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Sample records for resistance testing prior

  1. HIV Resistance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 14, 2016 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 126 HIV Resistance Testing WHAT IS RESISTANCE? HOW DOES RESISTANCE ... ARVs. If you miss doses of your medications, HIV will multiply more easily. More mutations will occur. ...

  2. Tests of a Prior Marksmanship Knowledge Predictor Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Marksmanship Knowledge Predictor Test Introduction Imagine two Soldiers on a firing line in the prone supported position, each armed with an M4 ...demonstrated their proficiency with the M16/ M4 series rifle and typically attend the course prior to or immediately after being assigned to a Platoon SDM...A. C., & Garavan, H. (2005). Human functional neuroimaging of brain changes associated with practice. Cerebral Cortex , 15(8), 1089-1102

  3. Construction and test of the PRIOR proton microscope; Aufbau und Test des Protonenmikroskops PRIOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Philipp-Michael

    2015-01-15

    The study of High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) in the laboratory makes great demands on the diagnostics because these states can usually only be created for a short time and usual diagnostic techniques with visible light or X-rays come to their limit because of the high density. The high energy proton radiography technique that was developed in the 1990s at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is a very promising possibility to overcome those limits so that one can measure the density of HEDM with high spatial and time resolution. For this purpose the proton microscope PRIOR (Proton Radiography for FAIR) was set up at GSI, which not only reproduces the image, but also magnifies it by a factor of 4.2 and thereby penetrates matter with a density up to 20 g/cm{sup 2}. Straightaway a spatial resolution of less than 30 μm and a time resolution on the nanosecond scale was achieved. This work describes details to the principle, design and construction of the proton microscope as well as first measurements and simulations of essential components like magnetic lenses, a collimator and a scintillator screen. For the latter one it was possible to show that plastic scintillators can be used as converter as an alternative to the slower but more radiation resistant crystals, so that it is possible to reach a time resolution of 10 ns. Moreover the characteristics were investigated for the system at the commissioning in April 2014. Also the changes in the magnetic field due to radiation damage were studied. Besides that an overview about future applications is given. First experiments with Warm Dense Matter created by using a Pulsed Power Setup have already been performed. Furthermore the promising concept of combining proton radiography with particle therapy has been investigated in context of the PaNTERA project. An outlook on the possibilities with future experiments at the FAIR accelerator facility is given as well. Because of higher beam intensity an energy one can expect even

  4. Shock resistance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouard, M.

    1984-03-01

    In the framework of mechanical tests and to answer the different requests for tests, the T.C.R (Transport Conditionnement et Retraitement) laboratory got test facilities. These installations allow to carry out tests of resistance to shocks, mainly at the safety level of components of nuclear power plants, mockups of transport casks for fuel elements and transport containers for radioactive materials. They include a tower and a catapult. This paper give a decription of the facilities and explain their operation way [fr

  5. Impact of a genetic counseling requirement prior to genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenehjem, David D; Au, Trang; Sainski, Amy M; Bauer, Hillevi; Brown, Krystal; Lancaster, Johnathan; Stevens, Vanessa; Brixner, Diana I

    2018-03-07

    Genetic counseling by a Genetic Counselor (GC) is a requirement prior to genetic testing for cancer susceptibility genes (GC-mandate policy) for some insurers. This study evaluated the impact of this policy from the patient perspective. Surveys were sent to individuals for whom their insurer ordered genetic testing for the cancer susceptibility genes BCRA1 and BRCA2 over a 1 year time period that spanned the introduction of a GC-mandate policy. Responses were assessed by time period (before/after policy introduction) and genetic test completion. The surveys were completed by 1247/4950 (25.7%) eligible individuals. After policy introduction, there was no change in the proportion of respondents who completed genetic testing (p = 0.13) or had a mutation (p = 0.55). Overall decisional conflict (uncertainty or feeling uninformed) around genetic testing did not change after policy introduction (p = 0.16), but was significantly higher among respondents who did not complete genetic testing (p test results (p tested after policy introduction or who did not complete genetic testing (p testing. A GC-mandate policy did not improve decisional conflict or increase the number of deleterious mutations identified and low-income respondents were less likely to complete testing. On the contrary, insurance requirements and time constraints may be preventing individuals at risk from receiving appropriate testing.

  6. Utility of prior screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in predicting resistance of S. aureus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFadden, Derek R; Elligsen, Marion; Robicsek, Ari; Ricciuto, Daniel R; Daneman, Nick

    2013-10-15

    Screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is intended to reduce nosocomial spread by identifying patients colonized by MRSA. Given the widespread use of this screening, we evaluated its potential clinical utility in predicting the resistance of clinical isolates of S. aureus. We conducted a 2-year retrospective cohort study that included patients with documented clinical infection with S. aureus and prior screening for MRSA. We determined test characteristics, including sensitivity and specificity, of screening for predicting the resistance of subsequent S. aureus isolates. Of 510 patients included in the study, 53 (10%) had positive results from MRSA screening, and 79 (15%) of infecting isolates were resistant to methicillin. Screening for MRSA predicted methicillin resistance of the infecting isolate with 99% (95% confidence interval [CI] 98%-100%) specificity and 63% (95% CI 52%-74%) sensitivity. When screening swabs were obtained within 48 hours before isolate collection, sensitivity increased to 91% (95% CI 71%-99%) and specificity was 100% (95% CI 97%-100%), yielding a negative likelihood ratio of 0.09 (95% CI 0.01-0.3) and a negative predictive value of 98% (95% CI 95%-100%). The time between swab and isolate collection was a significant predictor of concordance of methicillin resistance in swabs and isolates (odds ratio 6.6, 95% CI 1.6-28.2). A positive result from MRSA screening predicted methicillin resistance in a culture-positive clinical infection with S. aureus. Negative results on MRSA screening were most useful for excluding methicillin resistance of a subsequent infection with S. aureus when the screening swab was obtained within 48 hours before collection of the clinical isolate.

  7. HIV resistance testing: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, Jaber

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, resistance testing has become an important tool in optimizing the combination therapy for treating HIV infected individuals. The identification of resistance mutations has allowed physicians to select the antiviral agents with maximum therapeutic benefic and minimum toxic side effects. The current therapeutic agents approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), their mechanisms of actions, and the mutations of the HIV viral genome that lead to resistance to antiviral agents are discussed. In addition, methods of resistance testing, both genotypic and phenotypic, are evaluated with consideration of their inherent advantages and disadvantages.

  8. Construction and test of the PRIOR proton microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Philipp-Michael

    2015-01-01

    The study of High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) in the laboratory makes great demands on the diagnostics because these states can usually only be created for a short time and usual diagnostic techniques with visible light or X-rays come to their limit because of the high density. The high energy proton radiography technique that was developed in the 1990s at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is a very promising possibility to overcome those limits so that one can measure the density of HEDM with high spatial and time resolution. For this purpose the proton microscope PRIOR (Proton Radiography for FAIR) was set up at GSI, which not only reproduces the image, but also magnifies it by a factor of 4.2 and thereby penetrates matter with a density up to 20 g/cm 2 . Straightaway a spatial resolution of less than 30 μm and a time resolution on the nanosecond scale was achieved. This work describes details to the principle, design and construction of the proton microscope as well as first measurements and simulations of essential components like magnetic lenses, a collimator and a scintillator screen. For the latter one it was possible to show that plastic scintillators can be used as converter as an alternative to the slower but more radiation resistant crystals, so that it is possible to reach a time resolution of 10 ns. Moreover the characteristics were investigated for the system at the commissioning in April 2014. Also the changes in the magnetic field due to radiation damage were studied. Besides that an overview about future applications is given. First experiments with Warm Dense Matter created by using a Pulsed Power Setup have already been performed. Furthermore the promising concept of combining proton radiography with particle therapy has been investigated in context of the PaNTERA project. An outlook on the possibilities with future experiments at the FAIR accelerator facility is given as well. Because of higher beam intensity an energy one can expect even

  9. HIV Genotypic Resistance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Testing Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Tumor Marker AMAS Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Ammonia Amniocentesis Amylase ANCA/MPO/ ... Beta-2 Microglobulin Kidney Disease Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases ...

  10. HIV resistance testing and detected drug resistance in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultze, Anna; Phillips, Andrew N.; Paredes, Roger; Battegay, Manuel; Rockstroh, Jürgen K.; Machala, Ladislav; Tomazic, Janez; Girard, Pierre M.; Januskevica, Inga; Gronborg-Laut, Kamilla; Lundgren, Jens D.; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Losso, M.; Kundro, M.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V. M.; Paduto, D.; Clumeck, N.; de Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Florence, E.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Begovac, J.; Machala, L.; Jilich, D.; Sedlacek, D.; Nielsen, J.; Kronborg, G.; Benfield, T.; Larsen, M.; Gerstoft, J.; Katzenstein, T.; Pedersen, C.; Møller, N. F.; Ostergaard, L.; Dragsted, U. B.; Nielsen, L. N.; Zilmer, K.; Smidt, Jelena; Ristola, M.; Katlama, C.; Pradier, C.; Dabis, F.; Neau, D.; Duvivier, C.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R.; van Lunzen, J.; Degen, O.; Stefan, C.; Bogner, J.; Fatkenheuer, G.; Chkhartishvili, N.; Kosmidis, J.; Gargalianos, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Perdios, J.; Sambatakou, H.; Banhegyi, D.; Gottfredsson, M.; Mulcahy, F.; Yust, I.; Turner, D.; Burke, M.; Shahar, E.; Hassoun, G.; Elinav, H.; Haouzi, M.; Sthoeger, Z. M.; d'Arminio, A.; Esposito, R.; Mazeu, I.; Mussini, C.; Pristera, R.; Mazzotta, F.; Gabbuti, A.; Vullo, V.; Lichtner, M.; Zaccarelli, M.; Reiss, P.; Ormaasen, V.; Maeland, A.; Bruun, J.; Knysz, B.; Gasiorowski, J.; Inglot, M.; Horban, A.; Bakowska, E.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Flisiak, R.; Parczewski, M.; Pynka, M.; Maciejewska, K.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Smiatacz, T.; Jablonowska, E.; Malolepsza, E.; Wojcik, K.; Mozer-Lisewska, I.; Doroana, M.; Caldeira, L.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Radoi, R.; Oprea, C.; Babes, Victor; Rakhmanova, A.; Trofimora, T.; Khromova, I.; Kuzovatova, E.; Jevtovic, D.; Shunnar, A.; Stanekova, D.; Tomazic, J.; Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Clotet, B.; Jou, A.; Paredes, R.; Tural, C.; Puig, J.; Bravo, I.; Gatell, J. M.; Miro, J. M.; Domingo, P.; Gutierrez, M.; Mateo, G.; Sambeat, M. A.; Laporte, J. M.; Blaxhult, A.; Flamholc, L.; Thalme, A.; Sonnerborg, A.; Ledergerber, B.; Weber, R.; Cavassini, M.; Calmy, A.; Furrer, H.; Battegay, M.; Elzi, L.; Schmid, P.; Kravchenko, E.; Chentsova, N.; Frolov, V.; Kutsyna, G.; Baskakov, I.; Kuznetsova, A.; Kyselyova, G.; Gazzard, B.; Johnson, A. M.; Simons, E.; Edwards, S.; Phillips, A.; Johnson, M. A.; Mocroft, A.; Orkin, C.; Weber, J.; Scullard, G.; Fisher, M.; Leen, C.; Gatell, J.; Monforte, A. d'Arminio; Lundgren, J.; DeWit, S.; Kirk, O.; Grarup, J.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Thiebaut, R.; Burger, D.; Peters, L.; Podlekareva, D.; Nielsen, J. E.; Matthews, C.; Fischer, A. H.; Bojesen, A.; Raben, D.; Kristensen, D.; Laut, K. Grønborg; Larsen, J. F.; Grint, D.; Shepherd, L.; Schultze, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe regional differences and trends in resistance testing among individuals experiencing virological failure and the prevalence of detected resistance among those individuals who had a genotypic resistance test done following virological failure. Design: Multinational cohort

  11. The interim test effect: testing prior material can facilitate the learning of new material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A; Pyc, Mary A

    2011-12-01

    A wealth of prior research has shown that testing can improve subsequent learning of the initially tested material. In contrast, only one recent study has shown that an interim test over prior material can improve learning of subsequent new material (i.e., an interim-test effect). Five experiments replicated and extended this initial work by exploring the extent to which interim test effects generalize to complex text material. Participants were prompted to recall each section of an expository text before moving on to study the next section, or were only prompted to recall after the final section. In all experiments, recall of the final, target section was greater when prior sections had received interim tests versus no interim tests. Experiment 3 established that the effect was due to interim testing in particular rather than to intervening activity in general. Experiment 4 established that the effect was not due to test expectancy differences. In contrast to prior research, Experiment 4 also provided evidence that the effect is not due to release from proactive interference. We discuss other possible mechanisms underlying interim-test effects with text, including shifting to more effective encoding strategies.

  12. Resistência a isoniazida e rifampicina e história de tratamento anterior para tuberculose Isoniazid and rifampicin resistance and prior treatment for tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Natal

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Em um estudo caso-controle, realizado no Rio de Janeiro, em 1994, foram incluídos 552 doentes de tuberculose com cultura positiva para Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A resistência a rifampicina e isoniazida foi de 1,8%. A variável de exposição foi "história de tratamento para tuberculose", associada estatisticamente com a resistência. Testou-se a hipótese de não haver dependência entre as associações observadas de acordo com a exposição anterior às drogas, utilizou-se a proporção binomial verificando-se uma dependência das resistências entre a rifampicina e isoniazida superior à esperada.A case-control study in Rio de Janeiro in 1994 included 552 patients with a positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and reported a 1.8% resistance rate to rifampicin and isoniazid. Prior treatment for tuberculosis (the exposure factor was associated with resistance. The binomial proportion was used to test the hypothesis of no dependence between the observed associations based on prior exposure to the drugs. This test showed a greater than expected dependence between resistances to rifampicin and isoniazid.

  13. HIV resistance testing and detected drug resistance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultze, Anna; Phillips, Andrew N; Paredes, Roger

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe regional differences and trends in resistance testing among individuals experiencing virological failure and the prevalence of detected resistance among those individuals who had a genotypic resistance test done following virological failure. DESIGN: Multinational cohort...... study. METHODS: Individuals in EuroSIDA with virological failure (>1 RNA measurement >500 on ART after >6 months on ART) after 1997 were included. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for resistance testing following virological failure and aORs for the detection of resistance among those who had a test were...... calculated using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Compared to 74.2% of ART-experienced individuals in 1997, only 5.1% showed evidence of virological failure in 2012. The odds of resistance testing declined after 2004 (global P Resistance was detected in 77...

  14. 21 CFR 610.1 - Tests prior to release required for each lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tests prior to release required for each lot. 610... release required for each lot. No lot of any licensed product shall be released by the manufacturer prior... test shall be made on each lot after completion of all processes of manufacture which may affect...

  15. The influence of text length and prior knowledge on the testing effect in meaningful learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, Sandra; Kester, Liesbeth

    2012-01-01

    Wetzels, S. A. J., & Kester, L. (2012, 14 June). The influence of text length and prior knowledge on the testing effect in meaningful learning. Presentation at plenary meeting Learning and Cognition, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  16. Frequency of stress testing to document ischemia prior to elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace A; Dudley, R Adams; Lucas, F L; Malenka, David J; Vittinghoff, Eric; Redberg, Rita F

    2008-10-15

    Guidelines call for documenting ischemia in patients with stable coronary artery disease prior to elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). To determine the frequency and predictors of stress testing prior to elective PCI in a Medicare population. Retrospective, observational cohort study using claims data from a 20% random sample of 2004 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 65 years or older who had an elective PCI (N = 23 887). Percentage of patients who underwent stress testing within 90 days prior to elective PCI; variation in stress testing prior to PCI across 306 hospital referral regions; patient, physician, and hospital characteristics that predicted the appropriate use of stress testing prior to elective PCI. In the United States, 44.5% (n = 10 629) of patients underwent stress testing within the 90 days prior to elective PCI. There was wide regional variation among the hospital referral regions with stress test rates ranging from 22.1% to 70.6% (national mean, 44.5%; interquartile range, 39.0%-50.9%). Female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86-0.97), age of 85 years or older (AOR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72-0.95), a history of congestive heart failure (AOR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.79-0.92), and prior cardiac catheterization (AOR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.38-0.54) were associated with a decreased likelihood of prior stress testing. A history of chest pain (AOR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.09-1.54) and black race (AOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09-1.46) increased the likelihood of stress testing prior to PCI. Patients treated by physicians performing 150 or more PCIs per year were less likely to have stress testing prior to PCI (AOR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77-0.93). No hospital characteristics were associated with receipt of stress testing. The majority of Medicare patients with stable coronary artery disease do not have documentation of ischemia by noninvasive testing prior to elective PCI.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter: susceptibility testing methods and resistance trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Beilei; Wang, Fei; Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; McDermott, Patrick F

    2013-10-01

    Most Campylobacter infections are self-limiting but antimicrobial treatment (e.g., macrolides, fluoroquinolones) is necessary in severe or prolonged cases. Susceptibility testing continues to play a critical role in guiding therapy and epidemiological monitoring of resistance. The methods of choice for Campylobacter recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) are agar dilution and broth microdilution, while a disk diffusion method was recently standardized by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Macrolides, quinolones, and tetracyclines are among the common antimicrobials recommended for testing. Molecular determination of Campylobacter resistance via DNA sequencing or PCR-based methods has been performed. High levels of resistance to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin are frequently reported by many national surveillance programs, but resistance to erythromycin and gentamicin in Campylobacter jejuni remains low. Nonetheless, variations in susceptibility observed over time underscore the need for continued public health monitoring of Campylobacter resistance from humans, animals, and food. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Prior colonization is associated with increased risk of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Aaron S; Kleinberg, Michael; Sorkin, John D; Netzer, Giora; Johnson, Jennifer K; Shardell, Michelle; Thom, Kerri A; Harris, Anthony D; Roghmann, Mary-Claire

    2014-05-01

    We hypothesized that prior colonization with antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria is associated with increased risk of subsequent antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia among cancer patients. We performed a matched case-control study. Cases were cancer patients with a blood culture positive for antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Controls were cancer patients with a blood culture not positive for antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Prior colonization was defined as any antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in surveillance or non-sterile-site cultures obtained 2-365 days before the bacteremia. Thirty-two (37%) of 86 cases and 27 (8%) of 323 matched controls were previously colonized by any antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Prior colonization was strongly associated with antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia (odds ratio [OR] 7.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.5-14.7) after controlling for recent treatment with piperacillin-tazobactam (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.8). In these patients with suspected bacteremia, prior cultures may predict increased risk of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mammography test sets: reading location and prior images do not affect group performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, B P; Lee, W B; McEntee, M F; Kench, P L; Reed, W M; Heard, R; Chakraborty, D P; Brennan, P C

    2014-04-01

    To examine how the location where reading takes place and the availability of prior images can affect performance in breast test-set reading. Under optimized viewing conditions, 10 expert screen readers each interpreted a reader-specific set of images containing 200 mammographic cases. Readers, randomly divided into two groups read images under one of two pairs of conditions: clinical read with prior images and laboratory read with prior images; laboratory read with prior images and laboratory read without prior images. Region-of-interest (ROI) figure-of-merit (FOM) was analysed using JAFROC software. Breast side-specific sensitivity and specificity were tested using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests. Agreement between pairs of readings was measured using Kendall's coefficient of concordance. Group performances between test-set readings demonstrated similar ROI FOMs, sensitivity and specificity median values, and acceptable levels of agreement between pairs of readings were shown (W = 0.75-0.79, p reading conditions. On an individual reader level, two readers demonstrated significant decreases (p images were unavailable. Reading location had an inconsistent impact on individual performance. Reading location and availability of prior images did not significantly alter group performance. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Confirmatory Testing Prior to Initiating Onychomycosis Therapy Is Cost-Effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Versteeg, Sarah G; Shear, Neil H

    2017-09-01

    Onychomycosis can be investigated by sampling. Information gleaned includes nail bed involvement, nail plate penetration, fungal viability, and species identification. Testing samples can confirm a diagnosis. While diagnostic testing is considered useful in directing therapy, a substantial number of clinicians do not confirm diagnosis prior to treatment. The aim of this study is to quantify the benefit of confirmatory testing prior to treating toenail onychomycosis. The cost of mycological cure (negative potassium hydroxide and negative culture) and the cost-effectiveness of confirmatory testing were determined using the average cost of potassium hydroxide (KOH), culture, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), efinaconazole, ciclopirox, terbinafine, and itraconazole. Costs were obtained through literature searches, public domain websites, and telephone surveys to local pharmacies and laboratories. To represent the potential risks of prescribing onychomycosis treatment, the costs associated with liver monitoring, potential life-threatening adverse events, and drug-drug interactions were obtained through public domain websites, published studies, and product inserts. PAS was determined to be the most sensitive confirmatory test and KOH the least expensive. The overall cost of an incorrect diagnosis (no confirmatory test used) ranged between $350 and $1175 CAD per patient for treatment of 3 infected toenails. Comparatively, performing confirmatory testing prior to treatment decreases the overall cost to $320 to $930, depending on the therapy, physician, and test. It is preferred to diagnose onychomycosis prior to treatment. Furthermore, there are cost savings when confirmatory testing is performed before initiating treatment with both topical and oral antifungals in Canada.

  1. Impact of prior lamivudine use on the antiviral efficacy and development of resistance to entecavir in chronic hepatitis B patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo An Hwang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsTo determine the efficacies of entecavir (ETV in nucleos(tide analogue (NA-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients and in those with prior lamivudine (LAM use who did not develop resistance.MethodsWe retrospectively enrolled 337 patients with CHB who were treated with ETV (0.5 mg daily for at least 30 months. The study included 270 (80.1% NA-naïve patients and 67 (19.9% LAM-use patients. Ten of the LAM-use patients were refractory to LAM therapy without developing resistance.ResultsGenotypic resistance to ETV developed more frequently in the LAM-use group (13.1% than in the NA-naïve group (2.6% at 60 months (P=0.009. In subgroup analysis, after excluding the 10 patients who were refractory to LAM therapy, the cumulative probability of ETV resistance did not differ significantly between the two groups (P=0.149. Prior LAM refractoriness and a higher hepatitis B virus DNA level at month 12 were independent predictive factors for the development of ETV resistance.ConclusionsETV resistance developed more frequently in LAM-use patients with CHB. However, prior LAM use without refractoriness did not affect the development of ETV resistance. The serum hepatitis B virus DNA level at month 12 was a major predictor for the development of ETV resistance.

  2. 14 CFR 147.31 - Attendance and enrollment, tests, and credit for prior instruction or experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... curriculum subject at the crediting school; (ii) By an evaluation of an authenticated transcript from the... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 147.31 Attendance and enrollment, tests, and credit for prior...

  3. 46 CFR 115.710 - Inspection and testing prior to hot work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Within or on the boundaries of fuel tanks; or (2) To pipelines, heating coils, pumps, fittings, or other appurtenances connected to fuel tanks. (b) An inspection required by paragraph (a) of this section must be... AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 115.710 Inspection and testing prior to hot work. (a) An...

  4. Blood Donor Test-Seeking Motivation and Prior HIV Testing Experiences in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hong-Ha M; Blatyta, Paula F; Santos, Fernanda M; Montebello, Sandra; Esposti, Sandra P D; Hangai, Fatima N; Salles, Nanci Alves; Mendrone, Alfredo; Sabino, Ester C; McFarland, Willi; Gonçalez, Thelma T

    2015-09-01

    HIV test-seeking behavior among blood donors has been observed worldwide and may pose a threat to the safety of the blood supply. We evaluated current test-seeking motivations and prior alternative HIV testing experiences among blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil. All candidate or potential blood donors were consecutively approached and recruited to participate in the study upon presentation at Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro, the largest blood bank in Brazil. Participants were recruited between August 2012 and May 2013 after they were screened for donor eligibility. Questionnaires were administered through audio computer-assisted self-interview. Among 11,867 donors, 38 % previously tested for HIV apart from blood donation, of whom 47.7 % tested at public facilities and 2.7 % acknowledged getting tested for HIV as the primary reason for donating. Dissatisfaction with prior alternative testing experience was reported by 2.5 % of donors. Current test-seeking motivation was associated with dissatisfaction with prior alternative testing experience and testing at a public alternative facility. The most common reasons for dissatisfaction were too long of a wait to get tested and for results, counseling was too long, lack of privacy, and low confidence in the equipment and accuracy of the test. Lack of awareness about the availability of free and confidential public HIV testing services as well as dissatisfaction with past HIV testing and counseling experiences motivate some individuals to test at blood banks. Test-seeking behavior among blood donors may be best addressed by improving alternative testing programs, particularly with respect to time delays, privacy and perceptions about test accuracy. Educational campaigns on safe blood donation and HIV testing for diagnosis, risk counseling and referral to care are also needed for the general public and for health care providers.

  5. American and Soviet engineers examine Soyuz docking system prior to tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Three Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) engineers look over a Soyuz spacecraft docking system prior to an ASTP docking mechanism fitness test conducted in bldg 13 at JSC. They are, left to right, Robert White, Vladimir Syromyatnikov and Yevgeniy Bobrov. White is the American Chairman of ASTP Working Group No.3, and Syromyatnikov is his Soviet counterpart. Bobrov is a junior researcher with the Institute of Machine Building.

  6. LED session prior incremental step test enhance VO2maxin running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzaroba, Paulo V; Pessôa Filho, Dalton M; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Machado, Fabiana Andrade

    2018-03-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of prior LED sessions on the responses of cardiorespiratory parameters during the running incremental step test. Twenty-six healthy, physically active, young men, aged between 20 and 30 years, took part in this study. Participants performed two incremental load tests after placebo (PLA) and light-emitting diode application (LED), and had their gas exchange, heart rate (HR), blood lactate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) monitored during all tests. The PLA and LED conditions were compared using the dependent Student t test with significance set at 5%. The T test showed higher maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2max ) (PLA = 47.2 ± 5.7; LED = 48.0 ± 5.4 ml kg -1  min -1 , trivial effect size), peak velocity (V peak ) (PLA = 13.4 ± 1.2; LED = 13.6 ± 1.2 km h -1 , trivial effect size), and lower maximum HR (PLA = 195.3 ± 3.4; LED = 193.3 ± 3.9 b min -1 , moderate effect size) for LED compared to PLA conditions. Furthermore, submaximal values of HR and RPE were lower, and submaximal VO 2 values were higher when LED sessions prior to the incremental step test were applied. A positive response of the previous LED application in the blood lactate disappearance was also demonstrated, especially 13 and 15 min after the test. It is concluded that LED sessions prior to exercise modify cardiorespiratory response by affecting running tolerance during the incremental step test, metabolite clearance, and RPE. Therefore, LED could be used as a prior exercise strategy to modulate oxidative response acutely in targeted muscle and enhance exercise tolerance.

  7. The Effect of Prior Caffeine Consumption on Neuropsychological Test Performance: A Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Elizabeth R; Lesk, Valerie E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the prior consumption of 200 mg of pure caffeine affected neuropsychological test scores in a group of elderly participants aged over 60 years. Using a double-blind placebo versus caffeine design, participants were randomly assigned to receive 200 mg of caffeine or placebo. A neuropsychological assessment testing the domains of general cognitive function, processing speed, semantic memory, episodic memory, executive function, working memory and short-term memory was carried out. Significant interaction effects between age, caffeine and scores of executive function and processing speed were found; participants who had received caffeine showed a decline in performance with increasing age. This effect was not seen for participants who received placebo. The results highlight the need to consider and control prior caffeine consumption when scoring neuropsychological assessments in the elderly, which is important for accuracy of diagnosis and corresponding normative data. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Comparison of skid resistance testing to stopping distance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report is intended to statistically summarize the results of a side-by-side test of the skid resistance testing trailer utilized by the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT), and the stopping distance car utilized by the Oregon State Police...

  9. Standard test method for conducting potentiodynamic polarization resistance measurements

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers an experimental procedure for polarization resistance measurements which can be used for the calibration of equipment and verification of experimental technique. The test method can provide reproducible corrosion potentials and potentiodynamic polarization resistance measurements. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  10. Standard Test Method for Abrasive Wear Resistance of Cemented

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of abrasive wear resistance of cemented carbides. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The SI equivalents of inch-pound units are in parentheses and may be approximate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Ingestion of 10 grams of whey protein prior to a single bout of resistance exercise does not augment Akt/mTOR pathway signaling compared to carbohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Matthew B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the effects of a whey protein supplement in conjunction with an acute bout of lower body resistance exercise, in recreationally-active males, on serum insulin and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 and Akt/mTOR signaling markers indicative of muscle protein synthesis: insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1, AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, p70S6 kinase (p70S6K and 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, 10 males ingested 1 week apart, either 10 g of whey protein (5.25 g EAAs or carbohydrate (maltodextrose, 30 min prior to a lower-body resistance exercise bout. The resistance exercise bout consisted of 4 sets of 8-10 reps at 80% of the one repetition maximum (RM on the angled leg press and knee extension exercises. Blood and muscle samples were obtained prior to, and 30 min following supplement ingestion and 15 min and 120 min post-exercise. Serum and muscle data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results No significant differences were observed for IGF-1 (p > 0.05. A significant main effect for Test was observed for serum insulin (p 0.05. For the Akt/MTOR signaling intermediates, no significant Supplement × Test interactions were observed (p > 0.05. However, significant main effects for Test were observed for phosphorylated concentrations of IRS, mTOR, and p70S6K, as all were elevated at 15 min post-exercise (p Conclusion Ingestion of 10 g of whey protein prior to an acute bout of lower body resistance exercise had no significant preferential effect compared to carbohydrate on systemic and cellular signaling markers indicative of muscle protein synthesis in untrained individuals.

  12. Testing animal-assisted cleaning prior to transplantation in coral reef restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Frias-Torres

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rearing coral fragments in nurseries and subsequent transplantation onto a degraded reef is a common approach for coral reef restoration. However, if barnacles and other biofouling organisms are not removed prior to transplantation, fish will dislodge newly cemented corals when feeding on biofouling organisms. This behavior can lead to an increase in diver time due to the need to reattach the corals. Thus, cleaning nurseries to remove biofouling organisms such as algae and invertebrates is necessary prior to transplantation, and this cleaning constitutes a significant time investment in a restoration project. We tested a novel biomimicry technique of animal-assisted cleaning on nursery corals prior to transplantation at a coral reef restoration site in Seychelles, Indian Ocean. To determine whether animal-assisted cleaning was possible, preliminary visual underwater surveys were performed to quantify the fish community at the study site. Then, cleaning stations consisting of nursery ropes carrying corals and biofouling organisms, set at 0.3 m, 2 m, 4 m, 6 m and 8 m from the seabed, were placed at both the transplantation (treatment site and the nursery (control site. Remote GoPro video cameras recorded fish feeding at the nursery ropes without human disturbance. A reef fish assemblage of 32 species from 4 trophic levels (18.8% herbivores, 18.8% omnivores, 59.3% secondary consumers and 3.1% carnivores consumed 95% of the barnacles on the coral nursery ropes placed 0.3 m above the seabed. Using this cleaning station, we reduced coral dislodgement from 16% to zero. This cleaning station technique could be included as a step prior to coral transplantation worldwide on the basis of location-specific fish assemblages and during the early nursery phase of sexually produced juvenile corals.

  13. Testing animal-assisted cleaning prior to transplantation in coral reef restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Geer, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Rearing coral fragments in nurseries and subsequent transplantation onto a degraded reef is a common approach for coral reef restoration. However, if barnacles and other biofouling organisms are not removed prior to transplantation, fish will dislodge newly cemented corals when feeding on biofouling organisms. This behavior can lead to an increase in diver time due to the need to reattach the corals. Thus, cleaning nurseries to remove biofouling organisms such as algae and invertebrates is necessary prior to transplantation, and this cleaning constitutes a significant time investment in a restoration project. We tested a novel biomimicry technique of animal-assisted cleaning on nursery corals prior to transplantation at a coral reef restoration site in Seychelles, Indian Ocean. To determine whether animal-assisted cleaning was possible, preliminary visual underwater surveys were performed to quantify the fish community at the study site. Then, cleaning stations consisting of nursery ropes carrying corals and biofouling organisms, set at 0.3 m, 2 m, 4 m, 6 m and 8 m from the seabed, were placed at both the transplantation (treatment) site and the nursery (control) site. Remote GoPro video cameras recorded fish feeding at the nursery ropes without human disturbance. A reef fish assemblage of 32 species from 4 trophic levels (18.8% herbivores, 18.8% omnivores, 59.3% secondary consumers and 3.1% carnivores) consumed 95% of the barnacles on the coral nursery ropes placed 0.3 m above the seabed. Using this cleaning station, we reduced coral dislodgement from 16% to zero. This cleaning station technique could be included as a step prior to coral transplantation worldwide on the basis of location-specific fish assemblages and during the early nursery phase of sexually produced juvenile corals. PMID:26468440

  14. Testing animal-assisted cleaning prior to transplantation in coral reef restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Torres, Sarah; van de Geer, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Rearing coral fragments in nurseries and subsequent transplantation onto a degraded reef is a common approach for coral reef restoration. However, if barnacles and other biofouling organisms are not removed prior to transplantation, fish will dislodge newly cemented corals when feeding on biofouling organisms. This behavior can lead to an increase in diver time due to the need to reattach the corals. Thus, cleaning nurseries to remove biofouling organisms such as algae and invertebrates is necessary prior to transplantation, and this cleaning constitutes a significant time investment in a restoration project. We tested a novel biomimicry technique of animal-assisted cleaning on nursery corals prior to transplantation at a coral reef restoration site in Seychelles, Indian Ocean. To determine whether animal-assisted cleaning was possible, preliminary visual underwater surveys were performed to quantify the fish community at the study site. Then, cleaning stations consisting of nursery ropes carrying corals and biofouling organisms, set at 0.3 m, 2 m, 4 m, 6 m and 8 m from the seabed, were placed at both the transplantation (treatment) site and the nursery (control) site. Remote GoPro video cameras recorded fish feeding at the nursery ropes without human disturbance. A reef fish assemblage of 32 species from 4 trophic levels (18.8% herbivores, 18.8% omnivores, 59.3% secondary consumers and 3.1% carnivores) consumed 95% of the barnacles on the coral nursery ropes placed 0.3 m above the seabed. Using this cleaning station, we reduced coral dislodgement from 16% to zero. This cleaning station technique could be included as a step prior to coral transplantation worldwide on the basis of location-specific fish assemblages and during the early nursery phase of sexually produced juvenile corals.

  15. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing prior to myeloablative allo-SCT: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, C R; Scott, J M; Lane, A; Schwitzer, E; West, M J; Thomas, S; Herndon, J E; Michalski, M G; Horwitz, M E; Hennig, T; Jones, L W

    2014-10-01

    The feasibility of symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) prior to allo-SCT was assessed in addition to the prognostic value of CPET-derived measures. CPET was performed prospectively on 21 patients with hematologic malignancies, with assessments of peak (for example, peak oxygen consumption, VO2peak) and submaximal (for example, ventilatory threshold (VT)) measures of cardiopulmonary function. No serious adverse events were observed during CPET procedures, with 95% of patients achieving criteria for a peak test. Mean VO2peak was 24.7±6.4 mL kg(-1 )min(-1) (range: 10.9-35.5), equivalent to 29%±17% below that of age-matched healthy controls. All patients proceeded with the conditioning regimen followed by allo-SCT. Median follow-up was 25 months. During this period, 11 (52.4%) patients died (n=6, relapsed disease; n=5, non-relapse mortality (NRM)); 9 patients (43%) developed pulmonary toxicity. In univariate analyses, both peak and submaximal markers of cardiopulmonary function were predictors of OS, pulmonary toxicity and NRM. For OS, the HR for VO2peak and VT were 0.89 (95% CI, 0.8-0.99, P=0.04) and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.71-0.98, P=0.03), respectively. In conclusion, CPET is safe and feasible prior to allo-SCT. Patients have marked impairments in cardiopulmonary function prior to allo-SCT. CPET-derived metrics may complement conventional measures to improve risk stratification.

  16. The Alpha-defensin Test for Periprosthetic Joint Infections Is Not Affected by Prior Antibiotic Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Alisina; Parvizi, Javad; Kazarian, Gregory S; Higuera, Carlos; Frangiamore, Salvatore; Bingham, Joshua; Beauchamp, Christopher; Valle, Craig Della; Deirmengian, Carl

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the administration of antibiotics to patients before performing diagnostic testing for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) can interfere with the accuracy of test results. Although a single-institution study has suggested that alpha-defensin maintains its concentration and sensitivity even after antibiotic treatment, this has not yet been demonstrated in a larger multiinstitutional study. (1) For the evaluation of PJI, is prior antibiotic administration associated with decreased alpha-defensin levels? (2) When prior antibiotics are given, is alpha-defensin a better screening test for PJI than the traditional tests (erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], C-reactive protein [CRP], fluid white blood cells, fluid polymorphonuclear cells [PMNs], and fluid culture)? This retrospective study included data from 106 hip and knee arthroplasties with Musculoskeletal Infection Society-defined PJI from four centers. Of the 106 patients in this study, 30 (28%) were treated with antibiotics for PJI before diagnostic workup (ABX group), and 76 (72%) were not treated before the diagnostic workup (NO-ABX group). There were no differences in age, sex, joint, culture-negative rate, or bacteriology between groups. The patients in the ABX group had antibiotics initiated by physicians who commenced care before assessment for PJI by the treating surgeon's service. We compared the alpha-defensin levels and sensitivity between the ABX and NO-ABX groups. Additionally, the sensitivity of the alpha-defensin test was compared to that of traditional tests for PJI among patients on antibiotics. The administration of antibiotics before performing the alpha-defensin test for PJI was not associated with a decreased median alpha-defensin level (ABX group, median 4.2 [range, 1.79-12.8 S/CO] versus NO-ABX, median 4.9 [range, 0.5-16.8 S/CO], difference of medians: 0.68 S/CO [95% confidence interval {CI}, -0.98 to 1.26], p = 0.451). Furthermore, the alpha

  17. Crack resistance of pvd coatings : Influence of surface treatment prior to deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoestbergen, E; de Hosson, J.T.M.

    The crack resistance of three different PVD coatings, TiN, Ti(C,N), and a multilayer system of alternating TiN and TiAlN, have been investigated. The three coating systems were deposited onto substrates with a different surface roughness to study the influence of this pretreatment on the crack

  18. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation...-circuit apparatus with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88, and the exhalation resistance shall...

  19. A rapid radioimmunoassay for insulin suitable for testing pancreatic tissue prior to transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besch, W.; Kohnert, K.-D.; Hahn, H.-J.; Ziegler, M.; Lorenz, D.

    1984-01-01

    One way of diabetes mellitus treatment is the transplantation of insulin-producing tissue. As islet or pancreas transplantation has made progress, testing of the tissue for its vitality, insulin content and insulin secretory response prior to transplantation became necessary. Apart from problems of rejection of allografted tissue, improvement of the patients metabolic control partly depends on the insulin content of the tissue transplanted. It was the aim of the present work to establish a radioimmunoassay which ensures rapid determination of immunoreactive insulin concentrations (IRI) either intracellularly-stored or released upon stimulation of human pancreas or islet with glucose, and to demonstrate the useful application of this assay for the assessment of transplantable tissue. (Auth.)

  20. Lessons learnt from 20 years surveillance of malaria drug resistance prior to the policy change in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Halidou; Valea, Innocent; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemdé, Tinga Robert

    2016-01-01

    The history of drug resistance to the previous antimalarial drugs, and the potential for resistance to evolve to Artemisinin-based combination therapies, demonstrates the necessity to set-up a good surveillance system in order to provide early warning of the development of resistance. Here we report a review summarizing the history of the surveillance of drug resistance that led to the policy change in Burkina Faso. The first Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine-Resistance strain identified in Burkina Faso was detected by an in vitro test carried out in Koudougou in 1983. Nevertheless, no further cases were reported until 1987, suggesting that resistant strains had been circulating at a low prevalence before the beginning of the systematic surveillance system from 1984. We observed a marked increase of Chloroquine-Resistance in 2002-2003 probably due to the length of follow-up as the follow-up duration was 7 or 14 days before 2002 and 28 days from 2002 onwards. Therefore, pre-2002 studies have probably under-estimated the real prevalence of Chloroquine-Resistance by not detecting the late recrudescence. With a rate of 8.2% treatment failure reported in 2003, Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine was still efficacious for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Burkina Faso but this rate might rapidly increase as the result of its spreading from neighboring countries and due to its current use for both the Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnant women and Seasonal Malaria Chemoprophylaxis. The current strategy for the surveillance of the Artemisinin-based combination treatments resistance should build on lessons learnt under the previous period of 20 years surveillance of Chloroquine and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine resistance (1994-2004). The most important aspect being to extend the number of sentinel sites so that data would be less patchy and could help understanding the dynamic of the resistance.

  1. Use of the oral sugar test in ponies when performed with or without prior fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, E J; Harris, P A; Elliott, J; Menzies-Gow, N J

    2017-07-01

    It is recommended that the oral sugar test (OST) for insulin dysregulation (ID) be performed after an overnight fast, but fasting is impractical in ponies kept solely at pasture. There are few data on OST repeatability and reliability in ponies. To report 1) whether OST results obtained in the morning after an overnight fast or without fasting in the afternoon (FASTING/FED) can be used interchangeably, 2) time of highest insulin concentration T max [insulin], repeatability and reliability of insulin response to the OST when FASTING or FED and 3) dichotomous agreement (ID/normal) within a small sample when FASTING or FED. Method comparison study. Oral sugar tests were performed on four occasions in 10 adult native British ponies, twice FASTING and twice FED. Insulin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay at 0-120 min (T 0,30,60,75,90,120 ). Differences between FASTING and FED results were assessed using mixed effects models. Indices of repeatability and reliability were calculated; dichotomous agreement was reported using kappa statistics. Serum [insulin] was significantly (P≤0.05) higher at T 60 -T 90 with prior fasting (estimated differences [95% confidence intervals]): T 60 : 23.5 μiu/ml (8.7-38.4 μiu/ml), T 75 : 27.1 μiu/ml (12.3-41.8 μiu/ml), T 90 : 15.1 (0.36-29.9 μiu/ml). Most frequently, T max [ins] occurred at T 30 . At any single time point, within-subject coefficients of variation were: FASTING: 40% and FED: 31%. The 95% limits for repeatability were FASTING: 29-340%, FED: 41-240%. Test reliabilities were FASTING: 0.70 and FED: 0.67. For dichotomous interpretation similar results (kappa = 0.7) were obtained using cut-offs of [Insulin] >60 μiu/ml at T 60 or T 90 for FASTING and [Insulin] >51 μiu/ml at T 30 or T 60 for FED samples. Oral sugar tests were performed on a small number of animals on one pasture during one season (spring). Clinicians should beware of interpreting changes in absolute OST results owing to poor repeatability. When

  2. OPERA Resistive Plate Chambers underground test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergnoli, A.; Brugnera, R.; Candela, A.; Carrara, E.; Ciesielski, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Degli Esposti, L.; Di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Di Troia, C.; Dusini, S.; Fanin, C.; Felici, G.; Gambarara, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gatta, M.; Grianti, F.; Gustavino, C.; Lindozzi, M.; Longhin, A.; Mengucci, A.; Monacelli, P.; Paoloni, A.; Stanco, L.; Tatananni, E.; Terranova, F.; Spinetti, M.; Stipcevic, M.; Sugonyaev, V.; Terminiello, L.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.

    2006-01-01

    The OPERA experiment [M. Guler et al., CERN/SPSC 2000-028, SPSC/P318, LNGS P25/2000, July 10, 2000; M. Guler et al., CERN/SPSC 2001-025, SPSC/M668, LNGS-EXP 30/2001 Add. 1/01, August 21, 2001] will study ν μ ->ν τ oscillations through τ appearance on the 732 Km long CERN to Gran Sasso baseline. The magnet yokes of the two muon spectrometers are instrumented with 44 layers of high resistivity bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) operated in streamer mode. Each layer covers about 70 m 2 . Four RPC planes were instrumented and the first tests were performed confirming a good behaviour of the installed RPCs in terms of intrinsic noise and operating currents. The measured noise maps agree with those obtained in the extensive quality tests performed at surface. Counting rates are below 20 Hz/m 2 . Single an multiple cosmic muon tracks were also reconstructed. The estimated efficiency is close to the geometrical limit and the very first measurements of the absolute and differential muon flux are in agreement with expectations

  3. Using virtual reality to test the regularity priors used by the human visual system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Eric; Kwon, TaeKyu; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2017-09-01

    Virtual reality applications provide an opportunity to test human vision in well-controlled scenarios that would be difficult to generate in real physical spaces. This paper presents a study intended to evaluate the importance of the regularity priors used by the human visual system. Using a CAVE simulation, subjects viewed virtual objects in a variety of experimental manipulations. In the first experiment, the subject was asked to count the objects in a scene that was viewed either right-side-up or upside-down for 4 seconds. The subject counted more accurately in the right-side-up condition regardless of the presence of binocular disparity or color. In the second experiment, the subject was asked to reconstruct the scene from a different viewpoint. Reconstructions were accurate, but the position and orientation error was twice as high when the scene was rotated by 45°, compared to 22.5°. Similarly to the first experiment, there was little difference between monocular and binocular viewing. In the third experiment, the subject was asked to adjust the position of one object to match the depth extent to the frontal extent among three objects. Performance was best with symmetrical objects and became poorer with asymmetrical objects and poorest with only small circular markers on the floor. Finally, in the fourth experiment, we demonstrated reliable performance in monocular and binocular recovery of 3D shapes of objects standing naturally on the simulated horizontal floor. Based on these results, we conclude that gravity, horizontal ground, and symmetry priors play an important role in veridical perception of scenes.

  4. Standard Test Method for Thermal Oxidative Resistance of Carbon Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1982-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the apparatus and procedure for the determination of the weight loss of carbon fibers, exposed to ambient hot air, as a means of characterizing their oxidative resistance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units which are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard information, see Section 8.

  5. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2007-12-31

    In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a moderate alkali content (0.2% sodium equivalents), thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that aggressive alkali sulfate constituents were present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. Test Section A was removed in November 2001 after about 24 months of service at the desired steam temperature set point, with about 15.5 months of exposure at full temperature. A progress report, issued in October 2002, was written to document the performance of the candidate alloys in that test section. The evaluation described the condition of each tube sample after exposure. It involved a determination of the rate of wall thickness loss for these samples. In cases where there was more than one sample of a candidate material in the test section, an assessment was made of the performance of the alloy as a function of temperature. Test Sections B and C were examined during the November 2001 outage, and it was decided that

  6. Grizzly bears exhibit augmented insulin sensitivity while obese prior to a reversible insulin resistance during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, O Lynne; Jansen, Heiko T; Galbreath, Elizabeth; Morgenstern, Kurt; Gehring, Jamie Lauren; Rigano, Kimberly Scott; Lee, Jae; Gong, Jianhua; Shaywitz, Adam J; Vella, Chantal A; Robbins, Charles T; Corbit, Kevin C

    2014-08-05

    The confluence of obesity and diabetes as a worldwide epidemic necessitates the discovery of new therapies. Success in this endeavor requires translatable preclinical studies, which traditionally employ rodent models. As an alternative approach, we explored hibernation where obesity is a natural adaptation to survive months of fasting. Here we report that grizzly bears exhibit seasonal tripartite insulin responsiveness such that obese animals augment insulin sensitivity but only weeks later enter hibernation-specific insulin resistance (IR) and subsequently reinitiate responsiveness upon awakening. Preparation for hibernation is characterized by adiposity coupled to increased insulin sensitivity via modified PTEN/AKT signaling specifically in adipose tissue, suggesting a state of "healthy" obesity analogous to humans with PTEN haploinsufficiency. Collectively, we show that bears reversibly cope with homeostatic perturbations considered detrimental to humans and describe a mechanism whereby IR functions not as a late-stage metabolic adaptation to obesity, but rather a gatekeeper of the fed-fasting transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Design of online testing system of material radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Junsheng; He Shengping; Gao Xinjun

    2014-01-01

    The capability of radiation resistance is important for some material used in some specifically engineering fields. It is the same principal applied in all existing test system that compares the performance parameter after radiation to evaluate material radiation resistance. A kind of new technique on test system of material radiation resistance is put forward in this paper. Experimentation shows that the online test system for material radiation resistance works well and has an extending application outlook. (authors)

  8. Slip resistance testing - Zones of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowman, R.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers recent and current potential developments in the international standardisation of slip resistance. It identifies some limitations of the wet barefoot ramp test, such that changes should be made if it is to be more widely used. It also identifies some limitations of the new European SlipSTD Publicly Available Specification, such as insufficient allowance for the deterioration of slip resistance as tiles inevitably wear.

    Este trabajo considera los desarrollos recientes y potenciales que hay en la actualidad en el desarrollo de las normas internacionales sobre la resistencia al resbalamiento. Identifica algunas limitaciones del ensayo de la rampa para pies descalzos en húmedo, para que se realicen cambios, si se va a usar de forma más extendida. También identifica algunas limitaciones de la nueva Especificación Europea Públicamente Disponible SlipSTD, como la falta de tener en cuenta adecuadamente el deterioro de la resistencia al resbalamiento de las baldosas a medida que inevitablemente se vayan desgastando.

  9. Genealogical tree study as screening method in the Lynch syndrome prior to genetic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Plasencia, Luciano; Medina-Arana, Vicente; Barrios Del Pino, Ysamar; Fernández-Peralta, Antonia; González-Aguilera, Juan J

    2010-08-01

    Despite genetic advances in the study of Lynch syndrome (LS), difficulties remain in the diagnosis of the syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of a detailed genealogical tree as a screening method to identify Tenerife island families with a high probability of LS. We elaborated complete genealogical trees of the families. According to the degree of fulfillment of the Amsterdam Criteria II, the genealogical trees were classified as high or low probability of LS. Additionally, we analyzed the level of tumor microsatellite instability (MSI+) and identified a mutation in exon 13 of the MSH2 gene by single-strand conformation polymorphism, sequencing, and PCR-RFLP. According the genealogical trees, we found 10 families with high probability of LS and 30 families with low probability of LS. The families with high probability of LS showed high MSI+ in all cases. Conversely, families with low probability were MSS (microsatellite stable). In 5 of the 10 families with high probability, we discovered a T-->G mutation in position 688 of exon 13 of MSH2, which appeared in all the family members with the tumor, except 1 patient with a retinoblastoma. Our results indicate that genealogical tree is a highly effective tool for classifying families with a high probability of Lynch Syndrome prior to genetic test.

  10. Pharmacogenetic testing prior to carbamazepine treatment of epilepsy: patients' and physicians' preferences for testing and service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Graham; Holmes, Emily A F; Plumpton, Catrin O; Ring, Adele; Baker, Gus A; Jacoby, Ann; Pirmohamed, Munir; Marson, Anthony G; Hughes, Dyfrig A

    2015-11-01

    Pharmacogenetic studies have identified the presence of the HLA-A*31:01 allele as a predictor of cutaneous adverse drugs reactions (ADRs) to carbamazepine. This study aimed to ascertain the preferences of patients and clinicians to inform carbamazepine pharmacogenetic testing services. Attributes of importance to people with epilepsy and neurologists were identified through interviews and from published sources. Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) were conducted in 82 people with epilepsy and 83 neurologists. Random-effects logit regression models were used to determine the importance of the attributes and direction of effect. In the patient DCE, all attributes (seizure remission, reduction in seizure frequency, memory problems, skin rash and rare, severe ADRs) were significant. The estimated utility of testing was greater, at 0.52 (95% CI 0.19, 1.00) than not testing at 0.33 (95% CI -0.07, 0.81). In the physician DCE, cost, inclusion in the British National Formulary, coverage, negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) were significant. Marginal rates of substitution indicated that neurologists were willing to pay £5.87 for a 1 percentage point increase in NPV and £3.99 for a 1 percentage point increase in PPV. The inclusion of both patients' and clinicians' perspectives represents an important contribution to the understanding of preferences towards pharmacogenetic testing prior to initiating carbamazepine. Both groups identified different attributes but had generally consistent preferences. Patients' acceptance of a decrease in treatment benefit for a reduced chance of severe ADRs adds support for the implementation of HLA-A*31:01 testing in routine practice. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.203 Section 84.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to...

  12. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a breathing...

  13. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of a gas mask mounted on a breathing machine both before and after...

  14. 30 CFR 7.48 - Acid resistance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acid resistance test. 7.48 Section 7.48 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.48 Acid resistance test. (a...

  15. More breast cancer patients prefer BRCA-mutation testing without prior face-to-face genetic counseling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, A.S.; Zelst-Stams, W.A.G. van; Spruijt, L.; Mensenkamp, A.R.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Brunner, H.G.; Prins, J.B.; Hoogerbrugge, N.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, most breast cancer (BC) patients receive face-to-face genetic counseling (DNA-intake) prior to BRCA-mutation testing, with generic information regarding hereditary BC and BRCA-mutation testing. This prospective study evaluated a novel format: replacing the intake consultation with

  16. 40 CFR 146.66 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to new well operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: (A) Resistivity, spontaneous potential, and caliper logs before the casing is installed; and (B) A...) Upon installation of the long string casing: (A) Resistivity, spontaneous potential, porosity, caliper... radioactive tracer survey; (iii) A temperature or noise log; (iv) A casing inspection log, if required by the...

  17. Prevalence of prior HIV testing and associated factors among MSM in Zhejiang Province, China: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runhua Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM have become one of high-risk population for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, due to their multiple sex partners and unprotected anal intercourse. Promoting HIV testing is an effective strategy for the prevention and control of HIV infection. We assessed the factors associated with a prior HIV testing history, which could provide guidance for implementation of future HIV intervention programs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three cities of Zhejiang Province, namely, Hangzhou, Ningbo and Wenzhou, using respondent-driven sampling, between December 2013 and June 2014. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was employed to collect relevant information about HIV testing. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors associated with a prior HIV testing history. Results The adjusted rate of prior HIV testing among MSM in Zhejiang Province was 55.9 %. The adjusted rates of HIV and syphilis infections among MSM in Zhejiang Province were 14.0 % and 11.4 %, respectively. A weighted multivariate analysis showed that MSM of older age were more likely to be tested, as were MSM with higher level of education, self-reported homosexuality and a higher frequency of receiving AIDS/sexually transmitted infections educational intervention in the past year. MSM with suicidal inclination and self-perceived lower possibility of HIV infection were less likely to report ever having undergone an HIV test. Conclusions The prevalence of prior HIV testing among MSM in Zhejiang Province, China is low. Effective and more frequent interventional measures should be adopted to improve risk awareness and psychosocial support for younger, less educated MSM, and to encourage more MSM to undergo HIV testing.

  18. SMELL-S and SMELL-R: olfactory tests not influenced by odor-specific insensitivity or prior olfactory experience

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Andreas; Wong, Michele; Jiang, Rong-San; Vosshall, Leslie; Hsieh, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Smell dysfunction is a common and underdiagnosed medical condition that can have serious consequences. It is also an early biomarker of Alzheimer's disease that precedes detectable memory loss. Clinical tests that evaluate the sense of smell face two major challenges. First, human sensitivity to individual odorants varies significantly, leading to potential misdiagnosis of people with an otherwise normal sense of smell but insensitivity to the test odorant. Second, prior familiarity with odor...

  19. Prior high-risk HPV testing and Pap test results for 427 invasive cervical cancers in China's largest CAP-certified laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Baowen; Li, Zaibo; Griffith, Christopher C; Yan, Shanshan; Chen, Congde; Ding, Xiangdong; Liang, Xiaoman; Yang, Huaitao; Zhao, Chengquan

    2015-07-01

    Cervical cancer and its precursor lesions are caused by a persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection. hrHPV testing has been reported to have higher sensitivity than Papanicolaou (Pap) testing for the detection of cervical precursor lesions. However, limited data are available for prior human papillomavirus (HPV) testing results for patients later diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer, especially in countries lacking a national cervical cancer screening program such as China. This study investigated prior hrHPV testing results for patients with invasive cervical cancer in China. Cases with a histologic diagnosis of invasive cervical carcinoma were retrieved from Guangzhou KingMed Diagnostics (the largest independent pathology laboratory in China); prior hrHPV and Pap test results obtained within the year before the cancer diagnosis were recorded. HPV testing was negative in 7.5% of 427 cases of invasive cervical carcinoma, including squamous cell carcinoma (5%) and adenocarcinoma (25%). In 155 cervical cancer cases with prior hrHPV and Pap testing, the negative rate for Pap testing was 1.9%, and the negative rate for HPV was 9.7%. Furthermore, when only cases of adenocarcinoma (n = 18) were examined, both the hrHPV-negative rate and the Pap-negative rate were higher at 33% and 5.6%, respectively. These data demonstrate a considerable prior hrHPV-negative rate and a lower prior Pap-negative rate in patients with invasive cervical carcinoma (especially adenocarcinoma) from a population of women without access to an established screening program. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  20. Standard test method for measurement of soil resistivity using the two-electrode soil box method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the equipment and a procedure for the measurement of soil resistivity, for samples removed from the ground, for use in the control of corrosion of buried structures. 1.2 Procedures allow for this test method to be used n the field or in the laboratory. 1.3 The test method procedures are for the resistivity measurement of soil samples in the saturated condition and in the as-received condition. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. Soil resistivity values are reported in ohm-centimeter. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Prior HIV testing among STD patients in Guangdong Province, China: opportunities for expanding detection of sexually transmitted HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joseph D; Yang, Li-Gang; Yang, Bin; Young, Darwin; Henderson, Gail E; Huang, Shu-Jie; Lu, He-Kun; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Cohen, Myron S

    2012-03-01

    Expanding HIV testing is important among individuals at increased risk for sexual HIV transmission in China, but little is known about prior HIV testing experiences among sexually transmitted disease (STD) patients. This cross-sectional study of 1792 outpatients from 6 public STD clinics in Guangdong Province recorded detailed information about ever having been tested for HIV infection in addition to sociodemographic variables, health seeking, clinical STD history, and HIV stigma using a validated survey instrument. A total of 456 (25.4%) of the STD patients in this sample had ever been tested for HIV infection. STD patients who were male, had higher income, more education, were at City A and City C, received STD services at public facilities, had used intravenous drugs, and had a history of an STD were more likely to ever receive an HIV test in multivariate analysis. Low perceived HIV risk was the most common reason for not receiving an HIV test. Only 7.7% of the sample reported fear of discrimination or loss of face as influencing their lack of HIV testing. Incomplete prior HIV screening among STD patients in China suggests the need for broadening HIV testing opportunities at STD clinics and similar clinical settings attended by those with increased sexual risk.

  2. Resistance factors for 100% dynamic testing, with and without static load tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Current department of transportation (DOT) and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) practice has highly : variable load and resistance factor design (LRFD) resistance factors, , for driven piles from design (e.g., Standard : Penetration Tests (SPT...

  3. A cost-effectiveness analysis of coagulation testing prior to tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James D; Smith, Kenneth J; Ritchey, A Kim

    2010-12-01

    The American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology recommends pre-operative coagulation testing only when indicated by history or physical exam. Nevertheless, many surgeons test all children scheduled for tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy (T&A). Studies of pre-operative screening have had conflicting results. A decision analysis model was constructed to address the costs and health outcome states of pre-operative screening strategies in children. A 14-day Markov model evaluated three strategies: (1) test all children for coagulation disorders; (2) test only those children with a pertinent history; and (3) perform no pre-operative testing. A literature search and a review of national databases estimated probabilities, costs, and utility data. Parameters then were varied widely in sensitivity analyses. Using a societal perspective and a cycle length of 1 day, we compared the strategies based on total costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Total costs for the strategies were $3,200 for testing all children, $3,083 for testing only those with a history finding, and $3,077 for not testing. Total utilities were 0.02579, 0.02654, and 0.02659 QALYs, respectively. Cost-effectiveness ratios were most sensitive to variation in the cost of post-operative care and the probability of post-operative bleeding. The strategy of not testing was dominant in all sensitivity analyses. Our results demonstrate that not performing preoperative testing is the most cost-effective strategy. This was persistent in sensitivity analyses, indicating that the model was robust. These data may be helpful to institutions and organizations to formulate policies regarding pre-operative coagulation for children without previous diagnoses of bleeding disorders.

  4. Heat resistant/radiation resistant cable and incore structure test device for FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Hajime; Shiono, Takeo; Sato, Yoshimi; Ito, Kazumi; Sudo, Shigeaki; Saito, Shin-ichi; Mitsui, Hisayasu.

    1995-01-01

    A heat resistant/radiation resistant coaxial cable of the present invention comprises an insulation layer, an outer conductor and a protection cover in this order on an inner conductor, in which the insulation layer comprises thermoplastic polyimide. In the same manner, a heat resistant/radiation resistant power cable has an insulation layer comprising thermoplastic polyimide on a conductor, and is provided with a protection cover comprising braid of alamide fibers at the outer circumference of the insulation layer. An incore structure test device for an FBR type reactor comprises the heat resistant/radiation resistant coaxial cable and/or the power cable. The thermoplastic polyimide can be extrusion molded, and has excellent radiation resistant by the extrusion, as well as has high dielectric withstand voltage, good flexibility and electric characteristics at high temperature. The incore structure test device for the FBR type reactor of the present invention comprising such a cable has excellent reliability and durability. (T.M.)

  5. Repeatability of leaf disc test for assessing resistance levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developing efficient and reliable screening tests to assess the level of resistance of a perennial crop such as cocoa to diseases is essential to reduce the length of the breeding cycle. The resistance of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) leaves to two species of Phytophthora was investigated in 25 genotypes of cacao using the ...

  6. Monitoring shallow resistivity changes prior to the 12 May 2008 M 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake on the Longmen Shan tectonic zone, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Xie, Tao; Li, Mei; Wang, Yali; Ren, Yuexia; Gao, Shude; Wang, Lanwei; Zhao, Jialiu

    2016-04-01

    An active source measurement of shallow resistivity using fixed-electrode quasi-Schlumberger arrays has been conducted at Pixian, Jiangyou and Wudu stations on the Longmen Shan tectonic zone in western China, with the hope of detecting earthquake-associated changes. For the duration of the monitoring experiment, a gradual decrease of apparent resistivity of up to 6.7% several years prior to the 12 May 2008 M 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake had been recorded clearly at Pixian station, approximately 35 km from the epicenter. The change of apparent resistivity was monitored with a fixed Schlumberger array of AB/MN spacings of 736 m/226 m in the direction of N57.5°E, giving precisions in measured daily averages of 0.16% or less. A coseismic resistivity drop of up to 5.3% was observed at Jiangyou station, using a Schlumberger array of AB/MN spacings of 710 m/90 m in the direction of N10°E. No fluctuation of resistivity was detected at Wudu station at the time of the Wenchuan mainshock. While the focus of this paper is on monitoring or tracking resistivity variations prior to, during, and after the Wenchuan earthquake, we also aim to compare resistivity records of the Wenchuan earthquake to those of the M 7.8 Tangshan and M 7.2 Songpan earthquakes of 1976. Attempts to explain the observed resistivity variations have been made. The results show that the resistivity variations observed at all three stations are in approximate agreement with resistivity-stress behavior deduced from in situ experiments, focal mechanisms, a simplified dynamical model, static stress analyses, and field investigations from along the Longmen Shan fault zone.

