Rationale to Improve Resistance Training Prescription in Exercise Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, Ciaran M; Zourdos, Michael C; Helms, Eric R; Focht, Brian C

    2017-08-01

    To date, the prevailing evidence in the field of exercise oncology supports the safety and efficacy of resistance training to attenuate many oncology treatment-related adverse effects, such as risk for cardiovascular disease, increased fatigue, and diminished physical functioning and quality of life. Moreover, findings in the extant literature supporting the benefits of exercise for survivors of and patients with cancer have resulted in the release of exercise guidelines from several international agencies. However, despite research progression and international recognition, current exercise oncology-based exercise prescriptions remain relatively basic and underdeveloped, particularly in regards to resistance training. Recent publications have called for a more precise manipulation of training variables such as volume, intensity, and frequency (i.e., periodization), given the large heterogeneity of a cancer population, to truly optimize clinically relevant patient-reported outcomes. Indeed, increased attention to integrating fundamental principles of exercise physiology into the exercise prescription process could optimize the safety and efficacy of resistance training during cancer care. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the current state of resistance training prescription and discuss novel methods that can contribute to improving approaches to exercise prescription. We hope this article may facilitate further evaluation of best practice regarding resistance training prescription, monitoring, and modification to ultimately optimize the efficacy of integrating resistance training as a supportive care intervention for survivors or and patients with cancer.

  14. Endurance- and Resistance-Trained Men Exhibit Lower Cardiovascular Responses to Psychosocial Stress Than Untrained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröpel, Peter; Urner, Maren; Pruessner, Jens C; Quirin, Markus

    2018-01-01

    Evidence shows that regular physical exercise reduces physiological reactivity to psychosocial stress. However, previous research mainly focused on the effect of endurance exercise, with only a few studies looking at the effect of resistance exercise. The current study tested whether individuals who regularly participate in either endurance or resistance training differ from untrained individuals in adrenal and cardiovascular reactivity to psychosocial stress. Twelve endurance-trained men, 10 resistance-trained men, and 12 healthy but untrained men were exposed to a standardized psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. Measurements of heart rate, free salivary cortisol levels, and mood were obtained throughout the test and compared among the three groups. Overall, both endurance- and resistance-trained men had lower heart rate levels than untrained men, indicating higher cardiac performance of the trained groups. Trained men also exhibited lower heart rate responses to psychosocial stress compared with untrained men. There were no significant group differences in either cortisol responses or mood responses to the stressor. The heart rate results are consistent with previous studies indicating reduced cardiovascular reactivity to psychosocial stress in trained individuals. These findings suggest that long-term endurance and resistance trainings may be related to the same cardiovascular benefits, without exhibiting strong effects on the cortisol reactivity to stress.

  15. The effects of elastic tubing-based resistance training compared with conventional resistance training in patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Fosco, Luciana Cristina; Bonfim, Rafaela; Bertolini, Giovana Navarro; Guarnier, Flavia Alessandra; Cecchini, Rubens; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo; Langer, Daniel; Gosselink, Rik; Ramos, Dionei

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effects of elastic tubing training compared with conventional resistance training on the improvement of functional exercise capacity, muscle strength, fat-free mass, and systemic inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A prospective, randomized, eight-week clinical trial. The study was conducted in a university-based, outpatient, physical therapy clinic. A total of 49 patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Participants were randomly assigned to perform elastic tubing training or conventional resistance training three times per week for eight weeks. The primary outcome measure was functional exercise capacity. The secondary outcome measures were peripheral muscle strength, health-related quality of life assessed by the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRDQ), fat-free mass, and cytokine profile. After eight weeks, the mean distance covered during six minutes increased by 73 meters (±69) in the elastic tubing group and by 42 meters (±59) in the conventional group (p tubing training had a greater effect on functional exercise capacity than conventional resistance training. Both interventions were equally effective in improving muscle strength and quality of life. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility following exercise training among different obese insulin resistant phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) blunts the reversal of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) after exercise training. Metabolic inflexibility has been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance, however, the efficacy of exercise on peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity or substrate utilizati...

  17. Motivators and Barriers for Older People Participating in Resistance Training: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Elissa; Farrier, Kaela; Lewin, Gill; Pettigrew, Simone; Hill, Anne-Marie; Airey, Phil; Bainbridge, Liz; Hill, Keith D

    2017-04-01

    Regular participation in resistance training is important for older people to maintain their health and independence, yet participation rates are low. The study aimed to identify motivators and barriers to older people participating in resistance training. A systematic review was conducted including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method studies. Searches generated 15,920 citations from six databases, with 14 studies (n = 1,937 participants) included. In total, 92 motivators and 24 barriers were identified. Motivators specific to participating in resistance training included preventing deterioration (disability), reducing risk of falls, building (toning) muscles, feeling more alert, and better concentration. Looking too muscular and thinking participation increased the risk of having a heart attack, stroke, or death, despite the minimal likelihood of these occurring, were barriers. The analysis indicates that increasing participation in resistance training among older people should focus on the specific benefits valued by older people and the dissemination of accurate information to counter misperceptions.

  18. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot; Angelis, Kátia De; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats

  19. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Figueiredo Grans

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. Objective: To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week. At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. Results: The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32% and trained infarcted (+46% in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%, myocardial performance index (-39% and systolic blood pressure (+6% improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%, as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46% in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Conclusion: Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.

  20. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mostarda, Cristiano [Departamento de Educação Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão (UFMA), São Luís, MA (Brazil); Figueroa, Diego Mendrot [Laboratório de Hipertensão Experimental, Instituto do Coração (InCor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Angelis, Kátia De [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Universidade Nove de Julho (Uninove), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia [Laboratório de Hipertensão Experimental, Instituto do Coração (InCor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.rodrigues@incor.usp.br [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.

  1. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot; Angelis, Kátia De; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Background Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. Objective To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. Results The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Conclusion Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats. PMID:25014059

  2. Perceived demands and postexercise physical dysfunction in CrossFit® compared to an ACSM based training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Scott N; Bellovary, Bryanne N; Jensen, Randall L; Moore, Maggy T; Donath, Lars

    2017-05-01

    CrossFit® is considered an intense and extreme conditioning program (ECP) that can cause overtraining and injury. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis (ER) - breakdown of muscle tissue - after ECP has been reported in CrossFit® and might be linked to comparatively high rates of subjectively perceived exertion levels. Therefore, the present study aimed at recording symptoms of postexercise physical dysfunction (e.g., excessive muscle soreness, shortness of breath) following CrossFit® and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during CrossFit® compared with training according to the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines. A validated questionnaire was completed by 101 CrossFit® (age: 35±8 years; weight: 79±16 kg) and 56 ACSM (age: 35±10 years; weight: 75±27 kg) participants. CrossFit® and ACSM groups, respectively, reported significantly different RPE levels of 7.3±1.7 and 5.5±1.4 (P≤0.001) and amounts of hard days per week of 4.0±1.1 and 3.5±1.4 (P=0.04). The five most frequent and hardest ECP workouts of the day (WODs) were Fran (47), Murph (27), Fight Gone Bad (10), Helen (9) and Filthy 50 (9). Presence of severe post-exercise symptoms was notably higher in CrossFit® for excessive fatigue (42 vs. 8; PCrossFit® leads to "very hard" perceived exertion causing detrimental post-exercise effects on muscle and ventilatory function in experienced athletes. Improved training progression with adequate recovery schedules are needed to prevent severe muscle injury, such as ER.

