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Sample records for resistance training group

  1. Resistance exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Richards, Rachel S; Bidonde, Julia; Schachter, Candice L; Schafer, Laurel A; Danyliw, Adrienne; Sawant, Anuradha; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Rader, Tamara; Overend, Tom J

    2013-12-20

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain that leads to reduced physical function. Exercise training is commonly recommended as a treatment for management of symptoms. We examined the literature on resistance training for individuals with fibromyalgia. Resistance training is exercise performed against a progressive resistance with the intention of improving muscle strength, muscle endurance, muscle power, or a combination of these. To evaluate the benefits and harms of resistance exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We compared resistance training versus control and versus other types of exercise training. We searched nine electronic databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, Current Controlled Trials, World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, AMED) and other sources for published full-text articles. The date of the last search was 5 March 2013. Two review authors independently screened 1856 citations, 766 abstracts and 156 full-text articles. We included five studies that met our inclusion criteria. Selection criteria included: a) randomized clinical trial, b) diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria, c) adult sample, d) full-text publication, and e) inclusion of between-group data comparing resistance training versus a control or other physical activity intervention. Pairs of review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted intervention and outcome data. We resolved disagreements between the two review authors and questions regarding interpretation of study methods by discussion within the pairs or when necessary the issue was taken to the full team of 11 members. We extracted 21 outcomes of which seven were designated as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, tenderness, muscle strength, attrition rates, and adverse effects. We evaluated benefits and harms of the interventions using

  2. E-groups training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    There will be an e-groups training course on 16 March 2012 which will cover the main e-groups functionalities i.e.: creating and managing e-groups, difference between static and dynamic e-groups, configuring posting restrictions and archives, examples of where e-groups can be used in daily work. Even if you have already worked with e-groups, this may be a good opportunity to learn about the best practices and security related recommendations when using e-groups. You can find more details as well as enrolment form for the training (it’s free) here. The number of places is limited, so enrolling early is recommended.   Technical Training Tel. 72844

  3. Relationship between resistance training and selfreported habitual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similar to the non-exercising control group, resistance training resulted in no significant (p > 0.05) changes in the habitual intake of daily intake of total ... as a mode of training may not be an effective mode of exercise to promote overall physical activity in an attempt to modify the patterns of macronutrient and energy intake.

  4. Heavy resistance training and lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Karlsmark, Tonny; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge regarding progressive resistance training during adjuvant chemotherapy and the risk of developing breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Furthermore, no studies have investigated the safety of resistance training with heavy loads (> 80% 1 repetition maximum......) in this population. 'Body and Cancer' is a six-week, nine-hour weekly, supervised, multimodal exercise intervention utilizing progressive resistance training with heavy loads for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of BCRL in former participants......, and identify associations between progressive resistance training with heavy loads, and the development of BCRL. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a descriptive study. POPULATION: Women treated for breast cancer (n = 149), who had participated in the 'Body and Cancer' exercise intervention between 1 January 2010...

  5. Resistance training during pregnancy and perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Erin; Pivarnik, Jim; Pfeiffer, Karin

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 10% of women engage in resistance training during pregnancy; however there is limited research on this activity. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between resistance training and adverse outcomes. Women completed an online survey and recalled their exercise habits during each trimester of their most recent pregnancy within the previous 5 years. Women also reported pregnancy and birth outcomes. Participants were then categorized into 3 groups based on leisure-time exercise: 1) Resistance + aerobic training (RTAE), 2) Aerobic exercise only (AE), and 3) no exercise (NE). 284 women completed the survey. Women in the RTAE group resistance trained on average 2.9 days/ week for 27.3 minutes/session. The prevalences of hypertensive disorders (HD) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were significantly lower in the RTAE group when compared with the grouping of AE + NE women. Prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) was the strongest factor related to both GDM and HD. There was no difference in the risk of preterm labor, mode of delivery, or gestational age at delivery by exercise status. Our results suggest that women can safely engage in aerobic exercise and resistance training for muscular endurance 3 days/week for 30 minutes throughout gestation.

  6. Why do seniors leave resistance training programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton E

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Elissa Burton,1 Anne-Marie Hill,1 Simone Pettigrew,2 Gill Lewin,3 Liz Bainbridge,1 Kaela Farrier,1 Phil Airey,4 Keith D Hill1 1School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, 2School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, 3School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Curtin University, 4Council on the Ageing, Perth, WA, Australia Purpose: The proportion of the population, that is older, is growing at a faster rate than other age groups. Physical activity is important for older people because it assists in living independently. Participating in resistance training on a regular basis (twice weekly is recommended for older people; yet, fewer than 15% of people over 60 years achieve this level. The aim of this article was to investigate the factors contributing to older people’s decisions to stop participation in a resistance training program.Participants and methods: Participants were older people who had chosen to participate in a structured resistance training program specifically designed for seniors and then after a period of time discontinued. This population received a questionnaire in the mail focused on factors contributing to their cessation of resistance training exercise. Qualitative results were analyzed using inductive content analysis.Results: Fifty-six survey responses were received (average age 71.5 years, SD =9.0; 79% females. Injury, illness, and holidaying were the main reasons for ceasing participation. A small but important number of responses (11% reported that they considered they were not provided with sufficient support during the resistance training programs.Conclusions: To attract and retain their senior clients, the results indicate that program organizers need to provide tailored support to return to resistance training after injury and offer flexible and individualized services that accommodate older people’s life choices in retirement. Keywords: older people, strength training, gymnasium, retention, aging

  7. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10 groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supplementation plus resistance training, resistance training, and control groups. After supplementation period (600 mg/day, 14 days, resistance training and green tea supplementation plus resistance training groups performed an intensive resistance training session at 75-85 % of one repetition maximum. The malondialdehyde and total thiol were measured as oxidative stress indices. Data were analyzed by using of repeated measure ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.056T. Results: Results showed that after 14 days of green tea consumption, malondialdehyde significantly decreased in green tea supplementation (p=0.03 and green tea supplementation plus resistance training (p=0.01 groups, while total thiol increased significantly (p=0.01 in two green tea supplementation groups. However, an intensive resistance training session increased malondialdehyde (p=0.01 without any significantly changes in total thiol (p=0.426T. Conclusion: It seems that green tea supplementation can inhibit exercise-induced protein and lipid oxidation in non-athletes women via enhancement of antioxidant defense system of the body6T.6T

  8. Resistance to group clinical supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Delgado, Cynthia; Traynor, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This present study is a report of an interview study exploring personal views on participating in group clinical supervision among mental health nursing staff members who do not participate in supervision. There is a paucity of empirical research on resistance to supervision, which has traditiona......This present study is a report of an interview study exploring personal views on participating in group clinical supervision among mental health nursing staff members who do not participate in supervision. There is a paucity of empirical research on resistance to supervision, which has...... traditionally been theorized as a supervisee's maladaptive coping with anxiety in the supervision process. The aim of the present study was to examine resistance to group clinical supervision by interviewing nurses who did not participate in supervision. In 2015, we conducted semistructured interviews with 24...... Danish mental health nursing staff members who had been observed not to participate in supervision in two periods of 3 months. Interviews were audio-recorded and subjected to discourse analysis. We constructed two discursive positions taken by the informants: (i) 'forced non-participation', where...

  9. Nutrient Administration and Resistance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leutholtz Brian

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skeletal muscle tissue is tightly regulated throughout our bodies by balancing its synthesis and breakdown. Many factors are known to exist that cause profound changes on the overall status of skeletal muscle, some of which include exercise, nutrition, hormonal influences and disease. Muscle hypertrophy results when protein synthesis is greater than protein breakdown. Resistance training is a popular form of exercise that has been shown to increase muscular strength and muscular hypertrophy. In general, resistance training causes a stimulation of protein synthesis as well as an increase in protein breakdown, resulting in a negative balance of protein. Providing nutrients, specifically amino acids, helps to stimulate protein synthesis and improve the overall net balance of protein. Strategies to increase the concentration and availability of amino acids after resistance exercise are of great interest and have been shown to effectively increase overall protein synthesis. 123 After exercise, providing carbohydrate has been shown to mildly stimulate protein synthesis while addition of free amino acids prior to and after exercise, specifically essential amino acids, causes a rapid pronounced increase in protein synthesis as well as protein balance.13 Evidence exists for a dose-response relationship of infused amino acids while no specific regimen exists for optimal dosing upon ingestion. Ingestion of whole or intact protein sources (e.g., protein powders, meal-replacements has been shown to cause similar improvements in protein balance after resistance exercise when compared to free amino acid supplements. Future research should seek to determine optimal dosing of ingested intact amino acids in addition to identifying the cellular mechanistic machinery (e.g. transcriptional and translational mechanisms for causing the increase in protein synthesis.

  10. Strategies for Optimizing Strength, Power, and Muscle Hypertrophy in Women: Contribution of Upper Body Resistance Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraemer, William

    1999-01-01

    To determine the performance and physiological effects of various physical conditioning programs in women, total body, upper-body resistance training groups, field training and aerobic training groups (n = 11 to 21...

  11. Effects of aging and resistance training in rat tendon remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqueti, Rita C; Durigan, João L Q; Oliveira, Anderson José S; Mekaro, Marcelo Shinyu; Guzzoni, Vinicius; Aro, Andrea A; Pimentel, Edson Rosa; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa S

    2018-01-01

    In elderly persons, weak tendons contribute to functional limitations, injuries, and disability, but resistance training can attenuate this age-related decline. We evaluated the effects of resistance training on the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the calcaneal tendon (CT) in young and old rats and its effect on tendon remodeling. Wistar rats aged 3 mo (young, n = 30) and 20 mo (old, n = 30) were divided into 4 groups: young sedentary, young trained, old sedentary (OS), and old trained (OT). The training sessions were conducted over a 12-wk period. Aging in sedentary rats showed down-regulation in key genes that regulated ECM remodeling. Moreover, the OS group showed a calcification focus in the distal region of the CT, with reduced blood vessel volume density. In contrast, resistance training was effective in up-regulating connective tissue growth factor, VEGF, and decorin gene expression in old rats. Resistance training also increased proteoglycan content in young and old rats in special small leucine-rich proteoglycans and blood vessels and prevented calcification in OT rats. These findings confirm that resistance training is a potential mechanism in the prevention of aging-related loss in ECM and that it attenuates the detrimental effects of aging in tendons, such as ruptures and tendinopathies.-Marqueti, R. C., Durigan, J. L. Q., Oliveira, A. J. S., Mekaro, M. S., Guzzoni, V., Aro, A. A., Pimentel, E. R., Selistre-de-Araujo, H. S. Effects of aging and resistance training in rat tendon remodeling. © FASEB.

  12. Does Resistance Training Stimulate Cardiac Muscle Hypertrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the left ventricular structural adaptations induced by resistance/strength exercise, focusing on human work, particularly well-trained strength athletes engaged in regular, moderate- to high-intensity resistance training (RT). The article discusses both genders and examines the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in…

  13. The influence of resistance training on the magnitude of change in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... however research focusing on the effect of a resistance training intervention in order ... RMR (d = 0.58) and exercise compliance (d = 0.58) while the obese group ... Resting metabolic rate, Resistance training, Body composition, Employees ...

  14. EXERCISE IN RESISTANCE-TRAINED MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RD Calixto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effects of different velocities of eccentric muscle actions on acute blood lactate and serum growth hormone (GH concentrations following free weight bench press exercises performed by resistance-trained men. Sixteen healthy men were divided into two groups: slow eccentric velocity (SEV; n = 8 and fast eccentric velocity (FEV; n = 8. Both groups performed four sets of eight eccentric repetitions at an intensity of 70% of their one repetition maximum eccentric (1RMecc test, with 2-minute rest intervals between sets. The eccentric velocity was controlled to 3 seconds per range of motion for SEV and 0.5 seconds for the FEV group. There was a significant difference (P < 0.001 in the kinetics of blood lactate removal (at 3, 6, 9, 15, and 20 min and higher mean values for peak blood lactate (P = 0.001 for the SEV group (9.1 ± 0.5 mM compared to the FEV group (6.1 ± 0.4 mM. Additionally, serum GH concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.001 at 15 minutes after bench press exercise in the SEV group (1.7 ± 0.6 ng · mL-1 relative to the FEV group (0.1 ± 0.0 ng · mL-1. In conclusion, the velocity of eccentric muscle action influences acute responses following bench press exercises performed by resistance-trained men using a slow velocity resulting in a greater metabolic stress and hormone response.

  15. Elastic Bands as a Component of Periodized Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Jordan M; Lowery, Ryan P; Oliveira de Souza, Eduardo; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-08-01

    Joy, JM, Lowery, RP, Oliveira de Souza, E, and Wilson, JM. Elastic bands as a component of periodized resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2100-2106, 2016-Variable resistance training (VRT) has recently become a component of strength and conditioning programs. Prior research has demonstrated increases in power and/or strength using low loads of variable resistance. However, no study has examined using high loads of variable resistance as a part of a periodized training protocol to examine VRT within the context of a periodized training program and to examine a greater load of variable resistance than has been examined in prior research. Fourteen National Collegiate Athletic Association division II male basketball players were recruited for this study. Athletes were divided equally into either a variable resistance or control group. The variable resistance group added 30% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) as band tension to their prescribed weight 1 session per week. Rate of power development (RPD), peak power, strength, body composition, and vertical jump height were measured pretreatment and posttreatment. No baseline differences were observed between groups for any measurement of strength, power, or body composition. A significant group by time interaction was observed for RPD, in which RPD was greater in VRT posttraining than in the control group. Significant time effects were observed for all other variables including squat 1RM, bench press 1RM, deadlift 1RM, clean 3RM, vertical jump, and lean mass. Although there were no significant group ×-time interactions, the VRT group's percent changes and effect sizes indicate a larger treatment effect in the squat and bench press 1RM values and the vertical jump performed on the force plate and vertec. These results suggest that when using variable resistance as a component of a periodized training program, power and strength can be enhanced. Therefore, athletes who add variable resistance to 1 training

  16. Variable Resistance Training Promotes Greater Strength and Power Adaptations Than Traditional Resistance Training in Elite Youth Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Maxence; Louit, Loic; Strokosch, Alasdair; Seitz, Laurent B

    2017-04-01

    Rivière, M, Louit, L, Strokosch, A, and Seitz, LB. Variable resistance training promotes greater strength and power adaptations than traditional resistance training in elite youth rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 947-955, 2017-The purpose of this study was to examine the strength, velocity, and power adaptations in youth rugby league players in response to a variable resistance training (VRT) or traditional free-weight resistance training (TRAD) intervention. Sixteen elite youth players were assigned to a VRT or TRAD group and completed 2 weekly upper- and lower-body strength and power sessions for 6 weeks. Training programs were identical except that the VRT group trained the bench press exercise with 20% of the prescribed load coming from elastic bands. Bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and bench press mean velocity and power at 35, 45, 65, 75, and 85% of 1RM were measured before and after the training intervention, and the magnitude of the changes was determined using effect sizes (ESs). The VRT group experienced larger increases in both absolute (ES = 0.46 vs. 0.20) and relative (ES = 0.41 vs. 0.19) bench press 1RM. Similar results were observed for mean velocity as well as both absolute and relative mean power at 35, 45, 65, 75, and 85% of 1RM. Furthermore, both groups experienced large gains in both velocity and power in the heavier loads but small improvements in the lighter loads. The improvements in both velocity and power against the heavier loads were larger for the VRT group, whereas smaller differences existed between the 2 groups in the lighter loads. Variable resistance training using elastic bands may offer a greater training stimulus than traditional free-weight resistance training to improve upper-body strength, velocity, and power in elite youth rugby league players.

  17. Resistance training during preadolescence. Issues and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blimkie, C J

    1993-06-01

    High intensity resistance training appears to be effective in increasing strength in preadolescents. Children make similar relative (percentage improvement), but smaller absolute, strength gains compared with adolescents and young adults in response to similar resistance training programmes. Resistance training appears to have little if any effect on muscle size, and strength gains during training have been associated with increases in levels of neuromuscular activation and changes in intrinsic contractile characteristics of muscle. Although unsubstantiated, improved motor coordination probably also contributes to the increase in strength, especially for more complex strength manoeuvres. On the basis of limited information, training-induced strength gains are lost during detraining, and the decay in strength has been associated with a reduction in neuromuscular activation. Short term resistance training appears to have no effect on somatic growth (height or weight) and body composition, and no proven positive influence on sports performance, injury rate or recovery from injury during preadolescence. Weightlifting has proved injurious to some children, especially when unsupervised and without instruction in proper weightlifting technique and load selection. In contrast, the risk of injury from prudently prescribed and closely supervised resistance training appears to be low during preadolescence. Lastly, short term resistance training appears to have no detrimental effect during preadolescence on either cardiorespiratory fitness or resting blood pressure.

  18. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C.; Irigoyen, M.C.; De Angelis, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation

  19. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation.

  20. Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group: Open for Business

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Henry F.; Bartlett, John G.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Chiou, Christine; Cosgrove, Sara E.; Cross, Heather R.; Daum, Robert S.; Downing, Michele; Evans, Scott R.; Knisely, Jane; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Mickley, Brenda S.; Patel, Robin; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) is tasked with prioritizing, designing, implementing, and conducting clinical studies to address antibacterial resistance. This article outlines clinical research resources and opportunities made available by ARLG and encourages submission of proposals that address antibacterial resistance.

  1. Resistance Training: Identifying Best Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    were too small to be important. That argument would be particularly powerful when coupled with the knowledge that training effects increase with...interpretation of those facts convert the evidence to reliable scientific knowledge (Ziman, 1978). No single meta-analysis is likely to establish a...Wisloff, U. (1999). Maximal strength training improves work economy in trained female cross-country skiers . Med Sci Sports Exerc, 31, 870- 877

  2. Measuring Learning Resistance to Workplace Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan E.; Lounsbury, John

    2016-01-01

    Training Transfer has been a topic bearing considerable mention over the past several decades. This article focuses on the connection between training transfer and learning resistance and presents research findings describing the design, creation, and testing of the Learning Efficiency Inventory (LEI). The LEI was designed to measure learning…

  3. Effects of Resistance Training on Ventricular Function and Hypertrophy in a Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barauna, Valério Garrone; Rosa, Kaleizu Teodoro; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to follow the ventricular function and cardiac hypertrophy in rats undergoing a resistance-training program for a period of 3 months. Design: Forty animals were divided into two major groups: control (n=16) and resistance trained (n=24). From the resistance-trained group, 12 animals were resistance trained for 1 month and another 12 for 3 months. The resistance-training protocol was performed with 4 sets of 12 repetitions using 65% to 75% of one repetition maximum (maximum lifted weight with the exercise apparatus). Methods: Echocardiographic analysis was performed at the beginning of the resistance-training period and at the end of each month. The repetition maximum was measured every 2 weeks. Cardiac hypertrophy was determined by echocardiography, by the absolute weight of the cardiac chambers and by histology of the left ventricle. Results: Before resistance training, both groups had similar repetition maximums, ranging from 1.8-fold to 2-fold the body weight; however, at the end of the resistance-training period, the repetition maximum of the resistance-trained group was 6-fold greater than the body weight. The left ventricular mass as assessed by echocardiography was 8%, 12% and 16% larger in the resistance-trained group than in the control group in the first, second and third months, respectively. This hypertrophy showed a similar increase in the interventricular septum and in the free posterior wall mass. There was no reduction in the end-diastolic left ventricular internal diameter during the 3-month resistance-training period. Systolic function did not differ between the groups throughout the resistance-training period. Conclusion: Resistance training induces the development of concentric cardiac hypertrophy without ventricular dysfunction or cavity reduction. Although diastolic function was not completely investigated, we cannot exclude the possibility that resistance training results in diastolic dysfunction. PMID

  4. Influence of HMB supplementation and resistance training on cytokine responses to resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Hatfield, Disa L; Comstock, Brett A; Fragala, Maren S; Davitt, Patrick M; Cortis, Cristina; Wilson, Jacob M; Lee, Elaine C; Newton, Robert U; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Häkkinen, Keijo; Szivak, Tunde K; Hooper, David R; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; White, Mark T; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a multinutritional supplement including amino acids, β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), and carbohydrates on cytokine responses to resistance exercise and training. Seventeen healthy, college-aged men were randomly assigned to a Muscle Armor™ (MA; Abbott Nutrition, Columbus, OH) or placebo supplement group and 12 weeks of resistance training. An acute resistance exercise protocol was administered at 0, 6, and 12 weeks of training. Venous blood samples at pre-, immediately post-, and 30-minutes postexercise were analyzed via bead multiplex immunoassay for 17 cytokines. After 12 weeks of training, the MA group exhibited decreased interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-10. IL-1β differed by group at various times. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β) changed over the 12-week training period but did not differ by group. Twelve weeks of resistance training alters the cytokine response to acute resistance exercise, and supplementation with HMB and amino acids appears to further augment this result.

  5. School Counselors' Experiential Training in Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, Samuel K.; Armstrong, Stephen A.; Womack, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    School counselors' perceptions of the efficacy and satisfaction of their experiential training in group work were investigated. An exploratory factor analysis (n = 304) revealed four salient factors: leader characteristics, leader responsibilities, child/adolescent group leadership and adult group leadership. A majority of participants indicated…

  6. Other adaptations to training/inactivity in type 2 diabetics and other groups with insulin resistance: emphasis on prevention of CHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Physical training is recommended for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in the general population. In patients with type 2 diabetes this is even more important, because the risk of clinical atherosclerotic disease is 2- to 3-fold that of nondiabetics and the survival rate...... is poorer. However, increased daily physical activity (e.g., walking for exercise) has been shown to reduce the risk of premature death from all causes and from cardiovascular disease in particular. The mechanism for the positive effect of physical training may be a reduction of known risk factors...

  7. Learning during Group Therapy Leadership Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Walter N.; Green, Bonnie L.

    1978-01-01

    Examined factors affecting congitive learning during a combined experiential-didactic group therapy training program. The overall goal for trainees was the acquisition of a cognitive model of group functioning, which can be translated into consistent leadership techniques. (Author/PD)

  8. Exercise is good for your blood pressure: effects of endurance training and resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagard, R H

    2006-09-01

    1. Although several epidemiological studies have not observed significant independent relationships between physical activity or fitness and blood pressure, others have concluded that blood pressure is lower in individuals who are more fit or active. However, longitudinal intervention studies are more appropriate for assessing the effects of physical activity on blood pressure. 2. Previously, we have performed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials involving dynamic aerobic endurance training or resistance training. Inclusion criteria were: random allocation to intervention and control; physical training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive and/or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of at least 4 weeks; availability of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. 3. The meta-analysis on endurance training involved 72 trials and 105 study groups. After weighting for the number of trained participants, training induced significant net reductions of resting and day time ambulatory blood pressure of 3.0/2.4 mmHg (P hypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; P training has been less well studied. A meta-analysis of nine randomized controlled trials (12 study groups) on mostly dynamic resistance training revealed a weighted net reduction of diastolic blood pressure of 3.5 mmHg (P endurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of systemic vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favourably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, the few available data suggest that resistance training is able to reduce blood pressure.

  9. The Comparison of Two Methods of Exercise (intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on Fasting Sugar, Insulin and Insulin Resistance in Women with Mellitus Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bazyar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise is an important component of health and an integral approach to the management of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on fasting sugar, insulin and insulin resistance in women with mellitus diabetes.   Methods: Fifty-two overweight female diabetic type 2 patients (aged 45-60 years old with fasting blood glucose≥ 126 mg/dl were selected to participate in the present study. Participants were assigned to intense interval training group (N=17, concurrent resistance- endurance training group (N=17 and control group (N=18. The exercises incorporated 10 weeks of concurrent resistance- endurance training and intense interval training. Fasting blood sugar, serum insulin concentrations levels were measured. Concurrent training group trained eight weeks, three times a week of endurance training at 60% of maximum heart rate (MHR and two resistance training sessions per week with 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM. Intense interval training group trained for eight weeks, three sessions per week for 4 to 10 repeats Wingate test on the ergometer 30s performed with maximum effort. The control group did no systematic exercise. At the end of experiment 42 subjects were succeed and completed the study period, and 10 subjects were removed due to illness and absence in the exercise sessions. Fasting blood sugar and insulin levels 24 hours before and 48 hours after the last training session was measured.   Results: The findings indicated that in periodic fasting, the blood sugar in intensive training group had a marked decrease (p= 0.000 however, the fasting blood sugar of exercise and power stamina groups reduced significantly (p=0.062. The results showed no significant difference between the groups (171/0 p =0.171. Fasting insulin (p <0.001 and insulin resistance (0001/0 = p=0.001 in periodic intensive training group were

  10. Group Music Training and Children's Prosocial Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Corrigall, Kathleen A; Dys, Sebastian P; Malti, Tina

    2015-01-01

    We investigated if group music training in childhood is associated with prosocial skills. Children in 3rd or 4th grade who attended 10 months of music lessons taught in groups were compared to a control group of children matched for socio-economic status. All children were administered tests of prosocial skills near the beginning and end of the 10-month period. Compared to the control group, children in the music group had larger increases in sympathy and prosocial behavior, but this effect was limited to children who had poor prosocial skills before the lessons began. The effect was evident even when the lessons were compulsory, which minimized the role of self-selection. The results suggest that group music training facilitates the development of prosocial skills.

  11. Group Music Training and Children's Prosocial Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Glenn Schellenberg

    Full Text Available We investigated if group music training in childhood is associated with prosocial skills. Children in 3rd or 4th grade who attended 10 months of music lessons taught in groups were compared to a control group of children matched for socio-economic status. All children were administered tests of prosocial skills near the beginning and end of the 10-month period. Compared to the control group, children in the music group had larger increases in sympathy and prosocial behavior, but this effect was limited to children who had poor prosocial skills before the lessons began. The effect was evident even when the lessons were compulsory, which minimized the role of self-selection. The results suggest that group music training facilitates the development of prosocial skills.

  12. Group Music Training and Children's Prosocial Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Corrigall, Kathleen A.; Dys, Sebastian P.; Malti, Tina

    2015-01-01

    We investigated if group music training in childhood is associated with prosocial skills. Children in 3rd or 4th grade who attended 10 months of music lessons taught in groups were compared to a control group of children matched for socio-economic status. All children were administered tests of prosocial skills near the beginning and end of the 10-month period. Compared to the control group, children in the music group had larger increases in sympathy and prosocial behavior, but this effect w...

  13. Comparison of home- and gymnasium-based resistance training on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of home- and gymnasium-based resistance training on flexibility in the ... which is especially essential in the maintenance of functional abilities of the ... the effects of a home- and gymnasium-based resistance training programme ...

  14. Training benefits from NSSS owners group participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hine, R.C.; Jones, J.E.; Ruzich, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Even though the event at Three Mile Island was a bleak moment in the history of nuclear power, many advances in the nuclear industry have evolved as a result. One such advancement involves the establishment of NSSS Vendor Owners Groups. These groups were organized on a voluntary basis with nearly all utilities participating. The main purpose was to achieve mutual benefit, both technical and financial, through joint engineering and plant operation programs. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse Owners Group, which is commonly referred to as the WOG, and how it has benefited and could further benefit utility training. The paper consists of three sections. The first section provides an overview of the WOG structure and how it functions. The second section focuses on the major accomplishments of the WOG with emphasis on the development of the Emergency Response Guidelines (ERGs). The third section provides some recommendations as to how utility training departments can better utilize their owners groups

  15. Asserive Training in Groups Using Video Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, John P.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of group assertive training with nonassertive college students. Significant differences were found between experimental and control subjects on the College Self-Expression Scale, the Subjective Unit of Disturbance Scale, eye contact, length of scene, and assertive content but not on response latency.…

  16. Menopause: highlighting the effects of resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, R D; Prestes, J; Pereira, G B; Shiguemoto, G E; Perez, S E A

    2010-11-01

    The increase in lifespan and in the proportion of elderly women has increased the focus on menopause induced physiological alterations. These modifications are associated with the elevated risk of several pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fat liver disease, among others. Because of estrogen levels decline, many tissue and organs (muscular, bone, adipose tissue and liver) are affected. Additionally, body composition suffers important modifications. In this sense, there is a growing body of concern in understanding the physiological mechanisms involved and establishing strategies to prevent and reverse the effects of menopause. The hormone reposition therapy, diet and physical exercise have been recommended. Among the diverse exercise modalities, resistance training is not commonly used as a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of menopause. Thus, the aim of this review was to analyze the physiological alterations on several organs and systems induced by menopause and ovariectomy (experimental model to reproduce menopause), as well as, to study the effects of resistance training in preventing and reverting these modifications. In conclusion, resistance training promotes beneficial effects on several organs and systems, mainly, on muscular, bone and adipose tissue, allowing for a better quality of life in this population.

  17. Antibacterial resistance leadership group: open for business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Henry F; Bartlett, John G; Bonomo, Robert A; Chiou, Christine; Cosgrove, Sara E; Cross, Heather R; Daum, Robert S; Downing, Michele; Evans, Scott R; Knisely, Jane; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Mickley, Brenda S; Patel, Robin; Pettigrew, Melinda M; Rodvold, Keith A; Spellberg, Brad; Fowler, Vance G

    2014-06-01

    Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) is tasked with developing a clinical research agenda and conducting clinical studies to address the growing public health threat of antibacterial resistance. The ARLG has identified 4 high-priority areas of research: infections caused by gram-negative bacteria, infections caused by gram-positive bacteria, antimicrobial stewardship and infection prevention, and diagnostics. The ARLG will be accepting proposals from the scientific community for clinical research that addresses 1 or more of these high-priority areas. These studies should have the potential to transform medical practice and be unlikely to occur without ARLG support. The purpose of this article is to make interested parties aware of clinical research opportunities made available by ARLG and to encourage submission of clinical research proposals that address the problem of antibacterial resistance.

  18. Resistance training intensity and volume affect changes in rate of force development in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Wang, Ran; Gonzalez, Adam M; Townsend, Jeremy R; Wells, Adam J; Jajtner, Adam R; Beyer, Kyle S; Boone, Carleigh H; Miramonti, Amelia A; LaMonica, Michael B; Fukuda, David H; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2016-12-01

    To compare the effects of two different resistance training programs, high intensity (INT) and high volume (VOL), on changes in isometric force (FRC), rate of force development (RFD), and barbell velocity during dynamic strength testing. Twenty-nine resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either the INT (n = 15, 3-5 RM, 3-min rest interval) or VOL (n = 14, 10-12 RM, 1-min rest interval) training group for 8 weeks. All participants completed a 2-week preparatory phase prior to randomization. Measures of barbell velocity, FRC, and RFD were performed before (PRE) and following (POST) the 8-week training program. Barbell velocity was determined during one-repetition maximum (1RM) testing of the squat (SQ) and bench press (BP) exercises. The isometric mid-thigh pull was used to assess FRC and RFD at specific time bands ranging from 0 to 30, 50, 90, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ms. Analysis of covariance revealed significant (p velocity. Results indicate that INT is more advantageous than VOL for improving FRC and RFD, while changes in barbell velocity during dynamic strength testing are similarly improved by both protocols in resistance-trained men.

  19. resistance training and changes to plasma lipoproteins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to resistance training, HDL-cholesterol was reduced in women aged 54 - 71 years over 12 weeks. 12 ... the effect of a 24-week progressive resistance training programme on the blood lipid profiles of a sample ..... cise training on cardiovascular risk factors of sedentary, overweight, pre- menopausal and postmenopausal ...

  20. Is inertial flywheel resistance training superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in improving muscle strength?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicens-Bordas, J; Esteve, E; Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, A

    2018-01-01

    -dependent resistance training in improving other muscular adaptations. DESIGN: A systematic review with meta-analyses of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials with no publication date...

  1. Maximal power output during incremental exercise by resistance and endurance trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivelavan, D S; Sumathilatha, S

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the maximal power output by resistance trained and endurance trained athletes during incremental exercise. Thirty male athletes who received resistance training (Group I) and thirty male athletes of similar age group who received endurance training (Group II) for a period of more than 1 year were chosen for the study. Physical parameters were measured and exercise stress testing was done on a cycle ergometer with a portable gas analyzing system. The maximal progressive incremental cycle ergometer power output at peak exercise and carbon dioxide production at VO2max were measured. Highly significant (P biofeedback and perk up the athlete's performance.

  2. Recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: resistance and cardiovascular training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, E R; Fitschen, P J; Aragon, A A; Cronin, J; Schoenfeld, B J

    2015-03-01

    The anabolic effect of resistance training can mitigate muscle loss during contest preparation. In reviewing relevant literature, we recommend a periodized approach be utilized. Block and undulating models show promise. Muscle groups should be trained 2 times weekly or more, although high volume training may benefit from higher frequencies to keep volume at any one session from becoming excessive. Low to high (~3-15) repetitions can be utilized but most repetitions should occur in the 6-12 range using 70-80% of 1 repetition maximum. Roughly 40-70 reps per muscle group per session should be performed, however higher volume may be appropriate for advanced bodybuilders. Traditional rest intervals of 1-3 minutes are adequate, but longer intervals can be used. Tempo should allow muscular control of the load; 1-2 s concentric and 2-3 s eccentric tempos. Training to failure should be limited when performing heavy loads on taxing exercises, and primarily relegated to single-joint exercises and higher repetitions. A core of multi-joint exercises with some single-joint exercises to address specific muscle groups as needed should be used, emphasizing full range of motion and proper form. Cardiovascular training can be used to enhance fat loss. Interference with strength training adaptations increases concomitantly with frequency and duration of cardiovascular training. Thus, the lowest frequency and duration possible while achieving sufficient fat loss should be used. Full-body modalities or cycling may reduce interference. High intensities may as well; however, require more recovery. Fasted cardiovascular training may not have benefits over fed-state and could be detrimental.

  3. The effects of whey protein with or without carbohydrates on resistance training adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Hulmi, Juha; Laakso, Mia; Mero, Antti; Häkkinen, Keijo; Ahtiainen, Juha; Peltonen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nutrition intake in the context of a resistance training (RT) bout may affect body composition and muscle strength. However, the individual and combined effects of whey protein and carbohydrates on long-term resistance training adaptations are poorly understood. Methods: A four-week preparatory RT period was conducted in previously untrained males to standardize the training background of the subjects. Thereafter, the subjects were randomized into three groups: 30 g of...

  4. Aerobic exercise training promotes additional cardiac benefits better than resistance exercise training in postmenopausal rats with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro, Hugo; Buzin, Morgana; Conti, Filipe Fernandes; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Figueroa, Diego; Llesuy, Susana; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; Sanches, Iris Callado; De Angelis, Kátia

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training or resistance exercise training on cardiac morphometric, functional, and oxidative stress parameters in rats with ovarian hormone deprivation and diabetes. Female Wistar rats (200-220 g) were divided into a sham-operated group (euglycemic sham-operated sedentary [ES]; n = 8) and three ovariectomized (bilateral removal of ovaries) and diabetic (streptozotocin 50 mg/kg IV) groups as follows: diabetic ovariectomized sedentary (DOS; n = 8), diabetic ovariectomized undergoing aerobic exercise training (DOTA; n = 8), and diabetic ovariectomized undergoing resistance exercise training (DOTR; n = 8). After 8 weeks of resistance (ladder) or aerobic (treadmill) exercise training, left ventricle function and morphometry were evaluated by echocardiography, whereas oxidative stress was evaluated at the left ventricle. The DOS group presented with increased left ventricle cavity in diastole and relative wall thickness (RWT), and these changes were attenuated in both DOTA and DOTR groups. Systolic and diastolic function was impaired in the DOS group compared with the ES group, and only the DOTA group was able to reverse this dysfunction. Lipoperoxidation and glutathione redox balance were improved in both trained groups compared with the DOS group. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were higher in the DOTA group than in the other studied groups. Correlations were observed between lipoperoxidation and left ventricle cavity in diastole (r = 0.55), between redox balance and RWT (r = 0.62), and between lipoperoxidation and RWT (r = -0.60). Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training promote attenuation of cardiac morphometric dysfunction associated with a reduction in oxidative stress in an experimental model of diabetes and menopause. However, only dynamic aerobic exercise training is able to attenuate systolic and diastolic dysfunction under this condition.

  5. Resistance Training in Children and Young Adults: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Shenouda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance training is a method used by many athletes to increase their levels of performance. The benefits of this method are known to be increased strength, power and endurance. Resistance training in children has been a topic that has been long debated and there are some widely accepted beliefs and principles that guide clinicians involved in the discipline of sport and exercise medicine. While weight training is a form of resistance training that has proven beneficial effects on health and wellbeing, powerlifting and heavy weight training should be avoided, as lifting maximal weights through various ranges of motion as fast as possible can lead to serious limb injuries. In order to determine the risks and benefits of resistance training in children and adolescents, it is important to review the literature to find a clear consensus. Further prospective research should be completed to determine the long-term sequelae of resistance training in children in comparison to the general population.

  6. The effects of varying resistance-training loads on intermediate- and high-velocity-specific adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K; Bishop, P; Hunter, G; Fleisig, G

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in velocity-specific adaptations in moderately resistance-trained athletes who trained with either low or high resistances. The study used tests of sport-specific skills across an intermediate- to high-velocity spectrum. Thirty NCAA Division I baseball players were randomly assigned to either a low-resistance (40-60% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) training group or a high-resistance (70-90% 1RM) training group. Both of the training groups intended to maximallv accelerate each repetition during the concentric phase (IMCA). The 10 weeks of training consisted of 4 training sessions a week using basic core exercises. Peak force, velocity, and power were evaluated during set angle and depth jumps as well as weighted jumps using 30 and 50% 1RM. Squat 1RMs were also tested. Although no interactions for any of the jump tests were found, trends supported the hypothesis of velocity-specific training. Percentage gains suggest that the combined use of heavier training loads (70-90% 1RM) and IMCA tend to increase peak force in the lower-body leg and hip extensors. Trends also show that the combined use of lighter training loads (40-60% 1RM) and IMCA tend to increase peak power and peak velocity in the lower-body leg and hip extensors. The high-resistance group improved squats more than the low-resistance group (p training loads and IMCA to increase 1RM strength in the lower bodies of resistance-trained athletes.

  7. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated in four weeks resistance training. Before and after the test period fasting blood samples were obtained to determine anabolic (the growth hormone and testosterone and catabolic (cortisol hormones, and fat mass, lean body mass (LBM and muscular strength were measured. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze data.Results:After the training period, there were no significant differen-ces between the groups with respect to fat mass, LBM and anabolic-catabolic hormones. HMB supplementation resulted in a significantly greater strength gain (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Greater increase in strength for HMB group was not accompanied by body composition and basal circulating anabolic-catabolic hormonal changes. It seems that HMB supplementation may have beneficial effects on neurological adaptations of strength gain.

  8. Time-wise change in neck pain in response to rehabilitation with specific resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Andersen, Christoffer H; Sundstrup, Emil

    2014-01-01

    in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with neck pain >30 mm VAS (N = 131) were included in the present analysis. The training group (N = 77) performed specific resistance training for the neck/shoulder muscles three times a week, and the control group (N = 54) received advice to stay active. Participants of both groups......Purpose To determine the time-wise effect of specific resistance training on neck pain among industrial technicians with frequent neck pain symptoms. Methods Secondary analysis of a parallel-group cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 weeks performed at two large industrial production units...

  9. Motivational characteristics and resistance training in older adults: a randomized controlled trial and 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekäläinen, Tiia; Kokko, Katja; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna; Walker, Simon

    2018-06-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a nine-month supervised resistance training intervention on motivational and volitional characteristics related to exercise, and whether the absolute level and/or intervention-induced change in these characteristics predict self-directed continuation of resistance training one year after the intervention. Community-dwelling older adults aged 65-75, who did not fulfill physical activity recommendations, were randomized into resistance training intervention groups: training once- (n=26), twice- (n=27), three-times-a-week (n=28) or non-training control group (n=25). Training groups participated in supervised resistance training for nine months: during months 1-3 all groups trained twice-a-week and then with allocated frequencies during months 4-9. Exercise-related motivation, self-efficacy and planning were measured with questionnaires at baseline, month-3 and month-9. The continuance of resistance training was determined by interviews six and twelve months after the end of the intervention. The intervention improved action and coping planning as well as intrinsic motivation (group×time p<.05). During one-year follow-up, 54% of participants did not continue self-directed regular resistance training, 22% continued regular resistance training once-a-week and 24% twice-a-week. Increases in exercise self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation related to training during the intervention predicted continuation of resistance training twice-a-week. Resistance training improved exercise-related motivational and volitional characteristics in older adults. These improvements were linked to continuing resistance training one year after the supervised intervention. The role of these characteristics should be taken into account when promoting long-term resistance training participation among older adults. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolic Response to Four Weeks of Muscular Endurance Resistance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Farrell III

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous investigations have shown that muscular endurance resistance training (MERT is conducive in improving the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA. However, the metabolic response and time course for adaption is still unclear. Objective: The aims of the current study were to evaluate and track the metabolic response to an individual session of MERT as well as to assess performance adaptations of supplementing an aerobic exercise training program with four weeks of MERT. Methods: Seventeen aerobically active men were randomly assigned to either the experimental (EX or control group (CON, 9 EX and 8 CON. Baseline measures included a graded exercise test (GXT and 1-repetition maximum (1RM testing for leg press (LP, leg curl (LC, and leg extension (LE. CON continued their regular aerobic activity while the EX supplemented their regular aerobic exercise with 4 weeks of MERT. Results: No significant group differences were observed for all pre-training variables. Following four weeks of training no significant differences in cardiorespiratory or metabolic variables were observed for either group. However, significant improvements in LC and LE 1-RM were observed in EX compared to CON. Substantial accumulations in blood lactate were observed following each MERT session. Conclusion: Four weeks of MERT did not improve cardiorespiratory or metabolic variables, but did significantly improve LC and LE. MERT was also observed to induce a blood lactate response similar to that of HIIT. These findings suggest greater than four weeks is need to see metabolic adaptations conducive for improved aerobic performance using MERT.

  11. Concurrent cardiovascular and resistance training in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R H; Reyes, R; Welsch, M A; Favaloro-Sabatier, J; Sabatier, M; Matthew Lee, C; Johnson, L G; Hooper, P F

    2001-10-01

    The recommendations for exercise training and physical activity for older adults include cardiovascular and resistance training components (CVT and RT, respectively). The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the fitness benefits of concurrent CVT and RT with those attained through an equivalent duration of CVT or RT alone. Thirty-six participants (ages 60-84) were assigned to a control group or to one of three exercise treatment groups. The treatment groups exercised three times per week for 12 wk using RT (N = 11), CVT (N = 10), or CVT and RT (BOTH, N = 9). Pre- and post-training, participants performed a submaximal exercise test (GXT), five repetition-maximum strength tests (5RM), and the AAHPERD functional fitness test for older adults. All exercise treatment groups revealed lower resting heart rate and rate-pressure product; lower exercise diastolic blood pressure and rating of perceived exertion; increased GXT duration; increased leg, back, and shoulder 5RM scores; and improved AAHPERD flexibility, coordination, and cardiovascular endurance scores. The exercise treatment groups responded differently on the following: RT and BOTH enhanced arm and chest strength more than CVT; and BOTH enhanced AAHPERD strength and agility scores more than CVT or RT. Concurrent CVT and RT is as effective in eliciting improvements in cardiovascular fitness and 5RM performance as CVT or RT, respectively. Moreover, incorporating both CVT and RT in exercise programs for older adults may be more effective in optimizing aspects of functional fitness than programs that involve only one component.

  12. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot; Angelis, Kátia De; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats

  13. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Figueiredo Grans

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. Objective: To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week. At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. Results: The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32% and trained infarcted (+46% in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%, myocardial performance index (-39% and systolic blood pressure (+6% improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%, as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46% in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Conclusion: Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.

  14. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mostarda, Cristiano [Departamento de Educação Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão (UFMA), São Luís, MA (Brazil); Figueroa, Diego Mendrot [Laboratório de Hipertensão Experimental, Instituto do Coração (InCor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Angelis, Kátia De [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Universidade Nove de Julho (Uninove), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia [Laboratório de Hipertensão Experimental, Instituto do Coração (InCor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.rodrigues@incor.usp.br [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.

  15. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot; Angelis, Kátia De; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Background Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. Objective To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. Results The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Conclusion Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats. PMID:25014059

  16. The effects of low-volume resistance training with and without advanced techniques in trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieβsing, Jùrgen; Fisher, James; Steele, James; Rothe, Frank; Raubold, Kristin; Eichmann, Björn

    2016-03-01

    This study examined low-volume resistance training (RT) in trained participants with and without advanced training methods. Trained participants (RT experience 4±3 years) were randomised to groups performing single-set RT: ssRM (N.=21) performing repetitions to self-determined repetition maximum (RM), ssMMF (N.=30) performing repetitions to momentary muscular failure (MMF), and ssRP (N.=28) performing repetitions to self-determined RM using a rest pause (RP) method. Each performed supervised RT twice/week for 10 weeks. Outcomes included maximal isometric strength and body composition using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The ssRM group did not significantly improve in any outcome. The ssMMF and ssRP groups both significantly improved strength (p < 0.05). Magnitude of changes using effect size (ES) was examined between groups. Strength ES's were considered large for ssMMF (0.91 to 1.57) and ranging small to large for ssRP (0.42 to 1.06). Body composition data revealed significant improvements (P<0.05) in muscle and fat mass and percentages for whole body, upper limbs and trunk for ssMMF, but only upper limbs for ssRP. Body composition ES's ranged moderate to large for ssMMF (0.56 to 1.27) and ranged small to moderate for ssRP (0.28 to 0.52). ssMMF also significantly improved (P<0.05) total abdominal fat and increased intracellular water with moderate ES's (-0.62 and 0.56, respectively). Training to self-determined RM is not efficacious for trained participants. Training to MMF produces greatest improvements in strength and body composition, however, RP style training does offer some benefit.

  17. Effects of different volume-equated resistance training loading strategies on muscular adaptations in well-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Peterson, Mark D; Contreras, Bret; Sonmez, G T; Alvar, Brent A

    2014-10-01

    Regimented resistance training has been shown to promote marked increases in skeletal muscle mass. Although muscle hypertrophy can be attained through a wide range of resistance training programs, the principle of specificity, which states that adaptations are specific to the nature of the applied stimulus, dictates that some programs will promote greater hypertrophy than others. Research is lacking, however, as to the best combination of variables required to maximize hypertophic gains. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscular adaptations to a volume-equated bodybuilding-type training program vs. a powerlifting-type routine in well-trained subjects. Seventeen young men were randomly assigned to either a hypertrophy-type resistance training group that performed 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum (RM) with 90 seconds rest or a strength-type resistance training (ST) group that performed 7 sets of 3RM with a 3-minute rest interval. After 8 weeks, no significant differences were noted in muscle thickness of the biceps brachii. Significant strength differences were found in favor of ST for the 1RM bench press, and a trend was found for greater increases in the 1RM squat. In conclusion, this study showed that both bodybuilding- and powerlifting-type training promote similar increases in muscular size, but powerlifting-type training is superior for enhancing maximal strength.

  18. Influence of previous experience on resistance training on reliability of one-repetition maximum test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Avelar, Ademar; Salvador, Emanuel Péricles; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni

    2011-05-01

    The 1-repetition maximum test (1RM) has been widely used to assess maximal strength. However, to improve accuracy in assessing maximal strength, several sessions of the 1RM test are recommended. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of previous resistance training experience on the reliability of 1RM test. Thirty men were assigned to the following 2 groups according to their previous resistance training experience: no previous resistance training experience (NOEXP) and more than 24 months of resistance training experience (EXP). All subjects performed the 1RM tests in bench press and squat in 4 sessions on distinct days. There was a significant session × group effect in bench press (F = 3.09; p reliability of the 1RM test is influenced by the subject's previous experience in resistance training. Subjects without experience in resistance training require more practice and familiarization and show greater increases in maximal strength between sessions than subjects with previous experience in resistance training.

  19. Endurance- and Resistance-Trained Men Exhibit Lower Cardiovascular Responses to Psychosocial Stress Than Untrained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröpel, Peter; Urner, Maren; Pruessner, Jens C; Quirin, Markus

    2018-01-01

    Evidence shows that regular physical exercise reduces physiological reactivity to psychosocial stress. However, previous research mainly focused on the effect of endurance exercise, with only a few studies looking at the effect of resistance exercise. The current study tested whether individuals who regularly participate in either endurance or resistance training differ from untrained individuals in adrenal and cardiovascular reactivity to psychosocial stress. Twelve endurance-trained men, 10 resistance-trained men, and 12 healthy but untrained men were exposed to a standardized psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. Measurements of heart rate, free salivary cortisol levels, and mood were obtained throughout the test and compared among the three groups. Overall, both endurance- and resistance-trained men had lower heart rate levels than untrained men, indicating higher cardiac performance of the trained groups. Trained men also exhibited lower heart rate responses to psychosocial stress compared with untrained men. There were no significant group differences in either cortisol responses or mood responses to the stressor. The heart rate results are consistent with previous studies indicating reduced cardiovascular reactivity to psychosocial stress in trained individuals. These findings suggest that long-term endurance and resistance trainings may be related to the same cardiovascular benefits, without exhibiting strong effects on the cortisol reactivity to stress.

  20. The effects of resistance training prioritization in NCAA Division I Football summer training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Martin, Gerard J; Szivak, Tunde K; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Hooper, David R; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J

    2014-01-01

    Resistance training (RT) is an integral part of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football performance programs. In the sport of football, there are several components that a strength and conditioning coach must be aware of. These include body mass, size, strength, power, speed, conditioning, and injury prevention, among others. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the RT component of a performance program could be prioritized for specific results using a nonlinear training model, grouping athletes by eligibility year. The NCAA Division I football student athletes were placed into 3 separate groups based on the playing year. All subjects participated in a 10-week, 4 days·week-1 off-season summer resistance training program. The training of group 1 (n = 20, age: 18.95 ± 0.76 years, height: 186.63 ± 7.21 cm, body mass: 97.66 ± 18.17 kg, playing year: 1.05 ± 0.22 years) prioritized hypertrophy-based RT to gain body mass. The training of group 2 (n = 20, age: 20.05 ± 1.05 years, height: 189.42 ± 5.49 cm, body mass: 106.99 ± 13.53 kg, and playing year: 2.35 ± 0.75 years) prioritized strength-based RT to gain strength. The training of group 3 (n = 20, age: 21.05 ± 1.10 years, height: 186.56 ± 6.73 cm, body mass: 109.8 ± 19.96 kg, playing year: 4.4 ± 0.50 years) prioritized power-based RT to gain power. Performance tests were evaluated during the first weeks of March (Spring) and August (Fall). The test measures included body mass (kilograms), 1-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (kilograms), 1RM back squat (kilograms), 1RM power clean (kilograms), and countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ) height (centimeters). The primary findings of this investigation were as follows: group 1 saw significant increases in bench press maximum, back squat maximum, and power clean maximum (p ≤ 0.05). Group 2 saw significant increases in bench press maximum, back squat maximum, and power clean maximum (p ≤ 0.05). Group 3 saw a significant

  1. Visual training improves perceptual grouping based on basic stimulus features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylo, Daniel D; Waxman, Richard; Kidron, Rachel; Silverstein, Steven M

    2017-10-01

    Training on visual tasks improves performance on basic and higher order visual capacities. Such improvement has been linked to changes in connectivity among mediating neurons. We investigated whether training effects occur for perceptual grouping. It was hypothesized that repeated engagement of integration mechanisms would enhance grouping processes. Thirty-six participants underwent 15 sessions of training on a visual discrimination task that required perceptual grouping. Participants viewed 20 × 20 arrays of dots or Gabor patches and indicated whether the array appeared grouped as vertical or horizontal lines. Across trials stimuli became progressively disorganized, contingent upon successful discrimination. Four visual dimensions were examined, in which grouping was based on similarity in luminance, color, orientation, and motion. Psychophysical thresholds of grouping were assessed before and after training. Results indicate that performance in all four dimensions improved with training. Training on a control condition, which paralleled the discrimination task but without a grouping component, produced no improvement. In addition, training on only the luminance and orientation dimensions improved performance for those conditions as well as for grouping by color, on which training had not occurred. However, improvement from partial training did not generalize to motion. Results demonstrate that a training protocol emphasizing stimulus integration enhanced perceptual grouping. Results suggest that neural mechanisms mediating grouping by common luminance and/or orientation contribute to those mediating grouping by color but do not share resources for grouping by common motion. Results are consistent with theories of perceptual learning emphasizing plasticity in early visual processing regions.

  2. Helping While Learning: A Skilled Group Helper Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaby, Marlowe H.; Tamminen, Armas W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a developmental group training workshop for training experienced counselors to do group counseling. Discusses stages of training including exploration, understanding, and action, which can help counselors learn helping skills for counseling that can often transfer to their own interpersonal lives and interactions with others. (JAC)

  3. Effects of creatine supplementation along with resistance training on urinary formaldehyde and serum enzymes in wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Azadeh; Jafari, Afshar

    2016-04-01

    Formaldehyde is a cytotoxic agent produced from creatine through a metabolic pathway, and in this regard, it has been claimed that creatine supplementation could be cytotoxic. Even though the cytotoxic effects of creatine supplementation have been widely studied, yet little is known about how resistance training can alter these toxic effects. This study aimed to determine the effects of short-term creatine supplementation plus resistance training on the level of urinary formaldehyde and concentrations of serum enzymes in young male wrestlers. In a double-blind design twenty-one subjects were randomized into creatine supplementation (Cr), creatine supplementation plus resistance training (Cr + T) and placebo plus resistance training (Pl + T) groups. Participants ingested creatine (0.3 g/kg/day) or placebo for 7 days. The training protocol consisted of 3 sessions in one week, each session including three sets of 6-9 repetitions at 80-85% of one-repetition maximum for whole-body exercise. Urine and blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the supplementation. Creatine supplementation significantly increased the excretion rate of urinary formaldehyde in the Cr and Cr + T groups by 63.4% and 30.4%, respectively (P0.05). These findings indicate that resistance training may lower the increase of urinary formaldehyde excretion induced by creatine supplementation, suggesting that creatine consumption could be relatively less toxic when combined with resistance training.

  4. High-frequency resistance training is not more effective than low-frequency resistance training in increasing muscle mass and strength in well-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Gederson K; Franco, Cristiane M; Nunes, Paulo Ricardo P; Orsatti, Fábio L

    2018-02-27

    We studied the effects of two different weekly frequency resistance training (RT) protocols over eight weeks on muscle strength and muscle hypertrophy in well-trained men. Twenty-three subjects (age: 26.2±4.2 years; RT experience: 6.9±3.1 years) were randomly allocated into the two groups: low frequency (LFRT, n = 12) or high frequency (HFRT, n = 11). The LFRT performed a split-body routine, training each specific muscle group once a week. The HFRT performed a total-body routine, training all muscle groups every session. Both groups performed the same number of sets (10-15 sets) and exercises (1-2 exercise) per week, 8-12 repetitions maximum (70-80% of 1RM), five times per week. Muscle strength (bench press and squat 1RM) and lean tissue mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were assessed prior to and at the end of the study. Results showed that both groups improved (ptrained subjects when the sets and intensity are equated per week.

  5. Effect of resistance training regimens on treadmill running and neuromuscular performance in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, Jussi; Vesterinen, Ville; Taipale, Ritva; Capostagno, Benoit; Häkkinen, Keijo; Nummela, Ari

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of heavy resistance, explosive resistance, and muscle endurance training on neuromuscular, endurance, and high-intensity running performance in recreational endurance runners. Twenty-seven male runners were divided into one of three groups: heavy resistance, explosive resistance or muscle endurance training. After 6 weeks of preparatory training, the groups underwent an 8-week resistance training programme as a supplement to endurance training. Before and after the 8-week training period, maximal strength (one-repetition maximum), electromyographic activity of the leg extensors, countermovement jump height, maximal speed in the maximal anaerobic running test, maximal endurance performance, maximal oxygen uptake ([V·]O(₂max)), and running economy were assessed. Maximal strength improved in the heavy (P = 0.034, effect size ES = 0.38) and explosive resistance training groups (P = 0.003, ES = 0.67) with increases in leg muscle activation (heavy: P = 0.032, ES = 0.38; explosive: P = 0.002, ES = 0.77). Only the heavy resistance training group improved maximal running speed in the maximal anaerobic running test (P = 0.012, ES = 0.52) and jump height (P = 0.006, ES = 0.59). Maximal endurance running performance was improved in all groups (heavy: P = 0.005, ES = 0.56; explosive: P = 0.034, ES = 0.39; muscle endurance: P = 0.001, ES = 0.94), with small though not statistically significant improvements in [V·]O(₂max) (heavy: ES = 0.08; explosive: ES = 0.29; muscle endurance: ES = 0.65) and running economy (ES in all groups running endurance performance. However, both heavy and explosive strength training were beneficial in improving neuromuscular characteristics, and heavy resistance training in particular contributed to improvements in high-intensity running characteristics. Thus, endurance runners should include heavy resistance training in their training programmes to enhance endurance performance, such as

  6. Specific balance training included in an endurance-resistance exercise program improves postural balance in elderly patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frih, Bechir; Mkacher, Wajdi; Jaafar, Hamdi; Frih, Ameur; Ben Salah, Zohra; El May, Mezry; Hammami, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6 months of specific balance training included in endurance-resistance program on postural balance in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Forty-nine male patients undergoing HD were randomly assigned to an intervention group (balance training included in an endurance-resistance training, n = 26) or a control group (resistance-endurance training only, n = 23). Postural control was assessed using six clinical tests; Timed Up and Go test, Tinetti Mobility Test, Berg Balance Scale, Unipodal Stance test, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scale. All balance measures increased significantly after the period of rehabilitation training in the intervention group. Only the Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Scale, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scores were improved in the control group. The ranges of change in these tests were greater in the balance training group. In HD patients, specific balance training included in a usual endurance-resistance training program improves static and dynamic balance better than endurance-resistance training only. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation using exercise in haemodialysis patients improved global mobility and functional abilities. Specific balance training included in usual endurance resistance training program could lead to improved static and dynamic balance.