  7. Should there be mandatory testing for HIV prior to marriage in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Rahul; Malhotra, Chetna; Sharma, Nandini

    2008-01-01

    The National AIDS Prevention and Control Policy of the government of India states that testing for HIV infection should be voluntary in nature. But from time to time various state governments and the central government have announced their intent of introducing mandatory premarital testing. Though this intent has not yet been translated into action, we present our case against the adoption of such a policy by discussing various social and medical issues. These include the limited population that such a policy would target given the early age of marriage in India; issues related to its implementation considering the low marriage registration rates in India; potential of stigma and discrimination associated with it; issues with defining boundaries and the role of the state; limitations related to the HIV test itself in context of the policy, including the window period and the positive predictive value of the test; its limited impact in population groups at a high risk for HIV infection; its limited role in changing unsafe behaviours; its limited potential to enhance the empowerment of women; its conflict with existing human rights; and the adverse experience of other countries with a similar policy.

  8. Stereotypes and the Achievement Gap: Stereotype Threat Prior to Test Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Markus; Kronberger, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Stereotype threat is known as a situational predicament that prevents members of negatively stereotyped groups to perform up to their full ability. This review shows that the detrimental influence of stereotype threat goes beyond test taking: It impairs stereotyped students to build abilities in the first place. Guided by current theory on…

  9. Baseline neurocognitive testing in sports-related concussions: the importance of a prior night's sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, D Jake; Zuckerman, Scott L; Kutscher, Scott J; Gregory, Andrew J; Solomon, Gary S

    2014-02-01

    The management of sports-related concussions (SRCs) utilizes serial neurocognitive assessments and self-reported symptom inventories to assess recovery and safety for return to play (RTP). Because postconcussive RTP goals include symptom resolution and a return to neurocognitive baseline levels, clinical decisions rest in part on understanding modifiers of this baseline. Several studies have reported age and sex to influence baseline neurocognitive performance, but few have assessed the potential effect of sleep. We chose to investigate the effect of reported sleep duration on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) performance and the number of patient-reported symptoms. We hypothesized that athletes receiving less sleep before baseline testing would perform worse on neurocognitive metrics and report more symptoms. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. We retrospectively reviewed 3686 nonconcussed athletes (2371 male, 1315 female; 3305 high school, 381 college) with baseline symptom and ImPACT neurocognitive scores. Patients were stratified into 3 groups based on self-reported sleep duration the night before testing: (1) short, sleep duration on baseline ImPACT performance. A univariate ANCOVA was performed to investigate the influence of sleep on total self-reported symptoms. When controlling for age and sex as covariates, the MANCOVA revealed significant group differences on ImPACT reaction time, verbal memory, and visual memory scores but not visual-motor (processing) speed scores. An ANCOVA also revealed significant group differences in total reported symptoms. For baseline symptoms and ImPACT scores, subsequent pairwise comparisons revealed these associations to be most significant when comparing the short and intermediate sleep groups. Our results indicate that athletes sleeping fewer than 7 hours before baseline testing perform worse on 3 of 4 ImPACT scores and report more symptoms. Because SRC management and RTP

  10. Diffuse Prior Monotonic Likelihood Ratio Test for Evaluation of Fused Image Quality Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    score FIQMs with test cases considering over 35 scenes and var - ious image fusion algorithms. Index Terms—Fused image quality measures (FIQM), hypoth...fused via six different algorithms: 1) contrast pyramid A (CONA), 2) contrast pyramid B (CONB) [34], 3) dis- crete wavelet transform (DWTT) [1], [35...36] 4) color discrete wavelet transform (CDWT), 5) color averaging (CLAV), and 6) color multiscale transform (CLMT) [37]. The first three al

  11. Testing and Modeling of Machine Properties in Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei

    The objective of this work has been to test and model the machine properties including the mechanical properties and the electrical properties in resistance welding. The results are used to simulate the welding process more accurately. The state of the art in testing and modeling machine properties...... in resistance welding has been described based on a comprehensive literature study. The present thesis has been subdivided into two parts: Part I: Mechanical properties of resistance welding machines. Part II: Electrical properties of resistance welding machines. In part I, the electrode force in the squeeze...... it is lower than the spring force. The work in part I is focused on the dynamic mechanical properties of resistance welding machines. A universal method has been developed to characterize the dynamic mechanical behaviour of C-frame machines. The method is based on a mathematical model, in which three...

  12. Testing for Hendra virus: difficulties experienced by veterinarians in Queensland prior to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, D; Judd, J; Speare, R

    2013-08-01

    To identify the perceived barriers to Hendra virus (HeV) management by private equine veterinarians in Queensland. An exploratory qualitative study of private equine veterinarians registered and working in coastal Queensland. A questionnaire that included eight open-ended questions about the management of HeV was used in face-to-face in-depth interviews with 21 veterinary personnel working in equine or mixed private practice between Far North and South-East Queensland in 2009-10. The qualitative data was entered and analysed thematically using QSR's International's Nvivo 9 qualitative data analysis software. This study revealed key issues associated with HeV testing: (1) inadequate knowledge of testing procedures and laboratory diagnostic pathways; (2) difficulty in accessing laboratory services; (3) responsibility for cost of collection and transport of specimen; and (4) the role of government. Participants perceived these issues as reducing potential HeV case management efficiency. Although HeV management plans have been modified in part since 2009-10, this study highlights the importance of considering the perspectives of private veterinary practitioners in any biosecurity protocols. © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. Clostridium difficile Infection and Patient-Specific Antimicrobial Resistance Testing Reveals a High Metronidazole Resistance Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Jodie A; Sussman, Daniel A; Fifadara, Nimita; Barkin, Jamie S

    2017-04-01

    Clostridium difficile (CD) infection (CDI) causes marked morbidity and mortality, accounting for large healthcare expenditures annually. Current CDI treatment guidelines focus on clinical markers of patient severity to determine the preferred antibiotic regimen of metronidazole versus vancomycin. The antimicrobial resistance patterns for patients with CD are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to define the antimicrobial resistance patterns for CD. This study included all patients with stools sent for CD testing to a private laboratory (DRG Laboratory, Alpharetta, Georgia) in a 6-month period from across the USA. Patient data was de-identified, with only age, gender, and zip-code available per laboratory protocol. All samples underwent PCR testing followed by hybridization for CD toxin regions A and B. Only patients with CD-positive PCR were analyzed. Antimicrobial resistance testing using stool genomic DNA evaluated presence of imidazole- and vancomycin-resistant genes using multiplex PCR gene detection. Of 2743, 288 (10.5%) stool samples were positive for CD. Six were excluded per protocol. Of 282, 193 (69.4%) were women, and average age was 49.4 ± 18.7 years. Of 282, 62 were PCR positive for toxins A and B, 160 for toxin A positive alone, and 60 for toxin B positive alone. Antimicrobial resistance testing revealed 134/282 (47.5%) patients resistant to imidazole, 17 (6.1%) resistant to vancomycin, and 9 (3.2%) resistant to imidazole and vancomycin. CD-positive patients with presence of imidazole-resistant genes from stool DNA extract was a common phenomenon, while vancomycin resistance was uncommon. Similar to treatment of other infections, antimicrobial resistance testing should play a role in CDI clinical decision-making algorithms to enable more expedited and cost-effective delivery of patient care.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-09-01

    Infections due to anaerobic bacteria can be severe and life-threatening. Susceptibility testing of anaerobes is not frequently performed in laboratories, but such testing is important to direct appropriate therapy. Anaerobic resistance is increasing globally, and resistance trends vary by geographic region. An overview of a variety of susceptibility testing methods for anaerobes is provided, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. Specific clinical situations warranting anaerobic susceptibility testing are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Updated interim efficacy analysis and long-term safety of abiraterone acetate in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients without prior chemotherapy (COU-AA-302).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathkopf, Dana E; Smith, Matthew R; de Bono, Johann S; Logothetis, Christopher J; Shore, Neal D; de Souza, Paul; Fizazi, Karim; Mulders, Peter F A; Mainwaring, Paul; Hainsworth, John D; Beer, Tomasz M; North, Scott; Fradet, Yves; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Carles, Joan; Flaig, Thomas W; Efstathiou, Eleni; Yu, Evan Y; Higano, Celestia S; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Griffin, Thomas W; Todd, Mary B; Yu, Margaret K; Park, Youn C; Kheoh, Thian; Small, Eric J; Scher, Howard I; Molina, Arturo; Ryan, Charles J; Saad, Fred

    2014-11-01

    Abiraterone acetate (an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor) plus prednisone is approved for treating patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Study COU-AA-302 evaluated abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus prednisone alone in mildly symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with progressive mCRPC without prior chemotherapy. Report the prespecified third interim analysis (IA) of efficacy and safety outcomes in study COU-AA-302. Study COU-AA-302, a double-blind placebo-controlled study, enrolled patients with mCRPC from April 2009 to June 2010. A total of 1088 patients were stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0 vs 1). Patients were randomised 1:1 to abiraterone 1000mg plus prednisone 5mg twice daily by mouth versus prednisone. Co-primary end points were radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and overall survival (OS). Median times to event outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived using the Cox model, and treatment comparison used the log-rank test. The O'Brien-Fleming Lan-DeMets α-spending function was used for OS. Adverse events were summarised descriptively. With a median follow-up duration of 27.1 mo, improvement in rPFS was statistically significant with abiraterone treatment versus prednisone (median: 16.5 vs 8.2 mo; HR: 0.52 [95% CI, 0.45-0.61]; ppatient-reported outcomes improved. While the post hoc nature of the long-term safety analysis is a limitation, the safety profile with longer treatment exposure was consistent with prior reports. The updated IA of study COU-AA-302 in patients with mCRPC without prior chemotherapy confirms that abiraterone delays disease progression, pain, and functional deterioration and has clinical benefit with a favourable safety profile, including in patients treated for ≥24 mo. Study COU-AA-302, ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00887198. The updated results of this ongoing study

  16. HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations: Potential Applications for Point-of-Care Genotypic Resistance Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhee, Soo-Yon; Jordan, Michael R.; Raizes, Elliot; Chua, Arlene; Parkin, Neil; Kantor, Rami; van Zyl, Gert U.; Mukui, Irene; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Frenkel, Lisa M.; Ndembi, Nicaise; Hamers, Raph L.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Wallis, Carole L.; Gupta, Ravindra K.; Fokam, Joseph; Zeh, Clement; Schapiro, Jonathan M.; Carmona, Sergio; Katzenstein, David; Tang, Michele; Aghokeng, Avelin F.; de Oliveira, Tulio; Wensing, Annemarie M. J.; Gallant, Joel E.; Wainberg, Mark A.; Richman, Douglas D.; Fitzgibbon, Joseph E.; Schito, Marco; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Yang, Chunfu; Shafer, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of acquired and transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance is an obstacle to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV-1 pandemic. Genotypic drug resistance testing could facilitate the choice of initial ART in

  17. HIV-1 drug resistance mutations : Potential applications for point-of-care Genotypic resistance testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhee, Soo Yon; Jordan, Michael R.; Raizes, Elliot; Chua, Arlene; Parkin, Neil; Kantor, Rami; Van Zy, Gert U.; Mukui, Irene; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Frenkel, Lisa M.; Ndembi, Nicaise; Hamers, Raph L.; De Wit, Tobias F Rinke; Wallis, Carole L.; Gupta, Ravindra K.; Fokam, Joseph; Zeh, Clement; Schapiro, Jonathan M.; Carmona, Sergio; Katzenstein, David; Tang, Michele; Aghokeng, Avelin F.; De Oliveira, Tulio; Wensing, Annemarie M J; Gallant, Joel E.; Wainberg, Mark A.; Richman, Douglas D.; Fitzgibbon, Joseph E.; Schito, Marco; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Yang, Chunfu; Shafer, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of acquired and transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance is an obstacle to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV-1 pandemic. Genotypic drug resistance testing could facilitate the choice of initial ART in

  18. Test for bacterial resistance build-up against plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J L; Shimizu, T; Li, Y-F; Morfill, G E; Schmidt, H-U; Isbary, G

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the evolution of resistance of microorganisms to a range of different antibiotics presents a major problem in the control of infectious diseases. Accordingly, new bactericidal ‘agents’ are in great demand. Using a cold atmospheric pressure (CAP) plasma dispenser operated with ambient air, a more than five orders of magnitude inactivation or reduction of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; resistant against a large number of the tested antibiotics) was obtained in less than 10 s. This makes CAP the most promising candidate for combating nosocomial (hospital-induced) infections. To test for the occurrence and development of bacterial resistance against such plasmas, experiments with Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus mundtii) were performed. The aim was to determine quantitative limits for primary (naturally) or secondary (acquired) resistance against the plasma treatment. Our results show that E. coli and E. mundtii possess no primary resistance against the plasma treatment. By generating four generations of bacteria for every strain, where the survivors of the plasma treatment were used for the production of the next generation, a lower limit to secondary resistance was obtained. Our results indicate that CAP technology could contribute to the control of infections in hospitals, in outpatient care and in disaster situations, providing a new, fast and efficient broad-band disinfection technology that is not constrained by bacterial resistance mechanisms. (paper)

  19. State Waste Discharge Permit Application: Electric resistance tomography testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This permit application documentation is for a State Waste Discharge Permit issued in accordance with requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The activity being permitted is a technology test using electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography technology was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has been used at other waste sites to track underground contamination plumes. The electrical resistance tomography technology measures soil electrical resistance between two electrodes. If a fluid contaminated with electrolytes is introduced into the soil, the soil resistance is expected to drop. By using an array of measurement electrodes in several boreholes, the areal extent of contamination can be estimated. At the Hanford Site, the purpose of the testing is to determine if the electrical resistance tomography technology can be used in the vicinity of large underground metal tanks without the metal tank interfering with the test. It is anticipated that the electrical resistance tomography technology will provide a method for accurately detecting leaks from the bottom of underground tanks, such as the Hanford Site single-shell tanks

  20. State Waste Discharge Permit Application: Electric resistance tomography testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This permit application documentation is for a State Waste Discharge Permit issued in accordance with requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The activity being permitted is a technology test using electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography technology was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has been used at other waste sites to track underground contamination plumes. The electrical resistance tomography technology measures soil electrical resistance between two electrodes. If a fluid contaminated with electrolytes is introduced into the soil, the soil resistance is expected to drop. By using an array of measurement electrodes in several boreholes, the areal extent of contamination can be estimated. At the Hanford Site, the purpose of the testing is to determine if the electrical resistance tomography technology can be used in the vicinity of large underground metal tanks without the metal tank interfering with the test. It is anticipated that the electrical resistance tomography technology will provide a method for accurately detecting leaks from the bottom of underground tanks, such as the Hanford Site single-shell tanks.

  1. An investigation of classification algorithms for predicting HIV drug resistance without genotype resistance testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brandt, P

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available is limited in low-resource settings. In this paper we investigate machine learning techniques for drug resistance prediction from routine treatment and laboratory data to help clinicians select patients for confirmatory genotype testing. The techniques...

  2. Development and preliminary tests of resistive microdot and microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, V; Nappi, E; Martinengo, P; Oliveira, R; Pietropaolo, F; Picchi, P

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years our group have focused on developing various designs of spark-protected micropattern gaseous detectors featuring resistive electrodes instead of the traditional metallic ones: resistive microstrip counters, resistive GEM, resistive MICROMEGAS. These detectors combine in one design the best features of RPCs (spark-protection) and micropattern detectors (a high position resolution). In this paper we report the progress so far made in developing other types of resistive micropattern detectors: a microdot-microhole detector and a microgap-microstrip detector. The former detector is an optimal electron amplifier for some special designs of dual phase noble liquid TPCs, for example with a CsI photocathode immersed inside the noble liquid. Preliminary tests of such a detector, for the first time built and investigated, are reported in this paper. The latter detector is mainly orientated towards medical imaging applications such as X-ray scanners. However, we believe that after a proper gas opti...

  3. Corrosion resistance testing of high-boron-content stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrman, I.; Safek, V.

    1994-01-01

    Boron steels, i.e. stainless steels with boron contents of 0.2 to 2.25 wt.%, are employed in nuclear engineering for the manufacture of baskets or wells in which radioactive fissile materials are stored, mostly spent nuclear fuel elements. The resistance of such steels to intergranular corrosion and uniform corrosion was examined in the Strauss solution and in boric acid; the dependence of the corrosion rate of the steels on their chemical composition was investigated, and their resistance was compared with that of AISI 304 type steel. Corrosion resistance tests in actual conditions of ''wet'' compact storage (demineralized water or a weak boric acid solution) gave evidence that boron steels undergo nearly no uniform corrosion and, as electrochemical measurements indicated, match standard corrosion-resistant steels. Corrosion resistance was confirmed to decrease slightly with increasing boron content and to increase somewhat with increasing molybdenum content. (Z.S.). 3 tabs., 4 figs., 7 refs

  4. Testing and Modeling of Mechanical Characteristics of Resistance Welding Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    2003-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical response of resistance welding machine is very important to the weld quality in resistance welding especially in projection welding when collapse or deformation of work piece occurs. It is mainly governed by the mechanical parameters of machine. In this paper, a mathematical...... model for characterizing the dynamic mechanical responses of machine and a special test set-up called breaking test set-up are developed. Based on the model and the test results, the mechanical parameters of machine are determined, including the equivalent mass, damping coefficient, and stiffness...

  5. SMELL-S and SMELL-R: Olfactory tests not influenced by odor-specific insensitivity or prior olfactory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Julien W; Keller, Andreas; Wong, Michele; Jiang, Rong-San; Vosshall, Leslie B

    2017-10-24

    Smell dysfunction is a common and underdiagnosed medical condition that can have serious consequences. It is also an early biomarker of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, where olfactory deficits precede detectable memory loss. Clinical tests that evaluate the sense of smell face two major challenges. First, human sensitivity to individual odorants varies significantly, so test results may be unreliable in people with low sensitivity to a test odorant but an otherwise normal sense of smell. Second, prior familiarity with odor stimuli can bias smell test performance. We have developed nonsemantic tests for olfactory sensitivity (SMELL-S) and olfactory resolution (SMELL-R) that use mixtures of odorants that have unfamiliar smells. The tests can be self-administered by healthy individuals with minimal training and show high test-retest reliability. Because SMELL-S uses odor mixtures rather than a single molecule, odor-specific insensitivity is averaged out, and the test accurately distinguished people with normal and dysfunctional smell. SMELL-R is a discrimination test in which the difference between two stimulus mixtures can be altered stepwise. This is an advance over current discrimination tests, which ask subjects to discriminate monomolecular odorants whose difference in odor cannot be quantified. SMELL-R showed significantly less bias in scores between North American and Taiwanese subjects than conventional semantically based smell tests that need to be adapted to different languages and cultures. Based on these proof-of-principle results in healthy individuals, we predict that SMELL-S and SMELL-R will be broadly effective in diagnosing smell dysfunction. Published under the PNAS license.

  6. 33 CFR 159.117 - Chemical resistance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.117 Chemical resistance test. (a... Sodium Chloride) flush water. (5) Toilet bowl cleaners. (6) Engine Oil (SAE/30). (7) Ethylene Glycol. (8) Detergents (household and bilge cleaning type). (c) A sample of the material must be doused 20 times, with a...

  7. Mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance and molecular testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro eNishizawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is the main factor affecting the efficacy of current treatment methods against infection caused by this organism. The traditional culture methods for testing bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics are expensive and require 10 to 14 days. Since resistance to clarithromycin, fluoroquinolone, and tetracycline seems to be exclusively caused by specific mutations in a small region of the responsible gene, molecular methods offer an attractive alternative to the above-mentioned techniques. The technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR is an accurate and rapid method for the detection of mutations that confer antibiotic resistance. This review highlights the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori and the molecular methods for antibiotic susceptibility testing.

  8. In vitro testing of daptomycin plus rifampin againstmethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus resistant to rifampin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaswneh, Faisal A.; Ashcraft, Deborah S.; Pankey, George A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to test for synergy between daptomycin (DAP) and rifampin(RIF) against RIF-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) isolates. Synergy testing using time-kill assay (TKA) was performed on6 clinically and genetically unique RIF-resistant MRSA isolates. The isolateswere identified out of 489 (1.2%) samples collected during April 2003 toAugust 2006, from patients at the Ochsner Medical Center in New Orleans,Louisiana, United States of America. Synergy testing of DAP plus RIF by TKAshowed that 5 isolates were different, but one isolate was antagonistic. Ourin-vitro study failed to demonstrate synergy between DAP plus RIF, againstour RIF-resistant MRSA isolates. Clinical failure of this combination shouldprompt the clinician to consider antagonism as one of the potential causes.(author)

  9. Status of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s. s. M form prior to the scaling up of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs in Adzopé, Eastern Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahoua Alou Ludovic P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing development of pyrethroid resistance constitutes a serious threat to malaria control programmes and if measures are not taken in time, resistance may compromise control efforts in the foreseeable future. Prior to Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs distribution in Eastern Cote d’Ivoire, we conducted bioassays to inform the National Malaria Control Programme of the resistance status of the main malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s. s. and the need for close surveillance of resistance. Methods Larvae of An. gambiae s. s. were collected in two areas of Adzopé (Port-Bouët and Tsassodji and reared to adults. WHO susceptibility tests with impregnated filter papers were carried out to detect resistance to three pyrethroids commonly used to develop LLINs: permethrin 1%, deltamethrin 0.05% and lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%. Molecular assays were conducted to detect M and S forms and the L1014F kdr allele in individual mosquitoes. Results Resistance, at various degrees was detected in both areas of Adzopé. Overall, populations of An. gambiae at both sites surveyed showed equivalent frequency of the L1014F kdr allele (0.67 but for all tested pyrethroids, there were significantly higher survival rates for mosquitoes from Tsassodji (32–58% than those from Port-Bouët (3–32% (p kdr alone. During the survey period (May–June in this forested area of Côte d’Ivoire, An. gambiae s. s. found were exclusively of the M form and were apparently selected for pyrethroid resistance through agricultural and household usage of insecticides. Conclusion Prior to LLINs scaling up in Eastern Côte d’Ivoire, resistance was largely present at various levels in An. gambiae. Underlying mechanisms included the high frequency of the L1014F kdr mutation and other unidentified components, probably metabolic detoxifiers. Their impact on the efficacy of the planned strategy (LLINs in the area should be investigated alongside careful

  10. The impact of prior knowledge from participant instructions in a mock crime P300 Concealed Information Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Michael R; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2014-12-01

    In P300-Concealed Information Tests used with mock crime scenarios, the amount of detail revealed to a participant prior to the commission of the mock crime can have a serious impact on a study's validity. We predicted that exposure to crime details through instructions would bias detection rates toward enhanced sensitivity. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, participants were either informed (through mock crime instructions) or naïve as to the identity of a to-be-stolen item, and then either committed (guilty) or did not commit (innocent) the crime. Results showed that prior knowledge of the stolen item was sufficient to cause 69% of innocent-informed participants to be incorrectly classified as guilty. Further, we found a trend toward enhanced detection rate for guilty-informed participants over guilty-naïve participants. Results suggest that revealing details to participants through instructions biases detection rates in the P300-CIT toward enhanced sensitivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. New surface layers with low rolling resistance tested in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettinari, Matteo; Schmidt, Bjarne; Jensen, Bjarne Bo

    2014-01-01

    The project ‘CO2 emission reduction by exploitation of rolling resistance modeling of pavements’ (COOEE) was started in 2011 to establish a scientific background for development of novel pavement types and asset management solutions that minimize the rolling resistance for cars and trucks......, the purpose being to reduce CO2 emission from the transport sector. In summer 2012, three different test sections were constructed on a highway located near Vordingborg, Denmark, in order to verify the respective Rolling Resistances; the main purpose was to develop and design new surface layers with reduced...... Rolling Resistance coefficient that could improve energy efficiency of the roads. In particular, two new types of Split Mastic Asphalt (SMA) were developed and compared to a reference one; both mixtures have a relatively small maximum grain-size, 6 mm and 8 mm, respectively. Surface measurements...

  12. Predictive value of prior colonization and antibiotic use for third-generation cephalosporin-resistant enterobacteriaceae bacteremia in patients with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottier, Wouter C; Bamberg, Yara R P; Dorigo-Zetsma, J Wendelien; van der Linden, Paul D; Ammerlaan, Heidi S M; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-06-01

    To prevent inappropriate empiric antibiotic treatment in patients with bacteremia caused by third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GC-R EB), Dutch guidelines recommend β-lactam and aminoglycoside combination therapy or carbapenem monotherapy in patients with prior 3GC-R EB colonization and/or recent cephalosporin or fluoroquinolone usage. Positive predictive values (PPVs) of these determinants are unknown. We retrospectively studied patients with a clinical infection in whom blood cultures were obtained and empiric therapy with broad-spectrum β-lactams and/or aminoglycosides and/or fluoroquinolones was started. We determined the PPVs of prior colonization and antibiotic use for 3GC-R EB bacteremia, and the consequences of guideline adherence on appropriateness of empiric treatment. Of 9422 episodes, 773 (8.2%) were EB bacteremias and 64 (0.7%) were caused by 3GC-R EB. For bacteremia caused by 3GC-R EB, PPVs of prior colonization with 3GC-R EB (90-day window) and prior usage of cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones (30-day window) were 7.4% and 1.3%, respectively, and PPV was 1.8% for the presence of any of these predictors. Adherence to Dutch sepsis guideline recommendations was 27%. Of bacteremia episodes caused by 3GC-R and 3GC-sensitive EB, 56% and 94%, respectively, were initially treated with appropriate antibiotics. Full adherence to guideline recommendations would hardly augment proportions of appropriate therapy, but could considerably increase carbapenem use. In patients receiving empiric treatment for sepsis, prior colonization with 3GC-R EB and prior antibiotic use have low PPV for infections caused by 3GC-R EB. Strict guideline adherence would unnecessarily stimulate broad-spectrum antibiotic use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Insecticide resistance testing in malaria vectors in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insecticide resistance testing in malaria vectors in Tanzania: Challenges in mosquito sampling and rearing under field conditions. Basiliana Emidi1,2*, Bilali Kabula4,Patrick Tungu3, Julius Massaga2, William Kisinza3. 1Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College of Tumaini University, Moshi, Tanzania. 2National Institute for ...

  14. HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations: Potential Applications for Point-of-Care Genotypic Resistance Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Yon Rhee

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of acquired and transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance is an obstacle to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs hardest hit by the HIV-1 pandemic. Genotypic drug resistance testing could facilitate the choice of initial ART in areas with rising transmitted drug resistance (TDR and enable care-providers to determine which individuals with virological failure (VF on a first- or second-line ART regimen require a change in treatment. An inexpensive near point-of-care (POC genotypic resistance test would be useful in settings where the resources, capacity, and infrastructure to perform standard genotypic drug resistance testing are limited. Such a test would be particularly useful in conjunction with the POC HIV-1 viral load tests that are currently being introduced in LMICs. A POC genotypic resistance test is likely to involve the use of allele-specific point mutation assays for detecting drug-resistance mutations (DRMs. This study proposes that two major nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI-associated DRMs (M184V and K65R and four major NNRTI-associated DRMs (K103N, Y181C, G190A, and V106M would be the most useful for POC genotypic resistance testing in LMIC settings. One or more of these six DRMs was present in 61.2% of analyzed virus sequences from ART-naïve individuals with intermediate or high-level TDR and 98.8% of analyzed virus sequences from individuals on a first-line NRTI/NNRTI-containing regimen with intermediate or high-level acquired drug resistance. The detection of one or more of these DRMs in an ART-naïve individual or in a individual with VF on a first-line NRTI/NNRTI-containing regimen may be considered an indication for a protease inhibitor (PI-containing regimen or closer virological monitoring based on cost-effectiveness or country policy.

  15. Testing compression strength of wood logs by drilling resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalny, Gerda; Rados, Kristijan; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2017-04-01

    Soil bioengineering is a construction technique using biological components for hydraulic and civil engineering solutions, based on the application of living plants and other auxiliary materials including among others log wood. Considering the reliability of the construction it is important to know about the durability and the degradation process of the wooden logs to estimate and retain the integral performance of a soil bioengineering system. An important performance indicator is the compression strength, but this parameter is not easy to examine by non-destructive methods. The Rinntech Resistograph is an instrument to measure the drilling resistance by a 3 mm wide needle in a wooden log. It is a quasi-non-destructive method as the remaining hole has no weakening effects to the wood. This is an easy procedure but result in values, hard to interpret. To assign drilling resistance values to specific compression strengths, wooden specimens were tested in an experiment and analysed with the Resistograph. Afterwards compression tests were done at the same specimens. This should allow an easier interpretation of drilling resistance curves in future. For detailed analyses specimens were investigated by means of branch inclusions, cracks and distances between annual rings. Wood specimens are tested perpendicular to the grain. First results show a correlation between drilling resistance and compression strength by using the mean drilling resistance, average width of the annual rings and the mean range of the minima and maxima values as factors for the drilling resistance. The extended limit of proportionality, the offset yield strength and the maximum strength were taken as parameters for compression strength. Further investigations at a second point in time strengthen these results.

  16. Knowing prior methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection or colonization status increases the empirical use of glycopeptides in MRSA bacteraemia and may decrease mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J O; Phillips, M; Christiansen, K J; Pearson, J C; Coombs, G W; Murray, R J

    2014-06-01

    To compare the management and outcome of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia in patients known to be MRSA-colonized/infected (C-patients) with the management and outcome in those not known to be colonized/infected (NC-patients), we conducted a 10-year retrospective review of MRSA bacteraemia in an adult tertiary hospital. Clinical data were obtained by chart review, and mortality data from linked databases. Prior MRSA colonization/infection status was available to treating clinicians at the time of the bacteraemia as a 'Micro-Alert' tag on the patient's labels, in medical charts, and in electronic information systems. C-patients accounted for 35.4% of all MRSA bacteraemia episodes. C-patients were more likely to be indigenous, to be diabetic, or to have a history of previous S. aureus infection. Markers of illness severity (Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS)-II, need for admission to the intensive-care unit, length of stay, and metastatic seeding) were similar in both groups. Empirical therapy included a glycopeptide in 49.3% of C-patients vs. 18.9% of NC-patients (p MRSA isolate tested susceptible in vitro in 56.7% of C-patients vs. 45.1% of NC-patients (p 0.13). All-cause 7-day and 30-day mortality were 7.5% vs. 18.9% (p 0.04), and 22.4% vs. 31.1% (p 0.20), in the C-patient and NC-patient groups, respectively. Knowing MRSA colonization status was significantly associated with lower 30-day mortality in Cox regression analysis (p MRSA bacteraemia is lower in C-patients, which may reflect the earlier use of glycopeptides. The low use of empirical glycopeptides in septic patients known to be previously MRSA-colonized/infected may represent a missed opportunity for infection control to positively impact on clinical management. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  17. The update of resist outgas testing for metal containing resists at EIDEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiobara, Eishi; Mikami, Shinji

    2017-10-01

    The metal containing resist is one of the candidates for high sensitivity resists. EIDEC has prepared the infrastructure for outgas testing in hydrogen environment for metal containing resists at High Power EUV irradiation tool (HPEUV). We have experimentally obtained the preliminary results of the non-cleanable metal contamination on witness sample using model material by HPEUV [1]. The metal contamination was observed at only the condition of hydrogen environment. It suggested the generation of volatile metal hydrides by hydrogen radicals. Additionally, the metal contamination on a witness sample covered with Ru was not removed by hydrogen radical cleaning. The strong interaction between the metal hydride and Ru was confirmed by the absorption simulation. Recently, ASML announced a resist outgassing barrier technology using Dynamic Gas Lock (DGL) membrane located between projection optics and wafer stage [2], [3]. DGL membrane blocks the diffusion of all kinds of resist outgassing to the projection optics and prevents the reflectivity loss of EUV mirrors. The investigation of DGL membrane for high volume manufacturing is just going on. It extends the limitation of material design for EUV resists. However, the DGL membrane has an impact for the productivity of EUV scanners due to the transmission loss of EUV light and the necessity of periodic maintenance. The well understanding and control of the outgassing characteristics of metal containing resists may help to improve the productivity of EUV scanner. We consider the outgas evaluation for the resists still useful. For the improvement of resist outgas testing by HPEUV, there are some issues such as the contamination limited regime, the optimization of exposure dose to obtain the measurable contamination film thickness and the detection of minimum amount of metal related outgas species generated. The investigation and improvement for these issues are ongoing. The updates will be presented in the conference. This

  18. Pre-Treatment of Platinum Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells with an MMP-9/MMP-2 Inhibitor Prior to Cisplatin Enhances Cytotoxicity as Determined by High Content Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. O'Leary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in ovarian cancer. We previously identified matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 as a potential therapeutic target of chemoresistant disease. A2780cis (cisplatin-resistant and A2780 (cisplatin-sensitive ovarian carcinoma cell lines were used. The cytotoxic effect of MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor, (2R-2-[(4-Biphenylsulfonyl amino]-3 phenylpropionic acid (C21H19NO4S alone or in combination with cisplatin was determined using high content screening. Protein expression was examined using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Co-incubation of cisplatin and an MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor, (2R-2-[(4-Biphenylsulfonyl amino]-3 phenylpropionic acid (C21H19NO4S resulted in significantly greater cytotoxicity as compared to either treatment alone in a cisplatin resistant MMP-9 overexpressing cell line; A2780cis. In addition, pre-incubating with MMP-9i prior to cisplatin further enhances the cytotoxic effect. No significant difference was observed in MMP-9 protein in tissue but a trend towards increased MMP-9 was observed in recurrent serum. We propose that MMP-9/MMP-2i may be utilized in the treatment of recurrent/chemoresistant ovarian cancers that overexpress MMP-9 mRNA but its role in vivo remains to be evaluated.

  19. Standard Test Method for Environmental Resistance of Aerospace Transparencies

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers determination of the effects of exposure to thermal shock, condensing humidity, and simulated weather on aerospace transparent enclosures. 1.2 This test method is not recommended for quality control nor is it intended to provide a correlation to actual service life. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3.1 Exceptions—Certain inch-pound units are furnished in parentheses (not mandatory) and certain temperatures in Fahrenheit associated with other standards are also furnished. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Design prediction of pavement skid resistance from laboratory tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcells, W. H.; Metheny, T. M.; Maag, R. G.

    1980-08-01

    Methods for preevaluating aggregates and paving mixtures so that predictions can be made covering skid resistance properties of proposed and in service pavement types are discussed. A correlation was established between the field testing using the data from the British Portable Tester and the Locked Wheel Pavement Friction Trailer at speeds of 40 and 55 mph. Core samples were extracted from the Locked Wheel Tester Skid Path and subjected to wear on the small wheel circular track with periodic surface friction testing. The final step was to remix and remold the cored pavement samples or make samples with new materials to obtain an 'as new' surface and again subject these samples to wear on the small wheel circular track with periodic testing.

  1. Uncertainty Analysis of Resistance Tests in Ata Nutku Ship Model Testing Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihad DELEN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some systematical resistance tests, where were performed in Ata Nutku Ship Model Testing Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University (ITU, have been included in order to determine the uncertainties. Experiments which are conducted in the framework of mathematical and physical rules for the solution of engineering problems, measurements, calculations include uncertainty. To question the reliability of the obtained values, the existing uncertainties should be expressed as quantities. The uncertainty of a measurement system is not known if the results do not carry a universal value. On the other hand, resistance is one of the most important parameters that should be considered in the process of ship design. Ship resistance during the design phase of a ship cannot be determined precisely and reliably due to the uncertainty resources in determining the resistance value that are taken into account. This case may cause negative effects to provide the required specifications in the latter design steps. The uncertainty arising from the resistance test has been estimated and compared for a displacement type ship and high speed marine vehicles according to ITTC 2002 and ITTC 2014 regulations which are related to the uncertainty analysis methods. Also, the advantages and disadvantages of both ITTC uncertainty analysis methods have been discussed.

  2. Mycobacteria: laboratory methods for testing drug sensitivity and resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti, G.; Froman, S.; Grosset, J.; Hauduroy, P.; Langerová, Miloslava; Mahler, H. T.; Meissner, Gertrud; Mitchison, D. A.; Šula, L.

    1963-01-01

    In its seventh report, published in 1960, the WHO Expert Committee on Tuberculosis “noted the need for international standards for the definition and determination of drug resistance which will permit comparisons to be made from one area to another, and recommended that the World Health Organization take appropriate steps to establish such standards”.10 Acting on this recommendation, WHO took the first step towards standardization by convening in Geneva, in December 1961, an informal international meeting of specialists in the bacteriology of tuberculosis. At this meeting an attempt was made to formulate prerequisites for reliable sensitivity tests and to specify the technical procedures for them. The first part of the present paper is a joint contribution by the participants in the meeting, summarizing the general conclusions reached and recommendations made with regard to tests of sensitivity to the three main antituberculosis drugs—isoniazid, streptomycin and p-aminosalicylic acid. The other three parts describe, in turn, three different tests for determining drug sensitivity—the absolute-concentration method, the resistance-ratio method and the proportion method—that are generally considered to give reasonably accurate results. PMID:14102034

  3. InChIKey collision resistance: an experimental testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pletnev Igor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract InChIKey is a 27-character compacted (hashed version of InChI which is intended for Internet and database searching/indexing and is based on an SHA-256 hash of the InChI character string. The first block of InChIKey encodes molecular skeleton while the second block represents various kinds of isomerism (stereo, tautomeric, etc.. InChIKey is designed to be a nearly unique substitute for the parent InChI. However, a single InChIKey may occasionally map to two or more InChI strings (collision. The appearance of collision itself does not compromise the signature as collision-free hashing is impossible; the only viable approach is to set and keep a reasonable level of collision resistance which is sufficient for typical applications. We tested, in computational experiments, how well the real-life InChIKey collision resistance corresponds to the theoretical estimates expected by design. For this purpose, we analyzed the statistical characteristics of InChIKey for datasets of variable size in comparison to the theoretical statistical frequencies. For the relatively short second block, an exhaustive direct testing was performed. We computed and compared to theory the numbers of collisions for the stereoisomers of Spongistatin I (using the whole set of 67,108,864 isomers and its subsets. For the longer first block, we generated, using custom-made software, InChIKeys for more than 3 × 1010 chemical structures. The statistical behavior of this block was tested by comparison of experimental and theoretical frequencies for the various four-letter sequences which may appear in the first block body. From the results of our computational experiments we conclude that the observed characteristics of InChIKey collision resistance are in good agreement with theoretical expectations.

  4. Phase I Clinical Trial of the CYP17 Inhibitor Abiraterone Acetate Demonstrating Clinical Activity in Patients With Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Who Received Prior Ketoconazole Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Charles J.; Smith, Matthew R.; Fong, Lawrence; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.; Kantoff, Philip; Raynaud, Florence; Martins, Vanessa; Lee, Gloria; Kheoh, Thian; Kim, Jennifer; Molina, Arturo; Small, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Abiraterone acetate is a prodrug of abiraterone, a selective inhibitor of CYP17, the enzyme catalyst for two essential steps in androgen biosynthesis. In castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs), extragonadal androgen sources may sustain tumor growth despite a castrate environment. This phase I dose-escalation study of abiraterone acetate evaluated safety, pharmacokinetics, and effects on steroidogenesis and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in men with CPRC with or without prior ketoconazole therapy. Patients and Methods Thirty-three men with chemotherapy-naïve progressive CRPC were enrolled. Nineteen patients (58%) had previously received ketoconazole for CRPC. Bone metastases were present in 70% of patients, and visceral involvement was present in 18%. Three patients (9%) had locally advanced disease without distant metastases. Fasted or fed cohorts received abiraterone acetate doses of 250, 500, 750, or 1,000 mg daily. Single-dose pharmacokinetic analyses were performed before continuous daily dosing. Results Adverse events were predominantly grade 1 or 2. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Hypertension (grade 3, 12%) and hypokalemia (grade 3, 6%; grade 4, 3%) were the most frequent serious toxicities and responded to medical management. Confirmed ≥ 50% PSA declines at week 12 were seen in 18 (55%) of 33 patients, including nine (47%) of 19 patients with prior ketoconazole therapy and nine (64%) of 14 patients without prior ketoconazole therapy. Substantial declines in circulating androgens and increases in mineralocorticoids were seen with all doses. Conclusion Abiraterone acetate was well tolerated and demonstrated activity in CRPC, including in patients previously treated with ketoconazole. Continued clinical study is warranted. PMID:20159824

  5. Prior ingestion of exogenous ketone monoester attenuates the glycaemic response to an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy young individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myette-Côté, Étienne; Neudorf, Helena; Rafiei, Hossein; Clarke, Kieran; Little, Jonathan Peter

    2018-02-15

    The recent development of exogenous ketone supplements allows direct testing of the metabolic effects of elevated blood ketones without the confounding influence of widespread changes experienced with ketogenic diets or prolonged fasting. In the present study, we determined the effect of (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate ketone monoester on the glycaemic response and insulin sensitivity index during a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in humans. The results obtained show that consuming a ketone monoester supplement 30 min prior to an OGTT reduced the glycaemic response and markers of insulin sensitivity without affecting insulin secretion. The findings of the present study provides evidence that ketone supplements could have therapeutic potential for future application as a glucose-lowering nutritional supplement. The main objectives of the present study were: (i) to determine whether acute ingestion of ketone monoester (K me ); (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate impacts plasma glucose levels during a standardized oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and (ii) to compare changes in insulin concentrations and estimates of insulin sensitivity after acute K me supplementation. Twenty healthy participants (n = 10 males/females) aged between 18 and 35 years took part in a randomized cross-over study. After an overnight fast, participants consumed a K me supplement (ΔG®; TΔS Ltd, UK, Oxford, UK; 0.45 ml kg -1 body weight) or placebo (water) 30 min before completing a 75 g OGTT. Blood samples were collected every 15-30 min over 2.5 h. The participants and study personnel performing the laboratory analyses were blinded to the study condition. K me acutely raised blood d-beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) to 3.2 ± 0.6 mm within 30 min with levels remaining elevated throughout the entire OGTT. Compared to placebo, K me significantly decreased the glucose area under the curve (AUC; -16%, P = 0.001), non-esterified fatty acid AUC (-44%, P < 0

  6. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Lise, Kristensen,; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics......Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics...

  7. ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS OF TUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA DEFINING DRUG RESISTANCE IN HIV POSITIVE AND HIV NEGATIVE TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS WITHOUT PRIOR HISTORY OF TREATMENT IN SVERDLOVSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Panov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the study: to identify profile of mutations of tuberculous mycobacteria responsible for resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs in HIV positive and HIV negative tuberculosis patients without prior history of treatment.Materials and methods. 165 strains of tuberculous mycobacteria from HIV positive patients and 166 strains of tuberculous mycobacteria from HIV negative patients were studied in Sverdlovsk Region (TB Dispensary, Yekaterinburg. Mutations in genes were identified using microchips of TB-BIOCHIP® and TB-BIOCHIP®-2 in compliance with the manufacturer's guidelines (OOO Biochip-IMB, Moscow.Results. It was observed that 85/165 (51.52% strains isolated from HIV positive tuberculosis patients and 58/166 (34.94% strains isolated from tuberculosis patients not associated with HIV possessed MDR genotype (p < 0.01. The majority of MDR strains had mutations in the 531th codon of rpoB (Ser→Leu and 315th codon of katG (Ser→Thr (64/85, 75.29% and 38/58, 65.52% respective the groups, resulting in the high level of resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid. Each group also had approximately equal ratio (11/165, 6.67% and 12/166, 7.23% respective the groups of strains with genomic mutations defining the resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin and fluoruquinolones. No confident difference was found in mutation patterns of genome of tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from HIV positive and HIV negative tuberculosis patients. 

  8. Standard Test Method for Hail Impact Resistance of Aerospace Transparent Enclosures

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the impact resistance of an aerospace transparent enclosure, hereinafter called windshield, during hailstorm conditions using simulated hailstones consisting of ice balls molded under tightly controlled conditions. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statements see Section 7.

  9. In Vitro Pharmacodynamics of Human Simulated Exposures of Telavancin against Methicillin-Susceptible and -Resistant Staphylococcus aureus with and without Prior Vancomycin Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabit, Abrar K; Nicolau, David P; Kuti, Joseph L

    2016-01-01

    Telavancin is a lipoglycopeptide with potent activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). The activity of telavancin against MRSA and MSSA after prior vancomycin exposure was studied in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model. Two clinical MRSA and two MSSA isolates, all with vancomycin MICs of 2 μg/ml, were subjected to humanized free drug exposures of vancomycin at 1 g every 12 h (q12h) for 96 h, telavancin at 750 mg q24h for 96 h, and vancomycin at 1 g q12h for 72 h followed by telavancin at 750 mg q24h for 48 h (120 h total). The microbiological responses were measured by changes from 0 h in log10 CFU/ml at the end of experiments and area under the bacterial killing and regrowth curves over 96 h (AUBC0-96). The control isolates grew to 8.8 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/ml. Initially, all regimens caused -4.5 ± 0.9 reductions in log10 CFU/ml by 48 h followed by slight regrowth over the following 48 to 72 h. After 96 h, vancomycin and telavancin achieved -3.7 ± 0.9 and -3.8 ± 0.8 log10 CFU/ml changes from baseline, respectively (P = 0.74). Sequential exposure to telavancin after vancomycin did not result in additional CFU reductions or increases, with ultimate log10 CFU/ml reductions of -4.3 ± 1.1 at 96 h and -4.2 ± 1.3 at 120 h (P > 0.05 for all comparisons at 96 h). The AUBC0-96 was significantly smaller for the regimen of telavancin for 96 h than for the regimens of vancomycin for 96 h and vancomycin followed by telavancin (P ≤ 0.04). No resistance was observed throughout the experiment. Against these MRSA and MSSA isolates with vancomycin MICs of 2 μg/ml, telavancin was comparable with vancomycin and its activity was unaffected by prior vancomycin exposure. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Evaluation of interrupter resistance in methacholine challenge testing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Marije; Brackel, Hein J L; Vaessen-Verberne, Anja A P H; Hop, Wim C; van der Ent, Cornelis K

    2011-03-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is a key feature of asthma and is assessed using bronchial provocation tests. The primary outcome in such tests (a 20% decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1)) is difficult to measure in young patients. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the interrupter resistance (Rint ) technique, which does not require active patient participation, by comparing it to the primary outcome measure. Methacholine challenge tests were performed in children with a history of moderate asthma and BHR. Mean and individual changes in Rint and FEV1 were studied. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to describe sensitivity and specificity of Rint . Seventy-three children (median age: 9.2 years; range: 6.3-13.4 years) participated. There was a significant (P changes of Rint showed large fluctuations. There was great overlap in change of Rint between children who did and did not reach the FEV1 endpoint. A ROC curve showed an area under the curve of 0.65. Because of low sensitivity and specificity, the use of Rint to diagnose BHR in individual patients seems limited. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Positron emission tomography of tumour [{sup 18}F]fluoroestradiol uptake in patients with acquired hormone-resistant metastatic breast cancer prior to oestradiol therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruchten, Michel van; Schroeder, Carolien P.; Vries, Elisabeth G.E. de; Hospers, Geke A.P. [University of Groningen, Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen (Netherlands); Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Vries, Erik F.J. de [University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-10-15

    Whereas anti-oestrogen therapy is widely applied to treat oestrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer, paradoxically, oestrogens can also induce tumour regression. Up-regulation of ER expression is a marker for oestrogen hypersensitivity. We, therefore, performed an exploratory study to evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) with the tracer 16α-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-17β-oestradiol ({sup 18}F-FES) as potential marker to select breast cancer patients for oestradiol therapy. Eligible patients had acquired endocrine-resistant metastatic breast cancer that progressed after ≥2 lines of endocrine therapy. All patients had prior ER-positive histology. Treatment consisted of oestradiol 2 mg, three times daily, orally. Patients underwent {sup 18}F-FES-PET/CT imaging at baseline. Tumour {sup 18}F-FES-uptake was quantified for a maximum of 20 lesions and expressed as maximum standardised uptake value (SUV{sub max}). CT-scan was repeated every 3 months to evaluate treatment response. Clinical benefit was defined as time to radiologic or clinical progression ≥24 weeks. {sup 18}F-FES uptake, quantified for 255 lesions in 19 patients, varied greatly between lesions (median 2.8; range 0.6-24.3) and between patients (median 2.5; range 1.1-15.5). Seven (37 %) patients experienced clinical benefit of oestrogen therapy, eight progressed (PD), and four were non-evaluable due to side effects. The positive and negative predictive value (PPV/NPV) of {sup 18}F-FES-PET for response to treatment were 60 % (95 % CI: 31-83 %) and 80 % (95 % CI: 38-96 %), respectively, using SUV{sub max} >1.5. {sup 18}F-FES-PET may aid identification of patients with acquired antihormone resistant breast cancer that are unlikely to benefit from oestradiol therapy. (orig.)

  12. 30 CFR 7.408 - Test for flame resistance of signaling cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of signaling cables..., Signaling Cables, and Cable Splice Kits § 7.408 Test for flame resistance of signaling cables. (a) Test... either and support and the center support. (6) After subjecting the test specimen to external flame for...

  13. 30 CFR 27.39 - Tests to determine resistance to vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests to determine resistance to vibration. 27... determine resistance to vibration. (a) Laboratory tests for reliability and durability. Components... two separate vibration tests, each of one-hour duration. The first test shall be conducted at a...

  14. Resistance of three implant-abutment interfaces to fatigue testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Gisele Ribeiro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The design and retentive properties of implant-abutment connectors affect the mechanical resistance of implants. A number of studies have been carried out to compare the efficacy of connecting mechanisms between abutment and fixture. Objectives: The aims of this study were: 1 to compare 3 implant-abutment interfaces (external hexagon, internal hexagon and cone-in-cone regarding the fatigue resistance of the prosthetic screw, 2 to evaluate the corresponding mode of failure, and 3 to compare the results of this study with data obtained in previous studies on Nobel Biocare and Straumann connectors. Materials and METHODS: In order to duplicate the alternating and multivectorial intraoral loading pattern, the specimens were submitted to the rotating cantilever beam test. The implants, abutments and restoration analogs were spun around their longitudinal axes while a perpendicular force was applied to the external end. The objective was to determine the force level at which 50% of the specimens survived 10(6 load cycles. The mean force levels at which 50% failed and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were determined using the staircase procedure. RESULTS: The external hexagon interface presented better than the cone-in-cone and internal hexagon interfaces. There was no significant difference between the cone-in-cone and internal hex interfaces. Conclusion: Although internal connections present a more favorable design, this study did not show any advantage in terms of strength. The external hexagon connector used in this study yielded similar results to those obtained in a previous study with Nobel Biocare and Straumann systems. However, the internal connections (cone-in-cone and internal hexagon were mechanically inferior compared to previous results.

  15. Deep Resistivity Structure of Mid Valley, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Erin L.; Rodriguez, Brian D.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2009-01-01

    -Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal was to define the extent of the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU). The UCCU is composed of late Devonian to Mississippian siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale (National Security Technologies, 2007). The UCCU underlies the Yucca Flat area and extends southwestward toward Shoshone Mountain, westward toward Buckboard Mesa, and northwestward toward Rainier Mesa. Late in 2005 we collected data at an additional 14 MT stations in Mid Valley, CP Hills, and northern Yucca Flat. That work was done to better determine the extent and thickness of the UCCU near the boundary between the southeastern RM-SM CAU and the southwestern YF CAU, and also in the northern YF CAU. The MT data have been released in a separate U.S. Geological Survey report (Williams and others, 2007). The Nevada Test Site magnetotelluric data interpretation presented in this report includes the results of detailed two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity modeling for each profile and inferences on the three-dimensional (3-D) character of the geology within the region.

  16. DNA-testing for BRCA1/2 prior to genetic counselling in patients with breast cancer: design of an intervention study, DNA-direct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sie Aisha S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current practice for patients with breast cancer referred for genetic counseling, includes face-to-face consultations with a genetic counselor prior to and following DNA-testing. This is based on guidelines regarding Huntington’s disease in anticipation of high psychosocial impact of DNA-testing for mutations in BRCA1/2 genes. The initial consultation covers generic information regarding hereditary breast cancer and the (impossibilities of DNA-testing, prior to such testing. Patients with breast cancer may see this information as irrelevant or unnecessary because individual genetic advice depends on DNA-test results. Also, verbal information is not always remembered well by patients. A different format for this information prior to DNA-testing is possible: replacing initial face-to-face genetic counseling (DNA-intake procedure by telephone, written and digital information sent to patients’ homes (DNA-direct procedure. Methods/design In this intervention study, 150 patients with breast cancer referred to the department of Clinical Genetics of the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre are given the choice between two procedures, DNA-direct (intervention group or DNA-intake (usual care, control group. During a triage telephone call, patients are excluded if they have problems with Dutch text, family communication, or of psychological or psychiatric nature. Primary outcome measures are satisfaction and psychological distress. Secondary outcome measures are determinants for the participant’s choice of procedure, waiting and processing times, and family characteristics. Data are collected by self-report questionnaires at baseline and following completion of genetic counseling. A minority of participants will receive an invitation for a 30 min semi-structured telephone interview, e.g. confirmed carriers of a BRCA1/2 mutation, and those who report problems with the procedure. Discussion This study compares current practice

  17. DNA-testing for BRCA1/2 prior to genetic counselling in patients with breast cancer: design of an intervention study, DNA-direct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sie, Aisha S; Spruijt, Liesbeth; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A G; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J; Brunner, Han G; Prins, Judith B; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2012-05-08

    Current practice for patients with breast cancer referred for genetic counseling, includes face-to-face consultations with a genetic counselor prior to and following DNA-testing. This is based on guidelines regarding Huntington's disease in anticipation of high psychosocial impact of DNA-testing for mutations in BRCA1/2 genes. The initial consultation covers generic information regarding hereditary breast cancer and the (im)possibilities of DNA-testing, prior to such testing. Patients with breast cancer may see this information as irrelevant or unnecessary because individual genetic advice depends on DNA-test results. Also, verbal information is not always remembered well by patients. A different format for this information prior to DNA-testing is possible: replacing initial face-to-face genetic counseling (DNA-intake procedure) by telephone, written and digital information sent to patients' homes (DNA-direct procedure). In this intervention study, 150 patients with breast cancer referred to the department of Clinical Genetics of the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre are given the choice between two procedures, DNA-direct (intervention group) or DNA-intake (usual care, control group). During a triage telephone call, patients are excluded if they have problems with Dutch text, family communication, or of psychological or psychiatric nature. Primary outcome measures are satisfaction and psychological distress. Secondary outcome measures are determinants for the participant's choice of procedure, waiting and processing times, and family characteristics. Data are collected by self-report questionnaires at baseline and following completion of genetic counseling. A minority of participants will receive an invitation for a 30 min semi-structured telephone interview, e.g. confirmed carriers of a BRCA1/2 mutation, and those who report problems with the procedure. This study compares current practice of an intake consultation (DNA-intake) to a home informational

  18. New surface layers with low rolling resistance tested in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettinari, Matteo; Schmidt, Bjarne; Jensen, Bjarne Bo

    2014-01-01

    The project ‘CO2 emission reduction by exploitation of rolling resistance modeling of pavements’ (COOEE) was started in 2011 to establish a scientific background for development of novel pavement types and asset management solutions that minimize the rolling resistance for cars and trucks...

  19. Inaccuracy of routine susceptibility tests for detection of erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, M.T.; Claas, E.C.J.; Mevius, D.J.; Pelt, van W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Kuijper, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    In The Netherlands, both an increase in and regional differences in erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli have been reported. To determine the accuracy of routine tests for erythromycin resistance, 48 erythromycin-resistant isolates from various laboratories that

  20. Preparation and testing of corrosion and spallation-resistant coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, John P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Cavalli, Matthew N. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The goal of this project was to take a recently developed method of bonding oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl plating to nickel superalloys closer to commercial use in syngas-fired turbines. The project was designed to better understand and develop the bonding process and to determine if plating APMT®, a specific highly oxidation-resistant ODS FeCrAl alloy made by Kanthal, onto nickel-based superalloy turbine parts is a viable method for substantially improving the lifetimes and maximum use temperatures of the parts. The superalloys investigated for protection were CM247LC and Rene® 80, both alumina scale-forming alloys. The method for bonding the APMT plate to the superalloys is called evaporative metal bonding, which involves placing a thin foil of zinc between the plate and the superalloy, clamping them together, and heating in an atmosphere-controlled furnace. Upon heating, the zinc melts and dissolves the oxide skins of the alloys at the bond line, allowing the two alloys to diffuse into each other. The zinc then diffuses through the alloys and evaporates from their surfaces, creating a bond between the APMT and the superalloy that is stronger than the APMT itself. Testing showed that the diffusivity of zinc in both APMT and CM247LC is quite similar at 700°C but 15 times higher in the APMT at 1214°C. Coefficients of thermal expansion were determined for each of the alloys as a function of temperature. This information was entered into a finite-element model using ANSYS, which was used to design a clamping jig for pressing the APMT to the superalloys at the bonding temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analyses of representative joints showed that no zinc remained in the alloys after bonding Unfortunately, the analyses also showed some small pieces of broken aluminum oxide scale near the bond lines, indicating that its scale was not sufficiently removed during prebonding cleaning. Samples from each of the bonded blocks were sent to Siemens for

  1. Thromboelastometry versus standard coagulation tests versus restrictive protocol to guide blood transfusion prior to central venous catheterization in cirrhosis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Leonardo Lima; Pessoa, Camila Menezes Souza; Neto, Ary Serpa; do Prado, Rogerio Ruscitto; Silva, Eliezer; de Almeida, Marcio Dias; Correa, Thiago Domingos

    2017-02-27

    Liver failure patients have traditionally been empirically transfused prior to invasive procedures. Blood transfusion is associated with immunologic and nonimmunologic reactions, increased risk of adverse outcomes and high costs. Scientific evidence supporting empirical transfusion is lacking, and the best approach for blood transfusion prior to invasive procedures in cirrhotic patients has not been established so far. The aim of this study is to compare three transfusion strategies (routine coagulation test-guided - ordinary or restrictive, or thromboelastometry-guided) prior to central venous catheterization in critically ill patients with cirrhosis. Design and setting: a double-blinded, parallel-group, single-center, randomized controlled clinical trial in a tertiary private hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. adults (aged 18 years or older) admitted to the intensive care unit with cirrhosis and an indication for central venous line insertion. Patients will be randomly assigned to three groups for blood transfusion strategy prior to central venous catheterization: standard coagulation tests-based, thromboelastometry-based, or restrictive. The primary efficacy endpoint will be the proportion of patients transfused with any blood product prior to central venous catheterization. The primary safety endpoint will be the incidence of major bleeding. Secondary endpoints will be the proportion of transfusion of fresh frozen plasma, platelets and cryoprecipitate; infused volume of blood products; hemoglobin and hematocrit before and after the procedure; intensive care unit and hospital length of stay; 28-day and hospital mortality; incidence of minor bleeding; transfusion-related adverse reactions; and cost analysis. This study will evaluate three strategies to guide blood transfusion prior to central venous line placement in severely ill patients with cirrhosis. We hypothesized that thromboelastometry-based and/or restrictive protocols are safe and would significantly

  2. Analytical Performance of Multiplexed Screening Test for 10 Antibiotic Resistance Genes from Perianal Swab Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G Terrance; Rockweiler, Tony J; Kersey, Rossio K; Frye, Kelly L; Mitchner, Susan R; Toal, Douglas R; Quan, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Multiantibiotic-resistant bacteria pose a threat to patients and place an economic burden on health care systems. Carbapenem-resistant bacilli and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers drive the need to screen infected and colonized patients for patient management and infection control. We describe a multiplex microfluidic PCR test for perianal swab samples (Acuitas(®) MDRO Gene Test, OpGen) that detects the vancomycin-resistance gene vanA plus hundreds of gene subtypes from the carbapenemase and ESBL families Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM), Verona integron-mediated metallo-β-lactamase (VIM), imipenemase metallo-β-lactamase (IMP), OXA-23, OXA-48, OXA-51, CTX-M-1, and CTX-M-2, regardless of the bacterial species harboring the antibiotic resistance. Analytical test sensitivity per perianal swab is 11-250 CFU of bacteria harboring the antibiotic resistance genes. Test throughput is 182 samples per test run (1820 antibiotic resistance gene family results). We demonstrate reproducible test performance and 100% gene specificity for 265 clinical bacterial organisms harboring a variety of antibiotic resistance genes. The Acuitas MDRO Gene Test is a sensitive, specific, and high-throughput test to screen colonized patients and diagnose infections for several antibiotic resistance genes directly from perianal swab samples, regardless of the bacterial species harboring the resistance genes. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  3. Hybrid maize breeding with doubled haploids: III. Efficiency of early testing prior to doubled haploid production in two-stage selection for testcross performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, C Friedrich H; Utz, H Friedrich; Reif, Jochen C; Wegenast, Thilo; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2007-08-01

    Early testing prior to doubled haploid (DH) production is a promising approach in hybrid maize breeding. We (1) determined the optimum allocation of the number of S(1) families, DH lines, and test locations for two different breeding schemes, (2) compared the maximum selection gain achievable under both breeding schemes, and (3) investigated limitations in the current method of DH production. Selection gain was calculated by numerical integration in two-stage breeding schemes with evaluation of testcross progenies of (1) DH lines in both stages (DHTC), or (2) S(1) families in the first and DH lines within S(1) families in the second stage (S(1)TC-DHTC). Different assumptions were made regarding the budget, variance components, and time of DH production within S(1) families. Maximum selection gain in S(1)TC-DHTC was about 10% larger than in DHTC, indicating the large potential of early testing prior to DH production. The optimum allocation of test resources in S(1)TC-DHTC involved similar numbers of test locations and test candidates in both stages resulting in a large optimum number of S(1) families in the first stage and DH lines within the best two S(1) families in the second stage. The longer cycle length of S(1)TC-DHTC can be compensated by haploid induction of individual S(1) plants instead of S(1) families. However, this reduces selection gain largely due to the current limitations in the DH technique. Substantial increases in haploid induction and chromosome doubling rates as well as reduction in costs of DH production would allow early testing of S(1) lines and subsequent production and testing of DH lines in a breeding scheme that combines high selection gain with a short cycle length.

  4. Concordance of visual and manipulative responsiveness to novel and familiar stimuli: a function of test procedures or of prior experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, J

    1976-12-01

    Concordance of differential visual and manipulative responsiveness to novel stimuli at 6 months of age was found when differential attractiveness and familiarity of the stimuli were controlled. This finding corroborates the findings of an earlier study in which the same object was used as the familiarization object for all subjects. The data indicate that concordance at 6 months of age is not an artifact of the test procedure. A hypothesis suggested by the comparison of these findings with others in the literature is that the opportunity to manipulate a wide variety of objects in the natural environment may contribute to the concordance of visual and manipulative responsiveness to novel stimuli at this age.