  3. Effects of fast-velocity eccentric resistance training on early and late rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson S.C.; Corvino, Rogério Bulhões; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether short-term maximal resistance training employing fast-velocity eccentric knee extensor actions would induce improvements in maximal isometric torque and rate of force development (RFD) at early (phases (>100 ms) of rising torque. Twenty healthy men were......, no changes in the late phase of incremental RFD were observed in TG. No changes were found in the CG. In summary, we have demonstrated, in active individuals, that a short period of resistance training performed with eccentric fast-velocity isokinetic muscle contractions is able to enhance RFDINC and RFDREL...... assigned to two experimental groups: eccentric resistance training (TG) or control (CG). Participants on the TG trained three days a week for a total of eight weeks. Training consisted of maximal unilateral eccentric knee extensors actions performed at 180°s-1. Maximal isometric knee extensor torque (MVC...

  4. Effect of 4 Weeks of Detraining After a Period of Resistance Training on Plasma Apelin Levels in Overweight and Obese Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvaneh Galdavi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Apelin is secreted from visceral adipose tissue. However, the effect of resistance training and consequent detraining on the apelin level in obesity, has not yet been clearly determined. In the current research, the effect of 4 weeks of detraining after a period of resistance training, was investigated on the plasma apelin levels in overweight and obese girls. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 22 overweight and obese girls were purposefully selected and randomly divided into two groups of experimental (n=12 and control (n=10. The experimental group exercised in an 8-week training program (4 sessions per week according to a training program with an intensity of 65-80% of one maximum repetition, and then experienced 4 weeks of detraining. Blood sampling was performed after a 12-h fasting in various phases and the level of apelin was measured. Data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, repeated measure ANOVA, post-hoc LSD, and independent t-tests at a significance level of α 0.05. Also, after 4 weeks of detraining a slight increase was seen in the levels of apelin, but was not significant (p>0.05. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, resistance training as a new non-drug therapy can be effective in reducing the levels of apelin. Also, apelin levels increases with discontinuation of exercise, which may lead to the emergence of inflammatory features in the cardiovascular system.

  5. Contents hormone cortisol in the blood youths with different levels of physical training and its changes in the single training sessions under athleticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernozub A.A.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Obtained and summarized the results of studies indicate that the content of the hormone cortisol when exposed to body exercise power orientation exhibits rapid reaction type, which have no signs of consolidation over the three years of occupation by force sports. The studies found that reducing the amount of cortisol in the blood, fixed after the training load in all four study groups, showing a certain dependence on the magnitude and intensity of training loads, and possibly on the level of fitness.

  6. Muscular and Systemic Correlates of Resistance Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A.; Bellamy, Leeann; Parise, Gianni; Baker, Steven K.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR) protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. METHODS: Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk⁻¹ of resistance training for 16 wk....

  7. High-Intensity Progressive Resistance Training Increases Strength With No Change in Cardiovascular Function and Autonomic Neural Regulation in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegusuku, Hélcio; Queiroz, Andréia C; Silva, Valdo J; de Mello, Marco T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Forjaz, Cláudia L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of high-intensity progressive resistance training (HIPRT) on cardiovascular function and autonomic neural regulation in older adults are unclear. To investigate this issue, 25 older adults were randomly divided into two groups: control (CON, N = 13, 63 ± 4 years; no training) and HIPRT (N = 12, 64 ± 4 years; 2 sessions/week, 7 exercises, 2–4 sets, 10–4 RM). Before and after four months, maximal strength, quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA), clinic and ambulatory blood pressures (BP), systemic hemodynamics, and cardiovascular autonomic modulation were measured. Maximal strength and QCSA increased in the HIPRT group and did not change in the CON group. Clinic and ambulatory BP, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac sympathovagal balance did not change in the HIPRT group or the CON group. In conclusion, HIPRT was effective at increasing muscle mass and strength without promoting changes in cardiovascular function or autonomic neural regulation.

  8. A randomized trial of protein supplementation compared with extra fast food on the effects of resistance training to increase metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambre, David; Vergara, Marta; Lood, Yvonne; Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta; Lindström, Torbjörn; Nystrom, Fredrik H

    2012-10-01

    To prospectively evaluate the effects of resistance training combined with increased energy intake or protein-supplementation on lean body-mass, resting metabolic-rate (RMR) and cardiovascular risk factors. Twenty-four healthy males (aged 19-32 years) performed resistance exercise for 12 weeks aiming for at least 1 hour training-sessions 3 times a week. The participants were randomized to consume extra protein (33 g whey protein/day) or a meal of fast-food/day (1350 kcal, 41 g protein). Body-composition was measured with Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) and RMR by indirect calorimetry. Fasting blood samples were drawn before and after the 3-month training period and after 12 months. The body weight increased from 75.1 ± 6.9 kg to 78.7 ± 7.2 kg (p < 0.0001), without differences between the groups. RMR increased from 1787 ± 143 kcal/24 h to 1954 ± 187 kcal/24 h (p < 0.0001, N = 24), which was more than expected from the increase in lean body-mass (increase from 59.7 ± 4.3 kg to 61.8 ± 4.1 kg p = 0.004). Fasting serum-insulin levels increased in the fast-food group compared with the extra-protein group (p = 0.03). ApoB increased from 0.691 ± 0.14 g/L to 0.768 ± 0.17 g/L, p = 0.004, in the fast-food group only. Long-term follow up after 12 months showed that RMR, body weight, total fat and lean body-masses did not differ from baseline (n = 19). Resistance training for 12 weeks increased RMR and lean body-mass similarly when based on either an increased energy-intake or protein supplement. However, the increase in RMR was higher than expected from the increase in lean body-mass. Thus resistance training could potentially decrease the risk of obesity by induction of increased RMR.

  9. Effect of resistance training on headache symptoms in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C. H.; Jensen, R. H.; Dalager, T.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While strength training for the neck and shoulder muscles may be effective in reducing headache, the optimal combination of exercise frequency and duration is unknown. This study investigates the effect of different time-wise combinations of one weekly hour of strength training for th...