  7. An examination of training on the VertiMax resisted jumping device for improvements in lower body power in highly trained college athletes .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Matthew R; Peterson, Mark D; Oliverson, Jeff R; Ayllón, Fernando Naclerio; Potenziano, Ben J

    2008-05-01

    Training to develop superior muscular power has become a key component to most progressive sport conditioning programs. Conventional resistance training, plyometrics, and speed/agility modalities have all been employed in an effort to realize superlative combinations of training stimuli. New training devices such as the VertiMax resisted jump trainer are marketed as a means of improving lower body reactive power. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the VertiMax, in combination with traditional training modalities, for improvements in lower body power among highly trained athletes. Forty men and women Division I collegiate athletes representing the sports of baseball, basketball, soccer, gymnastics, and track completed a 12-week mixed-methods training program. Two groups were constructed with both groups performing the same conventional resistance training and strength training exercises. The training control group performed traditional plyometric exercises while the experimental group performed similar loaded jump training on the VertiMax. Lower body power was measured before and after the training program by the TENDO FiTROdyne Powerlizer and statistically compared for differences between groups. Data analyses identified a significant (p training alone (effect size = 0.09). These data convincingly demonstrate that the VertiMax represents an effective strategy for developing lower body power among trained college athletes, when combined with traditional strength and conditioning approaches.

  8. OBESITY-RELATED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AFTER LONG- TERM RESISTANCE TRAINING AND GINGER SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvan Atashak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its metabolic consequences are major risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, lifestyle interventions, including exercise training and dietary components may decrease cardiovascular risk. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger supplementation and progressive resistance training on some cardiovascular risk factors in obese men. In a randomized double-blind design, 32 obese Iranian men (BMI > 30 were assigned in to one of four groups: Placebo (PL, n = 8; ginger group (GI, n = 8 that consumed 1 gr ginger/d for 10 wk; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL, n = 8; and 1gr ginger plus resistance exercise (RTGI, n = 8. Progressive resistance training was performed three days per week for 10 weeks and included eight exercises. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition and anthropometric indices were measured. To identify other risk factors, venous blood samples were obtained before and 48-72 hours after the last training session for measurement of blood lipids (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, systemic inflammation (CRP, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. After 10 weeks both RTGI and RTPL groups showed significant decreases in waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, body fat percent, body fat mass, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance (p < 0.05 and a significant increase in fat free mass (FFM (p < 0.05, while it remained unchanged in PL and GI. Further, significant decreases in the mean values of CRP were observed in all groups except PL (p < 0.05. Our results reveal that resistance training is an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk in obese Iranian men. Further, ginger supplementation alone or in combination with resistance training, also reduces chronic inflammation. However more research on the efficacy of this supplement to reduce cardiovascular risk in humans is required.

  9. Neuroendocrine Responses and Body Composition Changes Following Resistance Training Under Normobaric Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chycki Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 6 week resistance training protocol under hypoxic conditions (FiO2 = 12.9%, 4000 m on muscle hypertrophy. The project included 12 resistance trained male subjects, randomly divided into two experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 6; age 21 ± 2.4 years; body height [BH] 178.8 ± 7.3 cm; body mass [BM] 80.6 ± 12.3 kg and group 2 (n = 6; age 22 ± 1.5 years; BH 177.8 ± 3.7cm; BM 81.1 ± 7.5 kg. Each group performed resistance exercises alternately under normoxic and hypoxic conditions (4000 m for 6 weeks. All subjects followed a training protocol that comprised two training sessions per week at an exercise intensity of 70% of 1RM; each training session consisted of eight sets of 10 repetitions of the bench press and barbell squat, with 3 min rest periods. The results indicated that strength training in normobaric hypoxia caused a significant increase in BM (p < 0.01 and fat free mass (FFM (p < 0.05 in both groups. Additionally, a significant increase (p < 0.05 was observed in IGF-1 concentrations at rest after 6 weeks of hypoxic resistance training in both groups. The results of this study allow to conclude that resistance training (6 weeks under normobaric hypoxic conditions induces greater muscle hypertrophy compared to training in normoxic conditions.

  10. Comparison of Periodized and Non-Periodized Resistance Training on Maximal Strength: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tyler D; Tolusso, Danilo V; Fedewa, Michael V; Esco, Michael R

    2017-10-01

    Periodization is a logical method of organizing training into sequential phases and cyclical time periods in order to increase the potential for achieving specific performance goals while minimizing the potential for overtraining. Periodized resistance training plans are proposed to be superior to non-periodized training plans for enhancing maximal strength. The primary aim of this study was to examine the previous literature comparing periodized resistance training plans to non-periodized resistance training plans and determine a quantitative estimate of effect on maximal strength. All studies included in the meta-analysis met the following inclusion criteria: (1) peer-reviewed publication; (2) published in English; (3) comparison of a periodized resistance training group to a non-periodized resistance training group; (4) maximal strength measured by 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat, bench press, or leg press. Data were extracted and independently coded by two authors. Random-effects models were used to aggregate a mean effect size (ES), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and potential moderators. The cumulative results of 81 effects gathered from 18 studies published between 1988 and 2015 indicated that the magnitude of improvement in 1RM following periodized resistance training was greater than non-periodized resistance training (ES = 0.43, 95% CI 0.27-0.58; P training status (β = -0.59; P = 0.0305), study length (β = 0.03; P = 0.0067), and training frequency (β = 0.46; P = 0.0123) were associated with a change in 1RM. These results indicate that undulating programs were more favorable for strength gains. Improvements in 1RM were greater among untrained participants. Additionally, higher training frequency and longer study length were associated with larger improvements in 1RM. These results suggest that periodized resistance training plans have a moderate effect on 1RM compared to non-periodized training plans. Variation in training stimuli

  11. The post-activation potentiation effect on sprint performance after combined resistance/sprint training in junior basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimachidis, Constantinos; Patikas, Dimitrios; Galazoulas, Christos; Bassa, Eleni; Kotzamanidis, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a 10-week combined resistance/sprint training programme in the post-activation potentiation of sprint performance before, between and after resistance training sets. Twenty-six junior basketball players were randomly divided into a control and a combined training group. The combined training group performed a combined training programme consisting of 5 sets at 5-8 RM (Repetition Maximum) half-squats with sprints performed between each set. Post-activation potentiation was considered as the increase in sprint velocity in trials executed between and after the resistance sets compared with the sprint trial performed before the resistance sets of the respective first and last training session. For sprint evaluation the running distances 0-10 and 0-30 m were selected. The intervention increased both strength and sprint performance. No post-activation potentiation effect was observed during the first training session in either group. Post-activation potentiation appeared in the combined training group during the last training session of the intervention in both 0-10 and 0-30 m sprint. This study illustrates that post-activation potentiation effect on sprint performance in junior basketball players, who did not previously follow systematic resistance training, emerges after a 10-week resistance/sprint combined training programme.

  12. Effects of fast-velocity eccentric resistance training on early and late rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson S.C.; Corvino, Rogério Bulhões; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether short-term maximal resistance training employing fast-velocity eccentric knee extensor actions would induce improvements in maximal isometric torque and rate of force development (RFD) at early (phases (>100 ms) of rising torque. Twenty healthy men were......, no changes in the late phase of incremental RFD were observed in TG. No changes were found in the CG. In summary, we have demonstrated, in active individuals, that a short period of resistance training performed with eccentric fast-velocity isokinetic muscle contractions is able to enhance RFDINC and RFDREL...... assigned to two experimental groups: eccentric resistance training (TG) or control (CG). Participants on the TG trained three days a week for a total of eight weeks. Training consisted of maximal unilateral eccentric knee extensors actions performed at 180°s-1. Maximal isometric knee extensor torque (MVC...

  13. Alterations in speed of squat movement and the use of accommodated resistance among college athletes training for power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Matthew R; Kenn, Joseph G; Dermody, Bryan M

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of heavy/slow movements and variable resistance training on peak power and strength development. Forty-eight National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes (age: 21.4 +/- 2.1 years, all men) were recruited for this 12-week training intervention study. Maximum strength and jumping power were assessed before and after the training program. Athletes were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 training groups: heavy resistance/slow movement (Slow), lighter resistance and fast movement (Fast), or fast movements with accommodated resistance (FACC). All training groups performed similar training programs comprising free weight resistance training with lower-body compound exercises. The only difference among the training interventions was the speed at which subjects performed the squat exercise and the use of bands (Slow group: 0.2-0.4 meters/second; Fast group: 0.6-0.8 meters/second; FACC group trained 0.6-0.8 meters/second with the addition of accommodated resistance in the form of large elastic bands). Post-test data revealed a significant difference between power improvements between the Slow and FACC groups (p = 0.02). Percent increases and effect sizes (ES) demonstrated a much greater treatment effect in the FACC group (17.8%, ES = 1.06) with the Fast group (11.0%, ES = 0.80) adapting more than the Slow group (4.8%, ES = 0.28). The FACC and Slow groups improved strength comparatively (FACC: 9.44%, ES = 1.10; Slow: 9.59%, ES = 1.08). The Fast group improved strength considerably less, 3.20% with an effect size of only 0.38. Variable resistance training with elastic bands appears to provide greater performance benefits with regard to peak force and peak power than heavy, slow resistance exercise. Sports conditioning professionals can utilize bands, and high-speed contractions, to increase power development.

  14. Effect of Resistance Training on Hematological Blood Markers in Older Men and Women: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Bobeuf

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training on hematological blood markers in older individuals. Twenty-nine men and women participated to this study. Subjects were randomized in 2 groups: (1 control (n=13 and (2 resistance training (n=16. At baseline and after the intervention, subjects were submitted to a blood sample to determine their hematological profile (red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, red cell distribution width. At baseline, no difference was observed between groups. Moreover, we found no significant difference after the intervention on any of these markers. A 6-month resistance program in healthy older individuals seems to have no beneficial nor deleterious effects on hematological blood parameters. However, resistance training was well tolerated and should be recommended for other health purposes. Further studies are needed to confirm these results in a large population.

  15. Resistance Training Using Different Hypoxic Training Strategies: a Basis for Hypertrophy and Muscle Power Development

    OpenAIRE

    Feriche, Bel?n; Garc?a-Ramos, Amador; Morales-Artacho, Antonio J.; Padial, Paulino

    2017-01-01

    The possible muscular strength, hypertrophy, and muscle power benefits of resistance training under environmental conditions of hypoxia are currently being investigated. Nowadays, resistance training in hypoxia constitutes a promising new training strategy for strength and muscle gains. The main mechanisms responsible for these effects seem to be related to increased metabolite accumulation due to hypoxia. However, no data are reported in the literature to describe and compare the efficacy of...

  16. Resistance Training in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Severe Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vanerson Passos Neves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Resistance training (RT has been recommended as a non-pharmacological treatment for moderate hypertension. In spite of the important role of exercise intensity on training prescription, there is still no data regarding the effects of RT intensity on severe hypertension (SH. Objective: This study examined the effects of two RT protocols (vertical ladder climbing, performed at different overloads of maximal weight carried (MWC, on blood pressure (BP and muscle strength of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR with SH. Methods: Fifteen male SHR ENT#091;206 ± 10 mmHg of systolic BP (SBPENT#093; and five Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY; 119 ± 10 mmHg of SBP were divided into 4 groups: sedentary (SED-WKY and SHR (SED-SHR; RT1-SHR training relative to body weight (~40% of MWC; and RT2-SHR training relative to MWC test (~70% of MWC. Systolic BP and heart rate (HR were measured weekly using the tail-cuff method. The progression of muscle strength was determined once every fifteen days. The RT consisted of 3 weekly sessions on non-consecutive days for 12-weeks. Results: Both RT protocols prevented the increase in SBP (delta - 5 and -7 mmHg, respectively; p > 0.05, whereas SBP of the SED-SHR group increased by 19 mmHg (p 0.05. Conclusions: Our data indicated that both RT protocols were effective in preventing chronic elevation of SBP in SH. Additionally, a higher RT overload induced a greater increase in muscle strength.

  17. Effects of Resistance Training on Serum Level of Reproductive Hormones and Sperm Parameters in Type 2 Diabetes Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Parastesh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in fertility indices. Resistance training, on the other hand, through reducing the adverse effects of diabetes, exerts a positive impact on diabetic individuals. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of ten weeks of resistance training on serum levels of reproductive hormones and sperm parameters in Wistar rats with diabetes mellitus type 2. Materials and Methods:In this experimental study, 36 Wistar rats with mean weight of 200±50 were ran-domly assigned to healthy control, diabetic control and diabetic training groups. The diabetic resistance training group received ten weeks of resistance training (climbing up the ladder following the induction of diabetes. Twenty-four hours after the last training session, left epididymis of the rats was examined for studying sperm parameters and blood serum samples were examined for evaluating reproductive hormones. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Turkey’s Post Hoc test at 0.05%. Results: Ten weeks of resistance training induced significant increases in serum testosterone and FSH levels in the resistance training group in comparison to the diabetic group (p<0.007.Resistance training did not have any significant effects on serum LH levels in the resistance training group compared to the diabetic control group. In ad-dition, sperm parameters (sperm count, survival rate and motility presented significant improvements compared to the diabetic group(p<0.05. Conclusion: Resistance training can improve sperm parameters, including sperm count, survival rate and motility, through increasing serum testosterone, LH and FSH levels (reproductive hormones in rats with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  18. Effects of interset whole-body vibration on bench press resistance training in trained and untrained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timon, Rafael; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Olcina, Guillermo; Gusi, Narcis

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated positive effects of acute vibration exercise on concentric strength and power, but few have observed the effects of vibration exposure on resistance training. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of whole body vibration applied to the chest via hands on bench press resistance training in trained and untrained individuals. Nineteen participants (10 recreationally trained bodybuilders and 9 untrained students) performed two randomized sessions of resistance training on separate days. Each strength session consisted of 3 bench press sets with a load of 75% 1RM to failure in each set, with 2 minutes' rest between sets. All subjects performed the same strength training with either, vibration exposure (12 Hz, 4 mm) of 30 seconds immediately before each bench press set or without vibration. Number of total repetitions, kinematic parameters, blood lactate and perceived exertion were analyzed. In the untrained group, vibration exposure caused a significant increase in the mean velocity (from 0.36±0.02 to 0.39±0.03 m/s) and acceleration (from 0.75±0.10 to 0.86±0.09 m/s2), as well as a decrease in perceived effort (from 8±0.57 to 7.35±0.47) in the first bench press set, but no change was observed in the third bench press set. In the recreationally trained bodybuilders, vibration exposure did not cause any improvement on the performance of bench press resistance training. These results suggest that vibration exposure applied just before the bench press exercise could be a good practice to be implemented by untrained individuals in resistance training.

  19. A 12-week resistance training program elicits positive changes in hemodynamic responses in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Campos Salazar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a resistance training program in hemodynamic responses and adaptations in 60 yr. old elderly. Volunteers were 60 healthy-elderly who underwent a training program 3 times/wk. for 12 wk. Participants were randomly assigned to either a control group, an exercise group who trained at 30% intensity of 5 maximal repetitions (5RM (30% of 5RM or an exercise group at an intensity of 70% (70% of 5RM. Hemodynamic variables measured were mean arterial pressure (MAP, calculated before and immediately after the training session, and rate pressure product (RPP, estimated once a month and before and after finishing the program. Results indicated that resistance exercise training at 30% and 70% of 5RM, with a total exercise work of 872.7 and 890.9 kg did not elicited cardiovascular risks for the elderly. A 12-wk resistance exercise training reduced the cardiovascular strain as shown by the RPP (~16% and the MAP (~9%, with no adverse effects throughout the program. Unfortunately, all the hemodynamic benefits were reverted 6 days following completion of the program. In conclusion, a healthy elderly population must perform resistance training exercises to significantly reduce the cardiovascular stress. We suggest to conduct further research that looks into different exercise intensities in longer program duration and to determine the mechanisms responsible for the deleterious effects of the detraining by using physiological, biochemical and biomechanical variables.

  20. The effects of endurance and resistance training on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R S; Hirth, V A

    1995-10-01

    There now exists substantial clinical data supporting a blood pressure lowering effect of endurance training. Though the effect is modest (5-10 mmHg), epidemiologic studies indicate the possibility of protection against the development of hypertension and also indicate significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality and increased longevity associated with chronic endurance exercise. The data for blood pressure lowering effects of resistive training are much less compelling, and this area requires additional investigation. However, it appears that resistance training is not associated with chronic elevations in blood pressure. Future studies need to focus on: 1) the relative efficacy of low-, moderate- and high-intensity training on lowering blood pressure; 2) the effect of training on ambulatory blood pressure; 3) targeting of at risk and high responding populations; and 4) the importance of insulinemia, SNS tone and central adiposity in the mechanism of any blood pressure lowering effect of training.

  1. Effects of Methoxyisoflavone, Ecdysterone, and Sulfo-Polysaccharide Supplementation on Training Adaptations in Resistance-Trained Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenwood Michael

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Methoxyisoflavone (M, 20-hydroxyecdysone (E, and sulfo-polysaccharide (CSP3 have been marketed to athletes as dietary supplements that can increase strength and muscle mass during resistance-training. However, little is known about their potential ergogenic value. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these supplements affect training adaptations and/or markers of muscle anabolism/catabolism in resistance-trained athletes. Methods Forty-five resistance-trained males (20.5 ± 3 yrs; 179 ± 7 cm, 84 ± 16 kg, 17.3 ± 9% body fat were matched according to FFM and randomly assigned to ingest in a double blind manner supplements containing either a placebo (P; 800 mg/day of M; 200 mg of E; or, 1,000 mg/day of CSP3 for 8-weeks during training. At 0, 4, and 8-weeks, subjects donated fasting blood samples and completed comprehensive muscular strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic capacity, and body composition analysis. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. Results No significant differences (p > 0.05 were observed in training adaptations among groups in the variables FFM, percent body fat, bench press 1 RM, leg press 1 RM or sprint peak power. Anabolic/catabolic analysis revealed no significant differences among groups in active testosterone (AT, free testosterone (FT, cortisol, the AT to cortisol ratio, urea nitrogen, creatinine, the blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio. In addition, no significant differences were seen from pre to post supplementation and/or training in AT, FT, or cortisol. Conclusion Results indicate that M, E, and CSP3 supplementation do not affect body composition or training adaptations nor do they influence the anabolic/catabolic hormone status or general markers of catabolism in resistance-trained males.

  2. The effect of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training in the ACL-injured knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellona, Massimo G; Morrissey, Matthew C; Milligan, Peter; Clinton, Melissa; Amis, Andrew A

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effect of different loads of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training on anterior knee laxity and function in the ACL-injured (ACLI) knee. Fifty-eight ACLI subjects were randomised to one of three (12-week duration) training groups. The STAND group trained according to a standardised rehabilitation protocol. Subjects in the LOW and HIGH group trained as did the STAND group but with the addition of seated knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training at loads of 2 sets of 20 repetition maximum (RM) and 20 sets of 2RM, respectively. Anterior knee laxity and measurements of physical and subjective function were performed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Thirty-six subjects were tested at both baseline and 12 weeks (STAND n = 13, LOW n = 11, HIGH n = 12). The LOW group demonstrated a reduction in 133 N anterior knee laxity between baseline and 12 weeks testing when compared to the HIGH and the STAND groups (p = 0.009). Specifically, the trained-untrained knee laxity decreased an average of approximately 5 mm in the LOW group while remaining the same in the other two groups. Twelve weeks of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training at loads of 2 sets of 20RM led to a reduction in anterior knee laxity in the ACLI knee. This reduction in laxity does not appear to offer any significant short-term functional advantages when compared to a standard rehabilitation protocol. These results indicate that knee laxity can be decreased with resistance training of the thigh muscles. Randomised controlled trial, Level II.

  3. Background and future activities of PBNCC's nuclear training working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong Hun Rieh; Kunmo Chung; Hamlin, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the background and activities of the nuclear training working group of the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee. The working group has examined various mechanisms for regional cooperation including the development of aregional catalog of training programs and the conceptualization of sharing training facilities among nuclear operators in the region. The working group has focused its attention on the exchange of information on the on-going training programs, operator training facilities, available resources for training assistance and proposed cooperative schemes. These activities are expected to continue and will provide invaluable information for nuclear power programs in the Pacific Basin region. The group also reviewed problems and issues associated with developing regional cooperation. (author)

  4. Background and future activities of PBNCC's nuclear training working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieh, C.H.; Chung, K.; Hamlin, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the background and activities of the nuclear training working group of the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee. The working group has examined various mechanisms for regional cooperation including the development of a regional catalog of training programs and the conceptualization of sharing training facilities among nuclear operators in the region. The working group has focused its attention on the exchange of information on the on-going training programs, operator training facilities, available resources for training assistance and proposed cooperative schemes. These activities are expected to continue and will provide invaluable information for nuclear power programs in the Pacific Basin region. The group also reviewed problems and issues associated with developing regional cooperation

  5. Description of load progression and pain response during progressive resistance training early after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone R; Petersen, Annemette K; Mechlenburg, Inger

    2016-01-01

    events during the initial four weeks of training. RESULTS: The majority of patients experienced only moderate hip pain during exercise (range in median across exercises and sessions: 5-35 mm Visual Analog Scale) and mild pain at rest (median: 1-18 mm Visual Analog Scale), both of which decreased over...... time ( p training load (67%-166 % across exercises, p training sessions, short term pain response (an increase >20 mm Visual Analog Scale) occurred in 13 patients in 24 training sessions. CONCLUSION: Progressive resistance......OBJECTIVE: To describe a progressive resistance training intervention implemented shortly after total hip arthroplasty, including a detailed description of load progression, pain response and adverse events to the training. DESIGN: Secondary analyses of data from the intervention group...

  6. The effects of elastic tubing-based resistance training compared with conventional resistance training in patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Fosco, Luciana Cristina; Bonfim, Rafaela; Bertolini, Giovana Navarro; Guarnier, Flavia Alessandra; Cecchini, Rubens; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo; Langer, Daniel; Gosselink, Rik; Ramos, Dionei

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effects of elastic tubing training compared with conventional resistance training on the improvement of functional exercise capacity, muscle strength, fat-free mass, and systemic inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A prospective, randomized, eight-week clinical trial. The study was conducted in a university-based, outpatient, physical therapy clinic. A total of 49 patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Participants were randomly assigned to perform elastic tubing training or conventional resistance training three times per week for eight weeks. The primary outcome measure was functional exercise capacity. The secondary outcome measures were peripheral muscle strength, health-related quality of life assessed by the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRDQ), fat-free mass, and cytokine profile. After eight weeks, the mean distance covered during six minutes increased by 73 meters (±69) in the elastic tubing group and by 42 meters (±59) in the conventional group (p tubing training had a greater effect on functional exercise capacity than conventional resistance training. Both interventions were equally effective in improving muscle strength and quality of life. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. A comparison of assisted, resisted, and common plyometric training modes to enhance sprint and agility performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaei, Kazem; Mohammadi, Abbas; Badri, Neda

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of assisted, resisted and common plyometric training modes to enhance sprint and agility performance. Thirty active young males (age 20.67±1.12, height 174.83±4.69, weight 63.45±7.51) volunteered to participate in this study that 24 completed testing. The participants were randomly assigned into different groups: assisted, resisted and common plyometric exercises groups. Plyometric training involved three sessions per week for 4 weeks. The volume load of plyometric training modes was equated between the groups. The posttest was performed after 48 hours of the last training session. Between-group differences were analyzed with the ANCOVA and LSD post-hoc tests, and within-group differences were analyzed by a paired t-test. The findings of the present study indicated that 0-10-m, 20-30-m sprint time and the Illinois Agility Test time significantly decreased in the assisted and resisted plyometrics modes compared to the common plyometric training mode (P≤0.05). Also, the 0-10-m, 0-30-m sprint time and agility T-test time was significantly reduced with resisted plyometrics modes compared to the assisted and common plyometric modes (P≤0.05). There was no significant difference in the 10-20-m sprint time among the three plyometric training modes. The results of this study demonstrated that assisted and resisted plyometrics modes with elastic bands were effective methods to improve sprint and agility performance than common plyometric training in active males. Also, the resisted plyometrics mode was superior than the assisted plyometrics mode to improving sprint and agility tasks.

  8. Effect of combined aerobic and resistance training in body composition of obese postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício E. Rossi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 16-week program of combined aerobic and resistance training on the body composition of postmenopausal women who are obese. The participants were divided into two groups: training group (TG, n = 37 and non-trained control group (CG, n = 18. The trunk fat, fat mass, percentage of fat mass and fat-free mass were estimated using DXA. Three nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were conducted. The training protocol consisted of 50 minutes of resistance training followed by 30 minutes of aerobic training. After the 16-week training program, differences were observed in trunk fat (CG= 0.064 x TG= -0.571 Kg; p-value = .020, fat mass (CG= -0.088 x TG= -1.037 Kg; p-value = .020 and fat-free mass (CG= -0.388 x TG= 1.049 Kg; p = .001. Therefore, a 16-week program of systematic combined aerobic and resistance training in obese postmenopausal women was effective in improving fat-free mass and decreasing both whole and abdominal adiposity.

  9. Health and fitness benefits of a resistance training intervention performed in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavanela, Plinio M; Crewther, Blair T; Lodo, Leandro; Florindo, Alex A; Miyabara, Elen H; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the effects of a workplace-based resistance training intervention on different health-, fitness-, and work-related measures in untrained men (bus drivers). The subjects were recruited from a bus company and divided into a training (n = 48) and control (n = 48) groups after initial prescreening. The training group performed a 24-week resistance training program, whereas the control group maintained their normal daily activities. Each group was assessed for body composition, blood pressure (BP), pain incidence, muscular endurance, and flexibility before and after the 24-week period. Work absenteeism was also recorded during this period and after a 12-week follow-up phase. In general, no body composition changes were identified in either group. In the training group, a significant reduction in BP and pain incidence, along with improvements in muscle endurance and flexibility were seen after 24 weeks (p workplace improved different aspects of health and fitness in untrained men, thereby potentially providing other work-related benefits. Thus, both employers and employees may benefit from the setup, promotion, and support of a work-based physical activity program involving resistance training.

  10. Youth resistance training: past practices, new perspectives, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Myer, Gregory D

    2013-11-01

    Since the publication of the seminal review on youth resistance training by Kraemer and colleagues in 1989, a compelling body of evidence has found that resistance training can be a safe, effective, and worthwhile method of conditioning for children and adolescents. New perspectives for promoting resistance exercise as part of a long-term approach to youth physical development highlight the importance of integrating resistance training into youth fitness programs. Youth who do not enhance their muscular strength and motor skill proficiency early in life may not develop the prerequisite skills and abilities that would allow them to participate in a variety of activities and sports with confidence and vigor later in life. The identification of asymptomatic children with muscular weaknesses or imbalances may facilitate the development of a management plan which should rectify movement limitations and educate children and their families about the importance of daily physical activity.

  11. microRNAs in High and Low Responders to Resistance Training in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrom, Amanda D; Denham, Joshua

    2018-04-26

    Accounting for one in three cancer diagnoses, breast cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Exercise has a well-accepted role in the multi-disciplinary approach to rehabilitating breast cancer survivors. Despite the many known benefits of resistance training on women recovering from breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that have crucial roles in growth and development. Here, we analysed the abundance of 9 miRNAs, with known roles in muscle physiology and some linked to cancer, in serum samples from 24 breast cancer survivors before and after a 16-week resistance training or usual care intervention. The resistance training group completed supervised thrice-weekly training. miRNA abundance was assessed before and after the intervention period using qPCR. There were no statistically significant changes in any of the miRNAs between groups after the intervention period (all p>0.05). After assessing miRNA abundance in context with high and low responders to resistance training, we observed that relative to low responders, high responders exhibited increased miR-133a-3p and a borderline statistically significant increase in miR-370-3p. Findings from our controlled study indicate the diverse interindividual miRNA responses to resistance training and reveal a discordant regulation between high and low responders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. The Effects of 8 Eight Weeks Resistance Versus Endurance Training on Lipocalin-2 level in Non-Athlete Male Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohammadi Domiyeh

    2012-12-01

    Resistance training performed 3 three d/wk at an intensity corresponding to 65–80% of one-repetition maximum, 8-12 repetitions and 2-4 sets for 8 weeks. Endurance training group, underwent an 8-week intervention with a frequency of 3 d/wk at an intensity corresponding to 65, – 80% maximum heart rate for 20- – 38 minutes. Expressing lipocalin-2 plasma levels in samples were measured before and after intervention. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Plasma expressing level of lipocalin 2 in the control group before and after intervention, were respectively 11./1 ± 4./5 & 13./05 ± 2/.04, µg/L, respectively. The plasma level of lipocalin 2 and in the endurance training group, were 22./7 ± 8/.3 & and 17/.7 ± 6/.8 , and while these level werein the resistance training group 22/.2 ± 6/.2 & 19/.9 ± 6/.5 in the resistance training group. micrograms per liter, which was not statistically different.The differences between three groups were not statistically significant (p>0/.05. Conclusion: This study showed that 8 eight weeks of endurance & and resistance exercise training has no effect on lipocalin-2 plasma levels. Key words: Resistance training, Endurance training, Lipocalin-2, Insulin Resistance

  13. A multistate model of cognitive dynamics in relation to resistance training: the contribution of baseline function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Nader; Hsu, Chun L; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Davis, Jennifer; Beattie, B Lynn; Graf, Peter; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2013-08-01

    We investigated: (1) the effect of different targeted exercise training on an individual's overall probability for cognitive improvement, maintenance, or decline; and (2) the simultaneous effect of targeted exercise training and baseline function on the dynamics of executive functions when a multistate transition model is used. Analyses are based on a 12-month randomized clinical trial including 155 community-dwelling women 65-75 years of age who were randomly allocated to once-weekly resistance training (1x RT; n = 54), twice-weekly resistance training (2x RT; n = 52), or twice-weekly balance and tone training (BAT; n = 49). The primary outcome measure was performance on the Stroop test, an executive cognitive test of selective attention and conflict resolution. Secondary outcomes of executive functions were set shifting and working memory. Individuals in the 1x RT or 2x RT group demonstrated a significantly greater probability for improved performance on the Stroop Test (0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.57) compared with those in the BAT group (0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.40). Resistance training had significant effects on transitions in selective attention and conflict resolution. Resistance training is efficacious in improving a measure of selective attention and conflict resolution in older women, probably more so among those with greater baseline cognitive function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Resistance training with soy vs whey protein supplements in hyperlipidemic males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leddy John J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most individuals at risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD can reduce risk factors through diet and exercise before resorting to drug treatment. The effect of a combination of resistance training with vegetable-based (soy versus animal-based (whey protein supplementation on CVD risk reduction has received little study. The study's purpose was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of resistance exercise training with soy versus whey protein supplementation on strength gains, body composition and serum lipid changes in overweight, hyperlipidemic men. Methods Twenty-eight overweight, male subjects (BMI 25–30 with serum cholesterol >200 mg/dl were randomly divided into 3 groups (placebo (n = 9, and soy (n = 9 or whey (n = 10 supplementation and participated in supervised resistance training for 12 weeks. Supplements were provided in a double blind fashion. Results All 3 groups had significant gains in strength, averaging 47% in all major muscle groups and significant increases in fat free mass (2.6%, with no difference among groups. Percent body fat and waist-to-hip ratio decreased significantly in all 3 groups an average of 8% and 2%, respectively, with no difference among groups. Total serum cholesterol decreased significantly, again with no difference among groups. Conclusion Participation in a 12 week resistance exercise training program significantly increased strength and improved both body composition and serum cholesterol in overweight, hypercholesterolemic men with no added benefit from protein supplementation.

  15. Resist diabetes: A randomized clinical trial for resistance training maintenance in adults with prediabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda M Davy

    Full Text Available To determine whether a social cognitive theory (SCT-based intervention improves resistance training (RT maintenance and strength, and reduces prediabetes prevalence.Sedentary, overweight/obese (BMI: 25-39.9 kg/m2 adults aged 50-69 (N = 170 with prediabetes participated in the 15-month trial. Participants completed a supervised 3-month RT (2×/wk phase and were randomly assigned (N = 159 to one of two 6-month maintenance conditions: SCT or standard care. Participants continued RT at a self-selected facility. The final 6-month period involved no contact. Assessments occurred at baseline and months 3, 9, and 15. The SCT faded-contact intervention consisted of nine tailored transition (i.e., supervised training to training alone and nine follow-up sessions. Standard care involved six generic follow-up sessions. Primary outcomes were prevalence of normoglycemia and muscular strength.The retention rate was 76%. Four serious adverse events were reported. After 3 months of RT, 34% of participants were no longer prediabetic. This prevalence of normoglycemia was maintained through month 15 (30%, with no group difference. There was an 18% increase in the odds of being normoglycemic for each % increase in fat-free mass. Increases in muscular strength were evident at month 3 and maintained through month 15 (P<0.001, which represented improvements of 21% and 14% for chest and leg press, respectively. Results did not demonstrate a greater reduction in prediabetes prevalence in the SCT condition.Resistance training is an effective, maintainable strategy for reducing prediabetes prevalence and increasing muscular strength. Future research which promotes RT initiation and maintenance in clinical and community settings is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01112709.

  16. Resist diabetes: A randomized clinical trial for resistance training maintenance in adults with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Brenda M; Winett, Richard A; Savla, Jyoti; Marinik, Elaina L; Baugh, Mary Elizabeth; Flack, Kyle D; Halliday, Tanya M; Kelleher, Sarah A; Winett, Sheila G; Williams, David M; Boshra, Soheir

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether a social cognitive theory (SCT)-based intervention improves resistance training (RT) maintenance and strength, and reduces prediabetes prevalence. Sedentary, overweight/obese (BMI: 25-39.9 kg/m2) adults aged 50-69 (N = 170) with prediabetes participated in the 15-month trial. Participants completed a supervised 3-month RT (2×/wk) phase and were randomly assigned (N = 159) to one of two 6-month maintenance conditions: SCT or standard care. Participants continued RT at a self-selected facility. The final 6-month period involved no contact. Assessments occurred at baseline and months 3, 9, and 15. The SCT faded-contact intervention consisted of nine tailored transition (i.e., supervised training to training alone) and nine follow-up sessions. Standard care involved six generic follow-up sessions. Primary outcomes were prevalence of normoglycemia and muscular strength. The retention rate was 76%. Four serious adverse events were reported. After 3 months of RT, 34% of participants were no longer prediabetic. This prevalence of normoglycemia was maintained through month 15 (30%), with no group difference. There was an 18% increase in the odds of being normoglycemic for each % increase in fat-free mass. Increases in muscular strength were evident at month 3 and maintained through month 15 (Pprediabetes prevalence in the SCT condition. Resistance training is an effective, maintainable strategy for reducing prediabetes prevalence and increasing muscular strength. Future research which promotes RT initiation and maintenance in clinical and community settings is warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01112709.

  17. Skeletal Adaptations to Different Levels of Eccentric Resistance Following Eight Weeks of Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Kirk L.; Loehr, James A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Maddocks, Mary J.; Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Hagan, R. Donald

    2007-01-01

    Coupled concentric-eccentric resistive exercise maintains bone mineral density (BMD) during bed rest and aging. PURPOSE: We hypothesized that 8 wks of lower body resistive exercise training with higher ratios of eccentric to concentric loading would enhance hip and lumbar BMD. METHODS: Forty untrained male volunteers (34.9+/-7.0 yrs, 80.9+/-9.8 kg, 178.2+/-7.1 cm; mean+/-SD) were matched for leg press (LP) 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM) strength and randomly assigned to one of 5 training groups. Concentric load (% 1-RM) was constant across groups, but each group trained with different levels of eccentric load (0, 33, 66, 100, or 138% of concentric) for all training sessions. Subjects performed a periodized supine LP and heel raise (HR) training program 3 d wk-1 for 8 wks using a modified Agaton Fitness System (Agaton Fitness AB, Boden, Sweden). Hip and lumbar BMD (g/sq cm) was measured in triplicate pre- and post-training using DXA (Hologic Discovery ). Pre- and post-training means were compared using the appropriate ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. Within group pre- to post-training BMD was compared using paired t-tests with a Bonferroni adjustment. RESULTS: There was a main effect of training on L1, L2, L3, L4, total lumbar, and greater trochanter BMD, but there were no differences between groups. CONCLUSION: Eights wks of lower body resistive exercise increased greater trochanter and lumbar BMD. Inability to detect group differences may have been influenced by a potentially osteogenic vibration associated with device operation in the 0, 33, and 66% groups.

  18. Group Leader Reflections on Their Training and Experience: Implications for Group Counselor Educators and Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrt, Jonathan H.; Ener, Elizabeth; Porter, Jessica; Young, Tabitha L.

    2014-01-01

    Effective group leaders possess specialized counseling skills and abilities; however, attention to group leadership training appears to be lagging behind that of individual counseling. In this phenomenological study we explored group leaders' perceptions of their training and experience. Twenty-two professional counselors participated in…

  19. EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISE, RESISTANCE TRAINING OR COMBINED TRAINING ON GLYCAEMIC CONTROL AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mobasseri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has been proven as a useful intervention for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The purpose of this article was to compare the effects of aerobic exercise alone and resistance training alone as well as the combination of aerobic plus resistance training on glycaemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, and body composition in patients with T2DM. Eighty T2DM participants (37 men, 43 women, aged 33-69 years, were randomly divided in equal numbers (n=20 into one of four groups (aerobic, resistance, combined training, and control. Exercise training was performed three times per week for 52 weeks. After one year, 60 subjects (15 subjects in each group were entered into the statistical analysis. Seventeen parameters were evaluated. Mean HbA1c showed statistically significant reductions in the three training groups. All subjects of training groups experienced improvement in postprandial glucose, blood pressure, VO2max, and muscular percentage. Furthermore, the reduced concentration of plasma triglycerides was significant in both aerobic exercise and combined training groups. Also, a significant reduction was observed in body fat percentage in resistance and combined groups. Combination of two forms of exercise training led to an additional improvement in some of the parameters such as A1c and triglycerides compared with aerobic alone or resistance training alone. In general, the reported results in previous studies were not obtained for whole lipid profile and BMI. Both aerobic and resistance training are effective interventions for the management of T2DM complications, but combined training is associated with greater positive changes.

  20. Effects of instability versus traditional resistance training on strength, power and velocity in untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Monroy, Antonio J Antón; Jodra Jiménez, Pablo; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel V

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10) or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX®) (IRT, n = 12). Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM), average (AV) and peak velocity (PV), average (AP) and peak power (PP), all during bench press (BP) and back squat (BS) exercises, along with squat jump (SJ) height and counter movement jump (CMJ) height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p velocity and jumping ability. Key PointsSimilar adaptations in terms of gains in strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability were produced in response to both training programs.Both the stability and instability approaches seem suitable for healthy, physically-active individuals with or with limited experience in resistance training.RPE emerged as a useful tool to monitor exercise intensity during instability strength training.

  1. Different Erythromycin Resistance Mechanisms in Group C and Group G Streptococci

    OpenAIRE

    Kataja, Janne; Seppälä, Helena; Skurnik, Mikael; Sarkkinen, Hannu; Huovinen, Pentti

    1998-01-01

    Different mechanisms of erythromycin resistance predominate in group C and G streptococcus (GCS and GGS, respectively) isolates collected from 1992 to 1995 in Finland. Of the 21 erythromycin-resistant GCS and 32 erythromycin-resistant GGS isolates, 95% had the mefA or mefE drug efflux gene and 94% had the ermTR methylase gene, respectively.

  2. IS ENHANCED-ECCENTRIC RESISTANCE TRAINING SUPERIOR TO TRADITIONAL TRAINING FOR INCREASING ELBOW FLEXOR STRENGTH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Kaminski

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Protocols for strengthening muscle are important for fitness, rehabilitation, and the prevention of myotendinous injuries. In trained individuals, the optimal method of increasing strength remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a traditional method of strengthening with a method that allowed for enhanced-eccentric training, on changes in elbow flexor strength in trained subjects. Thirty-nine (8 male, 31 female trained subjects with normal elbow function participated in this study. Subjects were rank-ordered according to isometric force production and randomly assigned to one of three training groups: control (CONT, traditional concentric/eccentric (TRAD, and concentric/enhanced-eccentric (NEG. The training groups completed 24 training sessions. An evaluator blinded to training group performed all testing. Mixed model ANOVA techniques were used to determine if differences existed in concentric one repetition maximum strength, and isometric force production among groups. Changes in peak and average isokinetic force production were also compared. Type 1 error was maintained at 5%. While both groups improved concentric one repetition maximum (NEG = 15.5%, TRAD = 13.8% neither training group statistically differed from changes demonstrated by the CONT group. Nor did either training group show significant improvements in isometric or isokinetic force production over the CONT group. These results do not support the superiority of enhanced-eccentric training for increasing force production in trained subjects.

  3. Effect of creatine supplementation and drop-set resistance training in untrained aging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsmeyer, Sarah; Candow, Darren G; Brahms, C Markus; Michel, Deborah; Zello, Gordon A

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the effects of creatine supplementation and drop-set resistance training in untrained aging adults. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: Creatine (CR: n=14, 7 females, 7 males; 58.0±3.0yrs, 0.1g/kg/day of creatine+0.1g/kg/day of maltodextrin) or Placebo (PLA: n=17, 7 females, 10 males; age: 57.6±5.0yrs, 0.2g/kg/day of maltodextrin) during 12weeks of drop-set resistance training (3days/week; 2 sets of leg press, chest press, hack squat and lat pull-down exercises performed to muscle fatigue at 80% baseline 1-repetition maximum [1-RM] immediately followed by repetitions to muscle fatigue at 30% baseline 1-RM). Prior to and following training and supplementation, assessments were made for body composition, muscle strength, muscle endurance, tasks of functionality, muscle protein catabolism and diet. Drop-set resistance training improved muscle mass, muscle strength, muscle endurance and tasks of functionality (pcreatine to drop-set resistance training significantly increased body mass (p=0.002) and muscle mass (p=0.007) compared to placebo. Males on creatine increased muscle strength (lat pull-down only) to a greater extent than females on creatine (p=0.005). Creatine enabled males to resistance train at a greater capacity over time compared to males on placebo (p=0.049) and females on creatine (p=0.012). Males on creatine (p=0.019) and females on placebo (p=0.014) decreased 3-MH compared to females on creatine. The addition of creatine to drop-set resistance training augments the gains in muscle mass from resistance training alone. Creatine is more effective in untrained aging males compared to untrained aging females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of brief daily resistance training on rapid force development in painful neck and shoulder muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Schraefel, Mc; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training on rapid force development of painful neck/shoulder muscles. METHODS: 198 generally healthy adults with frequent neck/shoulder muscle pain (mean: age 43.1 years, computer use 93% of work time, 88% women......, duration of pain 186 day during the previous year) were randomly allocated to 2- or 12 min of daily progressive resistance training with elastic tubing or to a control group receiving weekly information on general health. A blinded assessor took measures at baseline and at 10-week follow-up; participants.......05) for both training groups. Maximal muscle strength increased only ~5-6% [mean and 95% confidence interval for 2- and 12-min groups to control, respectively: 2.5 Nm (0.05-0.73) and 2.2 Nm (0.01-0.70)]. No significant differences between the 2- and 12-min groups were evident. A weak but significant...

  5. Changes in circulating angiogenic factors after an acute training bout before and after resistance training with or without whole-body-vibration training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijer, Åsa; Degens, Hans; May, Francisca; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Joern; Rosenberger, Andre

    2012-07-01

    Both Resistance Exercise and Whole-Body-Vibration training are currently considered as countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Here we investigated the effects of whole-body vibration superimposed upon resistance exercise. Within this context, the present study focuses on changes in circulating angiogenic factors as indicators of skeletal muscle adaption. Methods: Twenty-six healthy male subjects (25.2 ± 4.2 yr) were included in this two-group parallel-designed study and randomly assigned to one of the training interventions: either resistance exercise (RE) or resistance vibration exercise (RVE). Participants trained 2-3 times per week for 6 weeks (completing 16 training sessions), where one session took 9 ± 1 min. Participants trained with weights on a guided barbell. The individual training load was set at 80% of their 1-Repetition-Maximum. Each training session consisted of three sets with 8 squats and 12 heel raises, following an incremental training design with regards to weight (RE and RVE) and vibration frequency (RVE only). The vibration frequency was increased from 20 Hz in the first week till 40 Hz during the last two weeks with 5-Hz weekly increments. At the first and 16 ^{th} training session, six blood samples (pre training and 2 min, 5 min, 15 min, 35 min and 75 min post training) were taken. Circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Endostatin and Matrix Metalloproteinases -2 and -9 (MMPs) were determined in serum using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays. Results: MMP-2 levels increased by 7.0% (SE = 2.7%, P < 0.001) within two minutes after the exercise bout and then decreased to 5.7% below baseline (SE = 2.4%, P < 0.001) between 15 and 75 minutes post exercise. This response was comparable before and after the training programs (P = 0.70) and also between the two intervention groups (P = 0.42). Preliminary analyses indicate that a similar pattern applies to circulating MMP-9, VEGF and

  6. The effects of resistance training on explosive strength indicators in adolescent basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a lower- and upper-body 10-week in-season resistance training program on explosive strength development in young basketball players. Twenty-five adolescent male athletes, aged 14-15 years old, were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; n = 15) and a control group (CG; n = 10). The subjects were assessed at baseline and after training for squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov test, drop jump, and seated medicine ball throw (MBT). The EG showed significant increases (p training program with moderate volume and intensity loads increased vertical jump and MBT performance in adolescent male basketball players. Coaches should know that such a short resistance training program specifically designed for young basketball players induce increased explosivity levels, which are essential to a better basketball performance, with no extra overload on adolescents' skeletal muscle development.

  7. Sixteen weeks of resistance training can decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in healthy postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição MS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Soares Conceição,1 Valéria Bonganha,1 Felipe Cassaro Vechin,2 Ricardo Paes de Barros Berton,1 Manoel Emílio Lixandrão,1 Felipe Romano Damas Nogueira,1 Giovana Vergínia de Souza,1 Mara Patricia Traina Chacon-Mikahil,1 Cleiton Augusto Libardi2 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, State University of Campinas, Campinas, 2Laboratory of Neuromuscular Adaptation to Strength Training, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Methods: Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 ± 3.95 years, 64.58 ± 9.22 kg or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 ± 5.7 years, 64.03 ± 5.03 kg. In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 × 8–10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162. Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001, and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%, reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, −6.75% and noticeable increases in

  8. International Consultation and Training on Group Work in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Farah A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a consultation and training for faculty and graduate students in South Asia under the auspices of the United Nations' Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals (TOKTEN) Program. It describes the development of a consultation relationship and training on group work. Needs assessments focusing on both cultural…

  9. Changes of explosive strength in professional basketball players after a six week training cycle with plyometric training and resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Explosive strength of the lower extremities and agility are important parts of game performance in basketball. Although numerous studies have focused on the assessment of the training effect of plyometric training, studies focusing on elite players are missing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out what changes in explosive strength of the lower extremities take place after a 6 week strength training with plyometric exercises and resistance exercises in elite basketball players. METHODS: Elite basketball players (n = 12; age 24.71 ± 1.5 years; height 197.0 ± 7.6 cm; weight 95.8 ± 8.1 kg performed during pre-season a 6 week training program with plyometric exercises and resistance exercises which were conducted biweekly during the pre-season. The changes in explosive strength were measured by the squat jump without arms, the counter movement jump without arms, the counter movement jump free arms and the 2 step run up jump. The players participated in two measurements. The 1st (pretesting was performed on the first day of pre-season and the 2nd (posttesting was completed two days after terminating the PT programme. The differences between the average values of the monitored parameters were determined by the Wilcoxon paired test. To calculate the effect size formula according to Fritz, Morris, and Richler (2012: R = Z/√N was used. RESULTS: Analysis of intra-group changes confirmed significant differences between the two measurements in tests of vertical jump squat (Z = 2.58, p = .01, r = .75, vertical jump from the point of the swing arm (Z = 2.49, p = .01, r = .72 and vertical jump from place without the swing arm (Z = 2.75, p = .01, r = .79. In case of the two step run up jump significant differences were not found (Z = 1.60, p = .11, r = .56. Analysis of intra-individual changes showed the significant interindividual differences in the changes of the explosive power of the lower limbs after a 6 week training. The

  10. Resistance Training with Co-ingestion of Anti-inflammatory Drugs Attenuates Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele A. Cardinale

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study aimed to examine the effects of resistance exercise with concomitant consumption of high vs. low daily doses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. As a secondary aim, we compared the effects of eccentric overload with conventional training.Methods: Twenty participants were randomized to either a group taking high doses (3 × 400 mg/day of ibuprofen (IBU; 27 ± 5 year; n = 11 or a group ingesting a low dose (1 × 75 mg/day of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 26 ± 4 year; n = 9 during 8 weeks of supervised knee extensor resistance training. Each of the subject's legs were randomized to complete the training program using either a flywheel (FW device emphasizing eccentric overload, or a traditional weight stack machine (WS. Maximal mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (CI+IIP from permeabilized skeletal muscle bundles was assessed using high-resolution respirometry. Citrate synthase (CS activity was assessed using spectrophotometric techniques and mitochondrial protein content using western blotting.Results: After training, CI+IIP decreased (P < 0.05 in both IBU (23% and ASA (29% with no difference across medical treatments. Although CI+IIP decreased in both legs, the decrease was greater (interaction p = 0.015 in WS (33%, p = 0.001 compared with FW (19%, p = 0.078. CS activity increased (p = 0.027 with resistance training, with no interactions with medical treatment or training modality. Protein expression of ULK1 increased with training in both groups (p < 0.001. The increase in quadriceps muscle volume was not correlated with changes in CI+IIP (R = 0.16.Conclusion: These results suggest that 8 weeks of resistance training with co-ingestion of anti-inflammatory drugs reduces mitochondrial function but increases mitochondrial content. The observed changes were not affected by higher doses of NSAIDs consumption, suggesting that the resistance training

  11. The Effect of Resistance Training on Cardio-Metabolic Factors in Males with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Ghalavand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes is one of the most important metabolic diseases in the world and exercise is a common advice to manage diabetes and reduce its complications. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training on blood glucose, blood pressure and resting heart rate in males with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods In this semi-experimental study, 20 males with type 2 diabetes with mean age of 46 ± 3.4 years old who met the inclusion criteria were selected. The participants were randomly assigned into resistance training (n = 10 and control (n = 10 groups. Resistance exercise training program was performed for eight weeks, three sessions per week. Cardiovascular and biochemical parameters were measured before and after the intervention. To analyze the measured parameters changes t-test was used at P ≤ 0.05 significance level. Results After eight weeks, a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar (P = 0.002, glycosylated hemoglobin (P = 0.025 and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.022 was observed in the resistance group. In addition, there was a significant difference in blood sugar (P = 0.003 and glycosylated hemoglobin (P = 0.031 between the two groups. Conclusions Findings of this study confirmed the positive influence of resistance training to control blood glucose and blood pressure in males with type 2 diabetes.

  12. Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fornieles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS. A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94 and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57 in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS.

  13. Corticosteroid injections, eccentric decline squat training and heavy slow resistance training in patellar tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M.; Kovanen, V.; Aagaard, P.

    2009-01-01

    A randomized-controlled single-blind trial was conducted to investigate the clinical, structural and functional effects of peritendinous corticosteroid injections (CORT), eccentric decline squat training (ECC) and heavy slow resistance training (HSR) in patellar tendinopathy. Thirty-nine male...

  14. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS WITH BLOOD FLOW RESTRICTED RESISTANCE TRAINING

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    Alan Kacin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood flow restricted resistance (BFRR training with pneumatic tourniquet has been suggested as an alternative for conventional weight training due to the proven benefits for muscle strength and hypertrophy using relatively low resistance, hence reducing the mechanical stress across a joint. As such, it has become an important part of rehabilitation programs used in either injured or operated athletes. Despite a general consensus on effectiveness of BFRR training for muscle conditioning, there are several uncertainties regarding the interplay of various extrinsic and intrinsic factors on its safety and efficiency, which are being reviewed from a clinical perspective. Among extrinsic factors tourniquet cuff pressure, size and shape have been identified as key for safety and efficiency. Among intrinsic factors, limb anthropometrics, patient history and presence of cardiac, vascular, metabolic or peripheral neurologic conditions have been recognized as most important. Though there are a few potential safety concerns connected to BFRR training, the following have been identified as the most probable and health-hazardous: (a mechanical injury to the skin, muscle, and peripheral nerves, (b venous thrombosis due to vascular damage and disturbed hemodynamics and (c augmented arterial blood pressure responses due to combined high body exertion and increased peripheral vascular resistance. Based on reviewed literature and authors’ personal experience with the use of BFRR training in injured athletes, some guidelines for its safe application are outlined. Also, a comprehensive risk assessment tool for screening of subjects prior to their inclusion in a BFRR training program is being introduced.

  15. Robot-Applied Resistance Augments the Effects of Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training on Stepping and Synaptic Plasticity in a Rodent Model of Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinahon, Erika; Estrada, Christina; Tong, Lin; Won, Deborah S; de Leon, Ray D

    2017-08-01

    The application of resistive forces has been used during body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) to improve walking function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Whether this form of training actually augments the effects of BWSTT is not yet known. To determine if robotic-applied resistance augments the effects of BWSTT using a controlled experimental design in a rodent model of SCI. Spinally contused rats were treadmill trained using robotic resistance against horizontal (n = 9) or vertical (n = 8) hind limb movements. Hind limb stepping was tested before and after 6 weeks of training. Two control groups, one receiving standard training (ie, without resistance; n = 9) and one untrained (n = 8), were also tested. At the terminal experiment, the spinal cords were prepared for immunohistochemical analysis of synaptophysin. Six weeks of training with horizontal resistance increased step length, whereas training with vertical resistance enhanced step height and movement velocity. None of these changes occurred in the group that received standard (ie, no resistance) training or in the untrained group. Only standard training increased the number of step cycles and shortened cycle period toward normal values. Synaptophysin expression in the ventral horn was highest in rats trained with horizontal resistance and in untrained rats and was positively correlated with step length. Adding robotic-applied resistance to BWSTT produced gains in locomotor function over BWSTT alone. The impact of resistive forces on spinal connections may depend on the nature of the resistive forces and the synaptic milieu that is present after SCI.

  16. A comparison of the effects of 6 weeks of traditional resistance training, plyometric training, and complex training on measures of strength and anthropometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Christopher J; Lamont, Hugh S; Garner, John C

    2012-02-01

    Complex training (CT; alternating between heavy and lighter load resistance exercises with similar movement patterns within an exercise session) is a form of training that may potentially bring about a state of postactivation potentiation, resulting in increased dynamic power (Pmax) and rate of force development during the lighter load exercise. Such a method may be more effective than either modality, independently for developing strength. The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of resistance training (RT), plyometric training (PT), and CT on lower body strength and anthropometrics. Thirty recreationally trained college-aged men were trained using 1 of 3 methods: resistance, plyometric, or complex twice weekly for 6 weeks. The participants were tested pre, mid, and post to assess back squat strength, Romanian dead lift (RDL) strength, standing calf raise (SCR) strength, quadriceps girth, triceps surae girth, body mass, and body fat percentage. Diet was not controlled during this study. Statistical measures revealed a significant increase for squat strength (p = 0.000), RDL strength (p = 0.000), and SCR strength (p = 0.000) for all groups pre to post, with no differences between groups. There was also a main effect for time for girth measures of the quadriceps muscle group (p = 0.001), the triceps surae muscle group (p = 0.001), and body mass (p = 0.001; post hoc revealed no significant difference). There were main effects for time and group × time interactions for fat-free mass % (RT: p = 0.031; PT: p = 0.000). The results suggest that CT mirrors benefits seen with traditional RT or PT. Moreover, CT revealed no decrement in strength and anthropometric values and appears to be a viable training modality.

  17. Sensitization to group direction in the postgraduate training on Group-Analysis

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    Simone Bruschetta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The psychodynamic training group here introduced is a part of the General Training on Group Analysis of the Centre of Palermo of COIRAG Postgraduate School on Analytic Psychotherapy. The training project’s aim, built for the class of the third year, develops a sensitization device which provide a unique set of aquarium. The aim of that methodological artifice is not to engage students on specific group management techniques, but to allow the whole class group to bring into play the complexity of relations, of which is necessary to have awareness in order to lead a group within an institutional context: The main clinical referents that we chose to monitor in this experience are the relationship between conductors and participants and the relationship between group, task and setting. The brief description of this methodology is also including the reporting of two "cases" treated in the course of training. Keywords: Group leadership, Founding dimension, Cultural themes 

  18. Effects of a resistance training program performed with an interocclusal splint for community-dwelling older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hirase, Tatsuya; Inokuchi, Shigeru; Matsusaka, Nobuou; Nakahara, Kazumi; Okita, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To examine whether resistance training for elderly community-dwellers performed with an interocclusal splint resulted in greater lower extremity muscle strength and better balance than resistance training performed without an interocclusal splint. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-eight elderly persons using Japanese community day centers were randomly divided into two groups: an intervention group (n=45), which performed resistance training with an interocclusal splint; and a control g...

  19. Effect of specific resistance training on musculoskeletal pain symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Andersen, Lars Louis; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2013-01-01

    .16, p = 0.045), and there was a significant dose-response relationship between training volume per session and change in pain index (ß = -0.20, p = 0.034). In contrast, training attendance (mean 1.69 sessions per week, SD = 0.8) was not significantly related to the change in pain index. In conclusion......, achieving higher accumulated training volumes was important for reducing musculoskeletal pain in female office workers. The training volume per session should be optimized by securing a load at 10-15 repetition maximum and adhering to principles of progressive overload.......ABSTRACT: Pedersen, MT, Andersen, LL, Jørgensen, MB, Søgaard, K, and Sjøgaard, G. Effect of specific resistance training on musculoskeletal pain symptoms: Dose-response relationship. J Strength Cond Res 27(1): 229-235, 2013-The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-response of strength...