  5. The impact of mouse passaging of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains prior to virulence testing in the mouse and guinea pig aerosol models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Converse

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that the virulence of lab-passaged Mycobacterium tuberculosis and recombinant M. tuberculosis mutants might be reduced due to multiple in vitro passages, and that virulence might be augmented by passage of these strains through mice before quantitative virulence testing in the mouse or guinea pig aerosol models.By testing three M. tuberculosis H37Rv samples, one deletion mutant, and one recent clinical isolate for survival by the quantitative organ CFU counting method in mouse or guinea pig aerosol or intravenous infection models, we could discern no increase in bacterial fitness as a result of passaging of M. tuberculosis strains in mice prior to quantitative virulence testing in two animal models. Surface lipid expression as assessed by neutral red staining and thin-layer chromatography for PDIM analysis also failed to identify virulence correlates.These results indicate that animal passaging of M. tuberculosis strains prior to quantitative virulence testing in mouse or guinea pig models does not enhance or restore potency to strains that may have lost virulence due to in vitro passaging. It is critical to verify virulence of parental strains before genetic manipulations are undertaken and comparisons are made.

  6. Clarithromycin-susceptible and -resistant Helicobacter pylori isolates with identical randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR genotypes cultured from single gastric biopsy specimens prior to antibiotic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ende, A.; van Doorn, L. J.; Rooijakkers, S.; Feller, M.; Tytgat, G. N.; Dankert, J.

    2001-01-01

    Of the Helicobacter pylori populations from 976 patients, six contained clarithromycin-resistant as well as -susceptible colonies. In each heterogeneous H. pylori population, resistant H. pylori colonies harbored identical 23S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) mutations associated with clarithromycin resistance,

  7. Lymphatic filariasis mapping by Immunochromatographic Test cards and baseline microfilaria survey prior to mass drug administration in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroma Joseph B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National mapping of lymphatic filariasis (LF was conducted using Immunochromatographic tests (ICT in 2005 to determine endemicity and geographic spread of the disease. A baseline microfilaria survey was then conducted to determine LF prevalence and microfilaria intensity. Methods In 2005 1,982 persons of 15 years and over from 14 health districts were selected and fingertip blood samples were tested with ICT cards. In 2007-8 blood samples were taken between 10 p.m. and 2 a.m. and examined for microfilaria (mf from 9,288 persons from 16 sentinel sites representing each district and 2 additional sites for districts with populations over 500,000 (Bo and Kenema. Results The overall LF prevalence by ICT cards was 21% (males 28%, females 15%. All districts had a prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti antigen > 1%. Distribution of LF prevalence showed a strong spatial correlation pattern with high prevalence in a large area in the northeast gradually decreasing to a relatively low prevalence in the southwest coast. High prevalence was found in the northeast, Bombali (52%, Koinadugu (46%, Tonkolili (37% and Kono (30%. Low prevalence was found in the southwest, Bonthe (3% and Pujehun (4%. The mf prevalence was higher in the northeast: Bombali, 6.7%, Koinadugu 5.7%, Port Loko 4.4% and Kono 2.4%. Overall there was a significant difference in mf prevalence by gender: males 2.9%, females 1.8% (p = 0.0002 and within districts in Kailahun, Kono, Port Loko, Moyamba and Koinadugu (all p 20 years (2.5% than in people ≤ 20 years (1.7% (p = 0.043. The overall arithmetic mean mf density was 50.30 mf/ml among mf-positive individuals and 1.19 mf/ml in the population examined which varied significantly between districts. Conclusions The ICT results showed that LF was endemic nationwide and that preventive chemotherapy (PCT was justified across the country. Both the ICT and microfilaraemia surveys found that prevalence was greater in males than females

  8. Preparation and testing of corrosion and spallation-resistant coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, John

    2012-09-30

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is designed to determine if plating APMT, a specific highly oxidation-resistant oxide dispersion-strengthened FeCrAl alloy made by Kanthal, onto nickel-based superalloy turbine parts is a viable method for substantially improving the lifetimes and maximum use temperatures of the parts. The method for joining the APMT plate to the superalloys is called evaporative metal bonding. It involves placing a thin foil of zinc (Zn) between the plate and the superalloy, clamping them together, and heating in an atmosphere-controlled furnace. Upon heating, the Zn melts and dissolves the oxide skins of the alloys at the bond line, allowing the two alloys to diffuse into each other. The Zn then diffuses through the alloys and evaporates from their surfaces. Laboratory testing has shown that the diffusion rate of Zn through the FeCrAl alloy is much faster than through the nickel superalloys. This means that the FeCrAl will serve as a sink for the Zn bonding alloy during the evaporative metal bonding process. Also, the testing has shown that the Zn diffusion mechanism is bulk diffusion, and not intergranular. This is a surprise. However, it means that quantification of the Zn diffusivities in these samples will be significantly simpler than would have been the case if grain boundary diffusion dominated. In addition to the laboratory testing, gas impinger and particulate samples are being collected from a combustor firing syngas and natural gas to determine what types of microcontaminants may reach a turbine firing syngas. The syngas is created in one of two different pilot-scale pressurized coal gasifiers. The initial analysis of the impinger solutions was for standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 29 determination of hazardous metals and did not include major element analysis. When syngas is fired, the amount of Mn in the combustor gas increases substantially. Halogens (Br2 and Cl2) and hydrogen

  9. Electrical resistivity testing for as-built concrete performance assessment of chloride penetration resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The electrical resistivity of concrete can provide information about its transport properties, which is relevant for durability performance. For example, resistivity is inversely proportional to chloride diffusion, at least within similar concrete compositions. A methodology is proposed for on-site

  10. Surface resistivity test evaluation as an indicator of the chloride permeability of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Many agencies have adopted the standard tests for electrical : indication of concretes ability to resist chloride ion penetration : (AASHTO T 277 and ASTM C1202), commonly known as the rapid : chloride permeability test (RCPT), in their specificat...

  11. 30 CFR 27.41 - Test to determine resistance to moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test to determine resistance to moisture. 27.41... determine resistance to moisture. Components, subassemblies, or assemblies, the normal functioning of which might be affected by moisture, shall be tested in atmospheres of high relative humidity (80 percent or...

  12. The case for testing memory with both stories and word lists prior to dbs surgery for Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B; Bowers, Dawn; Price, Catherine C; Bauer, Russell M; Nisenzon, Anne; Foote, Kelly D; Okun, Michael S

    2011-04-01

    Patients seeking deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery for Parkinson's disease (PD) typically undergo neuropsychological assessment to determine candidacy for surgery, with poor memory performance interpreted as a contraindication. Patients with PD may exhibit worse memory for word lists than for stories due to the lack of inherent organization in a list of unrelated words. Unfortunately, word list and story tasks are typically developed from different normative datasets, and the existence of a memory performance discrepancy in PD has been challenged. We compared recall of stories and word lists in 35 non-demented PD candidates for DBS. We administered commonly used neuropsychological measures of word list and story memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Logical Memory), along with a second word list task that was co-normed with the story task. Age-corrected scores were higher for the story task than for both word list tasks. Compared to story recall, word list recall correlated more consistently with motor severity and composite measures of processing speed, working memory, and executive functioning. These results support the classic view of fronto-subcortical contributions to memory in PD and suggest that executive deficits may influence word list recall more than story recall. We recommend a multi-componential memory battery in the neuropsychological assessment of DBS candidates to characterize both mesial temporal and frontal-executive memory processes. One should not rely solely on a word list task because patients exhibiting poor memory for word lists may perform better with stories and therefore deserve an interdisciplinary discussion for DBS surgery.

  13. PREPARATION AND TESTING OF CORROSIONAND SPALLATION-RESISTANT COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, John

    2014-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is designed to determine if plating APMT®, a specific highly oxidation-resistant oxide dispersion-strengthened FeCrAl alloy made by Kanthal, onto nickel-based superalloy turbine parts is a viable method for substantially improving the lifetimes and maximum use temperatures of the parts. The method for joining the APMT plate to the superalloys is called evaporative metal bonding and involves placing a thin foil of zinc (Zn) between the plate and the superalloy, clamping them together, and heating in an atmosphere-controlled furnace. Upon heating, the Zn melts and dissolves the oxide skins of the alloys at the bond line, allowing the two alloys to diffuse into each other. The Zn then diffuses through the alloys and evaporates from their surfaces. Laboratory testing to determine the diffusion rate of Zn through the alloys has been completed. However, an analytical solution does not exist to model the diffusion of zinc through the alloys. For this reason, a finite difference algorithm using MATLAB was developed. It makes use of the hopscotch algorithm. The model allows the user to specify the dimensions of the metal parts, the Zn concentration at the bondline, the mesh size, time step, and Zn diffusivity. The experimentally measured values of diffusivity for Zn in APMT and Rene 80/CM 247LC are approximately 2.7 × 10-12 and 4 × 10-14 m2/s, respectively. While the qualitative behavior of the model appears correct, a comparison of the diffusion predictions with the experimental results from earlier in the project indicates that the expected Zn concentration is significantly higher than that measured experimentally. The difference depends on the assumed initial concentration, which is difficult to quantify exactly under experimental conditions for t = 0. In addition to the diffusion work, the coefficients of thermal expansions were determined for each of the alloys as a function of temperature. This information

  14. Testing and Modeling of Contact Problems in Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng

    As a part of the efforts towards a professional and reliable numerical tool for resistance welding engineers, this Ph.D. project is dedicated to refining the numerical models related to the interface behavior. An FE algorithm for the contact problems in resistance welding has been developed...... in this work, dealing with the coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal contact problems. The penalty method is used to impose the contact conditions in the electrical and thermal contact, as well as frictionless contact and sticking contact in the mechanical model. A node-segment contact element is the basis...

  15. A combination of electrical resistivity and cone penetration test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conductive unconsolidated clayey soil / peat with the resistivity values 0.9 – 10 Ωm cum CPT values 2 to 4 kg/cm2 experienced along noticeable depressed parts could have contributed to the cracking and differential settlement of the residential buildings in the study area. However, boring via percussion drilling should ...

  16. Testing of disease-resistance of pokeweed antiviral protein gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of pokeweed antiviral protein gene (PAP) into plants was shown to improve plant resistance to several viruses or fungi pathogens with no much negative effect on plant growth. The non-virulent defective PAP inhibits only the virus but does not interfere with the host. A non-virulent defective PAP gene ...

  17. Direct measurement of graphene contact resistivity to pre-deposited metal in buried contact test structure

    KAUST Repository

    Qaisi, Ramy M.

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate a buried contact based novel test structure for direct contact resistivity measurement of graphene-metal interfaces. We also observe excellent contact resistivity 1 μO-cm2 without any additional surface modification suggesting that the intrinsic Au-graphene contact is sufficient for achieving devices with low contact resistance. The chemical mechanical polishing less test structure and data described herein highlights an ideal methodology for systematic screening and engineering of graphene-metal contact resistivity to enable low power high speed carbon electronics. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. European recommendations for the clinical use of HIV drug resistance testing: 2011 update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Camacho, Ricardo J; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    is needed after treatment failure. The Panel recommends genotyping in most situations, using updated and clinically evaluated interpretation systems. It is mandatory that laboratories performing HIV resistance tests take part regularly in external quality assurance programs, and that they consider storing......The European HIV Drug Resistance Guidelines Panel, established to make recommendations to clinicians and virologists, felt that sufficient new information has become available to warrant an update of its recommendations, explained in both pocket guidelines and this full paper. The Panel makes...... the following recommendations concerning the indications for resistance testing: for HIV-1 (i) test earliest sample for protease and reverse transcriptase drug resistance in drug-naive patients with acute or chronic infection; (ii) test protease and reverse transcriptase drug resistance at virologic failure...

  19. A novel technique for detecting antibiotic-resistant typhoid from rapid diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Fhogartaigh, Caoimhe; Dance, David A B; Davong, Viengmon; Tann, Pisey; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Turner, Paul; Dittrich, Sabine; Newton, Paul N

    2015-05-01

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant typhoid is increasing. An antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic test (RDT) can rapidly diagnose typhoid from blood cultures. A simple, inexpensive molecular technique performed with DNA from positive RDTs accurately identified gyrA mutations consistent with phenotypic susceptibility testing results. Field diagnosis combined with centralized molecular resistance testing could improve typhoid management and surveillance in low-resource settings. Copyright © 2015, Nic Fhogartaigh et al.

  20. Simple test of synergy between ampicillin and vancomycin for resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1994-01-01

    The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin kills some but not all strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. We compared a simple test for synergy utilizing a commercially available microdilution susceptibility system with time-kill studies and determined acceptable breakpoints for this test for 20 strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin was tested for synergy by time-kill, broth macrodilution, and b...

  1. Debris filtering effectiveness and pressure drop tests of debris resistance-bottom end piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Moon Ki; Song, Chul Hwa; Chung, Heung June; Won, Soon Yeun; Cho, Young Ro; Kim, Bok Deuk

    1992-03-01

    In this final report, described are the test conditions and test procedures for the debris filtering effectiveness and pressure drop tests for developing the Debris Resistance-Bottom End Piece (DR-BEP). And the test results are tabulated for later evaluation. (Author)

  2. Use of observation followed by outpatient stress testing in chest pain patients with prior coronary artery disease history: An evaluation of prognostic utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Yasser; Schwartz, Melvin H; Pandey, Prasant S; Abdul Latif, Maida S; Matsumura, Martin E

    2015-06-01

    To determine the outcomes of patients with chest pain (CP) and prior history of coronary artery disease (CAD) managed with observation followed by outpatient stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Retrospective analysis of patients with CP managed with observation followed by outpatient stress MPI, comparing cardiovascular (CV) event rates stratified by CAD history. 375 patients were included: 111 with and 264 without a CAD history. All patients underwent outpatient stress MPI within 72 h of observation. MPI identified patients at risk for CV events. However, while patients with negative MPI and without a CAD history had very low rates of short- and long-term CAD events (0.8%, 0.8%, and 1.3% at 30 days, 1 year, and 3 years, respectively), event rates of those with a negative test but a CAD history were significantly higher (2.6%, 5.3%, and 6.6% at 30 days, 1 year and 3 years, respectively; p = 0.044 and p = 0.034 compared to CAD- patients at 1 year and 3 years, respectively). In a multivariable logistic regression model, a positive MPI proved to be an independent predictor of long-term CV events in patients with CP and prior CAD. Observation followed by stress MPI can effectively risk stratify CP patients with prior CAD for CV risk. These patients are at increased risk of CV events even after a low-risk stress MPI study. Patients presenting with CP and managed with a strategy of observation followed by a negative stress MPI warrant close short- and long-term monitoring for recurrent events.

  3. Effect of prior foot shock stress and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiolic acid, and cannabidiol on anxiety-like responding in the light-dark emergence test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Erin M; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Petrie, Gavin N; Williams, Lauren A; Mechoulam, Raphael; Parker, Linda A

    2017-07-01

    Cannabis is commonly used by humans to relieve stress. Here, we evaluate the potential of intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabiol (THC) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA, the precursor of cannabidiol [CBD]) to produce dose-dependent effects on anxiety-like responding in the light-dark (LD) emergence test of anxiety-like responding in rats, when administered acutely or chronically (21 days). As well, we evaluate the potential of THC, CBDA, and CBD to reduce anxiogenic responding produced by foot shock (FS) stress 24 h prior to the LD test. In the absence of the explicit FS stressor, THC (1 and 10 mg/kg) produced anxiogenic-like responding when administered acutely or chronically, but CBDA produced neither anxiogenic- nor anxiolytic-like responding. Administration of FS stress 24 h prior to the LD test enhanced anxiogenic-like responding (reduced time spent and increased latency to enter the light compartment) in rats pretreated with either vehicle (VEH) or THC (1 mg/kg); however, administration of CBDA (0.1-100 μg/kg) or CBD (5 mg/kg) prevented the FS-induced anxiogenic-like responding (an anxiolytic-like effect). The 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT 1A ) receptor antagonist, WAY100635, reversed CBDA's anxiolytic effect (1 μg/kg). Combining an anxiolytic dose of CBDA (1 μg/kg) or CBD (5 mg/kg) with an anxiogenic dose of THC (1 mg/kg) did not modify THC's anxiogenic effect. These results suggest the anxiolytic effects of CBDA and CBD may require the presence of a specific stressor.

  4. Activated protein C resistance testing for factor V Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadauke, Stephan; Khor, Bernard; Van Cott, Elizabeth M

    2014-12-01

    Activated protein C resistance assays can detect factor V Leiden with high accuracy, depending on the method used. Factor Xa inhibitors such as rivaroxaban and direct thrombin inhibitors including dabigatran, argatroban, and bivalirudin can cause falsely normal results. Lupus anticoagulants can cause incorrect results in most current assays. Assays that include dilution into factor V-deficient plasma are needed to avoid interference from factor deficiencies or elevations, which can arise from a wide variety of conditions such as warfarin, liver dysfunction, or pregnancy. The pros and cons of the currently available assays are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is Prevalent in Women With Prior Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Independently Associated With Insulin Resistance and Waist Circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Andreasen, Camilla; Vedtofte, Louise

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is a potentially reversible condition but is also associated with progressive fibrosis and cirrhosis. Women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) have a higher risk for NAFLD. RESEARCH DESIGN...

  6. Automated sequence analysis and editing software for HIV drug resistance testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struck, Daniel; Wallis, Carole L.; Denisov, Gennady; Lambert, Christine; Servais, Jean-Yves; Viana, Raquel V.; Letsoalo, Esrom; Bronze, Michelle; Aitken, Sue C.; Schuurman, Rob; Stevens, Wendy; Schmit, Jean Claude; Rinke de Wit, Tobias; Perez Bercoff, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Access to antiretroviral treatment in resource-limited-settings is inevitably paralleled by the emergence of HIV drug resistance. Monitoring treatment efficacy and HIV drugs resistance testing are therefore of increasing importance in resource-limited settings. Yet low-cost technologies

  7. From the lab - Testing Malaria-Resistant Mosquitoes | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Malaria-Resistant Mosquitoes Follow us Photo: AdobeStock Testing Malaria-Resistant Mosquitoes Malaria is a serious disease that affects 200 million ... is found in tropical areas of the world. Malaria kills thousands of people (more than 400,000 ...

  8. Genotypic resistance test in proviral DNA can identify resistance mutations never detected in historical genotypic test in patients with low level or undetectable HIV-RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccarelli, Mauro; Santoro, Maria Mercedes; Armenia, Daniele; Borghi, Vanni; Gennari, William; Gori, Caterina; Forbici, Federica; Bertoli, Ada; Fabeni, Lavinia; Giannetti, Alberto; Cicalini, Stefania; Bellagamba, Rita; Andreoni, Massimo; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Mussini, Cristina; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Perno, Carlo Federico; Antinori, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Beyond the detection of resistant HIV strains found in plasma samples, archival HIV-DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) might represent a reservoir of additional resistance. To characterize the HIV-1 resistance in PBMCs from patients with suppressed or low-level viremia (50-1000 copies/mL) and evaluate its added value compared to the resistance detected in previous plasma genotypic resistance tests (GRTs). HIV-1 infected patients selected for treatment change despite low/undetectable viremia were tested. Number and type of primary resistance mutations (PRMs) detected in PBMCs were compared to those detected in previous plasma GRTs. Logistic regression assessed factors associated with presence of at least one PRM in PBMCs. 468 patients with a PBMC GRT were analyzed; 149 of them had at least 2 plasma GRTs performed before PBMC genotyping. 42.3% of patients showed at least one PRM in PBMCs. The highest proportion of PRMs in PBMCs was observed for NRTI class (30.6%), followed by NNRTI (22.2%), PI (14.1%) and INI (4.9%). In 20.1% of patients, PRMs were detected only in PBMCs and not in any of the plasma GRT previously performed. By using multivariable analysis, a higher number of previous regimens, injecting drug-use route and a lower nadir CD4 were associated with significantly higher risk of detecting PRMs in PBMCs. Our findings support the usage of PBMC GRT in addition to the current recommended plasma RNA test, especially when therapeutic and/or resistance information is not available. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    carbohydrates. Methane breath tests may supplement the information gained from hydrogen measurements, but further evaluations are needed. The hydrogen breath technique is rapid, simple and non-invasive as well as non-radioactive. It may be carried out in a large number of intact individuals under physiological...... circumstances, and it may be used for studies in children and for field studies. Compared to classical tolerance tests the hydrogen breath test is more sensitive. It is concluded that the hydrogen breath test is a useful tool for investigations of dietary carbohydrates....

  10. Radiation resistance testing of high-density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Adams, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical tests following gamma inrradiation and creep tests during irradiation have been conducted on high-density polyethylene (HDPE) to assess the adequacy of this material for use in high-integrity containers (HICs). These tests were motivated by experience in nuclear power plants in which polyethylene electrical insulation detoriorated more rapidly than expected due to radiation-induced oxidation. This suggested that HDPE HICs used for radwaste disposal might degrade more rapidly than would be expected in the absence of the radiation field. Two types of HDPE, a highly cross-linked rotationally molded material and a non-cross-linked blow molded material, were used in these tests. Gamma-ray irradiations were performed at several dose rates in environments of air, Barnwell and Hanford backfill soils, and ion-exchange resins. The results of tensile and bend testing on these materials following irradiation will be presented along with preliminary results on creep during irradiation

  11. The role of drug susceptibility testing in controlling drug resistant tuberculosis: Challenges and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Hoffner

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Reliable and timely detection of drug-resistant TB is needed, which is best achieved with molecular assays. In this author's opinion, rapid detection of resistance to isoniazid should be included with rifampicin resistance examination. In MDR, timely detection of the XDR defining agents and PZA is urgently needed. Development and validation of such tests should be a priority, as well as establishing QMS for the implementation and routine use of molecular rapid diagnostics. Each country should develop national diagnostic algorithms for how, when and where rapid molecular assays should be used for early detection of drug-resistant TB.

  12. KSC lubricant testing program. [lubrication characteristics and corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, B. J.; Bryan, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    A program was conducted to evaluate the performance of various lubricants in use and considered for use at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The overall objectives of the program were to: (1) determine the lubrication characteristics and relative corrosion resistance of lubricants in use and proposed for use at KSC; (2) identify materials which may be equivalent to or better than KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC greases; and (3) identify or develop an improved lubricating oil suitable for use in liquid oxygen (LOX) pumps at KSC. It was concluded that: (1) earth gel thickened greases are very poor corrosion preventive materials in the KSC environment; (2) Halocarbon 25-5S and Braycote 656 were suitable substiutes for KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC respectively; and (3) none of the oils evaluated possessed the necessary inertness, lubricity, and corrosion prevention characteristics for the KSC LOX pumping systems in their present configuration.

  13. Single-shell tank riser resistance to ground test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiewert, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    This Test Procedure provides the general directions for conducting Single-Shell Tank Riser to Earth Measurements which will be used by engineering as a step towards providing closure for the Lightning Hazard Issue

  14. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 178 - Thermal Resistance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must be 1/16 inch, ceramic packed, metal sheathed, type K (Chromel-Alumel), grounded junction with a... regarding the behavior of the test specimen during exposure, such as smoke production, delamination, resin...

  15. Polymyxins: Antibacterial Activity, Susceptibility Testing, and Resistance Mechanisms Encoded by Plasmids or Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirel, Laurent; Jayol, Aurélie; Nordmann, Patrice

    2017-04-01

    SUMMARYPolymyxins are well-established antibiotics that have recently regained significant interest as a consequence of the increasing incidence of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Colistin and polymyxin B are being seriously reconsidered as last-resort antibiotics in many areas where multidrug resistance is observed in clinical medicine. In parallel, the heavy use of polymyxins in veterinary medicine is currently being reconsidered due to increased reports of polymyxin-resistant bacteria. Susceptibility testing is challenging with polymyxins, and currently available techniques are presented here. Genotypic and phenotypic methods that provide relevant information for diagnostic laboratories are presented. This review also presents recent works in relation to recently identified mechanisms of polymyxin resistance, including chromosomally encoded resistance traits as well as the recently identified plasmid-encoded polymyxin resistance determinant MCR-1. Epidemiological features summarizing the current knowledge in that field are presented. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Assembly and tests of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) for the CMS barrel detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Gabriella Pugliese, Bari

    2006-01-01

    The pictures 1-3 show some assembly steps of Resistive Plate Chambers in Bari and their tests with cosmic rays (4-6: moving RPC to the test towers; 7-8 cosmic tests). Pictures 9-10 show assembly and tests in Sofia, 11 shows RPC coupling with drift tubes at ISR and 12-13 tests at the CMS site at CERN.

  17. Optimal Resistive Forces for Maximizing the Reliability of Leg Muscles' Capacities Tested on a Cycle Ergometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Torrejón, Alejandro; Morales-Artacho, Antonio J; Pérez-Castilla, Alejandro; Jaric, Slobodan

    2018-02-01

    This study determined the optimal resistive forces for testing muscle capacities through the standard cycle ergometer test (1 resistive force applied) and a recently developed 2-point method (2 resistive forces used for force-velocity modelling). Twenty-six men were tested twice on maximal sprints performed on a leg cycle ergometer against 5 flywheel resistive forces (R1-R5). The reliability of the cadence and maximum power measured against the 5 individual resistive forces, as well as the reliability of the force-velocity relationship parameters obtained from the selected 2-point methods (R1-R2, R1-R3, R1-R4, and R1-R5), were compared. The reliability of outcomes obtained from individual resistive forces was high except for R5. As a consequence, the combination of R1 (≈175 rpm) and R4 (≈110 rpm) provided the most reliable 2-point method (CV: 1.46%-4.04%; ICC: 0.89-0.96). Although the reliability of power capacity was similar for the R1-R4 2-point method (CV: 3.18%; ICC: 0.96) and the standard test (CV: 3.31%; ICC: 0.95), the 2-point method should be recommended because it also reveals maximum force and velocity capacities. Finally, we conclude that the 2-point method in cycling should be based on 2 distant resistive forces, but avoiding cadences below 110 rpm.

  18. Resistance exercise-induced S6K1 kinase activity is not inhibited in human skeletal muscle despite prior activation of AMPK by high-intensity interval cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apró, William; Moberg, Marcus; Hamilton, D. Lee

    2015-01-01

    was not observed following R exercise only. In conclusion, cycling-induced elevation in AMPK activity does not inhibit mTOR complex 1 signaling after subsequent resistance exercise but may instead interfere with the hypertrophic response by influencing key components in protein breakdown....

  19. Predictive Value of Prior Colonization and Antibiotic Use for Third-Generation Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Bacteremia in Patients With Sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottier, Wouter C.; Bamberg, Yara R. P.; Dorigo-Zetsma, J. Wendelien; van der Linden, Paul D.; Ammerlaan, Heidi S. M.; Bonten, Marc J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. To prevent inappropriate empiric antibiotic treatment in patients with bacteremia caused by third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GC-R EB), Dutch guidelines recommend beta-lactam and aminoglycoside combination therapy or carbapenem monotherapy in patients

  20. Prior data for non-normal priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Sander

    2007-08-30

    Data augmentation priors facilitate contextual evaluation of prior distributions and the generation of Bayesian outputs from frequentist software. Previous papers have presented approximate Bayesian methods using 2x2 tables of 'prior data' to represent lognormal relative-risk priors in stratified and regression analyses. The present paper describes extensions that use the tables to represent generalized-F prior distributions for relative risks, which subsume lognormal priors as a limiting case. The method provides a means to increase tail-weight or skew the prior distribution for the log relative risk away from normality, while retaining the simple 2x2 table form of the prior data. When prior normality is preferred, it also provides a more accurate lognormal relative-risk prior in for the 2x2 table format. For more compact representation in regression analyses, the prior data can be compressed into a single data record. The method is illustrated with historical data from a study of electronic foetal monitoring and neonatal death.

  1. Shifts in frog size and phenology: Testing predictions of climate change on a widespread anuran using data from prior to rapid climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Jennifer A; Caruso, Nicholas M; Apodaca, Joseph J; Rissler, Leslie J

    2018-01-01

    Changes in body size and breeding phenology have been identified as two major ecological consequences of climate change, yet it remains unclear whether climate acts directly or indirectly on these variables. To better understand the relationship between climate and ecological changes, it is necessary to determine environmental predictors of both size and phenology using data from prior to the onset of rapid climate warming, and then to examine spatially explicit changes in climate, size, and phenology, not just general spatial and temporal trends. We used 100 years of natural history collection data for the wood frog, Lithobates sylvaticus with a range >9 million km 2 , and spatially explicit environmental data to determine the best predictors of size and phenology prior to rapid climate warming (1901-1960). We then tested how closely size and phenology changes predicted by those environmental variables reflected actual changes from 1961 to 2000. Size, phenology, and climate all changed as expected (smaller, earlier, and warmer, respectively) at broad spatial scales across the entire study range. However, while spatially explicit changes in climate variables accurately predicted changes in phenology, they did not accurately predict size changes during recent climate change (1961-2000), contrary to expectations from numerous recent studies. Our results suggest that changes in climate are directly linked to observed phenological shifts. However, the mechanisms driving observed body size changes are yet to be determined, given the less straightforward relationship between size and climate factors examined in this study. We recommend that caution be used in "space-for-time" studies where measures of a species' traits at lower latitudes or elevations are considered representative of those under future projected climate conditions. Future studies should aim to determine mechanisms driving trends in phenology and body size, as well as the impact of climate on population

  2. ESBL Detection: Comparison of a Commercially Available Chromogenic Test for Third Generation Cephalosporine Resistance and Automated Susceptibility Testing in Enterobactericeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ramadan El-Jade

    Full Text Available Rapid detection and reporting of third generation cephalosporine resistance (3GC-R and of extended spectrum betalactamases in Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E is a diagnostic and therapeutic priority to avoid inefficacy of the initial antibiotic regimen. In this study we evaluated a commercially available chromogenic screen for 3GC-R as a predictive and/or confirmatory test for ESBL and AmpC activity in clinical and veterinary Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The test was highly reliable in the prediction of cefotaxime and cefpodoxime resistance, but there was no correlation with ceftazidime and piperacillin/tazobactam minimal inhibitory concentrations. All human and porcine ESBL-E tested were detected with exception of one genetically positive but phenotypically negative isolate. By contrast, AmpC detection rates lay below 30%. Notably, exclusion of piperacillin/tazobactam resistant, 3GC susceptible K1+ Klebsiella isolates increased the sensitivity and specificity of the test for ESBL detection. Our data further imply that in regions with low prevalence of AmpC and K1 positive E. coli strains chromogenic testing for 3GC-R can substitute for more time consuming ESBL confirmative testing in E. coli isolates tested positive by Phoenix or VITEK2 ESBL screen. We, therefore, suggest a diagnostic algorithm that distinguishes 3GC-R screening from primary culture and species-dependent confirmatory ESBL testing by βLACTATM and discuss the implications of MIC distribution results on the choice of antibiotic regimen.

  3. Testing of thermal fatigue resistance of tools and rolls for hot working

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terčelj, Milan; Fazarinc, Matevž; Kugler, Goran

    2017-09-01

    In the present contribution two tests for thermal fatigue testing, which have been developed in our group, are presented. First test has provided internal cooling system of sample, while second has external cooling. For both tests heating and cooling of samples are computer guided that enables very reliable results of testing. The first test is more appropriate for testing the base material, i.e. roll cast irons, roll steels, tool steels. The second test is more appropriate for experiments that are aimed for selection of appropriate tool surface treatment, i.e. laser cladding, nitriding, coating, etc., and to compare and to achieve improved resistance against thermal fatigue of produced surface layers.

  4. European recommendations for the clinical use of HIV drug resistance testing: 2011 update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Camacho, Ricardo J; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    is needed after treatment failure. The Panel recommends genotyping in most situations, using updated and clinically evaluated interpretation systems. It is mandatory that laboratories performing HIV resistance tests take part regularly in external quality assurance programs, and that they consider storing...... samples in situations where resistance testing cannot be performed as recommended. Similarly, it is necessary that HIV clinicians and virologists take part in continuous education and discuss problematic clinical cases. Indeed, resistance test results should be used in the context of all other clinically......The European HIV Drug Resistance Guidelines Panel, established to make recommendations to clinicians and virologists, felt that sufficient new information has become available to warrant an update of its recommendations, explained in both pocket guidelines and this full paper. The Panel makes...

  5. Rapid Aminoglycoside NP Test for Rapid Detection of Multiple Aminoglycoside Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Patrice; Jayol, Aurélie; Dobias, Jan; Poirel, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    The rapid aminoglycoside NP (Nordmann/Poirel) test was developed to rapidly identify multiple aminoglycoside (AG) resistance in Enterobacteriaceae It is based on the detection of the glucose metabolism related to enterobacterial growth in the presence of a defined concentration of amikacin plus gentamicin. Formation of acid metabolites was evidenced by a color change (orange to yellow) of the red phenol pH indicator. The rapid aminoglycoside NP test was evaluated by using bacterial colonies of 18 AG-resistant isolates producing 16S rRNA methylases, 20 AG-resistant isolates expressing AG-modifying enzymes (acetyl-, adenyl-, and phosphotransferases), and 10 isolates susceptible to AG. Its sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 97%, respectively, compared to the broth dilution method, which was taken as the gold standard for determining aminoglycoside resistance. The test is inexpensive, rapid (<2 h), and implementable worldwide. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Development of a Midscale Test for Flame Resistant Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT...Decisions Made During Test Form Development ................................................................ 5 2.3 Use of Copper Slug Sensors from...of precision in controlling heat flux exposure times and different methods of calculating burn injury predictions. Variations in sensor type and

  7. Frequency of powdery mildew resistances in winter barley cultivars tested in domestic variety trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonín Dreiseitl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006–2010, resistance to the powdery mildew pathogen was studied in 225 winter barley cultivars of which 86 two-rowed and 139 six-rowed. The examined set included 59 cultivars tested in the official variety trials and 166 cultivars in variety trials conducted by domestic breeding stations in that period. Thirteen known resistances were identified (Ar, Bw, Dr2, Ha, HH, IM9, La, Ly, Ra, Ru, Sp, St and We. No resistance was found in one cultivar only. The most frequent resistance was Ra detected in 114 cultivars (= 50.7%. The resistance Bw was found in 54 cultivars (24.0%. Resistances typical for spring barley cultivars (Ly, Sp, Ru and We were also frequent (4.0% to 23.6%. Unknown resistances were found in 20 cultivars, in nine of which they were effective to all used pathotypes of the pathogen. Thirty-six cultivars (16.0% exhibited heterogeneity in the examined trait, i.e. they were mostly composed of lines with different resistances. Research on cultivars possessing unknown resistances continues.

  8. Improving the proliferation resistance of research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Elimination, or substantial reduction, of the trade in unirradiated highly-enriched fuel elements for research and test reactors would significantly reduce the proliferation risk associated with the current potential for diversion of these materials. To this end, it is the long-term goal of U.S. policy to fuel all new and existing research and test reactors with uranium of less-than-20% enrichment (but substantially greater than natural) excepting, perhaps, only a small number of high-power, high-performance, reactors. The U.S. development program for enrichment reduction in research and test reactor designs currently using 90-93% enriched uranium is based on the practical criterion that enrichment reduction should not cause significant flux performance (flux per unit power) or burnup performance degradation relative to the unmodified reactor design. To first order, this implies the requirement that the 235 U loading in the reduced-enrichment fuel elements be the same as the 235 U loading in the 90-93% enriched fuel elements. This can be accomplished by substitution of higher uranium density fuel technology for currently-used fuel technology in the fuel meat volume of the current fuel element design and/or by increasing the usable fuel meat volume. For research and test reactors of power greater than 5-10 megawatts, fuel technology does not currently exist that would permit enrichment reductions to below 20% utilizing this criterion. A program is now beginning in the U.S. to develop the necessary fuel technology. Currently-proven fuel technology is capable, however, of accommodating enrichment reductions to the 30-45% range (from 90-93%) for many reactors in the 5-50MW range. Accordingly the U.S. is proposing to convert existing reactors (and new designs) in the 5-50MW range from the use of highly-enriched fuel to the use of 30-45% enriched fuel, and reactors of less that about 5MW to less-than-20% enrichment, wherever this can be done without significant

  9. Detection of genotypic clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori by string tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jeng-Yih; Wang, Sophie S W; Lee, Yi-Chern; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Graham, David Y; Jan, Chang-Ming; Wang, Wen-Ming; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2014-03-28

    To evaluate the utility of the string test to detect genotypic clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Patients undergoing endoscopic examinations were enrolled in the present study. String tests were done on the next day of endoscopy. Segments of 23S rRNA were amplified from DNA obtained from string tests. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was accomplished by restriction enzymes BbsI and BsaI recognizing the mutation site A to G at 2143 or at 2142 of 23S rRNA domain V, respectively. One hundred and thirty-four patients with H. pylori infection underwent string tests. To compare phenotypic resistance, 43 isolates were successfully cultured in 79 patients in whom 23S rRNA was successfully amplified. Of five patients with clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori, 23S rRNA of H. pylori isolates from four patients could be digested by BsaI. In 38 susceptible isolates, 23S rRNA of H. pylori isolates from 36 patients could not be digested by either BsaI or BbsI. The sensitivity and specificity of the string test to detect genotypic clarithromycin resistance were 66.7% and 97.3%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 80% and 94.7%, respectively. String test with molecular analysis is a less invasive method to detect genotypic resistance before treatment. Further large-scale investigations are necessary to confirm our results.

  10. Genotypic responses and diallel analysis for an early resistance test to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaño Fernando

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of sunflower genotypic performance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infections is important for understanding its usefulness as source of resistance. In the field, artificial and natural resistance tests provide important information that can be used in the selection of the best materials, however the procedures for resistance tests are usually both expensive and laborious. This work describes the performance of sunflower genotypes of broad genetic base at an early stage of plant development using a resistance test carried out under controlled conditions in the greenhouse. Statistical analysis detected highly significant genotypic responses and the combined abilities effects among the evaluated populations and their offspring, obtained by a diallel crossing system method 2 for dead seedlings (% at 25 days after S. sclerotiorum infection on the basal stem. The methodology allowed superior parents to be detected and crosses to be furthered in the selection for S. sclerotiorum resistance. The usefulness of the evaluated genetic materials and the early resistance test in sunflower breeding plans is discussed.

  11. In vitro Resistance Testing of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Tannerella forsythia to Triclosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Deema; Tanner, Anne

    2016-04-01

    To determine the sensitivity of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Tannerella forsythia to triclosan, and determine if these bacteria develop resistance to triclosan upon prolonged exposure. Susceptibility to triclosan was tested against three periodontal pathogens P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, and T. forsythia. Escherichia coli strains sensitive and resistant to triclosan were used as biological controls to confirm the efficacy of triclosan in the assays. Agar plates were prepared locally with vitamin K and hemin-supplemented medium. Porphyromonas gingivalis and P. intermedia did not grow on plates containing ≥ 2 μg/ml triclosan, while T. forsythia did not grow on ≥ 1.66 μg/ml. Colonies of P. intermedia resistant to triclosan developed after prolonged incubation at 2 μg/ml, but this resistance disappeared during subculture in the absence of triclosan. No significant resistance to triclosan was detected for these species. Dental products containing triclosan can be beneficial in controlling periodontal disease.

  12. Why testes are resistant to hydatidosis: Is blood-testis-barrier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was demonstrable hydatid cyst (protoscoleces and germinative layer) in testes of five rabbits from Group A, but in one rabbit, both testes were normal. In Group B, three out of four rabbits developed peritoneal hydatidosis. The mechanism of testicular resistance to echinococcosis could be due to blood-testis barrier ...

  13. Application of laboratory fungal resistance tests to solid wood and wood-plastic composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Merrill Clemons; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2003-01-01

    The fungal resistance of high density polyethylene filled with 50% wood flour was investigated using laboratory soil block tests. Modifications to standard test methods were made to increase initial moisture content, increase exposure surface area, and track moisture content, mechanical properties, and weight loss over the exposure period. Mechanical properties...

  14. Test methodology for elemental sulfur resistant advanced materials for oil and gas field equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, G. [Verein Deutscher Eisenhuettenleute, Duesseldorf (Germany); Bruckhoff, W. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Koehler, M. [Krupp-VDM AG, Werdohl (Germany); Schlerkmann, H. [Mannesmann Forschungsinstitut, Duisburg (Germany); Schmitt, G. [Iserlohn Polytechnic (Germany). Lab. for Corrosion Protection

    1995-10-01

    The great variety of methodologies for testing the performance of advanced materials for resistance to elemental sulfur in oil and gas industry prompted the Technical Committee for Corrosion of the German Iron and Steel Institute (VDEh) to define recommended test procedures. These procedures have already found wide acceptance in the German materials and oil and gas industry.

  15. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist..., hood, or helmet of a dust, fume, or mist respirator mounted on a test fixture with air flowing at a...

  16. Antibiotic Resistant Pattern of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Based on Molecular Tests in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannarath, Sengdao; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Rasachak, Bouachanh; Mairiang, Pisaln; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Mahachai, Varocha

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of standard treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is declining because of antibiotic resistance. Clarithromycin resistance is also increasing in many Asian countries. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of H. pylori infection and clinical association in Laos. A total of 329 Lao dyspeptic patients who underwent gastroscopy at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos during December 2010-March 2012 were enrolled in this study. During gastroscopy, 4 biopsies were collected (2 each from the antrum and body) for CLO-test and histopathology. Only the positive CLO-test gastric tissues was stored at -80° in a freezer until DNA was extracted and a GenoType®HelicoDR test was conducted for detecting mutations in the rrl gene encoding 23S rRNA (clarithromycin resistance) and mutations in gyrA gene (fluoroquinolone resistance) . Of the total, 119 Lao patients (36.2%) were infected with H. pylori including 59 males (49.6%) and 60 females (50.4%) with a mean age of 46 years. Clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance of H. pylori infection was demonstrated in 15 (12.6%) and 16 strains (13.4%) respectively. In clarithromycin resistance, the number of patients who had education above primary school and BMI≥ 25 kg/m2 were significantly higher than those who had education below primary school and BMILao was significantly higher than those of non- lowland (highland and midland) Lao ethnic groups (16.7% vs 0%, P-value= 0.039). H. pylori infections remain common in Laos. Clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance with H. pylori infection are growing problems. Education above primary school and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 might be predictors for clarithromycin resistance and lowland Lao ethnicity might be predictors for fluoroquinolone resistance with H. pylori infection in Laos.

  17. Successful use of broth microdilution in susceptibility tests for methicillin-resistant (heteroresistant) staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornsberry, C; McDougal, L K

    1983-01-01

    We studied the broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing procedure to see whether it could be made reliable for determining resistance of staphylococci to methicillin, oxacillin, nafcillin, and cephalothin. With 45 selected strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 12 selected strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis we found that the addition of 2% NaCl to cation-supplemented Mueller-Hinton broth permitted us to discriminate reliably between resistant and susceptible organisms. A screening test in which resistant staphylococci grew on agar containing 4% NaCl and methicillin (10 micrograms/ml), oxacillin (6 micrograms/ml), or nafcillin (6 micrograms/ml) incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h (additional 24 h if no growth) was also reliable. In vitro cephalothin resistance occurred in heteroresistant S. aureus but usually did not occur in heteroresistant S. epidermidis. PMID:6643661

  18. Application of column tests and electrical resistivity methods for leachate transport monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wychowaniak Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of the human civilization leads to the pollution of environment. One of the contamination which are a real threat to soil and groundwater are leachates from landfills. In this paper the solute transport through soil was considered. For this purpose, the laboratory column tests of chlorides tracer and leachates transport on two soil samples have been carried out. Furthermore, the electrical resistivity method was applied as auxiliary tool to follow the movements of solute through the soil column what allowed to compare between the results obtained with column test method and electrical resistivity measurements. Breakthrough curves obtained by conductivity and resistivity methods represents similar trends which leads to the conclusion about the suitability of electrical resistivity methods for contamination transport monitoring in soil-water systems.

  19. Exploring the Benefits of Molecular Testing for Gonorrhoea Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance in Remote Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben B Hui

    Full Text Available Surveillance for gonorrhoea antimicrobial resistance (AMR is compromised by a move away from culture-based testing in favour of more convenient nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT tests. We assessed the potential benefit of a molecular resistance test in terms of the timeliness of detection of gonorrhoea AMR.An individual-based mathematical model was developed to describe the transmission of gonorrhoea in a remote Indigenous population in Australia. We estimated the impact of the molecular test on the time delay between first importation and the first confirmation that the prevalence of gonorrhoea AMR (resistance proportion has breached the WHO-recommended 5% threshold (when a change in antibiotic should occur. In the remote setting evaluated in this study, the model predicts that when culture is the only available means of testing for AMR, the breach will only be detected when the actual prevalence of AMR in the population has already reached 8 - 18%, with an associated delay of ~43 - 69 months between first importation and detection. With the addition of a molecular resistance test, the number of samples for which AMR can be determined increases facilitating earlier detection at a lower resistance proportion. For the best case scenario, where AMR can be determined for all diagnostic samples, the alert would be triggered at least 8 months earlier than using culture alone and the resistance proportion will have only slightly exceeded the 5% notification threshold.Molecular tests have the potential to provide more timely warning of the emergence of gonorrhoea AMR. This in turn will facilitate earlier treatment switching and more targeted treatment, which has the potential to reduce the population impact of gonorrhoea AMR.

  20. Field Test Evaluation of Effect on Cone Resistance Caused by Change in Penetration Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents how a change in cone penetration rate affects the measured cone resistance during cone penetration testing in silty soils. Regardless of soil, type the standard rate of penetration is 20 mm/s and it is generally accepted that undrained penetration occurs in clay while drained...... in the laboratory. A change in the measured cone resistance occurs by lowering the penetration rate. This is caused by the changes in drainage conditions. Compared to the normal penetration rate of 20 mm/s, this paper illustrates that lowering the penetration rate leads to an increase in the cone resistance from 1...

  1. An investigation of correlation factors linking footing resistance on sand with cone penetration test results

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin, Kenneth; Tolooiyan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Significant research effort has led to improvements in our ability to estimate the ultimate bearing resistance of footings in sand. These techniques often estimate the footing resistance at relatively large displacements, typically 10% of the footing width, qb0.1. Cone Penetration Test (CPT) design methods typically link qb0.1 and qc through a constant reduction factor, a. A range of a factors for shallow footings have been proposed, some methods suggest that a is constant and while ...

  2. Investigation of a slope endangered by rainfall-induced landslides using 3D resistivity tomography and geotechnical testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, S.; Thielen, A.; Springman, S. M.

    2006-10-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides pose a common problem in areas with slopes steeper than the friction angle of the soil. A series of such landslides in North Switzerland inspired a detailed geophysical and geotechnical site investigation prior to a monitoring experiment. High-resolution 2D and 3D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used to derive a detailed subsurface image, which was verified by direct penetration tests, boreholes and laboratory analysis of soil samples with respect to grain size distribution and plasticity. Resolution analysis of ERT configurations proved a combination of Wenner-, Schlumberger- and Dipole-Dipole data to be a reasonable compromise between measurement time and model accuracy. Furthermore, a statistical approach to reducing subjectivity in the interpretation of 3D resistivity models is suggested. Applying this classification scheme to field data yields a model in very good agreement with the geotechnical model. The 3D resistivity model is then interpreted quantitatively using laboratory data and a constitutive relation accounting for clay and silt contents. The dominant influence of saturation on resistivity predicted by this model is confirmed and exemplified during repeated surveys in a dry and a wet period. In wet summer 2004, a silty sand layer of high water saturation is confined between two less permeable layers, the sandstone bedrock below and a clayey sand layer on top. This layer may locally form an aquifer, which becomes rapidly saturated during heavy rainfalls and contributes to the risk of failure. The combined ERT and geotechnical survey helped to optimize the design of the forthcoming monitoring experiment and may be used as a guideline for the investigation of similar slope conditions.

  3. Comparison of Resistance-Based Walking Cardiorespiratory Test to The Bruce Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Christopher P; Bamman, Marcas; Naidu, Avantika; Brown, David A

    2017-12-11

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is assessed through graded exercise tests that determine the maximum amount of sustained mechanical work that an individual can perform while also providing health and fitness related information. This manuscript describes a novel method to perform graded exercise tests that uses posteriorly directed resistive forces. The purpose of this investigation is to validate a novel resistance based test in comparison to a traditional speed and incline based test in a cohort of non-impaired individuals. Twenty non-impaired individuals, 8 males, 12 females, mean age 28.4± 9.6, range 20-54 years old. Participants performed two maximal exercise tests. The speed and incline based test used the Bruce protocol and increased treadmill incline and speed every three minutes. The resistance based test used a robotic device interfaced with the treadmill that provided specified horizontal resistive forces at the center of mass calculated to match each Bruce Protocol stage while individuals walked at 1.1 m/s. Participants obtained ∼3% higher maximum V˙O2 measure using the speed and incline based method (dependent t-test p=0.08). V˙O2 peaks between tests were strongly correlated (r=0.93, ptests. We found a significant linear relationship between mass-specific work rate and measured V˙O2 stage-by-stage for both tests, but no significant difference between each linear fit (p=0.84). These data suggest horizontal resistive forces while walking on a treadmill, can be used to increase aerobic effort in a way that closely simulates work rates of the Bruce Protocol.

  4. Evaluation of the Impact Resistance of Various Composite Sandwich Beams by Vibration Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Shahdin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact resistance of different types of composite sandwich beams is evaluated by studying vibration response changes (natural frequency and damping ratio. This experimental works will help aerospace structural engineer in assess structural integrity using classification of impact resistance of various composite sandwich beams (entangled carbon and glass fibers, honeycomb and foam cores. Low velocity impacts are done below the barely visible impact damage (BVID limit in order to detect damage by vibration testing that is hardly visible on the surface. Experimental tests are done using both burst random and sine dwell testing in order to have a better confidence level on the extracted modal parameters. Results show that the entangled sandwich beams have a better resistance against impact as compared to classical core materials.

  5. Usefulness of rapid urease test samples for molecular analysis of clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, María R; Bucci, Pamela; Giani, Rita N; Giusti, Antonela; Tedeschi, Fabian A; Salvatierra, Emiliano; Barbaglia, Yanina; Jimenez, Félix; Zalazar, Fabian E

    2018-03-27

    Helicobacter pylori is a gastric pathogen that is widely recognized as a causative agent of gastric disease. Its eradication is variable, mainly due to increased resistance to clarithromycin. Our objective was: to evaluate (i) if the biopsy specimen used for the rapid urease test is a useful sample to detect resistance to clarithromycin by PCR-RFLP and (ii) the distribution of A2142G and A2143G point mutations in the 23S rRNA gene, in relation to virulence factors in our region. Gastric specimens were collected from adult dyspeptic patients (n=141) and H. pylori was investigated by the rapid urease test, histopathological analysis and PCR for the hsp60 gene. Clarithromycin resistance was detected by PCR-RFLP in 62 H. pylori (+) paired biopsy specimens submitted to molecular analysis and the rapid urease test. H. pylori virulence factors were analyzed by multiplex PCR using specific primers for the cagA, vacA and babA2 genes. Thirteen out of 62 strains (20.9%) were resistant to clarithromycin: 6/13 (46.2%) harbored the A2143G mutation whereas 7/13 (53.8%) carried the A2142G point mutation. vacA m1s1 was the most frequent genotype among the resistant strains. In conclusion, the biopsy specimens used for the rapid urease test were suitable samples for clarithromycin resistance detection in patients infected with H. pylori, which became especially useful in cases where the number or size of the biopsies is limited. In addition, this is the first report of a molecular analysis for clarithromycin resistance performed directly from gastric biopsies in our region. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Irradiation test plan of oxidation-resistant graphite in WWR-K Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Junya; Shibata, Taiju; Sakaba, Nariaki; Osaki, Hirotaka; Kato, Hideki; Fujitsuka, Kunihiro; Muto, Takenori; Gizatulin, Shamil; Shaimerdenov, Asset; Dyussambayev, Daulet; Chakrov, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Graphite materials are used for the in-core components of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) which is a graphite-moderated and helium gas-cooled reactor. In the case of air ingress accident in HTGR, SiO 2 protective layer is formed on the surface of SiC layer in TRISO CFP and oxidation of SiC does not proceed and fission products are retained inside the fuel particle. A new safety concept for the HTGR, called Naturally Safe HTGR, has been recently proposed. To enhance the safety of Naturally Safe HTGR ultimately, it is expected that oxidation-resistant graphite is used for graphite components to prevent the TRISO CFPs and fuel compacts from failure. SiC coating is one of candidate methods for oxidation-resistant graphite. JAEA and four graphite companies launched R&Ds to develop the oxidation-resistant graphite and the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) partner project with JAEA and INP was launched to investigate the irradiation effects on the oxidation-resistant graphite. To determine grades of the oxidation-resistant graphite which will be adopted as irradiation test, a preliminary oxidation test was carried out. This paper described the results of the preliminary oxidation test, the plan of out-of-pile test, irradiation test and post-irradiation test (PIE) of the oxidation-resistant graphite. The results of the preliminary oxidation test showed that the integrity of the oxidation resistant graphite was confirmed and that all of grades used in the preliminary test can be adopted as the irradiation test. Target irradiation temperature was determined to be 1473 (K) and neutron fluence was determined to be from 0.54 × 10 25 through 1.4 × 10 25 (/m 2 , E>0.18MeV). Weight change, oxidation rate, activation energy, surface condition, etc. will be evaluated in out-of-pile test and weight change, irradiation effect on oxidation rate and activation energy, surface condition, etc. will be evaluated in PIE. (author)

  7. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  8. Haptic control of a pneumatic muscle actuator to provide resistance for simulated isokinetic exercise; part II: control development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kara L; Phillips, Chandler A; Reynolds, David B; Mohler, Stanley R; Rogers, Dana B; Neidhard-Doll, Amy T

    2015-01-01

    Pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) have a high power to weight ratio and possess unique characteristics which make them ideal actuators for applications involving human interaction. PMAs are difficult to control due to nonlinear dynamics, presenting challenges in system implementation. Despite these challenges, PMAs have great potential as a source of resistance for strength training and rehabilitation. The objective of this work was to control a PMA for use in isokinetic exercise, potentially benefiting anyone in need of optimal strength training through a joint's range of motion. The controller, based on an inverse three-element phenomenological model and adaptive nonlinear control, allows the system to operate as a type of haptic device. A human quadriceps dynamic simulator was developed (as described in Part I of this work) so that control effectiveness and accommodation could be tested prior to human implementation. Tracking error results indicate that the control system is effective at producing PMA displacement and resistance necessary for a scaled, simulated neuromuscular actuator to maintain low-velocity isokinetic movement during simulated concentric and eccentric knee extension.

  9. HIV genotype resistance testing in antiretroviral (ART) exposed Indian children--a need of the hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ira; Parikh, Shefali

    2013-04-01

    Development of drug resistance in HIV infected children with treatment failure is a major impediment to selection of appropriate therapy. HIV genotype resistance assays predict drug resistance on the basis of mutations in the viral genome. However, their clinical utility, especially in a resource limited setting is still a subject of debate. The authors report two cases in which both the children suffered from treatment failure of various antiretroviral therapy regimes. In both the cases, Genotype Resistance Testing (GRT) prompted a radical change from proposed failure therapy as per existing guidelines. GRT was specifically important for the selection of a new dual Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) component of failure regimen by identifying TAMS and M184V mutations in the HIV genome. These case reports highlight the importance of GRT in children failing multiple antiretroviral regimes; and emphasizes the need to recognize situations where GRT is absolutely essential to guide appropriate therapy, even in a resource limited setting.

  10. Standard test method for determining the crevice repassivation potential of corrosion-resistant alloys using a potentiodynamic-galvanostatic-potentiostatic technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for conducting anodic polarization studies to determine the crevice repassivation potential for corrosion–resistant alloys. The concept of the repassivation potential is similar to that of the protection potential given in Reference Test Method G 5. 1.2 The test method consists in applying successively potentiodynamic, galvanostatic, and potentiostatic treatments for the initial formation and afterward repassivation of crevice corrosion. 1.3 This test method is a complement to Test Method G 61. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Skid resistance and surface roughness testing of historic stone surfaces: advantages and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Ákos

    2013-04-01

    Skid resistance tests are mostly applied for testing road surfaces and almost never applied for testing stones at cultural heritage sites. The present study focuses on the possibilities of using these techniques in assessing the surface roughness of paving stones at a historic site. Two different methods were used in a comparative way to evaluate the surface properties of various types of stones ranging from travertine to non-porous limestone and granite. The applied techniques included the use of SRT pendulum (Skid Resistance Tester) providing USRV values and a mobile equipment to analyze the surface properties (Floor Slide Control) by surface profiling and providing angle of friction. The main aims of tests were to understand the wearing of stone materials due to intense pedestrian use and to detect surface changes/surface roughness and slip resistance within few year periods. The measured loss in surface slip resistance (i.e. USRV values) was in the order of 20% for granites, while most limestones lost at least 40% in terms of USRV values. An opposite trend was detected for a porous travertine type, where the surface became rougher after years of use. The limitations of these techniques are also addressed in the paper. The tests have shown that the introduction of the use of these equipments in heritage studies provide useful information on the longevity of historic stone pavements that are open for public use.

  12. An evaluation of propane as a fuel for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, W. D.; Twilley, W. H.

    1997-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to measure and compare the thermal exposure to a fire-resistant boom from liquid hydrocarbon fuel and propane fires. The objective was to test the potential of propane fueled fires as a fire source for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms.Thermal exposure from propane fires have been measured with and without waves. Results indicated that although propane diffusion flames on water look like liquid hydrocarbon fuel flames and produce very little smoke, the heat flux at the boom location from propane fires is about 60 per cent of that from liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. Despite the attractive features in terms of ease of application, control and smoke emissions, it was concluded that the low heat flux would preclude the application of propane as a fuel for evaluating fire resistant containment booms. 2 refs., 7 figs

  13. Finite element analysis and fracture resistance testing of a new intraradicular post

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eron Toshio Colauto Yamamoto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to evaluate a prefabricated intraradicular threaded pure titanium post, designed and developed at the São José dos Campos School of Dentistry - UNESP, Brazil. This new post was designed to minimize stresses observed with prefabricated post systems and to improve cost-benefits. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fracture resistance testing of the post/core/root complex, fracture analysis by microscopy and stress analysis by the finite element method were used for post evaluation. The following four prefabricated metal post systems were analyzed: group 1, experimental post; group 2, modification of the experimental post; group 3, Flexi Post, and group 4, Para Post. For the analysis of fracture resistance, 40 bovine teeth were randomly assigned to the four groups (n=10 and used for the fabrication of test specimens simulating the situation in the mouth. The test specimens were subjected to compressive strength testing until fracture in an EMIC universal testing machine. After fracture of the test specimens, their roots were sectioned and analyzed by microscopy. For the finite element method, specimens of the fracture resistance test were simulated by computer modeling to determine the stress distribution pattern in the post systems studied. RESULTS: The fracture test presented the following averages and standard deviation: G1 (45.63±8.77, G2 (49.98±7.08, G3 (43.84±5.52, G4 (47.61±7.23. Stress was homogenously distributed along the body of the intraradicular post in group 1, whereas high stress concentrations in certain regions were observed in the other groups. These stress concentrations in the body of the post induced the same stress concentration in root dentin. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental post (original and modified versions presented similar fracture resistance and better results in the stress analysis when compared with the commercial post systems tested (08/2008-PA/CEP.

  14. Development of a test method for determining the cracking susceptibility of resistance spot welded high strength steel sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    In this study a test method for determining the cracking susceptibility of resistance spot welded high strength steel sheets was investigated. The development of a suitable test procedure is based on the External-Loaded Hot Crack Test (PVC-Test). The test modification for resistance spot welding contains a constant tensile force load. The test method for determining the cracking susceptibility was experimentally verified for a high strength steel, a transformation induced plasticity steel (TR...

  15. Assessment of three cuban sites for testing resistance to sugarcane mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaquelin Puchades

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane mosaic disease is amongst the world’s most important diseases affecting sugarcane worldwide. The objective was to assess the environmental conditions of the sites where the test for SCMV resistance is done. Multi-environment trial Data were analyzed using a Principal Components Analysis Eighteen sugarcane genotypes s were evaluated from the main testing sites in Cuba (Jovellanos, Florida, Mayarí . The information of the climatic conditions was recorded at local weather stations. The assessment of the sites was done by analyzing the main components. Results showed that the testing sites were different from one another, and proved that the environment strongly influences on the mosaic symptom manifestation. PCA was an excellent procedure to assess the testing sites .for SCMV resistance.

  16. Simple test of synergy between ampicillin and vancomycin for resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1994-11-01

    The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin kills some but not all strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. We compared a simple test for synergy utilizing a commercially available microdilution susceptibility system with time-kill studies and determined acceptable breakpoints for this test for 20 strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin was tested for synergy by time-kill, broth macrodilution, and broth microdilution procedures. Repeat testing of isolates by macro- and microdilution synergy methods yielded MICs that were within one twofold dilution of each other for both intra- and intertest comparisons. Synergy was always detected by time-kill studies when the MIC of ampicillin in the combination synergy screen was 16 micrograms/ml in the combination microdilution synergy screen. The determination of the synergy by the broth microdilution procedure appears to be simple, convenient, and accurate.

  17. Detection of antibiotic resistance is essential for gonorrhoea point-of-care testing: a mathematical modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerhuth, Stephanie M; Low, Nicola; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Althaus, Christian L

    2017-07-26

    Antibiotic resistance is threatening to make gonorrhoea untreatable. Point-of-care (POC) tests that detect resistance promise individually tailored treatment, but might lead to more treatment and higher levels of resistance. We investigate the impact of POC tests on antibiotic-resistant gonorrhoea. We used data about the prevalence and incidence of gonorrhoea in men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual men and women (HMW) to calibrate a mathematical gonorrhoea transmission model. With this model, we simulated four clinical pathways for the diagnosis and treatment of gonorrhoea: POC test with (POC+R) and without (POC-R) resistance detection, culture and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). We calculated the proportion of resistant infections and cases averted after 5 years, and compared how fast resistant infections spread in the populations. The proportion of resistant infections after 30 years is lowest for POC+R (median MSM: 0.18%, HMW: 0.12%), and increases for culture (MSM: 1.19%, HMW: 0.13%), NAAT (MSM: 100%, HMW: 99.27%), and POC-R (MSM: 100%, HMW: 99.73%). Per 100 000 persons, NAAT leads to 36 366 (median MSM) and 1228 (median HMW) observed cases after 5 years. Compared with NAAT, POC+R averts more cases after 5 years (median MSM: 3353, HMW: 118). POC tests that detect resistance with intermediate sensitivity slow down resistance spread more than NAAT. POC tests with very high sensitivity for the detection of resistance are needed to slow down resistance spread more than by using culture. POC with high sensitivity to detect antibiotic resistance can keep gonorrhoea treatable longer than culture or NAAT. POC tests without reliable resistance detection should not be introduced because they can accelerate the spread of antibiotic-resistant gonorrhoea.

  18. Wildfire ignition resistant home design(WIRHD) program: Full-scale testing and demonstration final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quarles, Stephen, L.; Sindelar, Melissa

    2011-12-13

    The primary goal of the Wildfire ignition resistant home design(WIRHD) program was to develop a home evaluation tool that could assess the ignition potential of a structure subjected to wildfire exposures. This report describes the tests that were conducted, summarizes the results, and discusses the implications of these results with regard to the vulnerabilities to homes and buildings.

  19. Intestinal transport and fermentation of resistant starch evaluated by the hydrogen breath test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    To study fermentability of different samples of resistant starch (RS), compared to one another and to lactulose, and to study the effect on gastric emptying of addition of RS to test meal. Finally to study if adaptation to RS results in a measurable change in fermentation pattern, (H2/CH4...