  10. Effect of resistance training regimens on treadmill running and neuromuscular performance in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, Jussi; Vesterinen, Ville; Taipale, Ritva; Capostagno, Benoit; Häkkinen, Keijo; Nummela, Ari

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of heavy resistance, explosive resistance, and muscle endurance training on neuromuscular, endurance, and high-intensity running performance in recreational endurance runners. Twenty-seven male runners were divided into one of three groups: heavy resistance, explosive resistance or muscle endurance training. After 6 weeks of preparatory training, the groups underwent an 8-week resistance training programme as a supplement to endurance training. Before and after the 8-week training period, maximal strength (one-repetition maximum), electromyographic activity of the leg extensors, countermovement jump height, maximal speed in the maximal anaerobic running test, maximal endurance performance, maximal oxygen uptake ([V·]O(₂max)), and running economy were assessed. Maximal strength improved in the heavy (P = 0.034, effect size ES = 0.38) and explosive resistance training groups (P = 0.003, ES = 0.67) with increases in leg muscle activation (heavy: P = 0.032, ES = 0.38; explosive: P = 0.002, ES = 0.77). Only the heavy resistance training group improved maximal running speed in the maximal anaerobic running test (P = 0.012, ES = 0.52) and jump height (P = 0.006, ES = 0.59). Maximal endurance running performance was improved in all groups (heavy: P = 0.005, ES = 0.56; explosive: P = 0.034, ES = 0.39; muscle endurance: P = 0.001, ES = 0.94), with small though not statistically significant improvements in [V·]O(₂max) (heavy: ES = 0.08; explosive: ES = 0.29; muscle endurance: ES = 0.65) and running economy (ES in all groups running endurance performance. However, both heavy and explosive strength training were beneficial in improving neuromuscular characteristics, and heavy resistance training in particular contributed to improvements in high-intensity running characteristics. Thus, endurance runners should include heavy resistance training in their training programmes to enhance endurance performance, such as

  11. Mixed-Methods Resistance Training Increases Power and Strength of Young and Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert U.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Hakkinen, Arja; McCormick, Matt; Volek, Jeff; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week, mixed-methods resistance training program on young and older men. Although results confirmed some age-related reductions in muscle strength and power, the older men demonstrated similar capacity to the younger men for increases in muscle strength and power via an appropriate, periodized resistance training…

  12. Developing Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) for Parents of Treatment-Resistant Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Versek, Brian; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Meyers, Kathleen; Benishek, Lois A.; Bresani, Elena; Washio, Yukiko; Arria, Amelia; Meyers, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a project focused on training parents to facilitate their treatment-resistant adolescent's treatment entry and to manage their child after entry into community-based treatment. Controlled studies show that Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a unilateral treatment that fosters treatment entry of adults; however,…

  13. Evaluation of muscle activity during a standardized shoulder resistance training bout in novice individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    training bout. The purpose of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during a shoulder resistance training bout with 15 repetitions maximum (RM) loadings in novice individuals. Twelve healthy sedentary women (age = 27-58 years; weight = 54-85 kg; height = 160-178 cm) were recruited for this study...

  14. Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Eckardt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that both balance and resistance training have the potential to mitigate intrinsic fall risk factors in older adults. However, knowledge about the effects of simultaneously executed balance and resistance training (i.e., resistance training conducted on unstable surfaces [URT] on lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults is insufficient. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of machine-based stable resistance training (M-SRT and two types of URT, i.e., machine-based (M-URT and free-weight URT (F-URT, on measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults. Methods Seventy-five healthy community-dwelling older adults aged 65–80 years, were assigned to three intervention groups: M-SRT, M-URT and F-URT. Over a period of ten weeks, all participants exercised two times per week with each session lasting ~60 min. Tests included assessment of leg muscle strength (e.g., maximal isometric leg extension strength, power (e.g., chair rise test and balance (e.g., functional reach test, carried out before and after the training period. Furthermore, maximal training load of the squat-movement was assessed during the last training week. Results Maximal training load of the squat-movement was significantly lower in F-URT in comparison to M-SRT and M-URT. However, lower-extremity resistance training conducted on even and uneven surfaces meaningfully improved proxies of strength, power and balance in all groups. M-URT produced the greatest improvements in leg extension strength and F-URT in the chair rise test and functional reach test. Conclusion Aside from two interaction effects, overall improvements in measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance were similar across training groups. Importantly, F-URT produced similar results with considerably lower training load as compared to M-SRT and M-URT. Concluding, F-URT seems an

  15. Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Nils

    2016-11-24

    It is well documented that both balance and resistance training have the potential to mitigate intrinsic fall risk factors in older adults. However, knowledge about the effects of simultaneously executed balance and resistance training (i.e., resistance training conducted on unstable surfaces [URT]) on lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults is insufficient. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of machine-based stable resistance training (M-SRT) and two types of URT, i.e., machine-based (M-URT) and free-weight URT (F-URT), on measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults. Seventy-five healthy community-dwelling older adults aged 65-80 years, were assigned to three intervention groups: M-SRT, M-URT and F-URT. Over a period of ten weeks, all participants exercised two times per week with each session lasting ~60 min. Tests included assessment of leg muscle strength (e.g., maximal isometric leg extension strength), power (e.g., chair rise test) and balance (e.g., functional reach test), carried out before and after the training period. Furthermore, maximal training load of the squat-movement was assessed during the last training week. Maximal training load of the squat-movement was significantly lower in F-URT in comparison to M-SRT and M-URT. However, lower-extremity resistance training conducted on even and uneven surfaces meaningfully improved proxies of strength, power and balance in all groups. M-URT produced the greatest improvements in leg extension strength and F-URT in the chair rise test and functional reach test. Aside from two interaction effects, overall improvements in measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance were similar across training groups. Importantly, F-URT produced similar results with considerably lower training load as compared to M-SRT and M-URT. Concluding, F-URT seems an effective and safe alternative training program to mitigate

  16. Effect of creatine supplementation and drop-set resistance training in untrained aging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsmeyer, Sarah; Candow, Darren G; Brahms, C Markus; Michel, Deborah; Zello, Gordon A

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the effects of creatine supplementation and drop-set resistance training in untrained aging adults. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: Creatine (CR: n=14, 7 females, 7 males; 58.0±3.0yrs, 0.1g/kg/day of creatine+0.1g/kg/day of maltodextrin) or Placebo (PLA: n=17, 7 females, 10 males; age: 57.6±5.0yrs, 0.2g/kg/day of maltodextrin) during 12weeks of drop-set resistance training (3days/week; 2 sets of leg press, chest press, hack squat and lat pull-down exercises performed to muscle fatigue at 80% baseline 1-repetition maximum [1-RM] immediately followed by repetitions to muscle fatigue at 30% baseline 1-RM). Prior to and following training and supplementation, assessments were made for body composition, muscle strength, muscle endurance, tasks of functionality, muscle protein catabolism and diet. Drop-set resistance training improved muscle mass, muscle strength, muscle endurance and tasks of functionality (pcreatine to drop-set resistance training significantly increased body mass (p=0.002) and muscle mass (p=0.007) compared to placebo. Males on creatine increased muscle strength (lat pull-down only) to a greater extent than females on creatine (p=0.005). Creatine enabled males to resistance train at a greater capacity over time compared to males on placebo (p=0.049) and females on creatine (p=0.012). Males on creatine (p=0.019) and females on placebo (p=0.014) decreased 3-MH compared to females on creatine. The addition of creatine to drop-set resistance training augments the gains in muscle mass from resistance training alone. Creatine is more effective in untrained aging males compared to untrained aging females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Randomized controlled resistance training based physical activity trial for central European nursing home residing older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthalos, Istvan; Dorgo, Sandor; Kopkáné Plachy, Judit; Szakály, Zsolt; Ihász, Ferenc; Ráczné Németh, Teodóra; Bognár, József