  20. Physical Training Improves Insulin Resistance Syndrome Markers in Obese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sik; Gutin, Bernard; Barbeau, Paule; Owens, Scott; Lemmon, Christian R.; Allison, Jerry; Litaker, Mark S.; Le, Ngoc-Anh

    2002-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that physical training (PT), especially high-intensity PT, would favorably affect components of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) in obese adolescents. Data on teens randomized into lifestyle education (LSE) alone, LSE plus moderate -intensity PT, and LSE plus high-intensity PT indicated that PT, especially high-intensity…

  1. Resistance training and predicted risk of coronary heart disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of resistance training, designed to prevent the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) based on the Framingham Risk Assessment (FRA) score. Twenty-five healthy sedentary men with low CHD risk were assigned to participate in a 16-week (three days per week) ...

  2. Resistance training and changes to plasma lipoproteins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. The main purpose of this study was to assess the effect of progressive resistance training on the blood lipid profile in postmenopausal women. Methods. Twenty-six female participants aged 50 - 75 years were selected from the population of Grahamstown, South Africa. All participants were previously sedentary ...

  3. A Six-Week Resistance Training Program Does Not Change Shear Modulus of the Triceps Brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Ryota; Shikiba, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Jun; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effect of a 6-week resistance training program on the shear modulus of the triceps brachii (TB). Twenty-three young men were randomly assigned to either the training (n = 13) or control group (n = 10). Before and after conducting the resistance training program, the shear modulus of the long head of the TB was measured at the point 70% along the length of the upper arm from the acromial process of the scapula to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus using shear wave ultrasound elastography. Muscle thickness of the long head of the TB was also determined at the same site by ultrasonography used during both tests. A resistance exercise was performed 3 days a week for 6 weeks using a dumbbell mass-adjusted to 80% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). The training effect on the muscle thickness and 1RM was significant. Nevertheless, the muscle shear modulus was not significantly changed after the training program. From the perspective of muscle mechanical properties, the present results indicate that significant adaptation must occur to make the TB more resistant to subsequent damaging bouts during the 6-week training program to target the TB.

  4. Resistance versus Balance Training to Improve Postural Control in Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Rater Blinded Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenstedt, Christian; Paschen, Steffen; Kruse, Annika; Raethjen, Jan; Weisser, Burkhard; Deuschl, Günther

    2015-01-01

    Reduced muscle strength is an independent risk factor for falls and related to postural instability in individuals with Parkinson's disease. The ability of resistance training to improve postural control still remains unclear. To compare resistance training with balance training to improve postural control in people with Parkinson's disease. 40 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Hoehn&Yahr: 2.5-3.0) were randomly assigned into resistance or balance training (2x/week for 7 weeks). Assessments were performed at baseline, 8- and 12-weeks follow-up: primary outcome: Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) scale; secondary outcomes: center of mass analysis during surface perturbations, Timed-up-and-go-test, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression, gait analysis, maximal isometric leg strength, PDQ-39, Beck Depression Inventory. Clinical tests were videotaped and analysed by a second rater, blind to group allocation and assessment time. 32 participants (resistance training: n = 17, balance training: n = 15; 8 drop-outs) were analyzed at 8-weeks follow-up. No significant difference was found in the FAB scale when comparing the effects of the two training types (p = 0.14; effect size (Cohen's d) = -0.59). Participants from the resistance training group, but not from the balance training group significantly improved on the FAB scale (resistance training: +2.4 points, Cohen's d = -0.46; balance training: +0.3 points, Cohen's d = -0.08). Within the resistance training group, improvements of the FAB scale were significantly correlated with improvements of rate of force development and stride time variability. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcome measures when comparing the training effects of both training types. The difference between resistance and balance training to improve postural control in people with Parkinson's disease was small and not significant with this sample size. There was weak evidence that freely

  5. Resistance versus Balance Training to Improve Postural Control in Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Rater Blinded Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schlenstedt

    Full Text Available Reduced muscle strength is an independent risk factor for falls and related to postural instability in individuals with Parkinson's disease. The ability of resistance training to improve postural control still remains unclear.To compare resistance training with balance training to improve postural control in people with Parkinson's disease.40 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Hoehn&Yahr: 2.5-3.0 were randomly assigned into resistance or balance training (2x/week for 7 weeks. Assessments were performed at baseline, 8- and 12-weeks follow-up: primary outcome: Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB scale; secondary outcomes: center of mass analysis during surface perturbations, Timed-up-and-go-test, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression, gait analysis, maximal isometric leg strength, PDQ-39, Beck Depression Inventory. Clinical tests were videotaped and analysed by a second rater, blind to group allocation and assessment time.32 participants (resistance training: n = 17, balance training: n = 15; 8 drop-outs were analyzed at 8-weeks follow-up. No significant difference was found in the FAB scale when comparing the effects of the two training types (p = 0.14; effect size (Cohen's d = -0.59. Participants from the resistance training group, but not from the balance training group significantly improved on the FAB scale (resistance training: +2.4 points, Cohen's d = -0.46; balance training: +0.3 points, Cohen's d = -0.08. Within the resistance training group, improvements of the FAB scale were significantly correlated with improvements of rate of force development and stride time variability. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcome measures when comparing the training effects of both training types.The difference between resistance and balance training to improve postural control in people with Parkinson's disease was small and not significant with this sample size. There was weak evidence that

  6. Region specific patella tendon hypertrophy in humans following resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M.; Reitelseder, S; Pedersen, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine if cross-sectional area (CSA) differs along the length of the human patellar tendon (PT), and if there is PT hypertrophy in response to resistance training. METHODS: Twelve healthy young men underwent baseline and post-training assessments. Maximal isometric knee extension strength...... (MVC) was determined unilaterally in both legs. PT CSA was measured at the proximal-, mid- and distal PT level and quadriceps muscle CSA was measured at mid-thigh level using magnetic resonance imaging. Mechanical properties of the patellar tendons were determined using ultrasonography. Subsequently....... CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this study is the first to report tendon hypertrophy following resistance training. Further, the data show that the human PT CSA varies along the length of the tendon....

  7. Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in Invasive Group B Streptococcal Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei L. Castor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are used for both group B streptococcal (GBS prevention and treatment. Active population-based surveillance for invasive GBS disease was conducted in four states during 1996—2003. Of 3813 case-isolates, 91.0% (3471 were serotyped, 77.1% (2937 had susceptibility testing, and 46.6% (3471 had both. All were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefotaxime, and vancomycin. Clindamycin and erythromycin resistance was 12.7% and 25.6%, respectively, and associated with serotype V (P<.001. Clindamycin resistance increased from 10.5% to 15.0% (X2 for trend 12.70; P<.001; inducible clindamycin resistance was associated with the erm genotype. Erythromycin resistance increased from 15.8% to 32.8% (X2 for trend 55.46; P<.001. While GBS remains susceptible to beta-lactams, resistance to alternative agents such as erythromycin and clindamycin is an increasing concern.

  8. Resistance training enhances insulin suppression of endogenous glucose production in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Bucci, Marco; Andersson, Jonathan; Huovinen, Ville; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Sandboge, Samuel; Savisto, Nina; Salonen, Minna K; Badeau, Robert M; Parkkola, Riitta; Kullberg, Joel; Iozzo, Patricia; Eriksson, Johan G; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2016-03-15

    An altered prenatal environment during maternal obesity predisposes offspring to insulin resistance, obesity, and their consequent comorbidities, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Telomere shortening and frailty are additional risk factors for these conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training on hepatic metabolism and ectopic fat accumulation. Thirty-five frail elderly women, whose mothers' body mass index (BMI) was known, participated in a 4-mo resistance training program. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and hepatic and visceral fat glucose uptake were measured during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. Ectopic fat was measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. We found that the training intervention reduced EGP during insulin stimulation [from 5.4 (interquartile range 3.0, 7.0) to 3.9 (-0.4, 6.1) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.042] in the whole study group. Importantly, the reduction was higher among those whose EGP was more insulin resistant at baseline (higher than the median) [-5.6 (7.1) vs. 0.1 (5.4) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.015]. Furthermore, the decrease in EGP was associated with telomere elongation (r = -0.620, P = 0.001). The resistance training intervention did not change either hepatic or visceral fat glucose uptake or the amounts of ectopic fat. Maternal obesity did not influence the studied measures. In conclusion, resistance training improves suppression of EGP in elderly women. The finding of improved insulin sensitivity of EGP with associated telomere lengthening implies that elderly women can reduce their risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease with resistance training. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Training Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors in Group Dynamics: A Psychoeducational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Timothy R.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a six-session psychoeducational program for training vocational rehabilitation counselors in group dynamics. Presents evaluation of program by counselors (N=15) in which leadership styles, conflict management, and typology of group tasks concepts were rated as most beneficial. (Author/ABL)

  10. Effects of order and sequence of resistance and endurance training on body fat in elementary school-aged girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. Alves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of order and sequence of concurrent resistance and endurance training on body fat percentage (BFP in a large sample of elementary school-aged girls. One hundred and twenty-six healthy girls, aged 10-11 years (10.95 ± 0.48 years, were randomly assigned to six groups to perform different training protocols per week for 8 weeks: Resistance-only (R, Endurance-only (E, Concurrent Distinct Endurance-Resistance (CDER, Concurrent Parallel Endurance-Resistance (CPER, Concurrent Parallel Resistance-Endurance (CPRE, and a Control group (C. In R and E, the subjects performed single sessions of resistance or endurance exercises, respectively (two days per week. In CDER, resistance-endurance training was performed on different days each week (four days per week. CPER and CPRE performed single-session combined endurance-resistance training or combined resistance-endurance training, respectively, each week (two days per week. After an 8-week training period, BFP decreased in all experimental groups (CPER: 13.3%, p0.05; and CDER: 5.6%, p>0.05. However, a significant difference was found in CPER and CPRE when compared to CDER, E, and R, indicating that training sequence may influence BFP. All programmes were effective, but CPER and CPRE obtained better results for BFP than CDER, E, or R. The effects of concurrent resistance and endurance training on body fat percentage can be mediated by order and sequence of exercise. These results provide insight into optimization of school-based fat loss exercise programmes in childhood.

  11. Effects of aquatic resistance training on mobility limitation and lower-limb impairments after knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, Anu; Pöyhönen, Tapani; Sipilä, Sarianna; Heinonen, Ari

    2010-06-01

    To study the effects of aquatic resistance training on mobility, muscle power, and cross-sectional area. Randomized controlled trial. Research laboratory and hospital rehabilitation pool. Population-based sample (N=50) of eligible women and men 55 to 75 years old 4 to 18 months after unilateral knee replacement with no contraindications who were willing to participate in the trial. Twelve-week progressive aquatic resistance training (n=26) or no intervention (n=24). Mobility limitation assessed by walking speed and stair ascending time, and self-reported physical functional difficulty, pain, and stiffness assessed by Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Knee extensor power and knee flexor power assessed isokinetically, and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by computed tomography. Compared with the change in the control group, habitual walking speed increased by 9% (P=.005) and stair ascending time decreased by 15% (P=.006) in the aquatic training group. There was no significant difference between the groups in the WOMAC scores. The training increased knee extensor power by 32% (Plower limb muscle power and muscle CSA. Resistance training in water is a feasible mode of rehabilitation that has wide-ranging positive effects on patients after knee replacement surgery. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (ptraining devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 5+/-2%), and DP (FW: 2+/-1%; ARED: 2+/-1%) after training. There

  13. Resistance training improves muscle strength and functional capacity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Jakobsen, J

    2009-01-01

    strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis, the effects persisting after 12 weeks of self-guided physical activity. Level of evidence: The present study provides level III evidence supporting the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training can improve muscle......OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training (PRT) can improve muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to evaluate whether the improvements are maintained after the trial. METHODS: The present study was a 2-arm...... and was afterward encouraged to continue training. After the trial, the control group completed the PRT intervention. Both groups were tested before and after 12 weeks of the trial and at 24 weeks (follow-up), where isometric muscle strength of the knee extensors (KE MVC) and functional capacity (FS; combined score...

  14. Effects of Dual-Task Management and Resistance Training on Gait Performance in Older Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollesen, Bettina; Mattes, Klaus; Schulz, Sören; Bischoff, Laura L.; Seydell, L.; Bell, Jeffrey W.; von Duvillard, Serge P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dual-task (DT) training is a well-accepted modality for fall prevention in older adults. DT training should include task-managing strategies such as task switching or task prioritization to improve gait performance under DT conditions. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate a balance and task managing training (BDT group) in gait performance compared to a single task (ST) strength and resistance training and a control group, which received no training. A total of 78 older individuals (72.0 ± 4.9 years) participated in this study. The DT group performed task managing training incorporating balance and coordination tasks while the ST group performed resistance training only. Training consisted of 12 weekly sessions, 60 min each, for 12 weeks. We assessed the effects of ST and BDT training on walking performance under ST and DT conditions in independent living elderly adults. ST and DT walking (visual verbal Stroop task) were measured utilizing a treadmill at self-selected walking speed (mean for all groups: 4.4 ± 1 km h-1). Specific gait variables, cognitive performance, and fear of falling were compared between all groups. >Results: Training improved gait performance for step length (p changes in cognitive performance. Both interventions reduced fear of falling (p management strategies into balance and strength training in our population revealed a promising modality to prevent falls in older individuals. Trial registration: German register of clinical trials DRKS00012382. PMID:29326581

  15. Training of resistance to proactive interference and working memory in older adults: a randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, Sandra V; Falquez, Rosalux; Unterrainer, Josef M; Weiller, Cornelius; Rahm, Benjamin; Kaller, Christoph P

    2016-03-01

    Working memory (WM) performance is often decreased in older adults. Despite the growing popularity of WM trainings, underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Resistance to proactive interference (PI) constitutes a candidate process that contributes to WM performance and might influence training or transfer effects. Here, we investigated whether PI resistance can be enhanced in older adults using a WM training with specifically increased PI-demands. Further, we investigated whether potential effects of such a training were stable and entailed any transfer on non-trained tasks. Healthy old adults (N = 25, 68.8 ± 5.5 years) trained with a recent-probes and an n-back task daily for two weeks. Two different training regimens (high vs. low PI-amount in the tasks) were applied as between-participants manipulation, to which participants were randomly assigned. Near transfer tasks included interference tasks; far transfer tasks assessed fluid intelligence (gF) or speed. Immediate transfer was assessed directly after training; a follow-up measurement was conducted after two months. Both groups similarly improved in PI resistance in both training tasks. Thus, PI susceptibility was generally reduced in the two training groups and there was no difference between WM training with high versus low PI demands. Further, there was no differential near or far transfer on non-trained tasks, neither immediately after the training nor in the follow-up. PI-demands in WM training tasks do not seem critical for enhancing WM performance or PI resistance in older adults. Instead, improved resistance to PI appears to be an unspecific side-effect of a WM training.

  16. The Effect of Physical Resistance Training on Baroreflex Sensitivity of Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Felipe Pereira Gomes

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Baroreceptors act as regulators of blood pressure (BP; however, its sensitivity is impaired in hypertensive patients. Among the recommendations for BP reduction, exercise training has become an important adjuvant therapy in this population. However, there are many doubts about the effects of resistance exercise training in this population. Objective: To evaluate the effect of resistance exercise training on BP and baroreceptor sensitivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Method: Rats SHR (n = 16 and Wistar (n = 16 at 8 weeks of age, at the beginning of the experiment, were randomly divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (CS, n = 8; trained control (CT, n = 8; sedentary SHR (HS, n = 8 and trained SHR (HT, n = 8. Resistance exercise training was performed in a stairmaster-type equipment (1.1 × 0.18 m, 2 cm between the steps, 80° incline with weights attached to their tails, (5 days/week, 8 weeks. Baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate (HR was tested by loading/unloading of baroreceptors with phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Results: Resistance exercise training increased the soleus muscle mass in SHR when compared to HS (HS 0.027 ± 0.002 g/mm and HT 0.056 ± 0.003 g/mm. Resistance exercise training did not alter BP. On the other hand, in relation to baroreflex sensitivity, bradycardic response was improved in the TH group when compared to HS (HS -1.3 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg and HT -2.6 ± 0.2 bpm/mmHg although tachycardia response was not altered by resistance exercise (CS -3.3 ± 0.2 bpm/mmHg, CT -3.3 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg, HS -1.47 ± 0.06 bpm/mmHg and HT -1.6 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg. Conclusion: Resistance exercise training was able to promote improvements on baroreflex sensitivity of SHR rats, through the improvement of bradycardic response, despite not having reduced BP.

  17. Cleaners' experiences with group-based workplace physical training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Lasse; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how work-site health promotion intervention, by involving group-based physical coordination training, may increase participants’ social awareness of new ways to use the body. Purpose: We investigated cleaners’ experiences with a one-year health promotion intervention...... involving group-based physical coordination training (PCT) during working hours. Design: We conducted a qualitative evaluation using method triangulation; continuous unfocused participant observation during the whole intervention, semi-structured focus group interview, and individual written evaluations one...... for implementation seem to be important for sustained effects of health-promotion interventions in the workplace. Originality: The social character of the physical training facilitated a community of practice, which potentially supported the learning of new competencies, and how to improve the organization...

  18. Effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, quality of life, and motivation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, M T; Vorup, J; Nistrup, A; Wikman, J M; Alstrøm, J M; Melcher, P S; Pfister, G U; Bangsbo, J

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited. Fifty-one were assigned to a training group (TRG) of which twenty-five performed team training (TG) and twenty-six resistance training (RG). The remaining twenty-one were allocated to a control group (CG). TRG trained for 1 hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Compared with CG, TRG improved the number of arm curls within 30 seconds (Ppsychological well-being, general quality of life, and health-related quality of life, as well as decreased anxiety and depression levels. No differences between changes in TG and RG were found over the intervention period, neither in physical function tests nor psychological questionnaires. Both TG and RG were highly motivated for training, but TG expressed a higher degree of enjoyment and intrinsic motivation mainly due to social interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants more by intrinsic factors than resistance training. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effect of aerobic training and resistance training on circulating irisin level and their association with change of body composition in overweight/obese adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-J; Lee, H-J; So, B; Son, J S; Yoon, D; Song, W

    2016-06-20

    The novel myokine irisin has been reported as a therapeutic target for metabolic disease. The objective of this study is to reveal the effects of aerobic training (AT) and resistance training (RT) on circulating irisin levels and their associations with change of body composition in overweight/obese adults. Twenty eight overweight/obese adults (BMI>23 kg/m(2)) were included in this study and compared before and after 8 weeks of exercise program (60 min/day, 5 times in a week). The subjects, in both aerobic and resistance training, showed significant improvement in anthropometric parameters and exercise capacities including maximal oxygen uptake and muscle strength. Interestingly, the circulating irisin was significantly increased in resistance training group (p=0.002) but not in aerobic training (p=0.426) compared to control group. In addition, we found the positive correlation between change of the circulating irisin and muscle mass (r=0.432, p=0.022) and the negative correlation between change of the circulating irisin and fat mass (r=-0.407, p=0.031). In the present pilot study, we found that circulating irisin level was increased by 8 weeks of resistance training in overweight/obese adults, suggesting that resistance training could be the efficient exercise type in overweight/obese considering positive change of body composition concomitant with increase of irisin levels.

  20. At-home resistance tubing strength training increases shoulder strength in the trained and untrained limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, C R A; Boychuk, K; Kim, S Y; Farthing, J P

    2014-06-01

    The purpose was to determine if an at-home resistance tubing strength training program on one shoulder (that is commonly used in rehabilitation settings) would produce increases in strength in the trained and untrained shoulders via cross-education. Twenty-three participants were randomized to TRAIN (strength-trained one shoulder; n = 13) or CONTROL (no intervention; n = 10). Strength training was completed at home using resistance tubing and consisted of maximal shoulder external rotation, internal rotation, scaption, retraction, and flexion 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Strength was measured via handheld dynamometry and muscle size measured via ultrasound. For external rotation strength, the trained (10.9 ± 10.9%) and untrained (12.7 ± 9.6%) arm of TRAIN was significantly different than CONTROL (1.6 ± 13.2%; -2.7 ± 12.3%; pooled across arm; P tubing training program on one limb can produce increases in strength in both limbs, and has implications for rehabilitation after unilateral shoulder injuries. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Aerobic and resistance training improves mood state among adults living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggers, J R; Hand, G A; Dudgeon, W D; Burgess, S; Phillips, K D; Durstine, J L; Blair, S N

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training among self-reported mood disturbances, perceived stress, frequency of self-reported symptoms, and symptom distress in a sample of HIV+ adults. For this purpose, 49 participants were randomly assigned into an exercise (EX) or control (CON) group. Those in the EX group completed 50 min of supervised aerobic and resistance training at a moderate intensity twice a week for 6 weeks. The CON group reported to the university and engaged in sedentary activities. Data were collected at baseline before randomization and 6 weeks post intervention. Measures included the symptom distress scale (SDS), perceived stress scale (PSS), profile of mood states (POMS) total score, and the POMS sub-scale for depression and fatigue. A 2 way ANOVA was used to compare between and within group interactions. The EX group showed a significant decrease in reported depression scores (p=0.03) and total POMS (p=0.003). The CON group reported no change in POMS or SDS, but showed a significant increase in PSS. These findings indicate that combination aerobic and resistance training completed at a moderate intensity at least twice a week provides additional psychological benefits independent of disease status and related symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. 'When psychology and economics meet: Relational goods in training groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Di Caccamo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of the concept of relational goods is an innovation in the economy as opposed to the predominant instrumental logic and the ultimate aim of achieving profit. By facilitating the process of remodeling and reconfiguration the modalities of entering into a relationship, and allowing a new connection between different dimension of one's family, relational and cultural experience, median training groups are a place of choice for developing relational good in different contexts.Keywords: Relational good; Median training group; Social well-being

  3. Neuromuscular function and fatigue resistance of the plantar flexors following short-term cycling endurance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBehrens

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previously published studies on the effect of short-term endurance training on the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors have shown that the H-reflex elicited at rest and during weak voluntary contractions was increased following the training regime. However, these studies did not test H-reflex modulation during isometric maximum voluntary contraction (iMVC and did not incorporate a control group in their study design to compare the results of the endurance training group to individuals without the endurance training stimulus. Therefore, this randomized controlled study was directed to investigate the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors at rest and during iMVC before and after eight weeks of cycling endurance training. Twenty-two young adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group and a control group. During neuromuscular testing, rate of torque development, isometric maximum voluntary torque and muscle activation were measured. Triceps surae muscle activation and tibialis anterior muscle co-activation were assessed by normalized root mean square of the EMG signal during the initial phase of contraction (0-100, 100-200 ms and isometric maximum voluntary contraction of the plantar flexors. Furthermore, evoked spinal reflex responses of the soleus muscle (H-reflex evoked at rest and during iMVC, V-wave, peak twitch torques induced by electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve at rest and fatigue resistance were evaluated. The results indicate that the endurance training did not lead to a significant change in any variable of interest. Data of the present study conflict with the outcome of previously published studies that have found an increase in H-reflex excitability after endurance training. However, these studies had not included a control group in their study design as was the case here. It is concluded that short-term cycling endurance training does not necessarily enhance H-reflex responses and fatigue

  4. Effects of Menstrual Phase-Dependent Resistance Training Frequency on Muscular Hypertrophy and Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamaki-Sunaga, Mikako; Min, Seokki; Kamemoto, Kayoko; Okamoto, Takanobu

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated how different training frequencies during menstrual phases affect muscle hypertrophy and strength. Fourteen eumenorrheic women performed 3 sets of arm curls (8-15 repetitions) until failure for 12 weeks. Depending on the menstrual cycle phase, each subject trained each arm separately after either a 3- or a 1-d·wk training protocol during the follicular phase (FP-T) and a 3- or 1-d·wk training protocol during the luteal phase (LP-T). Cross-sectional area (CSA), 1 repetition maximum, and maximum voluntary contraction significantly increased 6.2 ± 4.4, 36.4 ± 11.9, and 16.7 ± 5.6%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05 vs. before training), in the FP-T group and 7.8 ± 4.2, 31.8 ± 14.1, and 14.9 ± 12.7%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05 vs. before training), in the LP-T group. Changes in CSA between the FP-T and the LP-T groups significantly and positively correlated (r = 0.54, p ≤ 0.05). There were no major differences among the different training protocols with regard to muscle hypertrophy and strength. Therefore, we suggest that variations in female hormones induced by the menstrual cycle phases do not significantly contribute to muscle hypertrophy and strength gains during 12 weeks of resistance training.

  5. Effects of Heavy Squat Training on a Vibration Platform on Maximal Strength and Jump Performance in Resistance-Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Roger L; Linton, Joshua T; Hammer, Adam M

    2018-03-06

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine maximal strength and jump performance outcomes of heavy squat training on a low-amplitude (<1.0 mm peak-to-peak) vibration platform (VP). Nineteen recreationally resistance-trained college-aged men (22.3 ± 1.66 years) completed the 6-week study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: SQT (n = 10) performed conventional back squats on the floor; SQTV (n = 9) performed back squats on the VP. Supervised training took place over 12 sessions (2 days/week) which utilized an aggressive strength development protocol (85-95 % 1-RM), which was identically followed by both groups. After the intervention, both groups showed (via t-test) a marked increase (p < 0.001) in 1-RM squat strength (SQT = 34.5 kg vs SQTV = 36.2 kg), but there was no significant difference (via mixed ANOVA) between groups (p = 0.875). Standing broad jump performance increased by an average of 5-6 cm, but was not significantly changed in either group (SQT; p = 0.199, SQTV; p = 0.087). In conclusion, squats performed with whole body vibration (WBV) were not superior to conventional squats with respect to maximal strength and jump performance outcomes. It appears that there was no additive effect of superimposed WBV training in strength beyond that caused by strength training alone. This study can help strength conditioning professionals and athletes make an informed decision on whether to invest in a VP and use WBV as an alternative or a complementary mode of training.

  6. Citius, Altius, Fortius: beneficial effects of resistance training for young athletes: Narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lloyd, Rhodri S; MacDonald, James; Myer, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    The motto of the Olympic Games is Citius, Altius, Fortius which is Latin for 'Faster, Higher, Stronger'. It is a clarion call to all competitors, including the youngest, to engage in training strategies that prepare athletes to be the best in the world. Existing research indicates that various forms of resistance training can elicit performance improvements in young athletes. Stronger young athletes will be better prepared to learn complex movements, master sport tactics, and sustain the demands of training and competition. An integrative training programme grounded in resistance training and motor skill development can optimise a young athlete's potential to maximise their athletic and sporting performance, while reducing the risk of a sports-related injury. Resistance training may be especially important for modern-day young athletes who are more likely to specialise in one sport at an early age at the expense of enhancing general physical fitness and learning diversified sport skills. Structured interventions that include qualified instruction; targeted movement practice; and strength and conditioning activities that are developmentally appropriate, progressive and technique driven are needed to attain a level of athleticism that is consistent with the Olympic motto. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Effect of endurance versus resistance training on quadriceps muscle dysfunction in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Munch, Gregers Druedal Wibe; Rugbjerg, Mette

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exercise is an important countermeasure to limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. The two major training modalities in COPD rehabilitation, endurance training (ET) and resistance training (RT), may both be efficient in improving muscle strength, exercise capacity, and health-related quality...... and after the training intervention to assess muscle morphology and metabolic and angiogenic factors. Symptom burden, exercise capacity (6-minute walking and cycle ergometer tests), and vascular function were also assessed. RESULTS: Both training modalities improved symptom burden and exercise capacity...... with no difference between the two groups. The mean (SD) proportion of glycolytic type IIa muscle fibers was reduced after ET (from 48% [SD 11] to 42% [SD 10], Ptraining modality on muscle...

  8. Presentation of the G-24 technical working group on training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Technical Working Group on Training (TWG-T) was created during the Plenary Session of September 1992 in order to inform the Members on ongoing activities in the Nuclear Training field, define redundancies and gaps of the ''Assistance Programs'', and propose efficient ways to progress. Training was recognized as one major activity through which operational safety can be very effectively and quite quickly improved and therefore the Plenary Session unanimously decided to launch a TWG on the subject. The present report is issued one year after the creation of the TWG. It summarizes the major steps of the activities and presents the relevant results. It also contains copies of documents on training infrastructures and requirements, provided by the recipient countries during the course of the work

  9. Online video-based resistance training improves the physical capacity of junior basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusemann, Markus J; Pyne, David B; Fay, Tristan S; Drinkwater, Eric J

    2012-10-01

    Junior basketball athletes require a well-designed resistance training program to improve their physical development. Lack of expert supervision and resistance training in junior development pathways may be overcome by implementing an online video-based program. The aim of this study was to compare the magnitude of improvement (change) in physical performance and strength and functional movement patterns of junior basketball athletes using either a fully supervised or an online video-based resistance training program. Thirty-eight junior basketball athletes (males, n = 17; age, 14 ± 1 year; height, 1.79 ± 0.10 m; mass, 67 ± 12 kg; females, n = 21; age, 15 ± 1 year; height, 1.70 ± 0.07 m; mass, 62 ± 8 kg) were randomly assigned into a supervised resistance training group (SG, n = 13), video training group (VG, n = 13) or control group (CG, n = 12) and participated in a 6-week controlled experimental trial. Pre- and posttesting included measures of physical performance (20-m sprint, step-in vertical jump, agility, sit and reach, line drill, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1), strength (15 s push-up and pull-up), and functional movement screening (FMS). Both SG and VG achieved 3-5% ± 2-4% (mean ± 90% confidence limits) greater improvements in several physical performance measures (vertical jump height, 20-m sprint time, and Yo-Yo endurance performance) and a 28 ± 21% greater improvement in push-up strength compared with the CG. The SG attained substantially larger gains in FMS scores over both the VG (12 ± 10%) and CG (13 ± 8%). Video-based training appears to be a viable option to improve physical performance and strength in junior basketball athletes. Qualified supervision is recommended to improve functional movement patterns in junior athletes.

  10. Concentric resistance training increases muscle strength without affecting microcirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Marc-Andre; Hildebrandt, Wulf; Schroeder, Leif; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krix, Martin; Bachert, Peter; Delorme, Stefan; Essig, Marco; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: While the evidence is conclusive regarding the positive effects of endurance training, there is still some controversy regarding the effects of resistance training on muscular capillarity. Thus, the purpose was to assess whether resistance strength training influences resting skeletal muscle microcirculation in vivo. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine middle-aged subjects (15 female, 24 male; mean age, 54 ± 9 years) were trained twice a week on an isokinetic system (altogether 16 sessions lasting 50 min, intensity 75% of maximum isokinetic and isometric force of knee flexors and extensors). To evaluate success of training, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris muscle and its isokinetic and isometric force were quantified. Muscular capillarization was measured in biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. In vivo, muscular energy and lipid metabolites were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and parameters of muscular microcirculation, such as local blood volume, blood flow and velocity, by contrast-enhanced ultrasound analyzing replenishment kinetics. Results: The significant (P 2 after training) and in absolute muscle strength (isometric, 146 ± 44 vs. 174 ± 50 Nm; isokinetic, 151 ± 53 vs. 174 ± 62 Nm) demonstrated successful training. Neither capillary density ex vivo (351 ± 75 vs. 326 ± 62) nor ultrasonographic parameters of resting muscle perfusion were significantly different (blood flow, 1.2 ± 1.2 vs. 1.1 ± 1.1 ml/min/100 g; blood flow velocity, 0.49 ± 0.44 vs. 0.52 ± 0.74 mm s -1 ). Also, the intensities of high-energy phosphates phosphocreatine and β-adenosintriphosphate were not different after training within the skeletal muscle at rest (β-ATP/phosphocreatine, 0.29 ± 0.06 vs. 0.28 ± 0.04). Conclusion: The significant increase in muscle size and strength in response to concentric isokinetic and isometric resistance training occurs without an increase in the in vivo microcirculation of the skeletal muscles at

  11. Concentric resistance training increases muscle strength without affecting microcirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Marc-Andre [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: MarcAndre.Weber@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Hildebrandt, Wulf [Immunochemistry, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Schroeder, Leif [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Kinscherf, Ralf [Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Krix, Martin [Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Bachert, Peter [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan; Essig, Marco [Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Krakowski-Roosen, Holger [National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: While the evidence is conclusive regarding the positive effects of endurance training, there is still some controversy regarding the effects of resistance training on muscular capillarity. Thus, the purpose was to assess whether resistance strength training influences resting skeletal muscle microcirculation in vivo. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine middle-aged subjects (15 female, 24 male; mean age, 54 {+-} 9 years) were trained twice a week on an isokinetic system (altogether 16 sessions lasting 50 min, intensity 75% of maximum isokinetic and isometric force of knee flexors and extensors). To evaluate success of training, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris muscle and its isokinetic and isometric force were quantified. Muscular capillarization was measured in biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. In vivo, muscular energy and lipid metabolites were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and parameters of muscular microcirculation, such as local blood volume, blood flow and velocity, by contrast-enhanced ultrasound analyzing replenishment kinetics. Results: The significant (P < 0.001) increase in CSA (60 {+-} 16 before vs. 64 {+-} 15 cm{sup 2} after training) and in absolute muscle strength (isometric, 146 {+-} 44 vs. 174 {+-} 50 Nm; isokinetic, 151 {+-} 53 vs. 174 {+-} 62 Nm) demonstrated successful training. Neither capillary density ex vivo (351 {+-} 75 vs. 326 {+-} 62) nor ultrasonographic parameters of resting muscle perfusion were significantly different (blood flow, 1.2 {+-} 1.2 vs. 1.1 {+-} 1.1 ml/min/100 g; blood flow velocity, 0.49 {+-} 0.44 vs. 0.52 {+-} 0.74 mm s{sup -1}). Also, the intensities of high-energy phosphates phosphocreatine and {beta}-adenosintriphosphate were not different after training within the skeletal muscle at rest ({beta}-ATP/phosphocreatine, 0.29 {+-} 0.06 vs. 0.28 {+-} 0.04). Conclusion: The significant increase in muscle size and strength in response to concentric isokinetic and isometric

  12. Effect of whole body resistance training on arterial compliance in young men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakobowchuk, M.; McGowan, C.L.; Groot, P.C.E. de; Bruinsma, D.; Hartman, J.W.; Phillips, S.M.; MacDonald, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of resistance training on arterial stiffening is controversial. We tested the hypothesis that resistance training would not alter central arterial compliance. Young healthy men (age, 23 +/- 3.9 (mean +/- s.e.m.) years; n = 28,) were whole-body resistance trained five times a week for 12

  13. African Network Operators Group (AfNOG) Training Workshops and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Network Operators Group (AfNOG) is a forum for technical cooperation and coordination between African network operators and engineers from the region's universities, research institutions and industry. This year, AfNOG's training workshops and meetings will be held in Rabat, Morocco, between 24 May and 6 ...

  14. Muscle hypertrophy and fast fiber type conversions in heavy resistance-trained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staron, R S; Malicky, E S; Leonardi, M J; Falkel, J E; Hagerman, F C; Dudley, G A

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four women completed a 20-week heavy-resistance weight training program for the lower extremity. Workouts were twice a week and consisted of warm-up exercises followed by three sets each of full squats, vertical leg presses, leg extensions, and leg curls. All exercises were performed to failure using 6-8 RM (repetition maximum). Weight training caused a significant increase in maximal isotonic strength (1 RM) for each exercise. After training, there was a decrease in body fat percentage (p less than 0.05), and an increase in lean body mass (p less than 0.05) with no overall change in thigh girth. Biopsies were obtained before and after training from the superficial portion of the vastus lateralis muscle. Sections were prepared for histological and histochemical examination. Six fiber types (I, IC, IIC, IIA, IIAB, and IIB) were distinguished following routine myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase histochemistry. Areas were determined for fiber types I, IIA, and IIAB + IIB. The heavy-resistance training resulted in significant hypertrophy of all three groups: I (15%), IIA (45%), and IIAB + IIB (57%). These data are similar to those in men and suggest considerable hypertrophy of all major fiber types is also possible in women if exercise intensity and duration are sufficient. In addition, the training resulted in a significant decrease in the percentage of IIB with a concomitant increase in IIA fibers, suggesting that strength training may lead to fiber conversions.

  15. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen

    2018-01-01

    after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO2 -max) and maximal...

  16. Comparison of small-group training with self-directed internet-based training in inhaler techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumas, Mariam; Basheti, Iman A; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z

    2009-08-28

    To compare the effectiveness of small-group training in correct inhaler technique with self-directed Internet-based training. Pharmacy students were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups: small-group training (n = 123) or self-directed Internet-based training (n = 113). Prior to intervention delivery, all participants were given a placebo Turbuhaler and product information leaflet and received inhaler technique training based on their group. Technique was assessed following training and predictors of correct inhaler technique were examined. There was a significant improvement in the number of participants demonstrating correct technique in both groups (small group training, 12% to 63%; p training, 9% to 59%; p groups in the percent change (n = 234, p > 0.05). Increased student confidence following the intervention was a predictor for correct inhaler technique. Self-directed Internet-based training is as effective as small-group training in improving students' inhaler technique.

  17. Heavy Resistance Training and Supplementation With the Alleged Testosterone Booster Nmda has No Effect on Body Composition, Muscle Performance, and Serum Hormones Associated With the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Resistance-Trained Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryn S. Willoughby

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 28 days of heavy resistance training while ingesting the alleged testosterone-boosting supplement, NMDA, were determined on body composition, muscle strength, serum cortisol, prolactin, and hormones associated with the hypothalamo-pituitary- gonadal (HPG axis. Twenty resistance-trained males engaged in 28 days of resistance training 4 times/wk while orally ingesting daily either 1.78 g of placebo (PLAC or NMDA. Data were analyzed with separate 2 x 2 ANOVA (p 0.05 or supplementation (p > 0.05. In regard to total body mass and fat-free mass, however, each was significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (p 0.05. In both groups, lower-body muscle strength was significantly increased in response to resistance training (p 0.05. All serum hormones (total and free testosterone, LH, GnRH, estradiol, cortisol, prolactin were unaffected by resistance training (p > 0.05 or supplementation (p > 0.05. The gonadal hormones and cortisol and prolactin were unaffected by 28 days of NMDA supplementation and not associated with the observed increases in muscle strength and mass. At the dose provided, NMDA had no effect on HPG axis activity or ergogenic effects in skeletal muscle.

  18. D-aspartic acid supplementation combined with 28 days of heavy resistance training has no effect on body composition, muscle strength, and serum hormones associated with the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Darryn S; Leutholtz, Brian

    2013-10-01

    It was hypothesized that D-aspartic acid (D-ASP) supplementation would not increase endogenous testosterone levels or improve muscular performance associated with resistance training. Therefore, body composition, muscle strength, and serum hormone levels associated with the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis were studied after 28 days of resistance training and D-ASP supplementation. Resistance-trained men resistance trained 4 times/wk for 28 days while orally ingesting either 3 g of placebo or 3 g of D-ASP. Data were analyzed with 2 × 2 analysis of variance (P aspartate oxidase (DDO) were determined. Body composition and muscle strength were significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (P .05). Total and free testosterone, luteinizing hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and estradiol were unchanged with resistance training and D-ASP supplementation (P > .05). For serum D-ASP and DDO, D-ASP resulted in a slight increase compared with baseline levels (P > .05). For the D-ASP group, the levels of serum DDO were significantly increased compared with placebo (P < .05). The gonadal hormones were unaffected by 28 days of D-ASP supplementation and not associated with the observed increases in muscle strength and mass. Therefore, at the dose provided, D-ASP supplementation is ineffective in up-regulating the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis and has no anabolic or ergogenic effects in skeletal muscle. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen; Sindrup, Søren H; Christiansen, Ingelise; Vissing, John; Andersen, Henning

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Eighteen CIDP patients treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin performed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 12 weeks of resistance exercise after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO 2 -max) and maximal combined isokinetic muscle strength (cIKS) of knee and elbow flexion/extension. VO 2 -max and muscle strength were unchanged during run-in (-4.9% ± 10.3%, P = 0.80 and -3.7% ± 10.1%, P = 0.17, respectively). Aerobic exercise increased VO 2 -max by 11.0% ± 14.7% (P = 0.02). Resistance exercise resulted in an increase of 13.8% ± 16.0% (P = 0.0004) in cIKS. Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training improve fitness and strength in CIDP patients. Muscle Nerve 57: 70-76, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effects of Ibuprofen and Resistance Training on Bone and Muscle: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Whitney R D; Chilibeck, Philip D; Candow, Darren G; Gordon, Julianne J; Mason, Riley S; Taylor-Gjevre, Regina; Nair, Bindu; Szafron, Michael; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Zello, Gordon A; Kontulainen, Saija A

    2017-04-01

    Resistance training with ibuprofen supplementation may improve musculoskeletal health in postmenopausal women. The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of resistance training and ibuprofen supplementation on bone and muscle properties in postmenopausal women. Participants (n = 90, 65.3 ± 4.9 yr) were randomly assigned to: supervised resistance training or stretching (placebo-exercise) with postexercise ibuprofen (400 mg) or placebo supplementation for 3 d·wk (9 months). Baseline and postintervention measurements included distal and shaft scans of the forearm and lower leg using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Distal site outcomes included cross-sectional area, content, and density for total and trabecular bone, as well as estimated bone strength in compression. Shaft site outcomes included total bone area; cortical bone area, content, and density; estimated bone strength in torsion; and muscle area and density. Exercise-supplement-time interactions for total bone content at the distal radius (P = 0.009) and cortical density at the radius shaft (P = 0.038) were significant. Resistance training with ibuprofen decreased total bone content (-1.5%) at the distal radius in comparison to the resistance training (0.6%; P = 0.032) and ibuprofen alone (0.5%; P = 0.050). Change in cortical density at the radius shaft differed between the stretching with placebo and ibuprofen supplementation groups (-1.8% vs 1.1%; P = 0.050). Resistance training preserved muscle density in the lower leg more so than stretching (-3.1% vs -5.4%; P = 0.015). Ibuprofen consumed immediately after resistance training had a deleterious effect on bone mineral content at the distal radius, whereas resistance training or ibuprofen supplementation individually prevented bone loss. Resistance training prevented muscle density decline in the lower leg.

  1. A Grounded Theory of Western-Trained Asian Group Leaders Leading Groups in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taephant, Nattasuda; Rubel, Deborah; Champe, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This grounded theory research explored the experiences of Western-trained Asian group leaders leading groups in Asia. A total of 6 participants from Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand were interviewed 3 times over 9 months. The recursive process of data collection and analysis yielded substantive theory describing the participants' process of reconciling…

  2. Does progressive resistance strength training as additional training have any measured effect on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Andersen, Christina W.; Pedersen, Sigrid F

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of progressive resistance strength training as additional training measured on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients. DESIGN: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Department of Geriatric Rehabilitation in university hospital...

  3. Effects of Plyometric and Cluster Resistance Training on Explosive Power and Maximum Strength in Karate Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Aminaei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of plyometric and cluster resistance training on explosive power and maximum strength in karate players. Eighteen women, karate players (age mean ± SD 18.22 ± 3.02 years, mean height 163 ± 0.63cm, and mean body mass 53.25 ± 7.34 kg were selected as volunteer samples. They were divided into two groups with respect to their recorded one repetition maximum squat exercise: [1] plyometric training (PT=9 and [2] Cluster training (CT=9 groups and performed a 9-week resistance training protocol that included three stages; [1] General fitness (2 weeks, [2] Strength (4 weeks and [3] Power (3 weeks. Each group performed strength and power trainings for 7 weeks in stage two and three with owned protocol. The subjects were evaluated three times before stage one and after two and three stages for maximum strength and power. Data was analyzed using two way Repeated Measures (ANOVA at a significance level of (P≤0.05. The statistical analysis showed that training stages on all research variables had a significant impact. The maximum strength of the pre-test, post-test strength and post-test power were in cluster group: 29.05 ± 1.54; 32.89 ± 2.80 and 48.74 ± 4.33w and in plyometric group were 26.98 ± 1.54; 38.48 ± 2.80 and 49.82 ± 4.33w respectively. The explosive power of the pre-test, post-test strength and post-test power in cluster group were 359.32±36.20; 427.91±34.56 and 460.55±36.80w and in plyometric group were 333.90±36.20; 400.33±34.56 and 465.20±36.80w respectively. However, there were not statistically significant differences in research variables between resistance cluster and plyometric training groups after 7 weeks. The results indicated both cluster and plyometric training program seems to improve physical fitness elements at the same levels.

  4. Effects of Dual-Task Management and Resistance Training on Gait Performance in Older Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Wollesen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dual-task (DT training is a well-accepted modality for fall prevention in older adults. DT training should include task-managing strategies such as task switching or task prioritization to improve gait performance under DT conditions.Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate a balance and task managing training (BDT group in gait performance compared to a single task (ST strength and resistance training and a control group, which received no training. A total of 78 older individuals (72.0 ± 4.9 years participated in this study. The DT group performed task managing training incorporating balance and coordination tasks while the ST group performed resistance training only. Training consisted of 12 weekly sessions, 60 min each, for 12 weeks. We assessed the effects of ST and BDT training on walking performance under ST and DT conditions in independent living elderly adults. ST and DT walking (visual verbal Stroop task were measured utilizing a treadmill at self-selected walking speed (mean for all groups: 4.4 ± 1 km h-1. Specific gait variables, cognitive performance, and fear of falling were compared between all groups.>Results: Training improved gait performance for step length (p < 0.001 and gait-line (ST: p < 0.01; DT p < 0.05 in both training groups. The BDT training group showed greater improvements in step length (p < 0.001 and gait-line (p < 0.01 during DT walking but did not have changes in cognitive performance. Both interventions reduced fear of falling (p < 0.05.Conclusion: Implementation of task management strategies into balance and strength training in our population revealed a promising modality to prevent falls in older individuals.Trial registration: German register of clinical trials DRKS00012382.

  5. Comparison of Resistance and Chair Yoga Training on Subjective Sleep Quality in MCI Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Karydaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-rated sleep disorders are common in older adults, resulting in various health problems. Two types of exercise are suggested as an affordable and accessible non-pharmacological treatment and are being compared and discussed. Objectives: This randomized, controlled, 12-week trial investigates the effects of different types of exercise (resistance vs chair yoga training on subjective sleep quality, in women with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. Methods: In order to measure cognitive function, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE was used. Forty nine participants enrolled in the study were randomized to a resistance training program (n=16, or a chair yoga program (n=15, or a control group (n=18. All participants engaged in cognitive activities. Results: At baseline, PSQI scores for CYG, RTG and CG (8.2±5.1, 6.1±4.3, 7.4±4.1, respectively and MMSE (28.3±1.4, 27.8±1.2, 28.0±2.3, respectively did not differ statistically between the three groups (F2,46= 1.993, p= 0.143. After the intervention, a significant improvement in PSQI total score was noted in resistance training group (t=2.335, df15, p=0.03. Conclusions: There were no significant differences between groups before and after test for the PSQI subscale scores (sleep onset latency (h, time spent in bed before sleep (min, morning waking up (h and sleep duration (h. No significant difference was found in PSQI subscales scores within each group. This study proposes that resistance training is an effective treatment approach to improve sleep quality in women with mild cognitive impairment.

  6. EFFECTS OF A SHORT-TERM PLYOMETRIC AND RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAM ON FITNESS PERFORMANCE IN BOYS AGE 12 TO 15 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery D. Faigenbaum

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a six week training period of combined plyometric and resistance training (PRT, n = 13 or resistance training alone (RT, n = 14 on fitness performance in boys (12-15 yr. The RT group performed static stretching exercises followed by resistance training whereas the PRT group performed plyometric exercises followed by the same resistance training program. The training duration per session for both groups was 90 min. At baseline and after training all participants were tested on the vertical jump, long jump, medicine ball toss, 9.1 m sprint, pro agility shuttle run and flexibility. The PRT group made significantly (p < 0.05 greater improvements than RT in long jump (10.8 cm vs. 2.2 cm, medicine ball toss (39.1 cm vs. 17.7 cm and pro agility shuttle run time (-0.23 sec vs. -0.02 sec following training. These findings suggest that the addition of plyometric training to a resistance training program may be more beneficial than resistance training and static stretching for enhancing selected measures of upper and lower body power in boys

  7. Design and preliminary evaluation of an exoskeleton for upper limb resistance training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzong-Ming; Chen, Dar-Zen

    2012-06-01

    Resistance training is a popular form of exercise recommended by national health organizations, such as the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA). This form of training is available for most populations. A compact design of upper limb exoskeleton mechanism for homebased resistance training using a spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton with a three degree-of-freedom shoulder joint and a one degree-of-freedom elbow joint allows a patient or a healthy individual to move the upper limb with multiple joints in different planes. It can continuously increase the resistance by adjusting the spring length to train additional muscle groups and reduce the number of potential injuries to upper limb joints caused by the mass moment of inertia of the training equipment. The aim of this research is to perform a preliminary evaluation of the designed function by adopting an appropriate motion analysis system and experimental design to verify our prototype of the exoskeleton and determine the optimal configuration of the spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton.

  8. Comparison ginger and resistance training on primary dysmenorrhea in female students of Shiraz university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Saadat nejad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although some remedies have been suggested for treatment of primary dysmenorrhea, some free of side effects treatment methods such as herbal drugs and exercise are especially important .The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of ginger and resistance training on physical and psychological symptoms of dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: 60 nonathletic female collegiate students of Shiraz university participated in this study voluntarily and were divided randomly to 4 groups including 15 persons ( exercise +placebo, exercise + ginger, ginger, and placebo. Ginger groups were prescribed 250 mg of ginger, four times a day for 3 days from beginning of menstruation and placebo groups were recommended the same prescription with 250 mg of placebo drug. Exercise with ginger or placebo groups participated in 2 months of progressive resistance training (3 times a week besides consuming Ginger or placebo drugs. Menstrual symptoms were recorded with using validated questionnaire, before intervention and during two consecutive periods of menstruation. The analysis was performed with using Covariate analysis of variance with repeated measures by SPSS version 16 . Results: A significant reduction was found in physical symptoms of dysmenorrhea in groups of Ginger but no significant statistically changes were found within other groups. Comparison of four groups indicated more significant reduction of physical symptoms in ginger groups compared with other groups. There were no significant difference in psychologic symptoms within and between groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: Ginger is recommended for treatment of physical symptoms of dysmenorrhea.

  9. Olympic weightlifting and plyometric training with children provides similar or greater performance improvements than traditional resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Anis; Hammami, Raouf; Kaabi, Sofiene; Chamari, Karim; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G

    2014-06-01

    A number of organizations recommend that advanced resistance training (RT) techniques can be implemented with children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Olympic-style weightlifting (OWL), plyometrics, and traditional RT programs with children. Sixty-three children (10-12 years) were randomly allocated to a 12-week control OWL, plyometric, or traditional RT program. Pre- and post-training tests included body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds, countermovement jump (CMJ), horizontal jump, balance, 5- and 20-m sprint times, isokinetic force and power at 60 and 300° · s(-1). Magnitude-based inferences were used to analyze the likelihood of an effect having a standardized (Cohen's) effect size exceeding 0.20. All interventions were generally superior to the control group. Olympic weightlifting was >80% likely to provide substantially better improvements than plyometric training for CMJ, horizontal jump, and 5- and 20-m sprint times, whereas >75% likely to substantially exceed traditional RT for balance and isokinetic power at 300° · s(-1). Plyometric training was >78% likely to elicit substantially better training adaptations than traditional RT for balance, isokinetic force at 60 and 300° · s(-1), isokinetic power at 300° · s(-1), and 5- and 20-m sprints. Traditional RT only exceeded plyometric training for BMI and isokinetic power at 60° · s(-1). Hence, OWL and plyometrics can provide similar or greater performance adaptations for children. It is recommended that any of the 3 training modalities can be implemented under professional supervision with proper training progressions to enhance training adaptations in children.

  10. Effects of Instability Versus Traditional Resistance Training on Strength, Power and Velocity in Untrained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Maté-Muñoz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10 or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX® (IRT, n = 12. Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM, average (AV and peak velocity (PV, average (AP and peak power (PP, all during bench press (BP and back squat (BS exercises, along with squat jump (SJ height and counter movement jump (CMJ height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p <0.05 in response to both training programs. Major improvements were observed in SJ height (IRT = 22.1%, TRT = 20.1%, CMJ height (IRT = 17.7%, TRT = 15.2%, 1RM in BS (IRT = 13.03%, TRT = 12.6%, 1RM in BP (IRT = 4.7%, TRT = 4.4%, AP in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.3%, AP in BP (IRT = 2.4%, TRT = 8.1%, PP in BS (IRT=19.42%, TRT = 22.3%, PP in BP (IRT = 7.6%, TRT = 11.5%, AV in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.4%, and PV in BS (IRT = 8.6%, TRT = 4.5%. Despite such improvements no significant differences were detected in the posttraining variables recorded for the two experimental groups. These data indicate that a circuit training program using two instability training devices is as effective in untrained men as a program executed under stable conditions for improving strength (1RM, power, movement velocity and jumping ability.

  11. Effects of Instability Versus Traditional Resistance Training on Strength, Power and Velocity in Untrained Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Monroy, Antonio J. Antón; Jodra Jiménez, Pablo; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel V.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10) or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX®) (IRT, n = 12). Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM), average (AV) and peak velocity (PV), average (AP) and peak power (PP), all during bench press (BP) and back squat (BS) exercises, along with squat jump (SJ) height and counter movement jump (CMJ) height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p <0.05) in response to both training programs. Major improvements were observed in SJ height (IRT = 22.1%, TRT = 20.1%), CMJ height (IRT = 17.7%, TRT = 15.2%), 1RM in BS (IRT = 13.03%, TRT = 12.6%), 1RM in BP (IRT = 4.7%, TRT = 4.4%), AP in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.3%), AP in BP (IRT = 2.4%, TRT = 8.1%), PP in BS (IRT=19.42%, TRT = 22.3%), PP in BP (IRT = 7.6%, TRT = 11.5%), AV in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.4%), and PV in BS (IRT = 8.6%, TRT = 4.5%). Despite such improvements no significant differences were detected in the posttraining variables recorded for the two experimental groups. These data indicate that a circuit training program using two instability training devices is as effective in untrained men as a program executed under stable conditions for improving strength (1RM), power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Key Points Similar adaptations in terms of gains in strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability were produced in response to both training programs. Both the stability and instability approaches

  12. The effect of progressive resistance training on lean body mass in post-treatment cancer patients – A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lønbro, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Loss of lean body mass is a common problem in many post-treatment cancer patients and may negatively affect physical capacity in terms of maximal muscle strength and functional performance. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific evidence on the effect of progressive resistance training on lean body mass in post-treatment cancer patients. A comprehensive literature search was conducted and ultimately 12 studies were included. Methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the PEDro scale and the effect of progressive resistance training was reported as the range of mean changes among RCTs and non-RCTs. Six RCTs and six non-RCTs were included in the study. In the RCTs the change in lean body mass in the progressive resistance training groups relative to control groups ranged from −0.4% to 3.9%, and in four of six trials the training effect was significantly larger than the change in the control groups. In the six non-RCTs, the mean change in lean body mass over time ranged from −0.01 to 11.8% which was significant in two of the trials. The included studies reported no or very limited adverse events following progressive resistance training. Based on 12 heterogenic studies there is moderate evidence supporting a positive effect of progressive resistance training on lean body mass in post-treatment cancer patients

  13. The effect of progressive resistance training on lean body mass in post-treatment cancer patients - A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønbro, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Loss of lean body mass is a common problem in many post-treatment cancer patients and may negatively affect physical capacity in terms of maximal muscle strength and functional performance. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific evidence on the effect of progressive...... resistance training on lean body mass in post-treatment cancer patients. A comprehensive literature search was conducted and ultimately 12 studies were included. Methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the PEDro scale and the effect of progressive resistance training was reported...... as the range of mean changes among RCTs and non-RCTs. Six RCTs and six non-RCTs were included in the study. In the RCTs the change in lean body mass in the progressive resistance training groups relative to control groups ranged from -0.4% to 3.9%, and in four of six trials the training effect...