  20. Effects of Resistance Training on the Sit-and-Reach Test in Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Santarem Jose Maria; Filho, Wilson Jacob; Marucci, Maria de Fatima Nunes

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week resistance training program on older women's flexibility (evaluated through the sit- and-reach test performed before and after the training program). Participants were compared to inactive older women. The training program resulted in significant increases in participants' flexibility, suggesting that weight…

  1. Integration of HIV testing in tuberculosis drug resistance surveillance in Kazakhstan and Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, E.; van den Hof, S.; Tursynbayeva, A.; Kipruto, H.; Wahogo, J.; Pak, S.; Kutwa, A.; L'Herminez, R.

    2012-01-01

    In Kenya and Kazakhstan, integration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing results into the routine surveillance of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) proved feasible and useful. The integration process improved overall data quality and data validation capacity, and integrated data

  2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Cloning Vectors for Antiretroviral Resistance Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Picado, Javier; Sutton, Lorraine; De Pasquale, Maria Pia; Savara, Anu V.; D’Aquila, Richard T.

    1999-01-01

    Better detection of minority human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) populations containing gene mutations may improve the usefulness of antiretroviral resistance testing for clinical management. Molecular cloning of HIV-1 PCR products which might improve minority detection can be slow and difficult, and commercially available recombinant virus assays test drug susceptibility of virus pools. We describe novel plasmids and simple methods for rapid cloning of HIV-1 PCR products from patient...

  3. A multistage testing strategy for detection of quantitative trait Loci affecting disease resistance in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Thomas; Fjalestad, Kjersti T; Munck, Hege; Gomez-Raya, Luis

    2004-01-01

    A multistage testing strategy to detect QTL for resistance to infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon is proposed. First, genotyping of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and a transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) were carried out using dead offspring from a disease resistance challenge test. Second, AFLP genotyping among survivors followed by a Mendelian segregation test was performed. Third, within-family survival analyses using all offspring were developed and applied to significant TDT markers with Mendelian inheritance. Maximum-likelihood methodology was developed for TDT with dominant markers to exploit linkage disequilibrium within families. The strategy was tested with two full-sib families of Atlantic salmon sired by the same male and consisting of 79 offspring in total. All dead offspring from the two families were typed for 64 primer combinations, resulting in 340 scored markers. There were 26 significant results out of 401 TDTs using dead offspring. In the second stage, only 17 marker families showed Mendelian segregation and were tested in survival analysis. A permutation test was performed for all survival analyses to compute experimentwise P-values. Two markers, aaccac356 and agccta150, were significant at P < 0.05 when accounting for multiple testing in the survival analyses. The proposed strategy might be more powerful than current mapping strategies because it reduces the number of tests to be performed in the last testing stage. PMID:15238533

  4. Electrical resistivity monitoring of the thermomechanical heater test in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.; Buettner, M.; LaBrecque, L

    1996-01-01

    A test is being conducted in the densely welded Topopah Springs tuff within Yucca Mountain, Nevada to study the thermomechanical and hydrological behavior of this horizon when it is heated. A single 4 kW heater, placed in a horizontal borehole, was turned on August, 1996 and will continue to heat the rockmass until April 1997. Of the several thermal, mechanical and hydrological measurements being used to monitor the rockmass response, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is being used to monitor the movement of liquid water with a special interest in the movement of condensate out of the system. Four boreholes, containing a total of 30 ERT electrodes, were drilled to form the sides of a 30 foot square with the heater at the center and perpendicular to the plane. Images of resistivity change were calculated using data collected before and during the heating episode. The changes recovered show a region of decreasing resistivity approximately centered around the heater. The size this region grows with time and -the resistivity decreases become stronger. The changes in resistivity are caused by both temperature and saturation changes. The observed resistivity changes suggest that the rock adjacent to the heater dries as heating progresses. This dry region is surrounded by a region of increased saturation where steam recondenses and imbibes into the rock

  5. Electrical resistivity monitoring of the thermomechanical heater test in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.; Buettner, M.

    1997-01-01

    A test is being conducted in the densely welded Topopah Springs tuff within Yucca Mountain, Nevada to study the thermomechanical and hydrological behavior of this horizon when it is headed. A single 4 kW heater, placed in a horizontal borehole, was turned on August, 1996 and will continue to heat the rockmass until April 1997. Of the several thermal, mechanical and hydrological measurements being used to monitor the rockmass response, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is being used to monitor the movement of liquid water with a special interest in the movement of condensate out of the system. Four boreholes, containing a total of 30 ERT electrodes, were drilled to form the sides of a 30 foot square with the heater at the center and perpendicular to the plane. Images of resistivity change were calculated using data collected before and during the heating episode. The changes recovered show a region of decreasing resistivity approximately centered around the heater. The size this region grows with time and the resistivity decreases become stronger. The changes in resistivity are caused by both temperature and saturation changes. The observed resistivity changes suggest that the rock adjacent to the heater dries as heating progresses. This dry region is surrounded by a region of increased saturation where steam recondenses and imbibes into the rock

  6. Electrical resistivity and ultrasonic measurements during sequential fracture test of cementitious composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Veselý

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cracks in cover of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete structures significantly influence the ingress of deleterious species causing decrease in durability of these structures. The paper is focused on the effect of fracture process on two selected physical parameters of concrete – the electrical resistivity and the ultrasonic pulse passing time – which might be employed as the quality indicator of concrete cover within (nondestructive procedure(s of assessment of the structural durability. The concrete electrical resistivity and ultrasonic passing time were investigated here with respect to two variants of treatment of the test specimens’ surface (the pre-dried surface and the wet surface. Test configuration of three-point bending of notched beam was utilized to control the crack propagation; the fracture process passed through several loading–unloading sequences between which the electrical resistivity and ultrasonic passing time readings over the fractured region were performed. Equivalent elastic crack model was used for estimation of the fracture advance (described via the effective crack length at the loading stages corresponding to the resistivity and ultrasonic measurements. Relationships between changes of both the concrete resistivity and ultrasonic pulse passing time and the effective crack length is determined and discussed.

  7. Predictors of having a resistance test following confirmed virological failure of combination antiretroviral therapy: data from EuroSIDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Zoe V; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    Background: Guidelines suggest that patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy for >4 months with current viral load (VL)>1,000 copies/ml should be tested for resistance. There are limited data showing the frequency of resistance testing in routine clinical practice following these recommendat......Background: Guidelines suggest that patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy for >4 months with current viral load (VL)>1,000 copies/ml should be tested for resistance. There are limited data showing the frequency of resistance testing in routine clinical practice following...

  8. Simulant Agent Resistance Test Manikin (SMARTMAN) Testing of Protective Mask Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    miniature , automatic, continuous air-monitoring system, OI Analytical, division of OI Corporation, College Station, Texas); Miniature Infrared...testing be- gins. All hazardous waste generated by the execution of the test plan will be disposed of IAW federal, state, and local rules and...report. Adverse environmental conditioning may include exposure to combi- nations of any or all of the following: ozone , temperature shock, high

  9. Testing the permeability and corrosion resistance of micro-mechanically interlocked joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov-Nielsen, Jeppe; Holm, Allan Hjarbæk; Højsholt, Rune

    2011-01-01

    Micro-mechanical interlocking (MMI) can be applied to create new and interesting composite materials. We have employed laser structuring to achieve MMI between stainless steel and plastic with extremely high joint strength. However, the water permeability and corrosion resistance of the joint must...... be taken in order not to degrade the corrosion resistance of the sample to an unacceptable level....... is conducted. The permeability seems to be consistent with the Hagen–Poiseuille equation independent of the laser structuring technique and is orders of magnitudes larger than the diffusion rate through the plastic. Two different types of corrosion tests have been undertaken, and we show that care must...

  10. Electrochemical testing of passivity state and corrosion resistance of supermartensitic stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lasek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On low interstitial - supermartensitic stainless steels (X1CrNiMo 12-5-1, X2CrNiMo 13-6-2, X1CrNiMo 12-6-2 the electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out and the passive state stability and localized corrosion resistance were compared and evaluated. The effect of quenching and tempering as well as the changes in microstructure on polarisation curves and corrosion properties at room temperature were established. Small differences in chemical composition of steels were also registered on their corrosion parameters changes and resistance.

  11. Orthodontic brackets removal under shear and tensile bond strength resistance tests – a comparative test between light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P C G; Porto-Neto, S T; Lizarelli, R F Z; Bagnato, V S

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated if a new LEDs system has enough efficient energy to promote efficient shear and tensile bonding strength resistance under standardized tests. LEDs 470 ± 10 nm can be used to photocure composite during bracket fixation. Advantages considering resistance to tensile and shear bonding strength when these systems were used are necessary to justify their clinical use. Forty eight human extracted premolars teeth and two light sources were selected, one halogen lamp and a LEDs system. Brackets for premolar were bonded through composite resin. Samples were submitted to standardized tests. A comparison between used sources under shear bonding strength test, obtained similar results; however, tensile bonding test showed distinct results: a statistical difference at a level of 1% between exposure times (40 and 60 seconds) and even to an interaction between light source and exposure time. The best result was obtained with halogen lamp use by 60 seconds, even during re-bonding; however LEDs system can be used for bonding and re-bonding brackets if power density could be increased

  12. Radiation resistance of polymer materials. Degradation evaluation by accelerated testing for application condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguchi, Tadao; Tamura, Kiyotoshi; Sorimachi, Masami

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents re-evaluated radiation resistance property data of polymer materials, which had been tested in past times in TAKASAKI Quantum Beam Science Directorate, for the future study of ageing evaluation of low voltage electric cable insulation materials used in light-water nuclear reactors. The radiation resistance of 25 types of plastics and rubbers materials applied in practical environments was evaluated by the accelerated testing of gamma-ray irradiation under oxygen pressure, and was compared with the radiation resistance determined from the traditional testing by irradiation with a high dose rate in air. The polymer materials were formulated to be similar or equivalent to practical materials, and the most of formulation (chemical compounds and quantities) were described. For all materials, the tensile properties (elongation at break, ultimate strength, 100% or 200% modulus), electric resistivity, gel-fraction, and density were measured after irradiation in oxidation conditions and irradiation in air with a high dose rate (non-oxidation conditions). The data of relations between each properties and total dose at various conditions were compiled, and the relations among the changes of mechanical properties, electrical properties, and radiation induced chemical reactions were discussed. (author)

  13. Standard test method for ranking resistance of materials to sliding wear using block-on-ring wear test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers laboratory procedures for determining the resistance of materials to sliding wear. The test utilizes a block-on-ring friction and wear testing machine to rank pairs of materials according to their sliding wear characteristics under various conditions. 1.2 An important attribute of this test is that it is very flexible. Any material that can be fabricated into, or applied to, blocks and rings can be tested. Thus, the potential materials combinations are endless. However, the interlaboratory testing has been limited to metals. In addition, the test can be run with various lubricants, liquids, or gaseous atmospheres, as desired, to simulate service conditions. Rotational speed and load can also be varied to better correspond to service requirements. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. Wear test results are reported as the volume loss in cubic millimetres for both the block and ring. Materials...

  14. Ward-Specific Rates of Nasal Cocolonization with Methicillin-Susceptible and -Resistant Staphylococcus spp. and Potential Impact on Molecular Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Lustig, Sebastien; Lhoste, Yannick; Valour, Florent; Guerin, Claude; Aubrun, Frederic; Tigaud, Sylvestre; Laurent, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    We report that the rates of nasal cocolonization with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci can vary widely between patients admitted to different wards within a single hospital. Such cocolonization can greatly influence the performance of molecular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) screening tests depending on the methods used and targets selected. PMID:23658254

  15. Determination of Heritage SSME Pogo Suppressor Resistance and Inertance from Waterflow Pulse Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, Chris; Eberhart, Chad; Lee, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Waterflow tests of a heritage Space Shuttle Main Engine pogo suppressor were performed to experimentally quantify the resistance and inertance provided by the suppressor. Measurements of dynamic pressure and flow rate in response to pulsing flow were made throughout the test loop. A unique system identification methodology combined all sensor measurements with a one-dimensional perturbational flow model of the complete water flow loop to spatially translate physical measurements to the device under test. Multiple techniques were then employed to extract the effective resistance and inertance for the pogo suppressor. Parameters such as steady flow rate, perturbational flow rate magnitude, and pulse frequency were investigated to assess their influence on the behavior of the pogo suppressor dynamic response. These results support validation of the RS-25 pogo suppressor performance for use on the Space Launch System Core Stage.

  16. Evaluation of reference values for phenotypic tests to detect oxacillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Mello, Priscila L; Abraão, Ligia M; Corrente, José Eduardo; Lourdes Rs Cunha, Maria de

    2018-03-09

    To evaluate the adequacy of the disc-diffusion test and E-test ® compared with detection of mecA for coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from blood cultures, nasal swabs and wounds. Agreement between all techniques was observed in 65.7% of cases. The greatest discrepancy between mecA/susceptible E-test was observed for non-epidermidis species. A resistance breakpoint ≤19 mm using the oxacillin disc was found to best classify all coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates; Staphylococcus epidermidis, ≤19 mm (oxacillin) and ≤27 mm (cefoxitin); Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus capitis, ≤21 mm (oxacillin) and ≤18 mm (cefoxitin); Staphylococcus warneri, MICs ≥0.75 mg/l. Although no longer recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, we observed some cases in which only the oxacillin disc-diffusion test detected resistance. The discrepancy between phenotypic tests and mecA is probably due to heterogeneity and borderline resistance.

  17. Final results from an extensive ageing test of bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Carboni, G; De Capua, S; Dominici, Daniele; Messi, R; Passaleva, G; Santovetti, E; Veltri, M

    2004-01-01

    We present the final results of an extensive aging test, performed at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility on two bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detectors. With a method based on a model describing the behaviour of an RPC under high particle flux conditions, we have periodically measured the electrode resistivity rho of the two RPC prototypes over 3 years. We observed a large spontaneous increase of rho with time, from the initial value of about 10**1**0 Omega cm to more than 200 multiplied by 10**1**0 Omega cm. A corresponding degradation of the RPC rate capabilities, from more than 3 kHz/cm**2 to less than 200 Hz/cm**2, was observed; the reversibility of the process, using a humid gas mixture, has also been studied. We also present a study of the effects of humidity on the bakelite resistivity using two 10 multiplied by 10 cm**2 bakelite samples.

  18. Research on test of alkali-resistant glass fibre enhanced seawater coral aggregate concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Leiyang; Wang, Xingquan

    2017-12-01

    It is proposed in the 13th five-year plan that reefs of the south China sea should be constructed. In the paper, an innovative thinking was proposed for the first time in order to realize local material acquisition in island construction and life dependence on sea, namely alkali-resistant glass fibre is mixed in coralaggregate concrete as reinforcing material. The glass fibre is characterized by low price, low hardness, good dispersibility and convenient construction. Reliable guarantee is provided for widely applying the material in future projects. In the paper, an orthogonal test method is firstly applied to determine the mix proportion of grade C50 coral aggregate concrete. Then, the design plan ofmix proportion of alkali-resistant glass fibre enhanced seawater coral aggregate concrete is determined. Finally, the influence law of alkali-resistant glass fibre dosageon tensile compressiveflexture strength of seawatercoralaggregate concrete is made clear.

  19. Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglan, H.

    2005-08-04

    The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test

  20. Normalized resistance interpretation, the NRI method: Review of NRI disc test applications and guide to calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronvall, Göran; Smith, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The normalized resistance interpretation (NRI) method was developed in response to a call for a method to calibrate disc diffusion test results making inter-laboratory comparisons possible. The main use of NRI so far has been in individual laboratories, in medical and veterinary medicine and in the field of marine microbiology. The applications of NRI for disc diffusion tests are reviewed and, in addition, a detailed description of the calculation procedure is presented. NRI provides a fully objective method for ECOFF calculations of disc diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test results. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Use Of Infrared Thermography And Resistive Load Banks For Testing Electrical Bus Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffrin, R. James

    1988-01-01

    Electrical bus duct is a common feature in both manufacturing facilities and high rise buildings. In the past, bus duct testing involved labor-intensive manual inspection and maintenance and a significant power outage. Infrared thermography can be useful in situations where bus duct loads are balanced and uniform; however, these conditions are not usually found in the field. Resistive load banks combined with infrared thermography provide a controlled and accurate non-destructive test method for electrical bus ducts. Labor and downtime are both reduced and testing may be varied from light to full load.

  2. Is the test of senior friendly/child resistant packaging ethical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bix, Laura; de la Fuente, Javier; Pimple, Kenneth D; Kou, Eric

    2009-12-01

    Research has documented the drastic reduction of unintentional poisonings of children since the introduction of child resistant (CR) packaging. However, studies also indicate that consumers report difficulty using CR packages, in part because tests which determine the 'senior friendliness' of CR designs that are used throughout the world disallow people with 'overt or obvious' disabilities from being test subjects. Our review of drug package usability suggests that the current tests of CR packaging can and should be revised to correct this problem. We use US legislation, regulation and data to exemplify these points, but the conclusions are applicable to all protocols that include the exclusionary provision.

  3. Transverse strength of railway tracks: part 2. Test system for ballast resistance in line measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De Iorio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, testing methods currently adopted to measure the in service ballast resistance are synthetically reviewed to identify the main sources of uncertainty influencing the test loads and to define an experimental methodology allowing the optimal control of the testing parameters without the introduction of spurious or parasitic actions on the track sample. An alternative testing system, which allows applying on a fullscale sample of a railway track testing loads very close the real ones, is presented. Of the new system, both the ways of use for measuring the transversal and axial ballast strength, the general procedure to carry out the experimentation and its application to a real scenario are described, highlighting its main advantages in terms both of modalities for applying the loads and of testing parameter control.

  4. Electrical resistivity monitoring of the single heater test in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.

    1997-10-01

    Of the several thermal, mechanical and hydrological measurements being used to monitor the rockmass response in the Single Heater Test, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is being used to monitor the movement of liquid water with a special interest in the movement of condensate out of the system. Images of resistivity change were calculated using data collected before, during and after the heating episode. This report will concentrate on the results obtained after heating ceased; previous reports discuss the results obtained during the heating phase. The changes recovered show a region of increasing resistivity approximately centered around the heater as the rock mass cooled. The size of this region grows with time and the resistivity increases become stronger. The increases in resistivity are caused by both temperature and saturation changes. The Waxman Smits model has been used to calculate rock saturation after accounting for temperature effects. The saturation estimates suggest that during the heating phase, a region of drying forms around the heater. During the cooling phase, the dry region has remained relatively stable. Wetter rock regions which developed below the heater during the heating phase, are slowly becoming smaller in size during the cooling phase. The last set of images indicate that some rewetting of the dry zone may be occurring. The accuracy of the saturation estimates depends on several factors that are only partly understood

  5. Standard test method for determination of resistance to stable crack extension under low-constraint conditions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This standard covers the determination of the resistance to stable crack extension in metallic materials in terms of the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOAc), ψc and/or the crack-opening displacement (COD), δ5 resistance curve (1). This method applies specifically to fatigue pre-cracked specimens that exhibit low constraint (crack-length-to-thickness and un-cracked ligament-to-thickness ratios greater than or equal to 4) and that are tested under slowly increasing remote applied displacement. The recommended specimens are the compact-tension, C(T), and middle-crack-tension, M(T), specimens. The fracture resistance determined in accordance with this standard is measured as ψc (critical CTOA value) and/or δ5 (critical COD resistance curve) as a function of crack extension. Both fracture resistance parameters are characterized using either a single-specimen or multiple-specimen procedures. These fracture quantities are determined under the opening mode (Mode I) of loading. Influences of environment a...

  6. Evaluation of Etest for Susceptibility Testing of Multidrug-Resistant Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazbón, Manzour Hernando; del Socorro Orozco, Maria; Labrada, Luz Angela; Tovar, Rafael; Weigle, Kristen A.; Wanger, Audrey

    2000-01-01

    To prescribe effective treatment schemes for patients with tuberculosis, more-efficient susceptibility testing techniques for Mycobacterium tuberculosis are needed, especially in regions with multidrug resistance. Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) is a simple technique that provides quantitative drug susceptibility results for M. tuberculosis in 5 to 10 days from a culture grown at low cost. The performance of Etest was compared to that of the reference proportion method, using 95 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates of which 42.1% (40 of 95) were resistant to at least one antibiotic by the reference method. Overall agreement between Etest and the reference method was 98.9% (94 of 95) for detection of multidrug resistance; for resistance to individual drugs, agreement was 97.9% (93 of 95) for rifampin, 96.0% (92 of 95) for ethambutol, 94.7% (90 of 95) for isoniazid, and 85.3% (81 of 95) for streptomycin. This study supports the utility of Etest for timely detection of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis and for use in tuberculosis control programs. PMID:11101602

  7. Accuracy of a Plasmodium falciparum specific histidine-rich protein 2 rapid diagnostic test in the context of the presence of non-malaria fevers, prior anti-malarial use and seasonal malaria transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiemde, Francois; Bonko, Massa Dit Achille; Tahita, Marc Christian; Lompo, Palpouguini; Rouamba, Toussaint; Tinto, Halidou; Boele van Hensbroek, Michael; Mens, Petra F.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.

    2017-01-01

    It remains challenging to distinguish malaria from other fever causing infections, as a positive rapid diagnostic test does not always signify a true active malaria infection. This study was designed to determine the influence of other causes of fever, prior anti-malarial treatment, and a possible

  8. Validation and Verification (V and V) Testing on Midscale Flame Resistant (FR) Test Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-16

    person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control ...roughly equally over the body surface, excluding the hands and feet. The F1930 test method requires a minimum of 100 sensors [1]. If copper slug ...copper slug . In fact, though a large number of sensors is employed, a comparison with the total sensor area with typical numbers for body surface area

  9. Comparative antimicrobial activity of gatifloxacin tested against Campylobacter jejuni including fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, C L; Erwin, M E; Barrett, M S; Jones, R N

    1999-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen that causes gastroenteritis, as well as other disease states such as meningitis and septic arthritis. In this study, the Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) results were compared to a reference agar dilution method using gatifloxacin, a new 8-methoxyfluoroquinolone. A total of 53 strains of C. jejuni initially isolated from patients in California and Mexico were tested. Results demonstrated a high correlation (r = 0.88) between the two utilized in vitro dilution methods. In addition, gatifloxacin activity was compared to that of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole using the Etest. Gatifloxacin (MIC90, 4 micrograms/ml) was approximately eight- to 16-fold more potent than ciprofloxacin (Mic90, > 32 micrograms/ml), a commonly used fluoroquinolone for Campylobacter infections. Eight strains highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC90, > 32 micrograms/ml) were tested for cross resistance against the newer fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin) and the rank order of potency was: gatifloxacin (MIC50, 16 micrograms/ml) > trovafloxacin = levofloxacin (MIC50, > 32 micrograms/mL). However, only 25% ciprofloxacin-resistant strains were inhibited by < or = 1 microgram/mL of gatifloxacin or trovafloxacin. These results for gatifloxacin against C. jejuni strains must be further assessed in the context of in vivo trials before the clinical role of this new fluoroquinolone can be determined. The Etest appears to be a simple and precise susceptibility test method for testing C. jejuni isolates against fluoroquinolones and other alternative therapeutic agents.

  10. New recommendations for disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility tests for methicillin-resistant (heteroresistant) staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, L K; Thornsberry, C

    1984-01-01

    The agar disk diffusion susceptibility test was reevaluated for its ability to discriminate between susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus (128 strains) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (19 strains) when tested with methicillin, oxacillin, and nafcillin. The results show that the current recommendations for disk potencies and interpretive zone diameters do not fit well with MIC correlates that we now recommend. Based on data from this study, we suggest that these parameters of the test be changed. For methicillin, we recommend a 10-micrograms disk with breakpoints of less than or equal to 11 mm (greater than or equal to 16 micrograms/ml) to indicate resistance and greater than or equal to 15 mm (less than or equal to 4 micrograms/ml) to indicate susceptibility. For oxacillin and nafcillin, we recommend 4-micrograms disks with breakpoints of less than or equal to 12 mm (greater than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml) to indicate resistance and greater than or equal to 16 mm (less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml) to indicate susceptibility. MIC breakpoints were from a broth microdilution system which used a medium containing salt. If one of these three penicillins were to be selected for routine tests, we would recommend oxacillin, based on our data, but we recognize that this may depend upon the population of staphylococci within a particular hospital. Images PMID:6562125

  11. Advances in impact resistance testing for explosion-proof electrical equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasculescu Vlad Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The design, construction and exploitation of electrical equipment intended to be used in potentially explosive atmospheres presents a series of difficulties. Therefore, the approach of these phases requires special attention concerning technical, financial and occupational health and safety aspects. In order for them not to generate an ignition source for the explosive atmosphere, such equipment have to be subjected to a series of type tests aiming to decrease the explosion risk in technological installations which operate in potentially explosive atmospheres. Explosion protection being a concern of researchers and authorities worldwide, testing and certification of explosion-proof electrical equipment, required for their conformity assessment, are extremely important, taking into account the unexpected explosion hazard due to potentially explosive atmospheres, risk which has to be minimized in order to ensure the occupational health and safety of workers, for preventing material losses and for decreasing the environmental pollution. Besides others, one of the type tests, which shall be applied, for explosion-proof electrical equipment is the impact resistance test, described in detail in EN 60079 which specifies the general requirements for construction, testing and marking of electrical equipment and Ex components intended for use in explosive atmospheres. This paper presents an analysis on the requirements of the impact resistance test for explosion-proof electrical equipment and on the possibilities to improve this type of test, by making use of modern computer simulation tools based on finite element analysis, techniques which are widely used nowadays in the industry and for research purposes.

  12. 30 CFR 56.6407 - Circuit testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... series or the resistance of multiple balanced series to be connected in parallel prior to their... detonator series. (d) Total blasting circuit resistance prior to connection to the power source. Nonelectric... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circuit testing. 56.6407 Section 56.6407...

  13. Impact of Rapid Susceptibility Testing and Antibiotic Selection Strategy on the Emergence and Spread of Antibiotic Resistance in Gonorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, Ashleigh R; Gift, Thomas L; Chesson, Harrell W; Hsu, Katherine; Salomon, Joshua A; Grad, Yonatan H

    2017-11-27

    Increasing antibiotic resistance limits treatment options for gonorrhea. We examined the impact of a hypothetical point-of-care (POC) test reporting antibiotic susceptibility profiles on slowing resistance spread. A mathematical model describing gonorrhea transmission incorporated resistance emergence probabilities and fitness costs associated with resistance based on characteristics of ciprofloxacin (A), azithromycin (B), and ceftriaxone (C). We evaluated time to 1% and 5% prevalence of resistant strains among all isolates with the following: (1) empiric treatment (B and C), and treatment guided by POC tests determining susceptibility to (2) A only and (3) all 3 antibiotics. Continued empiric treatment without POC testing was projected to result in >5% of isolates being resistant to both B and C within 15 years. Use of either POC test in 10% of identified cases delayed this by 5 years. The 3 antibiotic POC test delayed the time to reach 1% prevalence of triply-resistant strains by 6 years, whereas the A-only test resulted in no delay. Results were less sensitive to assumptions about fitness costs and test characteristics with increasing test uptake. Rapid diagnostics reporting antibiotic susceptibility may extend the usefulness of existing antibiotics for gonorrhea treatment, but ongoing monitoring of resistance patterns will be critical. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  14. Relationship between Prior Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureldin Mohamed Abdelaal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between prior knowledge and reading comprehension in second language among postgraduate students in UPM. Participants in the study were 20 students who have the same level in English as a second language from several faculties. On the basis of a prior-knowledge questionnaire and test, students were selected; they were asked to sit a two-passage reading comprehension exam. According to the questionnaire and the short prior quiz, students had high prior knowledge in one of the two passages, and low prior knowledge in the other. The result showed significantly high relationship between the high prior knowledge and reading comprehension. However, the results showed significantly low relationship between low prior knowledge and reading comprehension. Yet the performance of students in a reading comprehension with high prior knowledge was significantly better than reading comprehension with low prior knowledge.

  15. AISI 304 Welding Fracture Resistance by a Charpy Impact Test with a High Speed Sampling Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Riyanta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate fracture resistance in AISI 304. The J-R curve was constructed from data, which resulted from an impact test by Charpy Impact machine equipped with high-speed sampling rate data acquisition equipment. The critical values of fracture resistance in fusion zones (FZ, high temperature heat affected zones (HTHAZ, low temperature heat affected zones (LTHAZ and unaffected base metals (UBM were obtained by calculation methods using some formulas and by graphical methods. Laboratory experiments demonstrated the relationships among the values of energy absorption along the impact test with the obstruction of dislocation movement due to the presence of chromium interstitial solute in all zones and chromium rich carbide precipitates in fusion zones and heat affected zones.

  16. Effect of simulated resistance, fleeing, and use of force on standardized field sobriety testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jeffrey; Dawes, Donald; Nystrom, Paul; Moore, Johanna; Steinberg, Lila; Tilton, Annemarie; Miner, James

    2015-07-01

    When a law enforcement officer (LEO) stops a suspect believed to be operating (a vehicle) while impaired (OWI), the suspect may resist or flee, and the LEO may respond with force. The suspect may then undergo a Standardized Field Sobriety Test (SFST) to gauge impairment. It is not known whether resistance, fleeing, or actions of force can create an inaccurate SFST result. We examined the effect of resistance, fleeing, and force on the SFST. Human volunteers were prospectively randomized to have a SFST before and after one of five scenarios: (1) five-second conducted electrical weapon exposure; (2) 100-yard (91.4 m) sprint; (3) 45-second physical fight; (4) police dog bite with protective gear; and (5) Oleoresin Capsicum spray to the face with eyes shielded. The SFST was administered and graded by a qualified LEO. After the SFST, the volunteer entered their scenario and was then administered another SFST. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. SFST performance was compared before and after using chi-square tests. Fifty-seven subjects enrolled. Three received a single-point penalty during one component of the three-component SFST pre-scenario. No subject received a penalty point in any components of the SFST post-scenario (p = 0.08). This is the first human study to examine the effects of physical resistance, flight, and use of force on the SFST result. We did not detect a difference in the performance of subjects taking the SFST before and after exposure to resistance, flight, or a simulated use of force. © Australian Council for Educational Research 2014.

  17. Cosmic ray test results on resistive plate chamber for the BESIII experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jifeng; Zhang, Jiawen; Chen, Jin; Zhao, Jianbin; Liu, Qian; Xie, Yuguang; Zhang, Qingmin; Qian, Sen; Yao, Ning; Ma, Liehua

    2007-01-01

    A cosmic ray test system has been built to fully qualify the resistive plate chambers for the MUON system of the BESIII experiment. The setup has been designed to measure detector's performance and to verify the stability and reliability of the MUON system. The same electronics, similar readout method and data analysis for BESIII MUON system have been used for this station. With this station, the 72-barrel detectors were tested, only one detector was rejected and then accepted again after reparation, and the average detector efficiency of the double-layer counters has been measured to be 98%

  18. Cognitive Temporal Document Priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetz, M.H.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal information retrieval exploits temporal features of document collections and queries. Temporal document priors are used to adjust the score of a document based on its publication time. We consider a class of temporal document priors that is inspired by retention functions considered in

  19. Testing Transgenic Aspen Plants with bar Gene for Herbicide Resistance under Semi-natural Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, V G; Faskhiev, V N; Kovalenko, N P; Shestibratov, K A; Miroshnikov, A I

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining herbicide resistant plants is an important task in the genetic engineering of forest trees. Transgenic European aspen plants (Populus tremula L.) expressing the bar gene for phosphinothricin resistance have been produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Successful genetic transformation was confirmed by PCR analysis for thirteen lines derived from two elite genotypes. In 2014-2015, six lines were evaluated for resistance to herbicide treatment under semi-natural conditions. All selected transgenic lines were resistant to the herbicide Basta at doses equivalent to 10 l/ha (twofold normal field dosage) whereas the control plants died at 2.5 l/ha. Foliar NH4-N concentrations in transgenic plants did not change after treatment. Extremely low temperatures in the third ten-day period of October 2014 revealed differences in freeze tolerance between the lines obtained from Pt of f2 aspen genotypes. Stable expression of the bar gene after overwintering outdoors was confirmed by RT-PCR. On the basis of the tests, four transgenic aspen lines were selected. The bar gene could be used for retransformation of transgenic forest trees expressing valuable traits, such as increased productivity.

  20. Disk Diffusion Testing for Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci: Does Moxalactam Improve upon Cefoxitin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjean, Marie; Hodille, Elisabeth; Dumitrescu, Oana; Dupieux, Céline; Nkoud Mongo, Christina; Allam, Camille; Beghin, Mathilde; Paris, Mickael; Borrel, Ophelie; Chardon, Hubert; Laurent, Fréderic; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Lina, Gerard

    2016-12-01

    Disk diffusion testing is widely used to detect methicillin resistance in staphylococci, and cefoxitin is currently considered the best marker for mecA-mediated methicillin resistance. In low-inoculum diffusion testing (colony suspension at 10 6 CFU/ml), the addition of moxalactam in combination with cefoxitin has been reported to improve on cefoxitin alone for the detection of methicillin-heteroresistant staphylococci. However, moxalactam is absent from EUCAST and CLSI guidelines, which use high-inoculum diffusion testing (colony suspension at 10 8 CFU/ml), calling into question the potential interest of including moxalactam in their recommendations. The inhibition zone diameters of cefoxitin and moxalactam, alone and in combination, were evaluated for concordance with mecA and mecC positivity in a large collection of clinical Staphylococcus isolates (611 Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolates and 307 coagulase-negative staphylococci other than S. lugdunensis and S. saprophyticus isolates, of which 22% and 53% were mecA-positive, respectively) and in 25 mecC-positive S. aureus isolates using high-inoculum diffusion testing. Receiver operating characteristic, sensitivity, and specificity analyses indicated that the detection of mecA- and mecC-positive and negative isolates did not improve with moxalactam, either alone or in combination with cefoxitin, compared to cefoxitin alone. These findings were similar in both the S. aureus/S. lugdunensis/S. saprophyticus group and in the coagulase-negative staphylococci group. Our results do not support the use of moxalactam as an additional marker of methicillin resistance when testing with high-inoculum disk diffusion. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. A cost-effective smartphone-based antimicrobial susceptibility test reader for drug resistance testing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Steve W.; Tseng, Derek; Di Carlo, Dino; Garner, Omai B.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-03-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is commonly used for determining microbial drug resistance, but routine testing, which can significantly reduce the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms, is not regularly performed in resource-limited and field-settings due to technological challenges and lack of trained diagnosticians. We developed a portable cost-effective smartphone-based colorimetric 96-well microtiter plate (MTP) reader capable of automated AST without the need for a trained diagnostician. This system is composed of a smartphone used in conjunction with a 3D-printed opto-mechanical attachment, which holds a set of inexpensive light-emitting-diodes and fiber-optic cables coupled to the 96-well MTP for enabling the capture of the transmitted light through each well by the smartphone camera. Images of the MTP plate are captured at multiple exposures and uploaded to a local or remote server (e.g., a laptop) for automated processing/analysis of the results using a custom-designed smartphone application. Each set of images are combined to generate a high dynamic-range image and analyzed for well turbidity (indicative of bacterial growth), followed by interpretative analysis per plate to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and drug susceptibility for the specific bacterium. Results are returned to the originating device within 1 minute and shown to the user in tabular form. We demonstrated the capability of this platform using MTPs prepared with 17 antibiotic drugs targeting Gram-negative bacteria and tested 82 patient isolate MTPs of Klebsiella pneumoniae, achieving well turbidity accuracy of 98.19%, MIC accuracy of 95.15%, and drug susceptibility interpretation accuracy of 99.06%, meeting the FDA defined criteria for AST.

  2. [Identification of anaerobic gram-negative bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens and determination of antibiotic resistance profiles with E-test methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Cengiz; Keşli, Recep

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens that were obtained from patients with suspected anaerobic infections and to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles by using the antibiotic concentration gradient method. The study was performed in Afyon Kocatepe University Ahmet Necdet Sezer Research and Practice Hospital, Medical Microbiology Laboratory between 1 November 2014 and 30 October 2015. Two hundred and seventyeight clinical specimens accepted for anaerobic culture were enrolled in the study. All the samples were cultivated anaerobically by using Schaedler agar with 5% defibrinated sheep blood and Schaedler broth. The isolated anaerobic gram-negative bacilli were identified by using both the conventional methods and automated identification system (VITEK 2, bioMerieux, France). Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed with antibiotic concentration gradient method (E-test, bioMerieux, France); against penicillin G, clindamycin, cefoxitin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem for each isolate. Of the 28 isolated anaerobic gram-negative bacilli; 14 were identified as Bacteroides fragilis group, 9 were Prevotella spp., and 5 were Fusobacterium spp. The highest resistance rate was found against penicillin (78.5%) and resistance rates against clindamycin and cefoxitin were found as 17.8% and 21.4%, respectively. No resistance was found against metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem. As a result, isolation and identification of anaerobic bacteria are difficult, time-consuming and more expensive when compared with the cost of aerobic culture. The rate of anaerobic bacteria isolation may be increased by obtaining the appropriate clinical specimen and appropriate transportation of these specimens. We believe that the data obtained from the study in our center may offer benefits for the follow up and treatment of infections

  3. Indoor accelerated corrosion test and marine field test of corrosion-resistant low-alloy steel rebars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrocell corrosion test and accelerated alternating wet–dry experiment combined with marine field test were employed to study the corrosion behavior of HRB400 carbon steel, 1.5Cr steel, and 5Cr steel in a simulated concrete pore solution and mortar. The macrocell current significantly decreases in samples added with Cr compared with that in HRB400 steel. The corrosion rate is decreased by Cr but increased by Cl−; as a consequence, the corrosion rates of 1.5Cr and 5Cr steel are lower than that of HRB400 steel. However, the corrosion products differ slightly in terms of the contents of α-FeOOH (goethite, γ-FeOOH (lepidocrocite, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 (maghemite or magnetite. The addition of Cr increases the content of the protective α-FeOOH and reduces the content of γ-FeOOH. Both ordinary and high-performance epoxy coatings remain intact after 1 year of marine field test. Among the bare steel rebars, HRB400 steel shows extensive localized corrosion on the surface, whereas 1.5Cr steel exhibits less severe corrosion. The scarcely visible corroded areas in 5Cr steel indicate that this rebar is in the passive state, consistent with results of the indoor accelerated test. Hence, the durability of concrete structures can be prolonged with the utilization of corrosion-resistant low-alloy rebars.

  4. An efficient in vitro test to determine carrot genotypes resistance to cavity spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelon, S; Vandemoortele, J L

    2001-01-01

    As part of a carrot breeding programme, our objective was to develop a test for determining genotypes resistance against two Pythium species responsible for cavity spot. Ten different media were tested for carrot callus culture, Pythium culture and dual cultures. Carrot callus growth was greater on Murashige and Skoog medium plus 1.25 microM 2.4D plus 2.5 microM BA plus 2.5 microM NAA. Pythium violae was more sensitive to medium composition than Pythium sulcatum. When carrot callus were inoculated by Pythium violae or sulcatum on Murashige and Skoog mineral medium, callus growth of Bolero, an resistant cultivar in the field, was highly inhibited whereas Nanco, a susceptible cultivar was not. Such a medium should be used for screening genotypes resistance to Pythium. A Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1.25 microM 2.4D, 2.5 microM BA and 2.5 microM NAA, where callus growth was highly reduced whatever the genotype used, should be useful for selection of cell lines tolerant to Pythium.

  5. Static Pull Testing of a New Type of Large Deformation Cable with Constant Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Tao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new type of energy-absorbing cable, Constant-Resistance Large Deformation cable (CRLD cable with three different specifications, has been recently developed and tested. An effective cable should occupy the ability of absorbing deformation energy from these geodisaster loads and additionally must be able to yield with the sliding mass movements and plastic deformation over large distances at high displacement rates. The new cable mainly consists of constant-resistance casing tube and frictional cone unit that transfers the load from the slope. When experiencing a static or dynamic load and especially the load exceeding the constant resistance force (CR-F, a static friction force derived from the movement of frictional cone unit in casing tube of CRLD cable, the frictional cone unit will move in the casing tube along the axis and absorb deformation energy, accordingly. In order to assess the performance of three different specified cables in situ, a series of field static pull tests have been performed. The results showed that the first type of CRLD cable can yield 2000 mm displacement while acting 850 kN static pull load, which is superior to that of other two types, analyzing based on the length of the displacement and the level of static pull load.

  6. Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation Summary Of Prior Lab-Scale Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Guillot, S.

    2011-01-01

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  7. Irradiation tests of radiation resistance optical fibers for fusion diagnostic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi; Shikama, Tatsuo; Nishitani, Takeo; Yamamoto, Shin; Nagata, Shinji; Tsuchiya, Bun; Toh, Kentaro; Hori, Junichi

    2002-11-01

    To promote development of radiation-resistant core optical fibers, the ITER-EDA (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-Engineering Design Activity) recommended carrying out international round-robin irradiation tests of optical fibers to establish a reliable database for their applications in the ITER plasma diagnostics. Ten developed optical fibers were irradiation-tested in a Co-60 gamma cell, a Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). Also, some of them were irradiation tested in a fast neutron irradiation facility of FNS (Fast Neutron Source), especially to study temperature dependence of neutron-associated irradiation effects. Included were several Japanese fluorine doped fibers and one Japanese standard fiber (purified and undoped silica core), as well as seven Russian fibers. Some of Russian fibers were drawn by Japanese manufactures from Russian made pre-form rods to study effects of manufacturing processes to radiation resistant properties. The present paper will describe behaviors of growth of radiation-induced optical transmission loss in the wavelength range of 350-1750nm. Results indicate that role of displacement damages by fast neutrons are very important in introducing permanent optical transmission loss. Spectra of optical transmission loss in visible range will depend on irradiation temperatures and material parameters of optical fibers.

  8. Standard test methods for performance characteristics of metallic bonded resistance strain gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 The purpose of this standard is to provide uniform test methods for the determination of strain gauge performance characteristics. Suggested testing equipment designs are included. 1.2 Test Methods E 251 describes methods and procedures for determining five strain gauge parameters: Section Part I—General Requirements 7 Part II—Resistance at a Reference Temperature 8 Part III—Gauge Factor at a Reference Temperature 9 Part IV—Temperature Coefficient of Gauge Factor\t10 Part V—Transverse Sensitivity\t11 Part VI—Thermal Output\t12 1.3 Strain gauges are very sensitive devices with essentially infinite resolution. Their response to strain, however, is low and great care must be exercised in their use. The performance characteristics identified by these test methods must be known to an acceptable accuracy to obtain meaningful results in field applications. 1.3.1 Strain gauge resistance is used to balance instrumentation circuits and to provide a reference value for measurements since all data are...

  9. Testing the permeability and corrosion resistance of micro-mechanically interlocked joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byskov-Nielsen, Jeppe; Holm, Allan H.; Højsholt, Rune; Sá, Pedro; Balling, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Micro-mechanical interlocking (MMI) can be applied to create new and interesting composite materials. We have employed laser structuring to achieve MMI between stainless steel and plastic with extremely high joint strength. However, the water permeability and corrosion resistance of the joint must be examined. For many industrially relevant applications it is important to keep water away from certain parts and to prevent the sample from corroding. A thorough study of the permeability of the interconnected samples at different temperatures and after employing different laser-structuring techniques is conducted. The permeability seems to be consistent with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation independent of the laser structuring technique and is orders of magnitudes larger than the diffusion rate through the plastic. Two different types of corrosion tests have been undertaken, and we show that care must be taken in order not to degrade the corrosion resistance of the sample to an unacceptable level.

  10. On-line irradiation testing of a Giant Magneto-Resistive (GMR) sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfert, J.; Luloff, B.; MacDonald, D.; Lumsden, R., E-mail: jeff.olfert@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Magneto-resistive sensors are rapidly gaining favour for magnetic field sensing applications owing to their high sensitivity, small size, and low cost. Their metallic, nonsemiconductor construction makes them excellent candidates for use in the harsh environments present in nuclear and space applications. In this work, a commercially available magneto-resistive sensor was irradiated up to a total gamma dose of 2 MGy (200 Mrad), and online testing was performed to monitor the sensor throughout the irradiation to detect any degradation. No significant evidence of degradation of the sensor characteristics was observed. A very small (< 1%) change in the bridge balance of the sensor as a function of accumulated dose was detected. (author)

  11. Methodic aspects of autoclave tests of compact samples on cyclic crack resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhmurskij, V.I.; Gnyp, I.P.; Popov, A.A.; Tarasyuk, G.P.; Dutsyak, I.Z.; Timonin, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory autoclave LAKIM-25 was created for investigation of cyclic and static crack resistance of vessel materials of power plants under the conditions close to operation ones. It enables to investigate the cyclic crack resistance of standard samples of up to 25 mm thickness in water at 623 K and 18 MPa. The friction force changes during tests from 6.1 up to 6.4 kN, therefore it is necessary to correct regularly the force of sample loading, recording the s-n diagram on a drum of UMEh-10TM plant. The periodic record of loading diagram coincides with respect to time with the necessity of controlling the change of sample pliability during crack propagation

  12. Automated sequence analysis and editing software for HIV drug resistance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Daniel; Wallis, Carole L; Denisov, Gennady; Lambert, Christine; Servais, Jean-Yves; Viana, Raquel V; Letsoalo, Esrom; Bronze, Michelle; Aitken, Sue C; Schuurman, Rob; Stevens, Wendy; Schmit, Jean Claude; Rinke de Wit, Tobias; Perez Bercoff, Danielle

    2012-05-01

    Access to antiretroviral treatment in resource-limited-settings is inevitably paralleled by the emergence of HIV drug resistance. Monitoring treatment efficacy and HIV drugs resistance testing are therefore of increasing importance in resource-limited settings. Yet low-cost technologies and procedures suited to the particular context and constraints of such settings are still lacking. The ART-A (Affordable Resistance Testing for Africa) consortium brought together public and private partners to address this issue. To develop an automated sequence analysis and editing software to support high throughput automated sequencing. The ART-A Software was designed to automatically process and edit ABI chromatograms or FASTA files from HIV-1 isolates. The ART-A Software performs the basecalling, assigns quality values, aligns query sequences against a set reference, infers a consensus sequence, identifies the HIV type and subtype, translates the nucleotide sequence to amino acids and reports insertions/deletions, premature stop codons, ambiguities and mixed calls. The results can be automatically exported to Excel to identify mutations. Automated analysis was compared to manual analysis using a panel of 1624 PR-RT sequences generated in 3 different laboratories. Discrepancies between manual and automated sequence analysis were 0.69% at the nucleotide level and 0.57% at the amino acid level (668,047 AA analyzed), and discordances at major resistance mutations were recorded in 62 cases (4.83% of differences, 0.04% of all AA) for PR and 171 (6.18% of differences, 0.03% of all AA) cases for RT. The ART-A Software is a time-sparing tool for pre-analyzing HIV and viral quasispecies sequences in high throughput laboratories and highlighting positions requiring attention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Collaborative update of a rule-based expert system for HIV-1 genotypic resistance test interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Roger; Tzou, Philip L; van Zyl, Gert; Barrow, Geoff; Camacho, Ricardo; Carmona, Sergio; Grant, Philip M; Gupta, Ravindra K; Hamers, Raph L; Harrigan, P Richard; Jordan, Michael R; Kantor, Rami; Katzenstein, David A; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Maldarelli, Frank; Otelea, Dan; Wallis, Carole L; Schapiro, Jonathan M; Shafer, Robert W

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 genotypic resistance test (GRT) interpretation systems (IS) require updates as new studies on HIV-1 drug resistance are published and as treatment guidelines evolve. An expert panel was created to provide recommendations for the update of the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVDB) GRT-IS. The panel was polled on the ARVs to be included in a GRT report, and the drug-resistance interpretations associated with 160 drug-resistance mutation (DRM) pattern-ARV combinations. The DRM pattern-ARV combinations included 52 nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI) DRM pattern-ARV combinations (13 patterns x 4 NRTIs), 27 nonnucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI) DRM pattern-ARV combinations (9 patterns x 3 NNRTIs), 39 protease inhibitor (PI) DRM pattern-ARV combinations (13 patterns x 3 PIs) and 42 integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) DRM pattern-ARV combinations (14 patterns x 3 INSTIs). There was universal agreement that a GRT report should include the NRTIs lamivudine, abacavir, zidovudine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; the NNRTIs efavirenz, etravirine, nevirapine, and rilpivirine; the PIs atazanavir/r, darunavir/r, and lopinavir/r (with "/r" indicating pharmacological boosting with ritonavir or cobicistat); and the INSTIs dolutegravir, elvitegravir, and raltegravir. There was a range of opinion as to whether the NRTIs stavudine and didanosine and the PIs nelfinavir, indinavir/r, saquinavir/r, fosamprenavir/r, and tipranavir/r should be included. The expert panel members provided highly concordant DRM pattern-ARV interpretations with only 6% of NRTI, 6% of NNRTI, 5% of PI, and 3% of INSTI individual expert interpretations differing from the expert panel median by more than one resistance level. The expert panel median differed from the HIVDB 7.0 GRT-IS for 20 (12.5%) of the 160 DRM pattern-ARV combinations including 12 NRTI, two NNRTI, and six INSTI pattern-ARV combinations. Eighteen of these differences were updated in HIVDB 8.1 GRT-IS to reflect the

  14. Collaborative update of a rule-based expert system for HIV-1 genotypic resistance test interpretation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Paredes

    Full Text Available HIV-1 genotypic resistance test (GRT interpretation systems (IS require updates as new studies on HIV-1 drug resistance are published and as treatment guidelines evolve.An expert panel was created to provide recommendations for the update of the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVDB GRT-IS. The panel was polled on the ARVs to be included in a GRT report, and the drug-resistance interpretations associated with 160 drug-resistance mutation (DRM pattern-ARV combinations. The DRM pattern-ARV combinations included 52 nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI DRM pattern-ARV combinations (13 patterns x 4 NRTIs, 27 nonnucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI DRM pattern-ARV combinations (9 patterns x 3 NNRTIs, 39 protease inhibitor (PI DRM pattern-ARV combinations (13 patterns x 3 PIs and 42 integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI DRM pattern-ARV combinations (14 patterns x 3 INSTIs.There was universal agreement that a GRT report should include the NRTIs lamivudine, abacavir, zidovudine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; the NNRTIs efavirenz, etravirine, nevirapine, and rilpivirine; the PIs atazanavir/r, darunavir/r, and lopinavir/r (with "/r" indicating pharmacological boosting with ritonavir or cobicistat; and the INSTIs dolutegravir, elvitegravir, and raltegravir. There was a range of opinion as to whether the NRTIs stavudine and didanosine and the PIs nelfinavir, indinavir/r, saquinavir/r, fosamprenavir/r, and tipranavir/r should be included. The expert panel members provided highly concordant DRM pattern-ARV interpretations with only 6% of NRTI, 6% of NNRTI, 5% of PI, and 3% of INSTI individual expert interpretations differing from the expert panel median by more than one resistance level. The expert panel median differed from the HIVDB 7.0 GRT-IS for 20 (12.5% of the 160 DRM pattern-ARV combinations including 12 NRTI, two NNRTI, and six INSTI pattern-ARV combinations. Eighteen of these differences were updated in HIVDB 8.1 GRT-IS to reflect

  15. Diagnosis of subclinical amniotic fluid infection prior to rescue cerclage using gram stain and glucose tests: an individual patient meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisonkova, Sarka; Sabr, Yasser; Joseph, K S

    2014-02-01

    Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) can affect outcomes following rescue cerclage. We carried out a study to compare the diagnostic performance of the Gram stain and glucose tests for detecting subclinical MIAC. We used individual-level data from published studies on Gram stain, glucose, and amniotic fluid culture among women with preterm labour. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC) and other indices, with amniotic fluid culture results used as the gold standard. The probability of infection using both tests as predictors was also estimated using logistic regression. The rate of culture-confirmed MIAC was 11.8% (34 of 288 women). The Gram stain test yielded a sensitivity of 65% (95% CI 46% to 78%) and a specificity of 99% (95% CI 98% to 100%). A positive Gram stain or glucose test had a sensitivity of 88% (95% CI 72% to 96%) and a specificity of 87% (95% CI 82% to 90%), while a positive Gram stain and a positive glucose test had a sensitivity of 62% (95% CI 44% to 77%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI 98% to 100%). The AUC for the tests were Gram stain 0.82 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.90), glucose 0.86 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.93), and combined Gram stain and glucose 0.92 (95% CI 0.86 to 0.98). Using the tests, singly or in combination, provided greater clinically important calibration, risk-stratification, and classification accuracy than using no tests. Amniotic fluid Gram stain and/or glucose testing provides substantially improved performance for the diagnosis of subclinical MIAC compared with no testing.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of HIV drug resistance testing to inform switching to second line antiretroviral therapy in low income settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Andrew; Cambiano, Valentina; Nakagawa, Fumiyo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To guide future need for cheap resistance tests for use in low income settings, we assessed cost-effectiveness of drug resistance testing as part of monitoring of people on first line ART - with switching from first to second line ART being conditional on NNRTI drug resistance mutations...... being identified. METHODS: An individual level simulation model of HIV transmission, progression and the effect of ART which accounts for adherence and resistance development was used to compare outcomes of various potential monitoring strategies in a typical low income setting in sub-Saharan Africa...... outcomes were assessed over 2015-2025 in terms of viral suppression, first line failure, switching to second line regimen, death, HIV incidence, disability-adjusted-life-years averted and costs. Potential future low costs of resistance tests ($30) were used. RESULTS: The most effective strategy, in terms...

  17. Arthur Prior and 'Now'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2016-01-01

    On the 4th of December 1967, Hans Kamp sent his UCLA seminar notes on the logic of ‘now’ to Arthur N. Prior. Kamp’s two-dimensional analysis stimulated Prior to an intense burst of creativity in which he sought to integrate Kamp’s work into tense logic using a one-dimensional approach. Prior...... to a one-dimensional tense logic containing the ‘now’ operator J. Drawing on material from the Prior archive, and the paper “‘Now”’ that detailed Prior’s findings, we retell this story. We focus on Prior’s completeness conjecture for the hybrid system and the role played by temporal reference....

  18. Testing and Selection of Fire-Resistant Materials for Spacecraft Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert; Jackson, Brian; Olson, Sandra

    2000-01-01

    Spacecraft fire-safety strategy emphasizes prevention, mostly through the selection of onboard items classified accord- ing to their fire resistance. The principal NASA acceptance tests described in this paper assess the flammability of materials and components under "worst-case" normal-gravity conditions of upward flame spread in controlled-oxygen atmospheres. Tests conducted on the ground, however, cannot duplicate the unique fire characteristics in the nonbuoyant low-gravity environment of orbiting spacecraft. Research shows that flammability an fire-spread rates in low gravity are sensitive to forced convection (ventilation flows) and atmospheric-oxygen concentration. These research results are helping to define new material-screening test methods that will better evaluate material performance in spacecraft.

  19. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall not... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. 84.156 Section 84.156 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...

  20. Reliability of Strength Testing using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Kirk L.; Loehr, James A.; Laughlin, Mitzi A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Hagan, R. Donald

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) was developed for use on the International Space Station as a countermeasure against muscle atrophy and decreased strength. This investigation examined the reliability of one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing using ARED and traditional free weight (FW) exercise. Methods: Six males (180.8 +/- 4.3 cm, 83.6 +/- 6.4 kg, 36 +/- 8 y, mean +/- SD) who had not engaged in resistive exercise for at least six months volunteered to participate in this project. Subjects completed four 1RM testing sessions each for FW and ARED (eight total sessions) using a balanced, randomized, crossover design. All testing using one device was completed before progressing to the other. During each session, 1RM was measured for the squat, heel raise, and deadlift exercises. Generalizability (G) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for each exercise on each device and were used to predict the number of sessions needed to obtain a reliable 1RM measurement (G . 0.90). Interclass reliability coefficients and Pearson's correlation coefficients (R) also were calculated for the highest 1RM value (1RM9sub peak)) obtained for each exercise on each device to quantify 1RM relationships between devices.

  1. TEMPEST code modifications and testing for erosion-resisting sludge simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    The TEMPEST computer code has been used to address many waste retrieval operational and safety questions regarding waste mobilization, mixing, and gas retention. Because the amount of sludge retrieved from the tank is directly related to the sludge yield strength and the shear stress acting upon it, it is important to incorporate the sludge yield strength into simulations of erosion-resisting tank waste retrieval operations. This report describes current efforts to modify the TEMPEST code to simulate pump jet mixing of erosion-resisting tank wastes and the models used to test for erosion of waste sludge with yield strength. Test results for solid deposition and diluent/slurry jet injection into sludge layers in simplified tank conditions show that the modified TEMPEST code has a basic ability to simulate both the mobility and immobility of the sludges with yield strength. Further testing, modification, calibration, and verification of the sludge mobilization/immobilization model are planned using erosion data as they apply to waste tank sludges

  2. Functional test of a Radon sensor based on a high-resistivity-silicon BJT detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Betta, G.F., E-mail: dallabe@disi.unitn.it [DISI, Università di Trento, and INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); RSens srl, Modena (Italy); Tyzhnevyi, V. [DISI, Università di Trento, and INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); Bosi, A.; Bonaiuti, M. [RSens srl, Modena (Italy); Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.A.; Morsani, F.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Lusiani, A. [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Ciolini, R.; Curzio, G.; D' Errico, F.; Del Gratta, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione, Università di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bidinelli, L. [En and tech, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia (Italy); RSens srl, Modena (Italy); and others

    2013-08-01

    A battery-powered, wireless Radon sensor has been designed and realized using a BJT, fabricated on a high-resistivity-silicon substrate, as a radiation detector. Radon daughters are electrostatically collected on the detector surface. Thanks to the BJT internal amplification, real-time α particle detection is possible using simple readout electronics, which records the particle arrival time and charge. Functional tests at known Radon concentrations, demonstrated a sensitivity up to 4.9 cph/(100 Bq/m{sup 3}) and a count rate of 0.05 cph at nominally-zero Radon concentration.

  3. Test and characterization of multigap resistive plate chambers for the EEE project

    CERN Document Server

    Bossini, E

    2016-01-01

    The Extreme Energy Events project is based on the deployment of cosmic-ray telescopes in Italian high schools with the active contribution of students and teachers. Each telescope is made by three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers readout by strips. With around 50 telescopes already built and others under construction, specific systems to test and characterize the chambers are needed. In this article I will present a flexible and software-configurable solution to perform chamber efficiency studies with a set of scintillators and hardware to automatically scan detector strips to identify electrical issues. Both systems can provide accurate information but at the same time they can be easily operated by students.

  4. Electric imaging and laboratory resistivity testing for geotechnical investigation of Pusan clay deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giao, P. H.; Chung, S. G.; Kim, D. Y.; Tanaka, H.

    2003-03-01

    Large-scale reclamation works for new land development in the Nakdong River plain have been extensively carried out on soft clays. Several geotechnical characteristics of the clays could not be well evaluated, partly due to easy disturbance during drilling and sampling. Consequently, geophysical methods, seen as nondestructive testing tools, have been applied in geotechnical investigation of Pusan clays for the first time. In this study, the 2D electric imaging technique was employed to map the thick soft clay deposits in four reclamation sites. The Pusan clay deposit was very well mapped. Electric resistivity of Pusan clays was measured on over 50 core samples in the laboratory, and then correlated with other geotechnical parameters such as salinity, organic content, water content, plasticity, unit weight and sampling depth. Additionally, electric resistivity of about 20 natural clays collected worldwide was measured and compared to that of the Pusan clays as an initial effort in creating a database of clay electric resistivity to help further application of electric imaging in geotechnical investigation of clayey soils.

  5. Soil resistivity over root area ratio, soil humidity, and bulk density: laboratory tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastini, Enrico; Giambastiani, Yamuna; Preti, Federico

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge about root system distribution covers an important role in slope shallow stability stud-ies, as this factor grants an increase in soil geotechnical properties (soil cohesion and friction an-gle) and determines a different underground water circulation. Published studies (Amato et al., 2008 and 2011; Censini et al., 2014) about in situ application of ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomo-graphy) analysis show how the root presence affects the measurable soil resistivity values, confirm-ing the suitability to investigate the application of such technique, aiming to estimate root density in soil with an indirect and non-invasive method. This study, laboratory-based and led on reconstructed samples in controlled condition, aim to find a correlation between the resistivity variations and the various factors that can affect them (humid-ity, bulk density, presence of foreign bodies, temperature). The tests involved a clay-loam soil (USDA classification) taken from Quaracchi (Florence, Italy), in an experimental fir-wood (Picea abies) owned by the Department of Agricultural, Food and For-estry System, Florence University, a previously chosen site for field ERT applications. The row ma-terial has been dried out in a lab stove, grounded and sieved at 2 mm, and then placed in a lexan box (30 x 20 x 20 cm) without compaction. Inside the sample have been inserted 3 series of 4 iron electrodes, insulated along the shaft and with the conductive end placed at three different depth: 2 cm from surface, in the middle of the sample and in contact with the bottom of the box; resistivity measures are conducted on the three levels using a Syscal R2 with electrodes connected in a dipole-dipole configuration. Root presence is simulated inserting bamboo spits (simple geometry, replicable "R.A.R.") in varying number from 0 to 16 in every area between two contiguous electrodes. The tests are repeated in time, monitoring the natural variations in humidity (evapotranspiration) and bulk

  6. Diphtheria toxin resistance in human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts in the in vivo somatic cell mutation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkins, D.J.; Wei, L.; Laurie, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    It has been shown that circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used for the enumeration of 6-thioguanine-resistant cells that presumably arise by mutation in vivo. This somatic cell mutation test has been studied in lymphocytes from human populations exposed to known mutagens and/or carcinogens. The sensitivity of the test could be further enhanced by including other gene markers, since there is evidence for locus-specific differences in response to mutagens. Resistance to diphtheria toxin (Dip/sup r/) seemed like a potential marker to incorporate into the test because the mutation acts codominantly, can readily be selected in human diploid fibroblasts and Chinese hamster cells with no evidence for cell density or cross-feeding effects, and can be assayed for in nondividing cells by measuring protein synthesis inhibition. Blood samples were collected from seven individuals, and fresh, cryopreserved, or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphocytes were tested for continued DNA synthesis ( 3 H-thymidine, autoradiography) or protein synthesis ( 35 S-methionine, scintillation counting). Both fresh and cryopreserved lymphocytes, stimulated to divide with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), continued to synthesize DNA in the presence of high doses of diphtheria toxin (DT). Similarly, both dividing (PHA-stimulated) and nondividing fresh lymphocytes carried on significant levels of protein synthesis even 68 hr after exposure to 100 flocculating units (LF)/ml DT. The results suggest that human T and B lymphocytes may not be as sensitive to DT protein synthesis inhibition as human fibroblast and Chinese hamster cells. For this reason, Dip/sup r/ may not be a suitable marker for the somatic cell mutation test

  7. In vitro antimicrobial activity of linezolid tested against vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated in Brazilian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Adriana O.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE has been described recently in Brazil. This is in contrast to the USA and Europe, where the VRE appeared in the late 1980s. The progressive increase in VRE isolation poses important problems in the antimicrobial therapy of nosocomial infections. Treatment options and effective antimicrobial agents for VRE are often limited and the possibility of transfer of vancomycin genes to other Gram-positive microorganisms continues. In the search for antimicrobial agents for multiresistant Gram-positive cocci, compounds such as linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin have been evaluated. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro activity of the oxazolidinone linezolid and 10 other antimicrobial agents, including quinupristin-dalfopristin, against multiresistant enterococci isolated in Brazilian hospitals. Thirty-three vancomycin resistant isolates (17 Enterococcus faecium and 16 E. faecalis, were analyzed. Strains were isolated from patients at São Paulo Hospital, Oswaldo Cruz Hospital, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual, Santa Marcelina Hospital, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, and Hospital de Clínicas do Paraná. The samples were tested by a broth microdilution method following the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS recommendations. All isolates were molecular typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Linezolid was the most active compound against these multiresistant enterococci, showing 100% inhibition at the susceptible breakpoints. Quinupristin/dalfopristin and teicoplanin showed poor activity against both species. The molecular typing results suggest that there has been interhospital spread of vancomycin resistant E. faecium and E. faecalis among Brazilian hospitals. The results of this study indicate that linezolid is an appropriate therapeutic option for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci infections in Brazil.