    2016-10-01

    Nursing home residing older adults often experience fear of sickness or death, functional impairment and pain. It is difficult for these older adults to maintain a physically active lifestyle and to keep a positive outlook on life. This study evaluated the changes in quality of life, attitude to aging, assertiveness, physical fitness and body composition of nursing home residing elderly through a 15-week organized resistance training based physical activity program. Inactive older adults living in a state financed nursing home (N.=45) were randomly divided into two intervention groups and a control group. Both intervention groups were assigned to two physical activity sessions a week, but one of these groups also had weekly discussions on health and quality of life (Mental group). Data on anthropometric measures, fitness performance, as well as quality of life and attitudes to aging survey data were collected. Due to low attendance rate 12 subjects were excluded from the analyses. Statistical analysis included Paired Samples t-tests and Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance. Both intervention groups significantly improved their social participation, and their upper- and lower-body strength scores. Also, subjects in the Mental group showed improvement in agility fitness test and certain survey scales. No positive changes were detected in attitude towards aging and body composition measures in any groups. The post-hoc results suggest that Mental group improved significantly more than the Control group. Regular physical activity with discussions on health and quality of life made a more meaningful difference for the older adults living in nursing home than physical activity alone. Due to the fact that all participants were influenced by the program, it is suggested to further explore this area for better understanding of enhanced quality of life.

  18. Time-wise change in neck pain in response to rehabilitation with specific resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Andersen, Christoffer H; Sundstrup, Emil

    2014-01-01

    in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with neck pain >30 mm VAS (N = 131) were included in the present analysis. The training group (N = 77) performed specific resistance training for the neck/shoulder muscles three times a week, and the control group (N = 54) received advice to stay active. Participants of both groups......Purpose To determine the time-wise effect of specific resistance training on neck pain among industrial technicians with frequent neck pain symptoms. Methods Secondary analysis of a parallel-group cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 weeks performed at two large industrial production units...

  19. Session summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Y.

    2002-01-01

    In the summary session, possible international activities in the field of basic studies on high-temperature engineering were discussed within the framework of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC). It was recommended to include topics relevant to fission-product behaviour and safety issues of HTGR in next meeting, in addition to the topics discussed in this meeting. The chairperson of the last session summarised the recommendations to be presented to the NSC into the following five topics as possible international activities: - Basic studies on behaviour of irradiated graphite/carbon and ceramic materials including their composites under both operation and storage conditions. - Development of in-core material characterisation and instrumentation methods. - Improvement in material properties through high-temperature irradiation. - Basic studies on HTGR fuel fabrication and performance including fission-product release. - Basic studies on safety issues of HTGR. It was also recommended that a further information exchange meeting focused on the organisation of the interactive collaboration activity with regard to the above topics be planned in 2003, tentatively in Oarai, Japan. (author)

  20. Session Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliane Lessner, Co-Chair:

    2009-03-01

    A panel discussion session providing a worldwide assessment of the status and experiences of women in physics, paying attention to the different cultures and environments they work in and to how the age of the physicist affects their perspective. We will hear about women physicists in Korea in particular and Asia in general, in Egypt in particular and Africa in general, and in the Caribbean. Six invited speakers will present analyses of the progress being made in promoting women in physics from their personal experiences and as assessed from their participation in the Third International Conference on Women In Physics (ICWIP2008) convened in Seoul, Korea in October 2008. From Albania to Zimbabwe, with representation of all the continents, ICWIP2008 congregated 283 women and men physicists from 57 countries to share the participants' scientific accomplishments and evaluate international progress in improving the status of women in physics. This three-hour session is organized jointly by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics of the APS (CSWP) and the Forum on International Physics of the APS (FIP). Audience participation in the panel discussion will be strongly encouraged.

  1. microRNAs in High and Low Responders to Resistance Training in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrom, Amanda D; Denham, Joshua

    2018-04-26

    Accounting for one in three cancer diagnoses, breast cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Exercise has a well-accepted role in the multi-disciplinary approach to rehabilitating breast cancer survivors. Despite the many known benefits of resistance training on women recovering from breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that have crucial roles in growth and development. Here, we analysed the abundance of 9 miRNAs, with known roles in muscle physiology and some linked to cancer, in serum samples from 24 breast cancer survivors before and after a 16-week resistance training or usual care intervention. The resistance training group completed supervised thrice-weekly training. miRNA abundance was assessed before and after the intervention period using qPCR. There were no statistically significant changes in any of the miRNAs between groups after the intervention period (all p>0.05). After assessing miRNA abundance in context with high and low responders to resistance training, we observed that relative to low responders, high responders exhibited increased miR-133a-3p and a borderline statistically significant increase in miR-370-3p. Findings from our controlled study indicate the diverse interindividual miRNA responses to resistance training and reveal a discordant regulation between high and low responders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Motivational characteristics and resistance training in older adults: a randomized controlled trial and 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekäläinen, Tiia; Kokko, Katja; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna; Walker, Simon

    2018-06-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a nine-month supervised resistance training intervention on motivational and volitional characteristics related to exercise, and whether the absolute level and/or intervention-induced change in these characteristics predict self-directed continuation of resistance training one year after the intervention. Community-dwelling older adults aged 65-75, who did not fulfill physical activity recommendations, were randomized into resistance training intervention groups: training once- (n=26), twice- (n=27), three-times-a-week (n=28) or non-training control group (n=25). Training groups participated in supervised resistance training for nine months: during months 1-3 all groups trained twice-a-week and then with allocated frequencies during months 4-9. Exercise-related motivation, self-efficacy and planning were measured with questionnaires at baseline, month-3 and month-9. The continuance of resistance training was determined by interviews six and twelve months after the end of the intervention. The intervention improved action and coping planning as well as intrinsic motivation (group×time p<.05). During one-year follow-up, 54% of participants did not continue self-directed regular resistance training, 22% continued regular resistance training once-a-week and 24% twice-a-week. Increases in exercise self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation related to training during the intervention predicted continuation of resistance training twice-a-week. Resistance training improved exercise-related motivational and volitional characteristics in older adults. These improvements were linked to continuing resistance training one year after the supervised intervention. The role of these characteristics should be taken into account when promoting long-term resistance training participation among older adults. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Resistance Training on Hematological Blood Markers in Older Men and Women: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Bobeuf

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training on hematological blood markers in older individuals. Twenty-nine men and women participated to this study. Subjects were randomized in 2 groups: (1 control (n=13 and (2 resistance training (n=16. At baseline and after the intervention, subjects were submitted to a blood sample to determine their hematological profile (red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, red cell distribution width. At baseline, no difference was observed between groups. Moreover, we found no significant difference after the intervention on any of these markers. A 6-month resistance program in healthy older individuals seems to have no beneficial nor deleterious effects on hematological blood parameters. However, resistance training was well tolerated and should be recommended for other health purposes. Further studies are needed to confirm these results in a large population.