  14. Group therapy task training versus individual task training during inpatient stroke rehabilitation: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Caroline Ie; Outermans, Jacqueline; Ludwig, Ricarda; Brendel, Christiane; Kwakkel, Gert; Hummelsheim, Horst

    2016-07-01

    To compare the efficacy of intensive daily applied progressive group therapy task training with equally dosed individual progressive task training on self-reported mobility for patients with moderate to severe stroke during inpatient rehabilitation. Randomized controlled clinical trial. In-patient rehabilitation center. A total of 73 subacute patients with stroke who were not able to walk without physical assistance at randomisation. Patients were allocated to group therapy task training (GT) or individual task training (IT). Both interventions were intended to improve walking competency and comprised 30 sessions of 90 minutes over six weeks. Primary outcome was the mobility domain of the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS-3.0). Secondary outcomes were the other domains of SIS-3.0, standing balance, gait speed, walking distance, stair climbing, fatigue, anxiety and depression. No adverse events were reported in either arm of the trial. There were no significant differences between groups for the SIS mobility domain at the end of the intervention (Z= -0.26, P = 0.79). No significant differences between groups were found in gait speed improvements (GT:0.38 ±0.23; IT:0.26±0.35), any other gait related parameters, or in non-physical outcomes such as depression and fatigue. Inpatient group therapy task training for patients with moderate to severe stroke is safe and equally effective as a dose-matched individual task training therapy. Group therapy task training may be delivered as an alternative to individual therapy or as valuable adjunct to increase time spent in gait-related activities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Shoulder injuries attributed to resistance training: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolber, Morey J; Beekhuizen, Kristina S; Cheng, Ming-Shun S; Hellman, Madeleine A

    2010-06-01

    The popularity of resistance training (RT) is evident by the more than 45 million Americans who engage in strength training regularly. Although the health and fitness benefits ascribed to RT are generally agreed upon, participation is not without risk. Acute and chronic injuries attributed to RT have been cited in the epidemiological literature among both competitive and recreational participants. The shoulder complex in particular has been alluded to as one of the most prevalent regions of injury. The purpose of this manuscript is to present an overview of documented shoulder injuries among the RT population and where possible discern mechanisms of injury and risk factors. A literature search was conducted in the PUBMED, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and OVID databases to identify relevant articles for inclusion using combinations of key words: resistance training, shoulder, bodybuilding, weightlifting, shoulder injury, and shoulder disorder. The results of the review indicated that up to 36% of documented RT-related injuries and disorders occur at the shoulder complex. Trends that increased the likelihood of injury were identified and inclusive of intrinsic risk factors such as joint and muscle imbalances and extrinsic risk factors, namely, that of improper attention to exercise technique. A majority of the available research was retrospective in nature, consisting of surveys and descriptive epidemiological reports. A paucity of research was available to identify predictive variables leading to injury, suggesting the need for future prospective-based investigations.

  16. EXPERIENTIAL GROUPS IN THE TRAINING OF GROUP COUNSELORS AND THERAPISTS: A VIEW FROM TRAINEES PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė Jakubkaitė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many theorists and practitioners believe that integration of theoretical knowledge, observation of proficient group counselor work, supervision of personal work with groups and personal experience as a group member help future group therapists to acquire skills necessary for group counseling. Personal experience can be acquired through participation in experiential groups. As it is little known of the personal experience of experiential group members, it is not sufficiently clear whether insights and opinions of these members are consistent with those emphasized in the literature about experiential groups in the training context. The aim of this research is to provide a structured description of experiences of experiential group participants in the training context: how trainees perceive experiential groups in the training context. To achieve this aim, a qualitative study strategy was employed which is particularly appropriate in cases when a research object has been little explored and results of available studies are controversial. The research was organized and carried out on the basis of the principles and requirements of thematic analysis. Students from one and the same Group Therapy training program of the Institute of Humanistic and Existential Psychology (Birštonas, Lithuania were chosen for this research. In addition to theoretical lectures, program participants went through three experiential groups that were led by experienced group counselors. The work of the group was observed by two program supervisors. Participants of the research were 8 persons aged from 29 to 48. Semi-structured interviews were used to gather research data. The participants were asked to share their experiences, mostly focusing on experiential groups. The analysis of the gathered data crystallized around 5 themes: preliminary expectations; goals of the experiential group; weakness and unsafety of the experiential group; experiential group process continuity

  17. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Beller, Noah A; Gonzalez, Adam M; Spatz, Gregory E; Hoffman, Jay R; Ross, Ryan E; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects' peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s(-1) [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey's post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women. Key pointsMultiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic maximal muscular strength, local muscular endurance, and maximal isokinetic strength in women.Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased 1RM strength in the bench press (by

  18. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A.; Beller, Noah A.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Spatz, Gregory E.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Ross, Ryan E.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects’ peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s-1 [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women. Key points Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic maximal muscular strength, local muscular endurance, and maximal isokinetic strength in women. Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased 1RM strength in the bench press

  19. The effects of whey protein with or without carbohydrates on resistance training adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulmi, Juha J; Laakso, Mia; Mero, Antti A; Häkkinen, Keijo; Ahtiainen, Juha P; Peltonen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition intake in the context of a resistance training (RT) bout may affect body composition and muscle strength. However, the individual and combined effects of whey protein and carbohydrates on long-term resistance training adaptations are poorly understood. A four-week preparatory RT period was conducted in previously untrained males to standardize the training background of the subjects. Thereafter, the subjects were randomized into three groups: 30 g of whey proteins (n = 22), isocaloric carbohydrates (maltodextrin, n = 21), or protein + carbohydrates (n = 25). Within these groups, the subjects were further randomized into two whole-body 12-week RT regimens aiming either for muscle hypertrophy and maximal strength or muscle strength, hypertrophy and power. The post-exercise drink was always ingested immediately after the exercise bout, 2-3 times per week depending on the training period. Body composition (by DXA), quadriceps femoris muscle cross-sectional area (by panoramic ultrasound), maximal strength (by dynamic and isometric leg press) and serum lipids as basic markers of cardiovascular health, were analysed before and after the intervention. Twelve-week RT led to increased fat-free mass, muscle size and strength independent of post-exercise nutrient intake (P carbohydrate group independent of the type of RT (P carbohydrate group (P carbohydrates or combination of proteins and carbohydrates did not have a major effect on muscle size or strength when ingested two to three times a week. However, whey proteins may increase abdominal fat loss and relative fat-free mass adaptations in response to resistance training when compared to fast-acting carbohydrates.

  20. PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION WORKING GROUP: METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari R. A.; Whitlock, J.; Therios, I.U.; Peterson, P.F.

    2012-11-14

    We summarize the technical progress and accomplishments on the evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) of Generation IV nuclear energy systems. We intend the results of the evaluations performed with the methodology for three types of users: system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders. The PR and PP Working Group developed the methodology through a series of demonstration and case studies. Over the past few years various national and international groups have applied the methodology to nuclear energy system designs as well as to developing approaches to advanced safeguards.

  1. Proliferation resistance and physical protection working group: methodology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, Robert A.; Whitlock, Jeremy J.; Therios, Ike U.; Peterson, P.F.

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the technical progress and accomplishments on the evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) of Generation IV nuclear energy systems. We intend the results of the evaluations performed with the methodology for three types of users: system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders. The PR and PP Working Group developed the methodology through a series of demonstration and case studies. Over the past few years various national and international groups have applied the methodology to nuclear energy system designs as well as to developing approaches to advanced safeguards.

  2. Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edholm, Peter; Strandberg, Emelie; Kadi, Fawzi

    2017-07-01

    The effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy diet on lower limb explosive strength capacity were investigated in a population of healthy elderly women. Participants ( n = 63; 67.5 ± 0.4 yr) were randomized into three groups; resistance training (RT), resistance training and healthy diet (RT-HD), and control (CON). Progressive resistance training was performed at a load of 75-85% one-repetition maximum. A major adjustment in the healthy dietary approach was an n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio below 2. Lower limb maximal strength, explosive force capacity during dynamic and isometric movements, whole body lean mass, and physical function were assessed. Whole body lean mass significantly increased by 1.5 ± 0.5% in RT-HD only. Isometric strength performance during knee extension as well as the performance in the five sit-to-stand and single-leg-stance tests increased similarly in RT and RT-HD. Improvements in dynamic peak power and time to reach peak power (i.e shorter time) during knee extension occurred in both RT (+15.7 ± 2.6 and -11.0 ± 3.8%, respectively) and RT-HD (+24.6 ± 2.6 and -20.3 ± 2.7%, respectively); however, changes were significantly larger in RT-HD. Similarly, changes in peak force and rate of force development during squat jump were higher in RT-HD (+58.5 ± 8.4 and +185.4 ± 32.9%, respectively) compared with RT (+35.7 ± 6.9 and +105.4 ± 22.4%, respectively). In conclusion, a healthy diet rich in n-3 PUFA can optimize the effects of resistance training on dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Age-related decline in lower limb explosive strength leads to impaired ability to perform daily living tasks. The present randomized controlled trial demonstrates that a healthy diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enhances resistance training-induced gains in dynamic explosive strength

  3. Fatigue, mood and quality of life improve in MS patients after progressive resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Jakobsen, J

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue occurs in the majority of multiple sclerosis patients and therapeutic possibilities are few. Fatigue, mood and quality of life were studied in patients with multiple sclerosis following progressive resistance training leading to improvement of muscular strength and functional capacity...... disabled (Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS: 3-5.5) multiple sclerosis patients including a Control group (n = 15) and an Exercise group (n = 16). Fatigue (FSS > 4) was present in all patients. Scores of FSS, MDI, PCS-SF36 and MCS-SF36 were comparable at start of study in the two groups. Fatigue...

  4. Two distinct groups within the Bacillus subtilis group display significantly different spore heat resistance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-02-01

    The survival of bacterial spores after heat treatment and the subsequent germination and outgrowth in a food product can lead to spoilage of the food product and economical losses. Prediction of time-temperature conditions that lead to sufficient inactivation requires access to detailed spore thermal inactivation kinetics of relevant model strains. In this study, the thermal inactivation kinetics of spores of fourteen strains belonging to the Bacillus subtilis group were determined in detail, using both batch heating in capillary tubes and continuous flow heating in a micro heater. The inactivation data were fitted using a log linear model. Based on the spore heat resistance data, two distinct groups (p subtilis group could be identified. One group of strains had spores with an average D120 °C of 0.33 s, while the spores of the other group displayed significantly higher heat resistances, with an average D120 °C of 45.7 s. When comparing spore inactivation data obtained using batch- and continuous flow heating, the z-values were significantly different, hence extrapolation from one system to the other was not justified. This study clearly shows that heat resistances of spores from different strains in the B. subtilis group can vary greatly. Strains can be separated into two groups, to which different spore heat inactivation kinetics apply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of resistance training and protein supplementation on bone turnover in young adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinning Wayne E

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strength of aging bone depends on the balance between the resorption and formation phases of the remodeling process. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of two factors with the potential to exert opposing influences on bone turnover, resistance exercise training and high dietary protein intake. It was hypothesized that resistance training by young, healthy, untrained women with protein intakes near recommended levels (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1 would promote bone formation and/or inhibit bone resorption, and that subsequent supplementation to provide 2.4 g protein·kg-1·d-1 would reverse these effects. Methods Bone formation was assessed with serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP and osteocalcin (OC, and bone resorption with urinary calcium and deoxypyridinoline (DPD. Biochemical, strength, anthropometric, dietary, and physical activity data were obtained from 24 healthy, untrained, eumenorrheic women (18–29y at baseline, after eight weeks of resistance training (3 d·wk-1, ~1 hr·d-1; 3 sets, 6–10 repetitions, 13 exercises, 75–85% maximum voluntary contraction, and after 12 weeks of resistance training and 10 days of protein/placebo supplementation. Subjects were randomized (double-blind to either a high protein (HP or training control (TC group and, during the final 10 days, consumed either enough purified whey protein to bring daily protein intake to 2.4 g·kg-1·d-1, or an equivalent dose of isoenergetic, carbohydrate placebo. Results Strength, lean tissue mass, and DPD increased significantly in both groups over time, while percent body fat and BAP decreased (repeated measures ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05, Bonferroni correction. No significant changes were observed for serum OC or urinary calcium, and no significant group (TC, HP × time (baseline, week 8, week 12 interactions emerged for any of the biochemical measures. Conclusion (1 Twelve weeks of high-intensity resistance training did not appear to

  6. Blood lipid peroxides and muscle damage increased following intensive resistance training of female weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jen-Fang; Chang, Wei-Yin; Chan, Kuei-Hui; Tsai, Wen-Yee; Lin, Chen-Li; Hsu, Mei-Chieh

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in muscle cell injury and antioxidant capacity of weightlifters following a 1-week intensive resistance-training regimen. Thirty-six female subjects participated in this study, and their ages ranged from 18 to 25 years. The sample group included 19 elite weightlifters with more than 3 years of weightlifting training experience, while the control group comprised 17 non-athletic individuals. Compared with non-athletes, weightlifters had significantly lower glutathione peroxidase activity and plasma vitamin C concentrations. Weightlifters also had significantly higher malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxy 2-(E)-nonenal (MDA+4-HNE) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels and creatine kinase (CK) activity. For weightlifters, the plasma vitamin E level and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased, and CK activity increased significantly (P weightlifters (P injury in female weightlifters. Furthermore, proper rest after intensive training was found to be important for recovery.

  7. Resistance training, insulin sensitivity and muscle function in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Kjaer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a loss in both muscle mass and in the metabolic quality of skeletal muscle. This leads to sarcopenia and reduced daily function, as well as to an increased risk for development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. A major part, but not all, of these changes......, and likewise to improve muscle strength in both elderly healthy individuals and in elderly individuals with chronic disease. The increased strength is coupled to improved function and a decreased risk for fall injuries and fractures. Elderly individuals have preserved the capacity to improve muscle strength...... are associated with an age-related decrease in the physical activity level and can be counteracted by increased physical activity of a resistive nature. Strength training has been shown to improve insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in both healthy elderly individuals and patients with manifest diabetes...

  8. Effects of Low- vs. High-Load Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Well-Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Peterson, Mark D; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Sonmez, Gul T

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of low- versus high-load resistance training (RT) on muscular adaptations in well-trained subjects. Eighteen young men experienced in RT were matched according to baseline strength and then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a low-load RT routine (LL) where 25-35 repetitions were performed per set per exercise (n = 9) or a high-load RT routine (HL) where 8-12 repetitions were performed per set per exercise (n = 9). During each session, subjects in both groups performed 3 sets of 7 different exercises representing all major muscles. Training was performed 3 times per week on nonconsecutive days, for a total of 8 weeks. Both HL and LL conditions produced significant increases in thickness of the elbow flexors (5.3 vs. 8.6%, respectively), elbow extensors (6.0 vs. 5.2%, respectively), and quadriceps femoris (9.3 vs. 9.5%, respectively), with no significant differences noted between groups. Improvements in back squat strength were significantly greater for HL compared with LL (19.6 vs. 8.8%, respectively), and there was a trend for greater increases in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (6.5 vs. 2.0%, respectively). Upper body muscle endurance (assessed by the bench press at 50% 1RM to failure) improved to a greater extent in LL compared with HL (16.6 vs. -1.2%, respectively). These findings indicate that both HL and LL training to failure can elicit significant increases in muscle hypertrophy among well-trained young men; however, HL training is superior for maximizing strength adaptations.

  9. The lung cancer exercise training study: a randomized trial of aerobic training, resistance training, or both in postsurgical lung cancer patients: rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Jeffrey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lung Cancer Exercise Training Study (LUNGEVITY is a randomized trial to investigate the efficacy of different types of exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, patient-reported outcomes, and the organ components that govern VO2peak in post-operative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Methods/Design Using a single-center, randomized design, 160 subjects (40 patients/study arm with histologically confirmed stage I-IIIA NSCLC following curative-intent complete surgical resection at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC will be potentially eligible for this trial. Following baseline assessments, eligible participants will be randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1 aerobic training alone, (2 resistance training alone, (3 the combination of aerobic and resistance training, or (4 attention-control (progressive stretching. The ultimate goal for all exercise training groups will be 3 supervised exercise sessions per week an intensity above 70% of the individually determined VO2peak for aerobic training and an intensity between 60 and 80% of one-repetition maximum for resistance training, for 30-45 minutes/session. Progressive stretching will be matched to the exercise groups in terms of program length (i.e., 16 weeks, social interaction (participants will receive one-on-one instruction, and duration (30-45 mins/session. The primary study endpoint is VO2peak. Secondary endpoints include: patient-reported outcomes (PROs (e.g., quality of life, fatigue, depression, etc. and organ components of the oxygen cascade (i.e., pulmonary function, cardiac function, skeletal muscle function. All endpoints will be assessed at baseline and postintervention (16 weeks. Substudies will include genetic studies regarding individual responses to an exercise stimulus, theoretical determinants of exercise adherence, examination of the psychological mediators of the exercise - PRO relationship, and exercise-induced changes

  10. High short-term effectiveness of modulated dry bed training in adolescents and young adults with treatment-resistant enuresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, I.; Cobussen-Boekhorst, J.G.L.; Kortmann, B.B.M.; Mulder, Z.; Steffens, M.G.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Van Capelle, J.W.; Blanker, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis/aims of study Two percent of adolescents and adults suffers from enuresis. In this age group, social problems can arise. We evaluated the effect of a Modulated Dry Bed Training (MDBT) in a previously therapy-resistant group of adolescents and adults with enuresis, provided by a

  11. Resistance training controls arterial blood pressure in rats with L-NAME- induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Ayslan Jorge Santos de; Santos, Anne Carolline Veríssimo dos; Souza, Karine dos Santos; Aires, Marlúcia Bastos; Santana-Filho, Valter Joviniano; Fioretto, Emerson Ticona; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2013-04-01

    Arterial hypertension is a multifactorial chronic condition caused by either congenital or acquired factors. To evaluate the effects of Resistance Training (RT) on arterial pressure, and on vascular reactivity and morphology, of L-NAME-treated hypertensive rats. Male Wistar rats (200 - 250 g) were allocated into Sedentary Normotensive (SN), Sedentary Hypertensive (SH) and Trained Hypertensive (TH) groups. Hypertension was induced by adding L-NAME (40 mg/Kg) to the drinking water for four weeks. Arterial pressure was evaluated before and after RT. RT was performed using 50% of 1RM, 3 sets of 10 repetitions, 3 times per week for four weeks. Vascular reactivity was measured in rat mesenteric artery rings by concentration-response curves to sodium nitroprusside (SNP); phenylephrine (PHE) was also used for histological and stereological analysis. Resistance training inhibited the increase in mean and diastolic arterial pressures. Significant reduction was observed in Rmax (maximal response) and pD2 (potency) of PHE between SH and TH groups. Arteries demonstrated normal intima, media and adventitia layers in all groups. Stereological analysis demonstrated no significant difference in luminal, tunica media, and total areas of arteries in the SH and TH groups when compared to the SN group. Wall-to-lumen ratio of SH arteries was significantly different compared to SN arteries (parteries. RT was able to prevent an increase in blood pressure under the conditions in this study. This appears to involve a vasoconstrictor regulation mechanism and maintenance of luminal diameter in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats.

  12. The role of sense of coherence in group relations training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This research measured the role that sense of coherence (SOC plays on an individual and group level during group relations training, presented to fifty-eight managers, using Antonovsky’s scale and an semi-structured interview. The individual measuring high on SOC showed more understanding of group dynamics,made more use of own existing resources to cope with anxiety and found the experience challenging and meaningful, than the low measuring individual. On the group level, the split between high and lowled to projective identification: the high SOC individuals contain competence and the low, incompetence.Recommendations for future group relations training are formulated. Opsomming Hierdie navorsing meet die rol wat sin vir koherensie (SOC op individuele en groepvlak tydens groepverhoudinge opleiding speel soos aangebied vir agt-en-vyftig bestuurders, en gemeet met Antonovsky se skaal en ’n semi-gestruktureerde onderhoud. Die individuwat hoogmeet op SOC toon’n beter begrip van groepdinamika, maak meer gebruik van eie bestaande hulpbronne om met angs te cope, en vind die ervaringmeer uitdagend en betekenisvol, as die individu wat laag meet. Op groepsvlak lei die verdeling tussen hoog en laag na projektiewe identifikasie: die hoe SOC individue ‘‘behou’’ bevoegdheid en die lae, onbevoegdheid. Aanbevelings vir toekomstige groepsverhoudinge opleiding word geformuleer.

  13. Effects of a resistance training program on balance and fatigue perception in patients with Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rubio, Araceli; Cabrera-Martos, Irene; Torres-Sánchez, Irene; Casilda-López, Jesús; López-López, Laura; Valenza, Marie Carmen

    2017-11-22

    Fatigue and balance impairment leads to a loss of independence and are important to adequately manage. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a resistance training program on dynamic balance and fatigue in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Randomized controlled trial. Forty-six patients with PD were randomly allocated to an intervention group receiving a 8-week resistance training program focused on lower limbs or to a control group. Balance was assessed using the Mini-BESTest and fatigue was assessed by the Piper Fatigue Scale. Patients in the intervention group improved significantly (p<0.05) on dynamic balance (reactive postural control and total values) and perceived fatigue. An 8-week resistance training program was found to be effective at improving dynamic balance and fatigue in patients with PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Insect Protein Supplementation during Resistance Training on Changes in Muscle Mass and Strength in Young Men

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    Mathias T. Vangsoe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During prolonged resistance training, protein supplementation is known to promote morphological changes; however, no previous training studies have tested the effect of insect protein isolate in a human trial. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of insect protein as a dietary supplement to increase muscle hypertrophy and strength gains during prolonged resistance training in young men. Eighteen healthy young men performed resistance training four day/week for eight weeks. Subjects were block randomized into two groups consuming either an insect protein isolate or isocaloric carbohydrate supplementation within 1 h after training and pre-sleep on training days. Strength and body composition were measured before and after intervention to detect adaptions to the resistance training. Three-day weighed dietary records were completed before and during intervention. Fat- and bone- free mass (FBFM improved significantly in both groups (Mean (95% confidence interval (CI, control group (Con: (2.5 kg (1.5, 3.5 p < 0.01, protein group (Pro: (2.7 kg (1.6, 3.8 p < 0.01 from pre- to post-. Leg and bench press one repetition maximum (1 RM improved by Con: (42.0 kg (32.0, 52.0 p < 0.01 and (13.8 kg (10.3, 17.2 p < 0.01, Pro: (36.6 kg (27.3, 45.8 p < 0.01 and (8.1 kg (4.5, 11.8 p < 0.01, respectively. No significant differences in body composition and muscle strength improvements were found between groups. In young healthy men, insect protein supplementation did not improve adaptations to eight weeks of resistance training in comparison to carbohydrate supplementation. A high habitual protein intake in both Con and Pro may partly explain our observation of no superior effect of insect protein supplementation.

  15. The effects of d-aspartic acid supplementation in resistance-trained men over a three month training period: A randomised controlled trial.

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    Geoffrey W Melville

    Full Text Available Research on d-aspartic acid (DAA has demonstrated increases in total testosterone levels in untrained men, however research in resistance-trained men demonstrated no changes, and reductions in testosterone levels. The long-term consequences of DAA in a resistance trained population are currently unknown.To evaluate the effectiveness of DAA to alter basal testosterone levels over 3 months of resistance training in resistance-trained men.Randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial in healthy resistance-trained men, aged 18-36, had been performing regular resistance training exercise for at least 3 d.w-1 for the previous 2 years. Randomised participants were 22 men (d-aspartic acid n = 11; placebo n = 11 (age, 23.8±4.9 y, training age, 3.2±1.5 y.D-aspartic acid (6 g.d-1, DAA versus equal-weight, visually-matched placebo (PLA. All participants performed 12 weeks of supervised, periodised resistance training (4 d.w-1, with a program focusing on all muscle groups.Basal hormones, total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT, estradiol (E2, sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and albumin (ALB; isometric strength; calf muscle cross-sectional area (CSA; calf muscle thickness; quadriceps muscle CSA; quadriceps muscle thickness; evoked V-wave and H-reflexes, were assessed at weeks zero (T1, after six weeks (T2 and after 12 weeks (T3.No change in basal TT or FT were observed after the intervention. DAA supplementation (n = 10 led to a 16%, 95% CI [-27%, -5%] reduction in E2 from T1-T3 (p<0.01. The placebo group (n = 9 demonstrated improvements in spinal responsiveness (gastrocnemius at the level of the alpha motoneuron. Both groups exhibited increases in isometric strength of the plantar flexors by 17%, 95% CI [7%, 28%] (p<0.05 as well as similar increases in hypertrophy in the quadriceps and calf muscles.The results of this paper indicate that DAA supplementation is ineffective at changing testosterone levels, or positively affecting training

  16. The effects of d-aspartic acid supplementation in resistance-trained men over a three month training period: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Geoffrey W; Siegler, Jason C; Marshall, Paul W M

    2017-01-01

    Research on d-aspartic acid (DAA) has demonstrated increases in total testosterone levels in untrained men, however research in resistance-trained men demonstrated no changes, and reductions in testosterone levels. The long-term consequences of DAA in a resistance trained population are currently unknown. To evaluate the effectiveness of DAA to alter basal testosterone levels over 3 months of resistance training in resistance-trained men. Randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial in healthy resistance-trained men, aged 18-36, had been performing regular resistance training exercise for at least 3 d.w-1 for the previous 2 years. Randomised participants were 22 men (d-aspartic acid n = 11; placebo n = 11) (age, 23.8±4.9 y, training age, 3.2±1.5 y). D-aspartic acid (6 g.d-1, DAA) versus equal-weight, visually-matched placebo (PLA). All participants performed 12 weeks of supervised, periodised resistance training (4 d.w-1), with a program focusing on all muscle groups. Basal hormones, total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), estradiol (E2), sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin (ALB); isometric strength; calf muscle cross-sectional area (CSA); calf muscle thickness; quadriceps muscle CSA; quadriceps muscle thickness; evoked V-wave and H-reflexes, were assessed at weeks zero (T1), after six weeks (T2) and after 12 weeks (T3). No change in basal TT or FT were observed after the intervention. DAA supplementation (n = 10) led to a 16%, 95% CI [-27%, -5%] reduction in E2 from T1-T3 (p<0.01). The placebo group (n = 9) demonstrated improvements in spinal responsiveness (gastrocnemius) at the level of the alpha motoneuron. Both groups exhibited increases in isometric strength of the plantar flexors by 17%, 95% CI [7%, 28%] (p<0.05) as well as similar increases in hypertrophy in the quadriceps and calf muscles. The results of this paper indicate that DAA supplementation is ineffective at changing testosterone levels, or positively affecting training

  17. Effects of Creatine and Resistance Training on Bone Health in Postmenopausal Women.

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    Chilibeck, Philip D; Candow, Darren G; Landeryou, Tim; Kaviani, Mojtaba; Paus-Jenssen, Lisa

    2015-08-01

    Our primary purpose was to determine the effect of 12 months of creatine (Cr) supplementation during a supervised resistance training program on properties of bone in postmenopausal women. Participants were randomized (double-blind) into two groups: resistance training (3 d·wk) and Cr supplementation (0.1 g·kg·d) or resistance training and placebo (Pl). Our primary outcome measures were lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD). Secondary outcome measures were total hip and whole-body BMD, bone geometric properties at the hip, speed of sound at the distal radius and tibia, whole-body lean tissue mass, muscle thickness, and bench press and hack squat strength. Forty-seven women (57 (SD, 6) yr; Cr, n = 23; Pl, n = 24) were randomized, with 33 analyzed after 12 months (Cr, n = 15; Pl, n = 18). Cr attenuated the rate of femoral neck BMD loss (-1.2%; absolute change (95% confidence interval), -0.01 (-0.025 to 0.005) g·cm) compared with Pl (-3.9%; -0.03 (-0.044 to -0.017) g·cm; P < 0.05) and also increased femoral shaft subperiosteal width, a predictor of bone bending strength (Cr, 0.04 (-0.09 to 0.16) cm); Pl, -0.12 (-0.23 to -0.01) cm; P < 0.05). Cr increased relative bench press strength more than Pl (64% vs 34%; P < 0.05). There were no differences between groups for other outcome measures. There were no differences between groups for reports of serum liver enzyme abnormalities, and creatinine clearance was normal for Cr participants throughout the intervention. Twelve months of Cr supplementation during a resistance training program preserves femoral neck BMD and increases femoral shaft superiosteal width, a predictor of bone bending strength, in postmenopausal women.

  18. Dietary protein to maximize resistance training: a review and examination of protein spread and change theories.

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    Bosse, John D; Dixon, Brian M

    2012-09-08

    An appreciable volume of human clinical data supports increased dietary protein for greater gains from resistance training, but not all findings are in agreement. We recently proposed "protein spread theory" and "protein change theory" in an effort to explain discrepancies in the response to increased dietary protein in weight management interventions. The present review aimed to extend "protein spread theory" and "protein change theory" to studies examining the effects of protein on resistance training induced muscle and strength gains. Protein spread theory proposed that there must have been a sufficient spread or % difference in g/kg/day protein intake between groups during a protein intervention to see muscle and strength differences. Protein change theory postulated that for the higher protein group, there must be a sufficient change from baseline g/kg/day protein intake to during study g/kg/day protein intake to see muscle and strength benefits. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria. In studies where a higher protein intervention was deemed successful there was, on average, a 66.1% g/kg/day between group intake spread versus a 10.2% g/kg/day spread in studies where a higher protein diet was no more effective than control. The average change in habitual protein intake in studies showing higher protein to be more effective than control was +59.5% compared to +6.5% when additional protein was no more effective than control. The magnitudes of difference between the mean spreads and changes of the present review are similar to our previous review on these theories in a weight management context. Providing sufficient deviation from habitual intake appears to be an important factor in determining the success of additional protein in enhancing muscle and strength gains from resistance training. An increase in dietary protein favorably effects muscle and strength during resistance training.

  19. The efficacy of early initiated, supervised, progressive resistance training compared to unsupervised, home-based exercise after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Peter B; Bogh, Søren B; Kierkegaard, Signe; Sørensen, Henrik; Odgaard, Anders; Søballe, Kjeld; Mechlenburg, Inger

    2017-01-01

    To examine if supervised progressive resistance training was superior to home-based exercise in rehabilitation after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Single blinded, randomized clinical trial. Surgery, progressive resistance training and testing was carried out at Aarhus University Hospital and home-based exercise was carried out in the home of the patient. Fifty five patients were randomized to either progressive resistance training or home-based exercise. Patients were randomized to either progressive resistance training (home based exercise five days/week and progressive resistance training two days/week) or control group (home based exercise seven days/week). Preoperative assessment, 10-week (primary endpoint) and one-year follow-up were performed for leg extension power, spatiotemporal gait parameters and knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS). Forty patients (73%) completed 1-year follow-up. Patients in the progressive resistance training group participated in average 11 of 16 training sessions. Leg extension power increased from baseline to 10-week follow-up in progressive resistance training group (progressive resistance training: 0.28 W/kg, P= 0.01, control group: 0.01 W/kg, P=0.93) with no between-group difference. Walking speed and KOOS scores increased from baseline to 10-week follow-up in both groups with no between-group difference (six minutes walk test P=0.63, KOOS P>0.29). Progressive resistance training two days/week combined with home based exercise five days/week was not superior to home based exercise seven days/week in improving leg extension power of the operated leg.

  20. The impact of a 12-week resistance training program on strength, body composition, and self-concept of Hispanic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Amelia; Golem, Devon L; Arent, Shawn M

    2010-04-01

    Current evidence suggests that a resistance training program may be physically and psychologically beneficial for adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a structured resistance training program on strength, body composition, and self-concept in normal and overweight Hispanic adolescents. Male and female participants (n = 28; 16.1 +/- 0.2 y; 164.5 +/- 1.4 cm; 63.3 +/- 2.5 kg; 20.0 +/- 1.7% body fat [BF]) were recruited from a predominantly Hispanic high school. Prior to the 12-week program, strength, body composition, and self-concept were assessed. Subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (CON; n = 15) or to a resistance training group (RT; n = 13) that participated in supervised strength training 3 days/week. All measures were repeated at the end of the 12-week program. RT had significantly greater strength increases for bench press (p increased %BF. RT had an increase in condition/stamina competence (p = 0.008), attractive body adequacy (p = 0.017), and global self-worth (p = 0.013) from pretest to posttest, whereas no change was observed for CON. In conclusion, resistance training resulted in significant physiological and psychological improvements in Hispanic adolescents compared to typical school-based activities. These findings indicate that resistance training can be incorporated into the activities of Hispanic adolescents to promote improved health and fitness.

  1. The Effect of Resistance Training on Performance of Gross Motor Skills and Balance in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

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    Ebrahim Zarrinkalam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cerebral palsy is the most common chronic motor disability in children and can have negative effect on motor functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks resistance training on gross motor ability, balance and walking speed in a group of such children. Methods: 21 cerebral palsy boys with spastic diplegia, aged between 12 and 16 years (mean, 13.66 years, participated in this study. A pre-test, involving walking, sitting, standing and walking up stairs. They were randomly divided into an experimental and control groups. Then, the experimental group participated in 8 weeks of resistance training.  The data was attained from a 10 meter walk test, Berg Balance Test, gross motor ability Section E, D and GMFCS tests.  Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, sample t-test were used for analyzing the data. Results: The results showed a significant improvement in the performance of experimental group in gross motor abilities section  E and D, balance and walking speed after 8 weeks of resistance training (P <0.05(. However, significant differences were not observed in the control group before and after the study (P <0.05.  Conclusion: The results showed that resistance training improves gross motor ability, balance and gait in children with cerebral palsy hence, it is recommended that resistance exercise be used as a therapeutic modality for children with cerebral palsy.

  2. Resistance Training and Stroke: A Critical Analysis of Different Training Programs

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    Bruno Bavaresco Gambassi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a literature review on the overall benefits of resistance training (RT after stroke and undertake a critical analysis of the resistance exercise programs surveyed (rest interval between sets and exercises, number of sets, number of repetitions, intensity, duration of training, and weekly frequency. To obtain articles for the review, we searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro. Inclusion criteria were considered using the PICO (population, intervention, control/comparison, and outcome variables model. The following characteristics were recorded for all articles: type of study, author, year of publication, participants (time after stroke, sample size, and age, benefits of RT, and structured resistance exercise programs. Positive effects of training were found on anxiety status, quality of life, muscle hypertrophy, cognitive function, strength, and muscle power. Only 5 studies described the main variables of RT in detail. Lack of control of some variables of RT may negatively affect the results of this practice. The findings of the present study may further inform health and physical conditioning professionals on the importance and necessity of using the main variables in the search for benefits for individuals with stroke.

  3. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe supplementation and resistance training on some blood oxidative stress markers in obese men

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    Sirvan Atashak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive adiposity increases oxidative stress, and thus may play a critical role in the pathogenesis and development of obesity-associated comorbidities, in particular atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and arterial hypertension. Improved body composition, through exercise training and diet, may therefore significantly contribute to a reduction in oxidative stress. Further, some foods high in antioxidants (e.g., ginger provide additional defense against oxidation. This study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe supplementation and progressive resistance training (PRT on some nonenzymatic blood [total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA] oxidative stress markers in obese men. Thirty-two obese males (body mass index ≥30, aged 18–30 years were randomized to one of the following four groups: a placebo (PL; n = 8; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL; n = 8; resistance training plus ginger supplementation (RTGI; n = 8; and ginger supplementation only (GI; n = 8. Participants in the RTGI and GI groups consumed 1 g ginger/day for 10 weeks. At the same time, PRT was undertaken by the RTPL and RTGI groups three times/week. Resting blood samples were collected at baseline and at 10 weeks, and analyzed for plasma nonenzymatic TAC and MDA concentration. After the 10-week intervention, we observed significant training × ginger supplementation × resistance training interaction for TAC (p = 0.043 and significant interactions for training × resistance training and training × ginger supplementation for MDA levels (p < 0.05. The results of this study show that 10 weeks of either ginger supplementation or PRT protects against oxidative stress and therefore both of these interventions can be beneficial for obese individuals; however, when combined, the effects cancel each other out.

  4. Interactions of cortisol, testosterone, and resistance training: influence of circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Bickerstaff, Gordon F; Baker, Julien S

    2010-06-01

    Diurnal variation of sports performance usually peaks in the late afternoon, coinciding with increased body temperature. This circadian pattern of performance may be explained by the effect of increased core temperature on peripheral mechanisms, as neural drive does not appear to exhibit nycthemeral variation. This typical diurnal regularity has been reported in a variety of physical activities spanning the energy systems, from Adenosine triphosphate-phosphocreatine (ATP-PC) to anaerobic and aerobic metabolism, and is evident across all muscle contractions (eccentric, isometric, concentric) in a large number of muscle groups. Increased nerve conduction velocity, joint suppleness, increased muscular blood flow, improvements of glycogenolysis and glycolysis, increased environmental temperature, and preferential meteorological conditions may all contribute to diurnal variation in physical performance. However, the diurnal variation in strength performance can be blunted by a repeated-morning resistance training protocol. Optimal adaptations to resistance training (muscle hypertrophy and strength increases) also seem to occur in the late afternoon, which is interesting, since cortisol and, particularly, testosterone (T) concentrations are higher in the morning. T has repeatedly been linked with resistance training adaptation, and higher concentrations appear preferential. This has been determined by suppression of endogenous production and exogenous supplementation. However, the cortisol (C)/T ratio may indicate the catabolic/anabolic environment of an organism due to their roles in protein degradation and protein synthesis, respectively. The morning elevated T level (seen as beneficial to achieve muscle hypertrophy) may be counteracted by the morning elevated C level and, therefore, protein degradation. Although T levels are higher in the morning, an increased resistance exercise-induced T response has been found in the late afternoon, suggesting greater

  5. Prevalence and correlates of resistance training skill competence in adolescents.

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    Smith, Jordan J; DeMarco, Matthew; Kennedy, Sarah G; Kelson, Mark; Barnett, Lisa M; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lubans, David R

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and correlates of adolescents' resistance training (RT) skill competence. Participants were 548 adolescents (14.1 ± 0.5 years) from 16 schools in New South Wales, Australia. RT skills were assessed using the Resistance Training Skills Battery. Demographics, BMI, muscular fitness, perceived strength, RT self-efficacy, and motivation for RT were also assessed. The proportion demonstrating "competence" and "near competence" in each of the six RT skills were calculated and sex differences explored. Associations between the combined RT skill score and potential correlates were examined using multi-level linear mixed models. Overall, the prevalence of competence was low (range = 3.3% to 27.9%). Females outperformed males on the squat, lunge and overhead press, whereas males performed better on the push-up (p fitness was moderately and positively associated with RT skills among both males (β = 0.34, 95%CIs = 0.23 to 0.46) and females (β = 0.36, 95%CIs = 0.23 to 0.48). Our findings support a link between RT skills and muscular fitness. Other associations were statistically significant but small in magnitude, and should therefore be interpreted cautiously.

  6. Resistance Training and Co-supplementation with Creatine and Protein in Older Subjects with Frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J; Longhurst, G; Roschel, H; Gualano, B

    2016-01-01

    Studies assessing the effects co-supplementation with creatine and protein, along with resistance training, in older individuals with frailty are lacking. This is an exploratory trial from the Pro-Elderly study ("Protein Intake and Resistance Training in Aging") aimed at gathering knowledge on the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of co-supplementation with creatine and protein supplementation, combined with resistance training, in older individuals with frailty. A 14-week, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo controlled exploratory trial. The subjects were randomly assigned to whey protein and creatine co-supplementation (WHEY+CR) or whey protein supplementation (WHEY) group. All subjects undertook a supervised exercise training program and were assessed at baseline and after 14 weeks. Muscle function, body composition, blood parameters, and self-reported adverse events were assessed. No interaction effects (between-group differences) were observed for any dependent variables (p > 0.05 for all). However, there were main time-effects in handgrip (WHEY+CR = 26.65 ± 31.29; WHEY = 13.84 ± 14.93 Kg; p = 0.0005), timed-up-and-go (WHEY+CR = -11.20 ± 9.37; WHEY = -17.76 ± 21.74 sec; p = 0.006), and timed-stands test (WHEY+CR = 47.50 ± 35.54; WHEY = 46.87 ± 24.23 reps; p = 0.0001), suggesting that WHEY+CR and WHEY were similarly effective in improving muscle function. All of the subjects showed improvements in at least two of the three functional tests, regardless of their treatments. Body composition and blood parameters were not changed (p > 0.05). No severe adverse effects were observed. Co-supplementation with creatine and whey protein was well-tolerable and free of adverse events in older subjects with frailty undertaking resistance training. Creatine supplementation did not augment the adaptive effects of resistance training along with whey protein on body composition or muscle function in this population. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01890382.

  7. Resistance Training in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Improves Uric Acid Levels

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    R. Sousa Moisés S.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance training (RT can provide several benefits for individuals with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training on the strength levels and uric acid (UA concentration in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. The study included 68 patients (57.7±9.0 years that participated in an organized program of RT for 12 weeks. The volunteers were divided into two groups: an experimental group (EG; n=34 that performed the resistance training program consisting of seven exercises executed in an alternating order based on segments; and a control group (CG; n=34 that maintained their normal daily life activities. Muscle strength and uric acid were measured both pre- and post-experiment. The results showed a significant increase in strength of the subjects in the EG for all exercises included in the study (p<0.001. Comparing the strength levels of the post-test, intergroup differences were found in supine sitting (p<0.001, leg extension (p<0.001, shoulder press (p<0.001, leg curl (p=0.001, seated row (p<0.001, leg press (p=0.001 and high pulley (p<0.001. The measured uric acid was significantly increased in both experimental and control groups (p<0.001 and p=0.001, respectively. The intergroup comparison showed a significant increase for the EG (p=0.024. We conclude that the training program was effective for strength gains despite an increase in uric acid in Type 2 diabetics.

  8. Aerobic interval training reduces vascular resistances during submaximal exercise in obese metabolic syndrome individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Fernandez-Elias, V E; Morales-Palomo, F; Pallares, J G; Ramirez-Jimenez, M; Ortega, J F

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training (AIT) on exercise hemodynamics in metabolic syndrome (MetS) volunteers. Thirty-eight, MetS participants were randomly assigned to a training (TRAIN) or to a non-training control (CONT) group. TRAIN consisted of stationary interval cycling alternating bouts at 70-90% of maximal heart rate during 45 min day -1 for 6 months. CONT maintained baseline physical activity and no changes in cardiovascular function or MetS factors were detected. In contrast, TRAIN increased cardiorespiratory fitness (14% in VO 2PEAK ; 95% CI 9-18%) and improved metabolic syndrome (-42% in Z score; 95% CI 83-1%). After TRAIN, the workload that elicited a VO 2 of 1500 ml min -1 increased 15% (95% CI 5-25%; P exercise heart rate (109 ± 15-106 ± 13 beats min -1 ; P exercise in MetS patients. Specifically, it reduces diastolic blood pressure, systemic vascular resistances, and the double product. The reduction in double product, suggests decreased myocardial oxygen demands which could prevent the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events during exercise in this population. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT03019796.

  9. Effects of Plyometric and Resistance Training on Muscle Strength, Explosiveness and Neuromuscular Function in Young Adolescent Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, Brandon John; Wallace, Phillip; Dotan, Raffy; Long, Devon; Tokuno, Craig; Gabriel, David; Falk, Bareket

    2018-01-04

    This study examined the effect of 8-weeks of free-weight-resistance (RT) and plyometric (PLYO) training on maximal strength, explosiveness and jump performance compared with no added training (CON), in young male soccer players. Forty-one 11[FIGURE DASH]13-year-old soccer players were divided into three groups (RT, PLYO, CON). All participants completed isometric and dynamic (240°/s) knee extensions pre- and post-training. Peak torque (pT), peak rate of torque development (pRTD), electromechanical-delay (EMD), rate of muscle activation (Q50), m. vastus-lateralis thickness (VLT), and jump performance were examined. pT, pRTD and jump performance significantly improved in both training groups. Training resulted in significant (pplyometric training resulted in significant improvements in muscle strength and jump performance. Training resulted in similar muscle hypertrophy in the two training modes, with no clear differences in muscle performance. Plyometric training was more effective in improving jump performance, while free-weight resistance training was more advantageous in improving peak torque, where the stretch reflex was not involved.

  10. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-04-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p training. Muscle power also increased with training (≈27 %; p functional performance after training period (≈13 %; p effective in improving maximal strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women.

  11. Exercise training improves endothelial function in resistance arteries of young prehypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, D T; Martin, J S; Casey, D P; Braith, R W

    2014-05-01

    Prehypertension is associated with reduced conduit artery endothelial function and perturbation of oxidant/antioxidant status. It is unknown whether endothelial dysfunction persists to resistance arteries and whether exercise training affects oxidant/antioxidant balance in young prehypertensives. We examined resistance artery function using venous occlusion plethysmography measurement of forearm (FBF) and calf blood flow (CBF) at rest and during reactive hyperaemia (RH), as well as lipid peroxidation (8-iso-PGF2α) and antioxidant capacity (Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity; TEAC) before and after exercise intervention or time control. Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive and 15 matched normotensive time controls met screening requirements and participated in the study (age: 21.1±0.8 years). Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to resistance exercise training (PHRT; n=15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n=13) or time-control groups (PHTC; n=15). Treatment groups exercised 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Peak and total FBF were lower in prehypertensives than normotensives (12.7±1.2 ml min(-1) per100 ml tissue and 89.1±7.7 ml min(-1) per 100 ml tissue vs 16.3±1.0 ml min(-1) per 100 ml tissue and 123.3±6.4 ml min(-1) per 100 ml tissue, respectively; Pendurance training are effective in improving resistance artery endothelial function and oxidant/antioxidant balance in young prehypertensives.

  12. Effects of eccentric-focused and conventional resistance training on strength and functional capacity of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Caroline Pieta; Toscan, Rafael; de Camargo, Mainara; Pereira, Evelyn Possobom; Griebler, Nathália; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of eccentric training using a constant load with longer exposure time at the eccentric phase on knee extensor muscle strength and functional capacity of elderly subjects in comparison with a conventional resistance training program. Twenty-six healthy elderly women (age = 67 ± 6 years) were randomly assigned to an eccentric-focused training group (ETG; n = 13) or a conventional training group (CTG; n = 13). Subjects underwent 12 weeks of resistance training twice a week. For the ETG, concentric and eccentric phases were performed using 1.5 and 4.5 s, respectively, while for CTG, each phase lasted 1.5 s. Maximum dynamic strength was assessed by the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test in the leg press and knee extension exercises, and for functional capacity, subjects performed specific tests (6-m walk test, timed up-and-go test, stair-climbing test, and chair-rising test). Both groups improved knee extension 1RM (24-26 %; p = 0.021), timed up-and-go test (11-16 %; p training volume and intensity does not promote different adaptations in strength or functional capacity compared to conventional resistance training in elderly woman.

  13. Effect of 8 Weeks Resistance Training on Some Antioxidant/Oxidative Indexes in Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer

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    F. Fathollahi Shoorabeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women that usually begins with abnormal growth and division of different breast cells. There is some evidence that there is an inverse relationship between levels of antioxidants and the risk of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks resistance training on some antioxidant/oxidative indexes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental study, in 2014, 30 postmenopausal women with breast cancer in Khorramabad city were selected by available sampling method and randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group (n=16 and control group (n=14. The experimental group performed resistance training for 8 weeks, which started from 30% 1RM (one repetition maximum and reached 45-50% 1RM at the end of the eighth week. Blood samples were taken from subjects for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels, 48 hours before and after the training protocol. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software using independent t-test and dependent t-test. Findings: After performing 8 weeks of resistance training, serum levels of SOD and GPX significantly increased and MDA levels decreased significantly (p0.05. Conclusion: Resistance training for 8 weeks increases antioxidant indexes and decreases oxidative indexes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

  14. Effect of 8 Weeks Resistance Training on Some Antioxidant/Oxidative Indexes in Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer

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    Fathollahi Shoorabeh F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women that usually begins with abnormal growth and division of different breast cells. There is some evidence that there is an inverse relationship between levels of antioxidants and the risk of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks resistance training on some antioxidant/oxidative indexes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Materials & Methods In this semi-experimental study, in 2014, 30 postmenopausal women with breast cancer in Khorramabad city were selected by available sampling method and randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group (n=16 and control group (n=14. The experimental group performed resistance training for 8 weeks, which started from 30% 1RM (one repetition maximum and reached 45-50% 1RM at the end of the eighth week. Blood samples were taken from subjects for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels, 48 hours before and after the training protocol. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software using independent t-test and dependent t-test. Findings After performing 8 weeks of resistance training, serum levels of SOD and GPX significantly increased and MDA levels decreased significantly (p0.05. Conclusion Resistance training for 8 weeks increases antioxidant indexes and decreases oxidative indexes in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

  15. Resistance training and hormone replacement increase MMP-2 activity, quality and quantity of bone in ovariectomized rats

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    Markus V.C Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIMS The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of resistance training (RT and hormone replacement (HR on MMP-2 activity, biomechanical and physical properties bone of ovariectomized (OVX rats. METHODS Sprague-Dawley female rats were grouped into six experimental groups (n = 11 per group: sham-operated sedentary (SHAM Sed, ovariectomized sedentary (OVX Sed, sham-operated resistance training (SHAM RT, ovariectomized resistance training (OVX RT, ovariectomized sedentary hormone replacement (OVX Sed-HR, and ovariectomized resistance training hormone replacement (OVX RT-HR. HR groups received implanted silastic capsules with a 5% solution of 17β-estradiol (50 mg 17β-estradiol/ml of sunflower oil. In a 12-week RT period (27 sessions; 4-9 climbs the animals climbed a 1.1 m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails. Biomechanical and physical bone analyses were performed using a universal testing machine, and MMP-2 activity analysis was done by zymography. RESULTS Bone density and bone mineral content was higher in the RT and HR groups. The MMP-2 activity was higher in the RT and HR groups. The biomechanical analysis (stiffness, fracture load and maximum load demonstrated better bone tissue quality in the RT associated with HR. CONCLUSION The RT alone as well as when it is associated with HR was efficient in increasing MMP-2 activity, biomechanical and biophysical properties bone of ovariectomized rats.

  16. The effect of a 6-week land and resistance training of 13-16 years old swimmers groups to lower limb isokinetic strength values and to swimming performance13-16 yaş grubu yüzücülerde 6 haftalık kara ve direnç antrenmanlarının alt ekstremite izokinetik kuvvet performansına ve yüzme derecelerine etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    Yapıcı, Ayşegül; Maden, Barış; Fındıkoğlu, Gülin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a 6-week land and resistance training of 13-16 year old swimmers groups to lower limb isokinetic strength values and to swimming performance. 22 swimmers participated in this study. The subjects were divided into three groups (A-B-C) according to their 50m swimming degrees. 25m underwater,25m,50m,75m and 100m freestyle swimming degrees of swimmers were recorded. As isokinetic measurements was applied at 60°/s,180°/s and 240°/s speed and th...

  17. Muscle function and body composition profile in adolescents with restrictive anorexia nervosa: Does resistance training help?

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    Fernández del Valle, María; Larumbe Zabala, Eneko; Morandé Lavín, Gonzalo; Pérez Ruiz, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of short-term resistance training on the body composition profile and muscle function in a group of Anorexia Nervosa restricting type (AN-R) patients. The sample consisted of AN-R female adolescents (12.8 ± 0.6 years) allocated into the control and intervention groups (n¼18 each). Body composition and relative strength were assessed at baseline, after 8 weeks and 4 weeks following the intervention. Body mass index (BMI) increased throughout...

  18. Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects.

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    Faigenbaum, A D; Myer, G D

    2010-01-01

    A literature review was employed to evaluate the current epidemiology of injury related to the safety and efficacy of youth resistance training. Several case study reports and retrospective questionnaires regarding resistance exercise and the competitive sports of weightlifting and powerlifting reveal that injuries have occurred in young lifters, although a majority can be classified as accidental. Lack of qualified instruction that underlies poor exercise technique and inappropriate training loads could explain, at least partly, some of the reported injuries. Current research indicates that resistance training can be a safe, effective and worthwhile activity for children and adolescents provided that qualified professionals supervise all training sessions and provide age-appropriate instruction on proper lifting procedures and safe training guidelines. Regular participation in a multifaceted resistance training programme that begins during the preseason and includes instruction on movement biomechanics may reduce the risk of sports-related injuries in young athletes. Strategies for enhancing the safety of youth resistance training are discussed.

  19. The effects of 52 weeks of soccer or resistance training on body composition and muscle function in +65-year-old healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen

    2016-01-01

    The effects of 52 weeks of soccer or resistance training were investigated in untrained elderly men. The subjects aged 68.1±2.1 yrs were randomised into a soccer (SG; n = 9), a resistance (RG; n = 9) and a control group (CG; n = 8). The subjects in SG and RG, respectively, trained 1.7±0.3 and 1...... expression decreased by 38% (psoccer training reduces BMI and improves anti-oxidative capacity, while long-term resistance training impacts muscle protein enzyme expression and increases lean body mass in elderly men....

  20. Noninvasive optical imaging of resistance training adaptations in human muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Robert V.; Cotter, Joshua; Ganesan, Goutham; Le, Lisa; Agustin, Janelle P.; Duarte, Bridgette; Cutler, Kyle; O'Sullivan, Thomas; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2017-12-01

    A quantitative and dynamic analysis of skeletal muscle structure and function can guide training protocols and optimize interventions for rehabilitation and disease. While technologies exist to measure body composition, techniques are still needed for quantitative, long-term functional imaging of muscle at the bedside. We evaluate whether diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) can be used for long-term assessment of resistance training (RT). DOSI measures of tissue composition were obtained from 12 adults before and after 5 weeks of training and compared to lean mass fraction (LMF) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Significant correlations were detected between DXA LMF and DOSI-measured oxy-hemo/myoglobin, deoxy-hemo/myoglobin, total-hemo/myoglobin, water, and lipid. RT-induced increases of ˜6% in oxy-hemo/myoglobin (3.4±1.0 μM, p=0.00314) and total-hemo/myoglobin (4.9±1.1 μM, p=0.00024) from the medial gastrocnemius were detected with DOSI and accompanied by ˜2% increases in lean soft tissue mass (36.4±12.4 g, p=0.01641) and ˜60% increases in 1 rep-max strength (41.5±6.2 kg, p = 1.9E-05). DOSI measures of vascular and/or muscle changes combined with correlations between DOSI and DXA suggest that quantitative diffuse optical methods can be used to evaluate body composition, provide feedback on long-term interventions, and generate new insight into training-induced muscle adaptations.

  1. Effects of Resistance Training on Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in Skeletal Muscles and Blood Circulation During Aging

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    Ivo V. de Sousa Neto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a complex, multifactorial process characterized by the accumulation of deleterious effects, including biochemical adaptations of the extracellular matrix (ECM. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT on metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2 activity in skeletal muscles and, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the blood circulation of young and old rats. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 7 per group: young sedentary (YS; young trained (YT, old sedentary (OS, and old trained (OT. The stair climbing RT consisted of one training session every 2 other day, with 8–12 dynamic movements per climb. The animals were euthanized 48 h after the end of the experimental period. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity was measured by zymography. There was higher active MMP-2 activity in the lateral gastrocnemius and flexor digitorum profundus muscles in the OT group when compared to the OS, YS, and YT groups (p ≤ 0.001. Moreover, there was higher active MMP-2 activity in the medial gastrocnemius muscle in the OT group when compared to the YS and YT groups (p ≤ 0.001. The YS group presented lower active MMP-2 activity in the soleus muscle than the YT, OS, OT groups (p ≤ 0.001. With respect to active MMP-2/9 activity in the bloodstream, the OT group displayed significantly reduced activity (p ≤ 0.001 when compared to YS and YT groups. In conclusion, RT up-regulates MMP-2 activity in aging muscles, while down-regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the blood circulation, suggesting that it may be a useful tool for the maintenance of ECM remodeling.

  2. Effect of aquatic resistance training on blood pressure and physical function of postmenopausal women

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    Mina Sattar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4    BACKGROUND: In postmenopausal women, the risk of having cardiac diseases, especially high blood pressure, is increased due to the decrease in secretion of estrogen. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of aquatic resistance training on blood pressure and physical function of postmenopausal women.    METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, 24 postmenopausal women (age: 53-60 years, BMI= 29.23 ± 5.27kg/m2  ( were randomly divided into experimental (n = 14 and control (n = 10 groups. Women in the experimental group participated in an aquatic exercise program for 8 weeks (3 sessions per week in the deep parts of the pool. Training included walking and running in water with water dumbbells weighing 250 grams. Before and after the exercise period, the body composition, blood pressure, dynamic balance, and flexibility of the subjects were measured.    RESULTS: According to the T-score, the average systolic blood pressure in the experimental group significantly decreased (9.29% (P = 0.001. Dynamic balance and flexibility, respectively, significantly increased by 22.02% and 24.4% (P < 0.01. No significant changes were observed in body fat and weight.    CONCLUSION: Due to the positive effect of aquatic resistance training on blood pressure, dynamic balance, and flexibility these exercises are recommended for postmenopausal women.   Keywords: Menopausal Women, Blood Pressure, Flexibility, Aquatic Resistance Training  

  3. Arterial Stiffness and Autonomic Modulation After Free-Weight Resistance Exercises in Resistance Trained Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, J Derek; Mayo, Xián; Tai, Yu Lun; Fennell, Curtis

    2016-12-01

    Kingsley, JD, Mayo, X, Tai, YL, and Fennell, C. Arterial stiffness and autonomic modulation after free-weight resistance exercises in resistance trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3373-3380, 2016-We investigated the effects of an acute bout of free-weight, whole-body resistance exercise consisting of the squat, bench press, and deadlift on arterial stiffness and cardiac autonomic modulation in 16 (aged 23 ± 3 years; mean ± SD) resistance-trained individuals. Arterial stiffness, autonomic modulation, and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were assessed at rest and after 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 75% 1-repetition maximum on each exercise with 2 minutes of rest between sets and exercises. Arterial stiffness was analyzed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV). Linear heart rate variability (log transformed [ln] absolute and normalized units [nu] of low-frequency [LF] and high-frequency [HF] power) and nonlinear heart rate complexity (Sample Entropy [SampEn], Lempel-Ziv Entropy [LZEn]) were measured to determine autonomic modulation. BRS was measured by the sequence method. A 2 × 2 repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze time (rest, recovery) across condition (acute resistance exercise, control). There were significant increases in cf-PWV (p = 0.05), heart rate (p = 0.0001), normalized LF (LFnu; p = 0.001), and the LF/HF ratio (p = 0.0001). Interactions were also noted for ln HF (p = 0.006), HFnu (p = 0.0001), SampEn (p = 0.001), LZEn (p = 0.005), and BRS (p = 0.0001) such that they significantly decreased during recovery from the resistance exercise compared with rest and the control. There was no effect on ln total power, or ln LF. These data suggest that a bout of resistance exercise using free-weights increases arterial stiffness and reduces vagal activity and BRS in comparison with a control session. Vagal tone may not be fully recovered up to 30 minutes after a resistance exercise bout.