  8. Identification of commercially available alloys for corrosion-resistant metallic reinforcement and test methods for evaluating corrosion-resistant reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A literature review was conducted with the goal of identifying alternative low-cost corrosion-resistant steel reinforcement materials. The most promising alternate reinforcing materials seen to date that are less expensive than 300 series stainless s...

  9. Viability testing of material derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis prior to removal from a Containment Level-III Laboratory as part of a Laboratory Risk Assessment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabani Amin M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of clinical mycobacteriology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB can be a difficult organism to manipulate due to the restrictive environment of a containment level 3 (CL3 laboratory. Tests for rapid diagnostic work involving smears and molecular methods do not require CL3 practices after the organism has been rendered non-viable. While it has been assumed that after organism deactivation these techniques can be performed outside of a CL3, no conclusive study has consistently confirmed that the organisms are noninfectious after the theoretical 'deactivation' steps. Previous studies have shown that initial steps (such as heating /chemical fixation may not consistently kill MTB organisms. Methods An inclusive viability study (n = 226 was undertaken to determine at which point handling of culture extraction materials does not necessitate a CL3 environment. Four different laboratory protocols tested for viability included: standard DNA extractions for IS6110 fingerprinting, crude DNA preparations for PCR by boiling and mechanical lysis, protein extractions, and smear preparations. For each protocol, laboratory staff planted a proportion of the resulting material to Bactec 12B medium that was observed for growth for 8 weeks. Results Of the 208 isolates initially tested, 21 samples grew within the 8-week period. Sixteen (7.7% of these yielded positive results for MTB that included samples of: deactivated culture resuspensions exposed to 80°C for 20 minutes, smear preparations and protein extractions. Test procedures were consequently modified and tested again (n = 18, resulting in 0% viability. Conclusions This study demonstrates that it cannot be assumed that conventional practices (i.e. smear preparation or extraction techniques render the organism non-viable. All methodologies, new and existing, should be examined by individual laboratories to validate the safe removal of material derived from MTB to the outside of a

  10. [Resistance monitoring working group: resistance to erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline in human isolates of Campylobacter spp. in the Czech Republic tested by the EUCAST standard method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žemličková, H; Jakubů, V; Marejková, M; Urbášková, P

    2014-09-01

    To determine the frequency of Campylobacter spp. isolated from humans in the Czech Republic and to test their susceptibility to antimicrobials commonly used to treat campylobacteriosis by the standard EUCAST method. Consecutive Campylobacter isolates recovered from clinical specimens in 49 microbiological laboratories within one month in 2013 were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Susceptibility to erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline was tested by the microdilution method and the results were interpreted based on the EUCAST clinical breakpoints to differentiate between susceptible and resistant strains. Of the study set of 769 Campylobacter spp. strains, 90.1 % were assigned to C. jejuni, 9.8 % to C. coli, and a single strain to C. fetus (0.1 %). Except one blood isolate of C. jejuni, all other isolates were recovered from the stool. Ciprofloxacin resistance (MIC > 0.5 mg/l) was detected in 61.9 % strains of C. jejuni and in 72.0 % strains of C. coli, tetracycline resistance (MIC > 2 mg/l) was detected in 32.0 % of strains of both species, and erythromycin resistance was found in 0.3 % of strains of C. jejuni (MIC > 8 mg/l) and in 2.7 % of strains of C. coli (MIC > 4 mg/l). A C. coli strain was multidrug resistant (i.e. resistant to all three antimicrobials tested). Despite the fact that most Campylobacter infections in humans cure on their own, the resistance of the causative strains to the antimicrobials of choice and alternative agents needs to be studied because of its relevance to the treatment of severe cases that require antibiotics. Resistance to macrolides was found rather infrequently in this study in both C. jejuni (0.1 %) and C. coli (2.7 %) strains. Nevertheless, alarming is ciprofloxacin resistance confirmed in 61.9 % of C. jejuni strains and 72.0 % C. coli strains. As the species C. coli is more often resistant to antimicrobials than C. jejuni and ciprofloxacin

  11. The application of virtual reality technology to testing resistance to motion sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menshikova G. Ya.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prolonged exposure to moving images in virtual reality systems can cause virtual reality induced motion sickness (VIMS. The ability to resist motion sickness may be associated with the level of vestibular function development. objective. The aim of the present research is to study the oculomotor characteristics of individuals whose observation of moving virtual environments causes the VIMS effect. We hypothesized that people who have a robust vestibular function as a result of their professional activity, are less susceptible to VIMS than people who have no such professional abilities. The differences in people’s abilities to resist the effects of the virtual environment may be revealed in the oculomotor characteristics registered during their interaction with a virtual environment. Design. Figure skaters, football players, wushu fighters, and non-trained people were tested. e CAVE virtual reality system was used to initiate the VIMS effect. three virtual scenes were constructed consisting of many bright balls moving as a whole around the observer. e scenes differed in the width of the visual field; all balls subtended either 45°, 90° or 180°. Results. The results showed more active eye movements for athletes compared to non-trained people, i.e. an increase in blink, fixation, and saccade counts. A decrease in saccadic amplitudes was revealed for figure skaters. These characteristics were considered specific indicators of the athletes’ ability to resist motion sickness. Conclusions. It was found that the strength of the VIMS effect increased with the increasing width of the visual field. The effectiveness of virtual reality and eye-tracking technologies to test the VIMS effect was demonstrated.

  12. Evaluation and comparison of tests to detect methicillin resistant S. aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Anila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Phenotypic methods for detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA have been compared with the gold standard which, as of now, is by the detection of mecA gene and femA gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Discrepancies in detection have an adverse effect on patient management, thereby highlighting the importance of accuracy in detection. Our study aims to evaluate the efficacy of cefoxitin disk diffusion test to detect MRSA and compare it with other phenotypic and molecular methods. Methodology; The study was conducted from June 2006 to December 2007 and included 610 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus isolates obtained from clinical samples. All isolates were tested for MRSA using oxacillin screen agar plates with 6 µg/ml of oxacillin, cefoxitin disk diffusion using 30 µg disk and MIC of oxacillin. Selected isolates (55 were tested for presence of mecA gene and Fem A gene by PCR. Results: Out of 610 isolates, MRSA was identified in 34.09% by cefoxitin disk diffusion, 34.9% by oxacillin screen agar, 34.4% by MIC and 37.3% by oxacillin disk diffusion. When selected isolates were tested with molecular methods, the cefoxitin disk diffusion and PCR tests were comparable. Discussion: Prevalence of MRSA (34.09% is quite high as in other studies. The oxacillin disk diffusion test which was used routinely earlier is showing low specificity (56%. Among all phenotypic methods, cefoxitin disk diffusion and PCR alone have similar sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion: Results of cefoxitin disk diffusion test are in concordance with the PCR for mecA gene. Thus, the test can be an alternative to PCR for detection of MRSA in resource constraint settings.

  13. Multi drug resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli to tested antibiotics in strains originating from humans, poultry and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran Ž.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic Campylobacter are among the most common cause of bacterial enteritis in humans. Food animals are considered one of the most important sources of Campylobacter causing infections in man. Campylobacter infection is clinically mild and resolves spontaneously. In severe or long-lasting cases, treatment with antibiotics is necessary. Resistance of Campylobacter spp. to drugs used in treatment of infection is a matter of concern. The aim of this paper is to determine presence of multi drug resistant strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from animals and man. Material for testing was obtained by scraping the cecum surface from boilers, pig cecum and colon, and human feces. For isolation Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli microaerophilic conditions, temperature of 42°C and antibiotic supplement were required to inhibit the growth of other intestinal bacteria. In this research, for sensitivity testing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli three different methods were used: disc diffusion test, E-test, and dilution agar method. A total of 55 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Out of the total, 24 strains originated from man, 16 from broilers were isolated, and 15 from pigs. Multidrug resistance was determined in cases when the strains were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Applying E-test, we detected that the largest number of Campylobacter jejuni were multi drug resistant to two antibiotics (41.2%, and three antibiotics (11.8%. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 5.9% of Campylobacter jejuni from man was resistant to four tested antibiotics. Applying all three methods, it was detected that the largest number of Campylobacter strains was resistant to two antibiotics and three antibiotics. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 50% of Campylobacter coli strains from pigs were resistant to three tested antibiotics.

  14. Tigecycline activity tested against antimicrobial resistant surveillance subsets of clinical bacteria collected worldwide (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Helio S; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N

    2013-06-01

    Tigecycline was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2005 and has generally retained activity against resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. We monitored the in vitro activity of this glycylcycline in 2011 for continued potency worldwide. A total of 22,005 unique clinical isolates were consecutively collected in North America (NA; 9232 isolates), Europe (EU; 6776), Latin America (LA; 2016), and Asia-Pacific region (APAC, 3981) and tested for susceptibility according to the reference broth microdilution method recommendations against tigecycline and numerous comparators. Oxacillin (methicillin) resistance rates in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were 49.3%, 30.2%, 42.9%, and 37.8%, and vancomycin resistance rates in enterococci (VRE) were 27.0%, 11.3%, 6.3%, and 4.0% in NA, EU, LA, and APAC, respectively. All MRSA (2839) and >99% of VRE were susceptible to tigecycline. Among Escherichia coli, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) rates varied from 12.6% in the NA to 57.4% in APAC, and only one strain was nonsusceptible to tigecycline. Tigecycline was active against ESBL phenotype (96.5-98.4% susceptible) and meropenem-nonsusceptible Klebsiella spp. (94.3-100.0% susceptible). Only 4 of 213 (1.9%) meropenem-nonsusceptible Klebsiella spp. were tigecycline-nonsusceptible, all with tigecycline minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4 μg/mL (intermediate). Among ceftazidime-nonsusceptible Enterobacter spp., 94.7-98.2% were susceptible to tigecycline. Meropenem-nonsusceptible Acinetobacter spp. varied from 51.2% in NA to 80.9% in APAC; and 83.8% (LA) to 93.9% (APAC) of strains were inhibited at a tigecycline MIC of ≤2 μg/mL. Tigecycline showed potent activity against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (89.3-98.3% inhibited at ≤2 μg/mL). In summary, tigecycline has sustained potent activity and a broad-spectrum against clinically important bacteria causing infections worldwide, including multidrug-resistant

  15. HIV-1 diversity and drug resistance mutations among people seeking HIV diagnosis in voluntary counseling and testing sites in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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    Carlos A Velasco-de-Castro

    Full Text Available The remarkable viral diversity remains a big challenge to the development of HIV vaccines and optimal therapy worldwide. In the latest years, as a consequence of the large expansion of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART availability worldwide, an increase in transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM has been observed, varying according the region. This study assessed HIV-1 diversity and TDRM profile over time among newly HIV-1 diagnosed individuals from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from individuals seeking HIV diagnosis in four voluntary counseling and testing (VCTs sites located in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area, in 2005-2007. Recent (RS and long-term (LTS HIV-1 seroconverters were distinguished using BED-CEIA. Pol viral sequences were obtained for 102 LTS identified in 2005 and 144 RS from 2005-2007. HIV-1 subtype and pol recombinant genomes were determined using Rega HIV-1 Subtyping Tool and by phylogenetic inferences and bootscanning analyses. Surveillance of HIV-1 TDRM to protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors were performed according to the Calibrated Population Resistance (CPR Tool 6.0. Overall, subtype B remains the most prevalent in Rio de Janeiro in both LTS and RS HIV-1 infected individuals. An increased proportion of recombinant samples was detected over time, especially in RS heterosexual men, due to the emergence of CRF02_AG and URF samples bearing a subtype K fragment. The prevalence of HIV-1 samples carrying TDRM was high and similar between LTS and RS (15.7% vs 14.6% or age (25yo 16.6% along the study period. The high resistance levels detected in both populations are of concern, especially considering the dynamics of HIV-1 diversity over time. Our results suggest that the incorporation of resistance testing prior to HAART initiation should be highly considered, as well as permanent surveillance, aiming to carefully monitoring HIV-1 diversity, with focus on CRF/URF emergence and

  16. HIV-1 diversity and drug resistance mutations among people seeking HIV diagnosis in voluntary counseling and testing sites in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-de-Castro, Carlos A; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdiléa G; Bastos, Francisco I; Pilotto, José H; Fernandes, Nilo; Morgado, Mariza G

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable viral diversity remains a big challenge to the development of HIV vaccines and optimal therapy worldwide. In the latest years, as a consequence of the large expansion of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) availability worldwide, an increase in transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) has been observed, varying according the region. This study assessed HIV-1 diversity and TDRM profile over time among newly HIV-1 diagnosed individuals from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from individuals seeking HIV diagnosis in four voluntary counseling and testing (VCTs) sites located in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area, in 2005-2007. Recent (RS) and long-term (LTS) HIV-1 seroconverters were distinguished using BED-CEIA. Pol viral sequences were obtained for 102 LTS identified in 2005 and 144 RS from 2005-2007. HIV-1 subtype and pol recombinant genomes were determined using Rega HIV-1 Subtyping Tool and by phylogenetic inferences and bootscanning analyses. Surveillance of HIV-1 TDRM to protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors were performed according to the Calibrated Population Resistance (CPR) Tool 6.0. Overall, subtype B remains the most prevalent in Rio de Janeiro in both LTS and RS HIV-1 infected individuals. An increased proportion of recombinant samples was detected over time, especially in RS heterosexual men, due to the emergence of CRF02_AG and URF samples bearing a subtype K fragment. The prevalence of HIV-1 samples carrying TDRM was high and similar between LTS and RS (15.7% vs 14.6%) or age (25yo 16.6%) along the study period. The high resistance levels detected in both populations are of concern, especially considering the dynamics of HIV-1 diversity over time. Our results suggest that the incorporation of resistance testing prior to HAART initiation should be highly considered, as well as permanent surveillance, aiming to carefully monitoring HIV-1 diversity, with focus on CRF/URF emergence and putative

  17. Evaluation of automated systems for aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones susceptibility testing for Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

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    Zhichang Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated systems (MicroScan WalkAway 96 Plus, Phoenix 100, and Vitek 2 Compact are widely used in clinical laboratories nowadays. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of these three systems for susceptibility testing of aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones against Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE. Methods A total of 75 CRE isolates were used in this study. Quinolone resistance determinants (QRDs (qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, aac(6′-Ib-cr, oqxAB and qepA and aminoglycoside resistance determinants (ARDs (aac(6′-Ib, armA, npmA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD and rmtE of these CRE were screened by PCR. The MICs of aminoglycosides (gentamicin and amikacin and fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin to CRE obtained with the automated systems were compared with the reference method (agar dilution method. Results Totally, 97.3% (73/75 of CRE harbored QRDs. The qnr gene was the most common QRD determinant identified in 68 (96.7%, followed by aac (6′-Ib-cr in 56 (74.7%, oqxAB in 23 (30.7%, and qepA in 2 (2.7%, respectively. 22.7% (17/75 of CRE harbored ARD determinants. rmtA, rmtB and npmA were identified among these isolates in 6 (8.0%, 6 (8.0% and 5 (6.7%, respectively. A total of 900 results were obtained in this study. Overall, the total error rate was 9.89%. Twenty-eight very major errors (3.11%, 22 major errors (2.44% and 39 minor errors (4.33% were identified against agar dilution method. The very major errors were almost evenly distributed between results for fluoroquinolones (2.89% and aminoglycosides (3.33%, while the major errors and minor errors were more commonly found in the results of fluoroquinolones (3.11% and 6.44%, respectively than aminoglycosides (1.78% and 2.22%, respectively. Conclusions Our study shows that testing difficulties in susceptibility testing do exist in automated systems. We suggest clinical laboratories using automated systems should consider using a second

  18. Haptic control of a pneumatic muscle actuator to provide resistance for simulated isokinetic exercise: Part I--dynamic test station and human quadriceps dynamic simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kara L; Phillips, Chandler A; Reynolds, David B; Mohler, Stanley R; Rogers, Dana B; Neidhard-Doll, Amy T

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) have a high power to weight ratio and possess unique characteristics which make them ideal actuators for applications involving human interaction. PMAs are difficult to control due to nonlinear dynamics, presenting challenges in system implementation. Despite these challenges, PMAs have great potential as a source of resistance for strength training and rehabilitation. The objective of this work was to control a PMA for use in isokinetic exercise, potentially benefiting anyone in need of optimal strength training through a joint's range of motion. A human quadriceps dynamic simulator (HQDS) was developed so that control effectiveness and accommodation could be tested prior to human implementation. The experimental set-up and HQDS are discussed in Part I of this work. The development of a PMA haptic controller and its interaction with the HQDS are discussed in Part II.

  19. Second line drug susceptibility testing to inform the treatment of rifampin-resistant tuberculosis: a quantitative perspective

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    Emily A. Kendall

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment failure and resistance amplification are common among patients with rifampin-resistant tuberculosis (TB. Drug susceptibility testing (DST for second-line drugs is recommended for these patients, but logistical difficulties have impeded widespread implementation of second-line DST in many settings. To provide a quantitative perspective on the decision to scale up second-line DST, we synthesize literature on the prevalence of second-line drug resistance, the expected clinical and epidemiologic benefits of using second-line DST to ensure that patients with rifampin-resistant TB receive effective regimens, and the costs of implementing (or not implementing second-line DST for all individuals diagnosed with rifampin-resistant TB. We conclude that, in most settings, second-line DST could substantially improve treatment outcomes for patients with rifampin-resistant TB, reduce transmission of drug-resistant TB, prevent amplification of drug resistance, and be affordable or even cost-saving. Given the large investment made in each patient treated for rifampin-resistant TB, these payoffs would come at relatively small incremental cost. These anticipated benefits likely justify addressing the real challenges faced in implementing second-line DST in most high-burden settings.

  20. Resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs and practices in drug susceptibility testing in Moldova, 1995-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudu, V; Arnadottir, Th; Laticevschi, D

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate practices in initial drug susceptibility testing (DST) in Moldova, anti-tuberculosis drug resistance and the implications for tuberculosis control. Retrospective record review in the national reference laboratory. Of 3463 cases, 57.1% were recorded as 'new' and 24.6% as 'retreatment' cases; previous treatment status was not recorded for 18.3%. Of the 'new' cases, 1655 were correctly classified according to international recommendations and 322 were misclassified. The number of cases increased from 443 in 1995 to 939 in 1999; the proportion of 'retreatment' increased from 17.4% to 35.5%, 'any drug resistance' from 20.3% to 41.6%, and 'multidrug resistance' from 2.7% to 11.2%. In 1998-1999, 'any drug resistance' and 'multidrug resistance' in 800 previously untreated cases were respectively 29.1% and 5.3%, and respectively 61.0% and 21.9% in 521 'retreatment' cases. Of a total of 216 'multidrug-resistant' cases in 1998-1999, 21.8% were reported resistant to ethambutol and 81.5% to streptomycin. Initial specimens for culture are frequently taken late, after the start of treatment, compromising their usefulness for case management or surveillance. Inadequate treatment has led to an increase in the number of cases, the proportion of previously treated cases and the prevalence of drug resistance. In 1998-1999, a high proportion of cases with 'multidrug resistance' were susceptible to ethambutol.

  1. GenoType HelicoDR test in the determination of antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Nayoung; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Park, Ji Hyun; Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Jung Mogg; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2014-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori is most important factor in eradication success. GenoType HelicoDR test has been developed for rapid detection of antimicrobial resistance. The present study evaluated the clinical usefulness of GenoType HelicoDR test in Korea. To detect 23S rRNA for clarithromycin resistance and gyrA mutations for fluoroquinolone resistance, both DNA sequencing after minimal inhibitory test (MIC) and GenoType HelicoDR test were performed in H. pylori isolates from the gastric mucosa of 101 patients. The eradication results of clarithromycin and moxifloxacin-containing triple therapy were evaluated by the 23S rRNA and gyrA mutations. For 42 isolates with A2143G mutation by GenoType HelicoDR, 83.3% (35/42) of concordance rate was estimated with DNA sequencing method and 85.7% (36/42) for MIC test. For 43 isolates with N87K mutation by GenoType HelicoDR, 71.1% (31/43) of concordance rate was estimated with DNA sequencing and 88.4% (38/43) for MIC test. The sensitivity and specificity of GenoType HelicoDR test in determination of 23S rRNA mutation were 94.9% and 87.1%, and those of gyrA 98.2% and 80.0%. The sensitivity and specificity of GenoType HelicoDR test in determination of clarithromycin resistance based on MIC test were 55.0% and 80.0%, for fluoroquinolone 74.4% and 70.0%. GenoType HelicoDR test is useful to determine mutations responsible for clarithromycin or fluoroquinolone-containing eradication failure but has a limitation for the clinical applicability in determination of resistance.

  2. Effects of native biodiversity on grape loss of four castes: testing the biotic resistance hypothesis

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    M. Nereu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of agricultural landscapes can influence the biodiversity and the ecological services provided by these ecosystems, such as natural biological pest control. Viticulture is a very important economic activity in most countries with Mediterranean climate, often shaping their landscapes and culture. Grape production is affected by a number of pests and diseases, and farmers use prophylactic and response-driven pesticides to control these pests. Here we quantified the main biotic causes of crop losses in four grape castes, two red (Touriga Nacional and Baga and two white (Arinto and Chardonnay, and evaluated the potential effect of native biodiversity to provide biotic resistance to pest outbreaks and grape losses. Specifically, the diversity and abundance of bird and insect communities in these vineyards were quantified and divided into functional guilds (pest, neutral or auxiliary, to test whether these natural communities hold the potential to naturally control grape pests (biotic resistance hypothesis under normal vineyard management (including pesticide application regimes. A potential association between distance to the vineyard edge and grape losses was also evaluated. We recorded a very small proportion of grape losses (mean  =  0.6 %; max  =  7.5 %, with insect pests showing a preference for the castes Baga (red and Chardonnay (white, while bird pests avoided the caste Arinto (white. Grape color did not influence losses caused by insect pests, but birds showed a preference for red castes. The caste Baga was also more vulnerable to losses caused by fungi. Despite their low impact on grape production, most insects and birds detected in the six vineyards were pests, which entails a potentially low level of biotic resistance in this highly managed agricultural ecosystem. Further research is necessary to fully evaluate the role of functional biodiversity in vineyards, particularly if alternative production processes

  3. Affordable HIV drug-resistance testing for monitoring of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa.

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    Inzaule, Seth C; Ondoa, Pascale; Peter, Trevor; Mugyenyi, Peter N; Stevens, Wendy S; de Wit, Tobias F Rinke; Hamers, Raph L

    2016-11-01

    Increased provision of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa has led to a growing number of patients with therapy failure and acquired drug-resistant HIV, driving the demand for more costly further lines of antiretroviral therapy. In conjunction with accelerated access to viral load monitoring, feasible and affordable technologies to detect drug-resistant HIV could help maximise the durability and rational use of available drug regimens. Potential low-cost technologies include in-house Sanger and next-generation sequencing in centralised laboratories, and point mutation assays and genotype-free systems that predict response to antiretroviral therapy at point-of-care. Strengthening of centralised high-throughput laboratories, including efficient systems for sample referral and results delivery, will increase economies-of-scale while reducing costs. Access barriers can be mitigated by standardisation of in-house assays into commercial kits, use of polyvalent instruments, and adopting price-reducing strategies. A stepwise rollout approach should improve feasibility, prioritising WHO-recommended population-based surveillance and management of complex patient categories, such as patients failing protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy. Implementation research, adaptations of existing WHO guidance, and political commitment, will be key to support the appropriate investments and policy changes. In this Personal View, we discuss the potential role of HIV drug resistance testing for population-based surveillance and individual patient management in sub-Saharan Africa. We review the strengths and challenges of promising low-cost technologies and how they can be implemented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Simple method to determine beta-lactam resistance phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the disc agar diffusion test.

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    Vedel, G

    2005-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major opportunistic bacterial pathogen in nosocomial infections because of the increasing prevalence of resistance to many of the commonly used antibiotics. To ensure optimal efficiency of antibiotic treatment against this species, antibiotic susceptibility tests must be interpreted with caution. Most microbiologists now consider it essential to characterize the antibiotic resistance expressed by isolates. Particular resistance mechanisms may be suspected when the bacterium is resistant to several antibiotics in the same family (for example beta-lactam agents). Using the disc agar diffusion test, a simple method was developed to distinguish between the common beta-lactam resistance phenotypes of P. aeruginosa and, consequently, the possible resistance mechanism(s). Over a period of 5 years, we analysed 6300 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various pathological specimens collected from different wards of Cochin Port-Royal Hospital, and reference and collection strains. Each strain had the wild-type phenotype or an acquired resistance phenotype. Eight anti-pseudomonal beta-lactams (ticarcillin, cefotaxime or moxalactam, cefepime or cefpirome, imipenem, ceftazidime, aztreonam, cefsulodin and ticarcillin + clavulanic acid) were used as phenotypic markers. The following markers were sufficient to distinguish between the wild-type phenotype and the various acquired resistance phenotypes: beta-lactamase synthesis, reduced cell wall permeability and/or increased expression of efflux transporters (active efflux). Detection of resistance phenotypes allows 'interpretive reading' of antibiotic susceptibility tests. Clearly, improved interpretation of antibiotic susceptibility tests is important for a better appreciation of the effect of antimicrobial agents on bacteria such as P. aeruginosa.

  5. Evaluation of a New Test, GenoType HelicoDR, for Molecular Detection of Antibiotic Resistance in Helicobacter pylori▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambau, Emmanuelle; Allerheiligen, Vera; Coulon, Céline; Corbel, Céline; Lascols, Christine; Deforges, Lionel; Soussy, Claude-James; Delchier, Jean-Charles; Megraud, Francis

    2009-01-01

    The eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori by standard therapy is decreasing due to antibiotic resistance, mainly to clarithromycin. Our aim was to provide a new molecular test to guide the treatment of new and relapsed cases. We first studied 126 H. pylori strains for phenotypic (MIC) and genotypic resistance to clarithromycin (rrl mutation) and levofloxacin (gyrA mutation) and then developed a DNA strip genotyping test on the basis of the correlation results and literature data. Clinical strains (n = 92) and gastric biopsy specimens containing H. pylori (n = 105) were tested blindly with the new molecular test GenoType HelicoDR. The presence of mutations or the absence of hybridization with wild-type sequences was predictive, in rrl for clarithromycin resistance in 91 cases (mostly the A2147G mutation) and in gyrA for levofloxacin resistance in 58 cases (mutations at codon 87 or 91). Genotyping revealed a mix of genotypes in 33% of the cases, reflecting a coinfection or selection for resistant mutants. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting resistance were 94% and 99% for clarithromycin and 87% and 98.5% for levofloxacin, respectively. The concordance scores were 0.96 for clarithromycin and 0.94 for levofloxacin. With global resistance rates of 46% for clarithromycin and 25% for levofloxacin, which were observed for consecutive positive biopsy specimens from 2007 and 2008, the positive and negative predictive values for detecting resistance were 99% and 94% for clarithromycin and 96% and 96% for fluoroquinolone. GenoType HelicoDR is efficient at detecting mutations predictive of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori when applied to strains or directly to gastric biopsy specimens. PMID:19759218

  6. Evaluation of a new test, genotype HelicoDR, for molecular detection of antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambau, Emmanuelle; Allerheiligen, Vera; Coulon, Céline; Corbel, Céline; Lascols, Christine; Deforges, Lionel; Soussy, Claude-James; Delchier, Jean-Charles; Megraud, Francis

    2009-11-01

    The eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori by standard therapy is decreasing due to antibiotic resistance, mainly to clarithromycin. Our aim was to provide a new molecular test to guide the treatment of new and relapsed cases. We first studied 126 H. pylori strains for phenotypic (MIC) and genotypic resistance to clarithromycin (rrl mutation) and levofloxacin (gyrA mutation) and then developed a DNA strip genotyping test on the basis of the correlation results and literature data. Clinical strains (n = 92) and gastric biopsy specimens containing H. pylori (n = 105) were tested blindly with the new molecular test GenoType HelicoDR. The presence of mutations or the absence of hybridization with wild-type sequences was predictive, in rrl for clarithromycin resistance in 91 cases (mostly the A2147G mutation) and in gyrA for levofloxacin resistance in 58 cases (mutations at codon 87 or 91). Genotyping revealed a mix of genotypes in 33% of the cases, reflecting a coinfection or selection for resistant mutants. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting resistance were 94% and 99% for clarithromycin and 87% and 98.5% for levofloxacin, respectively. The concordance scores were 0.96 for clarithromycin and 0.94 for levofloxacin. With global resistance rates of 46% for clarithromycin and 25% for levofloxacin, which were observed for consecutive positive biopsy specimens from 2007 and 2008, the positive and negative predictive values for detecting resistance were 99% and 94% for clarithromycin and 96% and 96% for fluoroquinolone. GenoType HelicoDR is efficient at detecting mutations predictive of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori when applied to strains or directly to gastric biopsy specimens.

  7. Effects of prior testing lasting a full year in NCANDA adolescents: Contributions from age, sex, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, site, family history of alcohol or drug abuse, and baseline performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith V. Sullivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal study provides a robust method for tracking developmental trajectories. Yet inherent problems of retesting pose challenges in distinguishing biological developmental change from prior testing experience. We examined factors potentially influencing change scores on 16 neuropsychological test composites over 1 year in 568 adolescents in the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA project. The twice-minus-once-tested method revealed that performance gain was mainly attributable to testing experience (practice with little contribution from predicted developmental effects. Group mean practice slopes for 13 composites indicated that 60% to ∼100% variance was attributable to test experience; General Ability accuracy showed the least practice effect (29%. Lower baseline performance, especially in younger participants, was a strong predictor of greater gain. Contributions from age, sex, ethnicity, examination site, socioeconomic status, or family history of alcohol/substance abuse were nil to small, even where statistically significant. Recognizing that a substantial proportion of change in longitudinal testing, even over 1-year, is attributable to testing experience indicates caution against assuming that performance gain observed during periods of maturation necessarily reflects development. Estimates of testing experience, a form of learning, may be a relevant metric for detecting interim influences, such as alcohol use or traumatic episodes, on behavior.

  8. Strength resistance test of superior members for elderly people: comparison between dumbbells with different weights

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    Lucélia Justino Borges

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n3p261 The aim of the study was to compare the performance of elderly people in the strength resistance test of superior members (SRTSM with dumbbells of different weights (1,8 kg and 2 kg for women and 3,6 kg and 4 kg for men. The sample consisted of 407 elderly (349 feminine and 58 masculine, with age of 60 to 88 years, practitioners of physical exercise for at least six months. The used instrument was the SRTSM of the battery of tests American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD. Two executions of the test were carried through with dumbbells of different weights, SRTSM (1,8 kg and 3,6 kg and “adjusted” SRTSM (2 kg and 4 kg. For the analysis of the data, it was proceeded descriptive analysis, test t of Student for independent samples, paired t test for dependent samples and ANOVA with post-hoc of Tukey, adopting itself the 5% level significance. The results demonstrated that the use of dumbbells with 4 weights of 2 and kg, seem not to affect the performance of the elderly ones, mainly of the masculine sex. For the feminine sex significant difference in the averages of the second comparison carried through for the sort was detected. However, this difference can have been resulting from external factors to the test, since, the greater average obtained was for “the adjusted” SRTSM. Nevertheless, one tries to facilitate even more the evaluation of the functional capacity of the elderly population, being recommended for SRTSM the use of dumbbells with weight of 2 kg for women and 4kg for men that they are of low cost, easy acquisition and access in the Brazilian market.

  9. Screening test recommendations for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surveillance practices: A cost-minimization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Melanie D; Curtis, Donna J; Atherly, Adam J; Bradley, Cathy J; Lindrooth, Richard C; Campbell, Jonathan D

    2017-07-01

    To mitigate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, intensive care units (ICUs) conduct surveillance through screening patients upon admission followed by adhering to isolation precautions. Two surveillance approaches commonly implemented are universal preemptive isolation and targeted isolation of only MRSA-positive patients. Decision analysis was used to calculate the total cost of universal preemptive isolation and targeted isolation. The screening test used as part of the surveillance practice was varied to identify which screening test minimized inappropriate and total costs. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the range of total costs resulting from variation in inputs. The total cost of the universal preemptive isolation surveillance practice was minimized when a polymerase chain reaction screening test was used ($82.51 per patient). Costs were $207.60 more per patient when a conventional culture was used due to the longer turnaround time and thus higher isolation costs. The total cost of the targeted isolation surveillance practice was minimized when chromogenic agar 24-hour testing was used ($8.54 per patient). Costs were $22.41 more per patient when polymerase chain reaction was used. For ICUs that preemptively isolate all patients, the use of a polymerase chain reaction screening test is recommended because it can minimize total costs by reducing inappropriate isolation costs. For ICUs that only isolate MRSA-positive patients, the use of chromogenic agar 24-hour testing is recommended to minimize total costs. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The potential impact of density dependent fecundity on the use of the faecal egg count reduction test for detecting drug resistance in human hookworms.

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    Andrew C Kotze

    Full Text Available Current efforts to control human soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections involve the periodic mass treatment of people, particularly children, in all endemic areas, using benzimidazole and imidothiazole drugs. Given the fact that high levels of resistance have developed to these same drugs in roundworms of livestock, there is a need to monitor drug efficacy in human STHs. The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT, in which faecal egg output is measured pre- and post-drug treatment, is presently under examination by WHO as a means of detecting the emergence of resistance. We have examined the potential impact of density dependent fecundity on FECRT data. Recent evidence with the canine hookworm indicates that the density dependent egg production phenomenon shows dynamic properties in response to drug treatment. This will impact on measurements of drug efficacy, and hence drug resistance. It is likely that the female worms that survive a FECRT drug treatment in some human cases will respond to the relaxation of density dependent constraints on egg production by increasing their egg output significantly compared to their pre-treatment levels. These cases will therefore underestimate drug efficacy in the FECRT. The degree of underestimation will depend on the ability of the worms within particular hosts to increase their egg output, which will in turn depend on the extent to which their egg output is constrained prior to the drug treatment. As worms within different human cases will likely be present at quite different densities prior to a proposed FECRT, there is potential for the effects of this phenomenon on drug efficacy measurements to vary considerably within any group of potential FECRT candidates. Measurement of relative drug efficacy may be improved by attempting to ensure a consistent degree of underestimation in groups of people involved in separate FECRTs. This may be partly achieved by omission of cases with the heaviest infections

  11. Relationship between Prior Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaal, Noureldin Mohamed; Sase, Amal Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between prior knowledge and reading comprehension in second language among postgraduate students in UPM. Participants in the study were 20 students who have the same level in English as a second language from several faculties. On the basis of a prior-knowledge questionnaire and test, students were…

  12. A novel automatic molecular test for detection of multidrug resistance tuberculosis in sputum specimen: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Ou, Xi C; Pang, Yu; Xia, Hui; Huang, Hai R; Zhao, Bing; Wang, Sheng F; Zhao, Yan L

    2017-07-01

    MiniLab tuberculosis (ML TB) assay is a new automatic diagnostic tool for diagnosis of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB). This study was conducted with aims to know the performance of this assay. Sputum sample from 224 TB suspects was collected from tuberculosis suspects seeking medical care at Beijing Chest hospital. The sputum samples were directly used for smear and ML TB test. The left sputum sample was used to conduct Xpert MTB/RIF, Bactec MGIT culture and drug susceptibility test (DST). All discrepancies between the results from DST, molecular and phenotypic methods were confirmed by DNA Sequencing. The sensitivity and specificity of ML TB test for detecting MTBC from TB suspects were 95.1% and 88.9%, respectively. The sensitivity for smear negative TB suspects was 64.3%. For detection of RIF resistance, the sensitivity and specificity of ML TB test were 89.2% and 95.7%, respectively. For detection of INH resistance, the sensitivity and specificity of ML TB test were 78.3% and 98.1%, respectively. ML TB test showed similar performance to Xpert MTB/RIF for detection of MTBC and RIF resistance. In addition, ML TB also had good performance for INH resistance detection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Spermatic Viability of Cryopreserved Semen of Piau swine breed analyzed by Thermo Resistant Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Hoshino da Costa Barros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Barros M.H.C., Shiomi H.H., Amorim L.S., Guimarães S.E.F., Lopes P.S., Siqueira J.B., Pinho R.O. & Guimarães J.D. [Spermatic Viability of Cryopreserved Semen of Piau swine breed analyzed by Thermo Resistant Test.] Viabilidade espermática de sêmen congelado de suínos da raça Piau avaliada pelo Teste de Termorresistência. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária 36(2:131-136, 2014. Departamento de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n, Viçosa, MG 36571-000, Brasil. E-mail: hugoshiomi@hotmail.com The objective of this study was to verify three protocols of semen cryopreservation on spermatic viability after thawing from Piau swine breed (Sus scrofa, by thermo resistant test (TTR. Twenty two ejaculates from 5 Piau mature boars were collected by glove hand technique. To freezing, the ejaculates was split and submitted to three protocols (P: (P1 freezing method proposed by Furst et al. (2005, altered by diluent media, (P2 freezing method proposed by Furst et al. (2005, altered by cooled curve; and (P3 freezing method proposed by Ohata et al. (2001. After thawing, semen was submitted to TTR, been incubated at 37o C by 2 hours, motility sperm (MOT and vigor (VIG was analyzed at 30 minutes of interval. MOT and VIG after thawing was 20.9±12.4, 29.5±10.9 and 49.5±12.1%; 2.5±0.5, 2.9±0.4 and 3.4±0.4, respectively to P1, P2 and P3. The TTR results show gradually decrease of motility and vigor along 2 hours of test procedure utilized, with best average to protocol 3 at all time of analyze. The protocol 3 tested by Piau boars shows highest values in cellular semen cryopreservation.

  14. Testing the apparent resistance of three dominant plants to chronic drought on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, David L.; Duniway, Michael C.; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Many drylands, including the south-western United States, are projected to become more water-limited as these regions become warmer and drier with climate change. Such chronic drought may push individual species or plant functional types beyond key thresholds leading to reduced growth or even mortality. Indeed, recent observational and experimental evidence from the Colorado Plateau suggests that C3 grasses are the most vulnerable to chronic drought, while C4 grasses and C3 shrubs appear to have greater resistance.The effects of chronic, or press-drought are predicted to begin at the physiological level and translate up to higher hierarchical levels. To date, the drought resistance of C4grasses and C3 shrubs in this region has been only evaluated at the community level and thus we lack information on whether there are sensitivities to drought at lower hierarchical levels. In this study, we tested the apparent drought resistance of three dominant species (Pleuraphis jamesii, a C4 rhizomatous grass; Coleogyne ramosissima, a C3 drought-deciduous shrub; and Ephedra viridis, a C3 evergreen shrub) to an ongoing experimental press-drought (-35% precipitation) by comparing individual-level responses (ecophysiology and growth dynamics) to community-level responses (plant cover).For all three species, we observed consistent responses across all hierarchical levels:P. jamesii was sensitive to drought across all measured variables, while the shrubsC. ramosissima and E. viridis had little to no responses to the experimental press-drought at any given level.Synthesis. Our findings suggest that the apparent drought resistance at higher hierarchical levels, such as cover, may serve as good proxies for lower-level responses. Furthermore, it appears the shrubs are avoiding drought, possibly by utilizing moisture at deeper soil layers, while the grasses are limited to shallower layers and must endure the drought conditions. Give this differential sensitivity to drought, a future

  15. New results from an extensive aging test on bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067339; De Capua, Stefano; Domenici, Danilo; Ganis, Gerardo; Messi, Roberto; Passaleva, Giovanni; Santovetti, Emanuele; Veltri, Michele; Carboni, Giovanni; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Capua, Stefano De; Domenici, Danilo; Ganis, Gerardo; Messi, Roberto; Passaleva, Giovanni; Santovetti, Emanuele; Veltri, Michele

    2003-01-01

    We present recent results of an extensive aging test, performed at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility on two single-gap RPC prototypes, developed for the LHCb Muon System. With a method based on a model describing the behaviour of an RPC under high particle flux conditions, we have periodically measured the electrode resistance R of the two RPC prototypes over three years: we observe a large spontaneous increase of R with time, from the initial value of about 2 MOhm to more than 250 MOhm. A corresponding degradation of the RPC rate capabilities, from more than 3 kHz/cm^2 to less than 0.15 kHz/cm^2 is also found.

  16. The evaluation of dynamic cracking resistance of chosen casting alloys in the aspect of the impact bending test

    OpenAIRE

    J.Sadowski; T.Szykowny

    2008-01-01

    The increase of quality and durability of produced casting alloys can be evaluated on the base of material tests performed on a high level. One of such modern test methods are tests of the dynamic damage process of materials and the evaluation on the base of obtained courses F(f), F(t) of parameters of dynamic cracking resistance KId, JId, performed with the usage of instrumented Charpy pendulums. In the paper there was presented the evaluation of dynamic cracking resistance parameters of cas...

  17. The corrosion rate of copper in a bentonite test package measured with electric resistance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosborg, Bo [Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Kosec, Tadeja; Kranjc, Andrej; Kuhar, Viljem; Legat, Andraz [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-12-15

    LOT1 test parcel A2 was exposed for six years in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, which offers a realistic environment for the conditions that will prevail in a deep repository for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Sweden. The test parcel contained copper electrodes for real-time corrosion monitoring in bentonite ring 36, where the temperature was 24 deg C, and copper coupons in bentonite rings 22 and 30, where the temperature was higher. After retrieval of the test parcel in January 2006, a bentonite test package consisting of bentonite rings 35 - 37 was placed in a container and sealed with a thick layer of paraffin. Later the same year new copper electrodes were installed in the test package. In January 2007 electric resistance (ER) sensors of pure copper with a thickness of 35 {mu}m were also installed in the test package mainly to facilitate the interpretation of the results from the real-time corrosion monitoring with electrochemical techniques. The ER measurements have shown that the corrosion rate of pure copper exposed in an oxic bentonite/ saline groundwater environment at room temperate decreases slowly with time to low but measurable values. The corrosion rates estimated from the regularly performed EIS measurements replicate the ER data. Thus, for this oxic environment in which copper acquires corrosion potentials of the order of 200 mV (SHE) or higher, electrochemical measurements provide believable data. Comparing the recorded ER data with an estimate of the average corrosion rate based on comparing cross-sections from exposed and protected sensor elements, it is obvious that the former overestimates the actual corrosion rate, which is understandable. It seems as if electrochemical measurements can provide a better estimate of the corrosion rate; however, this is quite dependent on the use of proper measuring frequencies and evaluation methods. In this respect ER measurements are more reliable. It has been shown that real-time corrosion

  18. Resistance test at early larval stage of blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhd Ikhwanuddin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The early larval stage is the crucial phase in the larviculture of blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus. The combination of stress resistance tests have been done to determine the maximum period of starvation and dissolved oxygen, the preferable range of temperature, salinity, pH and ammonia for P. pelagicus larvae survival at early larval stages. Larvae were exposed to various treatments as mentioned above to examine larvae competency against the stressor. In starvation test, at 12 hours, more than 50 percent of larvae were observed dead. While in the dissolved oxygen test, no larvae survived more than 6 hours without aeration treatment. The optimum temperature for larvae was 30C due to high survival rate (43.18% was found in the end of experiment. There were no larvae survival at salinity level 0 ppt, 10 ppt and 50 ppt respectively. The highest larvae survival was found at 30 ppt treatment (60.51%. The suitable pH for larval rearing condition was ranged from 8.0-8.2 (survival rate were 48.60% and 70.47%, respectively owing to larval survival rate in others treatments were very low. In the last experiment, lower concentration of ammonia treatments (0.02, 0.2 ppm showed higher survival rate (58.54% and 23.90% whereas the larvae in 2 ppm and 20 ppm treatments died with 24 hours and 6 hours after spike.

  19. New methods for testing fire resistance of wood façade systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårtensson August

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arson in schools has been a huge problem in Sweden over the last fifteen years. The average amount of school arsons between 2000 and 2014 was 285 cases each year which corresponds to 50% of the total amount of reported fires in school buildings. This is a well-known problem and a lot of research has been done in this area. Investigations has been done about fire and heat detection systems, different technical factors significance in fire scenarios and how to prevent adolescents from starting fires. Another part of the problem that partly been investigated is how the schools are constructed. Roughly 50% of the arsons are outside of the school building. In Sweden one and two storey buildings are allowed to be built with wooden façades in accordance with the building code, which is one of the reasons many schools are built with wooden façade systems. The most critical part in a wood façade system from a fire safety perspective is concluded to be the eaves because of how they usually are built to let air pass through. Even though a wood façade isn't as well resistant to fire compared to a concrete façade, three versions of new test methods for combustible façades have been developed to make it possible to make sure in advance that a construction is resistant enough. The new test methods are focused on specific details and parts of a façade system to provide a more informative and useful result compared to SP Fire 105. Observations and measurements of flame spread and temperature changes in the eave, over the window joints and in the air gap are made. With these parameters in consideration criteria's has been chosen for a critical temperature of 280 ∘C at a critical time of 20 minutes.

  20. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The static... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...

  1. Developing Pairwise Preference-Based Personality Test and Experimental Investigation of Its Resistance to Faking Effect by Item Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Asami; Naito, Jun; Abe, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have shown increased awareness of the importance of personality tests in educational, clinical, and occupational settings, and developing faking-resistant personality tests is a very pragmatic issue for achieving more precise measurement. Inspired by Stark (2002) and Stark, Chernyshenko, and Drasgow (2005), we develop a pairwise…

  2. Rapid detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates by the MRSA-screen latex agglutination test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); C. van Pelt (Cindy); A. Luijendijk (Ad); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe slide agglutination test MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Niigata, Japan) was compared with the mecA PCR ("gold standard") for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The MRSA-Screen test detected the penicillin-binding protein 2a

  3. Monitoring of high temperature area by resistivity tomography during in-situ heating test in sedimentary soft rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kenji; Suzuki, Koichi; Ikenoya, Takafumi; Takakura, Nozomu; Tani, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    One of the major issues in disposal of nuclear waste is that the long term behaviors of sedimentary soft rocks can be affected by various environmental factors such as temperature, mechanical conditions or hydraulic conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a method for evaluating the long term stability of caverns in sedimentary soft rocks as subjected to changes of environment. We have conducted in-situ heating test to evaluate the influence of high temperature to the surrounding rock mass at a depth of 50 m. The well with a diameter of 30 cm and 60 cm of height, was drilled and filled with groundwater. The heater was installed in the well for heating the surrounding rock mass. During the heating, temperature and deformation around the well were measured. To evaluate the influence of heating on sedimentary soft rocks, it is important to monitor the extent of heated area. Resistivity monitoring is thought to be effective to map the extent of the high temperature area. So we have conducted resistivity tomography during the heating test. The results demonstrated that the resistivity of the rock mass around the heating well decreased and this area was gradually expanded from the heated area during the heating. The decreasing rate of resistivity on temperature is correlated to that of laboratory experimental result and existing empirical formula between aqueous solution resistivity and temperature. Resistivity is changed by many other factors, but it is expected that resistivity change by other factors is very few in this test. This suggests that high temperature area is detected and spatial distribution of temperature can be mapped by resistivity tomography. So resistivity tomography is expected to be one of the promising methods to monitor the area heated by nuclear waste. (author)

  4. Finite Element Modeling with Embed Rebar Elements and Steady State Rolling Analysis for Rolling Resistance Test of Pneumatic Tire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvanjumrat Chakrit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element model of tire rolling resistance test on the drum was developed using 3D steady state rolling analysis coupling with pre-inflation of 2D axisymmetric tire analysis. The complex components of the radial tires composing tread, sidewall, ply layers, steel belts, and lead wires were modeled using rebar elements which were embed into the rubber element using the tying equation. The Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic constitutive model was employed to describe the large deformation behavior of tread and sidewall, while other components such as plies, steel belts and bead wires were assigned the linear isotropic material. The tire rolling resistance system was modeled by inflation of slick tire and compression on the drum for the footprint analysis regarding the rolling resistance test. The tire’s steady state characteristics such as footprint contact pressure, rolling resistance force, and time response characteristic of tires were predicted instead the experiment of the prototype.

  5. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Inconsistencies in Vancomycin Susceptibility Testing Methods, Limitations and Advantages of each Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himani; Agrawal, Charu; Madan, Molly; Pandey, Anita; Thakuria, Bhaskar

    2015-10-01

    Vancomycin may be ineffective against an increasing proportion of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) well within the susceptible range. On the other hand it is common knowledge that determination of vancomycin MICs is method dependent. Therefore, given the apparent variability in vancomycin MIC results obtained with the different methods, the use of the vancomycin MIC to predict the outcome of serious S. aureus infections needs to take into account the method used and the results of studies using that particular method. Comparative study was carried out to evaluate the MICs obtained by BMD method, E-test, and Vitek 2 method and to detect inconsistencies in these vancomycin for 66 MRSA isolates obtained from various samples of patients attending the OPDs & IPDs within a period of one year. A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the MICs obtained by BMD method, E-test, and Vitek 2 method to detect vancomycin susceptibility in 66 clinical isolates of MRSA obtained from various samples of patients attending the OPDs & IPDs within a period of one year. The study was conducted in Department of Microbiology, Subharti Medical College, Meerut from January to December 2012. On determination of MICs for vancomycin for the MRSA isolates, all were identified as VSSA by BMD, E-Test & Vitek 2 methods. However, the vancomycin MIC values obtained by E-test correlated better with BMD method (correlation factor= 0.6727) than Vitek 2 (correlation factor=0.5316), indicating E-Test to be a better method for determination of vancomycin MICs as compared to Vitek 2. MRSA isolates with higher vancomycin MICs, even within the susceptibility range, are being observed more frequently which result in treatment failures with vancomycin. Because of the discrepancy that exists in vancomycin MIC results from different methods, the prediction of outcome of serious S.aureus infections should take into account the method used

  6. Characterization of micro-contact resistance between a gold nanocrystalline line and a tungsten electrode probe in interconnect fatigue testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xue; Wang, Yusheng; Li, Xide

    2014-10-01

    An electromechanically-coupled micro-contact resistance measurement system is built to mimic the contact process during fatigue testing of nanoscale-thickness interconnects using multiple probe methods. The design combines an optical microscope, high-resolution electronic balance, and micromanipulator-controlled electric probe, and is coupled with electrical measurements to investigate microscale contact physics. Experimental measurements are performed to characterize the contact resistance response of the gold nanocrystalline pad of a 35-nm-thick interconnect under mechanical force applied by a tungsten electrode probe. Location of a stable region for the contact resistance and the critical contact force provides better understanding of micro-contact behavior relative to the effects of the contact force and the nature of the contact surface. Increasing contact temperature leads to reduced contact resistance, softens the pad material, and modifies the contact surface. The stability of both contact resistance and interconnect resistance is studied under increasing contact force. Major fluctuations emerge when the contact force is less than the critical contact force, which shows that temporal contact resistance will affect interconnect resistance measurement accuracy, even when using the four-wire method. This performance is demonstrated experimentally by heating the Au line locally with a laser beam. Finally, the contact resistances are calculated using the LET (Li-Etsion-Talke) model together with combined Holm and Sharvin theory under various contact forces. Good agreement between the results is obtained. This research provides a way to measure change in interconnect line resistance directly under a stable contact resistance regime with a two-wire method that will greatly reduce the experimental costs.

  7. Resistance temperature sensor aging degradation identification using LCSR (Loop Current Step Response) test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos; Goncalves, Iraci Martine Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Most critical process temperatures in nuclear power plants are measured using RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) and thermocouples. In a PWR (Pressure Water Reactor) plant, the primary coolant temperature and feedwater temperature are measured using RTDs, and the temperature of the water that exits the reactor core is measured using thermocouples. These thermocouples are mainly used for temperature monitoring purposes and are therefore not generally subject to very stringent requirements for accuracy and response-time performance. In contrast, primary coolant RTDs typically feed the plant's control and safety systems and must, therefore, be very accurate and have good dynamic performance. The response time of RTDs and thermocouples has been characterized by a single parameter called the Plunge Time Constant. This is defined as the time it takes the sensor output to achieve 63.2 percent of its final value after a step change in temperature is impressed on its surface. This step change is typically achieved by suddenly immersing the sensor in a rotating tank of water, called Plunge Test. In nuclear reactors, however, plunge testing is inconvenient because the sensor must be removed from the reactor coolant piping and taken to a laboratory for testing. Nuclear reactor service conditions of 150 bar and 300°C are difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Therefore, all laboratory tests are performed at much milder conditions, and the results are extrapolated to service conditions. This leads to significant errors in the measurement of sensor response times and an insitu test method called LCSR - Loop Current Step Response test was developed in the mid-1970s to measure remotely the response time of RTDs. In the LCSR method, the sensing element is heated by an electric current; the current causes Joule heating in the sensor and results in a temperature transient inside the sensor. The temperature transient in the element is recorded, and from this transient, the

  8. Effects of Increased Respiratory Resistance on Maximal O2 Uptake and Anaerobic Threshold during Incremental Exercise Tests

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZÇELİK, Oğuz

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess whether maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) can be used as an index of measuring aerobic capacity under the condition of increased respiratory resistance. Seven male subjects performed two incremental exercise tests on a cycle ergometer on different days: one control (C) and one breathing through an 8 mm bore diameter respiratory resistance (R). Ventilatory and gas exchange responses were measured with a turbine volume transducer and mass spectrometry, and processed...

  9. Outcomes of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with discordant phenotypic isoniazid resistance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sukyeon; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Lee, Nam Yong; Jeong, Byeong-Ho

    2017-12-01

    The discrepancy rates of drug susceptibility testing (DST) results between solid and liquid media have been reported to range from 2.4 to 7.4% for isoniazid. Most isolate with isoniazid DST discrepancies between solid and liquid media test as susceptible on solid medium and resistant in liquid medium, however, the optimal management of patients with discordant testing is unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of treatment regimen on treatment outcomes when patients with rifampicin-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis have isoniazid resistance (INH-R) in liquid medium but isoniazid susceptibility (INH-S) on solid medium. This study was retrospectively conducted by reviewing patient medical records on the liquid compared to solid culture based phenotypic testing at Samsung Medical Center between January 2009 and December 2015. The study population which have INH-R in liquid medium and INH-S on solid medium was divided into two groups: group A (n = 30), which included patients treated for INH-S tuberculosis by discontinuing pyrazinamide (and ethambutol), and group B (n = 56), which included patients treated for INH-R tuberculosis by continuing pyrazinamide and/or adding fluoroquinolone. Unfavorable outcomes included treatment failure and relapse. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups including demographic data, comorbidities, radiologic data, and treatment duration. However, baseline smear positive rates were more frequent in group A (19/30, 63.3%) than in group B (22/56, 39.3%; P = 0.033). Only three patients had unfavorable outcomes; one was bacteriologically proven treatment failure and the other two were clinically judged as unfavorable outcomes. All of them were in the group A (3/30, 10%); no unfavorable outcomes occurred in the group B (0/56, 0%; P = 0.040). Unfavorable outcomes were less frequent in the group B than in the group A, indicating that treatment regimen modification according to DST

  10. Identification of powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars using host-pathogen tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Okoń

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize and identify powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat cultivars using host-pathogen tests. A differential set of six Blumeria graminis f.sp. avenae isolates virulent or avirulent to four cultivars and one line that has known resistance to powdery mildew were used. Among the investigated cultivars, only four of them (13.3% had resistance patterns similar to genotypes belonging to the differential set. The resistance of OMR group 1 was found in the cultivar ‘Dragon’, while that of OMR2 in the cultivar ‘Skrzat’. The cultivars ‘Deresz’ and ‘Hetman’ showed a resistance pattern that corresponded with OMR group 3. The resistance corresponding to OMR4 was not found, which suggests that until now this gene has not been used in Polish oat breeding programmes. The cultivar ‘Canyon’ had a different pat- tern of resistance than the genotypes that have already known OMR genes, which indicates that the resistance of this cultivar is determined by a new gene or a combination of known genes.

  11. Neisseria gonorrhoeae: testing, typing and treatment in an era of increased antimicrobial resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, C.M.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis discusses the management of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections while under threat of emerging antimicrobial resistance. It focuses on improved diagnostics, and antimicrobial resistance to current and future therapies. We describe a new method of targeted deferred culture, using nucleic

  12. Influence of inspiratory resistance on performance during graded exercise tests on a cycle ergometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heus, R.; Hartog, E.A. den; Kistemaker, L.J.A.; Dijk, W.J. van; Swenker, G.

    2004-01-01

    Due to more stringent requirements to protect personnel against hazardous gasses, the inspiratory resistance of the present generation of respiratory protective devices tends to increase. Therefore an important question is to what extent inspiratory resistance may increase without giving problems

  13. Using open hole and cased-hole resistivity logs to monitor gas hydrate dissociation during a thermal test in the mallik 5L-38 research well, Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B.I.; Collett, T.S.; Lewis, R.E.; Dubourg, I.

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrates, which are naturally occurring ice-like combinations of gas and water, have the potential to provide vast amounts of natural gas from the world's oceans and polar regions. However, producing gas economically from hydrates entails major technical challenges. Proposed recovery methods such as dissociating or melting gas hydrates by heating or depressurization are currently being tested. One such test was conducted in northern Canada by the partners in the Mallik 2002 Gas Hydrate Production Research Well Program. This paper describes how resistivity logs were used to determine the size of the annular region of gas hydrate dissociation that occurred around the wellbore during the thermal test in the Mallik 5L-38 well. An open-hole logging suite, run prior to the thermal test, included array induction, array laterolog, nuclear magnetic resonance and 1.1-GHz electromagnetic propagation logs. The reservoir saturation tool was run both before and after the thermal test to monitor formation changes. A cased-hole formation resistivity log was run after the test.Baseline resistivity values in each formation layer (Rt) were established from the deep laterolog data. The resistivity in the region of gas hydrate dissociation near the wellbore (Rxo) was determined from electromagnetic propagation and reservoir saturation tool measurements. The radius of hydrate dissociation as a function of depth was then determined by means of iterative forward modeling of cased-hole formation resistivity tool response. The solution was obtained by varying the modeled dissociation radius until the modeled log overlaid the field log. Pretest gas hydrate production computer simulations had predicted that dissociation would take place at a uniform radius over the 13-ft test interval. However, the post-test resistivity modeling showed that this was not the case. The resistivity-derived dissociation radius was greatest near the outlet of the pipe that circulated hot water in the wellbore

  14. Molecular and Growth-Based Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex for Ethambutol Resistance in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell A. Yakrus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethambutol (EMB is used as a part of drug regimens for treatment of tuberculosis (TB. Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC isolates to EMB can be discerned by DNA sequencing to detect mutations in the embB gene associated with resistance. US Public Health Laboratories (PHL primarily use growth-based drug susceptibility test (DST methods to determine EMB resistance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC provides a service for molecular detection of drug resistance (MDDR by DNA sequencing and concurrent growth-based DST using agar proportion. PHL and CDC test results were compared for 211 MTBC samples submitted to CDC from September 2009 through February 2011. Concordance between growth-based DST results from PHL and CDC was 88.2%. A growth-based comparison of 39 samples, where an embB mutation associated with EMB resistance was detected, revealed a higher percentage of EMB resistance by CDC (84.6% than by PHL (59.0% which was significant (P value = 0.002. Discordance between all growth-based test results from PHL and CDC was also significant (P value = 0.003. Most discordance was linked to false susceptibility using the BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 (MGIT growth-based system. Our analysis supports coalescing growth-based and molecular results for an informed interpretation of potential EMB resistance.

  15. Genotyping Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Primary Sputum and Decontaminated Sediment with an Integrated Microfluidic Amplification Microarray Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Yvonne; Knickerbocker, Christopher; Sipes, David; Golova, Julia; Franke, Molly; Calderon, Roger; Lecca, Leonid; Thakore, Nitu; Holmberg, Rebecca; Qu, Peter; Kukhtin, Alexander; Murray, Megan B; Cooney, Christopher G; Chandler, Darrell P

    2018-03-01

    There is a growing awareness that molecular diagnostics for detect-to-treat applications will soon need a highly multiplexed mutation detection and identification capability. In this study, we converted an open-amplicon microarray hybridization test for multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis into an entirely closed-amplicon consumable (an amplification microarray) and evaluated its performance with matched sputum and sediment extracts. Reproducible genotyping (the limit of detection) was achieved with ∼25 M. tuberculosis genomes (100 fg of M. tuberculosis DNA) per reaction; the estimated shelf life of the test was at least 18 months when it was stored at 4°C. The test detected M. tuberculosis in 99.1% of sputum extracts and 100% of sediment extracts and showed 100% concordance with the results of real-time PCR. The levels of concordance between M. tuberculosis and resistance-associated gene detection were 99.1% and 98.4% for sputum and sediment extracts, respectively. Genotyping results were 100% concordant between sputum and sediment extracts. Relative to the results of culture-based drug susceptibility testing, the test was 97.1% specific and 75.0% sensitive for the detection of rifampin resistance in both sputum and sediment extracts. The specificity for the detection of isoniazid (INH) resistance was 98.4% and 96.8% for sputum and sediment extracts, respectively, and the sensitivity for the detection of INH resistance was 63.6%. The amplification microarray reported the correct genotype for all discordant phenotype/genotype results. On the basis of these data, primary sputum may be considered a preferred specimen for the test. The amplification microarray design, shelf life, and analytical performance metrics are well aligned with consensus product profiles for next-generation drug-resistant M. tuberculosis diagnostics and represent a significant ease-of-use advantage over other hybridization-based tests for diagnosing MDR tuberculosis

  16. Irradiation tests of a small-sized motor with radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamichi, M.; Ishitsuka, E.; Shimakawa, S.; Kan, S.