  4. Matter over mind: a randomised-controlled trial of single-session biofeedback training on performance anxiety and heart rate variability in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ruth; Outhred, Tim; Heathers, James A J; Quintana, Daniel S; Kemp, Andrew H

    2012-01-01

    Musical performance is a skilled activity performed under intense pressure, thus is often a profound source of anxiety. In other contexts, anxiety and its concomitant symptoms of sympathetic nervous system arousal have been successfully ameliorated with HRV biofeedback (HRV BF), a technique involving slow breathing which augments autonomic and emotional regulatory capacity. This randomised-controlled study explored the impact of a single 30-minute session of HRV BF on anxiety in response to a highly stressful music performance. A total of 46 trained musicians participated in this study and were randomly allocated to a slow breathing with or without biofeedback or no-treatment control group. A 3 Group×2 Time mixed experimental design was employed to compare the effect of group before and after intervention on performance anxiety (STAI-S) and frequency domain measures of HRV. Slow breathing groups (n=30) showed significantly greater improvements in high frequency (HF) and LF/HF ratio measures of HRV relative to control (n=15) during 5 minute recordings of performance anticipation following the intervention (effect size: η(2) =0.122 and η(2) =0.116, respectively). The addition of biofeedback to a slow breathing protocol did not produce differential results. While intervention groups did not exhibit an overall reduction in self-reported anxiety, participants with high baseline anxiety who received the intervention (n=15) displayed greater reductions in self-reported state anxiety relative to those in the control condition (n=7) (r=0.379). These findings indicate that a single session of slow breathing, regardless of biofeedback, is sufficient for controlling physiological arousal in anticipation of psychosocial stress associated with music performance and that slow breathing is particularly helpful for musicians with high levels of anxiety. Future research is needed to further examine the effects of HRV BF as a low-cost, non-pharmacological treatment for music

  5. Matter over mind: a randomised-controlled trial of single-session biofeedback training on performance anxiety and heart rate variability in musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Wells

    Full Text Available Musical performance is a skilled activity performed under intense pressure, thus is often a profound source of anxiety. In other contexts, anxiety and its concomitant symptoms of sympathetic nervous system arousal have been successfully ameliorated with HRV biofeedback (HRV BF, a technique involving slow breathing which augments autonomic and emotional regulatory capacity.This randomised-controlled study explored the impact of a single 30-minute session of HRV BF on anxiety in response to a highly stressful music performance.A total of 46 trained musicians participated in this study and were randomly allocated to a slow breathing with or without biofeedback or no-treatment control group. A 3 Group×2 Time mixed experimental design was employed to compare the effect of group before and after intervention on performance anxiety (STAI-S and frequency domain measures of HRV.Slow breathing groups (n=30 showed significantly greater improvements in high frequency (HF and LF/HF ratio measures of HRV relative to control (n=15 during 5 minute recordings of performance anticipation following the intervention (effect size: η(2 =0.122 and η(2 =0.116, respectively. The addition of biofeedback to a slow breathing protocol did not produce differential results. While intervention groups did not exhibit an overall reduction in self-reported anxiety, participants with high baseline anxiety who received the intervention (n=15 displayed greater reductions in self-reported state anxiety relative to those in the control condition (n=7 (r=0.379.These findings indicate that a single session of slow breathing, regardless of biofeedback, is sufficient for controlling physiological arousal in anticipation of psychosocial stress associated with music performance and that slow breathing is particularly helpful for musicians with high levels of anxiety. Future research is needed to further examine the effects of HRV BF as a low-cost, non-pharmacological treatment for

  6. Using robot-applied resistance to augment body-weight-supported treadmill training in an individual with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tania; Pauhl, Katherine; Krassioukov, Andrei; Eng, Janice J

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of task-specific gait training for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) is premised on evidence that the provision of gait-related afferent feedback is key for the recovery of stepping movements. Recent findings have shown that sensory feedback from flexor muscle afferents can facilitate flexor muscle activity during the swing phase of walking. This case report was undertaken to determine the feasibility of using robot-applied forces to resist leg movements during body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and to measure its effect on gait and other health-related outcomes. The patient described in this case report was a 43-year-old man with a T11 incomplete chronic SCI. He underwent 36 sessions of BWSTT using a robotic gait orthosis to provide forces that resist hip and knee flexion. Tolerance to the training program was monitored using the Borg CR10 scale and heart rate and blood pressure changes during each training session. Outcome measures (ie, 10-Meter Walk Test, Six-Minute Walk Test, modified Emory Functional Ambulation Profile [mEFAP], Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure) were completed and kinematic parameters of gait, lower-extremity muscle strength (force-generating capacity), lower-limb girth, and tolerance to orthostatic stress were measured before and after the training program. The patient could tolerate the training. Overground walking speed, endurance, and performance on all subtasks of the mEFAP improved and were accompanied by increased lower-limb joint flexion and toe clearance during gait. The patient's ambulatory self-confidence and self-perceived performance in walking also improved. These findings suggest that this new approach to BWSTT is a feasible and potentially effective therapy for improving skilled overground walking performance.

  7. A multistate model of cognitive dynamics in relation to resistance training: the contribution of baseline function.

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    Fallah, Nader; Hsu, Chun L; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Davis, Jennifer; Beattie, B Lynn; Graf, Peter; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2013-08-01

    We investigated: (1) the effect of different targeted exercise training on an individual's overall probability for cognitive improvement, maintenance, or decline; and (2) the simultaneous effect of targeted exercise training and baseline function on the dynamics of executive functions when a multistate transition model is used. Analyses are based on a 12-month randomized clinical trial including 155 community-dwelling women 65-75 years of age who were randomly allocated to once-weekly resistance training (1x RT; n = 54), twice-weekly resistance training (2x RT; n = 52), or twice-weekly balance and tone training (BAT; n = 49). The primary outcome measure was performance on the Stroop test, an executive cognitive test of selective attention and conflict resolution. Secondary outcomes of executive functions were set shifting and working memory. Individuals in the 1x RT or 2x RT group demonstrated a significantly greater probability for improved performance on the Stroop Test (0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.57) compared with those in the BAT group (0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.40). Resistance training had significant effects on transitions in selective attention and conflict resolution. Resistance training is efficacious in improving a measure of selective attention and conflict resolution in older women, probably more so among those with greater baseline cognitive function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sixteen weeks of resistance training can decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in healthy postmenopausal women

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    Conceição MS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Soares Conceição,1 Valéria Bonganha,1 Felipe Cassaro Vechin,2 Ricardo Paes de Barros Berton,1 Manoel Emílio Lixandrão,1 Felipe Romano Damas Nogueira,1 Giovana Vergínia de Souza,1 Mara Patricia Traina Chacon-Mikahil,1 Cleiton Augusto Libardi2 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, State University of Campinas, Campinas, 2Laboratory of Neuromuscular Adaptation to Strength Training, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Methods: Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 ± 3.95 years, 64.58 ± 9.22 kg or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 ± 5.7 years, 64.03 ± 5.03 kg. In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 × 8–10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162. Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001, and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%, reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, −6.75% and noticeable increases in

  9. Effects of elastic band resistance training and nutritional supplementation on physical performance of institutionalised elderly--A randomized controlled trial.

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    Oesen, Stefan; Halper, Barbara; Hofmann, Marlene; Jandrasits, Waltraud; Franzke, Bernhard; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Graf, Alexandra; Tschan, Harald; Bachl, Norbert; Quittan, Michael; Wagner, Karl Heinz; Wessner, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of elastic band resistance training in combination with nutrient supplementation on muscular strength and the ability to perform mobility-related activities of daily living in older adults living in retirement care facilities. Randomized controlled trial, with a 6-month intervention period. A retirement care facility, Vienna, Austria. One hundred and seventeen older adults (14 males (12%) and 103 females (88%)), aged 65 to 97 years (mean age: 82.8 ± 6.0), having a mini-mental state examination score ≥ 23 and no chronic diseases posing a medical contraindication to training therapy. Participants were randomly assigned, but stratified by sex, to one of three intervention groups: supervised resistance exercise training (RT), RT in combination with nutrient supplementation (RTS), or cognitive training group (CT). All interventions were performed two times a week for 6 months. RT was designed to train all major muscle groups using elastic bands. The nutrient supplement (rich in proteins, vitamin D, B2, B12) was distributed every morning as well as after each RT session. A battery of motor ability tests and functional test were performed prior to as well as following 3 months and finally after 6 months of intervention. These tests included isokinetic torque measurements of the knee extensors and flexors in concentric mode at 60 and 120°/s, isometric handgrip strength, senior arm-lifting test, chair stand test, maximum walking speed and a 6-minute walking test (6 MWT). A repeated-measures ANOVA analysis revealed significant improvements in physical function of lower (p=0.002) and upper extremities (p=0.006) for RT and/or RTS in comparison to CT. For isokinetic measurements, 6 MWT, and gait speed time effects (pperformance in chair stand test (p=0.012), 6 MWT (p=0.003), and gait speed (p=0.013) at baseline than that of the finishers of the study. Six months of a low intensity resistance exercise using elastic bands and own body weight is safe

  10. Acute effect of caffeine supplementation on performance of muscular strength and cardiovascular changes during resistance training

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    W. Materko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute effect of caffeine on the muscular strength performance in addition to the possible hemodynamic changes during a strength training session. Thirteen strength training experienced male subjects were submitted to a protocol of three sets of 10RM for bench press (BP, pull press (PP, leg extension (LE and leg curl (LC, according to three conditions: no supplementation (C; 250 mg of caffeine supplementation (S; placebo (P. All subjects were submitted to an anthropometric evaluation, followed by a 10RM familiarization test. Hemodynamic measurements – heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP – were carried out before, during and after each session. Holding 48 hours time intervals, participants were submitted to three randomly presented 10RM tests according to C, S and P conditions. For conditions S and C, significant differences were found in BP and LE. No significant differences in HR and BP were found. Results seem to suggest an ergogenic effect of caffeine on submaximal muscle strength during a session of strength training.

  11. Youth resistance training: updated position statement paper from the national strength and conditioning association.

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    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kraemer, William J; Blimkie, Cameron J R; Jeffreys, Ian; Micheli, Lyle J; Nitka, Mike; Rowland, Thomas W

    2009-08-01

    Faigenbaum, AD, Kraemer, WJ, Blimkie, CJR, Jeffreys, I, Micheli, LJ, Nitka, M, and Rowland, TW. Youth resistance training: Updated position statement paper from the National Strength and Conditioning Association. J Strength Cond Res 23(5): S60-S79, 2009-Current recommendations suggest that school-aged youth should participate daily in 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity that is developmentally appropriate and enjoyable and involves a variety of activities (). Not only is regular physical activity essential for normal growth and development, but also a physically active lifestyle during the pediatric years may help to reduce the risk of developing some chronic diseases later in life (). In addition to aerobic activities such as swimming and bicycling, research increasingly indicates that resistance training can offer unique benefits for children and adolescents when appropriately prescribed and supervised (). The qualified acceptance of youth resistance training by medical, fitness, and sport organizations is becoming universal ().Nowadays, comprehensive school-based programs are specifically designed to enhance health-related components of physical fitness, which include muscular strength (). In addition, the health club and sport conditioning industry is getting more involved in the youth fitness market. In the U.S.A., the number of health club members between the ages of 6 and 17 years continues to increase () and a growing number of private sport conditioning centers now cater to young athletes. Thus, as more children and adolescents resistance train in schools, health clubs, and sport training centers, it is imperative to determine safe, effective, and enjoyable practices by which resistance training can improve the health, fitness, and sports performance of younger populations.The National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) recognizes and supports the premise that many of the benefits associated with adult resistance training

  12. Identifying the optimal resistive load for complex training in male rugby players.

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    Comyns, Thomas M; Harrison, Andrew J; Hennessy, Liam; Jensen, Randall L

    2007-01-01

    Alternating a resistance exercise with a plyometric exercise is referred to as "complex training". In this study, we examined the effect of various resistive loads on the biomechanics of performance of a fast stretch-shortening cycle activity to determine if an optimal resistive load exists for complex training. Twelve elite rugby players performed three drop jumps before and after three back squat resistive loads of 65%, 80%, and 93% of a single repetition maximum (1-RM) load. All drop jumps were performed on a specially constructed sledge and force platform apparatus. Flight time, ground contact time, peak ground reaction force, reactive strength index, and leg stiffness were the dependent variables. Repeated-measures analysis of variance found that all resistive loads reduced (P benefit performance. However, it is unknown if these acute changes will produce any long-term adaptations to muscle function.

  13. Effect of combined aerobic and resistance training in body composition of obese postmenopausal women

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    Fabrício E. Rossi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 16-week program of combined aerobic and resistance training on the body composition of postmenopausal women who are obese. The participants were divided into two groups: training group (TG, n = 37 and non-trained control group (CG, n = 18. The trunk fat, fat mass, percentage of fat mass and fat-free mass were estimated using DXA. Three nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were conducted. The training protocol consisted of 50 minutes of resistance training followed by 30 minutes of aerobic training. After the 16-week training program, differences were observed in trunk fat (CG= 0.064 x TG= -0.571 Kg; p-value = .020, fat mass (CG= -0.088 x TG= -1.037 Kg; p-value = .020 and fat-free mass (CG= -0.388 x TG= 1.049 Kg; p = .001. Therefore, a 16-week program of systematic combined aerobic and resistance training in obese postmenopausal women was effective in improving fat-free mass and decreasing both whole and abdominal adiposity.

  14. Muscle adaptations to plyometric vs. resistance training in untrained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Kristian; Brink, Mads; Lønbro, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in muscle strength, power, and morphology induced by conventional strength training vs. plyometric training of equal time and effort requirements. Young, untrained men performed 12 weeks of progressive conventional resistance training (CRT, n = 8......) or plyometric training (PT, n = 7). Tests before and after training included one-repetition maximum (1 RM) incline leg press, 3 RM knee extension, and 1 RM knee flexion, countermovement jumping (CMJ), and ballistic incline leg press. Also, before and after training, magnetic resonance imaging scanning...... was performed for the thigh, and a muscle biopsy was sampled from the vastus lateralis muscle. Muscle strength increased by approximately 20-30% (1-3 RM tests) (p Plyometric training increased maximum CMJ height (10...

  15. Resistance Training with Co-ingestion of Anti-inflammatory Drugs Attenuates Mitochondrial Function

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    Daniele A. Cardinale

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study aimed to examine the effects of resistance exercise with concomitant consumption of high vs. low daily doses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. As a secondary aim, we compared the effects of eccentric overload with conventional training.Methods: Twenty participants were randomized to either a group taking high doses (3 × 400 mg/day of ibuprofen (IBU; 27 ± 5 year; n = 11 or a group ingesting a low dose (1 × 75 mg/day of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 26 ± 4 year; n = 9 during 8 weeks of supervised knee extensor resistance training. Each of the subject's legs were randomized to complete the training program using either a flywheel (FW device emphasizing eccentric overload, or a traditional weight stack machine (WS. Maximal mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (CI+IIP from permeabilized skeletal muscle bundles was assessed using high-resolution respirometry. Citrate synthase (CS activity was assessed using spectrophotometric techniques and mitochondrial protein content using western blotting.Results: After training, CI+IIP decreased (P < 0.05 in both IBU (23% and ASA (29% with no difference across medical treatments. Although CI+IIP decreased in both legs, the decrease was greater (interaction p = 0.015 in WS (33%, p = 0.001 compared with FW (19%, p = 0.078. CS activity increased (p = 0.027 with resistance training, with no interactions with medical treatment or training modality. Protein expression of ULK1 increased with training in both groups (p < 0.001. The increase in quadriceps muscle volume was not correlated with changes in CI+IIP (R = 0.16.Conclusion: These results suggest that 8 weeks of resistance training with co-ingestion of anti-inflammatory drugs reduces mitochondrial function but increases mitochondrial content. The observed changes were not affected by higher doses of NSAIDs consumption, suggesting that the resistance training

  16. Resistance training enhances insulin suppression of endogenous glucose production in elderly women.

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    Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Bucci, Marco; Andersson, Jonathan; Huovinen, Ville; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Sandboge, Samuel; Savisto, Nina; Salonen, Minna K; Badeau, Robert M; Parkkola, Riitta; Kullberg, Joel; Iozzo, Patricia; Eriksson, Johan G; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2016-03-15

    An altered prenatal environment during maternal obesity predisposes offspring to insulin resistance, obesity, and their consequent comorbidities, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Telomere shortening and frailty are additional risk factors for these conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training on hepatic metabolism and ectopic fat accumulation. Thirty-five frail elderly women, whose mothers' body mass index (BMI) was known, participated in a 4-mo resistance training program. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and hepatic and visceral fat glucose uptake were measured during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. Ectopic fat was measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. We found that the training intervention reduced EGP during insulin stimulation [from 5.4 (interquartile range 3.0, 7.0) to 3.9 (-0.4, 6.1) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.042] in the whole study group. Importantly, the reduction was higher among those whose EGP was more insulin resistant at baseline (higher than the median) [-5.6 (7.1) vs. 0.1 (5.4) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.015]. Furthermore, the decrease in EGP was associated with telomere elongation (r = -0.620, P = 0.001). The resistance training intervention did not change either hepatic or visceral fat glucose uptake or the amounts of ectopic fat. Maternal obesity did not influence the studied measures. In conclusion, resistance training improves suppression of EGP in elderly women. The finding of improved insulin sensitivity of EGP with associated telomere lengthening implies that elderly women can reduce their risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease with resistance training. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. A Six-Week Resistance Training Program Does Not Change Shear Modulus of the Triceps Brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Ryota; Shikiba, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Jun; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effect of a 6-week resistance training program on the shear modulus of the triceps brachii (TB). Twenty-three young men were randomly assigned to either the training (n = 13) or control group (n = 10). Before and after conducting the resistance training program, the shear modulus of the long head of the TB was measured at the point 70% along the length of the upper arm from the acromial process of the scapula to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus using shear wave ultrasound elastography. Muscle thickness of the long head of the TB was also determined at the same site by ultrasonography used during both tests. A resistance exercise was performed 3 days a week for 6 weeks using a dumbbell mass-adjusted to 80% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). The training effect on the muscle thickness and 1RM was significant. Nevertheless, the muscle shear modulus was not significantly changed after the training program. From the perspective of muscle mechanical properties, the present results indicate that significant adaptation must occur to make the TB more resistant to subsequent damaging bouts during the 6-week training program to target the TB.

  18. Effects of two programs of metabolic resistance training on strength and hypertrophy

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    Carolina Brandt Meister

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The effects of low intensity resistance training combined with vascular occlusion have been investigated by several studies. Similar results on strength and hypertrophy have been observed when such method was compared to high intensity protocols. However, due to the specific apparatus needed to apply vascular occlusion (ex.: Kaatsu on some exercises, alternative forms of metabolic training might be used. In the present study, an isometric contraction was performed within each concentric-eccentric transition phase, for every repetition, to elicit metabolic stress. Objective: The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of two resistance training protocols with metabolic characteristics on strength (1MR, circumference (CIRC and muscle thickness (measured with ultrasonography [MT]. Subjective perception of discomfort was also recorded with an analogical-visual pain scale (AVP. Methods: Twelve young, healthy men were trained with two different methods during 10 weeks. The right limb was trained with an isometric contraction within each concentric-eccentric transition phases for every repetition (ISO whereas the left limb was trained with a pneumatic cuff to apply vascular occlusion (OC on the knee extensor muscles. Both methods were trained at 20% 1MR. Results: It was observed increases on medial tight CIRC, proximal MT, medial MT, distal MT and 1MR, with no difference between both methods. The perception of discomfort was greater for ISO at the end of the third set and lower than reported by OC, at the beginning and end of the training program. Conclusions: Both protocols produced similar gains on strength and hypertrophy. The advantages of training with low loads are important to elderly or rehabilitation training programs. Other studies that compare this method with conventional resistance training are warranted.

  19. Effects of instability versus traditional resistance training on strength, power and velocity in untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Monroy, Antonio J Antón; Jodra Jiménez, Pablo; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel V

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10) or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX®) (IRT, n = 12). Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM), average (AV) and peak velocity (PV), average (AP) and peak power (PP), all during bench press (BP) and back squat (BS) exercises, along with squat jump (SJ) height and counter movement jump (CMJ) height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p velocity and jumping ability. Key PointsSimilar adaptations in terms of gains in strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability were produced in response to both training programs.Both the stability and instability approaches seem suitable for healthy, physically-active individuals with or with limited experience in resistance training.RPE emerged as a useful tool to monitor exercise intensity during instability strength training.

  20. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Parise, Gianni; Bellamy, Leeann; Baker, Steven K; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J; Phillips, Stuart M

    2014-01-01

    Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT) involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE) in untrained men (n = 23) and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index  = 26.4±0.9 kg•m²) underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-¹³C₆] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (Pmuscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1-3 h (r = 0.02), 3-6 h (r = 0.16) or the aggregate 1-6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10). Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05) with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46) at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.

  1. Effects of resistance training and dietary changes on physical function and body composition in overweight and obese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Chad R; Dorfman, Leah R; Cottell, Kathryn E; Krol, Julie M; Lofgren, Ingrid E; Delmonico, Matthew J

    2012-08-01

    Community-based interventions that incorporate resistance training (RT) and dietary changes have not been extensively studied in overweight and obese older adults. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a community-based RT and dietary intervention on physical function and body composition in overweight and obese older adults. Ninety-five overweight and obese (BMI=33.4±4.0 kg/m2) older adults aged 55-80 years completed an 8-week RT and dietary intervention at 4 Rhode Island senior centers. Participants performed RT twice-weekly using resistance tubing, dumbbells, and ankle weights. Participants also attended 1 weekly dietary counseling session on a modified Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Outcome measurements included anthropometrics, body composition, and physical function. There were small changes in body mass (-1.0±1.8 kg, Pfoot up-and-go test time (-0.56±0.89 s, P<.001). Community-based RT and dietary modifications can improve body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in overweight and obese older adults. Future investigations should determine if this intervention is effective for long-term changes.

  2. Effects of functional resistance training on fitness and quality of life in females with chronic nonspecific low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell-Tormo, Juan M; Sánchez, Pablo Tercedor; Chulvi-Medrano, Ivan; Tortosa-Martínez, Juan; Manchado-López, Carmen; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro

    2018-02-06

    Exercise is important as adjuvant in the chronic low back pain (CLBP) treatment. Functional training could involve benefits for low back pain (LBP) patients. To evaluate the effects of a 12-week period of functional resistance training on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), disability, body pain, and physical fitness in CLBP females. Nineteen females CLBP were recruited according to Paris Task Force on Back Pain criteria. Participants were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG); and a control group (CG). Subjects were tested at baseline and at week 12 after 24 sessions, 2 days per week. Body pain was assessed using visual analog scale (VAS), disability with Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and HRQOL with Short Form 36 questionnaire. Physical fitness was measured using: flamingo test, back endurance test, side bridge test, abdominal curl-up tests, and 60-s squat test. EG showed significant improvements in physical function (10%; ptraining decreased pain and disability and improved HRQOL, balance and physical fitness in females with CLBP, and can thus be used safely in this population.

  3. Use of anabolic androgenic steroids produces greater oxidative stress responses to resistance exercise in strength-trained men

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    Hamid Arazi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS use on oxidative stress responses to a single session of resistance exercise in strength-trained men. Twenty-three strength trained men, with 11 self-reporting regular AAS use and 12 self-reporting never taking AAS (NAAS volunteered to participate in this study. Blood draws were obtained pre and post resistance exercise in order to evaluate changes in oxidative stress biomarkers levels (i.e., 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], malondialdehyde [MDA], and nitric oxide [NO], antioxidant defense systems (i.e., glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and catalase [CAT], and glucose (GLU levels. The AAS users had higher level of 8-OHdG (77.3 ± 17 vs. 57.7 ± 18.2 ng/mg, MDA (85.6 ± 17.8 vs. 52.3 ± 15.1 ng/mL, and GPx (9.1 ± 2.3 vs. 7.1 ± 1.3 mu/mL compared to NAAS at pre exercise (p < 0.05. Both the experimental groups showed increases in 8-OHdG (p = 0.001, MDA (p = 0.001, GPx (p = 0.001, NO (p = 0.04, CAT (p = 0.02 and GLU (p = 0.001 concentrations after resistance exercise, and the AAS group indicated significant differences in 8-OHdG (p = 0.02 and MDA (p = 0.05 concentrations compared with NAAS users at post exercise. In conclusion, use of AAS is associated with alterations in immune function resulting in oxidative stress, and cell damage; however, high-intensity resistance exercise could increase greater oxidative stress biomarkers in strength-trained men. Keywords: ROS, Strength exercise, Anabolic

  4. Insulin and fiber type in the offspring of T2DM subjects with resistance training and detraining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schofield, Katherine L; Rehrer, Nancy J; Perry, Tracy L

    2012-01-01

    Effects of resistance training and detraining on glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose load, muscle fiber type, and muscular performance in the offspring of those with type 2 diabetes (familial insulin resistant (FIR)) were investigated....

  5. Effect of resistance training on plasma nitric oxide and asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations in type I diabetic rats

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    Parivash Shekarchizadeh Esfahani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Elevated ADMA level in diabetic animals can normalize during resistance exercise. Reduced ADMA level and increased NO level following resistance training might improve cardiovascular risk in diabetic subjects.

  6. The effect of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of protein on muscle fiber size and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.L.; Tufekovic, G.; Zebis, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of isoenergetic protein vs carbohydrate supplementation on muscle fiber hypertrophy and mechanical muscle performance. Supplementation was administered before and immediately after each training bout and, in addition, in the morning on nontraining days...

  7. Does a single session of high-intensity interval training provoke a transient elevated risk of falling in seniors and adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Kurz, Eduard; Roth, Ralf; Hanssen, Henner; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Balance and strength training can reduce seniors' fall risk up to 50%. Available evidence suggests that acute bouts of neuromuscular and endurance exercise deteriorate postural control. High-intensity endurance training has been successfully applied in different populations. Thus, it seemed valuable to examine the acute effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on neuromuscular performance in seniors and young adults. The acute impact of a HIIT session on balance performance and muscle activity after exercise cessation and during post-exercise recovery was examined in young and old adults. We intended to investigate whether a transient exercise-induced fall-risk may occur in both groups. 20 healthy seniors (age 70 (SD 4) years) and young adults (age 27 (SD 3) years) were examined on 3 days. After exhaustive ramp-like treadmill testing in order to determine maximal heart rate (HRmax) on the first day, either a 4 × 4 min HIIT at 90% of HRmax or a control condition (CON) was randomly performed on the second and third day, respectively. Balance performance (postural sway) was assessed during single limb stance with open eyes (SLEO) and double limb stance with closed eyes (DLEC). EMG was recorded for the soleus (SOL), anterior tibialis (TIB), gastrocnemius (GM) and peroneus longus (PL) muscles at the dominant leg. All measures were collected before, immediately as well as 10, 30 and 45 min after HIIT and CON, respectively. Compared to CON, HIIT induced significant increases of postural sway immediately after exercise cessation during SLEO in both groups (adults: p seniors: p = 0.007, Δ = +15% sway). Increased sway during DLEC was only found for seniors immediately and 10 min after HIIT (post: p = 0.003, Δ = +14% sway, 10 min post: p = 0.004, Δ = +18% sway). Muscle activity was increased during SLEO for TIB until 10 min post in seniors (0.008 seniors seems to prolong this period up to 30 min. Thus, the advantage of HIIT with regard to time efficiency seems

  8. Effectiveness of Hamstring Knee Rehabilitation Exercise Performed in Training Machine vs. Elastic Resistance Electromyography Evaluation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. D.; Sundstrup, E.; Andersen, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Design Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded...... inclinometers. Results Training machines and elastic resistance showed similar high levels of muscle activity (biceps femoris and semitendinosus peak nor