  4. Effects of Eight-Weeks of Aerobic Training on Resistin Levels and Insulin Resistance in Sedentary Middle-Aged Women

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    Bahram Abedi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Resistin is an adipocyte-specific hormone secreted from adipose tissue which plays a significant role in the energy homeostasis and regulation of energy metabolism. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of eight weeks of aerobic training on the resistin levels and insulin resistance in sedentary middle-aged women. Methods: In this quasi-experimental research, 20 sedentary women were randomly selected and assigned to two groups: experimental group, n=10, aged 47.70±5.35; and control, n=10, age 41.30±3.02, respectively. The participants in the training group performed an exercise protocol three times per week with the goal of 55 to 65 per cent of maximum heart rate. Before and after the completion, the resistin, insulin, glucose and insulin resistance levels were measured after 12 h of overnight fasting. Data were analyzed before and after the intervention by t-test. The significant level was defined as P≤0.05. Results: Aerobic training in compared with the control group showed significant effect in decreasing resistin levels (P=0.012, BMI (P=0.01, insulin resistance (P=0.01, and increasing VO2 max (P=0.004. Conclusion: It appears that eight weeks of aerobic training significantly changes the level of resistin and the insulin resistance index in sedentary middle-aged women. Plasma resistin may be associated with insulin resistance in sedentary women. In general, according to the results, we may say that an eight-week aerobic training with a significant reduction in plasma resistin has a preventive effect as a new and effective training method on insulin resistance in middle-aged sedentary women.

  5. Learning a job: the workshop training with group of postgraduates

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    Corrado Pontalti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work is faced the problem of the professional competence of the young students during their specialization in psychotherapy. Experience is described top work with them in small group, for three years, to fortnightly frequency. The clinical situations of the students are discusses with continuity, from the moment of the formulation of the project of care up to its conclusion. The sustained thesis is that the acquisition of competence stirs on two ways: a procedural competence (strategies and tactics of intervention and relational competence (co-transferal dynamics. Necessity is sustained that the teacher has a complete professional in comparison to the characteristics of the situation to transimit a work, almost artistic. The exploration of the relational dynamics it become important in once following, with objective to harmonize procedural competence and relational competence in a mature professional competence. Brief clinical illustrations are introduced.Keywords: training, procedural competence, relational competence, work group versus work community.

  6. Muscle function in aged women in response to a water-based exercises program and progressive resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Paulo Cesar Barauce; Rodacki, André Luiz Felix

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a water-based exercise program on muscle function compared with regular high-intensity resistance training. Older women (n = 87) were recruited from the local community. The inclusion criteria were, to be aged 60 years or older, able to walk and able to carry out daily living activities independently. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: water-based exercises (WBG), resistance training (RTG) or control (CG). The experimental groups carried out 12 weeks of an excise program performed on water or on land. The dynamic strength, the isometric peak, and rate of torque development for the lower limbs were assessed before and after interventions. The water-based program provided a similar improvement in dynamic strength in comparison with resistance training. The isometric peak torque increased around the hip and ankle joints in the water-based group, and around the knee joint in the resistance-training group (P water-based group around the hip extensors muscles (P Water-based programs constitute an attractive alternative to promote relevant strength gains using moderate loads and fast speed movements, which were also effective to improve the capacity to generate fast torques. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Changes in Sprint and Jump Performances After Traditional, Plyometric, and Combined Resistance Training in Male Youth Pre- and Post-Peak Height Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Rhodri S; Radnor, John M; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Cronin, John B; Oliver, Jon L

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 6-week training interventions using different modes of resistance (traditional strength, plyometric, and combined training) on sprinting and jumping performances in boys before and after peak height velocity (PHV). Eighty school-aged boys were categorized into 2 maturity groups (pre- or post-PHV) and then randomly assigned to (a) plyometric training, (b) traditional strength training, (c) combined training, or (d) a control group. Experimental groups participated in twice-weekly training programs for 6 weeks. Acceleration, maximal running velocity, squat jump height, and reactive strength index data were collected pre- and postintervention. All training groups made significant gains in measures of sprinting and jumping irrespective of the mode of resistance training and maturity. Plyometric training elicited the greatest gains across all performance variables in pre-PHV children, whereas combined training was the most effective in eliciting change in all performance variables for the post-PHV cohort. Statistical analysis indicated that plyometric training produced greater changes in squat jump and acceleration performances in the pre-PHV group compared with the post-PHV cohort. All other training responses between pre- and post-PHV cohorts were not significant and not clinically meaningful. The study indicates that plyometric training might be more effective in eliciting short-term gains in jumping and sprinting in boys who are pre-PHV, whereas those who are post-PHV may benefit from the additive stimulus of combined training.

  8. Evidence for Resistance Training as a Treatment Therapy in Obesity

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    Barbara Strasser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, investigators have paid increasing attention to the effects of resistance training (RT on several metabolic syndrome variables. Evidence suggests that skeletal muscle is responsible for up to 40% of individuals' total body weight and may be influential in modifying metabolic risk factors via muscle mass development. Due to the metabolic consequences of reduced muscle mass, it is understood that normal aging and/or decreased physical activity may lead to a higher prevalence of metabolic disorders. The purpose of this review is to (1 evaluate the potential clinical effectiveness and biological mechanisms of RT in the treatment of obesity and (2 provide up-to-date evidence relating to the impact of RT in reducing major cardiovascular disease risk factors (including dyslipidaemia and type 2 diabetes. A further aim of this paper is to provide clinicians with recommendations for facilitating the use of RT as therapy in obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders.

  9. Importance of mind-muscle connection during progressive resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus Due

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluates whether focusing on using specific muscles during bench press can selectively activate these muscles. METHODS: Altogether 18 resistance-trained men participated. Subjects were familiarized with the procedure and performed one-maximum repetition (1RM) test during...... electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded for the triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscles. Subsequently, peak EMG of the filtered signals were normalized to maximum maximorum EMG of each muscle. RESULTS: In both muscles, focusing on using the respective muscles increased muscle activity at relative loads...... between 20 and 60 %, but not at 80 % of 1RM. Overall, a threshold between 60 and 80 % rather than a linear decrease in selective activation with increasing intensity appeared to exist. The increased activity did not occur at the expense of decreased activity of the other muscle, e.g. when focusing...

  10. Effect of Endurance, Strength and Combined Training on Lipid Profile, Insulin Resistance, and Serum Adiponectin Levels in Inactive Obese Children

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    AR Ramezani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Nowadays, Iranian lifestyles are changing, especially children may be effected by the increase of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown that different methods of exercise are the most important determinants of cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to survey the lipid profile, insulin resistance, and adiponectin levels following eight weeks of endurance, strength and combined training in inactive obese children. Methods: The present quasi-experimental field was conducted on Sixty obese male children (age: 8-12 years, BMI between 30-35 kg/m2 according to the World Health Organization who were purposefully selected and randomly divided into four experimental groups of 15 individuals including endurance exercise, resistance exercise, combined exercise and control. Exercise training programs were performed four times a week for eight weeks. To assess variable changes, ANOVA with repeated measurement and one way ANOVA was used. Results: Results showed that after three types of exercise training  the BMI, total chlostrol, TG, LDL, VLDL, and insulin resistance significantly decreased in experimental groups compared to control group (P=0.001. Serum HDL and adiponectin was significantly increased after different training in experimental groups in comparison to control group (P=0.001.  Conclusion: According to the findings, it is suggested that among three types of exercise applied in this study, particularly, endurance training is use to prevent and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity-related disorders in inactive obese children. .

  11. Effects and prevalence of nonresponders after 12 weeks of high-intensity interval or resistance training in women with insulin resistance: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Cristian; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects and prevalence of nonresponders (NR) to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and resistance training (RT) in women with insulin resistance on cardiometabolic health parameters. Sedentary overweight/obese insulin-resistant women (age = 33.5 ± 6.5 yr; body mass index = 29.9 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 ) were randomly assigned to a triweekly HIIT program (HIIT; n = 18) or resistance training (RT; n = 17). Anthropometry (body mass, fat mass, muscle mass, waist circumference, and skinfold thickness), cardiovascular (blood pressure), metabolic [fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], as well as muscle strength, and endurance performance covariables were measured before and after 12 wk in both intervention groups. The interindividual variability to exercise training of the subjects was categorized as responders and NR using as cut points two times the typical error of measurement in mean outcomes. After intervention, significant reduction in waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, fat mass, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR ( P HIIT and RT group, respectively. Both HIIT and RT groups exhibited a significant decrease in the endurance performance, whereas only RT exhibited increased muscle strength. Significant differences in the NR prevalence between the HIIT and RT groups were identified for a decrease in fat mass (HIIT 33.3% vs. RT 70.5%; P = 0.028), muscle mass (HIIT 100% vs. RT 52.9%; P = 0.001), and tricipital skinfold (HIIT 5.5% vs. RT 29.4%; P HIIT and RT groups (55.5% vs. 94.1; P = 0.009). However, there were no differences in the NR prevalence between HIIT and RT for decreasing fasting glucose. Twelve weeks of HIIT and RT have similar effects and NR prevalence to improve glucose control variables; however, there is different NR prevalence in other anthropometric, cardiovascular, strength, and endurance performance measurements in insulin-resistant women. These

  12. Changes in Maximal Strength, Velocity, and Power After 8 Weeks of Training With Pneumatic or Free Weight Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Bronson, Stefanie; Cronin, John B; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    Because free weight (FW) and pneumatic (PN) resistance are characterized by different inertial properties, training with either resistance could afford unique strength, velocity, and power adaptations. Eighteen resistance-trained men completed baseline tests to determine their FW and PN bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM). During the FW session, 4 explosive repetitions were performed at loads of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90% 1RM to assess force, velocity, and power. Participants were then assigned to a FW or PN training group, which involved three 90-minute sessions per week for 8 weeks. Both intervention groups completed identical periodized programs with the exception of the resistance used to perform all bench press movements. Free weight participants significantly increased their FW and PN 1RM (10.4 and 9.4%), and maximum (any load) force (9.8%), velocity (11.6%), and power (22.5%). Pneumatic-trained participants also exhibited increases in FW and PN 1RM (11.6 and 17.5%), and maximum force (8.4%), velocity (13.6%), and power (33.4%). Both interventions improved peak barbell velocity at loads of 15 and 30% 1RM; however, only the PN-trained individuals displayed improvements in peak force and power at these same loads. Training with PN resistance may offer advantages if attempting to improve power at lighter relative loads by affording an opportunity to consistently achieve higher accelerations and velocities (F = ma), in comparison with FW. Exploiting the inertial properties of the resistance, whether mass, elastic or PN, could afford an opportunity to develop mixed-method training strategies and/or elicit unique neuromuscular adaptations to suit the specific needs of athletes from sports characterized by varying demands.

  13. A Systematic Review of Resistance Training Versus Endurance Training in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Ringbaek, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE:: Endurance training (ET) as part of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been shown to improve exercise capacity and health-related quality of life, but dyspnea limits the exercise intensity. Therefore, resistance training (RT), which...... may cause less dyspnea, could be an alternative. The purpose of this review was to formulate evidence-based recommendations on the use of RT in pulmonary rehabilitation of patients with COPD. Our primary outcomes were health-related quality of life, activities of daily living, dyspnea, possible harm......, and total mortality. Our secondary outcomes were walking distance, lean body mass, muscle strength, and exercise capacity. METHODS:: We identified randomized controlled trials through a systematic multidatabase search. One author checked titles and abstracts for relevance using broad inclusion criteria...

  14. A Comparison of the Effects of Short-Term Plyometric and Resistance Training on Lower Body Muscular Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Malcolm T; Scheett, Timothy P; McGuigan, Michael R; Auckland, N Z; Martin, Angel V

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare effects of short-term plyometric and resistance training on lower body muscular performance. A convenience sample of thirty males aged 21.3 ± 1.8 years, height 177.3 ± 9.4 cm, mass 80.0 ± 2.6 kg, body fat 16.1 ± 1.2 % participated in this investigation. Participants were grouped and participated in progressive plyometric (PLT) or resistance training (SRT) twice per week for eight consecutive weeks or a control (CNT) group that did not participate in any training. Performance tests were administered prior to and following the training period and included measures of high-speed muscular strength (standing long jump, vertical jump), low-speed muscular strength (one-repetition maximal back squat), running speed (20-meter sprint) and running agility (505 agility test agility test-Test). Analysis of variance followed by post hoc analyses was performed to determine significant differences between the groups. Significance set at p ≤ 0.05 for all analyses. Significant improvements were observed in the PLT group for standing long jump, vertical jump, and one-repetition maximal back squat compared to the CNT group, and for vertical jump as compared to the SRT group. Significant improvements were observed in the SRT group one-repetition maximal back squat compared to the CNT group. There were no differences observed between any of the groups for the 20-meter sprint or the 505 agility test following the training. These data indicate eight weeks of progressive plyometric training results in improvements in parameters of high and low-speed muscular strength with no appreciable change in speed or agility. Additionally, the improvement in low-speed muscular strength observed from 8-weeks of progressive plyometric training was comparable to the results observed from 8-weeks of progressive strength training.

  15. Eight-week aerobic training effects on Apelin-13 and insulin resistance in overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Soori

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aims: Obesity as a pandemic disease is the high accumulation of adipose tissue which secrets different hormones such as apelin. Apelin as an adipocytokine increases in obesity. Aerobic training induced apelin responses are not clarify well. So, we aimed to determine the effect of eight weeks aerobic training on Apelin-13 and insulin resistance in overweight men. Methods: Current study was quasi-experiment design. Twenty-six overweight men with BMI between 27-30 kg/m2 were randomly enrolled in the present study following public call announcement and match to inclusion criteria. They accidently divided into submaximal-aerobic and control groups. The submaximal-aerobic group carried out exercise training for 24 continuous sessions (with 50-70% of maximum heart rate and 3 sessions/per-week for eight weeks. The anthropometrical, VO2max and blood sampling assessments performed and later assessments were completed 24 hours after last training period. Then, whole of data were analyzed by Stata software at P0.05. In addition, there were direct and significant relationship between anthropometrical indices and HbA1c with Apelin-13 (p<0.05. Conclusions: Obesity increases the possibility of metabolic diseases and insulin resistance. In the current study we represented that the internal factors of exercise, such as intensity, had meaningful effects on anthropometric features of overweight individuals but it was not enough for exercise induced-apelin-13 and insulin resistance changes.  According to this record, longer and higher intense exercise compare with the current study's protocol were recommended to beneficially decrease and control the incidence and catch the type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  16. The Lord’s Resistance Army: an African Terrorist Group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The years since 9/11 have been characterised by the increasing threat of terrorist action in the  Middle East and South Asia. Yet Sub-Saharan Africa was has also become a region of concern. In 1998, it had been the scene of two Al-Qaeda attacks against US embassies; besides Africa is home to large Muslim populations. Since 9/11 African violent non-state groups unrelated to Al- Qaeda or to the wider Islamist movement have been recast as terrorist organisations. These groups primarily operate in conflict zones, an area of research that traditionally has not been the main focus of Terrorism Studies. Protagonists have at various times been called freedom fighters, rebels, warlords, insurgents or simply violent gangs. This article looks at the most notorious of African groups – the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA. It argues that some groups like the LRA have been recast as terrorist organisations not because of a change in their activities but due to a change in the geo-strategic environment they found themselves in the post-9/11 period. The LRA’s ideology and tactics will be judged against a broad definition of terrorism in order to test whether the group can, in an objective way, be called a terrorist organisation. It is concluded that the LRA is too ambiguous an organisation to be simply labelled in such a way. It is also suggested that the terrorism label has in fact been an obstacle to attempts to end successfully a confrontation that is now going into its 24th year. 

  17. High short-term effectiveness of modulated dry bed training in adolescents and young adults with treatment-resistant enuresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, I.; Cobussen-Boekhorst, J.G.L.; Kortmann, B.B.M.; Mulder, Z.; Steffens, M.G.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Van Capelle, J.W.; Blanker, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES: Two percent of adolescents and young adults suffer from therapy-resistant enuresis, with considerable negative impact on self-esteem and relationships. We evaluated the effect of a Modulated Dry Bed Training (MDBT) in a previously therapyresistant group of adolescents with

  18. Time-wise change in neck pain in response to rehabilitation with specific resistance training: implications for exercise prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Christoffer H; Sundstrup, Emil; Pedersen, Mogens T; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-01-01

    To determine the time-wise effect of specific resistance training on neck pain among industrial technicians with frequent neck pain symptoms. Secondary analysis of a parallel-group cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 weeks performed at two large industrial production units in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with neck pain >30 mm VAS (N = 131) were included in the present analysis. The training group (N = 77) performed specific resistance training for the neck/shoulder muscles three times a week, and the control group (N = 54) received advice to stay active. Participants of both groups registered neck pain intensity (0-100 mm VAS) once a week. Neck pain intensity was 55 mm (SD 23) at baseline. There was a significant group by time interaction for neck pain (F-value 2.61, Pchange in pain showed three phases; a rapid decrease in the training group compared with the control group during the initial 7 weeks, a slower decrease in pain during the following weeks (week 8-15), and a plateau during the last weeks (week 16-20). Adherence to training followed a two-phase pattern, i.e. weekly participation rate was between 70-86% during the initial 7 weeks, dropping towards 55-63% during the latter half of the training period. Four weeks of specific resistance training reduced neck pain significantly, but 15 weeks is required to achieve maximal pain reduction. The time-wise change in pain followed a three-phase pattern with a rapid effect during the initial 7 weeks followed by a slower but still positive effect, and finally a plateau from week 15 and onwards. Decreased participation rate may explain the decreased efficacy during the latter phase of the intervention.

  19. Muscle function and body composition profile in adolescents with restrictive anorexia nervosa: does resistance training help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-del-Valle, Maria; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Morande-Lavin, Gonzalo; Perez Ruiz, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of short-term resistance training on the body composition profile and muscle function in a group of Anorexia Nervosa restricting type (AN-R) patients. The sample consisted of AN-R female adolescents (12.8 ± 0.6 years) allocated into the control and intervention groups (n = 18 each). Body composition and relative strength were assessed at baseline, after 8 weeks and 4 weeks following the intervention. Body mass index (BMI) increased throughout the study (p = 0.011). Significant skeletal muscle mass (SMM) gains were found in the intervention group (p = 0.045, d = 0.6) that correlated to the change in BMI (r = 0.51, p  0.60) with change in BMI in both the groups. Significant relative strength increases (p Anorexia Nervosa Restricting Type (AN-R) AN-R is a psychiatric disorder that has a major impact on muscle mass content and function. However, little or no attention has been paid to muscle recovery. High intensity resistance training is safe for AN-R after hospitalization and enhances the force generating capacity as well as muscle mass gains. Skeletal muscle mass content and muscular function improvements are partially maintained for a short period of time when the exercise program ceases.

  20. Effect of Eight Weeks High Intensity Interval Training and Medium Intensity Interval Training and Aloe vera Intake on Serum Vaspin and Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Male Rats

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    Darya Asgari Hazaveh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The use of herbal supplements and exercise training for the treatment of diabetic has increased.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training and Aloe vera intake on serum vaspin and insulin resistance in diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: During this experimental study, 32 diabetic rats with STZ Wistar were randomly divided into four groups including the control, high intensity interval training +supplement, moderate intensity interval training + supplement and supplement. Training program was planned for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. Each session consisted of 6 to 12 periods of 2-minute activity with the intensity of 90% and 60% with one minute rest (speed: 10m/min. In the supplement groups, 300milligrams Aloe vera solution per kilogram of body weight Gavage was given 5 sessions per week for 8 weeks. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: The results showed that high and moderate intensity interval training with supplement has no significant effect on the of serum vaspin (p=0.112. High intensity interval training with supplement had significant effects on insulin in diabetic male rats (0.000. Conclusion: .Based on the findings of this study, it seems that supplementation of Aloe vera with high intensity interval training can have better effects on serum insulin in diabetic rats.

  1. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Group Skills Training for Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Lori; Eddie, David; Harley, Rebecca; Jacobo, Michelle; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2017-07-01

    There is growing evidence that the capacity for emotion regulation is compromised in individuals with bipolar disorder. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), an empirically supported treatment that specifically targets emotion dysregulation, may be an effective adjunct treatment for improving emotion regulation and residual mood symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. In this open, proof-of-concept pilot study, 37 participants engaged in a 12-week DBT group skills training program, learning mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance skills. Repeated measures mixed models revealed skill acquisition in the areas of mindfulness, emotion regulation and distress tolerance, as well as improved psychological well-being and decreased emotion reactivity. The results of this study support a burgeoning literature that DBT is a feasible adjunct intervention for patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effects of Combined Training with Breathing Resistance and Sustained Physical Exertion to Improve Endurance Capacity and Respiratory Muscle Function in Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kido, Satoshi; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Miyasaka, Tomoya; Maeda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Yu, Wenwei; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Takayanagi, Kiyomi

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, combined training with breathing resistance and sustained physical exertion was carried out to evaluate its physiological effects and its effect on improve endurance capacity. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were nine healthy adults (mean age 20.4, SD ? 1.7?years). The combined training group (n = 5) carried out 6 weeks of combined training using a cycle ergometer, with exercise load tests and respiratory function tests performed before and after the training. The...

  3. Effects of Added Resistance Training on Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Serum Hormone Concentrations During Eight Weeks of Special Military Training Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, Jani P; Kokko, Juha; Isoranta, Manne; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2015-11-01

    A high volume of military training has been shown to compromise muscle strength development. We examined effects of added low-volume resistance training during special military training (ST) period, which took place after basic training period. Male conscripts (n = 25) were assigned to standardized ST with added resistance training group (TG, n = 13) and group with standardized ST only (control) (CG, n = 12). Standardized ST with added resistance training group performed 2 resistance training sessions per week for 8 weeks: hypertrophic strength (weeks 1-3), maximal strength (weeks 4-6) and power training (weeks 7-8). Maximal strength tests, load carriage performance (3.2 km, 27 kg), and hormone concentrations were measured before and after ST (mean ± SD). Both groups improved similarly in their load carriage performance time (TG: 1,162 ± 116 seconds vs. 1,047 ± 81 seconds; CG: 1,142 ± 95 seconds vs. 1,035 ± 81 seconds) (p < 0.001) but decreased maximal strength of the lower extremities (TG: 5,250 ± 1,110 N vs. 4,290 ± 720 N; CG: 5,170 ± 1,050 N vs. 4,330 ± 1,230 N) and back muscles (TG: 4,290 ± 990 N vs. 3,570 ± 48 N; CG: 3,920 ± 72 N vs. 3,410 ± 53 N) (p ≤ 0.05). Maximal strength of the upper extremities improved in CG (1,040 ± 200 N vs. 1,140 ± 200 N) (p ≤ 0.05) but not in TG. Maximal strength of the abdominal muscles improved in TG (3,260 ± 510 N vs. 3,740 ± 75 N) (p ≤ 0.05) but not in CG. Testosterone concentration increased in CG (15.2 ± 3.6 nmol·L⁻¹ vs. 21.6 ± 5.0 nmol·L⁻¹) (p < 0.01) but not in TG (18.6 ± 4.3 nmol·L⁻¹ vs. 19.5 ± 9.4 nmol·L⁻¹). In conclusion, interference with strength gains might be related to the high volume of aerobic activities and too low volume of resistance training during ST. To develop strength characteristics, careful periodization and individualization should be adopted in ST.

  4. Effects of feedback-based balance and core resistance training vs. Pilates training on balance and muscle function in older women: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Goran; Sarabon, Nejc; Greblo, Zrinka; Krizanic, Valerija

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with decline in physical function that could result in the development of physical impairment and disability. Hence, interventions that simultaneously challenge balance ability, trunk (core) and extremity strength of older adults could be particularly effective in preserving and enhancing these physical functions. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of feedback-based balance and core resistance training utilizing the a special computer-controlled device (Huber®) with the conventional Pilates training on balance ability, neuromuscular function and body composition of healthy older women. Thirty-four older women (age: 70±4 years) were randomly assigned to a Huber group (n=17) or Pilates group (n=17). Both groups trained for 8 weeks, 3 times a week. Maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors, extensors, and lateral flexors, leg power, upper-body strength, single- and dual-task static balance, and body composition were measured before and after the intervention programs. Significant group×time interactions and main effects of time (pcore resistance training proved to be more effective in improving single- and dual-task balance ability, trunk muscle strength, leg power, and body composition of healthy older women than the traditional Pilates training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Resistance training enhances muscular performance in patients with anorexia nervosa: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández del Valle, María; Larumbe Zabala, Eneko; Villaseñor Montarroso, Ángel; Cardona González, Claudia Andrea; Díez Vega, Ignacio; López Mojares, Luis Miguel; Pérez Ruiz, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Low-intensity exercise applied in anorexia nervosa patients has been shown to have a harmless effect on body composition and to effect short-term improvements in muscular strength and agility. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a high-intensity resistance training program designed for adolescents to improve strength and agility in anorexia nervosa restricting-type patients (AN-R). METHODS: From a total of 36 female patients with AN-R, one group (interven...

  6. Resistance Training Combined With Diet Decreases Body Fat While Preserving Lean Mass Independent of Resting Metabolic Rate: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd; Mull, Stephanie; Aragon, Alan Albert; Krieger, James; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training only (RT; n = 10), dietary intervention only (DIET; n = 10), resistance training plus diet (RT+DIET; n = 10), and control (CON; n = 10) on body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a cohort of 40 premenopausal female volunteers. Subjects in DIET and RT+DIET were provided with daily macronutrient and calorie goals based on DXA and RMR tests, with protein maintained at 3.1 g/kg/day. Subjects in the RT and RT+DIET groups performed a supervised progressive RT program consisting of exercises for all the major muscle groups of the body. Results showed a significant month-by-group interaction for change in fat mass with no significant linear trend for control. The three treatment groups all showed significant linear decreases in fat mass, but the slope of the decrease became progressively steeper from the RT, to DIET, to RT+DIET. A significant linear increase for lean mass was seen for resistance training only. There was a nonsignificant increase in RMR in all groups from Month 0 to Month 4 but no significant month by group interaction. In conclusion, significant reductions in fat mass were achieved by all experimental groups, but results were maximized by RT+DIET. Only the RT group showed significant increases in lean mass.

  7. Format of Basic Instruction Program Resistance Training Classes: Effect on Fitness Change in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, J. P.; Channell, Brian; Pugh, Chip; Tuck, Matt; Pendel, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    New resistance training programs such as CrossFit are gaining favor among college-aged students. CrossFit and related commercial resistance training programs may provide a valuable elective option within basic instruction program (BIP) curricula, but the fitness benefits of this course have not been compared with those of existing BIP resistance…

  8. Acute Effects of Plyometric and Resistance Training on Running Economy in Trained Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcello, Richard T; Greer, Beau K; Greer, Anna E

    2017-09-01

    Marcello, RT, Greer, BK, and Greer, AE. Acute effects of plyometric and resistance training on running economy in trained runners. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2432-2437, 2017-Results regarding the acute effects of plyometrics and resistance training (PRT) on running economy (RE) are conflicting. Eight male collegiate distance runners (21 ± 1 years, 62.5 ± 7.8 ml·kg·min V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak) completed V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) testing. Seven days later, subjects completed a 12 minutes RE test at 60 and 80% V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak, followed by a PRT protocol or a rested condition of equal duration (CON). The PRT protocol consisted of 3 sets of 5 repetitions at 85% 1RM for barbell squats, Romanian deadlifts, and barbell lunges; the same volume was used for resisted lateral lunges, box jumps, and depth jumps. Subjects completed another RE test immediately after the treatments and 24 hours later. Subjects followed an identical protocol 6 days later with condition assignment reversed. Running economy was determined by both relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (ml·kg·min) and energy expenditure (EE) (kcal·min). There was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) between-trial increase in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (37.1 ± 4.2 ml·kg·min PRT vs. 35.5 ± 3.9 ml·kg·min CON) and EE (11.4 ± 1.3 kcal·min PRT vs. 11.0 ± 1.4 kcal·min CON) immediately after PRT at 60% V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak, but no significant changes were observed at 80% V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak. Respiratory exchange ratio was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced 24 hours after PRT (0.93 ± 0.0) as compared to the CON trial (0.96 ± 0.0) at 80% V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak. Results indicate that high-intensity PRT may acutely impair RE in aerobically trained individuals at a moderate running intensity, but that the attenuation lasts less than 24 hours in duration.

  9. Exercise in myasthenia gravis: A feasibility study of aerobic and resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Mikkelsen, Erik Elgaard; Overgaard, Kristian; Vinge, Lotte; Andersen, Henning; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-10-01

    It has not been established whether progressive resistance training (PRT) and aerobic training (AT) are feasible and efficient in myasthenia gravis (MG). Fifteen subjects with generalized MG (Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) clinical classification II-IV) were randomly assigned to 20 training sessions during 8 weeks of either PRT or AT. Feasibility was evaluated based on adherence, drop-out rate, adverse events, and Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis (QMG) score. Twelve subjects (MGFA II, n = 11; MGFA III, n=1) completed the intervention with a mean adherence of 95 % ± 8. One dropout (PRT) could potentially be related to PRT. Both groups reported adverse events, including bulbar symptoms (n = 2) and increased fatigue (n = 3), but no change in QMG score was observed in either group. The PRT group showed increases in maximal strength and functional capacity. Eight weeks of moderate to high intensity AT and PRT were feasible for most patients with mild MG. Maximal strength and functional capacity increased in the PRT group. Muscle Nerve 56: 700-709, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Eight Weeks of Phosphatidic Acid Supplementation in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does Not Differentially Affect Body Composition and Muscle Strength in Resistance-Trained Men

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    Thomas L. Andre, Joshua J. Gann, Sarah K. McKinley-Barnard, Joon J. Song, Darryn S. Willoughby

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the effects of eight weeks of resistance training (RT combined with phosphatidic acid (PA supplementation at a dose of either 250 mg or 375 mg on body composition and muscle size and strength. Twenty-eight resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to ingest 375 mg [PA375 (n = 9] or 250 mg [PA250 (n = 9] of PA or 375 mg of placebo [PLC (n = 10] daily for eight weeks with RT. Supplements were ingested 60 minutes prior to RT and in the morning on non-RT days. Participants’ body composition, muscle size, and lower-body muscle strength were determined before and after training/supplementation. Separate group x time ANOVAs for each criterion variable were used employing an alpha level of ≤ 0.05. Magnitude- based inferences were utilized to determine the likely or unlikely impact of PA on each criterion variable. A significant main effect for time was observed for improvements in total body mass (p = 0.003, lean mass (p = 0.008, rectus femoris cross-sectional area [RF CSA (p = 0.011], and lower-body strength (p 0.05. Collectively, magnitude-based inferences determined both doses of PA to have a likely impact of increasing body mass (74.2%, lean mass (71.3%, RF CSA (92.2%, and very likely impact on increasing lower-body strength (98.1% beneficial. When combined with RT, it appears that PA has a more than likely impact on improving lower-body strength, whereas a likely impact exists for increasing muscle size and lean mass.

  11. Effects of β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate-free Acid Supplementation on Strength, Power and Hormonal Adaptations Following Resistance Training

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    Abbas Asadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate-free acid (HMB-FA has been ingested prior to exercise to reduce muscle damage, however the effects of HMB-FA supplementation on hormonal, strength and power adaptation are unclear. Methods: Sixteen healthy men were matched and randomized into two groups and performed six-week resistance training while supplementing with either HMB-FA or placebo (3 g per day. The subjects were evaluated for 1 repetition maximum (1RM bench press and leg press and vertical jump (VJ prior to and after training intervention. In addition, blood samples were obtained before and after resistance training to evaluate resting growth hormone (GH, insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, testosterone (TEST, cortisol (CORT, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH responses. The HMB-FA supplementation group showed greater gains compared with the placebo group in peak power (effect size ES = 0.26 vs. 0.01 and 1RM leg press (ES = 1.52 vs. 0.96. In addition, the HMB-FA supplementation group indicated greater decrements in ACTH and CORT responses to training in comparison to the placebo group (p < 0.05. Likewise, in GH (ES = 1.41 vs. 0.12 and IGF-1 (ES = 0.83 vs. 0.41, the HMB-FA indicated greater training effects when compared with the placebo group. Conclusions: These findings provide further support for the potential anabolic benefits associated with HMB-FA supplementation.

  12. The supervisor as gender analyst: feminist perspectives on group supervision and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenholtz-Read, J

    1996-10-01

    Supervision and training groups have advantages over dyadic supervision and training that include factors to promote group learning and interaction within a sociocultural context. This article focuses on the gender aspects of group supervision and training. It provides a review of feminist theoretical developments and presents their application to group supervision and training in the form of eight guidelines that are illustrated by clinical examples.

  13. The Effect of 10 Weeks Resistance Training on Cholesterol and Blood Triglyceride Levels of Patients with Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Rohollah; Hosseini Askarabadi, Siroos; Karampour, Sedigheh; Abdolhamid Tehrani, Mona

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to consider the effect of 10 weeks resistance trainings on cholesterol and blood triglyceride (TG) levels of patients with having fatty liver, aged 50 to 60 in National Iranian South Oil Company (NISOC). This research is practical and its plan has been done experimentally with pretest and post-test on experimental and control groups. In this study, 20 samples from 100 patients who referred to sonography clinic in NISOC with distinction of fatty liver were selected randomly and divided into two groups of control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 10). Cholesterol and blood trigly-ceride were measured as pretest. Test of normality for TG was (p = 0/200) by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and (p = 0/070) for cholesterol by Shapiro-Wilk test. After 10 weeks resistance trainings, the analysis and resolution of data were done by computer and SPSS (16) software as well as the descriptive and statistical methods (t-test). Comparison between these two groups showed that 8 weeks resistance trainings with a ≤ 0.05 causes significant decrease in the amount of TG but did not any significant effect on cholesterol of fatty liver patients. How to cite this article: Valizadeh R, Askarabadi SH, Karampour S, Tehrani MA. The Effect of 10 Weeks Resistance Training on Cholesterol and Blood Triglyceride Levels of Patients with Fatty Liver Disease. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):64-65.

  14. Effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation on anthropometric measurements & muscular strength in healthy males following chronic resistance training

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    Saghar Eslami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, changes of anthropometric measurements and muscular strength were studied after chronic resistance exercise and gamma oryzanol supplementation in 30 healthy volunteers (16 in supplement and 14 in placebo. Each day, gamma oryzanol supplement (600 mg and placebo (the same amount of lactose were consumed after training. The participants exercised with 80 per cent 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM, for one hour and four days/week. Anthropometric measurements and subjects′ 1-RM for muscular strength were determined at the commencement and end of the 9-week study. Results: There was no significant difference between the baseline characteristics and target variables at baseline between the two groups. After gamma oryzanol supplementation, there was no significant difference in the means of anthropometric and skin fold measurements between the supplement and placebo groups. However, there were significant differences between the supplement and placebo groups for 1-RM of bench press and leg curl, which showed that gamma oryzanol improved muscle strength following resistance training. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that 600 mg/day gamma oryzanol supplementation during the 9-week resistance training did not change anthropometric and body measurements, but it increased muscular strength in young healthy males. Further, studies need to be done

  15. Progressive resistance training in elderly hiv-positive patients: does it work?

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    Paula Maria Loiola de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elderly people present alterations in body composition and physical fitness, compromising their quality of life. Chronic diseases, including HIV/AIDS, worsen this situation. Resistance exercises are prescribed to improve fitness and promote healthier and independent aging. Recovery of strength and physical fitness is the goal of exercise in AIDS wasting syndrome. OBJECTIVE: This study describes a case series of HIV-positive elderly patients who participated in a progressive resistance training program and evaluates their body composition, muscular strength, physical fitness and the evolution of CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts. METHODS: Subjects were prospectively recruited for nine months. The training program consisted of three sets of 8-12 repetitions of leg press, seated row, lumbar extension and chest press, performed with free weight machines hts, twice/week for one year. Infectious disease physicians followed patients and reported all relevant clinical data. Body composition was assessed by anthropometric measures and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry before and after the training program. RESULTS: Fourteen patients, aged 62-71 years old, of both genders, without regular physical activity who had an average of nine years of HIV/AIDS history were enrolled. The strengths of major muscle groups increased (74%-122%, p=0.003-0.021 with a corresponding improvement in sit-standing and walking 2.4 m tests (p=0.003. There were no changes in clinical conditions and body composition measures, but triceps and thigh skinfolds were significantly reduced (p=0.037. In addition, there were significant increases in the CD4+ counts (N=151 cells; p=0.008 and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio (0.63 to 0.81, p=0.009. CONCLUSION: Resistance training increased strength, improved physical fitness, reduced upper and lower limb skinfolds, and were associated with an improvement in the CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ counts in HIV positive elderly patients without significant side effects.

  16. The Effect of 10 Weeks of Resistance Training on Serum Myostatin and Body Composition Levels in Obese Adolescents

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    Mohammad ebrahim Bahram

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Studies are indicative of negative regulatory role of myostatin in skeletal muscle growth. In the present study, the effect of 10 weeks of resistance training was investigated on serum level of myostatin and body composition in obese adolescents. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 16 students of Mohammad Naraghi Technical and Vocational Institute of Kashan with body mass index of 30-35, were purposefully selected and randomly divided into two groups of experimental and control. Resistance training program included 3 sets of 8-10 reps with 50-90% 1RM for 3 days a week. Before starting the training program and 48 h after the last training session, blood samples were taken from all participants. Before and after the training, plasma level of myostatin were measured. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, dependent t-, and independent t-tests at significance level of p<0.05. Results: In this study, 10 weeks of resistance training resulted in a significant decrease in serum level of myostatin (p=0.0001, weight (p=0.015, body mass index (p=0.02, and fat percentage (p=0.0001 in the experimental group as compared to the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to the findings of the current study, it can be concluded that resistance training-induced changes reduce myostatin level and some anthropometric parameters related to obesity and overweight, which may be effective in the prevention of muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, and can play a role as an autocrine mechanism for guiding mechanical load stimuli in response to the growth of skeletal muscle.

  17. The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation in older adults during resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Whitney R D; Chilibeck, Philip D; Rooke, Julianne J; Kaviani, Mojtaba; Krentz, Joel R; Haines, Deborah M

    2014-06-01

    Bovine colostrum is the first milk secreted by cows after parturition and has high levels of protein, immunoglobulins, and various growth factors. We determined the effects of 8 weeks of bovine colostrum supplementation versus whey protein during resistance training in older adults. Males (N = 15, 59.1 ± 5.4 y) and females (N = 25, 59.0 ± 6.7 y) randomly received (double-blind) 60 g/d of colostrum or whey protein complex (containing 38 g protein) while participating in a resistance training program (12 exercises, 3 sets of 8-12 reps, 3 days/ week). Strength (bench press and leg press 1-RM), body composition (by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), muscle thickness of the biceps and quadriceps (by ultrasound), cognitive function (by questionnaire), plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and C-reactive protein (CRP, as a marker of inflammation), and urinary N-telopeptides (Ntx, a marker of bone resorption) were determined before and after the intervention. Participants on colostrum increased leg press strength (24 ± 29 kg; p < .01) to a greater extent than participants on whey protein (8 ± 16 kg) and had a greater reduction in Ntx compared with participants on whey protein (-15 ± 40% vs. 10 ± 42%; p < .05). Bench press strength, muscle thickness, lean tissue mass, bone mineral content, and cognitive scores increased over time (p < .05) with no difference between groups. There were no changes in IGF-1 or CRP. Colostrum supplementation during resistance training was beneficial for increasing leg press strength and reducing bone resorption in older adults. Both colostrum and whey protein groups improved upper body strength, muscle thickness, lean tissue mass, and cognitive function.

  18. 16 Weeks of Training with the International Space Station Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) Is not Different than Training with Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. E.; Leach, M.; Bentley, J.; Nash, R.; Hagan, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    The advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) is a resistive exercise system designed to maintain muscle mass and strength in microgravity by simulating free weight (FW) exercise. aRED utilizes vacuum cylinders and inertial flywheels to replicate the constant mass and inertial components, respectively, of FW exercise in normal gravity. PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of aRED and FW resistive exercise training in ambulatory subjects. METHODS: Untrained subjects were assigned to two groups, FW (6 males, 3 females) and aRED (8 males, 3 females), and performed squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift (DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR and DL strength (1RM) were measured using FW hardware pre-, mid- and post-training. Subjects participated in a periodized training protocol with the exercise prescription based on a percentage of 1RM. Thigh and lower leg muscle volume were assessed using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and leg (LLM) and total body lean mass (BLM) were measured using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) pre- and post-training. RESULTS: SQ 1RM increased in both FW (48.9+/-6.1%) and aRED (31.2+/-3.8%) groups, and there was a greater training response in FW compared with aRED (p=0.01). HR and DL 1RM increased in FW (HR: 12.3+/-2.4%, DL: 23.3+/-4.4%) and aRED (HR: 18.0+/-1.6%, DL: 23.2+'-2.8%), but there were no differences between groups. Thigh muscle volume was greater following training in both groups (FW: 9.8+/-0.9%, aRED: 7.1+/-1.2%) but lower leg muscle volume increased only in the FW group (3.0+/-1.1%). Lean tissue mass increased in both FW (LLM: 3.9+/-1.1%, BLM: 2.5+/-0.7%) and aRED (LLM: 4.8+/-0.7%, BLM: 2.6 0.7%). There were no between group differences in muscle volume or lean mass in response to training. CONCLUSIONS: In general, the increase in muscle strength, muscle volume, and lean tissue mass when training with aRED was not different than when using the same training protocol with FW. The smaller increase in SQ 1RM in the a

  19. Effect of Resistance Exercise Training Associated with Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy on Serum Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in STZ-induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Molanouri Shamsi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with type 1 diabetes. Effects of resistance exercise training associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy on serum inflammatory cytokines was exactly not clarified. Protein levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β in serum of healthy and streptozotocin (STZ- induced diabetic rats subjected to resistance exercise training were assessed in this study. Rats were divided into the control, training, control diabetic and diabetic training groups. Training groups performed the resistance training consisted of climbing a 1 m ladder with increasing weight added to the tail. Proteins levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β in serum were measured by the ELIZA method. The results of this study indicated that resistance training induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy in diabetic samples (P<0.05. Also, Resistance training decrease IL-6 protein levels in serum. Inflammatory cytokines could act as stress factors in diabetes. It seems that this kind of exercise training individually could not change cytokines levels in serum.

  20. Metabolic effects of resistance or high-intensity interval training among glycemic control-nonresponsive children with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, C; Ramírez-Campillo, R; Ramírez-Vélez, R; Martínez, C; Castro-Sepúlveda, M; Alonso-Martínez, A; Izquierdo, M

    2018-01-01

    Little evidence exists on which variables of body composition or muscular strength mediates more glucose control improvements taking into account inter-individual metabolic variability to different modes of exercise training. We examined 'mediators' to the effects of 6-weeks of resistance training (RT) or high-intensity interval training (HIT) on glucose control parameters in physically inactive schoolchildren with insulin resistance (IR). Second, we also determined both training-induce changes and the prevalence of responders (R) and non-responders (NR) to decrease the IR level. Fifty-six physically inactive children diagnosed with IR followed a RT or supervised HIT program for 6 weeks. Participants were classified based on ΔHOMA-IR into glycemic control R (decrease in homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) training-induced changes to glucose control parameters; and third the report of R and NR to improve body composition, cardiovascular, metabolic and performance variables. Mediation analysis revealed that improvements (decreases) in abdominal fat by the waist circumference can explain more the effects (decreases) of HOMA-IR in physically inactive schoolchildren under RT or HIT regimes. The same analysis showed that increased one-maximum repetition leg-extension was correlated with the change in HOMA-IR (β=-0.058; P=0.049). Furthermore, a change in the waist circumference fully mediated the dose-response relationship between changes in the leg-extension strength and HOMA-IR (β'=-0.004; P=0.178). RT or HIT were associated with significant improvements in body composition, muscular strength, blood pressure and cardiometabolic parameters irrespective of improvement in glycemic control response. Both glucose control RT-R and HIT-R (respectively), had significant improvements in mean HOMA-IR, mean muscular strength leg-extension and mean measures of adiposity. The improvements in the lower body strength and the decreases in waist circumference can explain more

  1. Effects of Weight Resistance Training on Swimmers with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Víquez Ulate y Andrea Mora Campos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of weight resistance training on strength in swimmers with Down Syndrome (DS. Seven swimmers with DS participated in the study: 6 men and 1 woman, 23.14 years of age ± 4.59 and with 6.14 years ± 2.34 years of swimming. Instruments: One repetition maximum (RM test to determine the individual’s maximum muscular strength. Procedure: the study was conducted for 10 weeks (2 weeks at baseline, 6 weeks of treatment and 2 weeks to see the effects of retention. Results: significantly positive changes were detected in the maximum strength of pectoral muscles (F=5.768; p=0.006, dorsal muscles (F = 26.770; p=7.45e-007, femoral biceps (F = 32.530; p=1.76e-007, quadriceps (F = 8.391; p=0.001, triceps (F = 11.217; p=0.0002 and these adjustments were maintained with no significant changes for two weeks, while the biceps muscle (F=4.145; p=0.021 behaved differently since it suffered no significant adjustments during the program.

  2. Differential Effects of Heavy Versus Moderate Loads on Measures of Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Peterson, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate muscular adaptations between heavy- and moderate-load resistance training (RT) with all other variables controlled between conditions. Nineteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a strength-type RT routine (HEAVY) that trained in a loading range of 2-4 repetitions per set (n = 10) or a hypertrophy-type RT routine (MODERATE) that trained in a loading range of 8-12 repetitions per set (n = 9). Training was carried out 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Both groups performed 3 sets of 7 exercises for the major muscle groups of the upper and lower body. Subjects were tested pre- and post-study for: 1 repetition maximum (RM) strength in the bench press and squat, upper body muscle endurance, and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, elbow extensors, and lateral thigh. Results showed statistically greater increases in 1RM squat strength favoring HEAVY compared to MODERATE. Alternatively, statistically greater increases in lateral thigh muscle thickness were noted for MODERATE versus HEAVY. These findings indicate that heavy load training is superior for maximal strength goals while moderate load training is more suited to hypertrophy-related goals when an equal number of sets are performed between conditions.

  3. Differential Effects of Heavy Versus Moderate Loads on Measures of Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Schoenfeld, Bret Contreras, Andrew D. Vigotsky, Mark Peterson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate muscular adaptations between heavy- and moderate-load resistance training (RT with all other variables controlled between conditions. Nineteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a strength-type RT routine (HEAVY that trained in a loading range of 2-4 repetitions per set (n = 10 or a hypertrophy-type RT routine (MODERATE that trained in a loading range of 8-12 repetitions per set (n = 9. Training was carried out 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Both groups performed 3 sets of 7 exercises for the major muscle groups of the upper and lower body. Subjects were tested pre- and post-study for: 1 repetition maximum (RM strength in the bench press and squat, upper body muscle endurance, and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, elbow extensors, and lateral thigh. Results showed statistically greater increases in 1RM squat strength favoring HEAVY compared to MODERATE. Alternatively, statistically greater increases in lateral thigh muscle thickness were noted for MODERATE versus HEAVY. These findings indicate that heavy load training is superior for maximal strength goals while moderate load training is more suited to hypertrophy-related goals when an equal number of sets are performed between conditions.

  4. Comparisons of low-intensity versus moderate-intensity combined aerobic and resistance training on body composition, muscle strength, and functional performance in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotsu, Yoko; Yanagita, Masahiko

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training into the same session on body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength in healthy older women. Furthermore, this study compared the effects of different (low- vs moderate-) intensity combined training. A total of 60 healthy older women (age 61-81 y) were randomly assigned to five groups that performed aerobic exercise before low-intensity resistance training (AR-L, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-L, n = 12), performed aerobic exercise before moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-M, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-M, n = 12), or nonintervention control conditions (CON, n = 12). Body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength were evaluated before and after the 10-week training. No effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-L vs RA-L, AR-M vs RA-M) were observed in body composition, functional performance, or muscle strength, whereas the effects of training intensity of combined training (AR-L vs AR-M, RA-L vs RA-M) were observed on functional performance. All combined trainings significantly increased muscle strength and gait ability (P Functional reach test significantly increased in the AR-M and RA-M groups (P training increases muscle strength and improves gait ability, regardless of the exercise order. Also, greater improvement in dynamic balance capacity, a risk factor associated with falling, is observed in moderate-intensity combined training.

  5. A randomized 9-month study of blood pressure and body fat responses to aerobic training versus combined aerobic and resistance training in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Nelson; Mendes, Romeu; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime; Oliveira, José

    2013-08-01

    This randomized study evaluated the impact of different exercise training modalities on blood pressure and body fat responses in apparently healthy older men. Forty-eight elderly men (aged 65-75 years) were randomly assigned to an aerobic training group (ATG, n=15), a combined aerobic and resistance training group (CTG, n=16), or a control group (n=17). Both exercise training programs were moderate-to-vigorous intensity, three days/week for 9-months. Strength, aerobic endurance, body fat and blood pressure were measured on five different occasions. The data were analyzed using a mixed-model ANOVA, and the independence between systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and group was tested. A significant main effect of group (pendurance, with higher performance observed in the CTG. A significant main effect of group (ptraining programs reduce resting blood pressure. However, only the combined exercise training was effective at reducing body fat percentage; consequently, there were larger changes in blood pressure, which result in a significant reduction in hypertensive subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effectiveness of multimedia visual perceptual training groups for the preschool children with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Nan; Lin, Chin-Kai; Wei, Ta-Sen; Liu, Chi-Hsin; Wuang, Yee-Pay

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of three approaches to improving visual perception among preschool children 4-6 years old with developmental delays: multimedia visual perceptual group training, multimedia visual perceptual individual training, and paper visual perceptual group training. A control group received no special training. This study employed a pretest-posttest control group of true experimental design. A total of 64 children 4-6 years old with developmental delays were randomized into four groups: (1) multimedia visual perceptual group training (15 subjects); (2) multimedia visual perceptual individual training group (15 subjects); paper visual perceptual group training (19 subjects); and (4) a control group (15 subjects) with no visual perceptual training. Forty minute training sessions were conducted once a week for 14 weeks. The Test of Visual Perception Skills, third edition, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. Paired-samples t-test showed significant differences pre- and post-test among the three groups, but no significant difference was found between the pre-test and post-test scores among the control group. ANOVA results showed significant differences in improvement levels among the four study groups. Scheffe post hoc test results showed significant differences between: group 1 and group 2; group 1 and group 3; group 1 and the control group; and group 2 and the control group. No significant differences were reported between group 2 and group 3, and group 3 and the control group. The results showed all three therapeutic programs produced significant differences between pretest and posttest scores. The training effect on the multimedia visual perceptual group program and the individual program was greater than the developmental effect Both the multimedia visual perceptual group training program and the multimedia visual perceptual individual training program produced significant effects on visual perception. The

  7. Creatine supplementation elicits greater muscle hypertrophy in upper than lower limbs and trunk in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Ribeiro, Alex S; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Tomeleri, Crisieli M; Avelar, Ademar; Trindade, Michele Cc; Nabuco, Hellen Cg; Cavalcante, Edilaine F; Junior, Paulo Sugihara; Fernandes, Rodrigo R; Carvalho, Ferdinando O; Cyrino, Edilson S

    2017-12-01

    Creatine (Cr) supplementation associated with resistance training produces greater muscular strength improvements in the upper compared with the lower body; however, no study has investigated if such region-specific results are seen with gains in muscle mass. We aimed to evaluate the effect of Cr supplementation in combination with resistance training on lean soft tissue changes in the upper and lower limbs and trunk in resistance-trained young adult men. In a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled design, 43 resistance-trained men (22.7 ± 3.0 years, 72.9 ± 8.7 kg, 177.9 ± 5.7 cm, 23.0 ± 2.5 kg/m 2 ) received either creatine (Cr, n = 22) or placebo (PLA, n = 21) over an 8-week study period. The supplementation protocol included a loading phase (7 days, four doses of 0.3 g/kg per day) and a maintenance phase (7 weeks, single dose of 0.03 g/kg per day). During the same period, subjects performed resistance training four times per week using the following two-way split routine: Monday and Thursday = pectoral, shoulders, triceps, and abdomen, Tuesday and Friday = back, biceps, thighs, and calves. Lean soft tissue of the upper limbs (ULLST), lower limbs (LLLST), and trunk (TLST) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after the intervention. Both groups showed significant ( p hypertrophy (ULLST = 1.6 ± 3.0%; LLLST = 0.7 ± 2.8%; TLST = 0.7 ± 2.8%). Our results suggest that Cr supplementation can positively augment muscle hypertrophy in resistance-trained young adult men, particularly in the upper limbs.

  8. High-speed resistance training is more effective than low-speed resistance training to increase functional capacity and muscle performance in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Castillo, Angélica; de la Fuente, Carlos I; Campos-Jara, Christian; Andrade, David C; Álvarez, Cristian; Martínez, Cristian; Castro-Sepúlveda, Mauricio; Pereira, Ana; Marques, Mário C; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-10-01

    To examine the effects of 12 weeks of high-speed resistance training (RT) versus low-speed RT on muscle strength [one repetition of maximum leg-press (1RMLP) and bench-press (1RMBP), plus dominant (HGd) and non-dominant maximum isometric handgrip], power [counter-movement jump (CMJ), ball throwing (BT) and 10-m walking sprint (S10)], functional performance [8-foot up-and-go test (UG) and sit-to-stand test (STS)], and perceived quality of life in older women. 45 older women were divided into a high-speed RT group [EG, n=15, age=66.3±3.7y], a low-speed RT group [SG, n=15, age=68.7±6.4y] and a control group [CG, n=15, age=66.7±4.9y]. The SG and EG were submitted to a similar 12-week RT program [3 sets of 8 reps at 40-75% of the one-repetition maximum (1work per exercise without CMJ and BT). Over the 12-week training period, both RT groups showed small to large clinically significant improvements in the dependent variables; however, a significant difference was found between the EG and SG for the performance changes in BT, S10 and UG (20% vs. 11%, pperformance and quality of life in older women, although a high-speed RT program induces greater improvements in muscle power and functional capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians: cluster randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Jakobsen, Markus D; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians.......To determine the effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians....

  10. The efficacy of early initiated, supervised, progressive resistance training compared to unsupervised, home-based exercise after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Bo; Bogh, Søren B; Kierkegaard, Signe

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if supervised progressive resistance training was superior to home-based exercise in rehabilitation after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. DESIGN: Single blinded, randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Surgery, progressive resistance training and testing was carried out...

  11. Inflammation relates to resistance training-induced hypertrophy in elderly patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norheim, Kristoffer L.; Cullum, Christopher K.; Andersen, Jesper L.

    2017-01-01

    on the relationship between systemic inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and changes in muscle mass, as well as the influence of resistance training upon muscle mass. Method: Unilateral leg press resistance exercise was conducted daily during the hospital period. Outcomes included changes in whole body...... although our findings are potentially affected by changes in hydration status. Resistance training during hospitalization increases skeletal muscle mass, and patients with high levels of systemic inflammation demonstrate less ability to increase or preserve muscle mass in response to resistance training...... = 84.8 T 1.9 yr, mean T SE). Lean mass at the midthigh region of the trained leg increased by 2.4% T 1.1% (P G 0.05) after the intervention period. There was a negative association between changes in midthigh lean mass of the trained leg and CRP (rs = j0.53, P G 0.05). Leg extension power increased...

  12. Three and six grams supplementation of d-aspartic acid in resistance trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Geoffrey W; Siegler, Jason C; Marshall, Paul Wm

    2015-01-01

    Although abundant research has investigated the hormonal effects of d-aspartic acid in rat models, to date there is limited research on humans. Previous research has demonstrated increased total testosterone levels in sedentary men and no significant changes in hormonal levels in resistance trained men. It was hypothesised that a higher dosage may be required for experienced lifters, thus this study investigated the effects of two different dosages of d-aspartic acid on basal hormonal levels in resistance trained men and explored responsiveness to d-aspartic acid based on initial testosterone levels. Twenty-four males, with a minimum of two years' experience in resistance training, (age, 24.5 ± 3.2 y; training experience, 3.4 ± 1.4 y; height, 178.5 ± 6.5 cm; weight, 84.7 ± 7.2 kg; bench press 1-RM, 105.3 ± 15.2 kg) were randomised into one of three groups: 6 g.d(-1) plain flour (D0); 3 g.d(-1) of d-aspartic acid (D3); and 6 g.d(-1) of d-aspartic acid (D6). Participants performed a two-week washout period, training four days per week. This continued through the experimental period (14 days), with participants consuming the supplement in the morning. Serum was analysed for levels of testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, albumin and free testosterone was determined by calculation. D-aspartic acid supplementation revealed no main effect for group in: estradiol; sex-hormone-binding-globulin; and albumin. Total testosterone was significantly reduced in D6 (P = 0.03). Analysis of free testosterone showed that D6 was significantly reduced as compared to D0 (P = 0.005), but not significantly different to D3. Analysis did not reveal any significant differences between D3 and D0. No significant correlation between initial total testosterone levels and responsiveness to d-aspartic acid was observed (r = 0.10, P = 0.70). The present study demonstrated that a daily dose of six grams of d-aspartic acid decreased

  13. Comparison of the effectiveness of resistance training in women with chronic computer-related neck pain: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Lin, Caina; Liu, Cuicui; Ke, Songjian; Wan, Qing; Luo, Haijie; Huang, Zhuxi; Xin, Wenjun; Ma, Chao; Wu, Shaoling

    2017-10-01

    Chronic computer-related neck pain is common among office workers. Studies have proposed neck strengthening exercise as a therapy to pain relieving and function improvement. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of different loading resistance trainings and we hypothesized that women with work-related neck pain could benefit more from progressive resistance training for pain and function recovery. A randomized controlled trial was conducted and subjects characterized by monotonous jobs were recruited. One hundred and nine employed women with chronic neck pain were randomly allocated into three groups, namely, progressive resistance training (PRT), fixed resistance training (FRT), and control group (CG). In PRT and FRT, four exercises for neck muscles with an elastic rubber band were performed on regular basis for 6 weeks. The therapeutic effectiveness was then evaluated at pretreatment, 2, 4, and 6 weeks during training period, and 3-month posttreatment. Assessment tools included visual analog scale (VAS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and maximal isometric neck strength. The outcomes were significantly better in PRT and FRT than those in CG at 6-week timepoint and 3-month follow-up (p = 0.000), in terms of VAS, NDI, PPT, and neck muscle strength. Besides, there were statistically significant decreases observed in VAS scores of PRT group compared with those in FRT at 4-, 6-week timepoints, and 3-month follow-up (p training was an effective method for pain relieving, mobility improving, pain threshold, and neck muscle strength enhancing in women with chronic computer-related neck pain. Thus, our study provided evidence that women with work-related neck pain might benefit more from PRT, which may have important implications for future clinical practice. The study was qualified and registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry as ChiCTR-TRC-12002723.

  14. Effects of Glutamine and Alanine Supplementation on Central Fatigue Markers in Rats Submitted to Resistance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Yule Coqueiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that increased brain serotonin synthesis impairs performance in high-intensity intermittent exercise and specific amino acids may modulate this condition, delaying fatigue. This study investigated the effects of glutamine and alanine supplementation on central fatigue markers in rats submitted to resistance training (RT. Wistar rats were distributed in: sedentary (SED, trained (CON, trained and supplemented with alanine (ALA, glutamine and alanine in their free form (G + A, or as dipeptide (DIP. Trained groups underwent a ladder-climbing exercise for eight weeks, with progressive loads. In the last 21 days, supplementations were offered in water with a 4% concentration. Albeit without statistically significance difference, RT decreased liver glycogen, and enhanced the concentrations of plasma glucose, free fatty acids (FFA, hypothalamic serotonin, and ammonia in muscle and the liver. Amino acids affected fatigue parameters depending on the supplementation form. G + A prevented the muscle ammonia increase by RT, whereas ALA and DIP augmented ammonia and glycogen concentrations in muscle. DIP also increased liver ammonia. ALA and G + A reduced plasma FFA, whereas DIP increased this parameter, free tryptophan/total tryptophan ratio, hypothalamic serotonin, and the serotonin/dopamine ratio. The supplementations did not affect physical performance. In conclusion, glutamine and alanine may improve or impair central fatigue markers depending on their supplementation form.

  15. The effect of Punica granatum L. along with aerobic training on resistin, serum adiponectin and insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Abdi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Factors secreted from adipocytes, such as resistin and adiponectin can affect peripheral insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and pomegranate, which has both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties can affect resistin and adiponectin. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Punica granatum L. along with aerobic training on serum resistin, adiponectin and insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this study, 33 diabetic women with type 2 diabetes were selected from Babol city and were randomly divided into four groups (control, P. granatum L., training and P. granatum L.+ training. The training groups participated in an aerobic training for six weeks, three sessions a week (60% to 75% of the reserved heart rate and for 25 to 45 min. The control groups of P. granatum L. and P. granatum L. + training were fed 150 mL of P. granatum L. for six weeks (at about 18 p.m. Two days before and after the protocol, blood samples were taken. Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference in the serum resistin levels among the three experimental groups. Also, the results showed a significant difference between adiponectin levels and insulin resistance in four groups. Conclusions: It seems that aerobic training and P. granatum L. and combination of both can have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on reduction of adiponectin and insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes.

  16. Effectiveness of Group Training of Assertiveness on Social Anxiety among Deaf and Hard of Hearing Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Hamed; Daramadi, Parviz Sharifi; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Givtaj, Hamed; Sani, Mohammad Reza Mahmoudian

    2017-06-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of assertiveness group training on social anxiety (SAD) between deaf and hearing impaired adolescents. Forty eight (24 deaf and 24 hearing impaired) people participated in this study. First, participants with SAD, i.e. attaining the scores above 40 for Connor's Social Inventory Scale 2000 (SPIN), were selected according to convenience sampling and randomly assigned to two groups, i.e. intervention and control. Then, assertiveness group training was conducted for intervention group within 10 sessions, and immediately after completion of the training sessions, SPIN was re-administered to the two groups. ANCOVA showed that the effectiveness of assertiveness group training on SAD is different between deaf and hearing impaired participants, i.e. assertiveness group training was effective on improvement of SAD in hearing impaired participants but not deaf ones. Therefore, it is recommended to incorporate assertiveness group training in the educational programs developed for adolescents with ear disorders especially hearing impairment.

  17. Outcomes of exertional rhabdomyolysis following high-intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, A; Leong, K; Jones, N; Crump, N; Russell, D; Anderson, M; Steinfort, D; Johnson, D F

    2016-05-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HIRT) programmes are increasingly popular amongst personal trainers and those attending gymnasiums. We report the experience of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) at two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. To compare the clinical outcomes of ER with other causes of rhabdomyolysis. Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients presenting with a serum creatine kinase (CK) of greater than 25 000 units/L from 1 September 2013 to 31 August 2014 at two tertiary referral hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Records were examined to identify care measures implemented during hospital stay, clinical outcomes during admission and on subsequent follow up. Thirty four cases of rhabdomyolysis with a CK of greater than 25 000 units/L (normal range: 20-180 units/L) were identified during the 12-month study period. Twelve of the 34 cases (35%) had ER with 10 of 12 related to HIRT. No acute kidney injury, intensive care admission or death were seen among those with ER. All cases were managed conservatively, with 11 admitted and 9 receiving intravenous fluids only. In contrast, patients with rhabdomyolysis from other causes experienced significantly higher rates of intensive care admission (64%, P = 0.0002), acute kidney injury (82%, P = 0.0001) and death (27%, P = 0.069). ER resulting from HIRT appears to have a benign course compared with rhabdomyolysis of other aetiologies in patients with a serum CK greater than 25 000 units/L. Conservative management of ER appears to be adequate, although this requires confirmation in future prospective studies. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  18. Effects of Combined Creatine Plus Fenugreek Extract vs. Creatine Plus Carbohydrate Supplementation on Resistance Training Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lem; Poole, Chris; Pena, Earnest; Lewing, Morgan; Kreider, Richard; Foster, Cliffa; Wilborn, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined creatine and fenugreek extract supplementation on strength and body composition. Forty- seven resistance trained men were matched according to body weight to ingest either 70 g of a dextrose placebo (PL), 5 g creatine/70 g of dextrose (CRD) or 3.5 g creatine/900 mg fenugreek extract (CRF) and participate in a 4-d/wk periodized resistance-training program for 8-weeks. At 0, 4, and 8-weeks, subjects were tested on body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and anaerobic capacity. Statistical analyses utilized a separate 3X3 (condition [PL vs. CRD vs. CRF] x time [T1 vs. T2 vs. T3]) ANOVAs with repeated measures for all criterion variables (p ≤ 0.05). No group x time interaction effects or main effects (p > 0.05) were observed for any measures of body composition. CRF group showed significant increases in lean mass at T2 (p = 0.001) and T3 (p = 0.001). Bench press 1RM increased in PL group (p = 0.050) from T1-T3 and in CRD from T1-T2 (p = 0. 001) while remaining significant at T3 (p 0.05). In conclusion, creatine plus fenugreek extract supplementation had a significant impact on upper body strength and body composition as effectively as the combination of 5g of creatine with 70g of dextrose. Thus, the use of fenugreek with creatine supplementation may be an effective means for enhancing creatine uptake while eliminating the need for excessive amounts of simple carbohydrates. Key points Fenugreek plus creatine supplementation may be a new means of increasing creatine uptake. Creatine plus fenugreek seems to be just as effective as the classic creatine plus carbohydrate ingestion in terms of stimulating training adaptations. This is the first study to our knowledge that has combined fenugreek with creatine supplementation in conjunction with a resistance training program. PMID:24149869

  19. Early and late rate of force development: differential adaptive responses to resistance training?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L L; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Zebis, M K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle force. Fifteen healthy young......-intensity resistance training due to differential influences of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations on early and later phases of rising muscle force....... males participated in a 14-week resistance training intervention for the lower body and 10 matched subjects participated as controls. Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and RFD were measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from...

  20. Modeling the Responses to Resistance Training in an Animal Experiment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony G. Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test whether systems models of training effects on performance in athletes can be used to explore the responses to resistance training in rats. 11 Wistar Han rats (277 ± 15 g underwent 4 weeks of resistance training consisting in climbing a ladder with progressive loads. Training amount and performance were computed from total work and mean power during each training session. Three systems models relating performance to cumulated training bouts have been tested: (i with a single component for adaptation to training, (ii with two components to distinguish the adaptation and fatigue produced by exercise bouts, and (iii with an additional component to account for training-related changes in exercise-induced fatigue. Model parameters were fitted using a mixed-effects modeling approach. The model with two components was found to be the most suitable to analyze the training responses (R2=0.53; P<0.001. In conclusion, the accuracy in quantifying training loads and performance in a rodent experiment makes it possible to model the responses to resistance training. This modeling in rodents could be used in future studies in combination with biological tools for enhancing our understanding of the adaptive processes that occur during physical training.

  1. EPA Selects Lawrence, Mass. Group for Brownfields Job Training Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today, EPA announced that the Merrimack Valley Workforce Investment Board, of Lawrence, Mass., was one of 14 organizations nationwide selected to receive funding to operate environmental job training programs for local unemployed residents.

  2. Comparison the effects of one session aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of the coagulation markers of healthy young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Habibian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical training is a useful method to reduce disease of cardiovascular, but the effect of exercise on the coagulation system is under investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the response of one bout exhaustive aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of coagulation markers in healthy young women.Materials and Method: This quasi-experimental research was performed in 2009. Twenty trained volunteer female students of physical education Sari Azad university were selected objectively and availability. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups of aerobic (n=10 and resistance training (n=10. Aerobic group performed an exhaustive workout program on treadmill intensity 65 to75% Vo2max on treadmill. The resistance group completed three sets of 5-7 repetitions of six exercises at an intensity corresponding to 80% of 1RM. Following 12 to 14 hours of nightly fasting, venous blood samples (5 cc were collected pre, immediately after exercise and after 60 min of recovery and analyzed for PT, aPTT and fibrinogen. Participants were matched according to anthropometric measurements, age and Vo2max. Hypothesizes were tested by using independent t, repeated measures and post-hoc test (p 0.05. Results: Both the aerobic and resistance training groups, PT time (p<0.001 and aPTT time significantly decreased (p=0.006, p<0.001 respectively times between the two groups and the effect of resistant training on fibrinogen level immediately after exercise. Also aPTT time higher increased after recovery in comparison with baseline levels in aerobic (p=0.006 and resistance training groups (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in PT and aPTT was higher than aerobic training (p=0.0035.Conclusion: The results show that both of acute aerobic and or anaerobic exercise lead to small and transit coagulation system and increase in coagulation times

  3. Effects of resistance training exercise on cognitive performance in elderly individuals with memory impairment: results of a controlled trial

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    Alexandre Leopold Busse

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the effects of a resistance training programon cognitive performance and muscle strength in sedentaryelderly individuals with memory impairment. Methods: Thirty-onesedentary elderly persons with no dementia or depression wererandomly distributed into two groups: Physical Activity Group andControl Group. The resistance training exercise program lastednine months and consisted of three series of six exercises persession, carried out on lever-type equipment for approximatelyone hour, twice a week. Every three months, both groups weresubmitted to the following cognitive tests: Rivermead BehavioralMemory Test (RBMT, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAISDirect and Indirect Digit Span, Memory Complaints Scale, andCambridge Cognitive Test (CAMCOG. Results: After nine months,the group that did resistance exercises showed a significantincrease in the standardized RBMT score (p = 0.021 and in musclestrength (p < 0.001, with no significant difference in the otherparameters evaluated. Conclusions: These results indicate thatsupervised resistance exercises can improve memory performancein sedentary elderly individuals with prior memory compromise,besides increasing muscle strength.

  4. The Effect of HMB Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors after Four Weeks of Resistance Training in Amateur Athletes

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    Hamid Arazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional supplements have been widely used in order to enhance athletic performance and improve health. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors after 4 weeks of resistance training in athletes. Patients and Methods: In this double-blind study, 20 male athletes were selected through simple random sampling, were assigned to supplement and control groups, and participated in resistance training 3 sessions a week for 4 weeks. The supplement group consumed 3 g HMB supplement per day and the control group consumed the placebo (rice flour in this period. Before and after the test period, blood pressure was measured and fasting blood samples were obtained to determine blood lipids and hematological parameters. After all, paired and unpaired t-test were used to examine within and between group differences, respectively. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: After the training period, no significant differences were found between HMB and placebo groups regarding blood lipids, blood pressure, and hematological parameters. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that HMB supplementation was safe and did not result in any adverse effects. Thus, HMB can be used safely by human as an ergogenic aid for exercise training.

  5. Upper Extremity Muscle Volumes and Functional Strength After Resistance Training in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Melissa; Vidt, Meghan E.; Eggebeen, Joel D.; Simpson, W. Greg; Miller, Michael E.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Saul, Katherine R.

    2014-01-01

    Aging leads to a decline in strength and an associated loss of independence. The authors examined changes in muscle volume, maximum isometric joint moment, functional strength, and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) after resistance training (RT) in the upper extremity of older adults. They evaluated isometric joint moment and muscle volume as predictors of functional strength. Sixteen healthy older adults (average age 75 ± 4.3 yr) were randomized to a 6-wk upper extremity RT program or control group. The RT group increased 1RM significantly (p strength (p = .003), isometric shoulder-adduction moment (p = .041), elbow-flexor volume (p = .017), and shoulder-adductor volume (p = .009). Shoulder-muscle volumes and isometric moments were good predictors of functional strength. The authors conclude that shoulder strength is an important factor for performing functional reaching and pulling tasks and a key target for upper extremity RT interventions. PMID:22952203

  6. Resistance training alone reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals: meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Evitom Corrêa; Abrahin, Odilon; Ferreira, Ana Lorena Lima; Rodrigues, Rejane Pequeno; Alves, Erik Artur Cortinhas; Vieira, Rodolfo Paula

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training alone on the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Our meta-analysis, followed the guidelines of PRISMA. The search for articles was realized by November 2016 using the following electronic databases: BIREME, PubMed, Cochrane Library, LILACS and SciELO and a search strategy that included the combination of titles of medical affairs and terms of free text to the key concepts: 'hypertension' 'hypertensive', 'prehypertensive', 'resistance training', 'strength training', and 'weight-lifting'. These terms were combined with a search strategy to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and identified a total of 1608 articles: 644 articles BIREME, 53 SciELO, 722 PubMed, 122 Cochrane Library and 67 LILACS. Of these, five RCTs met the inclusion criteria and provided data on 201 individuals. The results showed significant reductions for systolic blood pressure (-8.2 mm Hg CI -10.9 to -5.5;I 2 : 22.5% P valor for heterogeneity=0.271 and effect size=-0.97) and diastolic blood pressure (-4.1 mm Hg CI -6.3 to -1.9; I 2 : 46.5% P valor for heterogeneity=0.113 and effect size=-0.60) when compared to group control. In conclusion, resistance training alone reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects. The RCTs studies that investigated the effects of resistance training alone in prehypertensive and hypertensive patients support the recommendation of resistance training as a tool for management of systemic hypertension.

  7. Effects of high-intensity interval cycling performed after resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitkanou, S; Spengos, K; Stasinaki, A-N; Zaras, N; Bogdanis, G; Papadimas, G; Terzis, G

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week). Muscle strength and quadriceps CSA were significantly and similarly increased after both interventions. Fiber CSA increased significantly and similarly after both RE (type I: 13.6 ± 3.7%, type IIA: 17.6 ± 4.4%, type IIX: 23.2 ± 5.7%, P high-intensity interval cycling performed after heavy-resistance exercise may not inhibit resistance exercise-induced muscle strength/hypertrophy after 2 months of training, while it prompts aerobic capacity and muscle capillarization. The addition of high-intensity cycling after heavy-resistance exercise may decrease RFD partly due to muscle architectural changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Resistance training for activity limitations in older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits: a systematic review

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    Papa EV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evan V Papa,1 Xiaoyang Dong,2 Mahdi Hassan1 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Physical Therapy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA Abstract: Human aging results in a variety of changes to skeletal muscle. Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of muscle mass and is one of the main contributors to musculoskeletal impairments in the elderly. Previous research has demonstrated that resistance training can attenuate skeletal muscle function deficits in older adults, however few articles have focused on the effects of resistance training on functional mobility. The purpose of this systematic review was to 1 present the current state of literature regarding the effects of resistance training on functional mobility outcomes for older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits and 2 provide clinicians with practical guidelines that can be used with seniors during resistance training, or to encourage exercise. We set forth evidence that resistance training can attenuate age-related changes in functional mobility, including improvements in gait speed, static and dynamic balance, and fall risk reduction. Older adults should be encouraged to participate in progressive resistance training activities, and should be admonished to move along a continuum of exercise from immobility, toward the recommended daily amounts of activity. Keywords: aging, strength training, sarcopenia, mobility, balance

  9. A Scientific Rationale to Improve Resistance Training Prescription in Exercise Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, Ciaran M; Zourdos, Michael C; Helms, Eric R; Focht, Brian C

    2017-08-01

    To date, the prevailing evidence in the field of exercise oncology supports the safety and efficacy of resistance training to attenuate many oncology treatment-related adverse effects, such as risk for cardiovascular disease, increased fatigue, and diminished physical functioning and quality of life. Moreover, findings in the extant literature supporting the benefits of exercise for survivors of and patients with cancer have resulted in the release of exercise guidelines from several international agencies. However, despite research progression and international recognition, current exercise oncology-based exercise prescriptions remain relatively basic and underdeveloped, particularly in regards to resistance training. Recent publications have called for a more precise manipulation of training variables such as volume, intensity, and frequency (i.e., periodization), given the large heterogeneity of a cancer population, to truly optimize clinically relevant patient-reported outcomes. Indeed, increased attention to integrating fundamental principles of exercise physiology into the exercise prescription process could optimize the safety and efficacy of resistance training during cancer care. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the current state of resistance training prescription and discuss novel methods that can contribute to improving approaches to exercise prescription. We hope this article may facilitate further evaluation of best practice regarding resistance training prescription, monitoring, and modification to ultimately optimize the efficacy of integrating resistance training as a supportive care intervention for survivors or and patients with cancer.

  10. Basic models modeling resistance training: an update for basic scientists interested in study skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewa, Jason; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; da Silva Teixeira, Tamiris; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Zhi, Xia; de Sá, Rafaele Bis Dal Ponte; Lodetti, Alice; Cardozo, Mayara Quadros; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2014-09-01

    Human muscle hypertrophy brought about by voluntary exercise in laboratorial conditions is the most common way to study resistance exercise training, especially because of its reliability, stimulus control and easy application to resistance training exercise sessions at fitness centers. However, because of the complexity of blood factors and organs involved, invasive data is difficult to obtain in human exercise training studies due to the integration of several organs, including adipose tissue, liver, brain and skeletal muscle. In contrast, studying skeletal muscle remodeling in animal models are easier to perform as the organs can be easily obtained after euthanasia; however, not all models of resistance training in animals displays a robust capacity to hypertrophy the desired muscle. Moreover, some models of resistance training rely on voluntary effort, which complicates the results observed when animal models are employed since voluntary capacity is something theoretically impossible to measure in rodents. With this information in mind, we will review the modalities used to simulate resistance training in animals in order to present to investigators the benefits and risks of different animal models capable to provoke skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Our second objective is to help investigators analyze and select the experimental resistance training model that best promotes the research question and desired endpoints. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Implementing Resistance Training in Secondary Schools: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sarah G; Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Peralta, Louisa R; Hilland, Toni A; Eather, Narelle; Lonsdale, Chris; Okely, Anthony D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Salmon, J O; Dewar, Deborah L; Estabrooks, Paul A; Pollock, Emma; Finn, Tara L; Lubans, David R

    2018-01-01

    Guidelines recommend that young people engage in muscle-strengthening activities on at least 3 d·wk. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a school-based intervention focused on resistance training (RT) for adolescents. The "Resistance Training for Teens" intervention was evaluated using a cluster-randomized, controlled trial with 607 adolescents (50.1% girls; 14.1 ± 0.5 yr) from 16 secondary schools. Teachers were trained to deliver the intervention, which included the following: (i) an interactive student seminar; (ii) a structured physical activity program, focused on RT; (iii) lunchtime fitness sessions; and (iv) Web-based smartphone apps. The primary outcome was muscular fitness (MF) and secondary outcomes included body mass index, RT skill competency, flexibility, physical activity, self-efficacy, and motivation. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 months (postprogram; primary end point), and 12 months (follow-up). Outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, with three potential moderators tested using interaction terms (and subgroup analyses where appropriate). For the primary outcome (MF), a group-time effect was observed at 6 months for the upper body (2.0 repetitions; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-3.2), but not the lower body (-1.4 cm; 95% CI, -4.7-1.9). At 6 months, there were intervention effects for RT skill competency and self-efficacy, but no other secondary outcomes. Effects for upper body MF and RT skill competency were sustained at 12 months. Despite overall no effect for body mass index, there was a group-time effect at 12 months among students who were overweight/obese at baseline (-0.55 kg·m; 95% CI, -1.01 to -0.08). The school-based RT intervention resulted in immediate and sustained improvements in upper body MF and RT skill competency, demonstrating an effective and scalable approach to delivering RT within secondary schools.

  12. Resistance training and older adults' beliefs about psychological benefits: the importance of self-efficacy and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Rylee

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived psychological benefits and explore the mechanisms underlying the link between exercise and psychological well-being for a group of older adults (65-72 years; 6 women; 4 men) who participated in a 12-week program of moderate-to-high intensity resistance training. They were interviewed in-depth at 1 week preintervention, 1 month after commencement, and 1 week after completion. The participants believed that resistance training enhanced their well-being, and they gave various physical, mental, and social reasons to explain this link. In particular, self-efficacy and social interaction were found to be key mechanisms underlying this relationship. This study exposed meaningful perceived improvements in psychological wellbeing that have not been uncovered in quantitative studies of healthy older people undertaking resistance training. The findings highlight the importance of using qualitative methods to enrich understandings of the positive effect of exercise on psychological well-being. The findings also have implications for designing effective resistance training interventions for older people.

  13. Effect of resistive training on the maximum strenght,flexibility and functional autonomy of elderly woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estélio Henrique Martin Dantas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of resistive training on maximum strength, flexibility and functional autonomy, as well as the correlation between maximum strength and functional autonomy of the elderly women (strength group, GF, n=11, = 66.3 ± 7.84 years/control group, GC, n=11, =65.1 ± 3.33 years. They participated of a resistive training (75-85% 1RM during 16 weeks, 2 days/week. Statistical procedures were Pearson’s correlation and Student t-test, using the SPSS package, version 12.0. Data showed signifi cant results for GF on the strength, fl exibility and functional autonomy, and signifi cant correlation between strength and functional autonomy (r=-0.67. The data suggested that training program enhances performance in activities of daily living with a training protocol of only 2 days/week. RESUMO O objetivo desse estudo foi verifi car os efeitos do treinamento resistido na força máxima, na fl exibilidade e na autonomia funcional, bem como a correlação existente entre a força máxima e a autonomia funcional de idosas (grupo de força - GF n=11, = 66,3±7,84 anos e um grupo controle - GC n=11, =65,1±3,33 anos. O GF foi submetido a um treinamento contra resistência de força (75-85% 1RM, por 16 semanas, 2 dias/semana. O tratamento estatístico utilizado foi correlação de Pearson e o teste “t” de Student. Os dados mostraram resultados signifi cativos do GF no ganho da força máxima, fl exibilidade e autonomia funcional, e correlação signifi cativa entre a força máxima medida no exercício supino reto (SR e o teste de autonomia funcional levantar da posição de decúbito ventral (LPDV (r=-0,67. Os dados sugerem que o programa de treinamento melhorou o desempenho das atividades da vida diária da amostra, com um treinamento de apenas 2 dias/semana.

  14. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Çakır-Atabek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative stress. RE trained (N=8 and untrained (N=8 men performed the leg extension RE at progressive intensities standardized for total volume: 1x17 reps at 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; 1x14 reps at 60% of 1RM; 1x12 reps at 70% of 1RM; 2x5 reps at 80% of 1RM; and 3x3 reps at 90% of 1RM. Blood samples were drawn before (PRE and immediately after each intensity, and after 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours following the RE. Lipid-hydroperoxide (LHP significantly increased during the test and then decreased during the recovery in both groups (p0.05. Standardized volume of RE increased oxidative stress responses. Our study suggests that lower intensity (50% is enough to increase LHP, whereas higher intensity (more than 80% is required to evoke protein oxidation.

  15. Investigating the Effects of Regular Resistance Training and Prostatic Massage on Proinflammatory Markers and Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels in Males with Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathollahi Shoorabeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Prostate cancer (PC is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Some studies support that chronic inflammation of prostate tissue plays a role in the development of PC. A variety of growth factors and cytokines may lead to proinflammatory processes within the prostate. Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular resistance training and prostatic massage on proinflammatory markers CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels in males with PC. Patients and Methods Forty-five patients with PC were selected for this study. They were randomized into either the resistance training intervention group (n = 15, the massage intervention group (n = 15, or the control group (n = 15. Resistance-training patients participated in resistance training for eight weeks, and massage was performed for six weeks on the massage group. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyze the data (P ≤ 0.05. Results In the resistance training group, IL-10 levels significantly increased after four (P = 0.055 and eight weeks (P = 0.000. Four and eight weeks of resistance training showed a significant reduction in PSA, CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α levels (P < 0.05. Patients of massage intervention showed an increase in IL-10 after four (P = 0.045 and six weeks (P = 0.005. In addition, four and six weeks of massage intervention showed a significant reduction in PSA, CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α levels (P < 0.05. Conclusions Regular resistance training and prostatic massage can improve proinflammatory markers and PSA levels in men with PC.

  16. Insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility following exercise training among different obese insulin resistant phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) blunts the reversal of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) after exercise training. Metabolic inflexibility has been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance, however, the efficacy of exercise on peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity or substrate utilizati...

  17. Motivators and Barriers for Older People Participating in Resistance Training: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Elissa; Farrier, Kaela; Lewin, Gill; Pettigrew, Simone; Hill, Anne-Marie; Airey, Phil; Bainbridge, Liz; Hill, Keith D

    2017-04-01

    Regular participation in resistance training is important for older people to maintain their health and independence, yet participation rates are low. The study aimed to identify motivators and barriers to older people participating in resistance training. A systematic review was conducted including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method studies. Searches generated 15,920 citations from six databases, with 14 studies (n = 1,937 participants) included. In total, 92 motivators and 24 barriers were identified. Motivators specific to participating in resistance training included preventing deterioration (disability), reducing risk of falls, building (toning) muscles, feeling more alert, and better concentration. Looking too muscular and thinking participation increased the risk of having a heart attack, stroke, or death, despite the minimal likelihood of these occurring, were barriers. The analysis indicates that increasing participation in resistance training among older people should focus on the specific benefits valued by older people and the dissemination of accurate information to counter misperceptions.

  18. Effect of resistance training on muscle strength and rate of force development in healthy older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizelini, Pedrode Camargo; de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio; Caputo, Fabrizio; Greco, Camila Coelho

    2018-02-01

    Rapid force capacity, identified by rate of rise in contractile force at the onset of contraction, i.e., the rate of force development (RFD), has been considered an important neuromuscular parameter of physical fitness in elderly individuals. Randomized control studies conducted in adults have found that resistance training may elicit different outcomes in terms of RFD and muscle strength. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to review systematically the literature for studies regarding the influence of resistance training on muscle strength and RFD in elderly persons. A literature search was performed in major electronic databases from inception to March 2017. Studies including health individuals with a mean age≥60years, describing the effect of resistance training on RFD and muscle strength were found eligible. The outcomes were calculated as the difference in percentage change between control and experimental groups (% change) and data were presented as mean±95% confidence limits. Meta-analyses were performed using a random-effects model and, in addition, simple and multiple meta-regression analyses were used to identify effects of age, training type, sessions per week and training duration on % change in RFD and muscle strength. Thirteen training effects were collected from 10 studies included in the meta-analysis. The resistance training program had a moderate beneficial effect on both muscle strength (% change=18.40%, 95% CL 13.69-23.30, pchange=26.68, 95% CL 14.41-35.52, pchanges in muscle strength and RFD. It can be concluded that explosive training and heavy strength training are effective resistance training methods aiming to improve both muscle strength and RFD after short-to-medium training period. However, muscle strength and RFD seem to adapt differently to resistance training programs, suggesting caution for their interchangeable use in clinical assessments of the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of aging and Parkinson's disease on motor unit remodeling: influence of resistance exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Neil A; Hammond, Kelley G; Bickel, C Scott; Windham, Samuel T; Tuggle, S Craig; Bamman, Marcas M

    2018-04-01

    Aging muscle atrophy is in part a neurodegenerative process revealed by denervation/reinnervation events leading to motor unit remodeling (i.e., myofiber type grouping). However, this process and its physiological relevance are poorly understood, as is the wide-ranging heterogeneity among aging humans. Here, we attempted to address 1) the relation between myofiber type grouping and molecular regulators of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) stability; 2) the impact of motor unit remodeling on recruitment during submaximal contractions; 3) the prevalence and impact of motor unit remodeling in Parkinson's disease (PD), an age-related neurodegenerative disease; and 4) the influence of resistance exercise training (RT) on regulators of motor unit remodeling. We compared type I myofiber grouping, molecular regulators of NMJ stability, and the relative motor unit activation (MUA) requirement during a submaximal sit-to-stand task among untrained but otherwise healthy young (YA; 26 yr, n = 27) and older (OA; 66 yr, n = 91) adults and OA with PD (PD; 67 yr, n = 19). We tested the effects of RT on these outcomes in OA and PD. PD displayed more motor unit remodeling, alterations in NMJ stability regulation, and a higher relative MUA requirement than OA, suggesting PD-specific effects. The molecular and physiological outcomes tracked with the severity of type I myofiber grouping. Together these findings suggest that age-related motor unit remodeling, manifested by type I myofiber grouping, 1) reduces MUA efficiency to meet submaximal contraction demand, 2) is associated with disruptions in NMJ stability, 3) is further impacted by PD, and 4) may be improved by RT in severe cases. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Because the physiological consequences of varying amounts of myofiber type grouping are unknown, the current study aims to characterize the molecular and physiological correlates of motor unit remodeling. Furthermore, because exercise training has demonstrated neuromuscular benefits in aged

  20. Effects of Growth Hormone on Cardiac Remodeling During Resistance Training in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira, Adriana, E-mail: francispacagnelli@unoeste.br [Universidade do Oeste Paulista (UNOESTE), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Cicogna, Antônio Carlos [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Campus Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Engel, Letícia Estevam; Aldá, Maiara Almeida [Universidade do Oeste Paulista (UNOESTE), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Tomasi, Loreta Casquel de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Campus Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Giuffrida, Rogério; Giometti, Inês Cristina [Universidade do Oeste Paulista (UNOESTE), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira [Universidade do Oeste Paulista (UNOESTE), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Campus Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Aguiar, Andreo Fernando [Universidade do Norte do Paraná, UNOPAR, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Pacagnelli, Francis Lopes [Universidade do Oeste Paulista (UNOESTE), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    Although the beneficial effects of resistance training (RT) on the cardiovascular system are well established, few studies have investigated the effects of the chronic growth hormone (GH) administration on cardiac remodeling during an RT program. To evaluate the effects of GH on the morphological features of cardiac remodeling and Ca2+ transport gene expression in rats submitted to RT. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 7 per group): control (CT), GH, RT and RT with GH (RTGH). The dose of GH was 0.2 IU/kg every other day for 30 days. The RT model used was the vertical jump in water (4 sets of 10 jumps, 3 bouts/wk) for 30 consecutive days. After the experimental period, the following variables were analyzed: final body weight (FBW), left ventricular weight (LVW), LVW/FBW ratio, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (CSA), collagen fraction, creatine kinase muscle-brain fraction (CK-MB) and gene expressions of SERCA2a, phospholamban (PLB) and ryanodine (RyR). There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference among groups for FBW, LVW, LVW/FBW ratio, cardiomyocyte CSA, and SERCA2a, PLB and RyR gene expressions. The RT group showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in collagen fraction compared to the other groups. Additionally, the trained groups (RT and RTGH) had greater CK-MB levels compared to the untrained groups (CT and GH). GH may attenuate the negative effects of RT on cardiac remodeling by counteracting the increased collagen synthesis, without affecting the gene expression that regulates cardiac Ca{sup 2+} transport.

  1. The effect of two different intensities resistance training on muscle growth regulatory myokines in sedentary young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training with different intensities on serum myostatin and follistatin levels in sedentary young women. Materials and Methods: In this practical and semi experimental study, 24 sedentary young women with range of 20-30 years and BMI 22-25 kg/m2 were selected by convenience sampling. Then, the volunteers were randomly assigned into two groups, [resistance training group with low intensity (40-60% of one repetition maximum and high intensity (70-90% of one repetition maximum]. The training protocols included: 8 weeks, 3 times a week. Blood samples (5cc were obtained at baseline and 48 hours after at the end of the study; Also Serum levels of myostatin and follistatin were measured by ELISA methods. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance of repeated measures test by SPSS at the significant level (p<0.05. Results: There was a significant increase in the levels of follistatin and follistatin to myostatin ratio in high intensity group (p≤0.05. Also there was a significant decrease in the levels of myostatin in high intensity group (p≤0.05; however, there was no significant change in the levels of follistatin, myostatin and follistatin to myostatin ratio in low intensity group (p≥0.05. Also there was no significant change in these variables in high intensity group compared to low intensity group (p≥0.05. Conclusion: It’s seems that the activation of important myogenic and myostatic factors in sedentary young women need to do high intensity resistance training.

  2. Social Skills Group Training in High-Functioning Autism: A Qualitative Responder Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choque Olsson, Nora; Rautio, Daniel; Asztalos, Jenny; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Bölte, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews show some evidence for the efficacy of group-based social skills group training in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, but more rigorous research is needed to endorse generalizability. In addition, little is known about the perspectives of autistic individuals participating in social skills group training.…

  3. Medical Team Training: Using Simulation as a Teaching Strategy for Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Michael R.; Brown, Rhonda Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Described is an innovative approach currently being used to inspire group work, specifically a medical team training model, referred to as The Simulation Model, which includes as its major components: (1) Prior Training in Group Work of Medical Team Members; (2) Simulation in Teams or Groups; (3) Multidisciplinary Teamwork; (4) Team Leader…

  4. Muscular and Systemic Correlates of Resistance Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A.; Bellamy, Leeann; Parise, Gianni; Baker, Steven K.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR) protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. METHODS: Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk⁻¹ of resistance training for 16 wk....

  5. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Ratamess, Noah A. Beller, Adam M. Gonzalez, Gregory E. Spatz, Jay R. Hoffman, Ryan E. Ross, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Jie Kang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT or a non-exercising control group (CTL. The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects’ peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s-1 [3-sec concentric (CON and 3-sec eccentric (ECC phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg, 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg, and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women.

  6. Testing an empirically derived mental health training model featuring small groups, distributed practice and patient discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrihy, Rachael C; Byrne, Mitchell K; Gonsalvez, Craig J

    2009-02-01

    Internationally, family doctors seeking to enhance their skills in evidence-based mental health treatment are attending brief training workshops, despite clear evidence in the literature that short-term, massed formats are not likely to improve skills in this complex area. Reviews of the educational literature suggest that an optimal model of training would incorporate distributed practice techniques; repeated practice over a lengthy time period, small-group interactive learning, mentoring relationships, skills-based training and an ongoing discussion of actual patients. This study investigates the potential role of group-based training incorporating multiple aspects of good pedagogy for training doctors in basic competencies in brief cognitive behaviour therapy (BCBT). Six groups of family doctors (n = 32) completed eight 2-hour sessions of BCBT group training over a 6-month period. A baseline control design was utilised with pre- and post-training measures of doctors' BCBT skills, knowledge and engagement in BCBT treatment. Family doctors' knowledge, skills in and actual use of BCBT with patients improved significantly over the course of training compared with the control period. This research demonstrates preliminary support for the efficacy of an empirically derived group training model for family doctors. Brief CBT group-based training could prove to be an effective and viable model for future doctor training.

  7. Comparative Effects of In-Season Full-Back Squat, Resisted Sprint Training, and Plyometric Training on Explosive Performance in U-19 Elite Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoyo, Moises; Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Sañudo, Borja; Carrascal, Claudio; Plaza-Armas, Jose R; Camacho-Candil, Fernando; Otero-Esquina, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of 3 different low/moderate load strength training methods (full-back squat [SQ], resisted sprint with sled towing [RS], and plyometric and specific drills training [PLYO]) on sprinting, jumping, and change of direction (COD) abilities in soccer players. Thirty-two young elite male Spanish soccer players participated in the study. Subjects performed 2 specific strength training sessions per week, in addition to their normal training sessions for 8 weeks. The full-back squat protocol consisted of 2-3 sets × 4-8 repetitions at 40-60% 1 repetition maximum (∼ 1.28-0.98 m · s(-1)). The resisted sprint training was compounded by 6-10 sets × 20-m loaded sprints (12.6% of body mass). The plyometric and specific drills training was based on 1-3 sets × 2-3 repetitions of 8 plyometric and speed/agility exercises. Testing sessions included a countermovement jump (CMJ), a 20-m sprint (10-m split time), a 50-m (30-m split time) sprint, and COD test (i.e., Zig-Zag test). Substantial improvements (likely to almost certainly) in CMJ (effect size [ES]: 0.50-0.57) and 30-50 m (ES: 0.45-0.84) were found in every group in comparison to pretest results. Moreover, players in PLYO and SQ groups also showed substantial enhancements (likely to very likely) in 0-50 m (ES: 0.46-0.60). In addition, 10-20 m was also improved (very likely) in the SQ group (ES: 0.61). Between-group analyses showed that improvements in 10-20 m (ES: 0.57) and 30-50 m (ES: 0.40) were likely greater in the SQ group than in the RS group. Also, 10-20 m (ES: 0.49) was substantially better in the SQ group than in the PLYO group. In conclusion, the present strength training methods used in this study seem to be effective to improve jumping and sprinting abilities, but COD might need other stimulus to achieve positive effects.

  8. A Model for Behavioral Management and Relationship Training for Parents in Groups,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavior, Human relations, *Training, *Families(Human), Symposia, Models, Children, Psychotherapy, Problem solving, Management, Control, Learning, Skills, Decision making , Group dynamics, Military psychology, Military medicine

  9. The Effect of Resistance Training on Performance of Gross Motor Skills and Balance in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Zarrinkalam; Majid Ebadi Fara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cerebral palsy is the most common chronic motor disability in children and can have negative effect on motor functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks resistance training on gross motor ability, balance and walking speed in a group of such children. Methods: 21 cerebral palsy boys with spastic diplegia, aged between 12 and 16 years (mean, 13.66 years), participated in this study. A pre-test, involving walking, sitting, standing and walkin...

  10. Effect of resistance training on headache symptoms in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C. H.; Jensen, R. H.; Dalager, T.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While strength training for the neck and shoulder muscles may be effective in reducing headache, the optimal combination of exercise frequency and duration is unknown. This study investigates the effect of different time-wise combinations of one weekly hour of strength training for th...

  11. Training social workers to enhance patient-centered care for drug-resistant TB-HIV in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelnick, J R; Seepamore, B; Daftary, A; Amico, K R; Bhengu, X; Friedland, G; Padayatchi, N; Naidoo, K; O'Donnell, M R

    2018-03-21

    KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, is the epicenter of an epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, characterized by low rates of medication adherence and retention in care. Social workers may have a unique role to play in improving DR-TB-HIV outcomes. We designed, implemented and evaluated a model-based pilot training course on patient-centered care, treatment literacy in DR-TB and HIV coinfection, patient support group facilitation, and self-care. Ten social workers participated in a 1-day training course. Post-training questionnaire scores showed significant overall gains ( P = 0.003). A brief training intervention may be a useful and feasible way to engage social workers in patient-centered care for DR-TB and HIV coinfection.

  12. Effect of 8 weeks Resistance Training on BDNF and TrkB in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mojtahedi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise enhances the synaptic plasticity and neuroprotective effects in the adult brain. However, it remains unknown that how plasticity molecules change following types of training. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of eight weeks resistance training on protein levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor(BDNF and receptor of TrkB, in the hippocampus of adult male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, twelve adult male rats, 8 weeks of age, with an average weight of 200 to 225 grams were randomly divided into two groups, control and exercise respectively. The exercise was to increase the weight on the ladder. 24 hours after their last training session. The animals were killed and the hippocampus was removed for further testing. ELISA determined changes in protein levels. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: There was a significant difference between train and control groups In protein level of variables statically (p≤0.05. In addition, protein levels of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus of rats increased. Conclusion: Resistance training is beneficial for promoting hippocampal plasticity associated with BDNF signaling and consequently functional and cognitive benefits.

  13. Effect of Resistance Training using Thera-Band on Muscular Strength and Quality of Life among the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Pourtaghi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of mobility and motor impairments can intensify mental health problems in the elderly. Muscle weakness is one of the most important cause of fall in the old individuals. Muscular performance is regarded as one of the significant components of quality of life in older adults. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect of resistance training using Thera-Band on muscular strength and quality of life among the elderly. Method: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 70 elderly people referring to the health centers of Mashhad in 2016. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups of intervention and control. The intervention group was subjected to lower- and upper-extremity resistance training with Thera-Band performed two thirty-minute sessions a week for six weeks. However, the control group did not receive any training. Data collection was performed using a dynamometer and the short version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life. The data were analyzed in SPSS version 16 using independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, paired t-test, Chi-square test, and exact Chi-square. Results: The mean ages of the individuals in the intervention and control groups were 69.7±6.1 and 77.2±6.2 years, respectively. After intervention, the mean scores of quality of life (P>0.001 and muscular strength in the upper and lower extremities (P>0.001 were significantly higher in the intervention group than those in the control group. Implications for Practice: Resistance training with Thera-Band could enhance muscular strength and improve quality of life in the elderly. It was concluded that the promotion of this exercise program could have a positive effect on the muscular strength and quality of life among this population.

  14. Training in Statistical Reasoning Inhibits the Formation of Erroneous Group Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Mark; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that training in statistical reasoning inhibits erroneous group stereotypes. In study one, 60 students were assigned to a control or one of two training conditions focused on training in the logic of analysis of covariance. Study two (N=82) replicated study one. Study three (N=44) tested an alternative explanation, providing…

  15. 78 FR 34423 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) Airman Testing Standards and Training Working Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... the relevance, reliability, validity, and effectiveness of the FAA's aeronautical testing and training... Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) Airman Testing Standards and Training Working Group (ATSTWG) AGENCY... Certification Standards (ACS) documents developed by the Airman Testing Standards and Training WG for the...

  16. Mixed-Methods Resistance Training Increases Power and Strength of Young and Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert U.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Hakkinen, Arja; McCormick, Matt; Volek, Jeff; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week, mixed-methods resistance training program on young and older men. Although results confirmed some age-related reductions in muscle strength and power, the older men demonstrated similar capacity to the younger men for increases in muscle strength and power via an appropriate, periodized resistance training…

  17. Resistance Training With Ankle Weight Cuffs Is Feasible in Patients With Acute Exacerbation of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Linette Marie; Døssing, Martin; Steentoft, Johnna

    2017-01-01

    -extension strength training. During training, the patients were seated on the bedside and performed 3 sets of 10-repetition maximum loads, using ankle weight cuffs. The primary outcome was the change in load from the first to last training sessions. The secondary outcomes were changes in maximal isometric knee......-extension strength improved by a mean of 12% (P = .02), whereas the TUG and STS test performances improved by 11% (P = .001) and 19% (P = .03), respectively. Ninety-eight percent of the planned training sessions were completed with no side effects. CONCLUSIONS: Progressive resistance training with ankle weight cuffs...... of progressive knee-extension resistance training, using ankle weight cuffs on patients with AECOPD, based on prespecified criteria for feasibility. METHODS: Thirty-four patients (18 men, mean age 74 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 second = 33% predicted) with AECOPD participated in daily knee...

  18. Developing Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) for Parents of Treatment-Resistant Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Versek, Brian; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Meyers, Kathleen; Benishek, Lois A.; Bresani, Elena; Washio, Yukiko; Arria, Amelia; Meyers, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a project focused on training parents to facilitate their treatment-resistant adolescent's treatment entry and to manage their child after entry into community-based treatment. Controlled studies show that Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a unilateral treatment that fosters treatment entry of adults; however,…

  19. Evaluation of muscle activity during a standardized shoulder resistance training bout in novice individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    training bout. The purpose of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during a shoulder resistance training bout with 15 repetitions maximum (RM) loadings in novice individuals. Twelve healthy sedentary women (age = 27-58 years; weight = 54-85 kg; height = 160-178 cm) were recruited for this study...

  20. Increases in muscle strength and balance using a resistance training program administered via a telecommunications system in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, David; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Demolles, Deborah; Fielding, Roger A

    2011-11-01

    Resistance training programs have been found to improve muscle strength, physical function, and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. These programs have typically been provided in clinical facilities, health clubs, and senior centers, which may be inconvenient and/or cost prohibitive for some older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an automated telemedicine intervention that provides real-time guidance and monitoring of resistance training in the home. A randomized clinical trial in 103 middle-aged or older participants. Participants were assigned to use of a theory-driven interactive voice response system designed to promote resistance training (Telephone-Linked Computer-based Long-term Interactive Fitness Trainer; n = 52) or to an attention control (n = 51) for a period of 12 months. Measurements of muscle strength, balance, walk distance, and mood were obtained at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. We observed increased strength, improved balance, and fewer depressive symptoms in the intervention group than in the control group. Using generalized estimating equations modeling, group differences were statistically significant for knee flexion strength (p = .035), single-leg stance time (p = .029), and Beck Depression Inventory (p = .030). This computer-based telecommunications exercise intervention led to improvements in participants' strength, balance, and depressive symptoms. Because of their low cost and easy accessibility, computer-based interventions may be a cost-effective way of promoting exercise in the home.

  1. Reliability and smallest worthwhile difference in 1RM tests according to previous resistance training experience in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Amarante do Nascimento

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the familiarization and smallest worthwhile difference (SWD of one-repetition maximum (1RM tests in detrained women according to their previous resistance training experience. Three groups of women with varying amounts of previous resistance training experience were recruited: Novice (n = 27, 1 to 6 months, Intermediate (n = 13, from 7 to 12 months, and Advanced (n = 20, 13 to 24 months. All participants performed four 1RM test sessions in the bench press (BP, squat (SQ, and arm curl (AC. A significant (p< 0.05 (group vs. time interaction was observed in SQ suggesting that more experienced participants needed fewer 1RM test sessions to reach a stable load compared to the less experienced groups. Strength changes (p 0.05, suggesting that experience had no impact on familiarization for these lifts. SWDs suggest that strength gains greater than 2-4% in these lifts would indicate a meaningful improvement in strength beyond random variation from trial to trial no matter the experience of the subject. Women with limited previous resistance training experience do not require more trials to reach load stabilization than those with more experience. Stability of 1RM loads for BP and AC may require only two sessions, while SQ may require at least three trials.

  2. Effect of administration of high-protein diet in rats submitted to resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa Lima, Thiago; Ávila, Eudes Thiago Pereira; Fraga, Géssica Alves; de Souza Sena, Mariana; de Souza Dias, Arlyson Batista; de Almeida, Paula Caroline; Dos Santos Trombeta, Joice Cristina; Junior, Roberto Carlos Vieira; Damazo, Amílcar Sabino; Navalta, James Wilfred; Prestes, Jonato; Voltarelli, Fabrício Azevedo

    2018-04-01

    Although there is limited evidence regarding the pathophysiological effects of a high-protein diet (HD), it is believed that this type of diet could overload the body and cause damage to the organs directly involved with protein metabolism and excretion. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of HD on biochemical and morphological parameters of rats that completed a resistance training protocol (RT; aquatic jump) for 8 weeks. Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 8 for each group): sedentary normal protein diet (SN-14%), sedentary high-protein diet (SH-35%), trained normal protein diet (TN-14%), and trained high-protein diet (TH-35%). Biochemical, tissue, and morphological measurements were made. Kidney (1.91 ± 0.34) and liver weights (12.88 ± 1.42) were higher in the SH. Soleus muscle weight was higher in the SH (0.22 ± 0.03) when compared to all groups. Blood glucose (123.2 ± 1.8), triglycerides (128.5 ± 44.0), and HDL cholesterol levels (65.7 ± 20.9) were also higher in the SH compared with the other experimental groups. Exercise reduced urea levels in the trained groups TN and TH (31.0 ± 4.1 and 36.8 ± 6.6), respectively. Creatinine levels were lower in TH and SH groups (0.68 ± 0.12; 0.54 ± 0.19), respectively. HD negatively altered renal morphology in SH, but when associated with RT, the apparent damage was partially reversed. In addition, the aquatic jump protocol reversed the damage to the gastrocnemius muscle caused by the HD. A high-protein diet promoted negative metabolic and morphological changes, while RT was effective in reversing these deleterious effects.

  3. Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Emelie; Edholm, Peter; Ponsot, Elodie; Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta; Hellmén, Erik; Nilsson, Andreas; Engfeldt, Peter; Cederholm, Tommy; Risérus, Ulf; Kadi, Fawzi

    2015-10-15

    The delivery of efficient nonpharmacological treatment to prevent the loss of muscle mass in older adults is a major challenge, and information on the combined effects of training and diet is particularly important. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy dietary approach (n-6/n-3 ratio healthy and physically active older women (65-70 years). The three-armed randomized controlled trial included a resistance training + healthy diet group (RT-HD), a resistance training group (RT), and controls (CON). All subjects included in the study were physically active and had low levels of serum inflammatory markers. In accordance with the dietary goals, the n-6/n-3 ratio dietary intake significantly decreased only in RT-HD by 42%. An increase in 1 repetition maximum in leg extension occurred in RT (+20.4%) and RT-HD (+20.8%), but not in CON. Interestingly, leg lean mass significantly increased only in RT-HD (+1.8%). While there were no changes in serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, a significant decrease in serum level of the pro-inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid (-5.3 ± 9.4%) together with an increase in serum n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (+8.3%) occurred only in RT-HD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of resistance training on muscle mass in healthy older adults can be optimized by the adoption of a healthy diet. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. The Effect of Physical Resistance Training on Baroreflex Sensitivity of Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Moisés Felipe Pereira; Borges, Mariana Eiras; Rossi, Vitor de Almeida; Moura, Elizabeth de Orleans C de; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Baroreceptors act as regulators of blood pressure (BP); however, its sensitivity is impaired in hypertensive patients. Among the recommendations for BP reduction, exercise training has become an important adjuvant therapy in this population. However, there are many doubts about the effects of resistance exercise training in this population. To evaluate the effect of resistance exercise training on BP and baroreceptor sensitivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Rats SHR (n = 16) and Wistar (n = 16) at 8 weeks of age, at the beginning of the experiment, were randomly divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (CS, n = 8); trained control (CT, n = 8); sedentary SHR (HS, n = 8) and trained SHR (HT, n = 8). Resistance exercise training was performed in a stairmaster-type equipment (1.1 × 0.18 m, 2 cm between the steps, 80° incline) with weights attached to their tails, (5 days/week, 8 weeks). Baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate (HR) was tested by loading/unloading of baroreceptors with phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Resistance exercise training increased the soleus muscle mass in SHR when compared to HS (HS 0.027 ± 0.002 g/mm and HT 0.056 ± 0.003 g/mm). Resistance exercise training did not alter BP. On the other hand, in relation to baroreflex sensitivity, bradycardic response was improved in the TH group when compared to HS (HS -1.3 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg and HT -2.6 ± 0.2 bpm/mmHg) although tachycardia response was not altered by resistance exercise (CS -3.3 ± 0.2 bpm/mmHg, CT -3.3 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg, HS -1.47 ± 0.06 bpm/mmHg and HT -1.6 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg). Resistance exercise training was able to promote improvements on baroreflex sensitivity of SHR rats, through the improvement of bradycardic response, despite not having reduced BP. Os barorreceptores atuam como reguladores da pressão arterial (PA); no entanto, sua sensibilidade encontra-se prejudicada em pacientes hipertensos. Dentre as recomendações para a redução da PA, o treinamento f

  5. Randomized controlled resistance training based physical activity trial for central European nursing home residing older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthalos, Istvan; Dorgo, Sandor; Kopkáné Plachy, Judit; Szakály, Zsolt; Ihász, Ferenc; Ráczné Németh, Teodóra; Bognár, József

    2016-10-01

    Nursing home residing older adults often experience fear of sickness or death, functional impairment and pain. It is difficult for these older adults to maintain a physically active lifestyle and to keep a positive outlook on life. This study evaluated the changes in quality of life, attitude to aging, assertiveness, physical fitness and body composition of nursing home residing elderly through a 15-week organized resistance training based physical activity program. Inactive older adults living in a state financed nursing home (N.=45) were randomly divided into two intervention groups and a control group. Both intervention groups were assigned to two physical activity sessions a week, but one of these groups also had weekly discussions on health and quality of life (Mental group). Data on anthropometric measures, fitness performance, as well as quality of life and attitudes to aging survey data were collected. Due to low attendance rate 12 subjects were excluded from the analyses. Statistical analysis included Paired Samples t-tests and Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance. Both intervention groups significantly improved their social participation, and their upper- and lower-body strength scores. Also, subjects in the Mental group showed improvement in agility fitness test and certain survey scales. No positive changes were detected in attitude towards aging and body composition measures in any groups. The post-hoc results suggest that Mental group improved significantly more than the Control group. Regular physical activity with discussions on health and quality of life made a more meaningful difference for the older adults living in nursing home than physical activity alone. Due to the fact that all participants were influenced by the program, it is suggested to further explore this area for better understanding of enhanced quality of life.

  6. Mental skills training with basic combat training soldiers: A group-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Amy B; Bliese, Paul D; Pickering, Michael A; Hammermeister, Jon; Williams, Jason; Harada, Coreen; Csoka, Louis; Holliday, Bernie; Ohlson, Carl

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive skills training has been linked to greater skills, self-efficacy, and performance. Although research in a variety of organizational settings has demonstrated training efficacy, few studies have assessed cognitive skills training using rigorous, longitudinal, randomized trials with active controls. The present study examined cognitive skills training in a high-risk occupation by randomizing 48 platoons (N = 2,432 soldiers) in basic combat training to either (a) mental skills training or (b) an active comparison condition (military history). Surveys were conducted at baseline and 3 times across the 10-week course. Multilevel mixed-effects models revealed that soldiers in the mental skills training condition reported greater use of a range of cognitive skills and increased confidence relative to those in the control condition. Soldiers in the mental skills training condition also performed better on obstacle course events, rappelling, physical fitness, and initial weapons qualification scores, although effects were generally moderated by gender and previous experience. Overall, effects were small; however, given the rigor of the design, the findings clearly contribute to the broader literature by providing supporting evidence that cognitive training skills can enhance performance in occupational and sports settings. Future research should address gender and experience to determine the need for targeting such training appropriately. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The effects of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on resistance exercise induced lipid peroxidation in trained and untrained participants

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    LaVoie Norm

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The theoretical benefits of using antioxidant vitamin supplements to quench oxygen free radicals appear large. High intensity aerobic-type exercise produces oxygen free radicals that can cause damage to lipid membranes (lipid peroxidation that may lead to many problems such as the inactivation of cell membrane enzymes, the progression of degenerative diseases (cardiovascular disease and cancer and lessening of the effectiveness of the immune system. The major function of vitamin E is to work as a chain-breaking antioxidant in a fat soluble environment. Little research has examined lipid peroxidation associated with high intensity resistance exercise or possible protective effects of antioxidant supplementation or the effects of training state. Results There were no significant group (trained vs untrained or treatment (vitamin E vs placebo effects found between the 4 groups assessed. There was only one significant difference found and that was in the main effect for time (F = 22.41, p Conclusions The Resistance Exercise Test caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde in all 4 groups at 6 hours post exercise. There was no evidence that vitamin E supplementation was effective in reducing oxidative damage in comparison to the placebo group. As well, there was no difference between the trained and untrained groups with respect to their impact on lipid peroxidation measures.

  8. Effects of Moderate-Volume, High-Load Lower-Body Resistance Training on Strength and Function in Persons with Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study

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    Brian K. Schilling

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Resistance training research has demonstrated positive effects for persons with Parkinson's disease (PD, but the number of acute training variables that can be manipulated makes it difficult to determine the optimal resistance training program. Objective. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of an 8-week resistance training intervention on strength and function in persons with PD. Methods. Eighteen men and women were randomized to training or standard care for the 8-week intervention. The training group performed 3 sets of 5–8 repetitions of the leg press, leg curl, and calf press twice weekly. Tests included leg press strength relative to body mass, timed up-and-go, six-minute walk, and Activities-specific Balance Confidence questionnaire. Results. There was a significant group-by-time effect for maximum leg press strength relative to body mass, with the training group significantly increasing their maximum relative strength (P.05. Conclusions. Moderate volume, high-load weight training is effective for increasing lower-body strength in persons with PD.

  9. Muscle fibre capillarization is a critical factor in muscle fibre hypertrophy during resistance exercise training in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; Joanisse, Sophie; Leenders, Marika; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2017-04-01

    Adequate muscle fibre perfusion is critical for the maintenance of muscle mass; it is essential in the rapid delivery of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to the muscle, stimulating muscle fibre growth. Muscle fibre capillarization is known to decrease substantially with advancing age. However, whether (relative) low muscle fibre capillarization negatively impacts the muscle hypertrophic response following resistance exercise training in older adults is unknown. Twenty-two healthy older men (71 ± 1 years) performed 24 weeks of progressive resistance type exercise training. To assess the change in muscle fibre characteristics, percutaneous biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken before and following 12 and 24 weeks of the intervention programme. A comparison was made between participants who had a relatively low type II muscle fibre capillary-to-fibre perimeter exchange index (CFPE; LOW group) and high type II muscle fibre CFPE (HIGH group) at baseline. Type I and type II muscle fibre size, satellite cell, capillary content and distance between satellite cells to the nearest capillary were determined by immunohistochemistry. Overall, type II muscle fibre size (from 5150 ± 234 to 6719 ± 446 µm 2 , P muscle fibre, P muscle fibre capillarization, whereas muscle fibre size (from 5170 ± 390 to 7133 ± 314 µm 2 , P muscle fibre, P muscle fibre capillarization were observed in response to 12 and 24 weeks of resistance exercise training in both the LOW and HIGH group. Type II muscle fibre capillarization at baseline may be a critical factor for allowing muscle fibre hypertrophy to occur during prolonged resistance exercise training in older men. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  10. Exercise order affects the total training volume and the ratings of perceived exertion in response to a super-set resistance training session

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    Balsamo S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sandor Balsamo1–3, Ramires Alsamir Tibana1,2,4, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento1,2, Gleyverton Landim de Farias1,2, Zeno Petruccelli1,2, Frederico dos Santos de Santana1,2, Otávio Vanni Martins1,2, Fernando de Aguiar1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira4, Jéssica Cardoso de Souza4, Jonato Prestes41Department of Physical Education, Centro Universitário UNIEURO, Brasília, 2GEPEEFS (Resistance training and Health Research Group, Brasília/DF, 3Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidade de Brasília (UnB, Brasília, 4Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB, Brasília/DF, BrazilAbstract: The super-set is a widely used resistance training method consisting of exercises for agonist and antagonist muscles with limited or no rest interval between them – for example, bench press followed by bent-over rows. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different super-set exercise sequences on the total training volume. A secondary aim was to evaluate the ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue index in response to different exercise order. On separate testing days, twelve resistance-trained men, aged 23.0 ± 4.3 years, height 174.8 ± 6.75 cm, body mass 77.8 ± 13.27 kg, body fat 12.0% ± 4.7%, were submitted to a super-set method by using two different exercise orders: quadriceps (leg extension + hamstrings (leg curl (QH or hamstrings (leg curl + quadriceps (leg extension (HQ. Sessions consisted of three sets with a ten-repetition maximum load with 90 seconds rest between sets. Results revealed that the total training volume was higher for the HQ exercise order (P = 0.02 with lower perceived exertion than the inverse order (P = 0.04. These results suggest that HQ exercise order involving lower limbs may benefit practitioners interested in reaching a higher total training volume with lower ratings of perceived exertion compared with the leg extension plus leg curl

  11. Effects of exercise training using resistance bands on glycaemic control and strength in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Samantha K; Armstrong, Marni J; Boulé, Normand G; Sigal, Ronald J

    2015-04-01

    Resistance exercise using free weights or weight machines improves glycaemic control and strength in people with type 2 diabetes. Resistance band training is potentially less expensive and more accessible, but the effects of resistance band training on glycaemic control and strength in this population are not well understood. This paper aims to systematically review and meta-analyse the effect of resistance band training on haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and strength in adults with type 2 diabetes. Database searches were performed in August 2013 (MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, and CINAHL). Reference lists of eligible articles were hand-searched for additional studies. Randomised trials evaluating the effects of resistance band training in adults with type 2 diabetes on HbA1c or objectively measured strength were selected. Baseline and post-intervention HbA1c and strength were extracted for the intervention and control groups. Details of the exercise interventions and methodological quality were collected. Seven trials met inclusion criteria. Post-intervention-weighted mean HbA1c was nonsignificantly lower in exercise groups compared to control groups [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.18 percentage points (-1.91 mmol/mol); P = 0.27]. Post-intervention strength was significantly higher in the exercise groups compared to the control groups in the lower extremities (WMD = 21.90 kg; P diabetes.

  12. The effect of 12 weeks of aerobic, resistance or combination exercise training on cardiovascular risk factors in the overweight and obese in a randomized trial

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    Ho Suleen S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that exercise training improves CVD risk factors. However, it is unclear whether health benefits are limited to aerobic training or if other exercise modalities such as resistance training or a combination are as effective or more effective in the overweight and obese. The aim of this study is to investigate whether 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic, resistance, or combined exercise training would induce and sustain improvements in cardiovascular risk profile, weight and fat loss in overweight and obese adults compared to no exercise. Methods Twelve-week randomized parallel design examining the effects of different exercise regimes on fasting measures of lipids, glucose and insulin and changes in body weight, fat mass and dietary intake. Participants were randomized to either: Group 1 (Control, n = 16; Group 2 (Aerobic, n = 15; Group 3 (Resistance, n = 16; Group 4 (Combination, n = 17. Data was analysed using General Linear Model to assess the effects of the groups after adjusting for baseline values. Within-group data was analyzed with the paired t-test and between-group effects using post hoc comparisons. Results Significant improvements in body weight (−1.6%, p = 0.044 for the Combination group compared to Control and Resistance groups and total body fat compared to Control (−4.4%, p = 0.003 and Resistance (−3%, p = 0.041. Significant improvements in body fat percentage (−2.6%, p = 0.008, abdominal fat percentage (−2.8%, p = 0.034 and cardio-respiratory fitness (13.3%, p = 0.006 were seen in the Combination group compared to Control. Levels of ApoB48 were 32% lower in the Resistance group compared to Control (p = 0.04. Conclusion A 12-week training program comprising of resistance or combination exercise, at moderate-intensity for 30 min, five days/week resulted in improvements in the cardiovascular risk profile in overweight and obese

  13. Effectiveness of resistance training in combination with botulinum toxin-A on hand and arm use in children with cerebral palsy: a pre-post intervention study

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    Elvrum Ann-Kristin G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this pilot study was to examine the effects of additional resistance training after use of Botulinum Toxin-A (BoNT-A on the upper limbs in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Methods Ten children with CP (9–17 years with unilaterally affected upper limbs according to Manual Ability Classification System II were assigned to two intervention groups. One group received BoNT-A treatment (group B, the other BoNT-A plus eight weeks resistance training (group BT. Hand and arm use were evaluated by means of the Melbourne assessment of unilateral upper limb function (Melbourne and Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA. Measures of muscle strength, muscle tone, and active range of motion were used to assess neuromuscular body function. Measurements were performed before and two and five months after intervention start. Change scores and differences between the groups in such scores were subjected to Mann–Whitney U and Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests, respectively. Results Both groups had very small improvements in AHA and Melbourne two months after BoNT-A injections, without differences between groups. There were significant, or close to significant, short-term treatment effects in favour of group BT for muscle strength in injected muscles (elbow flexion strength, p = .08 and non-injected muscles (elbow extension and supination strength, both p = .05, without concomitant increases in muscle tone. Active supination range improved in both groups, but more so in group BT (p = .09. There were no differences between the groups five months after intervention start. Conclusions Resistance training strengthens non-injected muscles temporarily and may reduce short-term strength loss that results from BoNT-A injections without increasing muscle tone. Moreover, additional resistance training may increase active range of motion to a greater extent than BoNT-A alone. None of the improvements in neuromuscular impairments further

  14. The Effect of Resistance Training on Levels of Interlukine-6 and High-Sensitivity C - reactive protein in Older-Aged Women

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    Zahra Mardanpour Shahrekordi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is associated with elevated levels of some proinflammatory factors and exercise is a non-invasive intervention to improve immune function among older adults .The aim of the study was to compare resistance training effects on interlukine-6 (IL-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels in older-aged women. Methods: The study was quasi-experimental and forty healthy females were selected and randomly assigned to one of four groups: strength after endurance training (endurance + strength (E + S, n = 9, strength prior to endurance training (strength + endurance (S + E, n = 10, interval resistance-endurance training (Int, n = 12, and control (n = 9 groups. The training program was performed for eight weeks, three times per week. Human TNF-α and IL-6 sandwich ELISA Kit were used. Within-group differences were analyzed using a paired samples t-test and between-group differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Results: The intra-session order had not significantly influence on the adaptive response of waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.55, IL-6 (p = 0.55 and hs-CRP (p = 0.55 throughout the study. However, significant differences were shown following combined training between the S + E, E + S and Int groups for Vo2 max (p = 0.029, body mass (p = 0.016 and BMI (p = 0.023 when comparing pre and posttests. Conclusion: This study confirmed that adaptations to a combination of endurance and resistance training appear to be independent of whether resistance training occurs prior to or following endurance training.

  15. Can resistance training change the strength, body composition and self-concept of overweight and obese adolescent males? A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schranz, Natasha; Tomkinson, Grant; Parletta, Natalie; Petkov, John; Olds, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Resistance training is an exercise modality at which overweight and obese adolescents can excel and which can therefore positively affect their psychological well-being. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a 6-month resistance training intervention on the self-concept strength and body composition of overweight and obese adolescent males. 56 overweight and obese males aged 13-17 years were randomly allocated to an Intervention (n=30) or Control (n=26) group. Primary (psychological) and secondary (strength and body composition) outcomes were assessed at baseline as well as at 3 (halfway through the intervention), 6 (immediately postintervention) and 12 months follow-up. Random effects mixed modelling was used to determine the effects of the intervention. Statistically significant differences between the Intervention and Control groups were observed at 3-month and 6-month assessments for exercise self-efficacy, resistance training confidence and self-esteem. Large increases in strength for the Intervention group, relative to Controls, were also observed with no substantial changes in body composition shown for either group. Values for all variables returned to baseline following completion of the programme. A 6-month resistance training intervention can positively affect the self-concept and strength of overweight and obese adolescent boys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Sprint Running Performance and Technique Changes in Athletes During Periodized Training: An Elite Training Group Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezodis, Ian N; Kerwin, David G; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Salo, Aki I T

    2017-11-15

    To understand how training periodization influences sprint performance and key step characteristics over an extended training period in an elite sprint training group. Four sprinters were studied during five months of training. Step velocities, step lengths and step frequencies were measured from video of the maximum velocity phase of training sprints. Bootstrapped mean values were calculated for each athlete for each session and 139 within-athlete, between-session comparisons were made with a repeated measures ANOVA. As training progressed, a link in the changes in velocity and step frequency was maintained. There were 71 between-session comparisons with a change in step velocity yielding at least a large effect size (>1.2), of which 73% had a correspondingly large change in step frequency in the same direction. Within-athlete mean session step length remained relatively constant throughout. Reductions in step velocity and frequency occurred during training phases of high volume lifting and running, with subsequent increases in step velocity and frequency happening during phases of low volume lifting and high intensity sprint work. The importance of step frequency over step length to the changes in performance within a training year was clearly evident for the sprinters studied. Understanding the magnitudes and timings of these changes in relation to the training program is important for coaches and athletes. The underpinning neuro-muscular mechanisms require further investigation, but are likely explained by an increase in force producing capability followed by an increase in the ability to produce that force rapidly.

  17. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

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    Matteo Vandoni

    Full Text Available Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (p<0.05. Consequently, the affective responses to vigorous session were less pleasant than those during moderate session (p<0.05. These results suggest that the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  18. Youth resistance training: updated position statement paper from the national strength and conditioning association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kraemer, William J; Blimkie, Cameron J R; Jeffreys, Ian; Micheli, Lyle J; Nitka, Mike; Rowland, Thomas W

    2009-08-01

    Faigenbaum, AD, Kraemer, WJ, Blimkie, CJR, Jeffreys, I, Micheli, LJ, Nitka, M, and Rowland, TW. Youth resistance training: Updated position statement paper from the National Strength and Conditioning Association. J Strength Cond Res 23(5): S60-S79, 2009-Current recommendations suggest that school-aged youth should participate daily in 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity that is developmentally appropriate and enjoyable and involves a variety of activities (). Not only is regular physical activity essential for normal growth and development, but also a physically active lifestyle during the pediatric years may help to reduce the risk of developing some chronic diseases later in life (). In addition to aerobic activities such as swimming and bicycling, research increasingly indicates that resistance training can offer unique benefits for children and adolescents when appropriately prescribed and supervised (). The qualified acceptance of youth resistance training by medical, fitness, and sport organizations is becoming universal ().Nowadays, comprehensive school-based programs are specifically designed to enhance health-related components of physical fitness, which include muscular strength (). In addition, the health club and sport conditioning industry is getting more involved in the youth fitness market. In the U.S.A., the number of health club members between the ages of 6 and 17 years continues to increase () and a growing number of private sport conditioning centers now cater to young athletes. Thus, as more children and adolescents resistance train in schools, health clubs, and sport training centers, it is imperative to determine safe, effective, and enjoyable practices by which resistance training can improve the health, fitness, and sports performance of younger populations.The National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) recognizes and supports the premise that many of the benefits associated with adult resistance training

  19. The effects of loaded and unloaded high-velocity resistance training on functional fitness among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jordan M; Gray, Michelle; Binns, Ashley

    2015-11-01

    Physical function declines up to 4% per year after the age of 65. High-velocity training is important for maintaining muscular power and ultimately, physical function; however, whether performing high-velocity training without external resistance increases functional fitness among older adults remains unclear. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate loaded and unloaded high-velocity training on lower body muscular power and functional fitness in older adults. Fifty-seven community-dwelling older adults (n = 16 males, n = 41 females) participated in this study. Inclusion criteria comprised ≥65 years of age, ≥24 on the Mini-mental state examination and no falls within past year. Two groups completed a 20-week high-velocity training intervention. The non-weighted group (UNLOAD, n = 27) performed the protocol without external load while the intervention group (LOAD, n = 30) used external loads via exercise machines. Functional fitness was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Senior Fitness Test (SFT), hand-grip and lower body power measures. Multivariate ANOVA revealed that both groups had significant improvements for average (17.21%) and peak (9.26%) lower body power, along with the SFT arm curl (16.94%), chair stand (20.10%) and 8 ft. up-and-go (15.67%). Improvements were also noticed for SPPB 8 ft. walk (25.21%). However, improvements for all functional fitness measures were independent of training group. Unloaded high-velocity training increased functional fitness and power the same as loaded training. The ability of high-velocity movements to elicit gains in functional fitness without external loads may help health professionals develop fitness programs when time/space is limiting factor. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The effects of adding single-joint exercises to a multi-joint exercise resistance training program on upper body muscle strength and size in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Henrique Silvestre; Branco, Paulo Alexandre Nordeste; Guedes Junior, Dilmar Pinto; Gentil, Paulo; Steele, James; Teixeira, Cauê Vazquez La Scala

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was compare changes in upper body muscle strength and size in trained men performing resistance training (RT) programs involving multi-joint plus single-joint (MJ+SJ) or only multi-joint (MJ) exercises. Twenty young men with at least 2 years of experience in RT were randomized in 2 groups: MJ+SJ (n = 10; age, 27.7 ± 6.6 years) and MJ (n = 10; age, 29.4 ± 4.6 years). Both groups trained for 8 weeks following a linear periodization model. Measures of elbow flexors and extensors 1-repetition maximum (1RM), flexed arm circumference (FAC), and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were taken pre- and post-training period. Both groups significantly increased 1RM for elbow flexion (4.99% and 6.42% for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), extension (10.60% vs 9.79%, for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), FAC (1.72% vs 1.45%, for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), and AMC (1.33% vs 3.17% for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively). Comparison between groups revealed no significant difference in any variable. In conclusion, 8 weeks of RT involving MJ or MJ+SJ resulted in similar alterations in muscle strength and size in trained participants. Therefore, the addition of SJ exercises to a RT program involving MJ exercises does not seem to promote additional benefits to trained men, suggesting MJ-only RT to be a time-efficient approach.

  1. Identifying the optimal resistive load for complex training in male rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comyns, Thomas M; Harrison, Andrew J; Hennessy, Liam; Jensen, Randall L

    2007-01-01

    Alternating a resistance exercise with a plyometric exercise is referred to as "complex training". In this study, we examined the effect of various resistive loads on the biomechanics of performance of a fast stretch-shortening cycle activity to determine if an optimal resistive load exists for complex training. Twelve elite rugby players performed three drop jumps before and after three back squat resistive loads of 65%, 80%, and 93% of a single repetition maximum (1-RM) load. All drop jumps were performed on a specially constructed sledge and force platform apparatus. Flight time, ground contact time, peak ground reaction force, reactive strength index, and leg stiffness were the dependent variables. Repeated-measures analysis of variance found that all resistive loads reduced (P benefit performance. However, it is unknown if these acute changes will produce any long-term adaptations to muscle function.

  2. Muscle adaptations to plyometric vs. resistance training in untrained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Kristian; Brink, Mads; Lønbro, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in muscle strength, power, and morphology induced by conventional strength training vs. plyometric training of equal time and effort requirements. Young, untrained men performed 12 weeks of progressive conventional resistance training (CRT, n = 8......) or plyometric training (PT, n = 7). Tests before and after training included one-repetition maximum (1 RM) incline leg press, 3 RM knee extension, and 1 RM knee flexion, countermovement jumping (CMJ), and ballistic incline leg press. Also, before and after training, magnetic resonance imaging scanning...... was performed for the thigh, and a muscle biopsy was sampled from the vastus lateralis muscle. Muscle strength increased by approximately 20-30% (1-3 RM tests) (p Plyometric training increased maximum CMJ height (10...

  3. Feasibility of Early-Initiated Progressive Resistance Training after Total Hip Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Mechlenburg, Inger; Petersen, Annemette Krintel

    during the exercises were measured at each training session. Isometric muscle strength was measured before and 4 weeks after the THR. Findings / Results: Pain during exercises and resting pain before and after each training session was unchanged or decreased during the 4 weeks of training. Averaged...... across exercises pain during training decreased from 3.6 (sd: 2.8) at the first session to 1.52 (sd: 1.8) VAS-mm at the last session, ptraining load increased progressively for all 4 exercises during the 4 weeks of training. For example: 2nd, 5th and 8th training session. Hip......Background: Muscle atrophy, reduced hip muscle strength and function are documented within the first weeks after Total Hip Replacement (THR). Purpose / Aim of Study: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of early-initiated progressive resistance training (PRT) after THR...

  4. Resistance pattern of clinical isolates of staphylococcus aureus against five groups of antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzana, K.; Hameed, A.

    2006-01-01

    Among the samples received in pathology laboratory, Pakistan institute of Medical Science, Islamabad, 5069 samples had bacterial growth, among these 2580 (51%) samples were Gram-positive cocci and 1688 were Staphylococcus aureus during a period of two years. Out of these Gram-positive cocci 56% were resistant to penicillin group, 27% were resistant to cephalosporin group, 22% were resistant to aminoglycoside group 15% were resistant to quinolone group and 31% were resistant to other antibiotics (cotrimaxazole, erythromycin, aztreonam, vancomycin, nitrofurantion and meropenam). Antibio-grams of Gram-positive cocci were determined against various antibiotics by disc diffusion method. The rate of resistance to most of the antibiotics such as ampicillin, piperacillin, carbenicillin, penicillin, cephradine, cefotaxime, erythromycin, ceclor, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, cotrimexazole (septran), gentamicin, meropenem, ceftazidime, erythromycin, tobramycin, enoxacin was higher when tested against the isolates collected from pus as compared to those from blood and urine. Antibiotic resistant strains were more prevalent in pus samples than other clinical isolates (blood and urine). The randomly selected 155 strains of Staphylococcus aureus when tested against five groups of antibiotics showed resistance rate against ampicillin (92%), cephradine (92%), cephradine (60%), and gentamicin (58%). However intermediate resistance was found in case of vancomicin (38%), in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. (author)

  5. Effects of whey protein supplement in the elderly submitted to resistance training: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonetti, Tamy; Grande, Antonio Jose; Milton, Karen; Foster, Charlie; Alexandre, Maria Cecilia Manenti; Uggioni, Maria Laura Rodrigues; Rosa, Maria Inês da

    2017-05-01

    We performed a systematic review to map the evidence and analyze the effect of whey protein supplementation in the elderly submitted to resistance training. A comprehensive search on Medline, LILACS, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for relevant publications was conducted until August 2015. The terms used in the search were: "Resistance training"; "Whey protein"; "Elderly". A total of 632 studies were screened. Five studies were included composing a sample of 391 patients. The supplement whey protein was associated with higher total protein ingestion 9.40 (95% CI: 4.03-14.78), and with an average change in plasma leucine concentration. The supplementation was also associated with increased mixed muscle protein synthesis 1.26 (95% CI: 0.46-2.07) compared to the control group. We observed an increase in total protein intake, resulting in increased concentration of leucine and mixed muscle protein fractional synthesis rate.

  6. The effect of training and breed group on problem-solving behaviours in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Frazzi, Chiara; Valsecchi, Paola

    2016-05-01

    Dogs have become the focus of cognitive studies looking at both their physical and social problem-solving abilities (Bensky et al. in Adv Stud Behav, 45:209-387, 2013), but very little is known about the environmental and inherited factors that may affect these abilities. In the current study, we presented a manipulation task (a puzzle box) and a spatial task (the detour) to 128 dogs belonging to four different breed groups: Herding, Mastiff-like, Working and Retrievers (von Holdt et al. in Nature 464:898-902, 2010). Within each group, we tested highly trained and non-trained dogs. Results showed that trained dogs were faster at obtaining the reward in the detour task. In the manipulation task, trained dogs approached the apparatus sooner in the first familiarization trial, but no effect of breed emerged on this variable. Furthermore, regardless of breed, dogs in the trained group spent proportionally more time interacting with the apparatus and were more likely to succeed in the test trial than dogs in the non-trained group, whereas regardless of training, dogs in the working breed group were more likely to succeed than dogs in the retriever and herding breed groups (but not the mastiff-like group). Finally, trained dogs were less likely to look at a person than non-trained dogs during testing, but dogs in the herding group more likely to do so than dogs in the retriever and working but not the mastiff-like breed groups. Overall, results reveal a strong influence of training experience but less consistent differences between breed groups on different components thought to affect problem solving.

  7. Parent Group Training Programs in Juvenile Courts: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windell, James O.; Windell, Ellen A.

    1977-01-01

    This survey of juvenile courts across the country indicates that only one of five courts have a parent group program and few use procedures reported in the growing literature relating to changing the behavior of agressive children. (Author)

  8. Impact of 12 weeks of resistance training on physical and functional fitness in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mendes Gerage

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n2p145 The objective of the study was to analyze the impact of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT on physical functional fitness in elderly women. Fifty-one elderly women (66.1±4.4 years, apparently healthy, insufficiently active, and without prior experience in RT were randomly assigned into two groups: Training Group (TG = 24 and Control Group (CG = 27. The TG was submitted to a standardized RT program composed of eight exercises, performed in two sets of 10 to 15 repetitions, three times a week, and the CG was submitted to a 12 week stretching exercise program composed by two sessions per week of 30 minutes each. Their physical and functional fitness level was analyzed before and after the intervention period by motor testing to assess Right and Left Upper Limb Endurance (RULE, LULE, Lower Limb Endurance (LLE, Flexibility (FLEX, Manual Skills (MS, Ability to Put on Socks (APS, and Coordination (COORD. The TG had improved performance in LLE (+13.8%, RULE (+24.3%, LULE (+22.9%, and MS (- 0.9 s, whereas the CG improved performance in RULE (+13.9% and LULE (+14.1%, but had increased time in COORD by (+1.5 s, and these were the only tests showing significant interactions of group vs. time (p<0.05. The results suggest that 12 weeks of RT seem to be sufficient to induce positive changes on physical and functional fitness of healthy and previously untrained elderly women.

  9. Effects of In-Season Inertial Resistance Training With Eccentric Overload in a Sports Population at Risk for Patellar Tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual, Gabriel; Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Azahara; Romero-Rodríguez, Daniel; Tesch, Per A

    2016-07-01

    Gual, G, Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, A, Romero-Rodríguez, D, and Tesch, PA. Effects of in-season inertial resistance training with eccentric overload in a sports population at risk for patellar tendinopathy. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1834-1842, 2016-Volleyball and basketball players can be considered as a population at risk for patellar tendinopathy. Given the paradox that eccentric training elicits therapeutic benefits yet might provoke such injury, we investigated the influence of a weekly bout of inertial squat resistance exercise offering eccentric overload on lower limb muscle power and patellar tendon complaints. Players of 8 (4 basketball and 4 volleyball) teams (38 women and 43 men) were randomly assigned to either the intervention (IG) or control (CG) group. Although IG and CG maintained scheduled in-season training routines over 24 weeks, IG, in addition, performed 1 weekly session of eccentric overload by 4 sets of 8 repetitions of the squat using flywheel inertial resistance. Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment patellar tendinopathy questionnaire (VISA-p), vertical countermovement jump, and squat power, both concentric (Squat-Con) and eccentric (Squat-Ecc), tests were performed before (T1), during (T2), and after (T3) the 24 weeks of intervention. Neither group suffered from patellar tendinopathy during the study period. VISA-p displayed no differences across groups at any measurement period. Countermovement jump scores significantly (p ≤ 0.05) differed between groups in favor of the IG. Both Squat-Con and Squat-Ecc mean scores from the IG were significantly (p training bout to a regular basketball and volleyball exercise routine enhances lower limb muscle power without triggering patellar tendon complaints. Future studies, using the current exercise paradigm, aim to explore its efficacy to prevent or combat patellar tendinopathy in sports calling for frequent explosive jumps.

  10. The Effects of 52 Weeks of Soccer or Resistance Training on Body Composition and Muscle Function in +65-Year-Old Healthy Males – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Krustrup, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The effects of 52 weeks of soccer or resistance training were investigated in untrained elderly men. The subjects aged 68.1±2.1 yrs were randomised into a soccer (SG; n = 9), a resistance (RG; n = 9) and a control group (CG; n = 8). The subjects in SG and RG, respectively, trained 1.7±0.3 and 1.8±0.3 times weekly on average during the intervention period. Muscle function and body composition were determined before and after 16 and 52 weeks of the intervention period. In SG, BMI was reduced by 1.5% and 3.0% (psoccer training reduces BMI and improves anti-oxidative capacity, while long-term resistance training impacts muscle protein enzyme expression and increases lean body mass in elderly men. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01530035 PMID:26886262

  11. Resistance training associated with the administration of anabolic-androgenic steroids improves insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized rats

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    Urtado CB

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Christiano Bertoldo Urtado1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira3, Marilia Bertoldo Urtado4, Érica Blascovi de Carvalho2, Gerson dos Santos Leite1, Felipe Fedrizzi Donatto1, Claudio de Oliveira Assumpção1, Richard Diego Leite3, Carlos Alberto da Silva1, Marcelo Magalhães de Sales5, Ramires Alsamir Tibana5, Silvia Cristina Crepaldi Alves1, Jonato Prestes51Health Sciences, Methodist University of Piracicaba, Piracicaba, SP, 2Center for Investigation in Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, 3Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, 4Laboratory of Orofacial Pain, Division of Oral Physiology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, 5Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, BrazilAbstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids and resistance training (RT on insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized rats. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into ten experimental groups (n = 5 animals per group: (1 sedentary (Sed-Intact; (2 sedentary ovariectomized (Sed-Ovx; (3 sedentary nandrolone (Sed-Intact-ND; (4 sedentary ovariectomized plus nandrolone (Sed-Ovx-ND; (5 trained (TR-Intact; (6 trained nandrolone (TR-Intact-ND; (7 trained ovariectomized (TR-Ovx; (8 trained ovariectomized plus nandrolone; (9 trained sham; and (10 trained ovariectomized plus sham. Four sessions of RT were used, during which the animals climbed a 1.1 m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails. The sessions were performed once every 3 days, with between four and nine climbs and with eight to twelve dynamic movements per climb. To test the sensitivity of insulin in the pancreas, glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. For insulin sensitivity, there was a statistically significant interaction for the TR-Ovx group, which presented higher sensitivity

  12. Dissociated time course between peak torque and total work recovery following bench press training in resistance trained men.

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    Ferreira, Diogo V; Gentil, Paulo; Ferreira-Junior, João B; Soares, Saulo R S; Brown, Lee E; Bottaro, Martim

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the time course of peak torque and total work recovery after a resistance training session involving the bench press exercise. Repeated measures with a within subject design. Twenty-six resistance-trained men (age: 23.7±3.7years; height: 176.0±5.7cm; mass: 79.65±7.61kg) performed one session involving eight sets of the bench press exercise performed to momentary muscle failure with 2-min rest between sets. Shoulder horizontal adductors peak torque (PT), total work (TW), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and subjective physical fitness were measured pre, immediately post, 24, 48, 72 and 96h following exercise. The exercise protocol resulted in significant pectoralis major DOMS that lasted for 72h. Immediately after exercise, the reduction in shoulder horizontal adductors TW (25%) was greater than PT (17%). TW, as a percentage of baseline values, was also less than PT at 24, 48 and 96h after exercise. Additionally, PT returned to baseline at 96h, while TW did not. Resistance trained men presented dissimilar PT and TW recovery following free weight bench press exercise. This indicates that recovery of maximal voluntary contraction does not reflect the capability to perform multiple contractions. Strength and conditioning professionals should be cautious when evaluating muscle recovery by peak torque, since it can lead to the repetition of a training session sooner than recommended. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Pyridostigmine Improves the Effects of Resistance Exercise Training after Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, Daniele J.; Coelho-Júnior, Hélio J.; de Oliveira, Juliana C. M. F.; Delbin, Maria A.; Mostarda, Cristiano T.; Dourado, Paulo M. M.; Caperuto, Érico C.; Irigoyen, Maria C. C.; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise training and pharmacological treatments are important strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of MI. However, little is known about the effects of resistance training combined with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) treatment on cardiac and autonomic function, as well as on the inflammatory profile after MI. Thus, in the present study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into: control (Cont); sedentary infarcted (Inf); PYR – treated sedentary infarcted rats (Inf+P); infarcted rats undergoing resistance exercise training (Inf+RT); and infarcted rats undergoing PYR treatment plus resistance training (Inf+RT+P). After 12 weeks of resistance training (15–20 climbs per session, with a 1-min rest between each climb, at a low to moderate intensity, 5 days a week) and/or PYR treatment (0.14 mg/mL of drink water), hemodynamic function, autonomic modulation, and cytokine expressions were evaluated. We observed that 3 months of PYR treatment, either alone or in combination with exercise, can improve the deleterious effects of MI on left ventricle dimensions and function, baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic parameters, as well as systemic and tissue inflammatory profile. Furthermore, additional benefits in a maximal load test and anti-inflammatory state of skeletal muscle were found when resistance training was combined with PYR treatment. Thus, our findings suggest that the combination of resistance training and PYR may be a good therapeutic strategy since they promote additional benefits on skeletal muscle anti-inflammatory profile after MI. PMID:29483876

  14. The effect of 8 weeks of Circuit Resistance Training on metabolic syndrome risk factors and body composition in women over age 50 with diabetes mellitus type 2

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    Seyede Amene Azarmehr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM increased significantly in the last three decades, and effective strategies to manage and prevent this disease are urgently needed. Physical activity and exercise training is an effective way for metabolic syndrome risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients. However, the effects of Circuit Resistance Training (CRT program on patients T2DM are unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigation the effect of 8 weeks of Circuit resistance training (CRT on metabolic syndrome and body composition in women over age 50 with T2DM. Methods: Twenty women over 50 years old with diabetes Referred to diabetes Center of 17 Shahrivar hospital in Amol and they were divided randomly into two groups; Circuit resistance (n=10 and Control (n=10. Resistance training consisted of 10 stations for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week (Intensity 60-80% 1RM. Levels of Lipid profile and body composition before and after eight weeks training in both groups were measured. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out by SPSS (v. 22. Results Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS levels (P=0.021, Triglycerides (0.010, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.042, significant decreased in CRT. Also after 8 weeks circuit resistance training, BMI (P= 0.003, WHR (P=0.004 and body fat present (0.019 significant decreased in CRT. Conclusion: According to our results, CRT was an effective approach to improve the Anthropometrics, FBS, lipid profile in women over age 50 with diabetes mellitus type 2. Moreover, CRT did have influence on LDL level.  Keywords: Circuit resistance training, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, body composition

  15. Effect of fed- versus fasted state resistance training during Ramadan on body composition and selected metabolic parameters in bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Khaled; Stannard, Stephen R; Ghlissi, Zohra; Maughan, Ronald J; Kallel, Choumous; Jamoussi, Kamel; Zeghal, Khaled M; Hakim, Ahmed

    2013-04-25

    Muslim bodybuilders often continue training during Ramadan. However, the effect of resistance training in a fasted versus a fed state during Ramadan on body composition and metabolic parameters in bodybuilders is not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training in a fasted versus a fed state during Ramadan on body composition and metabolic parameters in bodybuilders. Sixteen men were allocated to two groups: Eight practicing resistance training in the late afternoon in a fasted state (FAST), and eight training in the late evening in an acutely fed state (FED) during Ramadan. All visited the laboratory in the morning two days before the start of Ramadan (Bef-R) and on the 29th day of Ramadan (End-R) for anthropometric measurement, completion of a dietary questionnaire, and provision of fasting blood and urine samples. Body mass and body fat percentage remained unchanged in FAST and FED during the whole period of the investigation. Both FAST and FED experienced an increase in the following parameters from Bef-R to End-R: urine specific gravity (1%; p = 0.028, p = 0.004 respectively), serum concentrations of urea (4%, p = 0.006; 7%, p = 0.004 respectively), creatinine (5%, p = 0.015; 6%, p = 0.04 respectively), uric acid (17%; p Ramadan does not affect body mass and body composition of bodybuilders. Additionally, Ramadan fasting induced changes in urinary and some biochemical parameters, but these changes were not different according to when the training occurred.

  16. Effect of fed- versus fasted state resistance training during Ramadan on body composition and selected metabolic parameters in bodybuilders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Muslim bodybuilders often continue training during Ramadan. However, the effect of resistance training in a fasted versus a fed state during Ramadan on body composition and metabolic parameters in bodybuilders is not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training in a fasted versus a fed state during Ramadan on body composition and metabolic parameters in bodybuilders. Methods Sixteen men were allocated to two groups: Eight practicing resistance training in the late afternoon in a fasted state (FAST), and eight training in the late evening in an acutely fed state (FED) during Ramadan. All visited the laboratory in the morning two days before the start of Ramadan (Bef-R) and on the 29th day of Ramadan (End-R) for anthropometric measurement, completion of a dietary questionnaire, and provision of fasting blood and urine samples. Results Body mass and body fat percentage remained unchanged in FAST and FED during the whole period of the investigation. Both FAST and FED experienced an increase in the following parameters from Bef-R to End-R: urine specific gravity (1%; p = 0.028, p = 0.004 respectively), serum concentrations of urea (4%, p = 0.006; 7%, p = 0.004 respectively), creatinine (5%, p = 0.015; 6%, p = 0.04 respectively), uric acid (17%; p bodybuilders. Additionally, Ramadan fasting induced changes in urinary and some biochemical parameters, but these changes were not different according to when the training occurred. PMID:23617897

  17. Increased Muscular 5α-Dihydrotestosterone in Response to Resistance Training Relates to Skeletal Muscle Mass and Glucose Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

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    Naoki Horii

    Full Text Available Regular resistance exercise induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improvement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, a sex steroid hormone precursor, increases 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT synthesis and is associated with improvements in fasting blood glucose level and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether increase in muscle DHT levels, induced by chronic resistance exercise, can contribute to skeletal muscle hypertrophy and concomitant improvement of muscular glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Male 20-week-old type 2 diabetic rats (OLETF were randomly divided into 3 groups: sedentary control, resistance training (3 times a week on alternate days for 8 weeks, or resistance training with continuous infusion of a 5α-reductase inhibitor (n = 8 each group. Age-matched, healthy nondiabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO rats (n = 8 were used as controls. The results indicated that OLETF rats showed significant decrease in muscular DHEA, free testosterone, DHT levels, and protein expression of steroidogenic enzymes, with loss of skeletal muscle mass and hyperglycemia, compared to that of LETO rats. However, 8-week resistance training in OLETF rats significantly increased the levels of muscle sex steroid hormones and protein expression of steroidogenic enzymes with a concomitant increase in skeletal muscle mass, improved fasting glucose level, and insulin sensitivity index. Moreover, resistance training accelerated glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4 translocation and protein kinase B and C-ζ/λ phosphorylation. Administering the 5α-reductase inhibitor in resistance-trained OLETF rats resulted in suppression of the exercise-induced effects on skeletal muscle mass, fasting glucose level, insulin sensitivity index, and GLUT-4 signaling, with a decline in muscular DHT levels. These findings suggest that resistance training

  18. Resistance to changing practice from pro re nata prescriptions to patient group directions in acute mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, O; Baker, J A

    2013-09-01

    Poor practice associated with pro re nata (PRN) prescriptions in mental health is known to be common and can increase the risk of serious and potentially fatal side effects. A contributing factor to poor practice is the lack of a clear chain of accountability between the decision to prescribe and administer PRN prescriptions. To address this problem, a patient group direction (PGD) for acute behavioural disturbance (lorazepam 0.5-2 mg) and staff training materials were developed. The intention was to replace PRN prescriptions with the PGD in two mental health trusts. One of the potential benefits of this would be the removal of the contribution of PRN to high and combined dose antipsychotic prescriptions. This proposal, however, was met with significant resistance in both trusts and did not replace PRN as a result. A series of interviews and focus groups were conducted with 16 RMNs working in the two trusts, to explore the reasons why the PGD was met with resistance. Senior nurses perceived resistance to be associated with anxieties over increased responsibility for decision making. Junior nurses reported concerns regarding the medicalization of the nursing role, the paperwork associated with the PGD and the training approach used. Future efforts to implement PGDs in mental health settings must carefully consider the methods for engaging effectively with participating organizations, in terms of managing change and completing the necessary groundwork for successful implementation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effects of two programs of metabolic resistance training on strength and hypertrophy

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    Carolina Brandt Meister

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The effects of low intensity resistance training combined with vascular occlusion have been investigated by several studies. Similar results on strength and hypertrophy have been observed when such method was compared to high intensity protocols. However, due to the specific apparatus needed to apply vascular occlusion (ex.: Kaatsu on some exercises, alternative forms of metabolic training might be used. In the present study, an isometric contraction was performed within each concentric-eccentric transition phase, for every repetition, to elicit metabolic stress. Objective: The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of two resistance training protocols with metabolic characteristics on strength (1MR, circumference (CIRC and muscle thickness (measured with ultrasonography [MT]. Subjective perception of discomfort was also recorded with an analogical-visual pain scale (AVP. Methods: Twelve young, healthy men were trained with two different methods during 10 weeks. The right limb was trained with an isometric contraction within each concentric-eccentric transition phases for every repetition (ISO whereas the left limb was trained with a pneumatic cuff to apply vascular occlusion (OC on the knee extensor muscles. Both methods were trained at 20% 1MR. Results: It was observed increases on medial tight CIRC, proximal MT, medial MT, distal MT and 1MR, with no difference between both methods. The perception of discomfort was greater for ISO at the end of the third set and lower than reported by OC, at the beginning and end of the training program. Conclusions: Both protocols produced similar gains on strength and hypertrophy. The advantages of training with low loads are important to elderly or rehabilitation training programs. Other studies that compare this method with conventional resistance training are warranted.

  20. Comparison of In-Season-Specific Resistance vs. A Regular Throwing Training Program on Throwing Velocity, Anthropometry, and Power Performance in Elite Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; van den Tillaar, Roland; Khlifa, Riadh; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Chamari, Karim

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a specific resistance training program (throwing movement with a medicine ball) with that of regular training (throwing with regular balls) on ball velocity, anthropometry, maximal upper-body strength, and power. Thirty-four elite male team handball players (age: 18 ± 0.5 years, body mass: 80.6 ± 5.5 kg, height: 1.80 ± 5.1 m, body fat: 13.4 ± 0.6%) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 groups: control (n = 10), resistance training group (n = 12), or regular throwing training group (n = 12). Over the 8-week in season, the athletes performed 3 times per week according to an assigned training program alongside their normal team handball training. One repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and 1RM pullover scores assessed maximal arm strength. Anthropometry was assessed by body mass, fat percentage, and muscle volumes of upper body. Handball throwing velocity was measured by a standing throw, a throw with run, and a jump throw. Power was measured by measuring total distance thrown by a 3-kg medicine ball overhead throw. Throwing ball velocity, maximal strength, power, and muscle volume increases for the specific resistance training group after the 8 weeks of training, whereas only maximal strength, muscle volume and power and in the jump throw increases were found for the regular throwing training group. No significant changes for the control group were found. The current findings suggest that elite male handball players can improve ball velocity, anthropometrics, maximal upper-body strength, and power during the competition season by implementing a medicine ball throwing program.

  1. The effects of resistance exercise training on arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVallance, E; Fournier, S; Lemaster, K; Moore, C; Asano, S; Bonner, D; Donley, D; Olfert, I M; Chantler, P D

    2016-05-01

    Arterial stiffness is a strong independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is elevated in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Resistance training is a popular form of exercise that has beneficial effects on muscle mass, strength, balance and glucose control. However, it is unknown whether resistance exercise training (RT) can lower arterial stiffness in patients with MetS. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine whether a progressive RT program would improve arterial stiffness in MetS. A total of 57 subjects (28 healthy sedentary subjects; 29 MetS) were evaluated for arterial structure and function, including pulse wave velocity (cfPWV: arterial stiffness), before and after an 8-week period of RT or continuation of sedentary lifestyle. We found that 8 weeks of progressive RT increased skeletal muscle strength in both Con and MetS, but did not change arterial stiffness in either MetS (cfPWV; Pre 7.9 ± 0.4 m/s vs. Post 7.7 ± 0.4 m/s) or healthy controls (cfPWV; Pre 6.9 ± 0.3 m/s vs. Post 7.0 ± 0.3 m/s). However, when cfPWV is considered as a continuous variable, high baseline measures of cfPWV tended to show a decrease in cfPWV following RT. Eight weeks of progressive RT did not decrease the group mean values of arterial stiffness in individuals with MetS or healthy controls.

  2. Investigating Students’ Viewpointson the Effect of Peer Groups and Sports on Education and Training Process

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    M AfkhamiAghda

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: The students’ points of view showed that peer groups and sports have a very high effect on education and training process thus leading to the improvement of social relationship and increasinglearning in different groups. Therefore, strengthening the peer groups and sport teams in educational environments has a very important influence on socialization of teenagers and youth thereby facilitating the acquisition of life skills and learning process and thus the education and training development in society

  3. Fasting: a major limitation for resistance exercise training effects in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, W; de Oliveira, L F; da Silva, R P; Alves, C R R; Lancha, A H

    2017-11-17

    Protocols that mimic resistance exercise training (RET) in rodents present several limitations, one of them being the electrical stimulus, which is beyond the physiological context observed in humans. Recently, our group developed a conditioning system device that does not use electric shock to stimulate rats, but includes fasting periods before each RET session. The current study was designed to test whether cumulative fasting periods have some influence on skeletal muscle mass and function. Three sets of male Wistar rats were used in the current study. The first set of rats was submitted to a RET protocol without food restriction. However, rats were not able to perform exercise properly. The second and third sets were then randomly assigned into three experimental groups: 1) untrained control rats, 2) untrained rats submitted to fasting periods, and 3) rats submitted to RET including fasting periods before each RET session. While the second set of rats performed a short RET protocol (i.e., an adaptation protocol for 3 weeks), the third set of rats performed a longer RET protocol including overload (i.e., 8 weeks). After the short-term protocol, cumulative fasting periods promoted loss of weight (P0.05 for all). Despite no effects on EDL mass, soleus muscle displayed significant atrophy in the fasting experimental groups (Pfasting is a major limitation for RET in rats.

  4. Fasting: a major limitation for resistance exercise training effects in rodents

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    W. das Neves

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Protocols that mimic resistance exercise training (RET in rodents present several limitations, one of them being the electrical stimulus, which is beyond the physiological context observed in humans. Recently, our group developed a conditioning system device that does not use electric shock to stimulate rats, but includes fasting periods before each RET session. The current study was designed to test whether cumulative fasting periods have some influence on skeletal muscle mass and function. Three sets of male Wistar rats were used in the current study. The first set of rats was submitted to a RET protocol without food restriction. However, rats were not able to perform exercise properly. The second and third sets were then randomly assigned into three experimental groups: 1 untrained control rats, 2 untrained rats submitted to fasting periods, and 3 rats submitted to RET including fasting periods before each RET session. While the second set of rats performed a short RET protocol (i.e., an adaptation protocol for 3 weeks, the third set of rats performed a longer RET protocol including overload (i.e., 8 weeks. After the short-term protocol, cumulative fasting periods promoted loss of weight (P0.05 for all. Despite no effects on EDL mass, soleus muscle displayed significant atrophy in the fasting experimental groups (P<0.01. Altogether, these data indicate that fasting is a major limitation for RET in rats.

  5. Group-analytic training groups for psychology students: A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, Vibeke Torpe; Poulsen, Stig

    2004-01-01

    This article presents results from an interview study of psychology students' experiences from group-analytic groups conducted at the University of Copenhagen. The primary foci are the significance of differences in themotivation participants'  personal aims of individual participantsfor particip......This article presents results from an interview study of psychology students' experiences from group-analytic groups conducted at the University of Copenhagen. The primary foci are the significance of differences in themotivation participants'  personal aims of individual participantsfor...... participation in the group, the impact of the composition of participants on the group process, and the professional learning through the group experience. In general the interviews show a marked satisfaction with the group participation. In particular, learning about the importance of group boundaries...

  6. Energetic differences between bacterioplankton trophic groups and coral reef resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDole Somera, Tracey; Bailey, Barbara; Barott, Katie; Grasis, Juris; Hatay, Mark; Hilton, Brett J; Hisakawa, Nao; Nosrat, Bahador; Nulton, James; Silveira, Cynthia B; Sullivan, Chris; Brainard, Russell E; Rohwer, Forest

    2016-04-27

    Coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse marine ecosystems on the Earth. They are also particularly sensitive to changing energetic requirements by different trophic levels. Microbialization specifically refers to the increase in the energetic metabolic demands of microbes relative to macrobes and is significantly correlated with increasing human influence on coral reefs. In this study, metabolic theory of ecology is used to quantify the relative contributions of two broad bacterioplankton groups, autotrophs and heterotrophs, to energy flux on 27 Pacific coral reef ecosystems experiencing human impact to varying degrees. The effective activation energy required for photosynthesis is lower than the average energy of activation for the biochemical reactions of the Krebs cycle, and changes in the proportional abundance of these two groups can greatly affect rates of energy and materials cycling. We show that reef-water communities with a higher proportional abundance of microbial autotrophs expend more metabolic energy per gram of microbial biomass. Increased energy and materials flux through fast energy channels (i.e. water-column associated microbial autotrophs) may dampen the detrimental effects of increased heterotrophic loads (e.g. coral disease) on coral reef systems experiencing anthropogenic disturbance. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Insulin and fiber type in the offspring of T2DM subjects with resistance training and detraining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schofield, Katherine L; Rehrer, Nancy J; Perry, Tracy L

    2012-01-01

    Effects of resistance training and detraining on glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose load, muscle fiber type, and muscular performance in the offspring of those with type 2 diabetes (familial insulin resistant (FIR)) were investigated....

  8. Effect of resistance training on plasma nitric oxide and asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations in type I diabetic rats

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    Parivash Shekarchizadeh Esfahani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Elevated ADMA level in diabetic animals can normalize during resistance exercise. Reduced ADMA level and increased NO level following resistance training might improve cardiovascular risk in diabetic subjects.

  9. The effect of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of protein on muscle fiber size and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.L.; Tufekovic, G.; Zebis, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of isoenergetic protein vs carbohydrate supplementation on muscle fiber hypertrophy and mechanical muscle performance. Supplementation was administered before and immediately after each training bout and, in addition, in the morning on nontraining days...

  10. Comparison 2 methods of resistance training (conventional and bodypump) on the agility and vertical jump in male basketball players 16-18 years

    OpenAIRE

    SALIMI, Hamid; BARATI, Amir; ADIBPOUR, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare an bodypump and resistance training on agility and vertical jump on male basketball players 16-18years. Therefore 36 teenage basketball players voluntarily chosen and randomly divided into three groups including: bodypump group (n=12,age 17 ± 0.5 year, height 179 ± 0.05 cm and a weight 69.26± 12.22 kg) and resistance group (n=12, age rangen 17± 0.6 years, range height 178 ± 0.09 cm and weight 68.55 ± 14.25 kg) and control group (n=12, age 17 ± 0.5 years, h...

  11. Effect of short-term upper-body resistance training on muscular strength, bone metabolic markers, and BMD in premenopausal women

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    Liang MT

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael TC Liang,1 Lorena Quezada,1 WY Jamie Lau,1 Bulent Sokmen,2 Thomas W Spalding11Department of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA, USA; 2Department of Kinesiology, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA, USAAbstract: To examine the effect of a 10-week upper-body resistance training program on bone turnover markers and site-specific bone mineral density (BMD in the wrist and distal half of the ulna and radius in untrained and healthy young premenopausal women.Methods: Twenty-two subjects (aged 22.1 ± 1.8 years were randomly assigned to a resistance training (n = 12 or no training control (n = 10 group. The following outcome variables were measured before and after 10 weeks of resistance training: (1 bone formation biomarker osteocalcin, and bone resorption biomarker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b; (2 BMD in the wrist and distal half of the ulna and radius; (3 isokinetic strength of the elbow and knee extensors and flexors; (4 dynamic strength of the arm extensors and flexors; and (5 maximum number of push-ups.Results: The 10-week upper body resistance training intervention resulted in improved strength performance in push-ups (resistance training versus control: P < 0.05, chest presses (P < 0.05, and pulldowns (P < 0.05. However, there was no improvement in the BMD of the wrist (P > 0.05, BMD of the distal half of the ulna and radius (P > 0.05, and metabolic biomarkers osteocalcin (P > 0.05 and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (P > 0.05, except for the osteocalcin/tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b ratio. Also, no improvement in the resistance training group was observed for isokinetic strength of the knee and elbow flexion/extension.Conclusion: Upper-body muscular strength performance, but not bone metabolic markers and BMD of the wrist, can be improved with a 10-week upper body resistance training program of the nonweight-bearing limbs in

  12. Effects of progressive resistance training on physical disability among older community-dwelling people with history of hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgren, Johanna; Rantanen, Taina; Heinonen, Ari; Portegijs, Erja; Alén, Markku; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Kallinen, Mauri; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2012-04-01

    Hip fracture is a common trauma in older people, and often leads to decreased muscle strength and increased physical disability. This randomized controlled trial examined whether three months of progressive resistance training (PRT) can reduce physical disability among older people with a history of hip fracture. A population-based sample of 60-85-year-old community- dwelling persons, with hip fractures sustained on average three years earlier, were enrolled in the study. Of 78 people participating in laboratory assessments, those without contraindications for participation in resistance training were randomly assigned to a training group (TG, n=22) or a control group (CG, n=21). TG took part in resistance training for three months twice a week. Training focused on lower limb muscles. Disability was assessed by a validated questionnaire containing six questions on activities of daily living (ADL) and nine on instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). A sum score was calculated separately for both items. High scores indicated more difficulties. Group differences were analysed with the Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests. The effects of PRT on disability were tested with the McNemar test and by covariance analysis (ANCOVA). TG and CG were comparable with respect to gender, age, chronic diseases, BMI, time since fracture, self-reported health, and level of physical activity at baseline. The ADL sum score in TG was 1.8 (2.0) at baseline and 1.1 (1.3) after follow-up; in CG values were 1.7 (1.8) and 1.5 (1.8) (ANCOVA p=0.034). IADL sum scores in TG were 3.9 (4.6) at baseline and 2.2 (3.8) after follow-up, and in CG 3.4 (3.6) and 2.4 (2.3) (ANCOVA p=0.529). Progressive resistance training reduced self-reported difficulties in ADL, even several years after fracture. More research is still needed on how to prevent physical disability among community-dwelling older people, especially after hip fracture.

  13. The effects of resistance training interventions on vertical jump performance in basketball players: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Paula F; Behringer, Michael; Mester, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Vertical jump performance is one of the key factors in basketball. In order to determine the effectiveness of previously published interventions and their influencing factors we performed a meta-analysis. A computerized search was conducted using the databases PubMed (1966), Web of Science (1900), SPORTDiscus™ (1975),Medline (1966) and SportPilot (2008). Studies involving healthy male or female basketball players at any age and performance level were included. All trials had to investigate the benefits of resistance training programs on jumping performance in basketball players and provide a control group. The effect size (ES) was computed and the relationship between ESs and continuous variables was examined by meta-regressions, whereas subgroup meta-analyses and z-tests were used to assess the impact of categorical moderator variables. The meta-analysis included 14 studies with 20 subgroups and a total of 37 outcomes. A total of 399 participants were examined, N.=157 served as control and N.=242 took part in particular training interventions. The overall weighted ES of 0.78 (95% CI 0.41, 1.15) was significantly greater than zero (Ptraining effect. However, positive correlations were found for training duration (r=0.68; P=0.02). The present meta-analysis demonstrates that resistance training throughout the year, using bodyweight or external weight, significantly improves vertical jump performance in healthy basketball players. Since vertical jump improvements were independent of intervention period but dependent on the duration of each individual training session the total training amount should be based on longer training sessions.

  14. Effectiveness of Hamstring Knee Rehabilitation Exercise Performed in Training Machine vs. Elastic Resistance Electromyography Evaluation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. D.; Sundstrup, E.; Andersen, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Design Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded...... inclinometers. Results Training machines and elastic resistance showed similar high levels of muscle activity (biceps femoris and semitendinosus peak normalized EMG >80%). EMG during the concentric phase was higher than during the eccentric phase regardless of exercise and muscle. However, compared with machine.......001) during hamstring curl performed with elastic resistance (7.58 +/- 0.08) compared with hamstring curl performed in a machine (5.92 +/- 0.03). Conclusions Hamstring rehabilitation exercise performed with elastic resistance induces similar peak hamstring muscle activity but slightly lower EMG values at more...

  15. Strength training improves fatigue resistance and self-rated health in workers with chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Brandt, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    of a randomized controlled trial investigates the effect of strength training on muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health among workers with chronic pain. Sixty-six slaughterhouse workers with chronic upper limb pain and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of strength training or usual...... (Spearman's rho = -0.40; P = 0.01). In conclusion, specific strength training improves muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health and reduces pain of the hand/wrist in manual workers with chronic upper limb pain. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01671267.......-rated health and pain. Time to fatigue, muscle strength, hand/wrist pain, and self-rated health improved significantly more following strength training than usual care (all P

  16. Influence of Resistance Training on Neuromuscular Function and Physical Capacity in ALS Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line; Djurtoft, J.B.; Bech, Rune Dueholm

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. The present study aimed to explore the effect of resistance training in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease characterized by progressive motor neuron loss and muscle weakness. Materials and Methods. Following a 12-week “lead-in” control period, a population...... of ALS patients from Funen, Denmark, completed a 12-week resistance training program consisting of 2-3 sessions/week. Neuromuscular function (strength and power) and voluntary muscle activation (superimposed twitch technique) were evaluated before and after both control and training periods. Physical...... capacity tests (chair rise and timed up and go), the revised ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R) scores, and muscle cross sectional area (histology) were also assessed. Results. Of twelve ALS patients assessed for eligibility, six were included and five completed the study. Training did...

  17. Prevalence of multidrug-resistant E. coli in different age groups of dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria has become a major public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance in commensal E. coli from different age-groups of animals on dairy farms. Materials: A total of 444 manur...

  18. Effect of whole body resistance training on arterial compliance in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakobowchuk, M; McGowan, C L; de Groot, P C; Bruinsma, D; Hartman, J W; Phillips, S M; MacDonald, M J

    2005-07-01

    The effect of resistance training on arterial stiffening is controversial. We tested the hypothesis that resistance training would not alter central arterial compliance. Young healthy men (age, 23 +/- 3.9 (mean +/- s.e.m.) years; n = 28,) were whole-body resistance trained five times a week for 12 weeks, using a rotating 3-day split-body routine. Resting brachial blood pressure (BP), carotid pulse pressure, carotid cross-sectional compliance (CSC), carotid initima-media thickness (IMT) and left ventricular dimensions were evaluated before beginning exercise (PRE), after 6 weeks of exercise (MID) and at the end of 12 weeks of exercise (POST). CSC was measured using the pressure-sonography method. Results indicate reductions in brachial (61.1 +/- 1.4 versus 57.6 +/- 1.2 mmHg; P training and the mechanisms responsible for cardiac hypertrophy and reduced arterial compliance are either not inherent to all resistance-training programmes or may require a prolonged stimulus.

  19. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    OpenAIRE

    H Çakır-Atabek; F Özdemir; R Çolak

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume) has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE) on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative str...

  20. Combined resistance and endurance exercise training improves arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and muscle strength in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Park, Song Y; Seo, Dae Y; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Baek, Yeong H

    2011-09-01

    Menopause is associated with increased arterial stiffness and reduced muscle strength. Combined resistance (RE) and endurance (EE) exercise training can decrease brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an index of arterial stiffness, in young men. We tested the hypothesis that combined circuit RE and EE training would improve baPWV, blood pressure (BP), and muscle strength in postmenopausal women. Twenty-four postmenopausal women (age 47-68 y) were randomly assigned to a "no exercise" control (n = 12) or to combined exercise training (EX; n = 12) group. The EX group performed concurrent circuit RE training followed by EE training at 60% of the predicted maximal heart rate (HR) 3 days per week. Brachial systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, baPWV, HR, and dynamic and isometric muscle strength were measured before and after the 12-week study. Mean ± SE baPWV (-0.8 ± 0.2 meters/s), systolic BP (-6.0 ± 1.9 mm Hg), diastolic BP (-4.8 ± 1.7 mm Hg), HR (-4.0 ± 1.0 beats/min), and mean arterial pressure (-5.1 ± 1.6 mm Hg) decreased (P hypertension and frailty in postmenopausal women.

  1. Short-term endurance training after coronary artery bypass grafting improves insulin resistance parameters in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowicz-Bieńkowska, Sławomira; Przywarska, Izabela; Dylewicz, Piotr; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Łucja; Rychlewski, Tadeusz; Wilk, Małgorzata; Rózańska, Anna

    2004-05-01

    It has been shown that short-term exercise training improves insulin resistance parameters in patients with ischaemic heart disease. The effects of such a rehabilitation programme in patients with hypertension have not been well established. To assess whether short-term endurance training after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) may improve metabolic parameters and reduce blood pressure in patients with hypertension. The study group consisted of 30 male patients (15 with hypertension and 15 normotensive) aged 55+/-2.1 years who underwent CABG 1 to 6 months before the initiation of a 3-week endurance training. Glucose, insulin and C-peptide blood levels as well as binding and degradation of 125I-insulin by erythrocyte receptors were assessed before and after the training programme. The effects of training on blood pressure values were also evaluated. A significant improvement (phypertension. This was accompanied by a significant (phypertension, both the exercise systolic and diastolic pressures decreased significantly (pendurance training was especially effective in patients with hypertension in whom beneficial changes in some metabolic risk factors of ischaemic heart disease as well as the reduction in the blood pressure values were observed.

  2. Mechanisms of group A Streptococcus resistance to reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningham, Anna; Döhrmann, Simon; Nizet, Victor; Cole, Jason N

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an exclusively human Gram-positive bacterial pathogen ranked among the 'top 10' causes of infection-related deaths worldwide. GAS commonly causes benign and self-limiting epithelial infections (pharyngitis and impetigo), and less frequent severe invasive diseases (bacteremia, toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis). Annually, GAS causes 700 million infections, including 1.8 million invasive infections with a mortality rate of 25%. In order to establish an infection, GAS must counteract the oxidative stress conditions generated by the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the infection site by host immune cells such as neutrophils and monocytes. ROS are the highly reactive and toxic byproducts of oxygen metabolism, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (O2•(-)), hydroxyl radicals (OH•) and singlet oxygen (O2*), which can damage bacterial nucleic acids, proteins and cell membranes. This review summarizes the enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms utilized by GAS to thwart ROS and survive under conditions of oxidative stress. © FEMS 2015.

  3. Effect of compensatory acceleration training in combination with accommodating resistance on upper body strength in collegiate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones MT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Margaret T Jones Sports Medicine Assessment, Rehabilitation, and Testing Laboratory, School of Recreation, Health, and Tourism, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA Purpose: To determine the impact of inclusion of a band or chain compensatory acceleration training (CAT, in a 5-week training phase, on maximal upper body strength during a 14-week off-season strength and conditioning program for collegiate male athletes. Patients and methods: Twenty-four National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA collegiate baseball players, who were familiar with the current strength and conditioning program and had a minimum of 1 year of formal collegiate strength and conditioning experience, participated in this off-season training study. None of the men had participated in CAT before. Subjects were matched following a maximal effort (1-repetition maximum [1-RM] bench press test in week 1, then were randomly assigned into a band-based CAT group or a chain-based CAT group and participated in a 5-week training phase that included bench pressing twice per week. Upper body strength was measured by 1-RM bench press again at week 6. A 2 × 2 mixed factorial (method × time analysis of variance was calculated to compare differences across groups. The alpha level was set at P<0.05. Results: No difference (F1,22=0.04, P=0.84 existed between the band-based CAT and chain-based CAT groups. A significant difference was observed between pre- and posttests of 1-RM bench (F1,22=88.46, P=0.001. Conclusion: A 5-week band CAT or chain CAT training program used in conjunction with an off-season strength and conditioning program can increase maximal upper body strength in collegiate baseball athletes. Using band CAT and/or chain CAT as a training modality in the off-season will vary the training stimulus from the traditional and likely help to maintain the athlete's interest. Keywords: variable resistance, band, baseball, chain, resistance training

  4. A randomized trial of protein supplementation compared with extra fast food on the effects of resistance training to increase metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambre, David; Vergara, Marta; Lood, Yvonne; Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta; Lindström, Torbjörn; Nystrom, Fredrik H

    2012-10-01

    To prospectively evaluate the effects of resistance training combined with increased energy intake or protein-supplementation on lean body-mass, resting metabolic-rate (RMR) and cardiovascular risk factors. Twenty-four healthy males (aged 19-32 years) performed resistance exercise for 12 weeks aiming for at least 1 hour training-sessions 3 times a week. The participants were randomized to consume extra protein (33 g whey protein/day) or a meal of fast-food/day (1350 kcal, 41 g protein). Body-composition was measured with Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) and RMR by indirect calorimetry. Fasting blood samples were drawn before and after the 3-month training period and after 12 months. The body weight increased from 75.1 ± 6.9 kg to 78.7 ± 7.2 kg (p < 0.0001), without differences between the groups. RMR increased from 1787 ± 143 kcal/24 h to 1954 ± 187 kcal/24 h (p < 0.0001, N = 24), which was more than expected from the increase in lean body-mass (increase from 59.7 ± 4.3 kg to 61.8 ± 4.1 kg p = 0.004). Fasting serum-insulin levels increased in the fast-food group compared with the extra-protein group (p = 0.03). ApoB increased from 0.691 ± 0.14 g/L to 0.768 ± 0.17 g/L, p = 0.004, in the fast-food group only. Long-term follow up after 12 months showed that RMR, body weight, total fat and lean body-masses did not differ from baseline (n = 19). Resistance training for 12 weeks increased RMR and lean body-mass similarly when based on either an increased energy-intake or protein supplement. However, the increase in RMR was higher than expected from the increase in lean body-mass. Thus resistance training could potentially decrease the risk of obesity by induction of increased RMR.

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Resistance Training in Female Youth: Its Effect on Muscular Strength, and Shortcomings in the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jason; Sandercock, Gavin; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Clark, Cain C T; Fernandes, John F T; Drury, Benjamin

    2018-07-01

    Resistance training is an effective way to enhance strength in female youth but, to date, no researcher has meta-analysed its effect on muscular strength in that population. This meta-analysis characterised female youths' adaptability to resistance training (RT). A second objective was to highlight the limitations of the body of literature with a view to informing future research. Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science. Resistance training interventions in healthy females with a mean age between 8 and 18 years. Programmes of between 4 and 16 weeks' duration that included a control group. The inverse-variance random effects model for meta-analyses was used because it allocates a proportionate weight to trials based on the size of their individual standard errors and facilitates analysis whilst accounting for heterogeneity across studies. Effect sizes, calculated from a measure of muscular strength, are represented by the standardised mean difference and are presented alongside 95% confidence intervals. The magnitude of the main effect was 'small' (0.54, 95% confidence interval: 0.23-0.85). Effect sizes were larger in older (> 15 years; ES = 0.72 [0.23-1.21] vs. 0.38 [- 0.02-0.79]), taller (> 163 cm; ES = 0.67 [0.20-1.13] vs. 0.55 [0.08-1.02]) and heavier (< 54 kg; ES = 0.67 [0.30-1.03] vs. 0.53 [- 0.00-1.06]) participants. Resistance training is effective in female youth. These findings can be used to inform the prescription of RT in female youth.

  6. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  7. Effect of 8 weeks resistance training on plasma levels of nerve growth factor and interlukin-6 in female patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Moghadasi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, evidence from a number of studies has suggested that exercise is a safe and efficient way to induce improvements in a number of physiological functions in multiple sclerosis (MS patients, but the effects of exercise on nerve growth factor (NGF and interlukin-6 (IL-6 in these patients are not well known. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks resistance training on plasma NGF and IL-6 in female patients with MS. Materials and methods: Thirty two female MS patients with 32.4±5.5 years of old, and expanded disability status scale (EDSS 0-4.5, participated in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to control group (n=13 and training group (n=14. Subjects in training group performed selected upper and lower extremities resistance training with weight-training equipment and rubber bands 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Body composition parameters, NGF and IL-6 levels were measured before and after the intervention. Results: The results showed that body weight, body mass index, body fat mass and EDSS were decreased significantly after 8 weeks in training group compared to control group (P<0.05. Also, no significant differences were seen after the intervention in NGF and IL-6 between the training and control groups. Conclusion: The results suggest resistance training with specific intensity and duration utilized in this study improves EDSS in female patients with MS but it has no effecting on NGF and IL-6 in these patients.

  8. Muscle, functional and cognitive adaptations after flywheel resistance training in stroke patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sol; Turon, Marc; Prieto, Cristina; Tesch, Per A; García-Carreira, Maria del Carmen

    2016-04-06

    Resistance exercise (RE) improves neuromuscular function and physical performance after stroke. Yet, the effects of RE emphasizing eccentric (ECC; lengthening) actions on muscle hypertrophy and cognitive function in stroke patients are currently unknown. Thus, this study explored the effects of ECC-overload RE training on skeletal muscle size and function, and cognitive performance in individuals with stroke. Thirty-two individuals with chronic stroke (≥6 months post-stroke) were randomly assigned into a training group (TG; n = 16) performing ECC-overload flywheel RE of the more-affected lower limb (12 weeks, 2 times/week; 4 sets of 7 maximal closed-chain knee extensions; trained (48.2 %), and the less-affected, untrained limb (28.1 %) increased after training. TG showed enhanced balance (8.9 %), gait performance (10.6 %), dual-task performance, executive functions (working memory, verbal fluency tasks), attention, and speed of information processing. CG showed no changes. ECC-overload flywheel resistance exercise comprising 4 min of contractile activity per week offers a powerful aid to regain muscle mass and function, and functional performance in individuals with stroke. While the current intervention improved cognitive functions, the cause-effect relationship, if any, with the concomitant neuromuscular adaptations remains to be explored. Clinical Trials NCT02120846.

  9. Addition of non-invasive ventilatory support to combined aerobic and resistance training improves dyspnea and quality of life in heart failure patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Hugo Souza; Cruz, Cristiano Gonçalves; David, Bruno Costa; Rodrigues, Erenaldo; Abade, Camille Magalhães; Junior, Roque Aras; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Dos Reis, Francisco Borges Faria; Gomes Neto, Mansueto

    2017-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that combined aerobic and resistance training and non-invasive ventilatory support result in additional benefits compared with combined aerobic and resistance training alone in heart failure patients. A randomized, single-blind, controlled study. Cardiac rehabilitation center. A total of 46 patients with New York Heart Association class II/III heart failure were randomly assigned to a 10-week program of combined aerobic and resistance training, plus non-invasive ventilatory support ( n = 23) or combined aerobic and resistance training alone ( n = 23). Before and after intervention, results for the following were obtained: 6-minute walk test, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at one second, maximal inspiratory muscle pressure, and maximal expiratory muscle pressure, with evaluation of dyspnea by the London Chest Activity of Daily Living scale, and quality of life with the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure questionnaire. Of the 46 included patients, 40 completed the protocol. The combined aerobic and resistance training plus non-invasive ventilatory support, as compared with combined aerobic and resistance training alone, resulted in significantly greater benefit for dyspnea (mean change: 4.8 vs. 1.3, p = 0.004), and quality of life (mean change: 19.3 vs. 6.8, p = 0.017 ). In both groups, the 6-minute walk test improved significantly (mean change: 45.7 vs. 44.1, p = 0.924), but without a statistically significant difference. Non-invasive ventilatory support combined with combined aerobic and resistance training provides additional benefits for dyspnea and quality of life in moderate heart failure patients. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02384798. Registered 03 April 2015.

  10. Group unconscious common orientation: exploratory study at the Basque Foundation for the investigation of mental health group training for therapists

    CERN Document Server

    Trojaola Zapirain, Begona; Carminati, Federico; Gonzalez Torres, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez de Mendivil, Ernesto; Fouassier, Claire; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Martin, Francois; Labarere, Jose; Demongeot, Jacques; Lorincz, Erika Nora

    2014-01-01

    Group phenomena have been used since antiquity in therapeutic, social, economic and political domains. According to Bion, the interactions between group members generate a ``group unconscious'' and its behavior is governed and oriented by Bion's ``basic assumptions.'' The present work has been conducted during group analysis training at the Basque Foundation for the Investigation of Mental Health (OMIE) at Bilbao, consisting of eleven sessions. The participants are presented with an ``absurd questionnaire'' proposing 50 pairs of images, in each of which one image has to be chosen. The results are used to search for evidence in favor of the influence of group dynamics on individual choices of the images proposed in the questionnaire. Our analysis finds some evidence for an effect of group dynamics both on the initial choice of the pictures and on the evolution of the number of changes (swaps) of picture choices across the eleven sessions. We interpret these effects in the light of Bion's view of group dynamics...

  11. The impact of exercise training compared to caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Robert H; Williams, Rick H; Yeo, Sophie E; Kortebein, Patrick M; Bodenner, Don L; Kern, Philip A; Evans, William J

    2009-11-01

    It has been difficult to distinguish the independent effects of caloric restriction versus exercise training on insulin resistance. Utilizing metabolic feeding and supervised exercise training, we examined the influence of caloric restriction vs. exercise training with and without weight loss on hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance. Thirty-four obese, older subjects were randomized to: caloric restriction with weight loss (CR), exercise training with weight loss (EWL), exercise training without weight loss (EX), or controls. Based on an equivalent caloric deficit in EWL and CR, we induced matched weight loss. Subjects in the EX group received caloric compensation. Combined with [6,6(2)H(2)]glucose, an octreotide, glucagon, multistage insulin infusion was performed to determine suppression of glucose production (SGP) and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (ISGD). Computed tomography scans were performed to assess changes in fat distribution. Body weight decreased similarly in EWL and CR, and did not change in EX and controls. The reduction in visceral fat was significantly greater in EWL (-71 +/- 15 cm(2)) compared to CR and EX. The increase in SGP was also almost 3-fold greater (27 +/- 2%) in EWL. EWL and CR promoted similar improvements in ISGD [+2.5 +/- 0.4 and 2.4 +/- 0.9 mg x kg fat-free mass (FFM)(-1) x min(-1)], respectively. EWL promoted the most significant reduction in visceral fat and the greatest improvement in SGP. Equivalent increases in ISGD were noted in EWL and CR, whereas EX provided a modest improvement. Based on our results, EWL promoted the optimal intervention-based changes in body fat distribution and systemic insulin resistance.

  12. Social skills group training in high-functioning autism: A qualitative responder study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choque Olsson, Nora; Rautio, Daniel; Asztalos, Jenny; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Bölte, Sven

    2016-11-01

    Systematic reviews show some evidence for the efficacy of group-based social skills group training in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, but more rigorous research is needed to endorse generalizability. In addition, little is known about the perspectives of autistic individuals participating in social skills group training. Using a qualitative approach, the objective of this study was to examine experiences and opinions about social skills group training of children and adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder and their parents following participation in a manualized social skills group training ("KONTAKT"). Within an ongoing randomized controlled clinical trial (NCT01854346) and based on outcome data from the Social Responsiveness Scale, six high responders and five low-to-non-responders to social skills group training and one parent of each child (N = 22) were deep interviewed. Interestingly, both high responders and low-to-non-responders (and their parents) reported improvements in social communication and related skills (e.g. awareness of own difficulties, self-confidence, independence in everyday life) and overall treatment satisfaction, although more positive intervention experiences were expressed by responders. These findings highlight the added value of collecting verbal data in addition to quantitative data in a comprehensive evaluation of social skills group training. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoni, Matteo; Codrons, Erwan; Marin, Luca; Correale, Luca; Bigliassi, Marcelo; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim

    2016-01-01

    Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (psession were less pleasant than those during moderate session (ptraining sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  14. Metacognitive group training for schizophrenia spectrum patients with delusions : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, B.; Krabbendam, L.; de Boer, K.; Ferwerda, J.; van der Helm, M.; Stant, A. D.; van der Gaag, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Metacognitive training (MCT) for patients with psychosis is a psychological group intervention that aims to educate patients about common cognitive biases underlying delusion formation and maintenance, and to highlight their negative consequences in daily functioning. Method. In this

  15. Metacognitive group training for schizophrenia spectrum patients with delusions: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, B.; Krabbendam, L.; de Boer, K.; Ferwerda, J.; van der Helm, M.; Stant, A.D.; van der Gaag, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metacognitive training (MCT) for patients with psychosis is a psychological group intervention that aims to educate patients about common cognitive biases underlying delusion formation and maintenance, and to highlight their negative consequences in daily functioning. Method: In this

  16. Effects of group prosocial skills training on anger control in prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, M R; Pratsinak, G J; Fagan, T J; Ax, R K

    1992-02-01

    A prosocial skills training program did not significantly affect the abilities of 48 adult male prison inmates to manage anger. Eight group treatment sessions did not influence their emotions, thoughts, and behaviors developed over years of experiential learning.

  17. Pawtucket R.I. Group Selected for EPA Environmental Workforce Development and Job Training Program Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundwork Rhode Island, a Pawtucket-based organization, was one of 17 groups selected today by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to share $3.3 million to operate environmental job training programs for local citizens.

  18. The impact of group training about parenting styles on maternal attitudes toward parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandiyeh, Zahra; Zare, Elaheh; Hedayati, Batool

    2015-01-01

    Parenting style is one of the most important and effective factors in training and growth of children and adolescents and the method that parents communicate with their children is an effective factor on family contact models. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of group training about parenting styles on maternal attitudes that were admitted to Isfahan Imam Ali (AS) health care center in 2013. This was an experimental study, which was conducted on a random sample of 25 mothers referred to this health care center. They were divided into two groups (experimental and control). The experimental group received five sessions of group training, and the control group received a booklet about parenting styles. The used tool in this study was the Bamerind Parenting Style Questionnaire that was completed by the mothers before and after the intervention and finally, their obtained scores were compared with each other. The results of the present study showed that the mean score of attitude toward easy-going style in test group was less than the control group after intervention (P = 0.045). The mean score of attitude toward authoritative style in the experimental group was less than control group after intervention (P = 0.037) and the mean score of attitude toward authoritative style in the experimental group was more than the control group after intervention (P = 0.011). Group training can be an appropriate method in changing maternal attitudes toward parenting styles.

  19. Development of the Corrective Feedback Instrument: A Tool for Use in Counselor Training Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse-Killacky, Diana; Page, Betsy J.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an instrument for measuring emotional barriers that can inhibit giving, receiving, and exchanging corrective feedback in counselor training groups. Also assesses leader behaviors that can help group members address those barriers. Testing showed that the instrument can be used to identify group member concerns. (RJM)

  20. Efficacy of phosphatidic acid ingestion on lean body mass, muscle thickness and strength gains in resistance-trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Jay R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidic acid (PA has been reported to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway and is thought to enhance the anabolic effects of resistance training. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine if oral phosphatidic acid administration can enhance strength, muscle thickness and lean tissue accruement during an 8-week resistance training program. Methods Sixteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to a group that either consumed 750 mg of PA (n = 7, 23.1 ± 4.4 y; 176.7 ± 6.7 cm; 86.5 ± 21.2 kg or a placebo (PL, n = 9, 22.5 ± 2.0 y; 179.8 ± 5.4 cm; 89.4 ± 13.6 kg group. During each testing session subjects were assessed for strength (one repetition maximum [1-RM] bench press and squat and body composition. Muscle thickness and pennation angle were also measured in the vastus lateralis of the subject’s dominant leg. Results Subjects ingesting PA demonstrated a 12.7% increase in squat strength and a 2.6% increase in LBM, while subjects consuming PL showed a 9.3% improvement in squat strength and a 0.1% change in LBM. Although parametric analysis was unable to demonstrate significant differences, magnitude based inferences indicated that the Δ change in 1-RM squat showed a likely benefit from PA on increasing lower body strength and a very likely benefit for increasing lean body mass (LBM. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that a combination of a daily 750 mg PA ingestion, combined with a 4-day per week resistance training program for 8-weeks appears to have a likely benefit on strength improvement, and a very likely benefit on lean tissue accruement in young, resistance trained individuals.

  1. Velocity loss as an indicator of neuromuscular fatigue during resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Medina, Luis; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to analyze the acute mechanical and metabolic response to resistance exercise protocols (REP) differing in the number of repetitions (R) performed in each set (S) with respect to the maximum predicted number (P). Over 21 exercise sessions separated by 48-72 h, 18 strength-trained males (10 in bench press (BP) and 8 in squat (SQ)) performed 1) a progressive test for one-repetition maximum (1RM) and load-velocity profile determination, 2) tests of maximal number of repetitions to failure (12RM, 10RM, 8RM, 6RM, and 4RM), and 3) 15 REP (S × R[P]: 3 × 6[12], 3 × 8[12], 3 × 10[12], 3 × 12[12], 3 × 6[10], 3 × 8[10], 3 × 10[10], 3 × 4[8], 3 × 6[8], 3 × 8[8], 3 × 3[6], 3 × 4[6], 3 × 6[6], 3 × 2[4], 3 × 4[4]), with 5-min interset rests. Kinematic data were registered by a linear velocity transducer. Blood lactate and ammonia were measured before and after exercise. Mean repetition velocity loss after three sets, loss of velocity pre-post exercise against the 1-m·s load, and countermovement jump height loss (SQ group) were significant for all REP and were highly correlated to each other (r = 0.91-0.97). Velocity loss was significantly greater for BP compared with SQ and strongly correlated to peak postexercise lactate (r = 0.93-0.97) for both SQ and BP. Unlike lactate, ammonia showed a curvilinear response to loss of velocity, only increasing above resting levels when R was at least two repetitions higher than 50% of P. Velocity loss and metabolic stress clearly differs when manipulating the number of repetitions actually performed in each training set. The high correlations found between mechanical (velocity and countermovement jump height losses) and metabolic (lactate, ammonia) measures of fatigue support the validity of using velocity loss to objectively quantify neuromuscular fatigue during resistance training.

  2. High-speed resistance training and balance training for people with knee osteoarthritis to reduce falls risk: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Pazit; Dunn, Jeremy; Bifera, Nancy; Butson, Michael; Elias, George; Hill, Keith D

    2017-08-18

    The number of falls experienced by people with knee osteoarthritis (OA) is almost double the number experienced by people with no OA. The neuromuscular elements required to arrest a fall are more impaired in people with knee OA compared to their asymptomatic counterparts. Therefore, these elements may need to be incorporated into an exercise intervention to reduce the risk of falling. The aim of this study will be to examine the feasibility, safety and patient satisfaction of a high-speed resistance-training program, with and without balance exercises, in people with knee OA compared to a control group. The effect of these exercise programs on lower-limb muscle strength and physiological and functional risk factors for falls will also be examined. This study will be a pilot randomized controlled trial with a pre- and post-intervention design (outcome assessments at baseline and 8 weeks after participation commencement) comparing three groups: a control group (no intervention), a high-speed resistance-training group and a high-speed resistance-training plus balance exercises group. Thirty people with knee osteoarthritis aged 60-90 years will be recruited and randomized to one of the three groups. Feasibility and safety will be assessed by examining adherence to the exercise program, dropout rate, pain level during and following exercise, number of exercises stopped due to pain, and any adverse event or any incident that prevents the participant from completing the prescribed exercise. Secondary measures of lower-limb strength, physical function, self-reported pain and function, fear of falls, and executive function and quality of life will also be assessed. To determine statistical trends of effectiveness and hence to inform sample size for a fully powered study, analyses of the secondary outcomes will be performed to assess the changes within and between groups over time (pre-post) using repeated measure ANOVA. The results of this study will improve understanding

  3. Group-SMA Algorithm Based Joint Estimation of Train Parameter and State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The braking rate and train arresting operation is important in the train braking performance. It is difficult to obtain the states of the train on time because of the measurement noise and a long calculation time. A type of Group Stochastic M-algorithm (GSMA based on Rao-Blackwellization Particle Filter (RBPF algorithm and Stochastic M-algorithm (SMA is proposed in this paper. Compared with RBPF, GSMA based estimation precisions for the train braking rate and the control accelerations were improved by 78% and 62%, respectively. The calculation time of the GSMA was decreased by 70% compared with SMA.

  4. Exercise in myasthenia gravis: A feasibility study of aerobic and resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Mikkelsen, Erik Elgaard; Overgaard, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: It has not been established whether progressive resistance training (PRT) and aerobic training (AT) are feasible and efficient in myasthenia gravis (MG). Methods: Fifteen subjects with generalized MG (Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) clinical classification II-IV) were...... randomly assigned to 20 training sessions during 8 weeks of either PRT or AT. Feasibility was evaluated based on adherence, drop-out rate, adverse events, and Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis (QMG) score. Results: Twelve subjects (MGFA II, n = 11; MGFA III, n=1) completed the intervention with a mean...

  5. Policing Diversity: Examining Police Resistance to Training Reforms for Transgender People in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles-Johnson, Toby

    2016-01-01

    Using field notes collected from participant observation of Australian police officers training to work with the transgender community, the current research builds on previous work examining social identity theory (Tajfel, 2010) to explain how one training program implemented to educate police about transgender people challenges police culture. This research determines that police culture, training procedures, and stereotypes of gender are equally influential on police perceptions of all transgender people. Overall, the results indicate that negative police perceptions toward police training reforms strengthen in-group identity of police, and negative out-group perceptions of transgender people.

  6. Protective Effect of Curcumin Supplementation and Light Resistance Exercises on Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme Activity and Malondialdehyde Levels in a Severe Endurance Training Period in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gorzi

    2017-07-01

    Background and aim: Extreme endurance exercises lead to oxidative stress in athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of curcumin supplement supplementation and light resistance training on the activity of SOD and MDA levels of male Wistar rats during a 8-week endurance training. Methods: In the present experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into one of six control groups, curcumin, endurance training, exercise, after one week of information (age 9 weeks and weight 255.62 ± 19.69 grams. Endurance + resistance, endurance training + curcumin and endurance training + curcumin + resistance. Incremental endurance training (8 weeks, 5 sessions per week was performed on a special treadmill. Speed ​​and running time in the last week reached 35 m / min and 70 minutes. Resistance training (8 weeks, 2 sessions per week was performed on vertical ladder by closing the rat's weight to the tail. Rats received supplemental curcumin by intraperitoneal injection (8 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 30 mg / kg body weight. SOD activity of the muscle was measured using ELISA kits and serum MDA levels using Tobartic acid (TBARS method. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (ANOVA.   Results: The antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD in the endometrial muscle of endurance group (1.08 ± 0.222 μg / ml was significantly lower than control group (22.2 ± 0.481 kg (P = 0.043, and SOD activity in the endurance + resistance group (1.87 ± 0.172, p = 0.44, endurance + curcumin (2.24 ± 0.222; P = 0.039, and endurance + curcumin + resistance (0.202 ± 0.15, p = 0.029 was significantly higher than endurance group. The levels of malondialdehyde in the endurance group (4.27 ± 0.438 nmol / ml protein were significantly higher in comparison with the control group (3.42 ± 0.350 (0.331 and Also, serum MDA levels in endurance + resistance groups (± 3.03 ± 0.342, p = 0.003, endurance + curcumin (p = 0.001, p <0.001, and endurance + curcumin

  7. Resistance training in the early postoperative phase reduces hospitalization and leads to muscle hypertrophy in elderly hip surgery patients--a controlled, randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte; Magnusson, S Peter; Rosted, Anna

    2004-01-01

    -six patients (aged 60-86) scheduled for unilateral hip replacement due to primary hip osteoarthrosis. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomized to standard home-based rehabilitation (1 h/d x 12 weeks), unilateral neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the operated side (1 h/d x 12 weeks), or unilateral...... was shorter for the resistance training group (10.0+/-2.4 days, Pelectrical stimulation or standard rehabilitation, resulted in increased CSA (12%, P... performance increased after resistance training (30%, Pelectrical stimulation (15%, P

  8. Slow movement resistance training using body weight improves muscle mass in the elderly: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuku, S; Kajioka, T; Sakakibara, H; Shimaoka, K

    2018-04-01

    To examine the effect of a 12-week slow movement resistance training using body weight as a load (SRT-BW) on muscle mass, strength, and fat distribution in healthy elderly people. Fifty-three men and 35 women aged 70 years old or older without experience in resistance training participated, and they were randomly assigned to a SRT-BW group or control group. The control group did not receive any intervention, but participants in this group underwent a repeat measurement 12 weeks later. The SRT-BW program consisted of 3 different exercises (squat, tabletop push-up, and sit-up), which were designed to stimulate anterior major muscles. Initially, these exercises were performed by 2 sets of 10 repetitions, and subsequently, the number of repetitions was increased progressively by 2 repetitions every 4 weeks. Participants were instructed to perform each eccentric and concentric phase of movement slowly (spending 4 seconds on each movement), covering the full range of motion. We evaluated muscle mass, strength, and fat distribution at baseline and after 12 weeks of training. Changes over 12 weeks were significantly greater in the SRT-BW group than in the control group, with a decrease in waist circumference, hip circumference, and abdominal preperitoneal and subcutaneous fat thickness, and an increase in thigh muscle thickness, knee extension strength, and hip flexion strength. In conclusion, relatively short-term SRT-BW was effective in improving muscle mass, strength, and fat distribution in healthy elderly people. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Myogenic response of human skeletal muscle to 12 weeks of resistance training at light loading intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Holm, L; Reitelseder, S

    2011-01-01

    There is strong evidence for enhanced numbers of satellite cells with heavy resistance training. The satellite cell response to very light muscle loading is, however, unknown. We, therefore, designed a 12-week training protocol where volunteers trained one leg with a high load (H) and the other leg...... with a light load (L). Twelve young healthy men [mean age 25 ± 3 standard deviation (SD) years] volunteered for the study. Muscle biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of both legs before and after the training period and satellite cells were visualized by CD56 immunohistochemistry....... A significant main effect of time was observed (P12 ± 0.03 to 0.15 ± 0.05, mean ± SD). The finding that 12 weeks of training skeletal muscle even with very light loads can induce an increase in the number of satellite...

  10. High-Intensity Progressive Resistance Training Increases Strength With No Change in Cardiovascular Function and Autonomic Neural Regulation in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegusuku, Hélcio; Queiroz, Andréia C; Silva, Valdo J; de Mello, Marco T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Forjaz, Cláudia L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of high-intensity progressive resistance training (HIPRT) on cardiovascular function and autonomic neural regulation in older adults are unclear. To investigate this issue, 25 older adults were randomly divided into two groups: control (CON, N = 13, 63 ± 4 years; no training) and HIPRT (N = 12, 64 ± 4 years; 2 sessions/week, 7 exercises, 2–4 sets, 10–4 RM). Before and after four months, maximal strength, quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA), clinic and ambulatory blood pressures (BP), systemic hemodynamics, and cardiovascular autonomic modulation were measured. Maximal strength and QCSA increased in the HIPRT group and did not change in the CON group. Clinic and ambulatory BP, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac sympathovagal balance did not change in the HIPRT group or the CON group. In conclusion, HIPRT was effective at increasing muscle mass and strength without promoting changes in cardiovascular function or autonomic neural regulation.

  11. Influence of Resistance Training on Neuromuscular Function and Physical Capacity in ALS Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barner Dalgaard, Line; Djurtoft, J. B.; Bech, R D

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to explore the effect of resistance training in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease characterized by progressive motor neuron loss and muscle weakness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following a 12-week "lead-in" control period, a population...

  12. Neurorehabilitation with versus without resistance training after botulinum toxin treatment in children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Jensen, Bente Rona; Nielsen, Lone M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of physical rehabilitation with (PRT) and without (CON) progressive resistance training following treatment of spastic plantarflexors with botulinum toxin type A (BoNT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Fourteen children with CP performed supervised...

  13. Explosive type of moderate-resistance training induces functional, cardiovascular, and molecular adaptations in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran Valls, Maria Reyes; Dimauro, Ivan; Brunelli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    of 12 weeks of low-frequency, moderate-intensity, explosive-type resistance training (EMRT) on muscle strength and power in old community-dwelling people (70-75 years), monitoring functional performance linked to daily living activities (ADL) and cardiovascular response, as well as biomarkers of muscle...

  14. Effectiveness of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training for frequent neck/shoulder pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Saervoll, Charlotte A; Mortensen, Ole S

    2011-01-01

    Regular physical exercise is a cornerstone in rehabilitation programs, but adherence to comprehensive exercise remains low. This study determined the effectiveness of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training for relieving neck/shoulder pain in healthy adults with frequent symptoms...

  15. Evaluating the Relationship of Computer Literacy Training Competence and Nursing Experience to CPIS Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Dorothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive/correlational project was to examine the relationship between the level of computer literacy, informatics training, nursing experience, and perceived competence in using computerized patient information systems (CPIS) and nursing resistance to using CPIS. The Nurse Computerized Patient Information…

  16. Effect of high-intensity interval and resistance training on cardiovascular risk factors in MS patients

    OpenAIRE

    Severijns, Tobias; Wijckmans, Ferdy

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of high-intensity interval plus resistance training (HIITR) on cardiovascular risk factors was studied through a quasi-experimental study. Outcome measures are: endurance capacity, body composition, physical activity level, isometric muscle strength, oral glucose tolerance, blood lipids and lipoprotein - cholesterol.

  17. Older Adults' Perceived Changes in Physical Self-Worth Associated with Resistance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Rylee A.; Cannon, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Using Sonstroem, Harlow, and Josephs' (1994) expanded version of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM; Sonstroem & Morgan, 1989), we explored how 9 older adults (6 women and 3 men, aged 65-72 years) involved in a resistance training program experienced and perceived changes in physical self-worth (i.e., improved strength, functional…

  18. Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmarck, B.; Andersen, J.L.; Olsen, S.

    2001-01-01

    1. Age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength can partly be counteracted by resistance training, causing a net synthesis of muscular proteins. Protein synthesis is influenced synergistically by postexercise amino acid supplementation, but the importance of the timing of protein intake...

  19. Swiss ball abdominal crunch with added elastic resistance is an effective alternative to training machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    crunches in training machine (27±3.7 vs 65±3.8% nEMG respectively, Pinfluence the findings. CONCLUSION: Crunches on a Swiss ball with added elastic resistance induces high rectus abdominis activity accompanied by low hip flexor...

  20. Effects of resistance training, detraining, and retraining on strength and functional capacity in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakugawa, Raphael Luiz; Moura, Bruno Monteiro; Orssatto, Lucas Bet da Rosa; Bezerra, Ewertton de Souza; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Diefenthaeler, Fernando

    2018-05-17

    The interruption of training (detraining) results in loss of the gains acquired. Partial retention could occur after detraining, and variation in training stimuli may optimize retraining adaptations. To evaluate the effect of a resistance-retraining program on strength and functional capacity performance after a detraining period. Ten elderly men and women (63-68 years) completed 12 weeks of training, 16 weeks of detraining, and 8 weeks of retraining. One-repetition maximum (1-RM) at 45° leg press, maximum isometric knee extension torque, rate of torque development (RTD), 30-s sit-to-stand, timed up and go, and stair ascent and descent tests were assessed. The 1-RM increased after training (p training (p training period (p > 0.05). For RTD and 30-s sit-to-stand, there was an increase after retraining when compared to pre-training values (p training and post-training periods (p functional capacity at the same level obtained after a detraining period. The inclusion of an explosive strength session in retraining period improves RTD and 30-s sit-to-stand performance and can accelerate the recovery of strength after a detraining period.

  1. FAO/IAEA Consultants Group Meeting on The Potential for Tsetse Flies to Develop Resistance to Insecticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    the Consultants Report is as follows: - Collection of information on the scope and intensity of insecticide use in past as well as future planned control projects, and dissemination of information (to planners, field operatives, and training manuals) on the possibility and consequences of resistance development in tsetse; - Collection of baseline information on current levels of insecticide susceptibility in tsetse, focusing initially on pyrethroids, and incorporating all relevant approaches including bioassay (especially development of discriminating doses), activity assays for detoxifying enzymes, isolation and characterization of genes potentially encoding insecticide resistance, and neurophysiological measurements of nervous system sensitivity to pyrethroids; - Development of laboratory-selected pyrethroid-resistant strains of tsetse; - Consideration and evaluation of the resistance-delaying or resistance-management benefits of alternative strategies of tsetse control or eradication, especially with regard to inclusion of other compounds to reduce the dependency on pyrethroids. Each recommendation is discussed in more detail in the Report. The Consultants Group urges its wide dissemination and consideration by all involved in programs of tsetse control and eradication, and by agencies and funding bodies with an interest in science in the service of sustainable development in Africa.

  2. FAO/IAEA Consultants Group Meeting on The Potential for Tsetse Flies to Develop Resistance to Insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    the Consultants Report is as follows: - Collection of information on the scope and intensity of insecticide use in past as well as future planned control projects, and dissemination of information (to planners, field operatives, and training manuals) on the possibility and consequences of resistance development in tsetse; - Collection of baseline information on current levels of insecticide susceptibility in tsetse, focusing initially on pyrethroids, and incorporating all relevant approaches including bioassay (especially development of discriminating doses), activity assays for detoxifying enzymes, isolation and characterization of genes potentially encoding insecticide resistance, and neurophysiological measurements of nervous system sensitivity to pyrethroids; - Development of laboratory-selected pyrethroid-resistant strains of tsetse; - Consideration and evaluation of the resistance-delaying or resistance-management benefits of alternative strategies of tsetse control or eradication, especially with regard to inclusion of other compounds to reduce the dependency on pyrethroids. Each recommendation is discussed in more detail in the Report. The Consultants Group urges its wide dissemination and consideration by all involved in programs of tsetse control and eradication, and by agencies and funding bodies with an interest in science in the service of sustainable development in Africa.

  3. A Randomized Trial Comparing Two Tongue-Pressure Resistance Training Protocols for Post-Stroke Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M; Bayley, Mark T; Peladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Nagy, Ahmed; Namasivayam, Ashwini M; Stokely, Shauna L; Wolkin, Talia

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of two tongue resistance training protocols. One protocol ("tongue-pressure profile training") emphasized the pressure-timing patterns that are typically seen in healthy swallows by focusing on gradual pressure release and saliva swallowing tasks. The second protocol ("tongue-pressure strength and accuracy training") emphasized strength and accuracy in tongue-palate pressure generation and did not include swallowing tasks. A prospective, randomized, parallel allocation trial was conducted. Of 26 participants who were screened for eligibility, 14 received up to 24 sessions of treatment. Outcome measures of posterior tongue strength, oral bolus control, penetration-aspiration and vallecular residue were made based on videofluoroscopy analysis by blinded raters. Complete data were available for 11 participants. Significant improvements were seen in tongue strength and post-swallow vallecular residue with thin liquids, regardless of treatment condition. Stage transition duration (a measure of the duration of the bolus presence in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation, which had been chosen to capture impairments in oral bolus control) showed no significant differences. Similarly, significant improvements were not seen in median scores on the penetration-aspiration scale. This trial suggests that tongue strength can be improved with resistance training for individuals with tongue weakness following stroke. We conclude that improved penetration-aspiration does not necessarily accompany improvements in tongue strength; however, tongue-pressure resistance training does appear to be effective for reducing thin liquid vallecular residue.

  4. ACTN3 R577X POLYMORPHISM AND NEUROMUSCULAR RESPONSE TO RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gentil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The R577X polymorphism at the ACTN3 gene has been associated with muscle strength, hypertrophy and athletic status. The X allele, which is associated with the absence of ACTN3 protein is supposed to impair performance of high force/velocity muscle contractions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association of the R577X polymorphism with the muscle response to resistance training in young men. One hundred forty one men performed two resistance training sessions per week for 11 weeks. Participants were tested for 1RM bench press, knee extensors peak torque, and knee extensors muscle thickness at baseline and after the training period. Genotyping was conducted using de DdeI restriction enzyme. Genotype distribution was 34.4% for RR, 47% for RX and 18.6% for the XX genotype. According to the results, the R577X polymorphism at the ACTN3 gene is not associated with baseline muscle strength or with the muscle strength response to resistance training. However, only carriers of the R allele showed increases in muscle thickness in response to training

  5. Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Eckardt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that both balance and resistance training have the potential to mitigate intrinsic fall risk factors in older adults. However, knowledge about the effects of simultaneously executed balance and resistance training (i.e., resistance training conducted on unstable surfaces [URT] on lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults is insufficient. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of machine-based stable resistance training (M-SRT and two types of URT, i.e., machine-based (M-URT and free-weight URT (F-URT, on measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults. Methods Seventy-five healthy community-dwelling older adults aged 65–80 years, were assigned to three intervention groups: M-SRT, M-URT and F-URT. Over a period of ten weeks, all participants exercised two times per week with each session lasting ~60 min. Tests included assessment of leg muscle strength (e.g., maximal isometric leg extension strength, power (e.g., chair rise test and balance (e.g., functional reach test, carried out before and after the training period. Furthermore, maximal training load of the squat-movement was assessed during the last training week. Results Maximal training load of the squat-movement was significantly lower in F-URT in comparison to M-SRT and M-URT. However, lower-extremity resistance training conducted on even and uneven surfaces meaningfully improved proxies of strength, power and balance in all groups. M-URT produced the greatest improvements in leg extension strength and F-URT in the chair rise test and functional reach test. Conclusion Aside from two interaction effects, overall improvements in measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance were similar across training groups. Importantly, F-URT produced similar results with considerably lower training load as compared to M-SRT and M-URT. Concluding, F-URT seems an

  6. Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Nils

    2016-11-24

    It is well documented that both balance and resistance training have the potential to mitigate intrinsic fall risk factors in older adults. However, knowledge about the effects of simultaneously executed balance and resistance training (i.e., resistance training conducted on unstable surfaces [URT]) on lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults is insufficient. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of machine-based stable resistance training (M-SRT) and two types of URT, i.e., machine-based (M-URT) and free-weight URT (F-URT), on measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults. Seventy-five healthy community-dwelling older adults aged 65-80 years, were assigned to three intervention groups: M-SRT, M-URT and F-URT. Over a period of ten weeks, all participants exercised two times per week with each session lasting ~60 min. Tests included assessment of leg muscle strength (e.g., maximal isometric leg extension strength), power (e.g., chair rise test) and balance (e.g., functional reach test), carried out before and after the training period. Furthermore, maximal training load of the squat-movement was assessed during the last training week. Maximal training load of the squat-movement was significantly lower in F-URT in comparison to M-SRT and M-URT. However, lower-extremity resistance training conducted on even and uneven surfaces meaningfully improved proxies of strength, power and balance in all groups. M-URT produced the greatest improvements in leg extension strength and F-URT in the chair rise test and functional reach test. Aside from two interaction effects, overall improvements in measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance were similar across training groups. Importantly, F-URT produced similar results with considerably lower training load as compared to M-SRT and M-URT. Concluding, F-URT seems an effective and safe alternative training program to mitigate

  7. Group attributional training as an effective approach to human resource development under team work systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z M

    1994-07-01

    An experimental programme of group attributional training under team work system was conducted as part of human resource development in Chinese industrial enterprises. One hundred and ten shopfloor employees participated in the study. Among them, 58 employees took part in the factorial-designed experiment to find out the effects of attributions on performance, and 52 employees of ten work groups participated in the group attributional training programme twice a week for two months. The results showed that the group attributional training was effective in modifying employees' attributional patterns and enhancing group performance and satisfaction. On the basis of the results, an attributional model of work motivation is proposed, and its theoretical and practical implications for human resource management discussed.

  8. Explosive heavy-resistance training in old and very old adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserotti, Paolo; Aagaard, P; Buttrup Larsen, J

    2008-01-01

    % in TG80 and TG60, respectively, while jump peak power increased in TG60 (5%). Finally, LEP increased 28% in TG80 and 12% in TG60. These findings demonstrate that explosive-type heavy-resistance training seems to be safe and well tolerated in healthy women even in the eighth decade of life and elicits......Age-related decline in muscle power predicts falls, motor impairments and disability. Recent guidelines suggested that training programs should be tailored to maximize muscle power. This study investigated the effects of 12 weeks of explosive-type heavy-resistance training (75-80% of 1 repetition...... of force development (RFD), and impulse, maximal muscle power during a countermovement jump (CMJ) and during unilateral leg extension task (LEP) were evaluated. RFD, impulse and MVC increased by 51%, 42% and 28% in TG80, and by 21%, 18% and 18% in TG60, respectively. CMJ jump height increased by 18% and 10...

  9. Enhanced satellite cell proliferation with resistance training in elderly men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Esmarck, B; Kadi, F

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the well-documented loss of muscle mass and strength associated with aging, there is evidence for the attenuating effects of aging on the number of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of satellite cells in elderly men...... and women to 12 weeks of resistance training. Biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of 13 healthy elderly men and 16 healthy elderly women (mean age 76+/-SD 3 years) before and after the training period. Satellite cells were visualized by immunohistochemical staining of muscle cross.......15+/-0.06; mean+/-SD) and females (from 0.11+/-0.04 to 0.13+/-0.05). These results suggest that 12 weeks of resistance training is effective in enhancing the satellite cell pool in skeletal muscle in the elderly....

  10. Effects of Resistance Training on Muscle Strength, Endurance, and Motor Unit According to Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Polymorphism in Male College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae-Rim Hong, Sang-Min Hong, Yun-A Shin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in muscle mass and strength across the adult age span are variable and related to the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF genotype. In particular, a single CNTF haplotype (1357 G→A is important for neuronal and muscular developments and may be associated with muscle strength response to resistance training. We examined whether CNTF genotype differentially influences the effect of resistance training on neuromuscular improvement in male college students. Resistance training of the upper extremities comprised 3 sets at 75%–85% intensity per 1 repetition maximum, 3 times a week, for a total of 8 weeks. We measured isokinetic muscle function of the elbow joint with regard to strength (60°/s and endurance (180°/s by using an isokinetic dynamometer. The biceps brachii (BB and brachioradialis muscles were studied using surface electromyography with spike-triggered averaging to assess surface-detected motor unit potential (SMUP area. After resistance training, the SMUP of the BB increased significantly at 60°/s (p < 0.05, but no difference in the CNTF genotype was observed. The SMUP of the BB at 180°/s increased significantly in the GG/AA genotype group compared with that in the GA genotype group (p < 0.05. The average power of the elbow flexor at 180°/s increased significantly after resistance training (p < 0.05, but again, no difference in the CNTF genotype was observed. Thus, improvements in muscle strength and endurance may have resulted directly from resistance training rather than from genetic factors related to nerves in muscle tissue.

  11. Effect of low-cost resistance training on lower-limb strength and balance in institutionalized seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motalebi, Seyedeh Ameneh; Cheong, Loke Seng; Iranagh, Jamileh Amirzadeh; Mohammadi, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Background/Study Context: Given the rapid increase in the aging population worldwide, fall prevention is of utmost importance. It is essential to establish an efficient, simple, safe, and low-cost intervention method for reducing the risk of falls. This study examined the effect of 12 weeks of progressive elastic resistance training on lower-limb muscle strength and balance in seniors living in the Rumah Seri Kenangan, social welfare home in Cheras, Malaysia. A total of 51 subjects qualified to take part in this quasi-experimental study. They were assigned to either the resistance exercise group (n = 26) or control group (n = 25). The mean age of the 45 participants who completed the program was 70.7 (SD = 6.6). The exercise group met twice per week and performing one to three sets of 8 to 10 repetitions for each of nine lower-limb elastic resistance exercises. All exercises were conducted at low to moderate intensities in sitting or standing positions. The subjects were tested at baseline and 6 and 12 weeks into the program. The results showed statistically significant improvements in lower-limb muscle strength as measured by five times sit-to-stand test (%Δ = 22.6) and dynamic balance quantified by the timed up-and-go test (%Δ = 18.7), four-square step test (%Δ = 14.67), and step test for the right (%Δ = 18.36) and left (%Δ = 18.80) legs. No significant changes were observed in static balance as measured using the tandem stand test (%Δ = 3.25), and one-leg stand test with eyes opened (%Δ = 9.58) and eyes closed (%Δ = -0.61) after completion of the program. The findings support the feasibility and efficacy of a simple and inexpensive resistance training program to improve lower-limb muscle strength and dynamic balance among the institutionalized older adults.

  12. Fiber type specific response of skeletal muscle satellite cells to high-intensity resistance training in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The aim was to investigate the effect of high-intensity resistance training on satellite cell (SC) and myonuclear number in the muscle of patients undergoing dialysis. Methods. Patients (n=21) underwent a 16-week control period, followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thrice...

  13. Functional and Muscle-Size Effects of Flywheel Resistance Training with Eccentric-Overload in Professional Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto-Izquierdo, Sergio; García-López, David; de Paz, José A

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the effects of 6 week (15 sessions) flywheel resistance training with eccentric-overload (FRTEO) on different functional and anatomical variables in professional handball players. Twenty-nine athletes were recruited and randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group (EXP, n = 15) carried out 15 sessions of FRTEO in the leg-press exercise, with 4 sets of 7 repetitions at a maximum-concentric effort. The control group (CON, n = 14) performed the same number of training sessions including 4 sets of 7 maximum repetitions (7RM) using a weight-stack leg-press machine. The results which were measured included maximal dynamic strength (1RM), muscle power at different submaximal loads (PO), vertical jump height (CMJ and SJ), 20 m sprint time (20 m), T-test time (T-test), and Vastus-Lateralis muscle (VL) thickness. The results of the EXP group showed a substantially better improvement (p handball requires repeated short, explosive effort such as accelerations and decelerations during sprints with changes of direction, these results suggest that FRTEO affects functional and anatomical changes in a way which improves performance in well-trained professional handball players.

  14. Development, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the resistance training skills battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Harries, Simon K; Barnett, Lisa M; Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the development and assess test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Resistance Training Skills Battery (RTSB) for adolescents. The RTSB provides an assessment of resistance training skill competency and includes 6 exercises (i.e., body weight squat, push-up, lunge, suspended row, standing overhead press, and front support with chest touches). Scoring for each skill is based on the number of performance criteria successfully demonstrated. An overall resistance training skill quotient (RTSQ) is created by adding participants' scores for the 6 skills. Participants (44 boys and 19 girls, mean age = 14.5 ± 1.2 years) completed the RTSB on 2 occasions separated by 7 days. Participants also completed the following fitness tests, which were used to create a muscular fitness score (MFS): handgrip strength, timed push-up, and standing long jump tests. Intraclass correlation (ICC), paired samples t-tests, and typical error were used to assess test-retest reliability. To assess construct validity, gender and RTSQ were entered into a regression model predicting MFS. The rank order repeatability of the RTSQ was high (ICC = 0.88). The model explained 39% of the variance in MFS (p ≤ 0.001) and RTSQ (r = 0.40, p ≤ 0.001) was a significant predictor. This study has demonstrated the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the RTSB in a sample of adolescents. The RTSB can reliably rank participants in regards to their resistance training competency and has the necessary sensitivity to detect small changes in resistance training skill proficiency.

  15. Is there a minimum intensity threshold for resistance training-induced hypertrophic adaptations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J

    2013-12-01

    In humans, regimented resistance training has been shown to promote substantial increases in skeletal muscle mass. With respect to traditional resistance training methods, the prevailing opinion is that an intensity of greater than ~60 % of 1 repetition maximum (RM) is necessary to elicit significant increases in muscular size. It has been surmised that this is the minimum threshold required to activate the complete spectrum of fiber types, particularly those associated with the largest motor units. There is emerging evidence, however, that low-intensity resistance training performed with blood flow restriction (BFR) can promote marked increases in muscle hypertrophy, in many cases equal to that of traditional high-intensity exercise. The anabolic effects of such occlusion-based training have been attributed to increased levels of metabolic stress that mediate hypertrophy at least in part by enhancing recruitment of high-threshold motor units. Recently, several researchers have put forth the theory that low-intensity exercise (≤50 % 1RM) performed without BFR can promote increases in muscle size equal, or perhaps even superior, to that at higher intensities, provided training is carried out to volitional muscular failure. Proponents of the theory postulate that fatiguing contractions at light loads is simply a milder form of BFR and thus ultimately results in maximal muscle fiber recruitment. Current research indicates that low-load exercise can indeed promote increases in muscle growth in untrained subjects, and that these gains may be functionally, metabolically, and/or aesthetically meaningful. However, whether hypertrophic adaptations can equal that achieved with higher intensity resistance exercise (≤60 % 1RM) remains to be determined. Furthermore, it is not clear as to what, if any, hypertrophic effects are seen with low-intensity exercise in well-trained subjects as experimental studies on the topic in this population are lacking. Practical

  16. The Effects of 24 weeks of Resistance Training with Simultaneous Elastic and Free Weight Loading on Muscular Performance of Novice Lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoepe, Todd C; Ramirez, David A; Rovetti, Robert J; Kohler, David R; Almstedt, Hawley C

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of variable resistance as provided through elastic plus free weight techniques in college aged males and females. Twenty novice lifters were randomly assigned to a traditional free weight only (6 males and 5 females) or elastic band plus free weight group (5 males and 5 females) and 9 more normally active controls (5 males and 4 females), were recruited to maintain normal activity for the duration of the study. No differences existed between control, free weight and elastic band at baseline for age, body height, body mass, body mass index, and body fat percentage. One-repetition maximums were performed for squat and bench press while both strength and power were assessed using isokinetic dynamometry. Elastic groups and free-weight groups completed 24 weeks of whole body, periodized, high intensity resistance (65-95% of one-repetition maximum) training three times/week. Training programs were identical except that the elastic group trained the barbell squat, bench press and stiff-legged deadlift with 20-35% of their total prescribed training loads coming from band resistance (assessed at the top of the range of motion) with the remainder from free weight resistance. A mixed-model analysis revealed that peak torque, average power and one-repetition maximums for squat were significantly greater after training for the elastic group compared to the control (pfree weight group also showed significantly greater improvements over the control in peak torque and one-repetition maximums for squat and bench press. No significant differences were observed between the elastic band and free weight groups. Combined variable elastic band plus free weight exercises are effective at increasing strength and power similar to free-weights alone in novice college aged males and females. However, due to complexity in set-up and load assignment elastic adoption by novice lifters in an unsupervised situation is not advised.

  17. Effect of Regular Resistance Training on Motivation, Self-Perceived Health, and Quality of Life in Previously Inactive Overweight Women: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiestad, Hege; Rustaden, Anne Mette; Bø, Kari; Haakstad, Lene A H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim was to investigate the effects of three different types of resistance training implementation. Design. Randomized controlled trial. Methods. Inactive, overweight women (n = 143), mean BMI 31.3 ± 5.2 kg/m(2), mean age 39.9 ± 10.5 years, were randomized to one of the following groups: A (BodyPump group training), B (individual follow-up by a personal trainer), C (nonsupervised exercise), or D (controls). The intervention included 12 weeks of 45-60 minutes' full-body resistance training three sessions per week. The outcomes in this paper are all secondary outcome measures: exercise motivation, self-perceived health, and quality of life. Results. Adherence averaged 26.1 ± 10.3 of 36 prescribed sessions. After the intervention period, all three training groups (A-C) had better scores on exercise motivation (A = 43.9 ± 19.8, B = 47.6 ± 15.4, C = 48.4 ± 17.8) compared to the control group (D) (26.5 ± 18.2) (p training contributed to higher scores in important variables related to exercise motivation and self-perceived health. Low adherence showed that it was difficult to motivate previously inactive, overweight women to participate in regular strength training.

  18. Acute Effects of Static vs. Ballistic Stretching on Strength and Muscular Fatigue Between Ballet Dancers and Resistance-Trained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Camila D; Brown, Lee E; Wong, Megan A; Leyva, Whitney D; Pinto, Ronei S; Cadore, Eduardo L; Ruas, Cassio V

    2016-11-01

    Lima, CD, Brown, LE, Wong, MA, Leyva, WD, Pinto, RS, Cadore, EL, and Ruas, CV. Acute effects of static vs. ballistic stretching on strength and muscular fatigue between ballet dancers and resistance-trained women. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3220-3227, 2016-Stretching is used to increase joint range of motion, but the acute effects can decrease muscle strength. However, this may depend on the population or mode of stretching. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of static vs. ballistic stretching on strength and muscular fatigue between ballet dancers and resistance-trained women. Fifteen resistance-trained women (age 23.8 ± 1.80 years, mass 67.47 ± 7.77 kg, height 168.30 ± 5.53 cm) and 12 ballet dancers (age 22.8 ± 3.04 years, mass 58.67 ± 5.65 kg, height 168.00 ± 7.69 cm) performed 5 days of testing. The first day was control (no stretching), whereas the other 4 days were static or ballistic stretching in a counterbalanced order. Range of motion, strength, and fatigue tests were also performed. Both groups demonstrated a significant decrease in hamstrings strength after static (102.71 ± 2.67 N·m) and ballistic stretching (99.49 ± 2.61 N·m) compared with control (113.059 ± 3.25 N·m), with no changes in quadriceps strength. For fatigue, only ballet dancers demonstrated a decrease from control (71.79 ± 4.88%) to ballistic (65.65 ± 8.19%), but no difference with static (65.01 ± 12.29%). These findings suggest that stretching decreases hamstrings strength similarly in ballet dancers and resistance-trained women, with no differences between modes of stretching. However, ballistic stretching only decreased muscular fatigue in ballet dancers, but not in resistance-trained women. Therefore, no stretching should be performed before strength performance. However, ballistic stretching may decrease acute muscular fatigue in ballet dancers.

  19. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Jonathan; Rynders, Corey A; Sutherlin, Mark; Patrie, James; Katch, Frank I; Hertel, Jay; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p 0.10). These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did no