    2007-01-01

    In the Test Blanket Module (TBM) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), tritium production and release behavior will be studied using neutrons from fusion reactions, as the blanket development for a demonstration (DEMO) reactor. For development of the TBM, in-pile functional tests are planned, including an integrated irradiation experiment of a fusion blanket mock-up for pulsed operation simulating the ITER operation mode, using the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA).Due to be installed in an irradiation rig, a small-sized motor has to be developed for rotating a neutron absorber with a window to realize the simulated pulse operation. Since degradation of materials of the motor may be caused by radiation damage due to neutron and gamma-ray irradiation, it is important to examine the soundness of the motor materials under the neutron and gamma irradiation.In the present study, a small-sized motor with increased radiation resistance was developed as follows. A design of a commercial alternate current (AC) servomotor was adopted in the base structure, and some components of the motor were replaced by those made of radiation-proof materials, through elimination of organic materials. Polyester-coated wire for field coil and epoxy for fixed resin were replaced by polyimide-coated wire and polysiloxane filled with MgO and Al 2 O 3 , respectively. Furthermore, inorganic lubricant (Mo-based coating of 4 micro meter in thickness) was treated on the surface of a gear, instead of organic (polyphenylether) oil.Radiation-induced degradation of the components of the developed small-sized motor was examined using JMTR and the Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4) of JAEA. The motor was operating normally up to a gamma-ray dose of 7 x 10 8 Gy, a fast neutron (E>1 MeV) fluence of 2 x 10 21 m -2 and a thermal neutron (E 22 m -2 . The irradiated gamma-ray dose for this motor is about 700 times as high as the operation

  17. Performance of the cobas MRSA/SA Test for Simultaneous Detection of Methicillin-Susceptible and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus From Nasal Swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lance R; Woods, Christopher W; Davis, Thomas E; Wang, Zi-Xuam; Young, Stephen A; Osiecki, John C; Lewinski, Michael A; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2017-08-01

    Health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) infections are continuing problems. Rapidly determining the MRSA colonization status of a patient facilitates practice to reduce spread of MRSA clinical disease. Sensitive detection of all SA prior to surgery, followed by decolonization, can significantly reduce postoperative infection from this pathogen. Our goal was to validate a new automated assay for this testing. We compared performance of the cobas MRSA/SA Test on the cobas 4800 System to direct and enriched chromogenic culture using nasal swabs collected from patients at six United States sites. Compared to direct and enriched culture, the sensitivity for MRSA and SA was 93.1% and 93.9%, and the specificity was 97.5% and 94.2%, respectively. After discrepancy analysis, the sensitivity for MRSA and SA was 97.1% and 98.6%, and the specificity was 98.3% and 95.5%, respectively. Compared to direct culture, sensitivity for detecting any SA was 99.6%. The cobas MRSA/SA Test is an effective tool to simultaneously perform surveillance testing for nasal colonization of both MRSA and MSSA.

  18. Testing of a resistive plate chamber using NINO-ASIC based front end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, M.; Saini, J.; Ahammed, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Ganai, R.; Barai, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) has shown promising results while testing with the NINO FEE board. It has shown ∼ 80% efficiency in detecting cosmic muons with a noise rate of ∼ 40 Hz/cm 2 . The low threshold in the NINO board may be a possible reason for high noise rate. We plan to test the RPC for different gas mixtures to achieve an efficiency above 95%. The calibration of the NINO onboard threshold with input pulse amplitude need to be done. The time resolution of RPC is ∼ 2.66 ns at 12 kV for avalanche mode gas mixture. The minimum time resolution of the RPC has to determined by measuring the time spectra over the full plateau region of voltages. The signal charge has to be measured by time over- threshold for slewing correction. As J7 input of the board was not working properly, efficiency and noise rate data for the particular input has not been measured

  19. Pedicle Screw Fixation Study in Immature Porcine Spines to Improve Pullout Resistance during Animal Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Le Cann

    Full Text Available The porcine model is frequently used during development and validation of new spinal devices, because of its likeness to the human spine. These spinal devices are frequently composed of pedicle screws with a reputation for stable fixation but which can suffer pullouts during preclinical implantation on young animals, leading to high morbidity. With a view to identifying the best choices to optimize pedicle screw fixation in the porcine model, this study evaluates ex vivo the impact of weight (age of the animal, the level of the vertebrae (lumbar or thoracic and the type of screw anchorage (mono- or bi-cortical on pedicle screw pullouts. Among the 80 pig vertebrae (90- and 140-day-old tested in this study, the average screw pullout forces ranged between 419.9N and 1341.2N. In addition, statistical differences were found between test groups, pointing out the influence of the three parameters stated above. We found that the the more caudally the screws are positioned (lumbar level, the greater their pullout resistance is, moreover, screw stability increases with the age, and finally, the screws implanted with a mono-cortical anchorage sustained lower pullout forces than those implanted with a bi-cortical anchorage. We conclude that the best anchorage can be obtained with older animals, using a lumbar fixation and long screws traversing the vertebra and inducing bi-cortical anchorage. In very young animals, pedicle screw fixations need to be bi-cortical and more numerous to prevent pullout.

  20. Pedicle Screw Fixation Study in Immature Porcine Spines to Improve Pullout Resistance during Animal Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cann, Sophie; Cachon, Thibaut; Viguier, Eric; Miladi, Lotfi; Odent, Thierry; Rossi, Jean-Marie; Chabrand, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The porcine model is frequently used during development and validation of new spinal devices, because of its likeness to the human spine. These spinal devices are frequently composed of pedicle screws with a reputation for stable fixation but which can suffer pullouts during preclinical implantation on young animals, leading to high morbidity. With a view to identifying the best choices to optimize pedicle screw fixation in the porcine model, this study evaluates ex vivo the impact of weight (age) of the animal, the level of the vertebrae (lumbar or thoracic) and the type of screw anchorage (mono- or bi-cortical) on pedicle screw pullouts. Among the 80 pig vertebrae (90- and 140-day-old) tested in this study, the average screw pullout forces ranged between 419.9N and 1341.2N. In addition, statistical differences were found between test groups, pointing out the influence of the three parameters stated above. We found that the the more caudally the screws are positioned (lumbar level), the greater their pullout resistance is, moreover, screw stability increases with the age, and finally, the screws implanted with a mono-cortical anchorage sustained lower pullout forces than those implanted with a bi-cortical anchorage. We conclude that the best anchorage can be obtained with older animals, using a lumbar fixation and long screws traversing the vertebra and inducing bi-cortical anchorage. In very young animals, pedicle screw fixations need to be bi-cortical and more numerous to prevent pullout.

  1. Abrasive Wear Resistance of the Iron- and WC-based Hardfaced Coatings Evaluated with Scratch Test Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vencl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abrasive wear is one of the most common types of wear, which makesabrasive wear resistance very important in many industries. Thehard facing is considered as useful and economical way to improve theperformance of components submitted to severe abrasive wear conditions, with wide range of applicable filler materials. The abrasive wear resistance of the three different hardfaced coatings (two iron‐based and one WC‐based, which were intended to be used for reparation of the impact plates of the ventilation mill, was investigated and compared. Abrasive wear tests were carried‐out by using the scratch tester under the dry conditions. Three normal loads of 10, 50 and 100 N and the constant sliding speed of 4 mm/s were used. Scratch test was chosen as a relatively easy and quick test method. Wear mechanism analysis showed significant influence of the hardfaced coatings structure, which, along with hardness, has determined coatings abrasive wear resistance.

  2. Experimental tests of the impact of selected parameters on the indentation rolling resistances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Dariusz; Gładysiewicz, Lech; Konieczna, Martyna

    2018-01-01

    Belt conveyors are main part of transporting systems in mines and in many other branches of industry. During conveyor belt works different types of resistances are generated. Indentation rolling resistance is the most significant component of the resistances from the perspective of energy losses and it cause the biggest costs as well. According to latest state of analyses and measurements it is well known that theoretical rolling resistance were underestimated in comparison with the measured in-situ one. In this paper new method for determination indentation rolling resistance is presented. The authors compared theoretically and experimentally established damping factors. The relation between these two values enabled to obtain more precise equation for damping function. This function is one of the most important component in calculation of the rolling resistance. In new theoretical model value of rolling resistance is nearly twice higher than this used so far.

  3. Prior indigenous technological species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary open questions of astrobiology is whether there is extant or extinct life elsewhere the solar system. Implicit in much of this work is that we are looking for microbial or, at best, unintelligent life, even though technological artefacts might be much easier to find. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) work on searches for alien artefacts in the solar system typically presumes that such artefacts would be of extrasolar origin, even though life is known to have existed in the solar system, on Earth, for eons. But if a prior technological, perhaps spacefaring, species ever arose in the solar system, it might have produced artefacts or other technosignatures that have survived to present day, meaning solar system artefact SETI provides a potential path to resolving astrobiology's question. Here, I discuss the origins and possible locations for technosignatures of such a prior indigenous technological species, which might have arisen on ancient Earth or another body, such as a pre-greenhouse Venus or a wet Mars. In the case of Venus, the arrival of its global greenhouse and potential resurfacing might have erased all evidence of its existence on the Venusian surface. In the case of Earth, erosion and, ultimately, plate tectonics may have erased most such evidence if the species lived Gyr ago. Remaining indigenous technosignatures might be expected to be extremely old, limiting the places they might still be found to beneath the surfaces of Mars and the Moon, or in the outer solar system.

  4. Systematic review, meta-analysis and economic modelling of molecular diagnostic tests for antibiotic resistance in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobniewski, Francis; Cooke, Mary; Jordan, Jake; Casali, Nicola; Mugwagwa, Tendai; Broda, Agnieszka; Townsend, Catherine; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Green, Nathan; Jit, Mark; Lipman, Marc; Lord, Joanne; White, Peter J; Abubakar, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), especially multidrug-resistant (MDR, resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid) disease, is associated with a worse patient outcome. Drug resistance diagnosed using microbiological culture takes days to weeks, as TB bacteria grow slowly. Rapid molecular tests for drug resistance detection (1 day) are commercially available and may promote faster initiation of appropriate treatment. OBJECTIVES To (1) conduct a systematic review of evidence regarding diagnostic accuracy of molecular genetic tests for drug resistance, (2) conduct a health-economic evaluation of screening and diagnostic strategies, including comparison of alternative models of service provision and assessment of the value of targeting rapid testing at high-risk subgroups, and (3) construct a transmission-dynamic mathematical model that translates the estimates of diagnostic accuracy into estimates of clinical impact. REVIEW METHODS AND DATA SOURCES A standardised search strategy identified relevant studies from EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, Bioscience Information Service (BIOSIS), System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe Social Policy & Practice (SIGLE) and Web of Science, published between 1 January 2000 and 15 August 2013. Additional 'grey' sources were included. Quality was assessed using quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies version 2 (QUADAS-2). For each diagnostic strategy and population subgroup, a care pathway was constructed to specify which medical treatments and health services that individuals would receive from presentation to the point where they either did or did not complete TB treatment successfully. A total cost was estimated from a health service perspective for each care pathway, and the health impact was estimated in terms of the mean discounted quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost as a result of disease and treatment. Costs and QALYs were both discounted at 3.5% per year. An integrated transmission-dynamic and

  5. Systematic review, meta-analysis and economic modelling of molecular diagnostic tests for antibiotic resistance in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobniewski, Francis; Cooke, Mary; Jordan, Jake; Casali, Nicola; Mugwagwa, Tendai; Broda, Agnieszka; Townsend, Catherine; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Green, Nathan; Jit, Mark; Lipman, Marc; Lord, Joanne; White, Peter J; Abubakar, Ibrahim

    2015-05-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), especially multidrug-resistant (MDR, resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid) disease, is associated with a worse patient outcome. Drug resistance diagnosed using microbiological culture takes days to weeks, as TB bacteria grow slowly. Rapid molecular tests for drug resistance detection (1 day) are commercially available and may promote faster initiation of appropriate treatment. To (1) conduct a systematic review of evidence regarding diagnostic accuracy of molecular genetic tests for drug resistance, (2) conduct a health-economic evaluation of screening and diagnostic strategies, including comparison of alternative models of service provision and assessment of the value of targeting rapid testing at high-risk subgroups, and (3) construct a transmission-dynamic mathematical model that translates the estimates of diagnostic accuracy into estimates of clinical impact. A standardised search strategy identified relevant studies from EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, Bioscience Information Service (BIOSIS), System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe Social Policy & Practice (SIGLE) and Web of Science, published between 1 January 2000 and 15 August 2013. Additional 'grey' sources were included. Quality was assessed using quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies version 2 (QUADAS-2). For each diagnostic strategy and population subgroup, a care pathway was constructed to specify which medical treatments and health services that individuals would receive from presentation to the point where they either did or did not complete TB treatment successfully. A total cost was estimated from a health service perspective for each care pathway, and the health impact was estimated in terms of the mean discounted quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost as a result of disease and treatment. Costs and QALYs were both discounted at 3.5% per year. An integrated transmission-dynamic and economic model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of

  6. Evaluations of corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr plated and Zn-plated Fe Substrates Using an Electrolytic Corrosion Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaebong; Kim, Kyungwook; Park, Minwoo; Song, Taejun; Lee, Chaeseung; Lee, Euijong; Kim, Sangyeol

    2013-01-01

    An Eectrolytic Corrosion(EC) test method was evaluated by the comparison with Copper Accelerated Acetic Salt Spray(CASS) and Neutral Salt Spray(SS) tests. Those methods were applied in order to evaluate corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr plated and Zn-plated Fe substrates. The correlations between results obtained by different test methods were investigated. Results showed that the electrochemical method such as the EC test method was superior to the conventional methods such as CASS and SS, in terms of the quantitative accuracy and the test-time span. Furthermore, the EC test method provided the useful means to estimate the initiation of corrosion of each layer by monitoring the rest potentials of the coated layers such as Ni, Cr, and Zn on Fe substrate. With regard to test time spans, the EC test provided the 78 times and 182 times faster results than the CASS test in cases of Fe + 5μm Ni + 0.5 μm Cr and Fe + 20 μm Ni + 0.5 μm Cr respectively, while the EC test was 85 times faster results than the Salt Spray test in the case of Fe + 20 g/m 2 Zn. Therefore, the EC test can be the better method to evaluate the resistance to corrosion of coated layers than the conventional methods such as the SS test and the CASS

  7. Emerging Resistance, New Antimicrobial Agents  …  but No Tests! The Challenge of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing in the Current US Regulatory Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R M; Hindler, J A

    2016-07-01

    Accurate and timely performance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) by the clinical laboratory is paramount to combating antimicrobial resistance. The ability of laboratories in the United States to effectively perform ASTs is challenged by several factors. Some, such as new resistance mechanisms and the associated evolution of testing recommendations and breakpoints, are inevitable. Others are entirely man-made. These include unnecessarily strict US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) limitations on how commercial AST systems can be used for diagnostic testing, the absence of up-to-date performance data on these systems, and the lack of commercially available FDA-cleared tests for newer antimicrobial agents or for older agents with updated breakpoints. This viewpoint will highlight contemporary AST challenges faced by the clinical laboratory, and propose some solutions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Study of Proper Time Range for Current Flow to Resistance Spot Welding Inspected by Mechanical Property and Metallurgy Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearsura, Prachya

    2007-08-01

    Full text: This research used the mechanical property and metallurgy testing to identify the proper time range for current flow. The specimen tested was 1 mm thick mild steel. The welded specimens were tested by Tensile Shear testing following JIS Z 3136: 1999 and Macro Structure testing follow by JIS Z 3139: 1978. Subsequently, the results from analyzing were compared with standard JIS Z 3140. The results show that the suitable current flow is 8 to 10 cycles. This technique can be applied to monitor the process and the quality of resistance spot welding

  9. Detection of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori by polymerase chain reaction using residual samples from rapid urease test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sik Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, which corresponds to a high infection rate. Furthermore, the incidence of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori has increased with the recent rise in use of antibiotics for H. pylori elimination, suggesting growing treatment failures. Aim: The study was aimed to assess the use of residual samples from rapid urease test (RUT for biomolecular testing as an effective and accurate method to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Settings and Design: This study was a retrospective study performed using data obtained from medical records of previously isolated H. pylori strains. Materials and Methods: RUT was conducted for 5440 biopsy samples from individuals who underwent health examination in South Korea. Subsequently, 469 RUT residual samples were randomly selected and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test was used to analyse categorical data. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed a concordance between the results of PCR and conventional RUT in 450 of 469 samples, suggesting that the H. pylori PCR test is a time- and cost-effective detection method. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that PCR test can aid physicians to prescribe the appropriate antibiotics at the time of diagnosis, thus preventing the reduction in H. pylori eradication due to antibiotic resistance, averting progression to serious diseases and increasing the treatment success rate.

  10. Strength resistance test of superior members for elderly people: comparison between dumbbells with different weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marize Amorim Lopes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the performance of elderly people in the strength resistance test of superior members (SRTSM with dumbbells of different weights (1,8 kg and 2 kg for women and 3,6 kg and 4 kg for men. The sample consisted of 407 elderly (349 feminine and 58 masculine, with age of 60 to 88 years, practitioners of physical exercise for at least six months. The used instrument was the SRTSM of the battery of tests American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD. Two executions of the test were carried through with dumbbells of different weights, SRTSM (1,8 kg and 3,6 kg and “adjusted” SRTSM (2 kg and 4 kg. For the analysis of the data, it was proceeded descriptive analysis, test t of Student for independent samples, paired t test for dependent samples and ANOVA with post-hoc of Tukey, adopting itself the 5% level significance. The results demonstrated that the use of dumbbells with 4 weights of 2 and kg, seem not to affect the performance of the elderly ones, mainly of the masculine sex. For the feminine sex significant difference in the averages of the second comparison carried through for the sort was detected. However, this difference can have been resulting from external factors to the test, since, the greater average obtained was for “the adjusted” SRTSM. Nevertheless, one tries to facilitate even more the evaluation of the functional capacity of the elderly population, being recommended for SRTSM the use of dumbbells with weight of 2 kg for women and 4kg for men that they are of low cost, easy acquisition and access in the Brazilian market. ResumoO objetivo do estudo foi comparar o desempenho de idosos no teste de resistência de força de membros superiores (RESISFOR com halteres de diferentes pesos (1,8 kg e 2 kg para mulheres e 3,6 kg e 4 kg para homens. A amostra foi constituída por 407 idosos (349 feminino e 58 masculino, com idade de 60 a 88 anos, praticantes de exercício f

  11. Testing hypotheses that link wood anatomy to cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in the genus Acer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Frederic; Sperry, John S; Christman, Mairgareth A; Choat, Brendan; Rabaey, David; Jansen, Steven

    2011-05-01

    • Vulnerability to cavitation and conductive efficiency depend on xylem anatomy. We tested a large range of structure-function hypotheses, some for the first time, within a single genus to minimize phylogenetic 'noise' and maximize detection of functionally relevant variation. • This integrative study combined in-depth anatomical observations using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy of seven Acer taxa, and compared these observations with empirical measures of xylem hydraulics. • Our results reveal a 2 MPa range in species' mean cavitation pressure (MCP). MCP was strongly correlated with intervessel pit structure (membrane thickness and porosity, chamber depth), weakly correlated with pit number per vessel, and not related to pit area per vessel. At the tissue level, there was a strong correlation between MCP and mechanical strength parameters, and some of the first evidence is provided for the functional significance of vessel grouping and thickenings on inner vessel walls. In addition, a strong trade-off was observed between xylem-specific conductivity and MCP. Vessel length and intervessel wall characteristics were implicated in this safety-efficiency trade-off. • Cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in Acer appear to be controlled by a very complex interaction between tissue, vessel network and pit characteristics. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Ground penetrating radar and direct current resistivity evaluation of the desiccation test cap, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, D.E.; Cumbest, R.J.

    1996-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has a variety of waste units that may be temporarily or permanently stabilized by closure using an impermeable cover to prevent groundwater infiltration. The placement of an engineered kaolin clay layer over a waste unit is an accepted and economical technique for providing an impermeable cover but the long term stability and integrity of the clay in non-arid conditions is unknown. A simulated kaolin cap has been constructed at the SRA adjacent to the Burial Ground Complex. The cap is designed to evaluate the effects of desiccation on clay integrity, therefore half of the cap is covered with native soil to prevent drying, while the remainder of the cap is exposed. Measurements of the continuing impermeability of a clay cap are difficult because intrusive techniques may locally compromise the structure. Point measurements made to evaluate clay integrity, such as those from grid sampling or coring and made through a soil cover, may miss cracks, joints or fissures, and may not allow for mapping of the lateral extent of elongate features. Because of these problems, a non-invasive technique is needed to map clay integrity, below a soil or vegetation cover, which is capable of moderate to rapid investigation speeds. Two non-intrusive geophysical techniques, direct current resistivity and ground penetrating radar (GPR), have been successful at the SRS in geologically mapping shallow subsurface clay layers. The applicability of each technique in detecting the clay layer in the desiccation test cap and associated anomalies was investigated

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pharmacogenomics in clinical practice: relevance of HIV-1 drug resistance testing (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patarca, Roberto; Isava, Alejandro; Campo, Rafael; Rodriguez, Nelson J; Nunez, Enriqueta; Alter, Michael; Marchette, Margaret; Sanabia, Mirtha M; Mitchell, Charles; Rivera, Delia; Scott, Gwendolyn; Jayaweera, Dushyantha; Moreno, Jose; Boulanger, Catherine; Kolber, Michael; Mask, Cindy W; Sierra, Eduardo Meneses; Vallejo, Ricardo; Page, J Brian; Klimas, Nancy G; Fletcher, Mary Ann

    2003-01-01

    Throughout most of the past century, physicians could offer patients no treatments for infections caused by viruses. The experience with treatment of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has changed the way healthcare workers deal with viral infections and has triggered a growing rate of discovery and use of antiviral agents, the first fruits of the expanding genomics revolution. HIV treatment also provides an informative paradigm for pharmacogenomics because control of infection and its consequences is limited by the development of viral drug resistance and by host factors. This report summarizes studies published to date on the significance of testing of HIV-1 resistance to antiretroviral drugs. The only Food and Drug Administration-approved kit for HIV drug resistance testing by genotypic sequencing is commercially available through Visible Genetics, Inc. Genotyping sequencing alone is most likely an adequate test to assist in the therapeutic decision-making process for previous regimen failure, for treatment-naïve patients in areas of high prevalence of transmitted resistant virus, and for pregnant women. However, in exceptional cases of highly complex mutation patterns and extensive cross-resistance, it may be useful to obtain a phenotype test, because that result may more easily identify drugs to which virus is least resistant. There are no published clinical trials results on the usefulness of the so-called virtual phenotype over genotypic sequencing alone. Not only has the paradigm of viral pharmacogenomics in the form of HIV genotypic sequencing been useful in treating other viral diseases, but it is also important to the real-life implementation of the growing discipline ofgenomics or molecular medicine. The application of this paradigm to the thousands of potential therapeutic targets that have become available through the various human genome projects will certainly gradually change the landscape of diagnosis and management of many diseases

  14. Decreased Time to Treatment Initiation for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients after Use of Xpert MTB/RIF Test, Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Helen R; White, Peter J; Riekstiņa, Vija; Cīrule, Andra; Šķenders, Ģirts; Leimane, Vaira; Kuksa, Liga; Dravniece, Gunta; Brown, James; Jackson, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    Few studies have examined whether the Xpert MTB/RIF test improves time to treatment initiation for persons with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB). We determined the impact of this test in Latvia, where it was introduced in 2010. After descriptive analyses of pulmonary MDR TB patients in Latvia during 2009-2012, time to treatment initiation was calculated, and univariate and multivariable accelerated failure time models were constructed. Univariate results showed strong evidence of an association between having rifampin-resistant TB detected by Xpert MTB/RIF and reduced time to treatment initiation versus the test not being used. A multivariable model stratifying by previous TB showed similar results. Our finding that in Latvia, time to treatment initiation was decreased for MDR TB cases that were rifampin-resistant TB by XpertMTB/RIF has implications for the use of this test in other settings with a high burden of MDR TB in which rifampin resistance is highly predictive of MDR TB.

  15. The Electrical Resistivity and Acoustic Emission Response Law and Damage Evolution of Limestone in Brazilian Split Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinji Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian split test was performed on two groups of limestone samples with loading directions vertical and parallel to the bedding plane, and the response laws of the electrical resistivity and acoustic emission (AE in the two loading modes were obtained. The test results showed that the Brazilian split test with loading directions vertical and parallel to the bedding showed obviously different results and anisotropic characteristics. On the basis of the response laws of the electrical resistivity and AE, the damage variables based on the electrical resistivity and AE properties were modified, and the evolution laws of the damage variables in the Brazilian split test with different loading directions were obtained. It was found that the damage evolution laws varied with the loading direction. Specifically, in the time-varying curve of the damage variable with the loading direction vertical to the bedding, the damage variable based on electrical resistivity properties showed an obvious damage weakening stage while that based on AE properties showed an abrupt increase under low load.

  16. A comparative analysis of resistance testing methods in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from St. Johns County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) was tested for resistance to permethrin, bifenthrin, and malathion using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassays and topical toxicology assays on adults and larval bioassays. Eggs were collected from 3 locations across St. Johns C...

  17. Properties of fly ash and metakaolín based geopolymer panels under fire resistance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna-Galiano, Y.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study about the effect of fire on geopolymer paste composed of fly ashes, metakaolin and sodium silicate. 2 cm thick, 28 cm high and 18 cm wide panels were filled with the paste obtained. After 28 days of curing at 20 °C and 45% of relative humidity, different tests were carried out in the geopolymers: physico-chemical (density, water absorption, porosity, mechanical (flexural and compressive strength, fire resistance and environmental (leaching and radioactivity. The panels manufactured have been compared with other commercial panels in order to determine the recycling possibilities of fly ashes in manufacturing new fire-insulating geopolymers. The panels obtained can be utilized for the production of interior wall materials, with a good physical, mechanical, fire resistant properties without any environmental problem.Este documento presenta los resultados de un estudio sobre el efecto del fuego sobre pastas de geopolímeros compuestas de cenizas volantes, metacaolín y silicato sódico. Con la pasta obtenida se han rellenado paneles de dimensiones 2 cm de espesor, 28 cm de altura y 18 cm de ancho. Tras 28 días de curado a 20 °C y un 45% de humedad relativa, diferentes ensayos fueron realizados en los geopolímeros obtenidos: fisicoquímicos (densidad, absorción de agua, porosidad, mecánicos (resistencia a compresión y a flexión, de resistencia al fuego y medioambientales (lixiviación y radioactividad. Los paneles fabricados han sido comparados con paneles comerciales para determinar las posibilidades de reciclaje de las cenizas volantes para la fabricación de nuevos productos geopoliméricos con propiedades aislantes al fuego. Los paneles obtenidos pueden ser utilizados para la producción de paredes interiores, con buenas propiedades físicas, mecánicas y de resistencia al fuego sin ningún problema medioambiental.

  18. Modelling of Two-Seat Connection to the Frame of Rail Wagon in Terms of Resistance at Impact Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čech Rostislav

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores how design changes can affect resistance of rail wagon seat-to-frame connections at impact test and proposes alternative way to construct such connections. Results were due to a nature of presented problem obtained by computer modelling using MSC Nastran with explicit finite element method solution invoked. Physical tests were also conducted and comparison with numerical results is presented.

  19. New test procedure to determine fuel's knock resistance; Neues Kraftstoffpruefverfahren zur Bestimmung der Klopffestigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Karl [Hochschule Ingolstadt (Germany). Thermodynamik und Verbrennungsmotoren; Hauber, Johann; Raba, Andreas [Hochschule Ingolstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Forschung; Nell, Robert [Rofa Laboratory and Process Analyzers, Kritzendorf (Austria). Bereich Produktentwicklung

    2013-07-15

    Knock resistance is one of the most important quality features of gasoline that is determined by standardised motor test procedures. These procedures were developed more than 80 years ago and have been used nearly unchanged since then. During a four-year research project at Ingolstadt University of Applied Sciences, the procedures for determination of octane numbers were analysed in order to develop a new engine-based test method. (orig.)

  20. Test methods for on site measurement of resistivity of concrete. A RILEM TC-154 Technical Recommendation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes methods to assess concrete resistivity on site for various purposes related to corrosion and protection of reinforcement. It is based on a first draft of a RILEM Technical Recommendation. The electrical resistivity of concrete can be related to the two processes involved in

  1. Change in electrical resistance of irradiated nuclear graphite during compressive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Motokuni

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the change in electrical resistance of neutron-irradiated nuclear graphite is measured and compared with that of the unirradiated; the deformation mechanism for irradiated graphite is discussed in relation to the resistance change and the defects which are believed to be produced during irradiation. (orig./RK)

  2. Testing a Model of Resistance to Peer Pressure among Mexican-Origin Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors associated with resistance to peer pressure toward antisocial behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin adolescents (n=564) living in a large Southwestern city in the U.S. A model examining the influence of generational status, emotional autonomy from parents, and self-esteem on resistance to peer pressure was…

  3. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the aminoglycoside arbekacin tested against oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Brazilian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. R. Cordeiro

    Full Text Available Arbekacin is an aminoglycoside used in Japan for treating infections caused by gentamicin and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (ORSA. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of arbekacin against 454 clinical isolates of ORSA. The isolates were consecutively collected between January and July, 2000, from patients hospitalized in 8 Brazilian medical centers. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method according to NCCLS recommendations. The vast majority of the isolates, 453 strains (99.8%, were considered susceptible to arbekacin based on the criteria proposed by the Requirements for Antibiotic Products of Japan. Only 1 isolate (0.2% was classified as resistant. On the other hand, high rates of resistance were demonstrated for other aminoglycosides, such as gentamicin (97.6% resistance and amikacin (97.0% resistance. Resistance rate was also high for ciprofloxacin (98.0%. All isolates were considered susceptible to vancomycin. The excellent in vitro antimicrobial activity of arbekacin demonstrated in this study indicates that this antimicrobial agent may play an important role in the treatment of severe ORSA infections, especially those that show poor clinical response with vancomycin monotherapy. Since the aminoglycosides should not be used as monotherapy to treat Gram positive infections, further studies evaluating in vitro and in vivo synergistic activity of arbekacin combinations are necessary to clarify the clinical role of this aminoglycoside.

  4. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the aminoglycoside arbekacin tested against oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Brazilian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordeiro Julio C. R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Arbekacin is an aminoglycoside used in Japan for treating infections caused by gentamicin and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (ORSA. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of arbekacin against 454 clinical isolates of ORSA. The isolates were consecutively collected between January and July, 2000, from patients hospitalized in 8 Brazilian medical centers. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method according to NCCLS recommendations. The vast majority of the isolates, 453 strains (99.8%, were considered susceptible to arbekacin based on the criteria proposed by the Requirements for Antibiotic Products of Japan. Only 1 isolate (0.2% was classified as resistant. On the other hand, high rates of resistance were demonstrated for other aminoglycosides, such as gentamicin (97.6% resistance and amikacin (97.0% resistance. Resistance rate was also high for ciprofloxacin (98.0%. All isolates were considered susceptible to vancomycin. The excellent in vitro antimicrobial activity of arbekacin demonstrated in this study indicates that this antimicrobial agent may play an important role in the treatment of severe ORSA infections, especially those that show poor clinical response with vancomycin monotherapy. Since the aminoglycosides should not be used as monotherapy to treat Gram positive infections, further studies evaluating in vitro and in vivo synergistic activity of arbekacin combinations are necessary to clarify the clinical role of this aminoglycoside.

  5. Testing hypotheses on the resistance to metals by Daphnia longispina: differential acclimation, endpoints association, and fitness costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saro, Liliana; Lopes, Isabel; Martins, Nelson; Ribeiro, Rui

    2012-04-01

    Pollution by metals may lead to an increased tolerance in the exposed population through adaptive microevolution, with resistant genotypes becoming more abundant than in reference sites. This work investigated the outcomes associated with selection for resistance by testing three hypotheses to assess the following: Do resistant versus sensitive clonal lineages of Daphnia longispina differentially acclimate to metals during a long-term sublethal exposure, is there a significant correlation between lethal and sublethal responses, and does resistance to metals entail costs to fitness under uncontaminated conditions? No evidence of acclimation was observed. The median effective dilutions of acid mine drainage for reproduction were similar for successive broods within clones during long-term exposures. Lethal and sublethal responses were not correlated, indicating that mechanisms regulating the two types of response were more than likely different. Finally, fitness costs associated with the resistance to lethal levels of metals were not detected, but resistance to sublethal levels of Cu was found to be correlated with a lower intrinsic growth rate under control conditions. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  6. Allelic Tests and Sequence Analysis of Three Genes for Resistance to Xanthomonas perforans Race T3 in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Baimei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Three crosses, Hawaii7981 × PI128216, Hawaii7981 × LA1589, and PI128216 × LA1589, were made to develop F2 populations for testing allelism among three genes Xv3, Rx4, and RxLA1589 conferring resistance to bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas perforans race T3 in tomato. Each population consisted of 535–1 655 individuals. An infiltration method was used to inoculate the leaves of the parental and F2 plants as well as the susceptible control OH88119 for detecting hypersensitive resistance (HR. The results showed that all the tomato plants except OH88119 had HR to race T3, indicating that Xv3, Rx4, and RxLA1589 were allelic genes. Genomic DNA fragments of the Rx4 alleles from Hawaii7981, PI128216, and LA1589 were amplified using gene-specific primers and sequenced. No sequence variation was observed in the coding region of Rx4 in the three resistant lines. Based on the published map positions of these loci as well as the allelic tests and sequence data obtained in this study, we speculated that Xv3, Rx4, and RxLA1589 were the same gene. The results will provide useful information for understanding the mechanism of resistance to race T3 and developing resistant tomato varieties.

  7. Designing and Implementation a Lab Testing Method for Power Cables Insulation Resistance According with STAS 10411-89, SR EN ISO/CEI/17025/2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobra, R.; Pasculescu, D.; Marc, G.; Risteiu, M.; Antonov, A.

    2017-06-01

    Insulation resistance measurement is one of the most important tests required by standards and regulations in terms of electrical safety. Why these tests are is to prevent possible accidents caused by electric shock, damage to equipment or outbreak of fire in normal operating conditions of electrical cables. The insulation resistance experiment refers to the testing of electrical cable insulation, which has a measured resistance that must be below the imposed regulations. Using a microcontroller system data regarding the insulation resistance of the power cables is acquired and with SCADA software the test results are displayed.

  8. Comparison of disc diffusion, Etest and broth microdilution for testing susceptibility of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa to polymyxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fung Liang

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the increasing use of polymyxins to treat infections due to multidrug resistant Gram-negative in many countries, it is important to evaluate different susceptibility testing methods to this class of antibiotic. Methods Susceptibility of 109 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa to polymyxins was tested comparing broth microdilution (reference method, disc diffusion, and Etest using the new interpretative breakpoints of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results Twenty-nine percent of isolates belonged to endemic clone and thus, these strains were excluded of analysis. Among 78 strains evaluated, only one isolate was resistant to polymyxin B by the reference method (MIC: 8.0 μg/mL. Very major and major error rates of 1.2% and 11.5% were detected comparing polymyxin B disc diffusion with the broth microdilution (reference method. Agreement within 1 twofold dilution between Etest and the broth microdilution were 33% for polymyxin B and 79.5% for colistin. One major error and 48.7% minor errors were found comparing polymyxin B Etest with broth microdilution and only 6.4% minor errors with colistin. The concordance between Etest and the broth microdilution (reference method was respectively 100% for colistin and 90% for polymyxin B. Conclusion Resistance to polymyxins seems to be rare among hospital carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates over a six-year period. Our results showed, using the new CLSI criteria, that the disc diffusion susceptibility does not report major errors (false-resistant results for colistin. On the other hand, showed a high frequency of minor errors and 1 very major error for polymyxin B. Etest presented better results for colistin than polymyxin B. Until these results are reproduced with a large number of polymyxins-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates, susceptibility to polymyxins should be confirmed by a reference method.

  9. Linking disturbance and resistance to invasion via changes in biodiversity: a conceptual model and an experimental test on rocky reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulleri, Fabio; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Jaklin, Andrej; Iveša, Ljiljana

    2016-04-01

    Biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. Nonetheless, a unified theory linking disturbance and resistance to invasion through a mechanistic understanding of the changes caused to biodiversity is elusive. Building on different forms of the disturbance-biodiversity relationship and on the Biotic Resistance Hypothesis (BRH), we constructed conceptual models showing that, according to the main biodiversity mechanism generating invasion resistance (complementary vs. identity effects), disturbance can either promote or hinder invasion. Following the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis (IDH), moderate levels of disturbance (either frequency or intensity) are expected to enhance species richness. This will promote invasion resistance when complementarity is more important than species identity. Negative effects of severe disturbance on invasion resistance, due to reductions in species richness, can be either overcompensated or exacerbated by species identity effects, depending on the life-traits becoming dominant within the native species pool. Different invasion resistance scenarios are generated when the diversity-disturbance relationship is negative or positive monotonic. Predictions from these models were experimentally tested on rocky reefs. Macroalgal canopies differing in species richness (1 vs. 2 vs. 3) and identity, were exposed to either a moderate or a severe pulse disturbance. The effects of different canopy-forming species on the seaweed, Caulerpa cylindracea, varied from positive (Cystoseira crinita) to neutral (Cystoseira barbata) to negative (Cystoseira compressa). After 2 years, severely disturbed plots were monopolized by C. compressa and supported less C. cylindracea. Our study shows that the effects of disturbance on invasion depend upon its intensity, the main mechanism through which biodiversity generates invasion resistance and the life-traits selected within the native species pool. Disturbance can sustain invasion resistance when

  10. Infection control, genetic assessment of drug resistance and drug susceptibility testing in the current management of multidrug/extensively-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothamley, Graham H.; Lange, Christoph; Albrecht, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Europe has the highest documented caseload and greatest increase in multidrug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) of all World Health Organization (WHO) regions. This survey examines how recommendations for M/XDR-TB management are being implemented. METHODS: TBNET is a pan......-European clinical research collaboration for tuberculosis. An email survey of TBNET members collected data in relation to infection control, access to molecular tests and basic microbiology with drug sensitivity testing. RESULTS: 68/105 responses gave valid information and were from countries within the WHO...... widely available (88%), even in lower income and especially in high incidence countries. Molecular tests for other first line and second line drugs were less accessible (76 and 52% respectively). A third of physicians considered that drug susceptibility results were delayed by > 2 months. CONCLUSION...

  11. Use of the delayed luminescence test for evaluation of changes in frost-resistance of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Brzóstowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of frost hardening conditions on the frost-resistance of three winter wheat cultivars ('Mironowska 808', 'Grana' and 'Maris Huntsman' was studied. Frost resistance was measured periodically during the autumn and winter season by the delayed luminescence method. Parallelly an electrical conductivity test was performed for comparison. It was found that the temperature which delayed luminescence reaches its maximum (tN correlates with (t50 obtained by the conductometric method. The differences in response of particular cultivars to frost and hardening conditions are described.

  12. Validation of the finite element simulation to estimate the rolling resistance of a non-driving wheel with experimental tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dibagar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Encountering soil from the viewpoint of management and product manufacturing has always been considered important, and an attempt is always made hat the tools and contrasting methods of soil be designed in such a way that itself prevents, as much as possible, the destructive consequences or energy waste that include economical or environmental limitations. Enhancing the soil encountering methods, quality reformation, and its related equipment, requires performing reliable tests in actual soil conditions. Considering the complexity and variety of variables in soil and machine contrast, this is a hard task. Hence, the numeral simulations are the key of all optimizations that illustrate efficient models by removing the costly farm tests and reducing research time. Tire is one of the main factors engaged with soil, and it is one of those tools that are discussable in both farms, and software environments. Despite the complexities in soil behavior, and tire geometry, modeling, tire movement on the soil has been the researchers’ objective from the past. Materials and methods: A non-linear finite element (FE model of the interaction of a non-driving tire with soil surface was developed to investigate the influence of the forward speed, tire inflation pressure and vertical load on rolling resistance using ABAQUS/Explicit code. In this research numerical and experimental tests were done under different conditions in order to estimate tire rolling resistance. In numerical tests, the soil part was simulated as a one-layer viscous-elastic material with a Drucker-Prager model by considering realistic soil properties. These properties included elastic and plastic properties which were obtained in the soil laboratory using relevant tests. The soil samples were prepared from the soil which was inside the soil bin. The same soil was utilized in experimental tests. Finite strain hyper elasticity model is developed to model nearly incompressible

  13. Genotypic Resistance Tests Sequences Reveal the Role of Marginalized Populations in HIV-1 Transmission in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilaih, Mohaned; Marzel, Alex; Yang, Wan Lin; Scherrer, Alexandra U; Schüpbach, Jörg; Böni, Jürg; Yerly, Sabine; Hirsch, Hans H; Aubert, Vincent; Cavassini, Matthias; Klimkait, Thomas; Vernazza, Pietro L; Bernasconi, Enos; Furrer, Hansjakob; Günthard, Huldrych F; Kouyos, Roger

    2016-06-14

    Targeting hard-to-reach/marginalized populations is essential for preventing HIV-transmission. A unique opportunity to identify such populations in Switzerland is provided by a database of all genotypic-resistance-tests from Switzerland, including both sequences from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) and non-cohort sequences. A phylogenetic tree was built using 11,127 SHCS and 2,875 Swiss non-SHCS sequences. Demographics were imputed for non-SHCS patients using a phylogenetic proximity approach. Factors associated with non-cohort outbreaks were determined using logistic regression. Non-B subtype (univariable odds-ratio (OR): 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8-2.1), female gender (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-1.7), black ethnicity (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.7-2.1) and heterosexual transmission group (OR:1.8; 95% CI: 1.6-2.0), were all associated with underrepresentation in the SHCS. We found 344 purely non-SHCS transmission clusters, however, these outbreaks were small (median 2, maximum 7 patients) with a strong overlap with the SHCS'. 65% of non-SHCS sequences were part of clusters composed of >= 50% SHCS sequences. Our data suggests that marginalized-populations are underrepresented in the SHCS. However, the limited size of outbreaks among non-SHCS patients in-care implies that no major HIV outbreak in Switzerland was missed by the SHCS surveillance. This study demonstrates the potential of sequence data to assess and extend the scope of infectious-disease surveillance.

  14. Durability of Compressed Earth Bricks: Assessing Erosion Resistance Using the Modified Spray Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malarvizhi Baskaran

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The discussion in this paper is part of research directed at establishing optimal stabilization strategy for compressed bricks. The deployment context for the use of the compressed bricks was Dar es Salaam (Tanzania where manually fabricated bricks are increasingly being used in low cost housing units. This discussion specifically focuses on strategies that can be used to counter deterioration due to wind-driven rain erosion. The impact of using cement, lime, fiber and a commercial stabilizing fluid was assessed. Factory-produced bricks were used for benchmarking. The durability of the bricks was assessed using the “modified” Bulletin 5 Spray Test. The different brick specimens were sprayed with water at 2.07 MPa and 4.14 MPa over one-hour time period while measuring the depth of erosion every 15 minutes. Factory-produced bricks hardly eroded at both 2.07 MPa and 4.14 MPa pressure levels. The maximum depth of erosion for Soil-Cement bricks ranged from a maximum of 0.5 mm at 2.07 MPa water pressure to 0.8 mm at 4.14 MPa. The maximum and minimum depths of erosion for Soil-Cement-Lime bricks were 25mm and 17 mm respectively. The inclusion of natural fiber in the bricks resulted in a sharp increase of the erosion depth to a maximum of 40 mm at 2.07 MPa and 55 mm at 4.14 Mpa. As the use of natural fibers and lime enhances some physio-mechanical properties, further research is necessary to determine ways of achieving this goal while maintaining acceptable levels of erosion resistance.

  15. Prior Elicitation, Assessment and Inference with a Dirichlet Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Evans

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Methods are developed for eliciting a Dirichlet prior based upon stating bounds on the individual probabilities that hold with high prior probability. This approach to selecting a prior is applied to a contingency table problem where it is demonstrated how to assess the prior with respect to the bias it induces as well as how to check for prior-data conflict. It is shown that the assessment of a hypothesis via relative belief can easily take into account what it means for the falsity of the hypothesis to correspond to a difference of practical importance and provide evidence in favor of a hypothesis.

  16. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp.: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Kristensen, Lise; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have emerged to become a significant nosocomial pathogen. However, detection may be challenging and treatment possibilities are limited. Reports of resistance to linezolide, daptomycin and tigecycline underline the need for reliable susceptibility testing...... with respect to these compounds. We evaluated the in vitro activity of vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline against a panel of VRE and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci by broth microdilution (BMD). Etest for determination of minimum inhibitory concentration of these four antibiotics and two disc...... diffusion assays for detecting VRE and for susceptibility testing against tigecycline and linezolid were evaluated. Before susceptibility testing, all isolates were classified by polymerase chain reaction as vanA or vanB gene positive or vanA/B gene negative. Linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline had...

  17. The evaluation of dynamic cracking resistance of chosen casting alloys in the aspect of the impact bending test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Sadowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase of quality and durability of produced casting alloys can be evaluated on the base of material tests performed on a high level. One of such modern test methods are tests of the dynamic damage process of materials and the evaluation on the base of obtained courses F(f, F(t of parameters of dynamic cracking resistance KId, JId, performed with the usage of instrumented Charpy pendulums. In the paper there was presented the evaluation of dynamic cracking resistance parameters of casting alloys such as: AK12 aluminum alloy, L20G cast steel and spheroid cast iron. The methodology of the evaluation of that parameters was described and their change as well, for the AK12 alloy with the cold work different level, L20G cast steel cooled from different temperatures in the range +20oC -60oC, and for the spheroid cast iron in different stages of treatment i.e. raw state, after normalization, spheroid annealing and graphitizing annealing.Obtained parameters of dynamic cracking resistance KId, JId of tested casting alloys enabled to define the critical value of the ad defect that can be tolerated by tested castings in different work conditions with impact loadings.

  18. The relevance of prior knowledge in learning and instructional design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailikari, Telle; Katajavuori, Nina; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari

    2008-10-15

    To determine how different types of prior knowledge (declarative and procedural) impact student achievement and how prior-knowledge assessment can be used as an instructional design tool. A questionnaire was developed based on the prior-knowledge model, which distinguishes between declarative and procedural knowledge. One hundred fifteen pharmacy students were tested prior to beginning 4 successive basic science courses and then prior to beginning a pharmaceutical chemistry course. Regression analysis was used to determine which type of knowledge was the best predictor of student achievement. The 4 course instructors were interviewed and their comments analyzed. Prior knowledge from previous courses significantly influenced student achievement. Procedural knowledge was especially related to student achievement. Instructors and students had mainly positive reactions towards the prior-knowledge tests. Students' prior knowledge should be taken into consideration in instructional design and curriculum planning. Furthermore, the results of prior-knowledge assessments may be used as a tool for student support in addressing areas of deficiency.

  19. Design and test of a novel isolator with negative resistance electromagnetic shunt damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Bo; Zhang, Xinong; Niu, Hongpan

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a negative resistance electromagnetic shunt damping vibration isolator and investigates the effectiveness of the isolator. The isolator consists of a shunt circuit and a pair of electromagnet and permanent magnets that are pasted onto a box-shaped spring. A kind of negative resistance shunt impedance is proposed to cancel the inherent resistance of the electromagnet. The electromechanical coupling coefficient and the electromagnetic damping force calculation formula are obtained by Biot–Savart’s law and Ampère’s law, respectively. A single degree of freedom system is employed to verify the performance of the proposed isolator. The governing equation is established. The performance of the proposed isolator under a half-cycle sine pulse is investigated and discussed. Experiments were carried out and the results agreed well with the numerical predictions. Both the results demonstrate that the negative resistance electromagnetic shunt damping vibration isolator could suppress vibration transmitted to the structure effectively. (paper)

  20. Interpretation of hole-to-surface resistivity measurements at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.J.; Scott, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Hole-to-surface resistivity measurements at Yucca Mountain indicate the presence of many near-surface geologic inhomogeneities, with no definite indication of deep structural features. A resistive anomaly near drill hole UE25a-6 is interpreted as a thin, vertical, resistive body that nearly intersects the surface, and may be caused by a silicified, or calcified, fracture zone. A resistive anomaly near hole UE25a-7 is probably caused by a near surface, horizontal, lens-shaped body that may represent a devitrified zone in the Tiva Canyon Member. Many conductive anomalies were detected to the southwest of hole UE25a-4. However, these anomalies are interpreted to be caused by variations in the thickness of the surface alluvium

  1. Timing of tensor and levator veli palatini force application determines eustachian tube resistance patterns during the forced-response test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiali, Samir N; Bell, E David; Swarts, J Douglas

    2010-12-01

    The forced-response test (FRT) is used to assess eustachian tube (ET) function in patients with middle ear disease (otitis media). This test often documents a dynamic pattern of luminal dilation and constriction during swallowing which can be quantified as a function relating active tubal resistance with time. The goal of this study is to use a generalized finite element model (FEM) to test the hypothesis that the relative timing of muscle force application by the tensor veli palatini muscle (mTVP) and levator veli palatini muscle (mLVP) on the ET determines the form of active resistance functions. Seven resistance waveforms were obtained during the FRT in five adult subjects. A 2D FEM of the ET was constructed from an adult histological specimen and viscoelastic tissue mechanical properties were specified based on measurements obtained in each subject. Least-squared regression routines were used to vary the timing and magnitude of mTVP and mLVP force applications to the ET in order to match the active resistance functions recorded during the FRT. Variation of muscle force timing and magnitude in the FEM simulations reproduced the seven active resistance waveforms with high fidelity. Early application of mTVP force in combination with mLVP force produced a waveform characterized by an initial dilation (low resistances) followed by lumen constriction (higher resistances), while delayed mTVP force application caused an initial lumen constriction followed by dilation. These results indicate that the active resistance waveforms observed during the FRT reflect differences in the temporal pattern of mLVP and mTVP force application to the ET and emphasize that, like the mTVP, the mLVP functionally interacts with the ET. Results also indicate that in normal adults contraction of the mLVP promotes lumen constriction and that the initial lumen constriction is highly sensitive to the relative delay timing of mTVP and mLVP force application. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland

  2. Putting plant resistance traits on the map: a test of the idea that plants are better defended at lower latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, Angela T; Wallis, Ian R; Foley, William J; Warton, David I; Stegen, James C; Bisigato, Alejandro J; Cella-Pizarro, Lucrecia; Clark, Connie J; Cohen, Philippe S; Cornwell, William K; Edwards, Will; Ejrnaes, Rasmus; Gonzales-Ojeda, Therany; Graae, Bente J; Hay, Gregory; Lumbwe, Fainess C; Magaña-Rodríguez, Benjamín; Moore, Ben D; Peri, Pablo L; Poulsen, John R; Veldtman, Ruan; von Zeipel, Hugo; Andrew, Nigel R; Boulter, Sarah L; Borer, Elizabeth T; Campón, Florencia Fernández; Coll, Moshe; Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; De Gabriel, Jane; Jurado, Enrique; Kyhn, Line A; Low, Bill; Mulder, Christa P H; Reardon-Smith, Kathryn; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Seabloom, Eric W; Vesk, Peter A; van Cauter, An; Waldram, Matthew S; Zheng, Zheng; Blendinger, Pedro G; Enquist, Brian J; Facelli, Jose M; Knight, Tiffany; Majer, Jonathan D; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; McQuillan, Peter; Prior, Lynda D

    2011-08-01

    • It has long been believed that plant species from the tropics have higher levels of traits associated with resistance to herbivores than do species from higher latitudes. A meta-analysis recently showed that the published literature does not support this theory. However, the idea has never been tested using data gathered with consistent methods from a wide range of latitudes. • We quantified the relationship between latitude and a broad range of chemical and physical traits across 301 species from 75 sites world-wide. • Six putative resistance traits, including tannins, the concentration of lipids (an indicator of oils, waxes and resins), and leaf toughness were greater in high-latitude species. Six traits, including cyanide production and the presence of spines, were unrelated to latitude. Only ash content (an indicator of inorganic substances such as calcium oxalates and phytoliths) and the properties of species with delayed greening were higher in the tropics. • Our results do not support the hypothesis that tropical plants have higher levels of resistance traits than do plants from higher latitudes. If anything, plants have higher resistance toward the poles. The greater resistance traits of high-latitude species might be explained by the greater cost of losing a given amount of leaf tissue in low-productivity environments. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing before first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with dual or triple antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Angel; Montes, Milagrosa; Ibarra, Begoña; Tamayo, Esther; Alonso, Horacio; Mendarte, Usua; Lizasoan, Jacobo; Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Bujanda, Luis

    2017-05-14

    To evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial susceptibility-guided therapy before first-line treatment for infection in patients with dual or triple antibiotic resistance. A total of 1034 patients infected by Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) during 2013-2014 were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. 157 of 1034 (15%) patients showed resistance to two (127/1034; 12%) and to three (30/1034; 3%) antibiotics. Sixty-eight patients with dual H. pylori -resistance (clarithromycin, metronidazole or levofloxacin) were treated for 10 d with triple therapies: OAL (omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and levofloxacin 500 mg b.i.d.) 43 cases, OAM (omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d.) 12 cases and OAC (omeprazole 20 mg b.id., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.) 13 cases based on the antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Twelve patients showed triple H. pylori -resistance (clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin) and received for 10 d triple therapy with OAR (omeprazole 20 mg b.id., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and rifabutin 150 mg b.i.d.). Eradication was confirmed by 13C-urea breath test. Adverse effects and compliance were assessed by a questionnaire. Intention-to-treat eradication rates were: OAL (97.6%), OAM (91.6%), OAC (92.3%) and OAR (58.3%). Cure rate was significantly higher in naïve patients treated with OAR-10 compared to patients who had two or three previous treatment failures (83% vs 33%). Adverse events rates for OAL, OAM, OAC and OAR were 22%, 25%, 23% and 17%, respectively, all of them mild-moderate. Antimicrobial susceptibility-guided triple therapies during 10 d for first-line treatment leads to an eradication rate superior to 90% in patients with dual antibiotic H. pylori resistance.

  4. A Novel Stool PCR Test for Helicobacter pylori May Predict Clarithromycin Resistance and Eradication of Infection at a High Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Erin; Saracino, Ilaria; Fiorini, Giulia; Clark, Courtney; Slepnev, Vladimir; Patel, Denise; Gomez, Clarissa; Ponaka, Reddy; Elagin, Vecheslav; Vaira, Dino

    2017-08-01

    Clarithromycin-based regimens are commonly used as a first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori -positive patients; however, resistance to clarithromycin has led to treatment failures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using stool samples to detect the presence of H. pylori DNA while concurrently detecting mutations associated with resistance to clarithromycin. For this purpose, total DNA was extracted from 294 raw stool specimens from H. pylori -positive and -negative patients. TaqMan real-time PCR amplification was used to detect the presence of H. pylori as well as to predict the phenotype of the organism and the related outcome for patients treated with clarithromycin. Clarithromycin resistance was determined upon analysis of the PCR result. Patients were also tested by a urea breath test and were subjected to esophagogastroduodenoscopy, followed by histology, culture, and a rapid urease test, in order to obtain a consensus patient infection status. Of 294 total stool samples, 227 were deemed true positive. The sensitivity of H. pylori detection by PCR was 93.8%. Of 213 true-positive samples that were sequenced, 36.2% showed point mutations associated with clarithromycin resistance (A2142C, A2142G, A2143G). The final correlation of the mutant genotypes as determined by sequencing with the eradication of infection was 86%. We found that Helicobacter pylori DNA can be detected in human stool specimens with high sensitivity and can therefore be used to determine the presence of the bacterium without obtaining a biopsy sample. Moreover, genotypic resistance to clarithromycin can be predicted without obtaining a biopsy sample, facilitating the choice of the right therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Invasive urodynamic testing prior to surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence in women: cost-effectiveness and value of information analyses in the context of a mixed methods feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Tara; Shen, Jing; Vale, Luke; McColl, Elaine; Tincello, Douglas G; Hilton, Paul

    2018-01-01

    INVESTIGATE-I (INVasive Evaluation before Surgical Treatment of Incontinence Gives Added Therapeutic Effect?) was a mixed methods study to assess the feasibility of a future randomised controlled trial of invasive urodynamic testing (IUT) prior to surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. Here we report one of the study's five components, with the specific objectives of (i) exploring the cost-effectiveness of IUT compared with clinical assessment plus non-invasive tests (henceforth described as 'IUT' and 'no IUT' respectively) in women with SUI or stress-predominant mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) prior to surgery, and (ii) determining the expected net gain (ENG) from additional research. Study participants were women with SUI or stress-predominant MUI who had failed to respond to conservative treatments recruited from seven UK urogynaecology and female urology units. They were randomised to receive either 'IUT' or 'no IUT' before undergoing further treatment. Data from 218 women were used in the economic analysis. Cost utility, net benefit and value of information (VoI) analyses were performed within a randomised controlled pilot trial. Costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were estimated over 6 months to determine the incremental cost per QALY of 'IUT' compared to 'no IUT'. Net monetary benefit informed the VoI analysis. The VoI estimated the ENG and optimal sample size for a future definitive trial. At 6 months, the mean difference in total average cost was £138 ( p  = 0.071) in favour of 'IUT'; there was no difference in QALYs estimated from the SF-12 (difference 0.004; p  = 0.425) and EQ-5D-3L (difference - 0.004; p  = 0.725); therefore, the probability of IUT being cost-effective remains uncertain. The estimated ENG was positive for further research to address this uncertainty with an optimal sample size of 404 women. This is the largest economic evaluation of IUT. On average, up to 6 months after treatment, 'IUT' may

  6. Analysis of earth resistivity frequency dependence: Test method and its practical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Vojin I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first step in planning and designing of the proper grounding system, is the earth resistivity measurement. Measurements are carried out before the construction of the power facility. However, it is not an uncommon situation that during construction, subsequent leveling and raising of the ground level is performed. For this purpose, it is customary to use the land from the locations far away. Delivered soil has largely different electromagnetic characteristics (electric conductivity, permittivity and dielectric constant in relation to the soil on which the previous measurement of the earth resistivity was conducted. Since the value of the earth resistivity directly affects the grounding system electrical parameters - grounding system impedance, touch and step voltages - additional measurements are required and according to this appropriate corrections of the grounding system In this paper, we propose a practical method for earth resistivity measurement. The method is applicable in the design phase, and also for the revision of the installed grounding system. A practical example of a power facility (RP 400 kV Mladost, Elektromreža Srbije, based on laboratory measurements of the soil samples earth resistivity and grounding system impedance measurement, clearly shows what consequences might occur by leveling and raising of the ground level using ash coal dump.

  7. Genome position specific priors for genomic prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Su, Guosheng; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2012-01-01

    to estimate SNP effects, except in the case of fat yield. The small size of the Jersey validation set meant that these improvements in accuracy were not significant using a Hotelling-Williams t-test at the 5% level. An increase in accuracy of 1-2% for all traits was observed in the Australian Holstein...... population when using a prior derived from the Nordic Holstein population compared to using no prior information. These improvements were significant (PHotelling Williams t-test for protein- and fat yield Conclusion For some traits the method might be advantageous compared to pooling...

  8. Dynamic Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Nasal Airflow Resistance during Nasal Allergen Provocation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, Tiina M.; Alho, Olli-Pekka; Seppänen, Tapio

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a major chronic respiratory disease and an immunoneuronal disorder. We aimed at providing further knowledge on the function of the neural system in nasal allergic reaction. Here, a method to assess simultaneously the nasal airflow resistance and the underlying function of autonomic nervous system (ANS) is presented and used during the nasal provocation of allergic and nonallergic subjects. Continuous nasal airflow resistance and spectral heart rate variability parameters show in detail the timing and intensity differences in subjects' reactions. After the provocation, the nasal airflow resistance of allergic subjects showed a positive trend, whereas LF/HF (Low Frequency/High Frequency) ratio and LF power showed a negative trend. This could imply a gradual sympathetic withdrawal in allergic subjects after the allergen provocation. The groups differed significantly by these physiological descriptors. The proposed method opens entirely new opportunities to research accurately concomitant changes in nasal breathing function and ANS. PMID:27196870

  9. Dynamic Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Nasal Airflow Resistance during Nasal Allergen Provocation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina M. Seppänen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is a major chronic respiratory disease and an immunoneuronal disorder. We aimed at providing further knowledge on the function of the neural system in nasal allergic reaction. Here, a method to assess simultaneously the nasal airflow resistance and the underlying function of autonomic nervous system (ANS is presented and used during the nasal provocation of allergic and nonallergic subjects. Continuous nasal airflow resistance and spectral heart rate variability parameters show in detail the timing and intensity differences in subjects’ reactions. After the provocation, the nasal airflow resistance of allergic subjects showed a positive trend, whereas LF/HF (Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio and LF power showed a negative trend. This could imply a gradual sympathetic withdrawal in allergic subjects after the allergen provocation. The groups differed significantly by these physiological descriptors. The proposed method opens entirely new opportunities to research accurately concomitant changes in nasal breathing function and ANS.

  10. Resistance testing of clinical herpes simplex virus type 2 isolates collected over 4 decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn-Wippert, Kathrin; Schmidt, Susanne; Runtze, Anna; Zell, Roland; Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    There is only little information about the role of mutations of the thymidine kinase (TK) and DNA polymerase (pol) genes of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) for the development of antiviral resistance. In this study, the polymorphism of TK and DNA pol genes was examined in 82 clinical isolates collected routinely between 1973 and 2013. If novel, presently unclear or resistance-related mutations were found, the resistance phenotype against acyclovir (ACV) and foscarnet (FOS) was analyzed. The four novel amino acid changes G150D, A157T, R248W, L342W and the hitherto phenotypically unclear substitution T131M within the TK gene were identified as natural polymorphisms. Within the DNA pol gene, 17 novel substitutions and the to-date unclear change R628C were characterized as part of natural gene polymorphism. Two novel DNA pol mutations were linked to resistance (M910T) and weak susceptibility to ACV (684 insertion ED), respectively. In one isolate, the genomic cause of ACV resistance could not be identified. Phylogenetic analysis including sequences of this study and of the GenBank revealed a hierarchy of mutation clusters in TK displaying G39E as first common mutation step, followed by N78D and L140F. In conclusion, the present findings allow a deeper insight in the variability of HSV-2 TK and DNA pol genes. The most common substitution G39E can be excluded as unique cause of HSV-2 resistance. This study supports once more the importance of phenotypic adjustment of genotypic results to enhance the clinical utility of genotypic findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Standard test method for ranking resistance of plastic materials to sliding wear using a block-on-ring configuration

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory procedure to measure the resistance of plastic materials under dry sliding conditions. The test utilizes a block-on-ring geometry to rank materials according to their sliding wear characteristics under various conditions. 1.2 The test specimens are small so that they can be molded or cut from fabricated plastic parts. The test may be run at the load, velocity, and temperature which simulate the service condition. 1.3 Wear test results are reported as specific wear rates calculated from volume loss, sliding distance, and load. Materials with superior wear resistance have lower specific wear rates. 1.4 This test method allows the use of both single- and multi-station apparatus to determine the specific wear rates. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibil...

  12. Evaluation of stress and saturation effects on seismic velocity and electrical resistivity - laboratory testing of rock samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelm, Jan; Jirků, Jaroslav; Slavík, Lubomír; Bárta, Jaroslav

    2016-04-01

    Repository, located in a deep geological formation, is today considered the most suitable solution for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. The geological formations, in combination with an engineered barrier system, should ensure isolation of the waste from the environment for thousands of years. For long-term monitoring of such underground excavations special monitoring systems are developed. In our research we developed and tested monitoring system based on repeated ultrasonic time of flight measurement and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). As a test site Bedřichov gallery in the northern Bohemia was selected. This underground gallery in granitic rock was excavated using Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). The seismic high-frequency measurements are performed by pulse-transmission technique directly on the rock wall using one seismic source and three receivers in the distances of 1, 2 and 3 m. The ERT measurement is performed also on the rock wall using 48 electrodes. The spacing between electrodes is 20 centimeters. An analysis of relation of seismic velocity and electrical resistivity on water saturation and stress state of the granitic rock is necessary for the interpretation of both seismic monitoring and ERT. Laboratory seismic and resistivity measurements were performed. One series of experiments was based on uniaxial loading of dry and saturated granitic samples. The relation between stress state and ultrasonic wave velocities was tested separately for dry and saturated rock samples. Other experiments were focused on the relation between electrical resistivity of the rock sample and its saturation level. Rock samples with different porosities were tested. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic, project No. TA 0302408

  13. A Rapid Method to Test for Chloroplast DNA Involvement in Atrazine Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Sheila; Bettini, Priscilla; Sevignac, Mireille; Darmency, Henry; Gasquez, Jacques; Dron, Michel

    1987-01-01

    A point mutation in the chloroplast psbA gene at codon 264 resulting in an animo acid substitution (ser-gly) manifests itself as atrazine resistance in all recognized weed species studied to date. The single base substitution overlaps a highly conserved Mae1 restriction site which is present in susceptible but not in resistant plants. This restriction enzyme, recently commercialized, has been used to show that it is now possible to discriminate rapidly between the two biotypes without the need for DNA sequencing. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16665229

  14. Fluoroquinolone susceptibility testing of Salmonella enterica: detection of acquired resistance and selection of zone diameter breakpoints for levofloxacin and ofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; Howie, Rebecca L; Crump, John A; Whichard, Jean M

    2014-03-01

    Fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) have become a mainstay for treating severe Salmonella infections in adults. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella is mostly due to mutations in the topoisomerase genes, but plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) mechanisms have also been described. In 2012, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) revised the ciprofloxacin interpretive criteria (breakpoints) for disk diffusion and MIC test methods for Salmonella. In 2013, the CLSI published MIC breakpoints for Salmonella to levofloxacin and ofloxacin, but breakpoints for assigning disk diffusion results to susceptible (S), intermediate (I), and resistant (R) categories are still needed. In this study, the MICs and inhibition zone diameters for nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and ofloxacin were determined for 100 clinical isolates of nontyphi Salmonella with or without resistance mechanisms. We confirmed that the new levofloxacin MIC breakpoints resulted in the highest category agreement (94%) when plotted against the ciprofloxacin MICs and that the new ofloxacin MIC breakpoints resulted in 92% category agreement between ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. By applying the new MIC breakpoints in the MIC zone scattergrams for levofloxacin and ofloxacin, the following disk diffusion breakpoints generated the least number of errors: ≥28 mm (S), 19 to 27 mm (I), and ≤18 mm (R) for levofloxacin and ≥25 mm (S), 16 to 24 mm (I), and ≤15 mm (R) for ofloxacin. Neither the levofloxacin nor the ofloxacin disk yielded good separation of isolates with and without resistance mechanisms. Further studies will be needed to develop a disk diffusion assay that efficiently detects all isolates with acquired resistance to fluoroquinolones.

  15. Comparison of 3 tests to detect acaricide resistance in Boophilus decoloratus on dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mekonnen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the larval offspring of engorged female Boophilus decoloratus, and of the engorged females, collected from cattle on the dairy farms Brycedale, Sunny Grove and Welgevind in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, was tested against the acaricides amitraz, chlorfenvinphos and cypermethrin. Resistance was determined by means of the Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT for larvae and the Reproductive Estimate Test (RET and Egg Laying Test (ELT for adults. At Brycedale the tests all indicated resistance to chlorfenvinphos, and RET and ELT indicated resistance to amitraz and emerging resistance to cypermethrin. At Sunny Grove, B. decoloratus was resistant to cypermethrin using SLIT and exhibited emerging resistance to chlorfenvinphos with SLIT and to cypermethrin with both RET and ELT. At Welgevind, resistance was recorded against chlorfenvinphos (SLIT and against cypermethrin (ELT, and emerging resistance against permethrin (RET. The results obtained with RET and ELT were generally comparable, but often differed from those obtained with SLIT. Resistance could be detected within 7 days with ELT compared to 42 days with RET and 60 days with SLIT.

  16. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected with a drug-resistant strain of HIV. Drug-resistance testing results are used to decide which HIV medicines to include in a person’s first HIV regimen. After treatment is started, drug-resistance testing is repeated if ...

  17. Eggshell strength of an obligate brood parasite: a test of the puncture resistance hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonov, A.; Stokke, B. G.; Moksnes, A.; Kleven, O.; Honza, Marcel; Roskaft, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2006), s. 11-18 ISSN 0340-5443 Grant - others:Research Council of Norway(NO) 151641/432 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : brood parasitism * eggshell thickness * puncture resistance * Acrocephalus * cuckoo Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.316, year: 2006

  18. A greenhouse test for screening sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) for resistance to Rhizoctonia solani

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.E.; Panella, L.; Bock, de T.S.M.; Lange, W.

    2001-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is a serious plant pathogenic fungus, causing various types of damage to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). In Europe, the disease is spreading and becoming a threat for the growing of this crop. Plant resistance seems to be the most practical and economical way to control the

  19. A Quantitative Analysis of the Effect of Resistance Training on Strength Test Score Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-02

    strength development and steroid hormone responses to heavy-resistance training. J Appl Physiol, 76, 663-670. *Hoffman, J. R., Klafeld, S., & 1998...Painter, T. L., & Wilmore, J. H. (1992). Alternation in concentric strength consequent to powercise and universal gym circuit training. J Appl Sprts

  20. Affordable HIV drug-resistance testing for monitoring of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inzaule, Seth C.; Ondoa, Pascale; Peter, Trevor; Mugyenyi, Peter N.; Stevens, Wendy S.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Hamers, Raph L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased provision of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa has led to a growing number of patients with therapy failure and acquired drug-resistant HIV, driving the demand for more costly further lines of antiretroviral therapy. In conjunction with accelerated access to viral load

  1. Why Do People Resist Healthcare It? Literature Analysis, Model Testing, and Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samhan, Bahae

    2016-01-01

    Health Information Technology (HIT) has the potential of improving the overall performance of healthcare organizations. However, there are worldwide evidence of HIT resistance and avoidance behaviors. IS researchers have provided valuable insights about these behaviors towards IT in general. Very limited work has aimed to explain these behaviors…

  2. The Effect of the Nature of Surfaces on Resistance as Tested on Struts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieselsberger, Ing C

    1921-01-01

    The chief concern was to measure the variations of resistance brought about by the nature of the surface of the struts. The struts were spanned with aviation linen, and then covered with one coat of varnish. The top surface was not perfectly smooth after this treatment, being slightly rough owing to the threads and raised fibers of the fabric. The results of the measurements of the surfaces are shown by the dotted lines of the curves plotted in several figures. The resistance is given in terms of the characteristic value. Next, the surface was altered by the removal of any roughness on it by means of filing with sandpaper. The measurements of surfaces thus treated gave values represented by extended lines. The increase of resistance with increasing characteristic value, more or less marked in the first series of measurements, was no longer observable. Resistance always decreases with the increase of characteristic value, excepting in the case of strut 7, which shows a slight tendency to rise again. The reasons for this phenomenon have not yet been fully explained.

  3. Comparison of HIV-1 genotypic resistance test interpretation systems in predicting virological outcomes over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Frentz (Dineke); C.A.B. Boucher (Charles); M. Assel (Matthias); A. de Luca (Andrea); M. Fabbiani (Massimiliano); F. Incardona (Francesca); P. Libin (Pieter); N. Manca (Nino); V. Müller (Viktor); B.O. Nualláin (Breanndán); R. Paredes (Roger); M. Prosperi (Mattia); E. Quiros-Roldan (Eugenia); L. Ruiz (Lidia); P.M.A. Sloot (Peter); C. Torti (Carlo); A.M. Vandamme (Anne Mieke); K. Laethem (Kristel); M. Zazzi (Maurizio); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Several decision support systems have been developed to interpret HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping results. This study compares the ability of the most commonly used systems (ANRS, Rega, and Stanford's HIVdb) to predict virological outcome at 12, 24, and 48 weeks.

  4. Test-Retest Reliability of Respiratory Resistance Measured with the Airflow Perturbation Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallena, Sally K.; Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Johnson, Arthur T.; Vossoughi, Jafar; Tian, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine reliability of the airflow perturbation device (APD) to measure respiratory resistance within and across sessions during resting tidal (RTB) and postexercise breathing in healthy athletes, and during RTB across trials within a session in athletes with paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM)…

  5. evaluation of striga-resistant early maize hybrids and test locations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    to evaluate selected Striga-resistant maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids for grain yield and stability of performance based on multiple ... infestation based on multiple traits than based on yield per se, suggesting that grain yield alone is not a precise predictor of ..... environment interaction components were not significant, there was ...

  6. Standard Test Method for Determining Resistance of Photovoltaic Modules to Hail by Impact with Propelled Ice Balls

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides a procedure for determining the ability of photovoltaic modules to withstand impact forces of falling hail. Propelled ice balls are used to simulate falling hailstones. 1.2 This test method defines test specimens and methods for mounting specimens, specifies impact locations on each test specimen, provides an equation for determining the velocity of any size ice ball, provides a method for impacting the test specimens with ice balls, provides a method for determining changes in electrical performance, and specifies parameters that must be recorded and reported. 1.3 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable levels of ice ball impact resistance is beyond the scope of this test method. 1.4 The size of the ice ball to be used in conducting this test is not specified. This test method can be used with various sizes of ice balls. 1.5 This test method may be applied to concentrator and nonconcentrator modules. 1.6 The v...

  7. Accommodating Uncertainty in Prior Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, Richard Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vander Wiel, Scott Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-19

    A fundamental premise of Bayesian methodology is that a priori information is accurately summarized by a single, precisely de ned prior distribution. In many cases, especially involving informative priors, this premise is false, and the (mis)application of Bayes methods produces posterior quantities whose apparent precisions are highly misleading. We examine the implications of uncertainty in prior distributions, and present graphical methods for dealing with them.

  8. Model tests on resistance and seakeeping performance of wave-piercing high-speed vessel with spray rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghwa Seo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The resistance and seakeeping performance of a high-speed monohull vessel were investigated through a series of model tests in a towing tank. The hull had a slender wave-piercing bow, round bilge, and small deadrise angle on stern. Tests on the bare hull in calm water were first conducted and tests on spray rails followed. The spray rails were designed to control the flow direction and induce a hydrodynamic lift force on the hull bottom to reduce trim angle and increase rise of the hull. The maximum trim of the bare hull was 4.65° at the designed speed, but the spray rails at optimum location reduced trim by 0.97°. The ship motion in head seas was examined after the calm water tests. Attaching the rails on the optimum location effectively reduced the pitch and heave motion responses. The vertical acceleration at the fore perpendicular reduced by 11.3%. The effective power in full scale was extrapolated from the model test results and it was revealed that the spray rails did not have any negative effects on the resistance performance of the hull, while they effectively stabilized the vessel in calm water and waves.

  9. Effects of Periodic Task-Specific Test Feedback on Physical Performance in Older Adults Undertaking Band-Based Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Hasegawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of periodic task-specific test feedback on performance improvement in older adults undertaking community- and home-based resistance exercises (CHBRE. Fifty-two older adults (65–83 years were assigned to a muscular perfsormance feedback group (MPG, n=32 or a functional mobility feedback group (FMG, n=20. Both groups received exactly the same 9-week CHBRE program comprising one community-based and two home-based sessions per week. Muscle performance included arm curls and chair stands in 30 seconds, while functional mobility was determined by the timed up and go (TUG test. MPG received fortnightly test feedback only on muscle performance and FMG received feedback only on the TUG. Following training, there was a significant (P<0.05 interaction for all performance tests with MPG improving more for the arm curls (MPG 31.4%, FMG 15.9% and chair stands (MPG 33.7%, FMG 24.9% while FMG improved more for the TUG (MPG-3.5%, FMG-9.7%. Results from this nonrandomized study suggest that periodic test feedback during resistance training may enhance task-specific physical performance in older persons, thereby augmenting reserve capacity or potentially reducing the time required to recover functional abilities.

  10. HIV drug resistance testing among patients failing second line antiretroviral therapy. Comparison of in-house and commercial sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimukangara, Benjamin; Varyani, Bhavini; Shamu, Tinei; Mutsvangwa, Junior; Manasa, Justen; White, Elizabeth; Chimbetete, Cleophas; Luethy, Ruedi; Katzenstein, David

    2017-05-01

    HIV genotyping is often unavailable in low and middle-income countries due to infrastructure requirements and cost. We compared genotype resistance testing in patients with virologic failure, by amplification of HIV pol gene, followed by "in-house" sequencing and commercial sequencing. Remnant plasma samples from adults and children failing second-line ART were amplified and sequenced using in-house and commercial di-deoxysequencing, and analyzed in Harare, Zimbabwe and at Stanford, U.S.A, respectively. HIV drug resistance mutations were determined using the Stanford HIV drug resistance database. Twenty-six of 28 samples were amplified and 25 were successfully genotyped. Comparison of average percent nucleotide and amino acid identities between 23 pairs sequenced in both laboratories were 99.51 (±0.56) and 99.11 (±0.95), respectively. All pairs clustered together in phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing analysis identified 6/23 pairs with mutation discordances resulting in differences in phenotype, but these did not impact future regimens. The results demonstrate our ability to produce good quality drug resistance data in-house. Despite discordant mutations in some sequence pairs, the phenotypic predictions were not clinically significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A capacitive DNA sensor-based test for simple and sensitive analysis of antibiotic resistance in field setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Hedström, Martin; Chen, Dongfeng; Fan, Xiaolong; Mattiasson, Bo

    2015-02-15

    To meet urgent needs for solving serious worldwide drug-resistance problems, a sensitive label-free capacitive sensor developed in our group was investigated as a tool to be applied in the field of antibiotic resistance genotyping, for instance the detection of ampicillin resistance gene (ampR). Proof-of-concept data demonstrated its detection sensitivity of pico-molar without any signal amplification step and a dynamic range of at least three orders of magnitude. The detection limits of less than 1 pM for the single-stranded ampR oligonucleotide and 4 pM for the double-stranded target can reliably be achieved after only 2.5 min sample reaction. Reusability of the probe-functionalized disposable electrode was investigated by comparing different regeneration solutions; mix of 25 mM NaOH/30% formamide was employed to regenerate the electrode for at least six cycles without significant loss of sensing ability. Assay is performed automatically and result is retrieved in 20 min. The developed sensitive genotyping tool is expected to provide simple, fast and affordable screening for monitoring spread of antibiotic resistances, which is suitable for testing in field setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Histologia da pele da carpa prateada (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix e testes de resistência do couro Histology of silver-plated carp skin (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix and leather resistance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com os objetivos de analisar a histologia da pele e avaliar a influência da técnica de curtimento e da posição da retirada do corpo-de-prova sobre a qualidade da pele de carpa prateada (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix. Vinte e três peixes foram insensibilizados para retirada das peles para curtimento. Amostras referentes a três peixes foram fixadas em formol 10%. Após a inclusão em parafina, foram cortadas com aproximadamente 5 mm de espessura e coradas pela técnica de hematoxilina-eosina (HE. Após o curtimento das peles, foram retirados os corpos-de-prova para os testes de resistência. Os testes foram realizados com dinamômetro EMIC, com velocidade de afastamento entre cargas de 100 ± 20 mm/mm, em ambiente climatizado a 23ºC e umidade relativa do ar de 50% por um período de 24 horas. As peles curtidas com sais de cromo apresentaram maior resistência à tração (16,96 N/mm², ao alongamento (51,49% e ao rasgamento progressivo (16,75 N/mm quando comparadas àquelas curtidas sem sais de cromo (tração = 9,12 N/mm², alongamento = 17,48% e rasgamento = 11,36 N/mm. O sentido da retirada dos corpos-de-prova não interferiu nas características de tração, elongação, carga de ruptura, rasgo, força máxima e carga de força. A técnica de curtimento (utilizando ou não sais de cromo influencia a resistência das peles de carpa prateada. A técnica empregando os sais de cromo proporciona maior resistência ao couro.The objectives of this trial were to analyze the skin histology and to evaluate the influence of tanning technique and the direction removal of samples on skin quality of silver-plated carp (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix. Twenty-three fishes were sacrificed and the skin was removed for tanning. Samples of three fishes were settled in formol 10% and, after inclusion in paraffin, the samples were cut with approximately 5 mm of thickness and colored by the hematoxylin-eosin technique (HE. After skin

  13. Testing and design of radon resisting membranes based on the experience from the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiranek, M.

    2004-01-01

    Testing of barrier properties of insulating materials against radon is usually based on the measurement of the radon diffusion coefficient. Presented report summarizes results of radon diffusion coefficients measurements in more than 120 insulating materials obtained throughout Europe. All measurements were performed by the Czech Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering in cooperation with the Radiation Protection Institute. We have found out that great differences exist in diffusion properties, because the diffusion coefficients vary within eight orders from 10 -15 m 2 /s to 10 -8 m 2 /s. For each material category of different chemical composition statistical evaluation of results is presented. Possibilities of usage of the radon diffusion coefficient for the design of radon resisting membranes are discussed. Based on the experience from the Czech Republic the paper is trying to show that controlling applicability of membranes by setting of the upper limit for the radon diffusion coefficient is not a convenient approach. The main reason is that it is almost impossible to choose correctly one limit value for the whole Europe. The second reason is that a great number of common waterproofing materials have their radon diffusion coefficients above the probable limit value. As a consequence of this the protection against radon will be solved preferably by materials with Al foils, which is from the technical point of view meaningless, because membranes with Al foils have very low elongation and therefore they can very easily loose their barrier properties by destroying of the Al foil. The paper will show that it seems to be reasonable to replace strict limits by the real design of the insulation in dependence on particular building and soil characteristics. The design is proposed to be based on the calculation of the insulation thickness according to the formula: d ≥ l.arc sinh ((α 1 .l.λ.C S .(A f + A w ))/C dif .n.V)) (in m), where C S is the third

  14. Results of the freeze resistance test, swelling index and coefficient of permeability of finegrained mining waste reinforced with cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morman, Justyna

    2018-04-01

    The article presents the result of laboratory tests for mining waste with grain size of 0 to 2 mm stabilized with cement. Used for stabilization of cement CEM I 42.5 R and blast furnace cement CEM III / A 42.5N - LH / HSR / NA and a plasticizer sealant. Cement was added to the mining waste test in the proportions of 5 - 8% in relation to the skeleton's weight. For the cemented samples, the freeze resistance test, swelling index, coefficient of permeability and pH of water leachate were tested. The addition of a cement binder resulted in diminishing the water permeability of mining waste and limiting the leaching of fine particles from the material.

  15. Irradiation test of component for radiation-resistant small sized motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamichi, M.; Ishitsuka, E.; Shimakawa, S.; Kan, S.

    2009-01-01

    A small-sized motor with a resistance to radiation was developed. This motor has been able to operate at a gamma-ray dose of a value 700 times as high as the specification of a commercial motor. The present work describes results of post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) to evaluate effects of neutron irradiation on the lifetime of some major components of the motor such as a bearing, a magnet and a fixation agent for a field coil wire. It became clear from the results of PIEs that the radiation-resistance dose of the motor using a Sm-Co magnet will be expected to be one order of magnitude higher than that of the motor using a Nb-Fe-B magnet.

  16. Isolation and resistance test of several isolates of Lactobacillus in low pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIANI HARDININGSIH

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several isolates of Lactobacillus had been isolated from Indonesian fermented foods. Four isolates where isolated from tongcai (TT2, saguer drink (Sg.Mnd.N2, pindang ikan selar (PSl1 and sawi asin (S5 had been used in this research. The aim of the research was to get Lactobacillus isolates as probiotic candidate and to know its resistance to low pH. The treatment were several concentration of low pH of MRS broth medium, i.e. 2; 2.5; 3; and 6.5 (optimal pH. The optical density (OD was measured after 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours respectively, with three replication by using spectrophotometer ( = 600 nm. The results showed that all Lactobacillus isolates (i.e. TT2, Sg.Mnd.N2, PSl1, and S5 could been used as probiotic candidate because they were resistant to all of low pH used.

  17. Evolution of resistance and tolerance to herbivores: testing the trade-off hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariñho-Betancourt, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    Background. To cope with their natural enemies, plants rely on resistance and tolerance as defensive strategies. Evolution of these strategies among natural population can be constrained by the absence of genetic variation or because of the antagonistic genetic correlation (trade-off) between them. Also, since plant defenses are integrated by several traits, it has been suggested that trade-offs might occur between specific defense traits. Methodology/Principal Findings. We experimentally assessed (1) the presence of genetic variance in tolerance, total resistance, and leaf trichome density as specific defense trait, (2) the extent of natural selection acting on plant defenses, and (3) the relationship between total resistance and leaf trichome density with tolerance to herbivory in the annual herb Datura stramonium. Full-sib families of D. stramonium were either exposed to natural herbivores (control) or protected from them by a systemic insecticide. We detected genetic variance for leaf trichome density, and directional selection acting on this character. However, we did not detect a negative significant correlation between tolerance and total resistance, or between tolerance and leaf trichome density. We argue that low levels of leaf damage by herbivores precluded the detection of a negative genetic correlation between plant defense strategies. Conclusions/Significance. This study provides empirical evidence of the independent evolution of plant defense strategies, and a defensive role of leaf trichomes. The pattern of selection should favor individuals with high trichomes density. Also, because leaf trichome density reduces damage by herbivores and possess genetic variance in the studied population, its evolution is not constrained. PMID:25780756

  18. Evolution of resistance and tolerance to herbivores: testing the trade-off hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Kariñho-Betancourt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. To cope with their natural enemies, plants rely on resistance and tolerance as defensive strategies. Evolution of these strategies among natural population can be constrained by the absence of genetic variation or because of the antagonistic genetic correlation (trade-off between them. Also, since plant defenses are integrated by several traits, it has been suggested that trade-offs might occur between specific defense traits.Methodology/Principal Findings. We experimentally assessed (1 the presence of genetic variance in tolerance, total resistance, and leaf trichome density as specific defense trait, (2 the extent of natural selection acting on plant defenses, and (3 the relationship between total resistance and leaf trichome density with tolerance to herbivory in the annual herb Datura stramonium. Full-sib families of D. stramonium were either exposed to natural herbivores (control or protected from them by a systemic insecticide. We detected genetic variance for leaf trichome density, and directional selection acting on this character. However, we did not detect a negative significant correlation between tolerance and total resistance, or between tolerance and leaf trichome density. We argue that low levels of leaf damage by herbivores precluded the detection of a negative genetic correlation between plant defense strategies.Conclusions/Significance. This study provides empirical evidence of the independent evolution of plant defense strategies, and a defensive role of leaf trichomes. The pattern of selection should favor individuals with high trichomes density. Also, because leaf trichome density reduces damage by herbivores and possess genetic variance in the studied population, its evolution is not constrained.

  19. Electrical resistivity monitoring of the drift scale test in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.

    1997-01-01

    Of the several thermal, mechanical and hydrological measurements being used to monitor the rockmass response, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is being used to monitor the movement of liquid water with a special interest in the movement of condensate out of the system. Eight boreholes, containing a total of 140 ERT electrodes, were drilled above and below the Heated Drift (HD) to form vertical planes parallel to the drift. In addition, 4 boreholes, containing 60 electrodes, drilled from the Access Observation Drift (AOD) form vertical planes at right angles to the HD. Four ERT surveys, three before and one after heating began, were conducted during the first quarter of FY 98. Tomographic images of absolute electrical resistivity have been calculated using these data and are presented in this report. The report also presents the coordinates of the electrodes used for the ERT surveys. Future reports will include images of electrical resistivity change calculated using data collected before and during the heating episode. The changes to be recovered will then be used in combination with temperature maps of the region to calculate maps of saturation change around the HD

  20. Development and Testing of Abrasion Resistant Hard Coats For Polymer Film Reflectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, G.; Gee, R.; DiGrazia, M.

    2010-10-01

    Reflective polymer film technology can significantly reduce the cost of solar reflectors and installed Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants by both reduced material cost and lower weight. One challenge of polymer reflectors in the CSP environment pertains to contact cleaning methods typically used with glass mirrors. Such contact cleaning methods can scratch the surface of polymer reflectors and thereby reduce specular reflectance. ReflecTech, Inc. (a subsidiary of SkyFuel, Inc.) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initiated a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to devise and develop an abrasion resistant coating (ARC) suitable for deposition onto polymer based mirror film. A number of candidate ARC products were identified as candidate formulations. Industrial collaborators prepared samples having their ARCs deposited onto ReflecTech Mirror Film pre-laminated to aluminum sheet substrates. Samples were provided for evaluation and subjected to baseline (unweathered) and accelerated exposure conditions and subsequently characterized for abrasion resistance and adhesion. An advanced ARC product has been identified that exhibits outstanding initial abrasion resistance and adhesion to ReflecTech Mirror Film. These properties were also retained after exposure to the various accelerated stress conditions. This material has been successfully manufactured as a 1.5 m wide roll-to-roll construction in a production environment.

  1. The Importance of Prior Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Linda Miller

    1989-01-01

    Recounts a college English teacher's experience of reading and rereading Noam Chomsky, building up a greater store of prior knowledge. Argues that Frank Smith provides a theory for the importance of prior knowledge and Chomsky's work provided a personal example with which to interpret and integrate that theory. (RS)

  2. ASTM F739 method for testing the permeation resistance of protective clothing materials: critical analysis with proposed changes in procedure and test-cell design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, D H; Zellers, E T; Sulewski, R

    1998-08-01

    ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Method F739-96 specifies a test-cell design and procedures for measuring the permeation resistance of chemical protective clothing. Among the specifications are open-loop collection stream flow rates of 0.050 to 0.150 L/min for a gaseous medium. At elevated temperatures the test must be maintained within 1 degree C of the set point. This article presents a critical analysis of the effect of the collection stream flow rate on the measured permeation rate and on the temperature uniformity within the test cell. Permeation tests were conducted on four polymeric glove materials with 44 solvents at 25 degrees C. Flow rates > 0.5 L/min were necessary to obtain accurate steady-state permeation rate (SSPR) values in 25 percent of the tests. At the lower flow rates the true SSPR typically was underestimated by a factor of two or less, but errors of up to 33-fold were observed. No clear relationship could be established between the need for a higher collection stream flow rate and either the vapor pressure or the permeation rate of the solvent, but test results suggest that poor mixing within the collection chamber was a contributing factor. Temperature gradients between the challenge and collection chambers and between the bottom and the top of the collection chamber increased with the water-bath temperature and the collection stream flow rate. Use of a test cell modified to permit deeper submersion reduced the gradients to < or = 0.5 degrees C. It is recommended that all SSPR measurements include verification of the adequacy of the collection stream flow rate. For testing at nonambient temperatures, the modified test cell described here could be used to ensure temperature uniformity throughout the cell.

  3. Comparison of Superelasticity of Nickel Titanium Orthodontic Arch wires using Mechanical Tensile Testing and Correlating with Electrical Resistivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraj, Aravind

    2013-06-01

    Application of light and continuous forces for optimum physiological response and least damage to the tooth supporting structures should be the primary aim of the orthodontist. Nickel titanium alloys with the properties of excellent spring back, super elasticity and wide range of action is one of the natural choices for the clinicians to achieve this goal. In recent periods, various wire manufacturers have come with a variety of wires exhibiting different properties. It is the duty of the clinician to select appropriate wires during various stages of treatment for excellent results. For achieving this evaluation of the properties of these wires is essential. This study is focussed on evaluating the super elastic property of eight groups of austenite active nickel titanium wires. Eight groups of archwires bought from eight different manufacturers were studied. These wires were tested through mechanical tensile testing and electrical resistivity methods. Unloading curves were carefully assessed for superelastic behaviour on deactivation. Rankings of the wires tested were based primarily upon the unloading curve's slope Conclusion: Ortho organisers wires ranked first and superior, followed by American Orthodontics and Ormco A wires. Morelli and GAClowland NiTi wires were ranked last. It can be concluded that the performance of these wires based on rankings should be further evaluated by clinical studies. How to cite this article: Sivaraj A. Comparison of Superelasticity of Nickel Titanium Orthodontic Arch wires using Mechanical Tensile Testing and Correlating with Electrical Resistivity. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):1-12.

  4. Fasciola hepatica: a comparative survey of adult fluke resistance to triclabendazole, nitroxynil and closantel on selected upland and lowland sheep farms in Northern Ireland using faecal egg counting, coproantigen ELISA testing and fluke histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, R E B; McMahon, C; Ellison, S; Edgar, H W; Kajugu, P-E; Gordon, A; Irwin, D; Barley, J P; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-01-15

    In order to investigate the incidence and distribution of adult fluke resistance to the fasciolicide tricalbendazole (TCBZ) amongst populations of Fasciola hepatica in sheep flocks in Northern Ireland (NI), individual rectal faeces samples were collected from 3 groups of 20 sheep, before (pre-dose), and 21 days after (post-dose) treatment of the animals with TCBZ, nitroxynil or closantel, on each of 13 well-managed sheep farms distributed across the province. The efficacy of each flukicide was determined for each farm, using faecal egg count reduction (FECRT) and F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA testing. In certain flocks, 2 sheep with high pre-dose faecal egg counts (FEC) were killed 3 days and 21 days respectively after TCBZ treatment, and the histology of the fluke reproductive organs was compared with that of flukes from untreated sheep, and from sheep treated with nitroxynil or closantel 2 days prior to death, using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and an in situ hybridisation method (TdT-mediated dUDP nick end labelling [TUNEL]) to demonstrate apoptosis. Results from FECRT revealed that in all flocks with a high fluke burden, TCBZ was ineffective in treating chronic fasciolosis, and this finding was generally supported by the results of the coproantigen reduction test (CRT). The histology of reproductive organs of flukes from TCBZ-treated sheep in these flocks was normal, when compared with untreated flukes, and this, together with the FECRT and CRT findings, indicated a likely diagnosis of TCBZ resistance in all the flocks with a high fluke burden. In contrast, nitroxynil and closantel were found to be fully effective against TCBZ-resistant flukes in each of the flocks bearing a high chronic fluke burden. All of the flocks with a high fluke burden and TCBZ resistance were managed on lowland in the South and East of NI. Upland flocks, in the North and West, had low fluke burdens, or were clear of infection; and FECs were too low to allow valid resistance

  5. Evaluation of whole antioxidant defenses of human mononuclear cells by a new in vitro biological test: lack of correlation between erythrocyte and mononuclear cell resistance to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar-Bauguil, Sylvie; Maestre, Nicolas; Segafredo, Céline; Galinier, Anne; Garcia, Jésus; Prost, Michel; Périquet, Brigitte; Pénicaud, Luc; Salvayre, Robert; Casteilla, Louis

    2009-04-01

    This work aims to evaluate the resistance of mononuclear cells to oxidative stress using a "KRL" test, formerly utilized to evaluate the resistance of erythrocyte to free radicals. The "KRL" test evaluates the resistance to lysis of cells treated by free radicals generated under standardized conditions. We defined new analytical parameters (level of radical production, time course, number of cells) to obtain an accurate assay determining the resistance to oxidative stress of mononuclear cells, in comparison to that of erythrocytes. This test allows the evaluation of change in the redox state of mononuclear cells (improved by an antioxidant mix or deteriorated by antimycin A-induced mitochondrial radical overproduction). Interestingly, our data show that the sensitivity of mononuclear cells to oxidative stress is not correlated with the susceptibility of erythrocytes to oxidative stress. The quantification of the susceptibility of mononuclear cells to oxidative stress gives additional information (in addition to erythrocyte resistance) and could be helpful for patients with chronic inflammation.

  6. The test of eight tree species resistance to the attack of Armillaria mellea and A. ostoyae by artificial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Nenad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the forest ecosystems in Serbia five Armillaria species are present. Understanding differences in the pathogenicity of Armillaria species to the tree species is of a great importance for the foresters. The aim of study was to test susceptibility of eight forest tree species to attack of Armillaria mellea and A. ostoyae. The sticks of Hazel previously infected with mycelium of two Armillaria were placed next to the root collar of two years old seediling. In the period of eighteen months health status of tested seedlings was observed. Differences in susceptibility among tested tree species was observed, while there was no difference in the pathogenicity between Armillaria mellea and A. ostoyae. The most susceptible species were Serbian Spruce, Common Fir, Scots and Austrian Pine, following by Spruce and Douglas Fir, while more resistant were Pedunculate and Sessile oak.

  7. Testing the limits of resistance: a 19-year study of Mediterranean grassland response to grazing regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Marcelo; Golodets, Carly; Gutman, Mario; Perevolotsky, Avi; Ungar, Eugene D; Kigel, Jaime; Henkin, Zalmen

    2015-05-01

    A synthesis of a long-term (19 years) study assessing the effects of cattle grazing on the structure and composition of a Mediterranean grassland in north-eastern Israel is presented, with new insights into the response of the vegetation to grazing management and rainfall. We hypothesized that the plant community studied would be resistant to high grazing intensities and rainfall variability considering the combined long history of land-use and unpredictable climatic conditions where this community evolved. Treatments included manipulations of stocking densities (moderate, heavy, and very heavy) and of grazing regimes (continuous vs. seasonal), in a factorial design. The effect of interannual rainfall variation on the expression of grazing impacts on the plant community was minor. The main effects of grazing on relative cover of plant functional groups were related to early vs. late seasonal grazing. Species diversity and equitability were remarkably stable across all grazing treatments. A reduction in tall grass cover at higher stocking densities was correlated with increased cover of less palatable groups such as annual and perennial thistles, as well as shorter and prostrate groups such as short annual grasses. This long-term study shows that interannual fluctuations in plant functional group composition could be partly accounted for by grazing pressure and timing, but not by the measured rainfall variables. Grazing affected the dominance of tall annual grasses. However, the persistence of tall grasses and more palatable species over time, despite large differences in grazing pressure and timing, supports the idea that Mediterranean grasslands are highly resistant to prolonged grazing. Indeed, even under the most extreme grazing conditions applied, there were no signs of deterioration or collapse of the ecosystem. This high resistance to grazing intensity and interannual fluctuation in climatic conditions should favor the persistence of the plant community under

  8. TUBERCULOSIS AND RIFAMPICIN RESISTANCE AMONG MIGRANTS IN KYRGYZSTAN: DETECTION BY A NEW DIAGNOSTIC TEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARMANKULOVA, AIGUL; HIGUCHI, MICHIYO; SARKER, MOHAMMAD ABUL BASHAR; ALIM, MD. ABDUL; HAMAJIMA, NOBUYUKI

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This cross-sectional study aimed to describe suspected tuberculosis (TB) cases among migrants in Kyrgyzstan and to estimate the accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF, which has been operated in Kyrgyzstan since 2012. Characteristics of 3,714 suspected cases among migrants were analysed. In addition, by using data of 300 cases with culture results, sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF, both for detection of TB and rifampicin susceptibility, were assessed. Among 3,714 suspected cases, 56.1% were male, and the median age was 35 years old. Of the suspected cases, 17.2% were previously-treated. In total, 809 (21.8%) were smear-positive; 36.8% among previously-treated cases and 18.7% among new cases. Among 300 selected participants, 235 (78.3%) were culture-positive. Of those who were confirmed as TB positive, recurrent cases showed a higher proportion of rifampicin resistance than new cases (59.3% vs 42.6%). For detection of TB, the sensitivity and specificity of XpertMTB/RIF (81.3% and 98.2%) were higher than those of microscopy (70.2% and 71.4%). Sensitivity and specificity for detection of rifampicin resistance were 96.8% and 91.8%, respectively. The rifampicin resistance rate in the study population was higher than the national average. Xpert MTB/RIF showed higher accuracy in detecting TB cases than microscopic diagnosis. Higher accuracy and earlier detection of drug susceptibility is especially important for those who have difficulty in accessing healthcare and those who are easily lost from tracking, including migrants. PMID:25797969

  9. Genome-Wide Scan and Test of Candidate Genes in the Snail Biomphalaria glabrata Reveal New Locus Influencing Resistance to Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A Tennessen

    Full Text Available New strategies to combat the global scourge of schistosomiasis may be revealed by increased understanding of the mechanisms by which the obligate snail host can resist the schistosome parasite. However, few molecular markers linked to resistance have been identified and characterized in snails.Here we test six independent genetic loci for their influence on resistance to Schistosoma mansoni strain PR1 in the 13-16-R1 strain of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata. We first identify a genomic region, RADres, showing the highest differentiation between susceptible and resistant inbred lines among 1611 informative restriction-site associated DNA (RAD markers, and show that it significantly influences resistance in an independent set of 439 outbred snails. The additive effect of each RADres resistance allele is 2-fold, similar to that of the previously identified resistance gene sod1. The data fit a model in which both loci contribute independently and additively to resistance, such that the odds of infection in homozygotes for the resistance alleles at both loci (13% infected is 16-fold lower than the odds of infection in snails without any resistance alleles (70% infected. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium is high, with both sod1 and RADres residing on haplotype blocks >2 Mb, and with other markers in each block also showing significant effects on resistance; thus the causal genes within these blocks remain to be demonstrated. Other candidate loci had no effect on resistance, including the Guadeloupe Resistance Complex and three genes (aif, infPhox, and prx1 with immunological roles and expression patterns tied to resistance, which must therefore be trans-regulated.The loci RADres and sod1 both have strong effects on resistance to S. mansoni. Future approaches to control schistosomiasis may benefit from further efforts to characterize and harness this natural genetic variation.

  10. Influence of supplementary lighting during artificial scab inoculation tests in an apple breeding programm focused on partial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrancq, B; Lateur, M

    2006-01-01

    In 1988, the Department of Biological Control and Plant Genetic Resources at the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre started an apple-breeding programme using local genetic resources and modern varieties. Our objective is to create high quality commercial cultivars with durable resistance to scab (Venturia inaequalis), powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and canker (Nectria galligena). The breeding strategy is based on crossing old apple cultivars and landraces selected as parents for low disease susceptibility and possessing other desirable horticultural characteristics. The programme aims to develop an early and efficient selection methodology adapted to partial disease resistance. One of the objectives is to define the optimal screening limit for discarding individuals after artificial scab inoculation tests. Working with large populations of seedlings entails spacing the seedling scab tests throughout the year. In order to work during winter, seedlings were grown in controlled cabinet conditions and in a glasshouse with supplementary lighting. To assess the bias introduced by these conditions, two trials were conducted: the first one to compare the influence of both environments on the results of scab inoculation tests, and the second one to assess the influence of the duration of supplementary lighting. The results enabled us to evaluate the limits of artificial cultural systems.

  11. Materials, Manufacturing, and Test Development of a Composite Fan Blade Leading Edge Subcomponent for Improved Impact Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Handschuh, Katherine; Sinnott, Matthew J.; Kohlman, Lee W.; Roberts, Gary D.; Martin, Richard E.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Pereira, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Application of polymer matrix composite materials for jet engine fan blades is becoming attractive as an alternative to metallic blades; particularly for large engines where significant weight savings are recognized on moving to a composite structure. However, the weight benefit of the composite is offset by a reduction of aerodynamic efficiency resulting from a necessary increase in blade thickness; relative to the titanium blades. Blade dimensions are largely driven by resistance to damage on bird strike. Further development of the composite material is necessary to allow composite blade designs to approximate the dimensions of a metallic fan blade. The reduction in thickness over the state of the art composite blades is expected to translate into structural weight reduction, improved aerodynamic efficiency, and therefore reduced fuel consumption. This paper presents test article design, subcomponent blade leading edge fabrication, test method development, and initial results from ballistic impact of a gelatin projectile on the leading edge of composite fan blades. The simplified test article geometry was developed to realistically simulate a blade leading edge while decreasing fabrication complexity. Impact data is presented on baseline composite blades and toughened blades; where a considerable improvement to impact resistance was recorded.

  12. Multiple Genetic Analysis System-Based Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing in Helicobacter pylori and High Eradication Rate With Phenotypic Resistance-Guided Quadruple Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fangyuan; Ji, Danian; Huang, Renxiang; Zhang, Fan; Huang, Yiqin; Xiang, Ping; Kong, Mimi; Nan, Li; Zeng, Xianping; Wu, Yong; Bao, Zhijun

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotics resistance in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major factor for eradication failure. Molecular tests including fluorescence in situ hybridization, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and dual priming oligonucleotide-PCR (DPO-PCR) play critical roles in the detection of antibiotic susceptibility; however, limited knowledge is known about application of multiple genetic analysis system (MGAS) in the area of H. pylori identification and antibiotics resistance detection.The aim of this study is to determine the antibiotics resistance using different molecular tests and evaluate the treatment outcomes of E-test-based genotypic resistance.A total of 297 patients with dyspepsia complaint were recruited for gastroscopies. Ninety patients with H. pylori culture positive were randomly divided into 2 groups (test group and control group). E-test, general PCR, and MGAS assay were performed in test group. Patients in control group were treated with empirical therapy (rabeprazole + bismuth potassium citrate + amoxicillin [AMX] + clarithromycin [CLR]), whereas patients in test group received quadruple therapy based on E-test results twice daily for 14 consecutive days. The eradication effect of H. pylori was confirmed by C-urea breath test after at least 4 weeks when treatment was finished.Rapid urease test showed 46.5% (128/297) patients with H. pylori infection, whereas 30.3% (90/297) patients were H. pylori culture positive. E-test showed that H. pylori primary resistance rate to CLR, AMX, metronidazole, tetracycline, and levofloxacin (LVX) was 40.0% (18/45), 4.4% (2/45), 53.3% (24/45), 0% (0/45), and 55.6% (25/45), respectively. In addition, there are many multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes, and the MDR strains have higher minimum inhibitory concentration than their single-drug resistant counterparts. Considering E-test as the reference test, the sensitivities of general PCR and MGAS in detecting CLR resistance were 83.3% (15/18) and 94.4% (17

  13. Study on Single-yarn Pullout Test of Ballistic Resistant Fabric under Different Preloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Q. C.; Lei, Z. K.; Y Qin, F.; Li, W. K.; Bai, R. X.

    2017-12-01

    During bullet penetrating fabric, the pull-out force of yarn in fabric is related to the impact resistance of fabric when the yarn is pulled out from the fabric. The complex uncrimping and friction slip behavior occur during the yarn pullout process, which is critical to learn the impact resistance of fabric. Based on digital image correlation technique, the deformation behavior of Kevlar 49 fabric subjected to preload during the single-yarn pullout process was studied in this paper. The pullout force and displacement curve shows a straight rise and an oscillated decrease. In the linear rise stage, the yarn uncrimping causes a static friction effect. The maximum of the pullout force is not linearly increased with the preload. In the oscillating descending stage, the local descent of the pullout force indicates that the yarn end is gradually withdrawn from the fabric, and the local rise indicates that the yarn end moves to the next weft/warp interaction until the yarn is completely pulled out. The shear deformation of fabric corresponds to the single-yarn pullout process.

  14. Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the normal range. What happens with insulin resistance? In insulin resistance, muscle, fat, and liver cells do not ... they do not usually test specifically for insulin resistance. Insulin resistance can be assessed by measuring the level ...

  15. Development of a Standard Test to Assess the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Cells to Disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppens, S.B.I.; Reij, M.W.; Heijden, van der R.W.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2002-01-01

    A standardized disinfectant test for Staphylococcus aureus cells in biofilms was developed. Two disinfectants, the membrane-active compound benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and the oxidizing agent sodium hypochlorite, were used to evaluate the biofilm test. S. aureus formed biofilms on glass, stainless

  16. Evaluation of a rapid screening test for rifampicin resistance in re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study was done comparing performance of the rapid phage test with conventional culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) in AFB-positive TB patients. Setting. Five primary health clinics and one TB referral centre in the Port Elizabeth Metropolitan area, Eastern Cape. Outcome measures. Sensitivity ...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 178 - Flame Penetration Resistance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... testing are the Lenox Model OB-32, Carlin Model 200 CRD and Park Model DPL. (3) Calorimeter. (i) The calorimeter to be used in testing must be a total heat flux Foil Type Gardon Gage of an appropriate range... burner to be used in tesing must— (i) Be a modified gun type. (ii) Use a suitable nozzle and maintain...

  18. Radiation resistance of elastomeric O-rings in mixed neutron and gamma fields: Testing methodology and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenoni, A.; Bignotti, F.; Donzella, A.; Donzella, G.; Ferrari, M.; Pandini, S.; Andrighetto, A.; Ballan, M.; Corradetti, S.; Manzolaro, M.; Monetti, A.; Rossignoli, M.; Scarpa, D.; Alloni, D.; Prata, M.; Salvini, A.; Zelaschi, F.

    2017-11-01

    Materials and components employed in the presence of intense neutron and gamma fields are expected to absorb high dose levels that may induce deep modifications of their physical and mechanical properties, possibly causing loss of their function. A protocol for irradiating elastomeric materials in reactor mixed neutron and gamma fields and for testing the evolution of their main mechanical and physical properties with absorbed dose has been developed. Four elastomeric compounds used for vacuum O-rings, one fluoroelastomer polymer (FPM) based and three ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) based, presently available on the market have been selected for the test. One EPDM is rated as radiation resistant in gamma fields, while the other elastomers are general purpose products. Particular care has been devoted to dosimetry calculations, since absorbed dose in neutron fields, unlike pure gamma fields, is strongly dependent on the material composition and, in particular, on the hydrogen content. The products have been tested up to about 2 MGy absorbed dose. The FPM based elastomer, in spite of its lower dose absorption in fast neutron fields, features the largest variations of properties, with a dramatic increase in stiffness and brittleness. Out of the three EPDM based compounds, one shows large and rapid changes in the main mechanical properties, whereas the other two feature more stable behaviors. The performance of the EPDM rated as radiation resistant in pure gamma fields does not appear significantly better than that of the standard product. The predictive capability of the accelerated irradiation tests performed as well as the applicable concepts of threshold of radiation damage is discussed in view of the use of the examined products in the selective production of exotic species facility, now under construction at the Legnaro National Laboratories of the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. It results that a careful account of dose rate effects

  19. Assessment of the Resistance of a Polymethylmethacrylate (Pmma Dynamic Compression Plate (DCP Prototype Tested on Osteotomized Canine Femurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Cardona R.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Femur fractures are the most frequent long bone fractures in small animals. Due to the femur’s anatomical position, it is difficult to immobilize, and therefore internal fixations are very useful. Dynamic compression plates (DCP provide high stability, are durable, minimize fragment movement and promote primary healing of the bone. Advantages of this treatment include anatomical reconstruction, early mobility and carrying capacity of the affected limb. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA is an acrylic resin that has proved very useful in bone tumor treatment, cranial deformation prosthesis, percutaneous vertebroplasty and testicular prosthesis in animals. The purpose of this study was to manufacture DCP-PMMA and test its resistance to the different forces present in a fracture. Forty-eight (48 3.5MM x 4-hole DCP were made from an alginate mold. Six (6 femurs were obtained from canine cadavers zeighing from 10 to 20 kg, which underwent osteotomy simulating an oblique fracture. The plates were subsequently positioned in the osteotomized bones to submit them to the various forces involved in a fracture. The DCP-PMMA resisted a torque force of 2.83 newton/metres and a compression and flexion force of 0.21 kilonewton. The obtained resistance of the DCP-PMMA was an average of 20 kg per force. The results of this study show that it is possible to make a DCP-PMMA 3.5 mm x 4-hole, the resistance of which is of 20 kg against the three applied forces, and that it can be used to stabilize long bone fractures subjected to a pressure of less than 20 kg.

  20. Uninformative priors prefer simpler models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Henry; Abbott, Michael; Machta, Benjamin

    The Bayesian framework for model selection requires a prior for the probability of candidate models that is uninformative-it minimally biases predictions with preconceptions. For parameterized models, Jeffreys' uninformative prior, pJ, weights parameter space according to the local density of distinguishable model predictions. While pJ is rigorously justifiable in the limit that there is infinite data, it is ill-suited to effective theories and sloppy models. In these models, parameters are very poorly constrained by available data, and even the number of parameters is often arbitrary. We use a principled definition of `uninformative' as the mutual information between parameters and their expected data and study the properties of the prior p* which maximizes it. When data is abundant, p* approaches Jeffreys' prior. With finite data, however, p* is discrete, putting weight on a finite number of atoms in parameter space. In addition, when data is scarce, the prior lies on model boundaries, which in many cases correspond to interpretable models but with fewer parameters. As more data becomes available, the prior puts weight on models with more parameters. Thus, p* quantifies the intuition that better data can justify the use of more complex models.

  1. Resistência do cafeeiro a nematóides: I - Testes em progênies e híbridos, para Meloidogyne exigua Coffee breeding for resistance to Meloidogyne exigua: I - Screening test using arabica progenies and interespecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Fazuoli

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se identificar fontes de resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne exígua em cafeeiros derivados de híbridos interespecíficos e em progênies de café arábica oriundas da Etiópia, em experimentos estabelecidos em duas localidades. A infestação foi feita por dois processos usados com freqüência nesse tipo de trabalho. As avaliações do grau de ataque foram feitas quatro e 12 meses após a infestação, em Campinas e Ribeirão Preto, respectivamente, adotando-se escala variando de zero, para ausência de galhas, a cinco pontos para grande intensidade de ataque. Verificou-se que a leitura feita aos quatro meses é tão eficiente quanto aos 12 meses, indicando a possibilidade de abreviar consideravelmente a duração dessas avaliações. Notou-se, no experimento de Ribeirão Preto, uma redução de aproximadamente 8% no crescimento das mudas infestadas e verificou-se, também, uma redução de 11,5% e 12% nos pesos verde e seco das plantas, devido ao ataque do nematóide. De 1.692 plantas examinadas nos dois experimentos, selecionaram-se 106 (6,3%, caracterizadas pela ausência de galhas. As populações derivadas dos híbridos entre Coffea arabica e C. canephora revelaram-se mais promissoras, contribuindo com maior número de plantas resistentes. As plantas do experimento instalado em Campinas foram inoculadas também com a raça II de Hemileia vastatrix para o estudo da resistência conjunta aos dois patógenos. Essas seleções, em número de 38, representam valioso material para o programa de melhoramento do cafeeiro.Two coffee screening tests were undertaken in order to find out sources of resistance to the nematode M. exigua. Arabica progenies from Ethiopia origin and advanced popu-lations derived from interspecific crosses (Coffea arabica x C. canephora and C. arabica x C. dewevrei were evaluated. A five point scale (0 point to the roots without galls and 5 points to severely attacked roots was used for determination of the

  2. Expansion of Viral Load Testing and the Potential Impact on HIV Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizes, Elliot; Hader, Shannon; Birx, Deborah

    2017-12-01

    The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) supports aggressive scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in high-burden countries and across all genders and populations at risk toward global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic control. PEPFAR recognizes the risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) as a consequence of aggressive ART scale-up and is actively promoting 3 key steps to mitigate the impact of HIVDR: (1) routine access to routine viral load monitoring in all settings; (2) optimization of ART regimens; and (3) routine collection and analysis of HIVDR data to monitor the success of mitigation strategies. The transition to dolutegravir-based regimens in PEPFAR-supported countries and the continuous evolution of HIVDR surveillance strategies are essential elements of PEPFAR implementation. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Advanced Testing Techniques to Measure the PWSCC Resistance of Alloy 690 and its Weld Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.Andreson

    2004-10-01

    Wrought Alloy 600 and its weld metals (Alloy 182 and Alloy 82) were originally used in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) due to the material's inherent resistance to general corrosion in a number of aggressive environments and because of a coefficient of thermal expansion that is very close to that of low alloy and carbon steel. Over the last thirty years, stress corrosion cracking in PWR primary water (PWSCC) has been observed in numerous Alloy 600 component items and associated welds, sometimes after relatively long incubation times. The occurrence of PWSCC has been responsible for significant downtime and replacement power costs. As part of an ongoing, comprehensive program involving utilities, reactor vendors and engineering/research organizations, this report will help to ensure that corrosion degradation of nickel-base alloys does not limit service life and that full benefit can be obtained from improved designs for both replacement components and new reactors.

  4. Risk factors for colonization with ampicillin and high-level aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci during hospitalization in the ICU and the impact of prior antimicrobial exposure definition: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srovin, Tina Plankar; Seme, Katja; Blagus, Rok; Tomazin, Rok; Cižman, Milan

    2014-02-01

    The aim of our prospective cohort study was to determine the incidence, genetic relatedness and risk factors for colonization with ampicillin and high-level aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci (ARHLARE) among patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit. During 15-month period, we included 105 patients. The only independent risk factor for ARHLARE colonization was days of cefotaxime/ceftriaxone therapy [odds ratio (OR): 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.27; P  =  0.045]. Patients with higher total use of antibiotics, patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation, and patients with urinary tract infection (UTI), were also found to be at increased risk to become colonized with ARHLARE. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis suggested multifocal origin of the majority of the colonizing strains. Our results show that an increase in total antibiotic consumption for 10 defined daily doses (DDD)/patient increased the odds of colonization with ARHLARE for 36%. Further efforts to optimize antimicrobial use in high risk patients are proposed.

  5. Full-Scale Test Evaluation of Aircraft Fuel Fire Burnthrough Resistance Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    versions of the FB-300 were somewhat inferior to the current fiberglass materials in terms of sound absorption and noise attenuation, which is the...430, supplied by the Imi-Tech® Corporation. Solimide® AC-430 has excellent sound absorption and good thermal insulating properties but does not...composites on commercial and military aircraft and helicopters. In this test a dot printed, nonwoven paper of Nextel™ was tested to determine its

  6. First joint test beam of CMS Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    Paolo Giacomelli

    2001-01-01

    The first full size muon drift tube chamber ever built for the CMS barrel with the final cell design (constructed at CIEMAT, Madrid) was succesfully tested with a muon beam in September 2001 at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN. For the first time also both muon detectors for the CMS barrel (DT + RPC) were coupled together. The results of this test were fully succesful and confirmed the excellent performance of both detectors together in a radiation environment.

  7. Impact Resistance of Structural Ceramics. Part 1. Instrumented Drop- Weight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    is conventionally obtained for metels using heavy pendulum impact machines in the Charpy or Izod configuration. In the Charpy configuration the... Charpy mode. The tup of the pendulum has a force transducer attached, the output of which is recorded on an oscilloscope. Thus, the load as a function...clear distinction should be made between the energy loss of an impactor in an impact test (the pendulum in a Charpy test or the ball in a DWT) and the

  8. Erosion-corrosion resistance of engineering materials in various test conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rajahram, S.S; Harvey, T.J.; Wood, R.J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Erosion–corrosion is a complex phenomenon which involves the interaction between the mechanical processes of solid particle erosion and the electrochemical processes of corrosion. A whole range of issues is faced by a designer when trying to obtain relevant information on erosion–corrosion performance of a material. Amongst the constraints are the dispersed test conditions and test rigs available in the literature making comparisons and quantifying erosion–corrosion wear rates of different ma...

  9. Replicative phenotyping adds value to genotypic resistance testing in heavily pre-treated HIV-infected individuals - the Swiss HIV Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinetti Gladys

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replicative phenotypic HIV resistance testing (rPRT uses recombinant infectious virus to measure viral replication in the presence of antiretroviral drugs. Due to its high sensitivity of detection of viral minorities and its dissecting power for complex viral resistance patterns and mixed virus populations rPRT might help to improve HIV resistance diagnostics, particularly for patients with multiple drug failures. The aim was to investigate whether the addition of rPRT to genotypic resistance testing (GRT compared to GRT alone is beneficial for obtaining a virological response in heavily pre-treated HIV-infected patients. Methods Patients with resistance tests between 2002 and 2006 were followed within the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS. We assessed patients' virological success after their antiretroviral therapy was switched following resistance testing. Multilevel logistic regression models with SHCS centre as a random effect were used to investigate the association between the type of resistance test and virological response (HIV-1 RNA Results Of 1158 individuals with resistance tests 221 with GRT+rPRT and 937 with GRT were eligible for analysis. Overall virological response rates were 85.1% for GRT+rPRT and 81.4% for GRT. In the subgroup of patients with >2 previous failures, the odds ratio (OR for virological response of GRT+rPRT compared to GRT was 1.45 (95% CI 1.00-2.09. Multivariate analyses indicate a significant improvement with GRT+rPRT compared to GRT alone (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.31-2.15. Conclusions In heavily pre-treated patients rPRT-based resistance information adds benefit, contributing to a higher rate of treatment success.

  10. Oxidative stress responses to a graded maximal exercise test in older adults following explosive-type resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceci, R.; Beltran Valls, M.R.; Duranti, G.

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that low frequency, moderate intensity, explosive-type resistance training (EMRT) is highly beneficial in elderly subjects towards muscle strength and power, with a systemic adaptive response of anti-oxidant and stress-induced markers. In the present study, we aimed...... to evaluate the impact of EMRT on oxidative stress biomarkers induced in old people (70-75 years) by a single bout of acute, intense exercise. Sixteen subjects randomly assigned to either a control, not exercising group ( n=8) or a trained group performing EMRT protocol for 12-weeks ( n=8), were submitted...... to a graded maximal exercise stress test (GXT) at baseline and after the 12-weeks of EMRT protocol, with blood samples collected before, immediately after, 1 and 24. h post-GXT test. Blood glutathione (GSH, GSSG, GSH/GSSG), plasma malonaldehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls and creatine kinase (CK) levels, as well...

  11. Effect of a test meal on meal responses of satiation hormones and their association to insulin resistance in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beglinger, Svetlana; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Graf, Steffi; Zumsteg, Urs; Drewe, Jürgen; Beglinger, Christoph; Gutzwiller, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-01

    The role of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones in the pathophysiology of obesity is unclear, although they are involved in the regulation of satiation and glucose metabolism. To (i) examine glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), amylin, ghrelin, and glucagon responses to a meal in obese adolescents and to (ii) test which GI peptides are associated with insulin resistance are presented. A total of 16 obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 97th percentile for age and gender) and 14 control (BMI between 25th and 75th percentiles) adolescents were included. Subjects were instructed to eat a test meal (490 kcal). Plasma samples were collected for hormone and glucose analysis. Obese adolescents were insulin resistant as expressed by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index and had significantly increased fasting glucagon and amylin levels compared to the control group (P = 0.003 and 0.044, respectively). In response to the meal, the increase in GLP-1 levels was reduced in obese adolescents (P < 0.001). In contrast, amylin secretion was significantly increased in the obese population compared to the control group (P < 0.005). Obese adolescents have increased fasting glucagon and amylin levels and attenuated post-prandial GLP-1 concentrations compared with the control group. These factors could contribute to the metabolic syndrome. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  12. Optimization of a Laboratory-Developed Test Utilizing Roche Analyte-Specific Reagents for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus, and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Species▿

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Maitry S.; Paule, Suzanne M.; Hacek, Donna M.; Thomson, Richard B.; Kaul, Karen L.; Peterson, Lance R.

    2008-01-01

    Nasal and perianal swab specimens were tested for detection of Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species (VRE) using a laboratory-developed real-time PCR test and microbiological cultures. The real-time PCR and culture results for S. aureus were similar. PCR had adequate sensitivity, but culture was more specific for the detection of VRE.

  13. Correlation between genotypic and phenotypic testing for resistance to rifampin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in Haiti: investigation of cases with discrepant susceptibility results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Ocheretina

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization has recommended use of molecular-based tests MTBDRplus and GeneXpert MTB/RIF to diagnose multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in developing and high-burden countries. Both tests are based on detection of mutations in the Rifampin (RIF Resistance-Determining Region of DNA-dependent RNA Polymerase gene (rpoB. Such mutations are found in 95-98% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains determined to be RIF-resistant by the "gold standard" culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST. We report the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of 153 consecutive clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains diagnosed as RIF-resistant by molecular tests in our laboratory in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 133 isolates (86.9% were resistant to both RIF and Isoniazid and 4 isolates (2.6% were RIF mono-resistant in MGIT SIRE liquid culture-based DST. However the remaining 16 isolates (10.5% tested RIF-sensitive by the assay. Five strains with discordant genotypic and phenotypic susceptibility results had RIF minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC close to the cut-off value of 1 µg/ml used in phenotypic susceptibility assays and were confirmed as resistant by DST on solid media. Nine strains had sub-critical RIF MICs ranging from 0.063 to 0.5 µg/ml. Finally two strains were pan-susceptible and harbored a silent rpoB mutation. Our data indicate that not only detection of the presence but also identification of the nature of rpoB mutation is needed to accurately diagnose resistance to RIF in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Observed clinical significance of low-level resistance to RIF supports the re-evaluation of the present critical concentration of the drug used in culture-based DST assays.

  14. Validation of the abrasion resistance test protocols and performance criteria of EN13595: The probability of soft tissue injury to motorcycle riders by abrasion resistance of their clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Lauren; Hurren, Christopher; Clarke, Elizabeth; Fitzharris, Michael; Baldock, Matthew; de Rome, Liz; Olivier, Jake; Brown, Julie

    2017-06-01

    Motorcyclists represent an increasing proportion of road users globally and are increasingly represented in crash statistics. Soft tissue injuries are the most common type of injuries to crashed motorcyclists. These injuries can be prevented through the use of protective clothing designed for motorcycle use. However, the quality of such clothing is not controlled in many countries around the world. A European Standard was developed to assess the performance of clothing but as this is not mandatory, clothing certified to this Standard is difficult to obtain. Given the importance of this Standard, and that it has been validated only once, further validation work is required. In-depth crash investigation data were used to investigate the relationship between the abrasion resistance performance of clothing and real-world injury outcome. Clothing was collected from riders who crashed on public roads in Sydney and Newcastle, Australia. This clothing was tested according to the EU Standard and the time to hole was recorded. Hospital medical records were reviewed and the association between a rider suffering a soft tissue injury and the time-to-hole for the garment was examined. The probability of soft tissue injury for Level 1 Standard garments was between 40-60%, but more than 60% of garments tested failed to meet the minimum requirement. The findings of this study provide qualified support for the Standard, with a marginal association between time-to-hole and injury being found. This work supports the need for improved safety performance and an increased number of high performing garments being available to motorcyclists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  15. A Robust PCR Protocol for HIV Drug Resistance Testing on Low-Level Viremia Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of drug resistance (DR mutations in people with HIV-1 infection, particularly those with low-level viremia (LLV, supports the need to improve the sensitivity of amplification methods for HIV DR genotyping in order to optimize antiretroviral regimen and facilitate HIV-1 DR surveillance and relevant research. Here we report on a fully validated PCR-based protocol that achieves consistent amplification of the protease (PR and reverse transcriptase (RT regions of HIV-1 pol gene across many HIV-1 subtypes from LLV plasma samples. HIV-spiked plasma samples from the External Quality Assurance Program Oversight Laboratory (EQAPOL, covering various HIV-1 subtypes, as well as clinical specimens were used to optimize and validate the protocol. Our results demonstrate that this protocol has a broad HIV-1 subtype coverage and viral load span with high sensitivity and reproducibility. Moreover, the protocol is robust even when plasma sample volumes are limited, the HIV viral load is unknown, and/or the HIV subtype is undetermined. Thus, the protocol is applicable for the initial amplification of the HIV-1 PR and RT genes required for subsequent genotypic DR assays.

  16. Analysis of Samples Treated by Resistance Test Method Exposed to Accelerated Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bates

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Global awareness that packaging has to be fully adequate and of high quality, is gradually increasing. That is why printing inks and substrates, which have no detrimental effect on packed products, should be considered a compulsory precondition for food and tobacco packaging. Printing inks that have been developed in the recent years, especially for food and tobacco packaging, have low-odour and low migration into the printing substrate during the drying process. Their migration into the printing substrate is within the acceptable limits and has no detrimental effect in terms of food safety. Another extremely important element of prints in high quality food and tobacco packaging is their stability, as they have to be resistant to liquids and chemicals, which are a part of packed product. The selection of an appropriate printing substrate is also extremely relevant, since the interaction of substrate with printing inks should have zero effect on the packed product and should not change the physical appearance of packaging. This paper presents the results of analysing the stability of laboratory samples printed with low-migration inks, observed immediately after the printing (unaged and two treatments of accelerated aging. The accelerated aging of prints was conducted in order to simulate conditions in which food and tobacco packaging can be found due to the prolonged indoors storage. The stability of prints was analysed based on optical characteristics by observing the prints’ relative reflectance curves.

  17. Shortened Time to Identify Staphylococcus Species from Blood Cultures and Methicillin Resistance Testing Using CHROMAgar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Chihara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to rapidly differentiate coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS from Staphylococcus aureus and to determine methicillin resistance is important as it affects the decision to treat empiric antibiotic selection. The objective of this study was to evaluate CHROMagar S. aureus and CHROMagar MRSA (Becton Dickinson for rapid identification of Staphylococcus spp. directly from blood cultures. Consecutive blood culture bottles (BacT Alert 3D SA and SN, bioMérieux growing gram-positive cocci in clusters were evaluated. An aliquot was plated onto CHROMagar MRSA (C-MRSA and CHROMagar S. aureus (C-SA plates, which were read at 12 to 16 hours. C-SA correctly identified 147/147 S. aureus (100% sensitivity; 2 CoNS were misidentified as S. aureus (98% specificity. C-MRSA correctly identified 74/77 MRSA (96% sensitivity. None of the MSSA isolates grew on C-MRSA (100% specificity. In conclusion, CHROMagar is a rapid and sensitive method to distinguish MRSA, MSSA, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and may decrease time of reporting positive results.

  18. Long‐term patient‐reported outcomes from an open‐label safety and efficacy study of bosutinib in Philadelphia chromosome–positive chronic myeloid leukemia patients resistant or intolerant to prior therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamolo, Carla M.; Gambacorti‐Passerini, Carlo; Cortes, Jorge E.; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Su, Yun; Reisman, Arlene L.; Shapiro, Mark; Lipton, Jeff H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Health‐related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic‐phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is important because of the requirement for long‐term treatment. This study assessed HRQOL in bosutinib‐treated patients with Philadelphia chromosome–positive CML and resistance or intolerance to 1 (chronic‐phase second‐line [CP2L]) or more (chronic‐phase third‐line [CP3L]) tyrosine kinase inhibitors who had 264 weeks or more of follow‐up (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00261846). METHODS Patient‐reported HRQOL was assessed with the EuroQol 5‐Dimensions Questionnaire (EQ‐5D) and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Leukemia (FACT‐Leu). RESULTS In total, 284 and 119 patients composed the CP2L and CP3L cohorts, respectively. At treatment completion, more than 50% of the patients in the CP2L and CP3L cohorts completed the EQ‐5D and FACT‐Leu assessments. The EQ‐5D and EQ‐5D visual analog scale scores were stable in both cohorts throughout treatment. The mean FACT‐Leu scores were generally stable over time but were lower in magnitude in the CP3L cohort versus the CP2L cohort. The FACT‐Leu scale scores of a subset of patients with chronic diarrhea (CP2L, n = 101; CP3L, n = 30) were similar to the scores of the larger cohorts. Minimally important differences (MIDs) from baseline for the FACT‐Leu scale scores were observed for the following: emotional well‐being (EWB), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–General (FACT‐G) Total, FACT‐Leu Total, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Trial Outcome Index (FACT‐TOI) in the CP2L cohort and FACT‐Leu Total in the CP3L cohort. Among patients with chronic diarrhea, MIDs were observed for EWB, FACT‐G Total, FACT‐Leu Total, and FACT‐TOI in the CP2L cohort and for EWB, FACT‐G Total, and FACT‐Leu Total in the CP3L cohort. CONCLUSIONS HRQOL was maintained with long‐term bosutinib treatment for patients with CP2L and CP3L CML. Cancer

  19. Wastage-resistant characteristics of 12Cr steel tube material. Small leak sodium-water reaction test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyama, Kazuhito

    2004-03-01

    In the water leak accident of a steam generator designed for a sodium cooled reactor in the Feasibility Study, the localization of tube failure propagation by using an advanced water leak detector will be required from the viewpoints of the safety and economical efficiency of the plant. So far, the conventional knowledge and analytical tools have been used in the investigation and evaluation of water leak phenomenon; nevertheless, there was neither test data nor the study of quantitative evaluation on the corrosion behavior, so-called wastage-resistant characteristics, of 12Cr steel tube material in sodium-water reactions. Wastage tests for the 12Cr steel tube material were conducted in small water leaks by use of the Sodium-Water Reaction Test Rig (SWAT-1R), and the data of wastage rate were obtained in the parameter of water leak rate under the constant sodium temperature and distance between leak and target tubes. The test results lead to the following conclusions: (1) The wastage-resistibility of 12Cr steel is 1.6 times greater than that of 9Cr steel and is 2.7 times greater than that of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. (2)The wastage-resistibility of 12Cr steel increases in smaller water leaks; especially in water leak rates of 1 g/sec or less, it is more excellent than that of SUS321 stainless steel used as Monju superheater tube material. (3) Based on the correlation of wastage rate for the 9Cr steel, the correlation for the 12Cr steel has been obtained to be used for the evaluation of tube failure propagation. As the correlation of wastage rate for the 12Cr steel is based on the correlation for the 9Cr steel, it gives enough conservatism in smaller water leaks. To serve in accurately evaluating the tube failure propagation in smaller water leaks, it is necessary to obtain new correlation of wastage rate for the 12Cr steel based on the data in the wide range of water leak rates. (author)

  20. Testing hypotheses that link wood anatomy to cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in the genus Acer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Sperry, J.S.; Christmas, M.A.; Rabaey, D.; Jansen, S.

    2011-01-01

    • Vulnerability to cavitation and conductive efficiency depend on xylem anatomy. We tested a large range of structure–function hypotheses, some for the first time, within a single genus to minimize phylogenetic ‘noise’ and maximize detection of functionally relevant variation. • This integrative

  1. Why testes are resistant to hydatidosis: Is blood-testis-barrier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testes are extremely rare sites for echinococcosis. To our knowledge only three cases of testicular hydatid disease have been reported so far. In this laboratory animal model, we studied hydatidosis in rabbit testis. Fourteen male albino rabbits (body weight 2.5-3 kg) were randomized into two groups: Group A (study group), ...

  2. Forcing attacks of western pine beetles to test resistance of pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Smith

    1967-01-01

    Success--defined as oviposition or tree-killing--was obtained by attracting western pine beetles to groups of pines with natural attractants and by en-massed forced attacks on individual trees combined with either physical or biological stress. Preliminary results show considerable agreement with laboratory tests of vapor toxicity.

  3. Effect of Explosion Bulge Test Parameters on the Measurement of Deformation Resistance for Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    cDAQ 9172 chassis , which was in turn connected to a notebook computer by a USB port. A schematic of the test plate is shown in Figure 1, identifying...for automobile applications’, 2006, Internal Technical paper. [13] D. Cornette, P.Cugy, A. Hildenbrand, and M. Bouzekri, ‘Ultra high strength Fe-Mn

  4. Soft Salt-Mannitol Agar–Cloxacillin Test: a Highly Specific Bedside Screening Test for Detection of Colonization with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Nuria; Sánchez, Miguel; Baquero, Fernando; López, Blanca; Calderón, Celia; Cantón, Rafael

    1998-01-01

    The early detection of colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of patients in intensive-care units is an essential step in the strategy for preventing MRSA epidemics. In this study, tubes containing soft salt-mannitol agar with cloxacillin (6 μg/ml) (SSMAC) were prepared for inoculation of clinical samples at patients’ bedsides by personnel of an intensive-care unit. A total of 1,914 swabs from different sample sites of 81 patients were dipped into SSMAC tubes, and after 24 h of incubation (in an incubator located near the intensive-care unit), an evident color change was considered by the intensive-care-unit personnel to be an MRSA alarm. Sixty-three (3.3%) SSMAC tubes were considered positive for MRSA, 1,827 (95.4%) were considered negative, and 24 (1.2%) were considered intermediate. Compared with values for parallel conventional surveillance cultures for MRSA, excluding tubes with intermediate results, the SSMAC test had a sensitivity of 72.7%, a specificity of 99.2%, a positive predictive value of 76.2%, and a negative predictive value of 99.0%. When intermediate tubes were considered positive, the corresponding values were 75.3, 98.2, 63.2, and 99.0%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity values of the test to identify MRSA-colonized patients were 89.4 and 100%, respectively. Oropharyngeal and naris specimens were the most reliable samples for MRSA detection. False-negative results were frequent in bronchial aspirates with low (<103 to 106 CFU/ml) MRSA counts. False-positive results were mainly due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus. The SSMAC tube is a useful, rapid, and inexpensive tool for the early identification of MRSA-colonized patients and, consequently, for the implementation of measures to prevent the spread of MRSA. PMID:9542922

  5. The Prior Internet Resources 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engerer, Volkmar Paul; Albretsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    The Prior Internet Resources (PIR) are presented. Prior’s unpublished scientific manuscripts and his wast letter correspondence with fellow researchers at the time, his Nachlass, is now subject to transcription by Prior-researchers worldwide, and form an integral part of PIR. It is demonstrated...... that the PIR, defined as the virtual space delimited by the three content areas and Internet domains: 1) Priorstudies, 2) Prior Virtual Lab, and 3) Nachlass), contains six information systems of five distinct types. The informations systems are grouped into a “Transcriber Loop” to illustrate how unpublished...... material from the archive boxes goes through a transcription process to end in the Nachlass. A box taxonomy defines the transcription project’s hub. Together with the “Transcriber Loop” this setup makes it possible to use the boxlists in conjunction with a Priorbibliography also in PIR as a showcase...

  6. Antibiotic susceptibility of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) of food origin: A comparison of agar disc diffusion method and a commercially available miniaturized test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzón-Durán, Laura; Capita, Rosa; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2018-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are a major concern to public and animal health. Thirty MRS (Staphylococcus aureus, S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lentus, S. lugdunensis, S. sciuri, and S. xylosus) isolates from meat and poultry preparations were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials (belonging to seven different categories) of clinical significance using both the standard agar disc diffusion method and a commercially available miniaturized system (Sensi Test Gram-positive). It is worth stressing that 16 isolates (53.33%) exhibited an extensively drug-resistant phenotype (XDR). The average number of resistances per strain was 4.67. These results suggest that retail meat and poultry preparations are a likely vehicle for the transmission of multi-drug resistant MRS. Resistance to erythromycin was the commonest finding (76.67% of strains), followed by tobramycin, ceftazidime (66.67%), ciprofloxacin (56.67%) and fosfomycin (53.33%). An agreement (kappa coefficient) of 0.64 was found between the two testing methods. Using the agar disc diffusion as the reference method, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the miniaturized test were 98.44%, 69.44% and 83.33%, respectively. Most discrepancies between the two methods were due to isolates that were susceptible according to the disc diffusion method but resistant according to the miniaturized test (false positives). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Pneumatic muscle actuator for resistive exercise in microgravity: test with a leg model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serres, Jennifer L; Phillips, Chandler A; Reynolds, David B; Mohler, Stanley R; Rogers, Dana B; Repperger, Daniel W; Gerschutz, Maria J

    2010-02-01

    A proof-of-concept demonstration is described in which a DC servomotor (simulating the quadriceps of a human operator) rotated a pulley 90 degrees (simulating knee extension). A pneumatic muscle actuator (PMA) generated an opposing force (antagonist) to the rotating pulley. One application of such a device is for use in microgravity environments because the PMA is compact, simple, and of relatively small mass (283 g). In addition, the operator can set a computer-controlled force-level range in response to individual user changes in exercise conditioning over time. A PMA was used in this study and interacted with a DC servomotor. For each trial, the PMA contracted in response to internal pressure. An input voltage profile activated the DC servomotor, resulting in the following three phases: an isokinetic counterclockwise pulley rotation of 90 degrees over 5 s (Phase I), the position was held for 5 s (Phase II), and an isokinetic clockwise rotation of 90 degrees over 5 s (Phase III). Root mean square error (RMSE) values were used to evaluate the pulley rotation. For Phase I, when the PMA pressures (in kPa) were 300, 450, and 575, the percent RMSE, respectively, were 5.24, 6.23, and 4.59. For Phase II, the percent RMSE were 2.81, 2.57, and 5.63, respectively. For Phase III, the percent RMSE were 5.69, 2.63, and 3.30, respectively. This study presents a demonstration of a PMA device that can enhance exercise by providing a wide range of resistive loads.

  8. Diagnostic Testing Approaches for Activated Protein C Resistance and Factor V Leiden: A Comparison of Institutional and National Provider Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Botero, Juliana; Majerus, Julie A; Strege, Ann K; Johnson, Ryan D; Chen, Dong; Pruthi, Rajiv K

    2017-06-01

    To analyze the economic impact of testing for activated protein C resistance (APC-R) due to factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation with APC-R with reflexive FVL genotyping (algorithmic approach) or genotyping alone. OptumLabs Data Warehouse (OLDW) data were used to assess testing approaches. Insurance claims for APC-R and FVL in 2013 were compared with the Mayo Clinic database. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services diagnostic fee schedules were used to assign costs. Of 19.3 million OLDW-covered individuals, 74,242 (0.385%) received 75,608 tests: APC-R, 2,265 (2.9%); FVL genotyping, 70,619 (90.1%); and both APC-R and FVL, 2,724 (7.0%). In total, 1,317 tests were performed at Mayo Clinic: APC-R with reflex FVL (1,256; 95.4%) and FVL alone (61; 4.6%). Costs per evaluated individual and per total population (person/year) in OLDW and algorithmic approach were $83.77 vs $36.38 and $0.32 vs $0.14, respectively. The cost-optimized algorithmic approach reduces health care costs. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. The use of model-test data for predicting full-scale ACV resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstell, B. G.; Harry, C. W.

    The paper summarizes the analysis of test data obtained with a 1/12-scale model of the Amphibious Assault Landing Craft (AALC) JEFF(B). The analysis was conducted with the objective of improving the accuracy of drag predictions for a JEFF(B)-type air-cushion vehicle (ACV). Model test results, scaled to full-scale, are compared with full-scale drag obtained in various sea states during JEFF(B) trials. From the results of this comparison, it is found that the Froude-scale model rough-water drag data is consistently greater than full-scale derived drag, and is a function of both wave height and craft forward speed. Results are presented indicating that Froude scaling model data obtained in calm water also causes an over-prediction of calm-water drag at full-scale. An empirical correction that was developed for use on a JEFF(B)-type craft is discussed.

  10. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 179 - Procedures for Tank-Head Puncture-Resistance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and duplicate the condition of a conventional draft sill including the draft yoke and draft gear. The...-minus 2.5 cm (1 inch), above the top of the sill; the other test must be conducted with the coupler height at 79 cm (31 inches), plus-or-minus 2.5 cm (1 inch), above the top of the sill. If the combined...

  11. PET reconstruction via nonlocal means induced prior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingfeng; Huang, Jing; Bian, Zhaoying; Chen, Wufan; Ma, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Bayesian priors for maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction methods usually incorporate local neighborhood interactions that penalize large deviations in parameter estimates for adjacent pixels; therefore, only local pixel differences are utilized. This limits their abilities of penalizing the image roughness. To achieve high-quality PET image reconstruction, this study investigates a MAP reconstruction strategy by incorporating a nonlocal means induced (NLMi) prior (NLMi-MAP) which enables utilizing global similarity information of image. The present NLMi prior approximates the derivative of Gibbs energy function by an NLM filtering process. Specially, the NLMi prior is obtained by subtracting the current image estimation from its NLM filtered version and feeding the residual error back to the reconstruction filter to yield the new image estimation. We tested the present NLMi-MAP method with simulated and real PET datasets. Comparison studies with conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and a few iterative reconstruction methods clearly demonstrate that the present NLMi-MAP method performs better in lowering noise, preserving image edge and in higher signal to noise ratio (SNR). Extensive experimental results show that the NLMi-MAP method outperforms the existing methods in terms of cross profile, noise reduction, SNR, root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (CORR).

  12. Culture and Next-generation sequencing-based drug susceptibility testing unveil high levels of drug-resistant-TB in Djibouti: results from the first national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliani, Elisa; Hassan, Mohamed Osman; Waberi, Yacine; De Filippo, Maria Rosaria; Falzon, Dennis; Dean, Anna; Zignol, Matteo; Supply, Philip; Abdoulkader, Mohamed Ali; Hassangue, Hawa; Cirillo, Daniela Maria

    2017-12-15

    Djibouti is a small country in the Horn of Africa with a high TB incidence (378/100,000 in 2015). Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and resistance to second-line agents have been previously identified in the country but the extent of the problem has yet to be quantified. A national survey was conducted to estimate the proportion of MDR-TB among a representative sample of TB patients. Sputum was tested using XpertMTB/RIF and samples positive for MTB and resistant to rifampicin underwent first line phenotypic susceptibility testing. The TB supranational reference laboratory in Milan, Italy, undertook external quality assurance, genotypic testing based on whole genome and targeted-deep sequencing and phylogenetic studies. 301 new and 66 previously treated TB cases were enrolled. MDR-TB was detected in 34 patients: 4.7% of new and 31% of previously treated cases. Resistance to pyrazinamide, aminoglycosides and capreomycin was detected in 68%, 18% and 29% of MDR-TB strains respectively, while resistance to fluoroquinolones was not detected. Cluster analysis identified transmission of MDR-TB as a critical factor fostering drug resistance in the country. Levels of MDR-TB in Djibouti are among the highest on the African continent. High prevalence of resistance to pyrazinamide and second-line injectable agents have important implications for treatment regimens.

  13. Comparison of tau-fluvalinate, acrinathrin, and amitraz effects on susceptible and resistant populations of Varroa destructor in a vial test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamler, Martin; Nesvorna, Marta; Stara, Jitka; Erban, Tomas; Hubert, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major pest of the western honeybee, Apis mellifera. The development of acaricide resistance in Varroa populations is a global issue. Discriminating concentrations of acaricides are widely used to detect pest resistance. Two methods, using either glass vials or paraffin capsules, are used to screen for Varroa resistance to various acaricides. We found the glass vial method to be useless for testing Varroa resistance to acaridices, so we developed a polypropylene vial bioassay. This method was tested on tau-fluvalinate-, acrinathrin-, and amitraz-resistant mite populations from three apiaries in Czechia. Acetone was used as a control and technical grade acaricide compounds diluted in acetone were applied to the polypropylene vials. The solutions were spread on the vial surface by rolling the vial, and were then evaporated. Freshly collected Varroa females were placed in the vials and the mortality of the exposed mites was measured after 24 h. The Varroa populations differed in mortality between the apiaries and the tested compounds. Mites from the Kyvalka site were resistant to acrinathrin, tau-fluvalinate, and amitraz, while mites from the Postrizin site were susceptible to all three acaricides. In Prelovice apiary, the mites were susceptible to acrinathrin and amitraz, but not to tau-fluvalinate. The calculated discriminating concentrations for tau-fluvalinate, acrinathrin, and amitraz were 0.66, 0.26 and 0.19 µg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that polyproplyne vial tests can be used to determine discriminating concentrations for the early detection of acaricide resistant Varroa. Finally, multiple-resistance in Kyvalka may indicate metabolic resistance.

  14. Comparison and ranking of superelasticity of different austenite active nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires using mechanical tensile testing and correlating with its electrical resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, D.; Baskaranarayanan, Balashanmugam; Usha, K.; Jayanthi, M. S.; Vijjaykanth, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The application of light and continuous forces for optimum physiological response and the least damage to the tooth supporting structures should be the primary aim of an orthodontist. Nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys with their desirable properties are one of the natural choices of the clinicians. Aim: This study was aimed to compare and rank them based on its tensile strength and electrical resistivity. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of eight groups of 0.017 inch × 0.025 inch rectangular archwires from eight different manufacturers, and five samples from each group for tensile testing and nine samples for electrical resistivity tests were used. Data for stress at 10% strain and the initial slope were statistically analyzed with an analysis of variance and Scheffe tests with P wires tested were based primarily on the unloading curve's slope which is indicative of the magnitude of the deactivation force and secondarily on the length of the horizontal segment which is indicative of continuous forces during deactivation. For calculating the electric resistivity, the change in resistance after inducing strain in the wires was taken into account for the calculation of degree of martensite transformation and for ranking. Results: In tensile testing Ortho Organizers wires ranked first and GAC Lowland NiTi wires ranked last. For resistivity tests Ormco A wires were found superior and Morelli remained last. Conclusion: these rankings should be correlated clinically and need further studies. PMID:27829751

  15. The Genotype MTBDRplus ver. 2.0 test as a quick indicator of resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Nisticò

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a global emergency and a major public health problem, in some cases related to the appearance of strains of multi drug resistance (MDR and extensive drug resistance (XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.The correct determination of antibiotic sensitivity profiles is therefore crucial to carry out appropriate treatment aimed to decrease the infectivity of each patient and to reduce mortality. The poor adherence to treatment by the patient or the use of therapies based on a single drug, as a result of incorrect requirements, promote the development of drug-resistance. Have some time on the market of molecular diagnostic tests that allow, quickly and directly from biological sample to search for resistance genes some key drugs of anti-TB therapy (Rifampicin and Isoniazid. One of the tests in question is the Genotype MTBDRplus ver 2.0 which can reveal the presence of genes for resistance to Isoniazid (INH and Rifampin (RMP.The loci analyzed are those corresponding to the rpoB gene for rifampicin, katG and inhA for isoniazid. Our study is based on the analysis of 83 strains of tubercular Mycobacteria identified and isolated from patients with tuberculosis disease and subjected to the tests sensitivity, searching for mutations and phenotypic susceptibility testing for Rifampicin and Isoniazid.The comparison of the results has shown that the results obtained using the Genotype MTBDRplus ver 2.0 test, were similar to the results obtained by the traditional susceptibility testing.

  16. Standard Test Method for Impact Resistance of Monolithic Polycarbonate Sheet by Means of a Falling Weight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the energy required to initiate failure in monolithic polycarbonate sheet material under specified conditions of impact using a free falling weight. 1.2 Two specimen types are defined as follows: 1.2.1 Type A consists of a flat plate test specimen and employs a clamped ring support. 1.2.2 Type B consists of a simply supported three-point loaded beam specimen (Fig. 1) and is recommended for use with material which can not be failed using the Type A specimen. For a maximum drop height of 6.096 m (20 ft) and a maximum drop weight of 22.68 kg (50 lb), virgin polycarbonate greater than 12.70 mm (1/2 in.) thick will probably require use of the Type B specimen. Note 1 - See also ASTM Methods: D 1709, D 2444 and D 3029. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of reg...

  17. Conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated prior to cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suto C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikako Suto1,2, Masahiro Morinaga1,2, Tomoko Yagi1,2, Chieko Tsuji3, Hiroshi Toshida41Department of Ophthalmology, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo; 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, JapanObjective: To determine the trends of conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated from patients prior to cataract surgery.Subjects and methods: The study comprised 579 patients (579 eyes who underwent cataract surgery. Specimens were collected by lightly rubbing the inferior palpebral conjunctival sac with a sterile cotton swab 2 weeks before surgery, and then cultured for isolation of bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The bacterial isolates and percentage of drug-resistant isolates were compared among age groups and according to whether or not patients had diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, dialysis therapy, oral steroid use, dry eye syndrome, or allergic conjunctivitis.Results: The bacterial isolation rate was 39.2%. There were 191 strains of Gram-positive cocci, accounting for the majority of all isolates (67.0%, among which methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most frequent (127 strains, 44.5%, followed by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (37 strains, 12.7%. All 76 Gram-positive bacillary isolates (26.7% were from the genus Corynebacterium. Among the 16 Gram-negative bacillary isolates (5.9%, the most frequent was Escherichia coli (1.0%. The bacterial isolation rate was higher in patients >60 years old, and was lower in patients with dry eye syndrome, patients under topical treatment for other ocular disorders, and patients with hyperlipidemia. There was no significant difference in bacterial isolation rate with respect to the presence/absence of diabetes mellitus, steroid therapy, dialysis, or

  18. Liquid Metal Embrittlement in Resistance Spot Welding and Hot Tensile Tests of Surface-refined TWIP Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmie, J.; Schram, A.; Wesling, V.

    2016-03-01

    Automotive industry strives to reduce vehicle weight and therefore fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Especially in the auto body, material light weight construction is practiced, but the occupant safety must be ensured. These requirements demand high-strength steels with good forming and crash characteristics. Such an approach is the use of high- manganese-content TWIP steels, which achieve strengths of around 1,000 MPa and fracture strains of more than 60%. Welding surface-refined TWIP steels reduces their elongation at break and produces cracks due to the contact with liquid metal and the subsequent liquid metal embrittlement (LME). The results of resistance spot welds of mixed joints of high-manganese- content steel in combination with micro-alloyed ferritic steel and hot tensile tests are presented. The influence of different welding parameters on the sensitivity to liquid metal embrittlement is investigated by means of spot welding. In a high temperature tensile testing machine, the influence of different parameters is determined regardless of the welding process. Defined strains just below or above the yield point, and at 25% of elongation at break, show the correlation between the applied strain and liquid metal crack initiation. Due to the possibility to carry out tensile tests on a wide range of temperatures, dependencies of different temperatures of the zinc coating to the steel can be identified. Furthermore, the attack time of the zinc on the base material is investigated by defined heating periods.

  19. Rapid diagnostic test and use of antibiotic against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in adult intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dureau, A-F; Duclos, G; Antonini, F; Boumaza, D; Cassir, N; Alingrin, J; Vigne, C; Hammad, E; Zieleskiewicz, L; Leone, M

    2017-02-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with excess mortality and costs. Molecular biology test allows rapid identification of MRSA in sputum with high negative predictive value. We hypothesized that use of a rapid diagnostic test in patients with suspected VAP was associated with reduced use of antibiotics directed against MRSA. This retrospective, observational study was conducted in a polyvalent intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital. We compared two periods: before (2007-2010) and after (2010-2015) the implementation of a rapid diagnostic test, which uses RT-PCR to detect pathogens in 60 minutes. The primary endpoint was the effect on the empirical use of anti-MRSA antibiotics. The second endpoint was the effect of this strategy on the cost regarding antibiotic treatment. The first group included 120 suspected VAP (88 patients) and the second group 121 suspected VAP (89 patients). Empirical use of vancomycin and linezolid decreased by 50 % between the two periods. Twenty-seven VAP (22 %) were treated with an anti-MRSA treatment between 2007 and 2010, and 13 (11 %) between 2010 and 2015 (p = 0.04). The mean cost of anti-MRSA treatment by patients in the first group was 63 ± 223 €, and 13 ± 52 € in the second group (p MRSA antibiotics in patients with suspected VAP. These results should be confirmed by further multicenter prospective studies.

  20. Can a fatigue test of the isolated lumbar extensor muscles of untrained young men predict strength progression in a resistance exercise program?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmhout, P.; Staal, B.; Dijk, J. van; Harts, C.; Bertina, F.; Bie, R. de

    2010-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the predictive value of a fatigue test of the lumbar extensor muscles for training progression in a group of 28 healthy but predominantly sedentary male students, in an 8-week resistance exercise program. METHODS: A three-phased fatigue test

  1. Utility of Phenotypic and Genotypic Testing in the Study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Resistance to First-Line Anti-Tuberculosis drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba Álvarez, Luz María; García García, José María; Pérez Hernández, M Dolores; Martínez González, Susana; Palacios Gutiérrez, Juan José

    2017-04-01

    To determine the utility of molecular techniques in the diagnosis of resistance and the extent of resistance to first-line drugs in our region. From 2004 to 2013, 1,889 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated in Asturias, Spain, were studied using phenotypic (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines) and molecular (INNOLiPA RIF-TB © ; GenotypeMDRplus © ; GenotypeMDRsl © ) sensitivity tests. 1,759 strains (94.52%) were sensitive to all first-line drugs, and 102 strains (5.48%) showed some resistance: 81 strains (4.35%) were resistant to 1 single drug, 14 (0.75%) were polyresistant, and 7 (0.37%) were multiresistant (resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid). In total, 137 resistances were identified: 60 to isoniazid (3.22%), 7 to rifampicin (0.37%), 9 to pyrazinamide (0.48%), 11 to ethambutol (0.59%), and 50 to streptomycin (2.68%). Of the mutations detected, 75.9% (63/83) correlated with resistance, while 24.09% of mutations detected (20/83) were not associated with resistance; 16 of these involved a silent mutation at codon 514 of the rpoB gene. Between 0 and 90% of strains, depending on the drug under consideration, were resistant even when no gene mutations were detected using marketed systems. Molecular techniques are very useful, particularly for obtaining rapid results, but these must be confirmed with standard phenotypic sensitivity testing. The rate of resistance in our region is low and multi-drug resistantcases (0.37%) are sporadic. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantum steganography using prior entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihara, Takashi, E-mail: mihara@toyo.jp

    2015-06-05

    Steganography is the hiding of secret information within innocent-looking information (e.g., text, audio, image, video, etc.). A quantum version of steganography is a method based on quantum physics. In this paper, we propose quantum steganography by combining quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. In many steganographic techniques, embedding secret messages in error-correcting codes may cause damage to them if the embedded part is corrupted. However, our proposed steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. The intrinsic form of the cover message does not have to be modified for embedding secret messages. - Highlights: • Our steganography combines quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. • Our steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. • Errors in cover messages do not have affect the recovery of secret messages. • We embed a secret message in the Steane code as an example of our steganography.

  3. Quantum steganography using prior entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Steganography is the hiding of secret information within innocent-looking information (e.g., text, audio, image, video, etc.). A quantum version of steganography is a method based on quantum physics. In this paper, we propose quantum steganography by combining quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. In many steganographic techniques, embedding secret messages in error-correcting codes may cause damage to them if the embedded part is corrupted. However, our proposed steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. The intrinsic form of the cover message does not have to be modified for embedding secret messages. - Highlights: • Our steganography combines quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. • Our steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. • Errors in cover messages do not have affect the recovery of secret messages. • We embed a secret message in the Steane code as an example of our steganography

  4. Prior information in structure estimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Nedoma, Petr; Khailova, Natalia; Pavelková, Lenka

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 6 (2003), s. 643-653 ISSN 1350-2379 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS1075102; GA AV ČR IBS1075351; GA ČR GA102/03/0049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : prior knowledge * structure estimation * autoregressive models Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2003 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/karny-0411258.pdf

  5. Clinical genetic testing using a custom-designed steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome gene panel: analysis and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ethan S; Dean, Philip; Yarram-Smith, Laura; Bierzynska, Agnieszka; Woodward, Geoff; Buxton, Chris; Dennis, Gemma; Welsh, Gavin I; Williams, Maggie; Saleem, Moin A

    2017-12-01

    There are many single-gene causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and the list continues to grow rapidly. Prompt comprehensive diagnostic testing is key to realising the clinical benefits of a genetic diagnosis. This report describes a bespoke-designed, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) diagnostic gene panel assay to detect variants in 37 genes including the ability to identify copy number variants (CNVs). This study reports results of 302 patients referred for SRNS diagnostic gene panel analysis. Phenotype and clinical impact data were collected using a standard proforma. Candidate variants detected by NGS were confirmed by Sanger sequencing/Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification with subsequent family segregation analysis where possible. Clinical presentation was nephrotic syndrome in 267 patients and suspected Alport syndrome (AS) in 35. NGS panel testing determined a likely genetic cause of disease in 44/220 (20.0%) paediatric and 10/47 (21.3%) adult nephrotic cases, and 17/35 (48.6%) of haematuria/AS patients. Of 71 patients with genetic disease, 32 had novel pathogenic variants without a previous disease association including two with deletions of one or more exons of NPHS1 or NPHS2 . Gene panel testing provides a genetic diagnosis in a significant number of patients presenting with SRNS or suspected AS. It should be undertaken at an early stage of the care pathway and include the ability to detect CNVs as an emerging mechanism for genes associated with this condition. Use of clinical genetic testing after diagnosis of SRNS has the potential to stratify patients and assist decision-making regarding management. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. FIND Tuberculosis Strain Bank: a Resource for Researchers and Developers Working on Tests To Detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Related Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessema, Belay; Nabeta, Pamela; Valli, Eloise; Albertini, Audrey; Collantes, Jimena; Lan, Nguyen Huu; Romancenco, Elena; Tukavdze, Nestani; Denkinger, Claudia M; Dolinger, David L

    2017-04-01

    The spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB hampers global efforts in the fight against tuberculosis. To enhance the development and evaluation of diagnostic tests quickly and efficiently, well-characterized strains and samples from drug-resistant tuberculosis patients are necessary. In this project, the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) has focused on the collection, characterization, and storage of such well-characterized reference materials and making them available to researchers and developers. The collection is being conducted at multiple centers in Southeast Asia, South America, Eastern Europe, and soon the sub-Saharan Africa regions. Strains are characterized for their phenotypic resistances and MICs to first-line drugs (FLDs) and second-line drugs (SLDs) using the automated MGIT 960 system following validated procedures and WHO criteria. Analysis of resistance-associated mutations is done by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) using the Illumina NextSeq system. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat analysis and WGS are used to determine strain lineages. All strains are maintained frozen at -80°C ± 10°C as distinct mother and daughter lots. All strains are extensively quality assured. The data presented here represent an analysis of the initial part of the collection. Currently, the bank contains 118 unique strains with extracted genomic DNA and matched sputum, serum, and plasma samples and will be expanded to a minimum of 1,000 unique strains over the next 3 years. Analysis of the current strains by phenotypic resistance testing shows 102 (86.4%), 10 (8.5%), and 6 (5.1%) MDR, XDR, and mono/poly resistant strains, respectively. Two of the strains are resistant to all 11 drugs that were phenotypically tested. WGS mutation analysis revealed FLD resistance-associated mutations in the rpoB , katG , inhA , embB , embA , and pncA genes; SLD resistance in the gyr

  7. Effect of Resistance Tube Exercises on Kicking Accuracy, Vertical Jump and 40-Yard Technical Test in Competitive Football Players – An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirumala Alekhya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Kicking, jumping and agility are important skills in football. These activities require adequate lower limb strength, which can be enhanced with resistance training. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of resistance tube exercises on kicking accuracy, vertical jump performance and 40-yard technical test results in competitive football players. Methods. The study involved 23 competitive football players (11 males, 12 females aged from 18-20 years recruited from three different universities in Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Back heel kick accuracy, vertical jump height and 40-yard technical test time were evaluated before and after a 2-week resistance tube exercise program. Results. Significant improvements in post-intervention kicking accuracy were found when males and females were treated as a single group (p = 0.01. Vertical jump height also showed a highly significant post-intervention improvement in the males and for the combined group of males and females (p = 0.001. The 40-yard technical test values significantly improved in the females and in the combined results for males and females (p = 0.001. Conclusions. The two-week resistance tube exercise program was found to have an effect on kicking accuracy, vertical jump height and 40-yard technical test performance in competitive football players. Resistance tube exercises can thus be included as a component of a regular strength training program for such athletes.

  8. Testiranje balističke otpornosti zaštitnih prsluka / Ballistic resistance of body armour testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuro Jovanić

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available U radu je predstavljena osnova standarda NIJ 0101.04 (Nacionalni Institut Pravde, namenjenog za utvrđivanje minimuma tehničkih zahteva i propisivanje metoda ispitivanja balističke otpornosti zaštitnih prsluka, koji treba da zaštite gornji deo tela od dejstva streljačkog oružja. Standard jeste revizija standarda NIJ 0101.03 iz aprila 1987. i preciznije definiše zahteve u pogledu obeležavanja, kriterijume za prijem i postupke merenja otiska u materijalu iza prsluka. Područje ovog standarda odnosi se samo na balističku otpornost, ali ne i na pretnje od noža i predmeta sa oštrim vrhom. Takođe, ne odnosi se na zaštitne prsluke koji sadrže dopunske elemente ili varijacije u konstrukciji balističkih panela za malu površinu torza, radi povećanja osnovnog nivoa zaštite na ograničenim površinama (bilo balističke ili povrede od tupog vrha. / This work is a basic presentation of NIJ 0101.04 (National Institute of Justice standard, -whose purpose is to establish minimum performance requirements and methods of testing ballistic resistance of body armor intended to protect the torso against gunfire. This standard is a revision of NIJ Standard 0101.03 dated April 1987 and it clarifies the labeling requirements, acceptance criteria, and backface signature measurement procedure. The scope of this standard is limited only to ballistic resistance; and it does not include threats from knives and sharply pointed instruments. In addition, the standard does not include armor that incorporates inserts, or variations in construction of the ballistic panel over small areas of the torso, used for increasing the basic level of protection of the armor (whether ballistic or blunt trauma on localized areas.

  9. The European iNPH Multicentre Study on the predictive values of resistance to CSF outflow and the CSF Tap Test in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikkelsø, Carsten; Hellström, Per; Klinge, Petra Margarete

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the CSF Tap Test (CSF TT) and resistance to CSF outflow (Rout) for the outcome of shunting in a sample of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH).......The objective was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the CSF Tap Test (CSF TT) and resistance to CSF outflow (Rout) for the outcome of shunting in a sample of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH)....

  10. Increasing Model Complexity: Unit Testing and Validation of a Coupled Electrical Resistive Heating and Macroscopic Invasion Percolation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, I. L.; Krol, M.; Mumford, K. G.

    2016-12-01

    Geoenvironmental models are becoming increasingly sophisticated as they incorporate rising numbers of mechanisms and process couplings to describe environmental scenarios. When combined with advances in computing and numerical techniques, these already complicated models are experiencing large increases in code complexity and simulation time. Although, this complexity has enabled breakthroughs in the ability to describe environmental problems, it is difficult to ensure that complex models are sufficiently robust and behave as intended. Many development tools used for testing software robustness have not seen widespread use in geoenvironmental sciences despite an increasing reliance on complex numerical models, leaving many models at risk of undiscovered errors and potentially improper validations. This study explores the use of unit testing, which independently examines small code elements to ensure each unit is working as intended as well as their integrated behaviour, to test the functionality and robustness of a coupled Electrical Resistive Heating (ERH) - Macroscopic Invasion Percolation (MIP) model. ERH is a thermal remediation technique where the soil is heated until boiling and volatile contaminants are stripped from the soil. There is significant interest in improving the efficiency of ERH, including taking advantage of low-temperature co-boiling behaviour which may reduce energy consumption. However, at lower co-boiling temperatures gas bubbles can form, mobilize and collapse in cooler areas, potentially contaminating previously clean zones. The ERH-MIP model was created to simulate the behaviour of gas bubbles in the subsurface and to evaluate ERH during co-boiling1. This study demonstrates how unit testing ensures that the model behaves in an expected manner and examines the robustness of every component within the ERH-MIP model. Once unit testing is established, the MIP module (a discrete gas transport algorithm for gas expansion, mobilization and

  11. Rapid detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci by multiplex PCR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid and sensitive method for excluding the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in clinical samples was developed. The combination of MRSA detection by mecA coaA PCR with prior enrichment in selective broth was tested for 300 swabs. PCR identified 26 MRSApositive samples, ...

  12. Rapid detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci by multiplex PCR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... A rapid and sensitive method for excluding the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in clinical samples was developed. The combination of MRSA detection by mecA coaA. PCR with prior enrichment in selective broth was tested for 300 swabs. PCR identified 26 MRSA- positive ...

  13. Correspondence propagation with weak priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Yan, Shuicheng; Liu, Jianzhuang; Tang, Xiaoou; Huang, Thomas S

    2009-01-01

    For the problem of image registration, the top few reliable correspondences are often relatively easy to obtain, while the overall matching accuracy may fall drastically as the desired correspondence number increases. In this paper, we present an efficient feature matching algorithm to employ sparse reliable correspondence priors for piloting the feature matching process. First, the feature geometric relationship within individual image is encoded as a spatial graph, and the pairwise feature similarity is expressed as a bipartite similarity graph between two feature sets; then the geometric neighborhood of the pairwise assignment is represented by a categorical product graph, along which the reliable correspondences are propagated; and finally a closed-form solution for feature matching is deduced by ensuring the feature geometric coherency as well as pairwise feature agreements. Furthermore, our algorithm is naturally applicable for incorporating manual correspondence priors for semi-supervised feature matching. Extensive experiments on both toy examples and real-world applications demonstrate the superiority of our algorithm over the state-of-the-art feature matching techniques.

  14. Using the Resistivity Imaging Method to Monitor the Dynamic Effects on the Vadose Zone During Pumping Tests at the Pengtsuo Site in Pingtung, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Yu Chang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a time-lapse monitoring study during a well-pumping test at the Pengtsuo site in Pingtung, Taiwan. Water-level gauges were installed in four wells (P1, W1, O1, and O2 at the Pengtsuo site with different screen depths for the observation. We designed the pumping test to be executed in three phases: the background, the stepwise-pumping, and the continuous-pumping phases. The survey line crossed the four wells so that a comparison would be possible between the resistivity measurements and the water-level records. The resistivity differences relative to the pre-pumping background show that electrical resistivity imaging (ERI can resolve changes due to dewatering from pumping activity. The time-lapse resistivity images reveal that the maximum resistivity increase took place at the locations in the vadose zone instead of at the groundwater surface. The variation in the resistivity differences in the vadose zone correlated to the change in groundwater level in the stepwise phase. On the other hand, the resistivity-difference change was not fully consistent with the groundwater-level change in the continuous-pumping phase. We attribute the abnormal ERI signals to the dynamic non-equilibrium of the water movement in the vadose zone. The findings suggest that pumping designs can affect the changing resistivity differences and water-content distribution patterns. We show the potential of the ER method to reveal both the water flow and water-content changes in the vadose zone with different transient boundary conditions.

  15. A Built-In Self-Test Structure (BIST) for Resistive RAMs characterization: Application to bipolar OxRRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziza, H.; Bocquet, M.; Moreau, M.; Portal, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) is a form of nonvolatile storage that operates by changing the resistance of a specially formulated solid dielectric material [1]. Among RRAMs, oxide-based Resistive RAMs (so-called OxRRAMs) are promising candidates due their compatibility with CMOS processes and high ON/OFF resistance ratio. Common problems with OxRRAM are related to high variability in operating conditions and low yield. OxRRAM variability mainly impact ON/OFF resistance ratio. This ratio is a key parameter to determine the overall performance of an OxRRAM memory. In this context, the presented built-in structure allows collecting statistical data related to the OxRRAM memory array (ON/OFF resistance distributions) for reliability assessment of the technology.

  16. Savings for visuomotor adaptation require prior history of error, not prior repetition of successful actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; de Rugy, Aymar; Marinovic, Welber; Riek, Stephan; Carroll, Timothy J

    2016-10-01

    When we move, perturbations to our body or the environment can elicit discrepancies between predicted and actual outcomes. We readily adapt movements to compensate for such discrepancies, and the retention of this learning is evident as savings, or faster readaptation to a previously encountered perturbation. The mechanistic processes contributing to savings, or even the necessary conditions for savings, are not fully understood. One theory suggests that savings requires increased sensitivity to previously experienced errors: when perturbations evoke a sequence of correlated errors, we increase our sensitivity to the errors experienced, which subsequently improves error correction (Herzfeld et al. 2014). An alternative theory suggests that a memory of actions is necessary for savings: when an action becomes associated with successful target acquisition through repetition, that action is more rapidly retrieved at subsequent learning (Huang et al. 2011). In the present study, to better understand the necessary conditions for savings, we tested how savings is affected by prior experience of similar errors and prior repetition of the action required to eliminate errors using a factorial design. Prior experience of errors induced by a visuomotor rotation in the savings block was either prevented at initial learning by gradually removing an oppositely signed perturbation or enforced by abruptly removing the perturbation. Prior repetition of the action required to eliminate errors in the savings block was either deprived or enforced by manipulating target location in preceding trials. The data suggest that prior experience of errors is both necessary and sufficient for savings, whereas prior repetition of a successful action is neither necessary nor sufficient for savings. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. The Influences of Arm Resist Motion on a CAR Crash Test Using Hybrid III Dummy with Human-Like Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongchul; Youm, Youngil; Bae, Hanil; Choi, Hyeonki

    Safety of the occupant during the crash is very essential design element. Many researches have been investigated in reducing the fatal injury of occupant. They are focusing on the development of a dummy in order to obtain the real human-like motion. However, they have not considered the arm resist motion during the car accident. In this study, we would like to suggest the importance of the reactive force of the arm in a car crash. The influences of reactive force acting on the human upper extremity were investigated using the impedance experimental method with lumped mass model of hand system and a Hybrid III dummy with human-like arm. Impedance parameters (e.g. inertia, spring constant and damping coefficient) of the elbow joint in maximum activation level were measured by free oscillation test using single axis robot. The results showed that without seat belt, the reactive force of human arm reduced the head, chest, and femur injury, and the flexion moment of the neck is higher than that of the conventional dummy.

  18. Characterization and acid resistance test of one-part geopolymer from fly ash and water treatment sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orbecido Aileen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of geopolymers from wastes or by-products introduces a sustainable approach to replace ordinary Portland cement (OPC-based concrete with an eco-material of lower green-house gases emissions. However, safety concerns related to the conventional two-part geopolymer has limited large-scale applications of the product. In this context, a novel one-part geopolymer from coal fly ash and water treatment sludge has been presented. The transformation of raw materials to geopolymer was observed by FTIR, SEM and XRD analyses. Acid resistance test has proved that the new binder had great durability against sulphuric acid attack. After 28 days immersion in 5% H2SO4 solution, weight of all samples was hardly changed. Compressive strength, on the other hand, has not decreased but significantly increased as curing time increased. The properties were also compared to those of control samples cured in water. It was demonstrated that strong acid immersion did not create any noticeable effect on the weight and strength of one-part geopolymer system developed from coal fly ash and water treatment sludge.

  19. Design, Qualification and Integration Testing of the High-Temperature Resistance Temperature Device for Stirling Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jack; Hill, Dennis H.; Elisii, Remo; White, Jonathan R.; Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), developed from 2006 to 2013 under the joint sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to provide a high-efficiency power system for future deep space missions, employed Sunpower Incorporated's Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) with operating temperature up to 840 C. High-temperature operation was made possible by advanced heater head materials developed to increase reliability and thermal-to-mechanical conversion efficiency. During a mission, it is desirable to monitor the Stirling hot-end temperature as a measure of convertor health status and assist in making appropriate operating parameter adjustments to maintain the desired hot-end temperature as the radioisotope fuel decays. To facilitate these operations, a Resistance Temperature Device (RTD) that is capable of high-temperature, continuous long-life service was designed, developed and qualified for use in the ASRG. A thermal bridge was also implemented to reduce the RTD temperature exposure while still allowing an accurate projection of the ASC hot-end temperature. NASA integrated two flight-design RTDs on the ASCs and assembled into the high-fidelity Engineering Unit, the ASRG EU2, at Glenn Research Center (GRC) for extended operation and system characterization. This paper presents the design implementation and qualification of the RTD, and its performance characteristics and calibration in the ASRG EU2 testing.

  20. Standard test methods for pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of stainless steels and related alloys by use of ferric Chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the determination of the resistance of stainless steels and related alloys to pitting and crevice corrosion (see Terminology G 15) when exposed to oxidizing chloride environments. Six procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, C, D, E, and F. 1.1.1 Method A—Ferric chloride pitting test. 1.1.2 Method B—Ferric chloride crevice test. 1.1.3 Method C—Critical pitting temperature test for nickel-base and chromium-bearing alloys. 1.1.4 Method D—Critical crevice temperature test for nickel-base and chromium-bearing alloys. 1.1.5 Method E—Critical pitting temperature test for stainless steels. 1.1.6 Method F—Critical crevice temperature test for stainless steels. 1.2 Method A is designed to determine the relative pitting resistance of stainless steels and nickel-base, chromium-bearing alloys, whereas Method B can be used for determining both the pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of these alloys. Methods C, D, E and F allow for a rankin...

  1. Implementation of a reference standard and proficiency testing programme by the World Wide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Karen I

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN is a global collaboration to support the objective that anyone affected by malaria receives effective and safe drug treatment. The Pharmacology module aims to inform optimal anti-malarial drug selection. There is an urgent need to define the drug exposure - effect relationship for most anti-malarial drugs. Few anti-malarials have had their therapeutic blood concentration levels defined. One of the main challenges in assessing safety and efficacy data in relation to drug concentrations is the comparability of data generated from different laboratories. To explain differences in anti-malarial pharmacokinetics in studies with different measurement laboratories it is necessary to confirm the accuracy of the assay methods. This requires the establishment of an external quality assurance process to assure results that can be compared. This paper describes this process. Methods The pharmacology module of WWARN has established a quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC programme consisting of two separate components: 1. A proficiency testing programme where blank human plasma spiked with certified reference material (CRM in different concentrations is sent out to participating bioanalytical laboratories. 2. A certified reference standard programme where accurately weighed amounts of certified anti-malarial reference standards, metabolites, and internal standards are sent to participating bioanalytical and in vitro laboratories. Conclusion The proficiency testing programme is designed as a cooperative effort to help participating laboratories assess their ability to carry out drug analysis, resolve any potential problem areas and to improve their results - and, in so doing, to improve the quality of anti-malarial pharmacokinetic data published and shared with WWARN. By utilizing the same source of standards for all laboratories, it is possible to minimize bias arising from poor

  2. Porcine E. coli: virulence-associated genes, resistance genes and adhesion and probiotic activity tested by a new screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierack, Peter; Rödiger, Stefan; Kuhl, Christoph; Hiemann, Rico; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Li, Ganwu; Weinreich, Jörg; Berger, Enrico; Nolan, Lisa K; Nicholson, Bryon; Römer, Antje; Frömmel, Ulrike; Wieler, Lothar H; Schröder, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We established an automated screening method to characterize adhesion of Escherichia coli to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and their probiotic activity against infection by enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). 104 intestinal E. coli isolates from domestic pigs were tested by PCR for the occurrence of virulence-associated genes, genes coding for resistances to antimicrobial agents and metals, and for phylogenetic origin by PCR. Adhesion rates and probiotic activity were examined for correlation with the presence of these genes. Finally, data were compared with those from 93 E. coli isolates from wild boars. Isolates from domestic pigs carried a broad variety of all tested genes and showed great diversity in gene patterns. Adhesions varied with a maximum of 18.3 or 24.2 mean bacteria adherence per epithelial cell after 2 or 6 hours respectively. Most isolates from domestic pigs and wild boars showed low adherence, with no correlation between adhesion/probiotic activity and E. coli genes or gene clusters. The gene sfa/foc, encoding for a subunit of F1C fimbriae did show a positive correlative association with adherence and probiotic activity; however E. coli isolates from wild boars with the sfa/foc gene showed less adhesion and probiotic activity than E. coli with the sfa/foc gene isolated from domestic pigs after 6 hour incubation. In conclusion, screening porcine E. coli for virulence associated genes genes, adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, and probiotic activity revealed a single important adhesion factor, several probiotic candidates, and showed important differences between E. coli of domestic pigs and wild boars.

  3. Porcine E. coli: virulence-associated genes, resistance genes and adhesion and probiotic activity tested by a new screening method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schierack

    Full Text Available We established an automated screening method to characterize adhesion of Escherichia coli to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2 and their probiotic activity against infection by enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC. 104 intestinal E. coli isolates from domestic pigs were tested by PCR for the occurrence of virulence-associated genes, genes coding for resistances to antimicrobial agents and metals, and for phylogenetic origin by PCR. Adhesion rates and probiotic activity were examined for correlation with the presence of these genes. Finally, data were compared with those from 93 E. coli isolates from wild boars. Isolates from domestic pigs carried a broad variety of all tested genes and showed great diversity in gene patterns. Adhesions varied with a maximum of 18.3 or 24.2 mean bacteria adherence per epithelial cell after 2 or 6 hours respectively. Most isolates from domestic pigs and wild boars showed low adherence, with no correlation between adhesion/probiotic activity and E. coli genes or gene clusters. The gene sfa/foc, encoding for a subunit of F1C fimbriae did show a positive correlative association with adherence and probiotic activity; however E. coli isolates from wild boars with the sfa/foc gene showed less adhesion and probiotic activity than E. coli with the sfa/foc gene isolated from domestic pigs after 6 hour incubation. In conclusion, screening porcine E. coli for virulence associated genes genes, adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, and probiotic activity revealed a single important adhesion factor, several probiotic candidates, and showed important differences between E. coli of domestic pigs and wild boars.

  4. Evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST Kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl Test for Detecting Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Kemal; Albay, Ali; Simsek, Hulya; Sig, Ali Korhan; Guney, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the performances of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test for detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance in Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases. Materials and Methods: Forty-six MDR-TB strains were studied. Second-line antituberculosis drug resistances were detected using the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test. The Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method was used as the reference test. Results: The sensitivity and specificity values for the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit were both 100% for amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin (4 µg/mL), and ofloxacin; 100% and 95.3%, respectively, for capreomycin (10 µg/mL); and 85.7% and 100%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The sensitivity and specificity values for the GenoType MTBDRsl test to detect fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside/cyclic peptide resistance were 88.9% and 100%, respectively, for ofloxacin and 85.7% and 94.9%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The accuracy of the GenoType MTBDRsl assay for kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin was lower than that of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST. Conclusion: The BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl were successful in detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance. Preliminary results of the GenoType MTBDRsl are very valuable for early treatment decisions, but we still recommend additional BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit usage in the routine evaluation of drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:29123441

  5. Evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST Kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl Test for Detecting Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Kemal; Albay, Ali; Simsek, Hulya; Sig, Ali Korhan; Guney, Mustafa

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the performances of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test for detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance in Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases. Forty-six MDR-TB strains were studied. Second-line antituberculosis drug resistances were detected using the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test. The Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method was used as the reference test. The sensitivity and specificity values for the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit were both 100% for amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin (4 µg/mL), and ofloxacin; 100% and 95.3%, respectively, for capreomycin (10 µg/mL); and 85.7% and 100%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The sensitivity and specificity values for the GenoType MTBDRsl test to detect fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside/cyclic peptide resistance were 88.9% and 100%, respectively, for ofloxacin and 85.7% and 94.9%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The accuracy of the GenoType MTBDRsl assay for kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin was lower than that of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST. The BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl were successful in detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance. Preliminary results of the GenoType MTBDRsl are very valuable for early treatment decisions, but we still recommend additional BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit usage in the routine evaluation of drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  6. Prior Pronunciation Knowledge Bootstraps Word Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khia Anne Johnson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Learners often struggle with L2 sounds, yet little is known about the role of prior pronunciation knowledge and explicit articulatory training in language acquisition. This study asks if existing pronunciation knowledge can bootstrap word learning, and whether short-term audiovisual articulatory training for tongue position with and without a production component has an effect on lexical retention. Participants were trained and tested on stimuli with perceptually salient segments that are challenging to produce. Results indicate that pronunciation knowledge plays an important role in word learning. While much about the extent and shape of this role remains unclear, this study sheds light in three main areas. First, prior pronunciation knowledge leads to increased accuracy in word learning, as all groups trended toward lower accuracy on pseudowords with two novel segments, when compared with those with one or none. Second, all training and control conditions followed similar patterns, with training neither aiding nor inhibiting retention; this is a noteworthy result as previous work has found that the inclusion of production in training leads to decreased performance when testing for retention. Finally, higher production accuracy during practice led to higher retention after the word-learning task, indicating that individual differences and successful training are potentially important indicators of retention. This study provides support for the claim that pronunciation matters in L2 word learning.

  7. Empirical ranking of a wide range of WC-Co grades in terms of their abrasion resistance measured by the ASTM standard B 611-85 test

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Quigley, DGF

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a comprehensive investigation into the abrasion resistance of WC-Co alloys, as measured by the ASTM Standard B 611-85 test. The alloys ranged from 3 to 50 wt% and from 0.6 to 5 mu-m average grain size. Careful...

  8. Feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and effectiveness of decentralised use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for diagnosis of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance: a multicentre implementation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boehme, Catharina C.; Nicol, Mark P.; Nabeta, Pamela; Michael, Joy S.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Tahirli, Rasim; Gler, Ma Tarcela; Blakemore, Robert; Worodria, William; Gray, Christen; Huang, Laurence; Caceres, Tatiana; Mehdiyev, Rafail; Raymond, Lawrence; Whitelaw, Andrew; Sagadevan, Kalaiselvan; Alexander, Heather; Albert, Heidi; Cobelens, Frank; Cox, Helen; Alland, David; Perkins, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    The Xpert MTB/RIF test (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) can detect tuberculosis and its multidrug-resistant form with very high sensitivity and specificity in controlled studies, but no performance data exist from district and subdistrict health facilities in tuberculosis-endemic countries. We aimed to

  9. Evaluation of ceftiofur and cefquinome for phenotypic detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus using disk diffusion testing and MIC-determinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Skov, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have emerged in animals. Testing 98 mecA negative and 71 mecA positive S. aureus we compared the usefulness of ceftiofur and cefquinome to cefoxitin, for detection of MRSA and found that these cephalosporins are not as efficient as cefoxitin....

  10. The effect of the Growth Phase of Staphylococcus aureus on Resistance to Disinfectants in a Suspension Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppens, S.B.I.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of growth phase on the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to the surface-active agents benzalkonium chloride and dodecylbenzyl sulfonic acid and the oxidizing agents sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide was studied. The resistances of cells in different growth phases were

  11. Measuring enzymatic HIV-1 susceptibility to two reverse transcriptase inhibitors as a rapid and simple approach to HIV-1 drug-resistance testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Simple and cost-effective approaches for HIV drug-resistance testing are highly desirable for managing increasingly expanding HIV-1 infected populations who initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART, particularly in resource-limited settings. Non-nucleoside reverse trancriptase inhibitor (NNRTI-based regimens with an NRTI backbone containing lamivudine (3TC or emtricitabine (FTC are preferred first ART regimens. Failure with these drug combinations typically involves the selection of NNRTI- and/or 3TC/FTC-resistant viruses. Therefore, the availability of simple assays to measure both types of drug resistance is critical. We have developed a high throughput screening test for assessing enzymatic resistance of the HIV-1 RT in plasma to 3TC/FTC and NNRTIs. The test uses the sensitive "Amp-RT" assay with a newly-developed real-time PCR format to screen biochemically for drug resistance in single reactions containing either 3TC-triphosphate (3TC-TP or nevirapine (NVP. Assay cut-offs were defined based on testing a large panel of subtype B and non-subtype B clinical samples with known genotypic profiles. Enzymatic 3TC resistance correlated well with the presence of M184I/V, and reduced NVP susceptibility was strongly associated with the presence of K103N, Y181C/I, Y188L, and G190A/Q. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting resistance were 97.0% and 96.0% in samples with M184V, and 97.4% and 96.2% for samples with NNRTI mutations, respectively. We further demonstrate the utility of an HIV capture method in plasma by using magnetic beads coated with CD44 antibody that eliminates the need for ultracentifugation. Thus our results support the use of this simple approach for distinguishing WT from NNRTI- or 3TC/FTC-resistant viruses in clinical samples. This enzymatic testing is subtype-independent and can assist in the clinical management of diverse populations particularly in resource-limited settings.

  12. First case of Helicobacter pylori infection resistant to seven antibiotics in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection with common antibiotics is typically recommended for several digestive conditions, including peptic ulcers. However, reports of resistant H. pylori isolates are increasing, and unfortunately, these do not respond to currently available therapeutic regimens. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman with two peptic ulcers in the duodenal antrum. An H. pylori strain was isolated, and tested for antibiotic resistance using agar dilution and disk diffusion. The isolated strain was found to be resistant to all seven antibiotics that were tested. Therefore, constant monitoring for antibiotic resistance should be performed prior to initiating antibiotic therapy.

  13. In vitro activity of tigecycline and comparators against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Africa-Middle East countries: TEST 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, M I; Biedenbach, D J; Bouchillon, S K; Hoban, D J; Raghubir, N; Sajben, P

    2014-09-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae are an emerging concern for healthcare providers. Infections caused by MDR pathogens are associated with increased costs, length of hospital stay, and morbidity and mortality rates. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) continue to increase, and infections with these organisms are observed worldwide not only as hospital-acquired infections but also as community-acquired infections. Increasing antimicrobial resistance dictates the need for continued surveillance studies of common and MDR pathogens. The Tigecycline Evaluation Surveillance Trial (TEST) examined the susceptibility of pathogens isolated in Africa and the Middle East from 2007 to 2012. A total of 4155 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were evaluated to determine the in vitro activity and changes in resistance patterns for tigecycline and comparators. Carbapenem resistance was found in 191 (4.6%) of the isolates tested. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common CRE (64.9%), followed by Enterobacter cloacae (14.1%) and Escherichia coli (9.9%). Tigecycline MIC 90 values (minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit 90% of the isolates) were 2μg/mL against all of these enteric species, with susceptibility rates of 96.8%, 92.6% and 100%, respectively. Tigecycline had in vitro activity against CRE, with a 95.3% susceptibility rate. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Observations on macrolide resistance and susceptibility testing performance in field isolates collected from clinical bovine respiratory disease cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonder, Keith D; Harhay, Dayna M; Apley, Michael D; Lubbers, Brian V; Clawson, Michael L; Schuller, Gennie; Harhay, Gregory P; White, Brad J; Larson, Robert L; Capik, Sarah F; Riviere, Jim E; Kalbfleisch, Ted; Tessman, Ronald K

    2016-08-30

    The objectives of this study were; first, to describe gamithromycin susceptibility of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni isolated from cattle diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and previously treated with either gamithromycin for control of BRD (mass medication=MM) or sham-saline injected (control=CON); second, to describe the macrolide resistance genes present in genetically typed M. haemolytica isolates; third, use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to correlate the phenotypic resistance and genetic determinants for resistance among M. haemolytica isolates. M. haemolytica (n=276), P. multocida (n=253), and H. somni (n=78) were isolated from feedlot cattle diagnosed with BRD. Gamithromycin susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution. Whole-genome sequencing was utilized to determine the presence/absence of macrolide resistance genes and to genetically type M. haemolytica. Generalized linear mixed models were built for analysis. There was not a significant difference between MM and CON groups in regards to the likelihood of culturing a resistant isolate of M. haemolytica or P. multocida. The likelihood of culturing a resistant isolate of M. haemolytica differed significantly by state of origin in this study. A single M. haemolytica genetic subtype was associated with an over whelming majority of the observed resistance. H. somni isolation counts were low and statistical models would not converge. Phenotypic resistance was predicted with high sensitivity and specificity by WGS. Additional studies to elucidate the relationships between phenotypic expression of resistance/genetic determinants for resistance and clinical response to antimicrobials are necessary to inform judicious use of antimicrobials in the context of relieving animal disease and suffering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculos