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Sample records for resistance testing gart

  1. Correlation between polymorphisms in ADSL and GARS-AIRS-GART genes with inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) contents in Beijing-you chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, M H; Chen, J L; Zhao, G P; Zheng, M Q; Wen, J

    2010-10-01

    1. The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms identified within the ADSL (adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency) gene and GARS-AIRS-GART (glycinamide ribonucleotide synthetase-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase-glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase) gene with the content of inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) was studied in a population of male Beijing-you (BJY) chickens slaughtered at 90 d of age. 2. A single nucleotide polymorphism in exon 2 of the ADSL gene had an effect on IMP content. Chickens inheriting the positive allele at ADSL, both homozygous and heterozygous genotypes, had a higher content of IMP in breast muscle than did individuals without it. 3. Similar results were obtained for the GARS-AIRS-GART gene. The marker at the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the GARS-AIRS-GART gene was also significant for the IMP value. Chickens inheriting the genotypes with the positive allele at this locus had a much higher content of IMP than did those homozygous for the unfavourable one. 4. Interactions between ADSL and GARS-AIRS-GART were detected for such traits as body weight and muscle yields in the tested population. The two loci acted in an additive fashion. Because IMP is one of the most important flavour components in meat, markers developed at these two genes, as well as the combination genotypes, could be used as potential molecular markers for improving chicken quality.

  2. HIV Resistance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 14, 2016 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 126 HIV Resistance Testing WHAT IS RESISTANCE? HOW DOES RESISTANCE ... ARVs. If you miss doses of your medications, HIV will multiply more easily. More mutations will occur. ...

  3. Combined effect of mutations in ADSL and GARS-AIRS-GART genes on IMP content in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, J T; Bao, W B; Zhang, X Y; Ji, C J; Han, W; Chen, K W

    2009-11-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ADSL gene, GARS-AIRS-GART gene and their combination genotype on inosine monophosphate content (IMP) in chicken. 2. The chicken breeds used for this study were Recessive White chicken (RW, Jiang-13 strain of white Plymouth Rock) and preserved population of 4 Chinese native chicken breeds, including Silkies, Baier, Tibetan and Xiaoshan. 3. The primers for exon 2 in ADSL gene and 5'UTR region in GARS-AIRS-GART gene were designed and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing. 4. Two SNPs were detected, C/T substitution at position 3484 in exon 2 of ADSL gene, which was a silent mutation, and C/T point mutation at position -179 in 5'UTR region of GARS-AIRS-GART gene. In ADSL gene, individuals with TT genotype had significantly higher IMP content than CT and CC genotype individuals. No significant difference was observed between CT and CC genotypes. Similar results were obtained for GARS-AIRS-GART gene. The combination of genotypes ADSL and GARS-AIRS-GART genes also had a significant effect on IMP content. Individuals with TTTT genotype had the highest muscle IMP content, while individuals with CCCT genotype had the lowest. 4. We putatively drew the conclusion that the SNPs in these two genes, as well as the combination genotypes, could be used as potential molecular markers for meat quality in chicken.

  4. Association between ADSL, GARS-AIRS-GART, DGAT1, and DECR1 expression levels and pork meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X D; Zhang, S J; Ding, Y Y; Feng, Y F; Zhu, H Y; Huang, L; Wu, T; Zhou, J; Yin, Z J

    2015-11-23

    In this study, meat quality traits were compared between Chinese lard- and European lean-type pigs. The association between expression of four genes (ADSL, GARS-AIRS-GART, DGAT1, and DECR1) and meat quality traits was also investigated. Meat quality traits were found to differ significantly between pig breeds. Meat color parameter values (a* and b*) and intramuscular fat content in Anqingliubai were significantly higher than those in Landrace (P ADSL, GARS-AIRS-GART, and DGAT1 were higher in longissimus lumborum muscle than in heart or liver tissues. ADSL and GARS-AIRS-GART expression levels were correlated with meat IMP content and pH levels. The results of this study will contribute to the understanding of meat quality traits in Chinese lard- and European lean-type pigs.

  5. Zebrafish mutations in gart and paics identify crucial roles for de novo purine synthesis in vertebrate pigmentation and ocular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Anthony; Uribe, Rosa A; Yieh, Leah; Nuckels, Richard; Gross, Jeffrey M

    2009-08-01

    Although purines and purinergic signaling are crucial for numerous biochemical and cellular processes, their functions during vertebrate embryonic development have not been well characterized. We analyze two recessive zebrafish mutations that affect de novo purine synthesis, gart and paics. gart encodes phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase, phosphoribosylglycinamide synthetase, phosphoribosylaminoimidazole synthetase, a trifunctional enzyme that catalyzes steps 2, 3 and 5 of inosine monophosphate (IMP) synthesis. paics encodes phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase, phosphoribosylaminoimidazole succinocarboxamide synthetase, a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes steps 6 and 7 of this process. Zygotic gart and paics mutants have pigmentation defects in which xanthophore and iridophore pigmentation is almost completely absent, and melanin-derived pigmentation is significantly decreased, even though pigment cells are present in normal amounts and distributions. Zygotic gart and paics mutants are also microphthalmic, resulting from defects in cell cycle exit of proliferative retinoblasts within the developing eye. Maternal-zygotic and maternal-effect mutants demonstrate a crucial requirement for maternally derived gart and paics; these mutants show more severe developmental defects than their zygotic counterparts. Pigmentation and eye growth phenotypes in zygotic gart and paics mutants can be ascribed to separable biosynthetic pathways: pigmentation defects and microphthalmia result from deficiencies in a GTP synthesis pathway and an ATP synthesis pathway, respectively. In the absence of ATP pathway activity, S phase of proliferative retinoblasts is prolonged and cell cycle exit is compromised, which results in microphthalmia. These results demonstrate crucial maternal and zygotic requirements for de novo purine synthesis during vertebrate embryonic development, and identify independent functions for ATP and GTP pathways in mediating eye growth and pigmentation

  6. Shock resistance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouard, M.

    1984-03-01

    In the framework of mechanical tests and to answer the different requests for tests, the T.C.R (Transport Conditionnement et Retraitement) laboratory got test facilities. These installations allow to carry out tests of resistance to shocks, mainly at the safety level of components of nuclear power plants, mockups of transport casks for fuel elements and transport containers for radioactive materials. They include a tower and a catapult. This paper give a decription of the facilities and explain their operation way [fr

  7. HIV resistance testing: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, Jaber

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, resistance testing has become an important tool in optimizing the combination therapy for treating HIV infected individuals. The identification of resistance mutations has allowed physicians to select the antiviral agents with maximum therapeutic benefic and minimum toxic side effects. The current therapeutic agents approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), their mechanisms of actions, and the mutations of the HIV viral genome that lead to resistance to antiviral agents are discussed. In addition, methods of resistance testing, both genotypic and phenotypic, are evaluated with consideration of their inherent advantages and disadvantages.

  8. HIV Genotypic Resistance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Testing Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Tumor Marker AMAS Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Ammonia Amniocentesis Amylase ANCA/MPO/ ... Beta-2 Microglobulin Kidney Disease Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases ...

  9. HIV resistance testing and detected drug resistance in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultze, Anna; Phillips, Andrew N.; Paredes, Roger; Battegay, Manuel; Rockstroh, Jürgen K.; Machala, Ladislav; Tomazic, Janez; Girard, Pierre M.; Januskevica, Inga; Gronborg-Laut, Kamilla; Lundgren, Jens D.; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Losso, M.; Kundro, M.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V. M.; Paduto, D.; Clumeck, N.; de Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Florence, E.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Begovac, J.; Machala, L.; Jilich, D.; Sedlacek, D.; Nielsen, J.; Kronborg, G.; Benfield, T.; Larsen, M.; Gerstoft, J.; Katzenstein, T.; Pedersen, C.; Møller, N. F.; Ostergaard, L.; Dragsted, U. B.; Nielsen, L. N.; Zilmer, K.; Smidt, Jelena; Ristola, M.; Katlama, C.; Pradier, C.; Dabis, F.; Neau, D.; Duvivier, C.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R.; van Lunzen, J.; Degen, O.; Stefan, C.; Bogner, J.; Fatkenheuer, G.; Chkhartishvili, N.; Kosmidis, J.; Gargalianos, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Perdios, J.; Sambatakou, H.; Banhegyi, D.; Gottfredsson, M.; Mulcahy, F.; Yust, I.; Turner, D.; Burke, M.; Shahar, E.; Hassoun, G.; Elinav, H.; Haouzi, M.; Sthoeger, Z. M.; d'Arminio, A.; Esposito, R.; Mazeu, I.; Mussini, C.; Pristera, R.; Mazzotta, F.; Gabbuti, A.; Vullo, V.; Lichtner, M.; Zaccarelli, M.; Reiss, P.; Ormaasen, V.; Maeland, A.; Bruun, J.; Knysz, B.; Gasiorowski, J.; Inglot, M.; Horban, A.; Bakowska, E.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Flisiak, R.; Parczewski, M.; Pynka, M.; Maciejewska, K.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Smiatacz, T.; Jablonowska, E.; Malolepsza, E.; Wojcik, K.; Mozer-Lisewska, I.; Doroana, M.; Caldeira, L.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Radoi, R.; Oprea, C.; Babes, Victor; Rakhmanova, A.; Trofimora, T.; Khromova, I.; Kuzovatova, E.; Jevtovic, D.; Shunnar, A.; Stanekova, D.; Tomazic, J.; Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Clotet, B.; Jou, A.; Paredes, R.; Tural, C.; Puig, J.; Bravo, I.; Gatell, J. M.; Miro, J. M.; Domingo, P.; Gutierrez, M.; Mateo, G.; Sambeat, M. A.; Laporte, J. M.; Blaxhult, A.; Flamholc, L.; Thalme, A.; Sonnerborg, A.; Ledergerber, B.; Weber, R.; Cavassini, M.; Calmy, A.; Furrer, H.; Battegay, M.; Elzi, L.; Schmid, P.; Kravchenko, E.; Chentsova, N.; Frolov, V.; Kutsyna, G.; Baskakov, I.; Kuznetsova, A.; Kyselyova, G.; Gazzard, B.; Johnson, A. M.; Simons, E.; Edwards, S.; Phillips, A.; Johnson, M. A.; Mocroft, A.; Orkin, C.; Weber, J.; Scullard, G.; Fisher, M.; Leen, C.; Gatell, J.; Monforte, A. d'Arminio; Lundgren, J.; DeWit, S.; Kirk, O.; Grarup, J.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Thiebaut, R.; Burger, D.; Peters, L.; Podlekareva, D.; Nielsen, J. E.; Matthews, C.; Fischer, A. H.; Bojesen, A.; Raben, D.; Kristensen, D.; Laut, K. Grønborg; Larsen, J. F.; Grint, D.; Shepherd, L.; Schultze, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe regional differences and trends in resistance testing among individuals experiencing virological failure and the prevalence of detected resistance among those individuals who had a genotypic resistance test done following virological failure. Design: Multinational cohort

  10. HIV resistance testing and detected drug resistance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultze, Anna; Phillips, Andrew N; Paredes, Roger

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe regional differences and trends in resistance testing among individuals experiencing virological failure and the prevalence of detected resistance among those individuals who had a genotypic resistance test done following virological failure. DESIGN: Multinational cohort...... study. METHODS: Individuals in EuroSIDA with virological failure (>1 RNA measurement >500 on ART after >6 months on ART) after 1997 were included. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for resistance testing following virological failure and aORs for the detection of resistance among those who had a test were...... calculated using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Compared to 74.2% of ART-experienced individuals in 1997, only 5.1% showed evidence of virological failure in 2012. The odds of resistance testing declined after 2004 (global P Resistance was detected in 77...

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter: susceptibility testing methods and resistance trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Beilei; Wang, Fei; Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; McDermott, Patrick F

    2013-10-01

    Most Campylobacter infections are self-limiting but antimicrobial treatment (e.g., macrolides, fluoroquinolones) is necessary in severe or prolonged cases. Susceptibility testing continues to play a critical role in guiding therapy and epidemiological monitoring of resistance. The methods of choice for Campylobacter recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) are agar dilution and broth microdilution, while a disk diffusion method was recently standardized by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Macrolides, quinolones, and tetracyclines are among the common antimicrobials recommended for testing. Molecular determination of Campylobacter resistance via DNA sequencing or PCR-based methods has been performed. High levels of resistance to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin are frequently reported by many national surveillance programs, but resistance to erythromycin and gentamicin in Campylobacter jejuni remains low. Nonetheless, variations in susceptibility observed over time underscore the need for continued public health monitoring of Campylobacter resistance from humans, animals, and food. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Comparison of skid resistance testing to stopping distance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report is intended to statistically summarize the results of a side-by-side test of the skid resistance testing trailer utilized by the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT), and the stopping distance car utilized by the Oregon State Police...

  13. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation...-circuit apparatus with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88, and the exhalation resistance shall...

  14. OPERA Resistive Plate Chambers underground test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergnoli, A.; Brugnera, R.; Candela, A.; Carrara, E.; Ciesielski, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Degli Esposti, L.; Di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Di Troia, C.; Dusini, S.; Fanin, C.; Felici, G.; Gambarara, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gatta, M.; Grianti, F.; Gustavino, C.; Lindozzi, M.; Longhin, A.; Mengucci, A.; Monacelli, P.; Paoloni, A.; Stanco, L.; Tatananni, E.; Terranova, F.; Spinetti, M.; Stipcevic, M.; Sugonyaev, V.; Terminiello, L.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.

    2006-01-01

    The OPERA experiment [M. Guler et al., CERN/SPSC 2000-028, SPSC/P318, LNGS P25/2000, July 10, 2000; M. Guler et al., CERN/SPSC 2001-025, SPSC/M668, LNGS-EXP 30/2001 Add. 1/01, August 21, 2001] will study ν μ ->ν τ oscillations through τ appearance on the 732 Km long CERN to Gran Sasso baseline. The magnet yokes of the two muon spectrometers are instrumented with 44 layers of high resistivity bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) operated in streamer mode. Each layer covers about 70 m 2 . Four RPC planes were instrumented and the first tests were performed confirming a good behaviour of the installed RPCs in terms of intrinsic noise and operating currents. The measured noise maps agree with those obtained in the extensive quality tests performed at surface. Counting rates are below 20 Hz/m 2 . Single an multiple cosmic muon tracks were also reconstructed. The estimated efficiency is close to the geometrical limit and the very first measurements of the absolute and differential muon flux are in agreement with expectations

  15. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2007-12-31

    In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a moderate alkali content (0.2% sodium equivalents), thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that aggressive alkali sulfate constituents were present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. Test Section A was removed in November 2001 after about 24 months of service at the desired steam temperature set point, with about 15.5 months of exposure at full temperature. A progress report, issued in October 2002, was written to document the performance of the candidate alloys in that test section. The evaluation described the condition of each tube sample after exposure. It involved a determination of the rate of wall thickness loss for these samples. In cases where there was more than one sample of a candidate material in the test section, an assessment was made of the performance of the alloy as a function of temperature. Test Sections B and C were examined during the November 2001 outage, and it was decided that

  16. Design of online testing system of material radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Junsheng; He Shengping; Gao Xinjun

    2014-01-01

    The capability of radiation resistance is important for some material used in some specifically engineering fields. It is the same principal applied in all existing test system that compares the performance parameter after radiation to evaluate material radiation resistance. A kind of new technique on test system of material radiation resistance is put forward in this paper. Experimentation shows that the online test system for material radiation resistance works well and has an extending application outlook. (authors)

  17. Slip resistance testing - Zones of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowman, R.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers recent and current potential developments in the international standardisation of slip resistance. It identifies some limitations of the wet barefoot ramp test, such that changes should be made if it is to be more widely used. It also identifies some limitations of the new European SlipSTD Publicly Available Specification, such as insufficient allowance for the deterioration of slip resistance as tiles inevitably wear.

    Este trabajo considera los desarrollos recientes y potenciales que hay en la actualidad en el desarrollo de las normas internacionales sobre la resistencia al resbalamiento. Identifica algunas limitaciones del ensayo de la rampa para pies descalzos en húmedo, para que se realicen cambios, si se va a usar de forma más extendida. También identifica algunas limitaciones de la nueva Especificación Europea Públicamente Disponible SlipSTD, como la falta de tener en cuenta adecuadamente el deterioro de la resistencia al resbalamiento de las baldosas a medida que inevitablemente se vayan desgastando.

  18. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.203 Section 84.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to...

  19. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a breathing...

  20. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of a gas mask mounted on a breathing machine both before and after...

  1. 30 CFR 7.48 - Acid resistance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acid resistance test. 7.48 Section 7.48 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.48 Acid resistance test. (a...

  2. Detection of Haplotypes Associated with Prenatal Death in Dairy Cattle and Identification of Deleterious Mutations in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Sébastien; Capitan, Aurelien; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina C.; Barbat, Anne; Baur, Aurélia; Grohs, Cécile; Weiss, Bernard; Boussaha, Mekki; Esquerré, Diane; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Boichard, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1%) showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals). Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (p<10−4) including previously reported regions associated with Brachyspina, CVM, HH1, and HH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total). Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina), SLC35A3 (CVM), APAF1 (HH1) and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23762392

  3. Resistance factors for 100% dynamic testing, with and without static load tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Current department of transportation (DOT) and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) practice has highly : variable load and resistance factor design (LRFD) resistance factors, , for driven piles from design (e.g., Standard : Penetration Tests (SPT...

  4. Heat resistant/radiation resistant cable and incore structure test device for FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Hajime; Shiono, Takeo; Sato, Yoshimi; Ito, Kazumi; Sudo, Shigeaki; Saito, Shin-ichi; Mitsui, Hisayasu.

    1995-01-01

    A heat resistant/radiation resistant coaxial cable of the present invention comprises an insulation layer, an outer conductor and a protection cover in this order on an inner conductor, in which the insulation layer comprises thermoplastic polyimide. In the same manner, a heat resistant/radiation resistant power cable has an insulation layer comprising thermoplastic polyimide on a conductor, and is provided with a protection cover comprising braid of alamide fibers at the outer circumference of the insulation layer. An incore structure test device for an FBR type reactor comprises the heat resistant/radiation resistant coaxial cable and/or the power cable. The thermoplastic polyimide can be extrusion molded, and has excellent radiation resistant by the extrusion, as well as has high dielectric withstand voltage, good flexibility and electric characteristics at high temperature. The incore structure test device for the FBR type reactor of the present invention comprising such a cable has excellent reliability and durability. (T.M.)

  5. Repeatability of leaf disc test for assessing resistance levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developing efficient and reliable screening tests to assess the level of resistance of a perennial crop such as cocoa to diseases is essential to reduce the length of the breeding cycle. The resistance of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) leaves to two species of Phytophthora was investigated in 25 genotypes of cacao using the ...

  6. Testing and Modeling of Machine Properties in Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei

    The objective of this work has been to test and model the machine properties including the mechanical properties and the electrical properties in resistance welding. The results are used to simulate the welding process more accurately. The state of the art in testing and modeling machine properties...... in resistance welding has been described based on a comprehensive literature study. The present thesis has been subdivided into two parts: Part I: Mechanical properties of resistance welding machines. Part II: Electrical properties of resistance welding machines. In part I, the electrode force in the squeeze...... it is lower than the spring force. The work in part I is focused on the dynamic mechanical properties of resistance welding machines. A universal method has been developed to characterize the dynamic mechanical behaviour of C-frame machines. The method is based on a mathematical model, in which three...

  7. Clostridium difficile Infection and Patient-Specific Antimicrobial Resistance Testing Reveals a High Metronidazole Resistance Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Jodie A; Sussman, Daniel A; Fifadara, Nimita; Barkin, Jamie S

    2017-04-01

    Clostridium difficile (CD) infection (CDI) causes marked morbidity and mortality, accounting for large healthcare expenditures annually. Current CDI treatment guidelines focus on clinical markers of patient severity to determine the preferred antibiotic regimen of metronidazole versus vancomycin. The antimicrobial resistance patterns for patients with CD are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to define the antimicrobial resistance patterns for CD. This study included all patients with stools sent for CD testing to a private laboratory (DRG Laboratory, Alpharetta, Georgia) in a 6-month period from across the USA. Patient data was de-identified, with only age, gender, and zip-code available per laboratory protocol. All samples underwent PCR testing followed by hybridization for CD toxin regions A and B. Only patients with CD-positive PCR were analyzed. Antimicrobial resistance testing using stool genomic DNA evaluated presence of imidazole- and vancomycin-resistant genes using multiplex PCR gene detection. Of 2743, 288 (10.5%) stool samples were positive for CD. Six were excluded per protocol. Of 282, 193 (69.4%) were women, and average age was 49.4 ± 18.7 years. Of 282, 62 were PCR positive for toxins A and B, 160 for toxin A positive alone, and 60 for toxin B positive alone. Antimicrobial resistance testing revealed 134/282 (47.5%) patients resistant to imidazole, 17 (6.1%) resistant to vancomycin, and 9 (3.2%) resistant to imidazole and vancomycin. CD-positive patients with presence of imidazole-resistant genes from stool DNA extract was a common phenomenon, while vancomycin resistance was uncommon. Similar to treatment of other infections, antimicrobial resistance testing should play a role in CDI clinical decision-making algorithms to enable more expedited and cost-effective delivery of patient care.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-09-01

    Infections due to anaerobic bacteria can be severe and life-threatening. Susceptibility testing of anaerobes is not frequently performed in laboratories, but such testing is important to direct appropriate therapy. Anaerobic resistance is increasing globally, and resistance trends vary by geographic region. An overview of a variety of susceptibility testing methods for anaerobes is provided, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. Specific clinical situations warranting anaerobic susceptibility testing are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations: Potential Applications for Point-of-Care Genotypic Resistance Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhee, Soo-Yon; Jordan, Michael R.; Raizes, Elliot; Chua, Arlene; Parkin, Neil; Kantor, Rami; van Zyl, Gert U.; Mukui, Irene; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Frenkel, Lisa M.; Ndembi, Nicaise; Hamers, Raph L.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Wallis, Carole L.; Gupta, Ravindra K.; Fokam, Joseph; Zeh, Clement; Schapiro, Jonathan M.; Carmona, Sergio; Katzenstein, David; Tang, Michele; Aghokeng, Avelin F.; de Oliveira, Tulio; Wensing, Annemarie M. J.; Gallant, Joel E.; Wainberg, Mark A.; Richman, Douglas D.; Fitzgibbon, Joseph E.; Schito, Marco; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Yang, Chunfu; Shafer, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of acquired and transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance is an obstacle to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV-1 pandemic. Genotypic drug resistance testing could facilitate the choice of initial ART in

  10. HIV-1 drug resistance mutations : Potential applications for point-of-care Genotypic resistance testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhee, Soo Yon; Jordan, Michael R.; Raizes, Elliot; Chua, Arlene; Parkin, Neil; Kantor, Rami; Van Zy, Gert U.; Mukui, Irene; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Frenkel, Lisa M.; Ndembi, Nicaise; Hamers, Raph L.; De Wit, Tobias F Rinke; Wallis, Carole L.; Gupta, Ravindra K.; Fokam, Joseph; Zeh, Clement; Schapiro, Jonathan M.; Carmona, Sergio; Katzenstein, David; Tang, Michele; Aghokeng, Avelin F.; De Oliveira, Tulio; Wensing, Annemarie M J; Gallant, Joel E.; Wainberg, Mark A.; Richman, Douglas D.; Fitzgibbon, Joseph E.; Schito, Marco; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Yang, Chunfu; Shafer, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of acquired and transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance is an obstacle to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV-1 pandemic. Genotypic drug resistance testing could facilitate the choice of initial ART in

  11. Test for bacterial resistance build-up against plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J L; Shimizu, T; Li, Y-F; Morfill, G E; Schmidt, H-U; Isbary, G

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the evolution of resistance of microorganisms to a range of different antibiotics presents a major problem in the control of infectious diseases. Accordingly, new bactericidal ‘agents’ are in great demand. Using a cold atmospheric pressure (CAP) plasma dispenser operated with ambient air, a more than five orders of magnitude inactivation or reduction of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; resistant against a large number of the tested antibiotics) was obtained in less than 10 s. This makes CAP the most promising candidate for combating nosocomial (hospital-induced) infections. To test for the occurrence and development of bacterial resistance against such plasmas, experiments with Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus mundtii) were performed. The aim was to determine quantitative limits for primary (naturally) or secondary (acquired) resistance against the plasma treatment. Our results show that E. coli and E. mundtii possess no primary resistance against the plasma treatment. By generating four generations of bacteria for every strain, where the survivors of the plasma treatment were used for the production of the next generation, a lower limit to secondary resistance was obtained. Our results indicate that CAP technology could contribute to the control of infections in hospitals, in outpatient care and in disaster situations, providing a new, fast and efficient broad-band disinfection technology that is not constrained by bacterial resistance mechanisms. (paper)

  12. State Waste Discharge Permit Application: Electric resistance tomography testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This permit application documentation is for a State Waste Discharge Permit issued in accordance with requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The activity being permitted is a technology test using electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography technology was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has been used at other waste sites to track underground contamination plumes. The electrical resistance tomography technology measures soil electrical resistance between two electrodes. If a fluid contaminated with electrolytes is introduced into the soil, the soil resistance is expected to drop. By using an array of measurement electrodes in several boreholes, the areal extent of contamination can be estimated. At the Hanford Site, the purpose of the testing is to determine if the electrical resistance tomography technology can be used in the vicinity of large underground metal tanks without the metal tank interfering with the test. It is anticipated that the electrical resistance tomography technology will provide a method for accurately detecting leaks from the bottom of underground tanks, such as the Hanford Site single-shell tanks

  13. State Waste Discharge Permit Application: Electric resistance tomography testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This permit application documentation is for a State Waste Discharge Permit issued in accordance with requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The activity being permitted is a technology test using electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography technology was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has been used at other waste sites to track underground contamination plumes. The electrical resistance tomography technology measures soil electrical resistance between two electrodes. If a fluid contaminated with electrolytes is introduced into the soil, the soil resistance is expected to drop. By using an array of measurement electrodes in several boreholes, the areal extent of contamination can be estimated. At the Hanford Site, the purpose of the testing is to determine if the electrical resistance tomography technology can be used in the vicinity of large underground metal tanks without the metal tank interfering with the test. It is anticipated that the electrical resistance tomography technology will provide a method for accurately detecting leaks from the bottom of underground tanks, such as the Hanford Site single-shell tanks.

  14. An investigation of classification algorithms for predicting HIV drug resistance without genotype resistance testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brandt, P

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available is limited in low-resource settings. In this paper we investigate machine learning techniques for drug resistance prediction from routine treatment and laboratory data to help clinicians select patients for confirmatory genotype testing. The techniques...

  15. Development and preliminary tests of resistive microdot and microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, V; Nappi, E; Martinengo, P; Oliveira, R; Pietropaolo, F; Picchi, P

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years our group have focused on developing various designs of spark-protected micropattern gaseous detectors featuring resistive electrodes instead of the traditional metallic ones: resistive microstrip counters, resistive GEM, resistive MICROMEGAS. These detectors combine in one design the best features of RPCs (spark-protection) and micropattern detectors (a high position resolution). In this paper we report the progress so far made in developing other types of resistive micropattern detectors: a microdot-microhole detector and a microgap-microstrip detector. The former detector is an optimal electron amplifier for some special designs of dual phase noble liquid TPCs, for example with a CsI photocathode immersed inside the noble liquid. Preliminary tests of such a detector, for the first time built and investigated, are reported in this paper. The latter detector is mainly orientated towards medical imaging applications such as X-ray scanners. However, we believe that after a proper gas opti...

  16. Corrosion resistance testing of high-boron-content stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrman, I.; Safek, V.

    1994-01-01

    Boron steels, i.e. stainless steels with boron contents of 0.2 to 2.25 wt.%, are employed in nuclear engineering for the manufacture of baskets or wells in which radioactive fissile materials are stored, mostly spent nuclear fuel elements. The resistance of such steels to intergranular corrosion and uniform corrosion was examined in the Strauss solution and in boric acid; the dependence of the corrosion rate of the steels on their chemical composition was investigated, and their resistance was compared with that of AISI 304 type steel. Corrosion resistance tests in actual conditions of ''wet'' compact storage (demineralized water or a weak boric acid solution) gave evidence that boron steels undergo nearly no uniform corrosion and, as electrochemical measurements indicated, match standard corrosion-resistant steels. Corrosion resistance was confirmed to decrease slightly with increasing boron content and to increase somewhat with increasing molybdenum content. (Z.S.). 3 tabs., 4 figs., 7 refs

  17. Testing and Modeling of Mechanical Characteristics of Resistance Welding Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    2003-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical response of resistance welding machine is very important to the weld quality in resistance welding especially in projection welding when collapse or deformation of work piece occurs. It is mainly governed by the mechanical parameters of machine. In this paper, a mathematical...... model for characterizing the dynamic mechanical responses of machine and a special test set-up called breaking test set-up are developed. Based on the model and the test results, the mechanical parameters of machine are determined, including the equivalent mass, damping coefficient, and stiffness...

  18. 33 CFR 159.117 - Chemical resistance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.117 Chemical resistance test. (a... Sodium Chloride) flush water. (5) Toilet bowl cleaners. (6) Engine Oil (SAE/30). (7) Ethylene Glycol. (8) Detergents (household and bilge cleaning type). (c) A sample of the material must be doused 20 times, with a...

  19. Mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance and molecular testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro eNishizawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is the main factor affecting the efficacy of current treatment methods against infection caused by this organism. The traditional culture methods for testing bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics are expensive and require 10 to 14 days. Since resistance to clarithromycin, fluoroquinolone, and tetracycline seems to be exclusively caused by specific mutations in a small region of the responsible gene, molecular methods offer an attractive alternative to the above-mentioned techniques. The technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR is an accurate and rapid method for the detection of mutations that confer antibiotic resistance. This review highlights the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori and the molecular methods for antibiotic susceptibility testing.

  20. In vitro testing of daptomycin plus rifampin againstmethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus resistant to rifampin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaswneh, Faisal A.; Ashcraft, Deborah S.; Pankey, George A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to test for synergy between daptomycin (DAP) and rifampin(RIF) against RIF-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) isolates. Synergy testing using time-kill assay (TKA) was performed on6 clinically and genetically unique RIF-resistant MRSA isolates. The isolateswere identified out of 489 (1.2%) samples collected during April 2003 toAugust 2006, from patients at the Ochsner Medical Center in New Orleans,Louisiana, United States of America. Synergy testing of DAP plus RIF by TKAshowed that 5 isolates were different, but one isolate was antagonistic. Ourin-vitro study failed to demonstrate synergy between DAP plus RIF, againstour RIF-resistant MRSA isolates. Clinical failure of this combination shouldprompt the clinician to consider antagonism as one of the potential causes.(author)

  1. New surface layers with low rolling resistance tested in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettinari, Matteo; Schmidt, Bjarne; Jensen, Bjarne Bo

    2014-01-01

    The project ‘CO2 emission reduction by exploitation of rolling resistance modeling of pavements’ (COOEE) was started in 2011 to establish a scientific background for development of novel pavement types and asset management solutions that minimize the rolling resistance for cars and trucks......, the purpose being to reduce CO2 emission from the transport sector. In summer 2012, three different test sections were constructed on a highway located near Vordingborg, Denmark, in order to verify the respective Rolling Resistances; the main purpose was to develop and design new surface layers with reduced...... Rolling Resistance coefficient that could improve energy efficiency of the roads. In particular, two new types of Split Mastic Asphalt (SMA) were developed and compared to a reference one; both mixtures have a relatively small maximum grain-size, 6 mm and 8 mm, respectively. Surface measurements...

  2. Insecticide resistance testing in malaria vectors in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insecticide resistance testing in malaria vectors in Tanzania: Challenges in mosquito sampling and rearing under field conditions. Basiliana Emidi1,2*, Bilali Kabula4,Patrick Tungu3, Julius Massaga2, William Kisinza3. 1Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College of Tumaini University, Moshi, Tanzania. 2National Institute for ...

  3. HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations: Potential Applications for Point-of-Care Genotypic Resistance Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Yon Rhee

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of acquired and transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance is an obstacle to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs hardest hit by the HIV-1 pandemic. Genotypic drug resistance testing could facilitate the choice of initial ART in areas with rising transmitted drug resistance (TDR and enable care-providers to determine which individuals with virological failure (VF on a first- or second-line ART regimen require a change in treatment. An inexpensive near point-of-care (POC genotypic resistance test would be useful in settings where the resources, capacity, and infrastructure to perform standard genotypic drug resistance testing are limited. Such a test would be particularly useful in conjunction with the POC HIV-1 viral load tests that are currently being introduced in LMICs. A POC genotypic resistance test is likely to involve the use of allele-specific point mutation assays for detecting drug-resistance mutations (DRMs. This study proposes that two major nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI-associated DRMs (M184V and K65R and four major NNRTI-associated DRMs (K103N, Y181C, G190A, and V106M would be the most useful for POC genotypic resistance testing in LMIC settings. One or more of these six DRMs was present in 61.2% of analyzed virus sequences from ART-naïve individuals with intermediate or high-level TDR and 98.8% of analyzed virus sequences from individuals on a first-line NRTI/NNRTI-containing regimen with intermediate or high-level acquired drug resistance. The detection of one or more of these DRMs in an ART-naïve individual or in a individual with VF on a first-line NRTI/NNRTI-containing regimen may be considered an indication for a protease inhibitor (PI-containing regimen or closer virological monitoring based on cost-effectiveness or country policy.

  4. Testing compression strength of wood logs by drilling resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalny, Gerda; Rados, Kristijan; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2017-04-01

    Soil bioengineering is a construction technique using biological components for hydraulic and civil engineering solutions, based on the application of living plants and other auxiliary materials including among others log wood. Considering the reliability of the construction it is important to know about the durability and the degradation process of the wooden logs to estimate and retain the integral performance of a soil bioengineering system. An important performance indicator is the compression strength, but this parameter is not easy to examine by non-destructive methods. The Rinntech Resistograph is an instrument to measure the drilling resistance by a 3 mm wide needle in a wooden log. It is a quasi-non-destructive method as the remaining hole has no weakening effects to the wood. This is an easy procedure but result in values, hard to interpret. To assign drilling resistance values to specific compression strengths, wooden specimens were tested in an experiment and analysed with the Resistograph. Afterwards compression tests were done at the same specimens. This should allow an easier interpretation of drilling resistance curves in future. For detailed analyses specimens were investigated by means of branch inclusions, cracks and distances between annual rings. Wood specimens are tested perpendicular to the grain. First results show a correlation between drilling resistance and compression strength by using the mean drilling resistance, average width of the annual rings and the mean range of the minima and maxima values as factors for the drilling resistance. The extended limit of proportionality, the offset yield strength and the maximum strength were taken as parameters for compression strength. Further investigations at a second point in time strengthen these results.

  5. Standard test method for conducting potentiodynamic polarization resistance measurements

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers an experimental procedure for polarization resistance measurements which can be used for the calibration of equipment and verification of experimental technique. The test method can provide reproducible corrosion potentials and potentiodynamic polarization resistance measurements. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. The update of resist outgas testing for metal containing resists at EIDEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiobara, Eishi; Mikami, Shinji

    2017-10-01

    The metal containing resist is one of the candidates for high sensitivity resists. EIDEC has prepared the infrastructure for outgas testing in hydrogen environment for metal containing resists at High Power EUV irradiation tool (HPEUV). We have experimentally obtained the preliminary results of the non-cleanable metal contamination on witness sample using model material by HPEUV [1]. The metal contamination was observed at only the condition of hydrogen environment. It suggested the generation of volatile metal hydrides by hydrogen radicals. Additionally, the metal contamination on a witness sample covered with Ru was not removed by hydrogen radical cleaning. The strong interaction between the metal hydride and Ru was confirmed by the absorption simulation. Recently, ASML announced a resist outgassing barrier technology using Dynamic Gas Lock (DGL) membrane located between projection optics and wafer stage [2], [3]. DGL membrane blocks the diffusion of all kinds of resist outgassing to the projection optics and prevents the reflectivity loss of EUV mirrors. The investigation of DGL membrane for high volume manufacturing is just going on. It extends the limitation of material design for EUV resists. However, the DGL membrane has an impact for the productivity of EUV scanners due to the transmission loss of EUV light and the necessity of periodic maintenance. The well understanding and control of the outgassing characteristics of metal containing resists may help to improve the productivity of EUV scanner. We consider the outgas evaluation for the resists still useful. For the improvement of resist outgas testing by HPEUV, there are some issues such as the contamination limited regime, the optimization of exposure dose to obtain the measurable contamination film thickness and the detection of minimum amount of metal related outgas species generated. The investigation and improvement for these issues are ongoing. The updates will be presented in the conference. This

  7. Design prediction of pavement skid resistance from laboratory tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcells, W. H.; Metheny, T. M.; Maag, R. G.

    1980-08-01

    Methods for preevaluating aggregates and paving mixtures so that predictions can be made covering skid resistance properties of proposed and in service pavement types are discussed. A correlation was established between the field testing using the data from the British Portable Tester and the Locked Wheel Pavement Friction Trailer at speeds of 40 and 55 mph. Core samples were extracted from the Locked Wheel Tester Skid Path and subjected to wear on the small wheel circular track with periodic surface friction testing. The final step was to remix and remold the cored pavement samples or make samples with new materials to obtain an 'as new' surface and again subject these samples to wear on the small wheel circular track with periodic testing.

  8. Uncertainty Analysis of Resistance Tests in Ata Nutku Ship Model Testing Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihad DELEN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some systematical resistance tests, where were performed in Ata Nutku Ship Model Testing Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University (ITU, have been included in order to determine the uncertainties. Experiments which are conducted in the framework of mathematical and physical rules for the solution of engineering problems, measurements, calculations include uncertainty. To question the reliability of the obtained values, the existing uncertainties should be expressed as quantities. The uncertainty of a measurement system is not known if the results do not carry a universal value. On the other hand, resistance is one of the most important parameters that should be considered in the process of ship design. Ship resistance during the design phase of a ship cannot be determined precisely and reliably due to the uncertainty resources in determining the resistance value that are taken into account. This case may cause negative effects to provide the required specifications in the latter design steps. The uncertainty arising from the resistance test has been estimated and compared for a displacement type ship and high speed marine vehicles according to ITTC 2002 and ITTC 2014 regulations which are related to the uncertainty analysis methods. Also, the advantages and disadvantages of both ITTC uncertainty analysis methods have been discussed.

  9. Mycobacteria: laboratory methods for testing drug sensitivity and resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti, G.; Froman, S.; Grosset, J.; Hauduroy, P.; Langerová, Miloslava; Mahler, H. T.; Meissner, Gertrud; Mitchison, D. A.; Šula, L.

    1963-01-01

    In its seventh report, published in 1960, the WHO Expert Committee on Tuberculosis “noted the need for international standards for the definition and determination of drug resistance which will permit comparisons to be made from one area to another, and recommended that the World Health Organization take appropriate steps to establish such standards”.10 Acting on this recommendation, WHO took the first step towards standardization by convening in Geneva, in December 1961, an informal international meeting of specialists in the bacteriology of tuberculosis. At this meeting an attempt was made to formulate prerequisites for reliable sensitivity tests and to specify the technical procedures for them. The first part of the present paper is a joint contribution by the participants in the meeting, summarizing the general conclusions reached and recommendations made with regard to tests of sensitivity to the three main antituberculosis drugs—isoniazid, streptomycin and p-aminosalicylic acid. The other three parts describe, in turn, three different tests for determining drug sensitivity—the absolute-concentration method, the resistance-ratio method and the proportion method—that are generally considered to give reasonably accurate results. PMID:14102034

  10. InChIKey collision resistance: an experimental testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pletnev Igor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract InChIKey is a 27-character compacted (hashed version of InChI which is intended for Internet and database searching/indexing and is based on an SHA-256 hash of the InChI character string. The first block of InChIKey encodes molecular skeleton while the second block represents various kinds of isomerism (stereo, tautomeric, etc.. InChIKey is designed to be a nearly unique substitute for the parent InChI. However, a single InChIKey may occasionally map to two or more InChI strings (collision. The appearance of collision itself does not compromise the signature as collision-free hashing is impossible; the only viable approach is to set and keep a reasonable level of collision resistance which is sufficient for typical applications. We tested, in computational experiments, how well the real-life InChIKey collision resistance corresponds to the theoretical estimates expected by design. For this purpose, we analyzed the statistical characteristics of InChIKey for datasets of variable size in comparison to the theoretical statistical frequencies. For the relatively short second block, an exhaustive direct testing was performed. We computed and compared to theory the numbers of collisions for the stereoisomers of Spongistatin I (using the whole set of 67,108,864 isomers and its subsets. For the longer first block, we generated, using custom-made software, InChIKeys for more than 3 × 1010 chemical structures. The statistical behavior of this block was tested by comparison of experimental and theoretical frequencies for the various four-letter sequences which may appear in the first block body. From the results of our computational experiments we conclude that the observed characteristics of InChIKey collision resistance are in good agreement with theoretical expectations.

  11. Standard Test Method for Abrasive Wear Resistance of Cemented

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of abrasive wear resistance of cemented carbides. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The SI equivalents of inch-pound units are in parentheses and may be approximate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Lise, Kristensen,; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics......Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics...

  13. Standard Test Method for Thermal Oxidative Resistance of Carbon Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1982-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the apparatus and procedure for the determination of the weight loss of carbon fibers, exposed to ambient hot air, as a means of characterizing their oxidative resistance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units which are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard information, see Section 8.

  14. Evaluation of interrupter resistance in methacholine challenge testing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Marije; Brackel, Hein J L; Vaessen-Verberne, Anja A P H; Hop, Wim C; van der Ent, Cornelis K

    2011-03-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is a key feature of asthma and is assessed using bronchial provocation tests. The primary outcome in such tests (a 20% decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1)) is difficult to measure in young patients. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the interrupter resistance (Rint ) technique, which does not require active patient participation, by comparing it to the primary outcome measure. Methacholine challenge tests were performed in children with a history of moderate asthma and BHR. Mean and individual changes in Rint and FEV1 were studied. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to describe sensitivity and specificity of Rint . Seventy-three children (median age: 9.2 years; range: 6.3-13.4 years) participated. There was a significant (P changes of Rint showed large fluctuations. There was great overlap in change of Rint between children who did and did not reach the FEV1 endpoint. A ROC curve showed an area under the curve of 0.65. Because of low sensitivity and specificity, the use of Rint to diagnose BHR in individual patients seems limited. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. 30 CFR 7.408 - Test for flame resistance of signaling cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of signaling cables..., Signaling Cables, and Cable Splice Kits § 7.408 Test for flame resistance of signaling cables. (a) Test... either and support and the center support. (6) After subjecting the test specimen to external flame for...

  16. 30 CFR 27.39 - Tests to determine resistance to vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests to determine resistance to vibration. 27... determine resistance to vibration. (a) Laboratory tests for reliability and durability. Components... two separate vibration tests, each of one-hour duration. The first test shall be conducted at a...

  17. Resistance of three implant-abutment interfaces to fatigue testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Gisele Ribeiro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The design and retentive properties of implant-abutment connectors affect the mechanical resistance of implants. A number of studies have been carried out to compare the efficacy of connecting mechanisms between abutment and fixture. Objectives: The aims of this study were: 1 to compare 3 implant-abutment interfaces (external hexagon, internal hexagon and cone-in-cone regarding the fatigue resistance of the prosthetic screw, 2 to evaluate the corresponding mode of failure, and 3 to compare the results of this study with data obtained in previous studies on Nobel Biocare and Straumann connectors. Materials and METHODS: In order to duplicate the alternating and multivectorial intraoral loading pattern, the specimens were submitted to the rotating cantilever beam test. The implants, abutments and restoration analogs were spun around their longitudinal axes while a perpendicular force was applied to the external end. The objective was to determine the force level at which 50% of the specimens survived 10(6 load cycles. The mean force levels at which 50% failed and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were determined using the staircase procedure. RESULTS: The external hexagon interface presented better than the cone-in-cone and internal hexagon interfaces. There was no significant difference between the cone-in-cone and internal hex interfaces. Conclusion: Although internal connections present a more favorable design, this study did not show any advantage in terms of strength. The external hexagon connector used in this study yielded similar results to those obtained in a previous study with Nobel Biocare and Straumann systems. However, the internal connections (cone-in-cone and internal hexagon were mechanically inferior compared to previous results.

  18. Deep Resistivity Structure of Mid Valley, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Erin L.; Rodriguez, Brian D.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2009-01-01

    -Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal was to define the extent of the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU). The UCCU is composed of late Devonian to Mississippian siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale (National Security Technologies, 2007). The UCCU underlies the Yucca Flat area and extends southwestward toward Shoshone Mountain, westward toward Buckboard Mesa, and northwestward toward Rainier Mesa. Late in 2005 we collected data at an additional 14 MT stations in Mid Valley, CP Hills, and northern Yucca Flat. That work was done to better determine the extent and thickness of the UCCU near the boundary between the southeastern RM-SM CAU and the southwestern YF CAU, and also in the northern YF CAU. The MT data have been released in a separate U.S. Geological Survey report (Williams and others, 2007). The Nevada Test Site magnetotelluric data interpretation presented in this report includes the results of detailed two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity modeling for each profile and inferences on the three-dimensional (3-D) character of the geology within the region.

  19. New surface layers with low rolling resistance tested in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettinari, Matteo; Schmidt, Bjarne; Jensen, Bjarne Bo

    2014-01-01

    The project ‘CO2 emission reduction by exploitation of rolling resistance modeling of pavements’ (COOEE) was started in 2011 to establish a scientific background for development of novel pavement types and asset management solutions that minimize the rolling resistance for cars and trucks...

  20. Inaccuracy of routine susceptibility tests for detection of erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, M.T.; Claas, E.C.J.; Mevius, D.J.; Pelt, van W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Kuijper, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    In The Netherlands, both an increase in and regional differences in erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli have been reported. To determine the accuracy of routine tests for erythromycin resistance, 48 erythromycin-resistant isolates from various laboratories that

  1. Preparation and testing of corrosion and spallation-resistant coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, John P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Cavalli, Matthew N. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The goal of this project was to take a recently developed method of bonding oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl plating to nickel superalloys closer to commercial use in syngas-fired turbines. The project was designed to better understand and develop the bonding process and to determine if plating APMT®, a specific highly oxidation-resistant ODS FeCrAl alloy made by Kanthal, onto nickel-based superalloy turbine parts is a viable method for substantially improving the lifetimes and maximum use temperatures of the parts. The superalloys investigated for protection were CM247LC and Rene® 80, both alumina scale-forming alloys. The method for bonding the APMT plate to the superalloys is called evaporative metal bonding, which involves placing a thin foil of zinc between the plate and the superalloy, clamping them together, and heating in an atmosphere-controlled furnace. Upon heating, the zinc melts and dissolves the oxide skins of the alloys at the bond line, allowing the two alloys to diffuse into each other. The zinc then diffuses through the alloys and evaporates from their surfaces, creating a bond between the APMT and the superalloy that is stronger than the APMT itself. Testing showed that the diffusivity of zinc in both APMT and CM247LC is quite similar at 700°C but 15 times higher in the APMT at 1214°C. Coefficients of thermal expansion were determined for each of the alloys as a function of temperature. This information was entered into a finite-element model using ANSYS, which was used to design a clamping jig for pressing the APMT to the superalloys at the bonding temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analyses of representative joints showed that no zinc remained in the alloys after bonding Unfortunately, the analyses also showed some small pieces of broken aluminum oxide scale near the bond lines, indicating that its scale was not sufficiently removed during prebonding cleaning. Samples from each of the bonded blocks were sent to Siemens for

  2. Analytical Performance of Multiplexed Screening Test for 10 Antibiotic Resistance Genes from Perianal Swab Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G Terrance; Rockweiler, Tony J; Kersey, Rossio K; Frye, Kelly L; Mitchner, Susan R; Toal, Douglas R; Quan, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Multiantibiotic-resistant bacteria pose a threat to patients and place an economic burden on health care systems. Carbapenem-resistant bacilli and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers drive the need to screen infected and colonized patients for patient management and infection control. We describe a multiplex microfluidic PCR test for perianal swab samples (Acuitas(®) MDRO Gene Test, OpGen) that detects the vancomycin-resistance gene vanA plus hundreds of gene subtypes from the carbapenemase and ESBL families Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM), Verona integron-mediated metallo-β-lactamase (VIM), imipenemase metallo-β-lactamase (IMP), OXA-23, OXA-48, OXA-51, CTX-M-1, and CTX-M-2, regardless of the bacterial species harboring the antibiotic resistance. Analytical test sensitivity per perianal swab is 11-250 CFU of bacteria harboring the antibiotic resistance genes. Test throughput is 182 samples per test run (1820 antibiotic resistance gene family results). We demonstrate reproducible test performance and 100% gene specificity for 265 clinical bacterial organisms harboring a variety of antibiotic resistance genes. The Acuitas MDRO Gene Test is a sensitive, specific, and high-throughput test to screen colonized patients and diagnose infections for several antibiotic resistance genes directly from perianal swab samples, regardless of the bacterial species harboring the resistance genes. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  3. Preparation and testing of corrosion and spallation-resistant coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, John

    2012-09-30

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is designed to determine if plating APMT, a specific highly oxidation-resistant oxide dispersion-strengthened FeCrAl alloy made by Kanthal, onto nickel-based superalloy turbine parts is a viable method for substantially improving the lifetimes and maximum use temperatures of the parts. The method for joining the APMT plate to the superalloys is called evaporative metal bonding. It involves placing a thin foil of zinc (Zn) between the plate and the superalloy, clamping them together, and heating in an atmosphere-controlled furnace. Upon heating, the Zn melts and dissolves the oxide skins of the alloys at the bond line, allowing the two alloys to diffuse into each other. The Zn then diffuses through the alloys and evaporates from their surfaces. Laboratory testing has shown that the diffusion rate of Zn through the FeCrAl alloy is much faster than through the nickel superalloys. This means that the FeCrAl will serve as a sink for the Zn bonding alloy during the evaporative metal bonding process. Also, the testing has shown that the Zn diffusion mechanism is bulk diffusion, and not intergranular. This is a surprise. However, it means that quantification of the Zn diffusivities in these samples will be significantly simpler than would have been the case if grain boundary diffusion dominated. In addition to the laboratory testing, gas impinger and particulate samples are being collected from a combustor firing syngas and natural gas to determine what types of microcontaminants may reach a turbine firing syngas. The syngas is created in one of two different pilot-scale pressurized coal gasifiers. The initial analysis of the impinger solutions was for standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 29 determination of hazardous metals and did not include major element analysis. When syngas is fired, the amount of Mn in the combustor gas increases substantially. Halogens (Br2 and Cl2) and hydrogen

  4. Electrical resistivity testing for as-built concrete performance assessment of chloride penetration resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The electrical resistivity of concrete can provide information about its transport properties, which is relevant for durability performance. For example, resistivity is inversely proportional to chloride diffusion, at least within similar concrete compositions. A methodology is proposed for on-site

  5. Surface resistivity test evaluation as an indicator of the chloride permeability of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Many agencies have adopted the standard tests for electrical : indication of concretes ability to resist chloride ion penetration : (AASHTO T 277 and ASTM C1202), commonly known as the rapid : chloride permeability test (RCPT), in their specificat...

  6. 30 CFR 27.41 - Test to determine resistance to moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test to determine resistance to moisture. 27.41... determine resistance to moisture. Components, subassemblies, or assemblies, the normal functioning of which might be affected by moisture, shall be tested in atmospheres of high relative humidity (80 percent or...

  7. PREPARATION AND TESTING OF CORROSIONAND SPALLATION-RESISTANT COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, John

    2014-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is designed to determine if plating APMT®, a specific highly oxidation-resistant oxide dispersion-strengthened FeCrAl alloy made by Kanthal, onto nickel-based superalloy turbine parts is a viable method for substantially improving the lifetimes and maximum use temperatures of the parts. The method for joining the APMT plate to the superalloys is called evaporative metal bonding and involves placing a thin foil of zinc (Zn) between the plate and the superalloy, clamping them together, and heating in an atmosphere-controlled furnace. Upon heating, the Zn melts and dissolves the oxide skins of the alloys at the bond line, allowing the two alloys to diffuse into each other. The Zn then diffuses through the alloys and evaporates from their surfaces. Laboratory testing to determine the diffusion rate of Zn through the alloys has been completed. However, an analytical solution does not exist to model the diffusion of zinc through the alloys. For this reason, a finite difference algorithm using MATLAB was developed. It makes use of the hopscotch algorithm. The model allows the user to specify the dimensions of the metal parts, the Zn concentration at the bondline, the mesh size, time step, and Zn diffusivity. The experimentally measured values of diffusivity for Zn in APMT and Rene 80/CM 247LC are approximately 2.7 × 10-12 and 4 × 10-14 m2/s, respectively. While the qualitative behavior of the model appears correct, a comparison of the diffusion predictions with the experimental results from earlier in the project indicates that the expected Zn concentration is significantly higher than that measured experimentally. The difference depends on the assumed initial concentration, which is difficult to quantify exactly under experimental conditions for t = 0. In addition to the diffusion work, the coefficients of thermal expansions were determined for each of the alloys as a function of temperature. This information

  8. Testing and Modeling of Contact Problems in Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng

    As a part of the efforts towards a professional and reliable numerical tool for resistance welding engineers, this Ph.D. project is dedicated to refining the numerical models related to the interface behavior. An FE algorithm for the contact problems in resistance welding has been developed...... in this work, dealing with the coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal contact problems. The penalty method is used to impose the contact conditions in the electrical and thermal contact, as well as frictionless contact and sticking contact in the mechanical model. A node-segment contact element is the basis...

  9. A combination of electrical resistivity and cone penetration test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conductive unconsolidated clayey soil / peat with the resistivity values 0.9 – 10 Ωm cum CPT values 2 to 4 kg/cm2 experienced along noticeable depressed parts could have contributed to the cracking and differential settlement of the residential buildings in the study area. However, boring via percussion drilling should ...

  10. Testing of disease-resistance of pokeweed antiviral protein gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of pokeweed antiviral protein gene (PAP) into plants was shown to improve plant resistance to several viruses or fungi pathogens with no much negative effect on plant growth. The non-virulent defective PAP inhibits only the virus but does not interfere with the host. A non-virulent defective PAP gene ...

  11. Direct measurement of graphene contact resistivity to pre-deposited metal in buried contact test structure

    KAUST Repository

    Qaisi, Ramy M.

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate a buried contact based novel test structure for direct contact resistivity measurement of graphene-metal interfaces. We also observe excellent contact resistivity 1 μO-cm2 without any additional surface modification suggesting that the intrinsic Au-graphene contact is sufficient for achieving devices with low contact resistance. The chemical mechanical polishing less test structure and data described herein highlights an ideal methodology for systematic screening and engineering of graphene-metal contact resistivity to enable low power high speed carbon electronics. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. European recommendations for the clinical use of HIV drug resistance testing: 2011 update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Camacho, Ricardo J; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    is needed after treatment failure. The Panel recommends genotyping in most situations, using updated and clinically evaluated interpretation systems. It is mandatory that laboratories performing HIV resistance tests take part regularly in external quality assurance programs, and that they consider storing......The European HIV Drug Resistance Guidelines Panel, established to make recommendations to clinicians and virologists, felt that sufficient new information has become available to warrant an update of its recommendations, explained in both pocket guidelines and this full paper. The Panel makes...... the following recommendations concerning the indications for resistance testing: for HIV-1 (i) test earliest sample for protease and reverse transcriptase drug resistance in drug-naive patients with acute or chronic infection; (ii) test protease and reverse transcriptase drug resistance at virologic failure...

  13. A novel technique for detecting antibiotic-resistant typhoid from rapid diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Fhogartaigh, Caoimhe; Dance, David A B; Davong, Viengmon; Tann, Pisey; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Turner, Paul; Dittrich, Sabine; Newton, Paul N

    2015-05-01

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant typhoid is increasing. An antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic test (RDT) can rapidly diagnose typhoid from blood cultures. A simple, inexpensive molecular technique performed with DNA from positive RDTs accurately identified gyrA mutations consistent with phenotypic susceptibility testing results. Field diagnosis combined with centralized molecular resistance testing could improve typhoid management and surveillance in low-resource settings. Copyright © 2015, Nic Fhogartaigh et al.

  14. Simple test of synergy between ampicillin and vancomycin for resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1994-01-01

    The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin kills some but not all strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. We compared a simple test for synergy utilizing a commercially available microdilution susceptibility system with time-kill studies and determined acceptable breakpoints for this test for 20 strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin was tested for synergy by time-kill, broth macrodilution, and b...

  15. Debris filtering effectiveness and pressure drop tests of debris resistance-bottom end piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Moon Ki; Song, Chul Hwa; Chung, Heung June; Won, Soon Yeun; Cho, Young Ro; Kim, Bok Deuk

    1992-03-01

    In this final report, described are the test conditions and test procedures for the debris filtering effectiveness and pressure drop tests for developing the Debris Resistance-Bottom End Piece (DR-BEP). And the test results are tabulated for later evaluation. (Author)

  16. Activated protein C resistance testing for factor V Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadauke, Stephan; Khor, Bernard; Van Cott, Elizabeth M

    2014-12-01

    Activated protein C resistance assays can detect factor V Leiden with high accuracy, depending on the method used. Factor Xa inhibitors such as rivaroxaban and direct thrombin inhibitors including dabigatran, argatroban, and bivalirudin can cause falsely normal results. Lupus anticoagulants can cause incorrect results in most current assays. Assays that include dilution into factor V-deficient plasma are needed to avoid interference from factor deficiencies or elevations, which can arise from a wide variety of conditions such as warfarin, liver dysfunction, or pregnancy. The pros and cons of the currently available assays are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Automated sequence analysis and editing software for HIV drug resistance testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struck, Daniel; Wallis, Carole L.; Denisov, Gennady; Lambert, Christine; Servais, Jean-Yves; Viana, Raquel V.; Letsoalo, Esrom; Bronze, Michelle; Aitken, Sue C.; Schuurman, Rob; Stevens, Wendy; Schmit, Jean Claude; Rinke de Wit, Tobias; Perez Bercoff, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Access to antiretroviral treatment in resource-limited-settings is inevitably paralleled by the emergence of HIV drug resistance. Monitoring treatment efficacy and HIV drugs resistance testing are therefore of increasing importance in resource-limited settings. Yet low-cost technologies

  18. From the lab - Testing Malaria-Resistant Mosquitoes | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Malaria-Resistant Mosquitoes Follow us Photo: AdobeStock Testing Malaria-Resistant Mosquitoes Malaria is a serious disease that affects 200 million ... is found in tropical areas of the world. Malaria kills thousands of people (more than 400,000 ...

  19. Genotypic resistance test in proviral DNA can identify resistance mutations never detected in historical genotypic test in patients with low level or undetectable HIV-RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccarelli, Mauro; Santoro, Maria Mercedes; Armenia, Daniele; Borghi, Vanni; Gennari, William; Gori, Caterina; Forbici, Federica; Bertoli, Ada; Fabeni, Lavinia; Giannetti, Alberto; Cicalini, Stefania; Bellagamba, Rita; Andreoni, Massimo; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Mussini, Cristina; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Perno, Carlo Federico; Antinori, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Beyond the detection of resistant HIV strains found in plasma samples, archival HIV-DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) might represent a reservoir of additional resistance. To characterize the HIV-1 resistance in PBMCs from patients with suppressed or low-level viremia (50-1000 copies/mL) and evaluate its added value compared to the resistance detected in previous plasma genotypic resistance tests (GRTs). HIV-1 infected patients selected for treatment change despite low/undetectable viremia were tested. Number and type of primary resistance mutations (PRMs) detected in PBMCs were compared to those detected in previous plasma GRTs. Logistic regression assessed factors associated with presence of at least one PRM in PBMCs. 468 patients with a PBMC GRT were analyzed; 149 of them had at least 2 plasma GRTs performed before PBMC genotyping. 42.3% of patients showed at least one PRM in PBMCs. The highest proportion of PRMs in PBMCs was observed for NRTI class (30.6%), followed by NNRTI (22.2%), PI (14.1%) and INI (4.9%). In 20.1% of patients, PRMs were detected only in PBMCs and not in any of the plasma GRT previously performed. By using multivariable analysis, a higher number of previous regimens, injecting drug-use route and a lower nadir CD4 were associated with significantly higher risk of detecting PRMs in PBMCs. Our findings support the usage of PBMC GRT in addition to the current recommended plasma RNA test, especially when therapeutic and/or resistance information is not available. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    carbohydrates. Methane breath tests may supplement the information gained from hydrogen measurements, but further evaluations are needed. The hydrogen breath technique is rapid, simple and non-invasive as well as non-radioactive. It may be carried out in a large number of intact individuals under physiological...... circumstances, and it may be used for studies in children and for field studies. Compared to classical tolerance tests the hydrogen breath test is more sensitive. It is concluded that the hydrogen breath test is a useful tool for investigations of dietary carbohydrates....

  1. Radiation resistance testing of high-density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Adams, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical tests following gamma inrradiation and creep tests during irradiation have been conducted on high-density polyethylene (HDPE) to assess the adequacy of this material for use in high-integrity containers (HICs). These tests were motivated by experience in nuclear power plants in which polyethylene electrical insulation detoriorated more rapidly than expected due to radiation-induced oxidation. This suggested that HDPE HICs used for radwaste disposal might degrade more rapidly than would be expected in the absence of the radiation field. Two types of HDPE, a highly cross-linked rotationally molded material and a non-cross-linked blow molded material, were used in these tests. Gamma-ray irradiations were performed at several dose rates in environments of air, Barnwell and Hanford backfill soils, and ion-exchange resins. The results of tensile and bend testing on these materials following irradiation will be presented along with preliminary results on creep during irradiation

  2. The role of drug susceptibility testing in controlling drug resistant tuberculosis: Challenges and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Hoffner

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Reliable and timely detection of drug-resistant TB is needed, which is best achieved with molecular assays. In this author's opinion, rapid detection of resistance to isoniazid should be included with rifampicin resistance examination. In MDR, timely detection of the XDR defining agents and PZA is urgently needed. Development and validation of such tests should be a priority, as well as establishing QMS for the implementation and routine use of molecular rapid diagnostics. Each country should develop national diagnostic algorithms for how, when and where rapid molecular assays should be used for early detection of drug-resistant TB.

  3. KSC lubricant testing program. [lubrication characteristics and corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, B. J.; Bryan, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    A program was conducted to evaluate the performance of various lubricants in use and considered for use at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The overall objectives of the program were to: (1) determine the lubrication characteristics and relative corrosion resistance of lubricants in use and proposed for use at KSC; (2) identify materials which may be equivalent to or better than KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC greases; and (3) identify or develop an improved lubricating oil suitable for use in liquid oxygen (LOX) pumps at KSC. It was concluded that: (1) earth gel thickened greases are very poor corrosion preventive materials in the KSC environment; (2) Halocarbon 25-5S and Braycote 656 were suitable substiutes for KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC respectively; and (3) none of the oils evaluated possessed the necessary inertness, lubricity, and corrosion prevention characteristics for the KSC LOX pumping systems in their present configuration.

  4. Single-shell tank riser resistance to ground test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiewert, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    This Test Procedure provides the general directions for conducting Single-Shell Tank Riser to Earth Measurements which will be used by engineering as a step towards providing closure for the Lightning Hazard Issue

  5. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 178 - Thermal Resistance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must be 1/16 inch, ceramic packed, metal sheathed, type K (Chromel-Alumel), grounded junction with a... regarding the behavior of the test specimen during exposure, such as smoke production, delamination, resin...

  6. Polymyxins: Antibacterial Activity, Susceptibility Testing, and Resistance Mechanisms Encoded by Plasmids or Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirel, Laurent; Jayol, Aurélie; Nordmann, Patrice

    2017-04-01

    SUMMARYPolymyxins are well-established antibiotics that have recently regained significant interest as a consequence of the increasing incidence of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Colistin and polymyxin B are being seriously reconsidered as last-resort antibiotics in many areas where multidrug resistance is observed in clinical medicine. In parallel, the heavy use of polymyxins in veterinary medicine is currently being reconsidered due to increased reports of polymyxin-resistant bacteria. Susceptibility testing is challenging with polymyxins, and currently available techniques are presented here. Genotypic and phenotypic methods that provide relevant information for diagnostic laboratories are presented. This review also presents recent works in relation to recently identified mechanisms of polymyxin resistance, including chromosomally encoded resistance traits as well as the recently identified plasmid-encoded polymyxin resistance determinant MCR-1. Epidemiological features summarizing the current knowledge in that field are presented. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Assembly and tests of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) for the CMS barrel detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Gabriella Pugliese, Bari

    2006-01-01

    The pictures 1-3 show some assembly steps of Resistive Plate Chambers in Bari and their tests with cosmic rays (4-6: moving RPC to the test towers; 7-8 cosmic tests). Pictures 9-10 show assembly and tests in Sofia, 11 shows RPC coupling with drift tubes at ISR and 12-13 tests at the CMS site at CERN.

  8. Optimal Resistive Forces for Maximizing the Reliability of Leg Muscles' Capacities Tested on a Cycle Ergometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Torrejón, Alejandro; Morales-Artacho, Antonio J; Pérez-Castilla, Alejandro; Jaric, Slobodan

    2018-02-01

    This study determined the optimal resistive forces for testing muscle capacities through the standard cycle ergometer test (1 resistive force applied) and a recently developed 2-point method (2 resistive forces used for force-velocity modelling). Twenty-six men were tested twice on maximal sprints performed on a leg cycle ergometer against 5 flywheel resistive forces (R1-R5). The reliability of the cadence and maximum power measured against the 5 individual resistive forces, as well as the reliability of the force-velocity relationship parameters obtained from the selected 2-point methods (R1-R2, R1-R3, R1-R4, and R1-R5), were compared. The reliability of outcomes obtained from individual resistive forces was high except for R5. As a consequence, the combination of R1 (≈175 rpm) and R4 (≈110 rpm) provided the most reliable 2-point method (CV: 1.46%-4.04%; ICC: 0.89-0.96). Although the reliability of power capacity was similar for the R1-R4 2-point method (CV: 3.18%; ICC: 0.96) and the standard test (CV: 3.31%; ICC: 0.95), the 2-point method should be recommended because it also reveals maximum force and velocity capacities. Finally, we conclude that the 2-point method in cycling should be based on 2 distant resistive forces, but avoiding cadences below 110 rpm.

  9. ESBL Detection: Comparison of a Commercially Available Chromogenic Test for Third Generation Cephalosporine Resistance and Automated Susceptibility Testing in Enterobactericeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ramadan El-Jade

    Full Text Available Rapid detection and reporting of third generation cephalosporine resistance (3GC-R and of extended spectrum betalactamases in Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E is a diagnostic and therapeutic priority to avoid inefficacy of the initial antibiotic regimen. In this study we evaluated a commercially available chromogenic screen for 3GC-R as a predictive and/or confirmatory test for ESBL and AmpC activity in clinical and veterinary Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The test was highly reliable in the prediction of cefotaxime and cefpodoxime resistance, but there was no correlation with ceftazidime and piperacillin/tazobactam minimal inhibitory concentrations. All human and porcine ESBL-E tested were detected with exception of one genetically positive but phenotypically negative isolate. By contrast, AmpC detection rates lay below 30%. Notably, exclusion of piperacillin/tazobactam resistant, 3GC susceptible K1+ Klebsiella isolates increased the sensitivity and specificity of the test for ESBL detection. Our data further imply that in regions with low prevalence of AmpC and K1 positive E. coli strains chromogenic testing for 3GC-R can substitute for more time consuming ESBL confirmative testing in E. coli isolates tested positive by Phoenix or VITEK2 ESBL screen. We, therefore, suggest a diagnostic algorithm that distinguishes 3GC-R screening from primary culture and species-dependent confirmatory ESBL testing by βLACTATM and discuss the implications of MIC distribution results on the choice of antibiotic regimen.

  10. Testing of thermal fatigue resistance of tools and rolls for hot working

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terčelj, Milan; Fazarinc, Matevž; Kugler, Goran

    2017-09-01

    In the present contribution two tests for thermal fatigue testing, which have been developed in our group, are presented. First test has provided internal cooling system of sample, while second has external cooling. For both tests heating and cooling of samples are computer guided that enables very reliable results of testing. The first test is more appropriate for testing the base material, i.e. roll cast irons, roll steels, tool steels. The second test is more appropriate for experiments that are aimed for selection of appropriate tool surface treatment, i.e. laser cladding, nitriding, coating, etc., and to compare and to achieve improved resistance against thermal fatigue of produced surface layers.

  11. European recommendations for the clinical use of HIV drug resistance testing: 2011 update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Camacho, Ricardo J; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    is needed after treatment failure. The Panel recommends genotyping in most situations, using updated and clinically evaluated interpretation systems. It is mandatory that laboratories performing HIV resistance tests take part regularly in external quality assurance programs, and that they consider storing...... samples in situations where resistance testing cannot be performed as recommended. Similarly, it is necessary that HIV clinicians and virologists take part in continuous education and discuss problematic clinical cases. Indeed, resistance test results should be used in the context of all other clinically......The European HIV Drug Resistance Guidelines Panel, established to make recommendations to clinicians and virologists, felt that sufficient new information has become available to warrant an update of its recommendations, explained in both pocket guidelines and this full paper. The Panel makes...

  12. Rapid Aminoglycoside NP Test for Rapid Detection of Multiple Aminoglycoside Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Patrice; Jayol, Aurélie; Dobias, Jan; Poirel, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    The rapid aminoglycoside NP (Nordmann/Poirel) test was developed to rapidly identify multiple aminoglycoside (AG) resistance in Enterobacteriaceae It is based on the detection of the glucose metabolism related to enterobacterial growth in the presence of a defined concentration of amikacin plus gentamicin. Formation of acid metabolites was evidenced by a color change (orange to yellow) of the red phenol pH indicator. The rapid aminoglycoside NP test was evaluated by using bacterial colonies of 18 AG-resistant isolates producing 16S rRNA methylases, 20 AG-resistant isolates expressing AG-modifying enzymes (acetyl-, adenyl-, and phosphotransferases), and 10 isolates susceptible to AG. Its sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 97%, respectively, compared to the broth dilution method, which was taken as the gold standard for determining aminoglycoside resistance. The test is inexpensive, rapid (<2 h), and implementable worldwide. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Standard Test Method for Environmental Resistance of Aerospace Transparencies

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers determination of the effects of exposure to thermal shock, condensing humidity, and simulated weather on aerospace transparent enclosures. 1.2 This test method is not recommended for quality control nor is it intended to provide a correlation to actual service life. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3.1 Exceptions—Certain inch-pound units are furnished in parentheses (not mandatory) and certain temperatures in Fahrenheit associated with other standards are also furnished. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Development of a Midscale Test for Flame Resistant Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT...Decisions Made During Test Form Development ................................................................ 5 2.3 Use of Copper Slug Sensors from...of precision in controlling heat flux exposure times and different methods of calculating burn injury predictions. Variations in sensor type and

  15. Frequency of powdery mildew resistances in winter barley cultivars tested in domestic variety trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonín Dreiseitl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006–2010, resistance to the powdery mildew pathogen was studied in 225 winter barley cultivars of which 86 two-rowed and 139 six-rowed. The examined set included 59 cultivars tested in the official variety trials and 166 cultivars in variety trials conducted by domestic breeding stations in that period. Thirteen known resistances were identified (Ar, Bw, Dr2, Ha, HH, IM9, La, Ly, Ra, Ru, Sp, St and We. No resistance was found in one cultivar only. The most frequent resistance was Ra detected in 114 cultivars (= 50.7%. The resistance Bw was found in 54 cultivars (24.0%. Resistances typical for spring barley cultivars (Ly, Sp, Ru and We were also frequent (4.0% to 23.6%. Unknown resistances were found in 20 cultivars, in nine of which they were effective to all used pathotypes of the pathogen. Thirty-six cultivars (16.0% exhibited heterogeneity in the examined trait, i.e. they were mostly composed of lines with different resistances. Research on cultivars possessing unknown resistances continues.

  16. Improving the proliferation resistance of research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Elimination, or substantial reduction, of the trade in unirradiated highly-enriched fuel elements for research and test reactors would significantly reduce the proliferation risk associated with the current potential for diversion of these materials. To this end, it is the long-term goal of U.S. policy to fuel all new and existing research and test reactors with uranium of less-than-20% enrichment (but substantially greater than natural) excepting, perhaps, only a small number of high-power, high-performance, reactors. The U.S. development program for enrichment reduction in research and test reactor designs currently using 90-93% enriched uranium is based on the practical criterion that enrichment reduction should not cause significant flux performance (flux per unit power) or burnup performance degradation relative to the unmodified reactor design. To first order, this implies the requirement that the 235 U loading in the reduced-enrichment fuel elements be the same as the 235 U loading in the 90-93% enriched fuel elements. This can be accomplished by substitution of higher uranium density fuel technology for currently-used fuel technology in the fuel meat volume of the current fuel element design and/or by increasing the usable fuel meat volume. For research and test reactors of power greater than 5-10 megawatts, fuel technology does not currently exist that would permit enrichment reductions to below 20% utilizing this criterion. A program is now beginning in the U.S. to develop the necessary fuel technology. Currently-proven fuel technology is capable, however, of accommodating enrichment reductions to the 30-45% range (from 90-93%) for many reactors in the 5-50MW range. Accordingly the U.S. is proposing to convert existing reactors (and new designs) in the 5-50MW range from the use of highly-enriched fuel to the use of 30-45% enriched fuel, and reactors of less that about 5MW to less-than-20% enrichment, wherever this can be done without significant

  17. Detection of genotypic clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori by string tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jeng-Yih; Wang, Sophie S W; Lee, Yi-Chern; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Graham, David Y; Jan, Chang-Ming; Wang, Wen-Ming; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2014-03-28

    To evaluate the utility of the string test to detect genotypic clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Patients undergoing endoscopic examinations were enrolled in the present study. String tests were done on the next day of endoscopy. Segments of 23S rRNA were amplified from DNA obtained from string tests. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was accomplished by restriction enzymes BbsI and BsaI recognizing the mutation site A to G at 2143 or at 2142 of 23S rRNA domain V, respectively. One hundred and thirty-four patients with H. pylori infection underwent string tests. To compare phenotypic resistance, 43 isolates were successfully cultured in 79 patients in whom 23S rRNA was successfully amplified. Of five patients with clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori, 23S rRNA of H. pylori isolates from four patients could be digested by BsaI. In 38 susceptible isolates, 23S rRNA of H. pylori isolates from 36 patients could not be digested by either BsaI or BbsI. The sensitivity and specificity of the string test to detect genotypic clarithromycin resistance were 66.7% and 97.3%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 80% and 94.7%, respectively. String test with molecular analysis is a less invasive method to detect genotypic resistance before treatment. Further large-scale investigations are necessary to confirm our results.

  18. Genotypic responses and diallel analysis for an early resistance test to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaño Fernando

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of sunflower genotypic performance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infections is important for understanding its usefulness as source of resistance. In the field, artificial and natural resistance tests provide important information that can be used in the selection of the best materials, however the procedures for resistance tests are usually both expensive and laborious. This work describes the performance of sunflower genotypes of broad genetic base at an early stage of plant development using a resistance test carried out under controlled conditions in the greenhouse. Statistical analysis detected highly significant genotypic responses and the combined abilities effects among the evaluated populations and their offspring, obtained by a diallel crossing system method 2 for dead seedlings (% at 25 days after S. sclerotiorum infection on the basal stem. The methodology allowed superior parents to be detected and crosses to be furthered in the selection for S. sclerotiorum resistance. The usefulness of the evaluated genetic materials and the early resistance test in sunflower breeding plans is discussed.

  19. In vitro Resistance Testing of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Tannerella forsythia to Triclosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Deema; Tanner, Anne

    2016-04-01

    To determine the sensitivity of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Tannerella forsythia to triclosan, and determine if these bacteria develop resistance to triclosan upon prolonged exposure. Susceptibility to triclosan was tested against three periodontal pathogens P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, and T. forsythia. Escherichia coli strains sensitive and resistant to triclosan were used as biological controls to confirm the efficacy of triclosan in the assays. Agar plates were prepared locally with vitamin K and hemin-supplemented medium. Porphyromonas gingivalis and P. intermedia did not grow on plates containing ≥ 2 μg/ml triclosan, while T. forsythia did not grow on ≥ 1.66 μg/ml. Colonies of P. intermedia resistant to triclosan developed after prolonged incubation at 2 μg/ml, but this resistance disappeared during subculture in the absence of triclosan. No significant resistance to triclosan was detected for these species. Dental products containing triclosan can be beneficial in controlling periodontal disease.

  20. Why testes are resistant to hydatidosis: Is blood-testis-barrier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was demonstrable hydatid cyst (protoscoleces and germinative layer) in testes of five rabbits from Group A, but in one rabbit, both testes were normal. In Group B, three out of four rabbits developed peritoneal hydatidosis. The mechanism of testicular resistance to echinococcosis could be due to blood-testis barrier ...

  1. Application of laboratory fungal resistance tests to solid wood and wood-plastic composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Merrill Clemons; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2003-01-01

    The fungal resistance of high density polyethylene filled with 50% wood flour was investigated using laboratory soil block tests. Modifications to standard test methods were made to increase initial moisture content, increase exposure surface area, and track moisture content, mechanical properties, and weight loss over the exposure period. Mechanical properties...

  2. Test methodology for elemental sulfur resistant advanced materials for oil and gas field equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, G. [Verein Deutscher Eisenhuettenleute, Duesseldorf (Germany); Bruckhoff, W. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Koehler, M. [Krupp-VDM AG, Werdohl (Germany); Schlerkmann, H. [Mannesmann Forschungsinstitut, Duisburg (Germany); Schmitt, G. [Iserlohn Polytechnic (Germany). Lab. for Corrosion Protection

    1995-10-01

    The great variety of methodologies for testing the performance of advanced materials for resistance to elemental sulfur in oil and gas industry prompted the Technical Committee for Corrosion of the German Iron and Steel Institute (VDEh) to define recommended test procedures. These procedures have already found wide acceptance in the German materials and oil and gas industry.

  3. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist..., hood, or helmet of a dust, fume, or mist respirator mounted on a test fixture with air flowing at a...

  4. Antibiotic Resistant Pattern of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Based on Molecular Tests in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannarath, Sengdao; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Rasachak, Bouachanh; Mairiang, Pisaln; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Mahachai, Varocha

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of standard treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is declining because of antibiotic resistance. Clarithromycin resistance is also increasing in many Asian countries. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of H. pylori infection and clinical association in Laos. A total of 329 Lao dyspeptic patients who underwent gastroscopy at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos during December 2010-March 2012 were enrolled in this study. During gastroscopy, 4 biopsies were collected (2 each from the antrum and body) for CLO-test and histopathology. Only the positive CLO-test gastric tissues was stored at -80° in a freezer until DNA was extracted and a GenoType®HelicoDR test was conducted for detecting mutations in the rrl gene encoding 23S rRNA (clarithromycin resistance) and mutations in gyrA gene (fluoroquinolone resistance) . Of the total, 119 Lao patients (36.2%) were infected with H. pylori including 59 males (49.6%) and 60 females (50.4%) with a mean age of 46 years. Clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance of H. pylori infection was demonstrated in 15 (12.6%) and 16 strains (13.4%) respectively. In clarithromycin resistance, the number of patients who had education above primary school and BMI≥ 25 kg/m2 were significantly higher than those who had education below primary school and BMILao was significantly higher than those of non- lowland (highland and midland) Lao ethnic groups (16.7% vs 0%, P-value= 0.039). H. pylori infections remain common in Laos. Clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance with H. pylori infection are growing problems. Education above primary school and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 might be predictors for clarithromycin resistance and lowland Lao ethnicity might be predictors for fluoroquinolone resistance with H. pylori infection in Laos.

  5. Successful use of broth microdilution in susceptibility tests for methicillin-resistant (heteroresistant) staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornsberry, C; McDougal, L K

    1983-01-01

    We studied the broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing procedure to see whether it could be made reliable for determining resistance of staphylococci to methicillin, oxacillin, nafcillin, and cephalothin. With 45 selected strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 12 selected strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis we found that the addition of 2% NaCl to cation-supplemented Mueller-Hinton broth permitted us to discriminate reliably between resistant and susceptible organisms. A screening test in which resistant staphylococci grew on agar containing 4% NaCl and methicillin (10 micrograms/ml), oxacillin (6 micrograms/ml), or nafcillin (6 micrograms/ml) incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h (additional 24 h if no growth) was also reliable. In vitro cephalothin resistance occurred in heteroresistant S. aureus but usually did not occur in heteroresistant S. epidermidis. PMID:6643661

  6. Application of column tests and electrical resistivity methods for leachate transport monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wychowaniak Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of the human civilization leads to the pollution of environment. One of the contamination which are a real threat to soil and groundwater are leachates from landfills. In this paper the solute transport through soil was considered. For this purpose, the laboratory column tests of chlorides tracer and leachates transport on two soil samples have been carried out. Furthermore, the electrical resistivity method was applied as auxiliary tool to follow the movements of solute through the soil column what allowed to compare between the results obtained with column test method and electrical resistivity measurements. Breakthrough curves obtained by conductivity and resistivity methods represents similar trends which leads to the conclusion about the suitability of electrical resistivity methods for contamination transport monitoring in soil-water systems.

  7. Exploring the Benefits of Molecular Testing for Gonorrhoea Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance in Remote Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben B Hui

    Full Text Available Surveillance for gonorrhoea antimicrobial resistance (AMR is compromised by a move away from culture-based testing in favour of more convenient nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT tests. We assessed the potential benefit of a molecular resistance test in terms of the timeliness of detection of gonorrhoea AMR.An individual-based mathematical model was developed to describe the transmission of gonorrhoea in a remote Indigenous population in Australia. We estimated the impact of the molecular test on the time delay between first importation and the first confirmation that the prevalence of gonorrhoea AMR (resistance proportion has breached the WHO-recommended 5% threshold (when a change in antibiotic should occur. In the remote setting evaluated in this study, the model predicts that when culture is the only available means of testing for AMR, the breach will only be detected when the actual prevalence of AMR in the population has already reached 8 - 18%, with an associated delay of ~43 - 69 months between first importation and detection. With the addition of a molecular resistance test, the number of samples for which AMR can be determined increases facilitating earlier detection at a lower resistance proportion. For the best case scenario, where AMR can be determined for all diagnostic samples, the alert would be triggered at least 8 months earlier than using culture alone and the resistance proportion will have only slightly exceeded the 5% notification threshold.Molecular tests have the potential to provide more timely warning of the emergence of gonorrhoea AMR. This in turn will facilitate earlier treatment switching and more targeted treatment, which has the potential to reduce the population impact of gonorrhoea AMR.

  8. Field Test Evaluation of Effect on Cone Resistance Caused by Change in Penetration Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents how a change in cone penetration rate affects the measured cone resistance during cone penetration testing in silty soils. Regardless of soil, type the standard rate of penetration is 20 mm/s and it is generally accepted that undrained penetration occurs in clay while drained...... in the laboratory. A change in the measured cone resistance occurs by lowering the penetration rate. This is caused by the changes in drainage conditions. Compared to the normal penetration rate of 20 mm/s, this paper illustrates that lowering the penetration rate leads to an increase in the cone resistance from 1...

  9. An investigation of correlation factors linking footing resistance on sand with cone penetration test results

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin, Kenneth; Tolooiyan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Significant research effort has led to improvements in our ability to estimate the ultimate bearing resistance of footings in sand. These techniques often estimate the footing resistance at relatively large displacements, typically 10% of the footing width, qb0.1. Cone Penetration Test (CPT) design methods typically link qb0.1 and qc through a constant reduction factor, a. A range of a factors for shallow footings have been proposed, some methods suggest that a is constant and while ...

  10. Comparison of Resistance-Based Walking Cardiorespiratory Test to The Bruce Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Christopher P; Bamman, Marcas; Naidu, Avantika; Brown, David A

    2017-12-11

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is assessed through graded exercise tests that determine the maximum amount of sustained mechanical work that an individual can perform while also providing health and fitness related information. This manuscript describes a novel method to perform graded exercise tests that uses posteriorly directed resistive forces. The purpose of this investigation is to validate a novel resistance based test in comparison to a traditional speed and incline based test in a cohort of non-impaired individuals. Twenty non-impaired individuals, 8 males, 12 females, mean age 28.4± 9.6, range 20-54 years old. Participants performed two maximal exercise tests. The speed and incline based test used the Bruce protocol and increased treadmill incline and speed every three minutes. The resistance based test used a robotic device interfaced with the treadmill that provided specified horizontal resistive forces at the center of mass calculated to match each Bruce Protocol stage while individuals walked at 1.1 m/s. Participants obtained ∼3% higher maximum V˙O2 measure using the speed and incline based method (dependent t-test p=0.08). V˙O2 peaks between tests were strongly correlated (r=0.93, ptests. We found a significant linear relationship between mass-specific work rate and measured V˙O2 stage-by-stage for both tests, but no significant difference between each linear fit (p=0.84). These data suggest horizontal resistive forces while walking on a treadmill, can be used to increase aerobic effort in a way that closely simulates work rates of the Bruce Protocol.

  11. Evaluation of the Impact Resistance of Various Composite Sandwich Beams by Vibration Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Shahdin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact resistance of different types of composite sandwich beams is evaluated by studying vibration response changes (natural frequency and damping ratio. This experimental works will help aerospace structural engineer in assess structural integrity using classification of impact resistance of various composite sandwich beams (entangled carbon and glass fibers, honeycomb and foam cores. Low velocity impacts are done below the barely visible impact damage (BVID limit in order to detect damage by vibration testing that is hardly visible on the surface. Experimental tests are done using both burst random and sine dwell testing in order to have a better confidence level on the extracted modal parameters. Results show that the entangled sandwich beams have a better resistance against impact as compared to classical core materials.

  12. Standard test method for measurement of soil resistivity using the two-electrode soil box method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the equipment and a procedure for the measurement of soil resistivity, for samples removed from the ground, for use in the control of corrosion of buried structures. 1.2 Procedures allow for this test method to be used n the field or in the laboratory. 1.3 The test method procedures are for the resistivity measurement of soil samples in the saturated condition and in the as-received condition. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. Soil resistivity values are reported in ohm-centimeter. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. Usefulness of rapid urease test samples for molecular analysis of clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, María R; Bucci, Pamela; Giani, Rita N; Giusti, Antonela; Tedeschi, Fabian A; Salvatierra, Emiliano; Barbaglia, Yanina; Jimenez, Félix; Zalazar, Fabian E

    2018-03-27

    Helicobacter pylori is a gastric pathogen that is widely recognized as a causative agent of gastric disease. Its eradication is variable, mainly due to increased resistance to clarithromycin. Our objective was: to evaluate (i) if the biopsy specimen used for the rapid urease test is a useful sample to detect resistance to clarithromycin by PCR-RFLP and (ii) the distribution of A2142G and A2143G point mutations in the 23S rRNA gene, in relation to virulence factors in our region. Gastric specimens were collected from adult dyspeptic patients (n=141) and H. pylori was investigated by the rapid urease test, histopathological analysis and PCR for the hsp60 gene. Clarithromycin resistance was detected by PCR-RFLP in 62 H. pylori (+) paired biopsy specimens submitted to molecular analysis and the rapid urease test. H. pylori virulence factors were analyzed by multiplex PCR using specific primers for the cagA, vacA and babA2 genes. Thirteen out of 62 strains (20.9%) were resistant to clarithromycin: 6/13 (46.2%) harbored the A2143G mutation whereas 7/13 (53.8%) carried the A2142G point mutation. vacA m1s1 was the most frequent genotype among the resistant strains. In conclusion, the biopsy specimens used for the rapid urease test were suitable samples for clarithromycin resistance detection in patients infected with H. pylori, which became especially useful in cases where the number or size of the biopsies is limited. In addition, this is the first report of a molecular analysis for clarithromycin resistance performed directly from gastric biopsies in our region. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Irradiation test plan of oxidation-resistant graphite in WWR-K Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Junya; Shibata, Taiju; Sakaba, Nariaki; Osaki, Hirotaka; Kato, Hideki; Fujitsuka, Kunihiro; Muto, Takenori; Gizatulin, Shamil; Shaimerdenov, Asset; Dyussambayev, Daulet; Chakrov, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Graphite materials are used for the in-core components of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) which is a graphite-moderated and helium gas-cooled reactor. In the case of air ingress accident in HTGR, SiO 2 protective layer is formed on the surface of SiC layer in TRISO CFP and oxidation of SiC does not proceed and fission products are retained inside the fuel particle. A new safety concept for the HTGR, called Naturally Safe HTGR, has been recently proposed. To enhance the safety of Naturally Safe HTGR ultimately, it is expected that oxidation-resistant graphite is used for graphite components to prevent the TRISO CFPs and fuel compacts from failure. SiC coating is one of candidate methods for oxidation-resistant graphite. JAEA and four graphite companies launched R&Ds to develop the oxidation-resistant graphite and the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) partner project with JAEA and INP was launched to investigate the irradiation effects on the oxidation-resistant graphite. To determine grades of the oxidation-resistant graphite which will be adopted as irradiation test, a preliminary oxidation test was carried out. This paper described the results of the preliminary oxidation test, the plan of out-of-pile test, irradiation test and post-irradiation test (PIE) of the oxidation-resistant graphite. The results of the preliminary oxidation test showed that the integrity of the oxidation resistant graphite was confirmed and that all of grades used in the preliminary test can be adopted as the irradiation test. Target irradiation temperature was determined to be 1473 (K) and neutron fluence was determined to be from 0.54 × 10 25 through 1.4 × 10 25 (/m 2 , E>0.18MeV). Weight change, oxidation rate, activation energy, surface condition, etc. will be evaluated in out-of-pile test and weight change, irradiation effect on oxidation rate and activation energy, surface condition, etc. will be evaluated in PIE. (author)

  15. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  16. HIV genotype resistance testing in antiretroviral (ART) exposed Indian children--a need of the hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ira; Parikh, Shefali

    2013-04-01

    Development of drug resistance in HIV infected children with treatment failure is a major impediment to selection of appropriate therapy. HIV genotype resistance assays predict drug resistance on the basis of mutations in the viral genome. However, their clinical utility, especially in a resource limited setting is still a subject of debate. The authors report two cases in which both the children suffered from treatment failure of various antiretroviral therapy regimes. In both the cases, Genotype Resistance Testing (GRT) prompted a radical change from proposed failure therapy as per existing guidelines. GRT was specifically important for the selection of a new dual Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) component of failure regimen by identifying TAMS and M184V mutations in the HIV genome. These case reports highlight the importance of GRT in children failing multiple antiretroviral regimes; and emphasizes the need to recognize situations where GRT is absolutely essential to guide appropriate therapy, even in a resource limited setting.

  17. Skid resistance and surface roughness testing of historic stone surfaces: advantages and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Ákos

    2013-04-01

    Skid resistance tests are mostly applied for testing road surfaces and almost never applied for testing stones at cultural heritage sites. The present study focuses on the possibilities of using these techniques in assessing the surface roughness of paving stones at a historic site. Two different methods were used in a comparative way to evaluate the surface properties of various types of stones ranging from travertine to non-porous limestone and granite. The applied techniques included the use of SRT pendulum (Skid Resistance Tester) providing USRV values and a mobile equipment to analyze the surface properties (Floor Slide Control) by surface profiling and providing angle of friction. The main aims of tests were to understand the wearing of stone materials due to intense pedestrian use and to detect surface changes/surface roughness and slip resistance within few year periods. The measured loss in surface slip resistance (i.e. USRV values) was in the order of 20% for granites, while most limestones lost at least 40% in terms of USRV values. An opposite trend was detected for a porous travertine type, where the surface became rougher after years of use. The limitations of these techniques are also addressed in the paper. The tests have shown that the introduction of the use of these equipments in heritage studies provide useful information on the longevity of historic stone pavements that are open for public use.

  18. An evaluation of propane as a fuel for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, W. D.; Twilley, W. H.

    1997-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to measure and compare the thermal exposure to a fire-resistant boom from liquid hydrocarbon fuel and propane fires. The objective was to test the potential of propane fueled fires as a fire source for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms.Thermal exposure from propane fires have been measured with and without waves. Results indicated that although propane diffusion flames on water look like liquid hydrocarbon fuel flames and produce very little smoke, the heat flux at the boom location from propane fires is about 60 per cent of that from liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. Despite the attractive features in terms of ease of application, control and smoke emissions, it was concluded that the low heat flux would preclude the application of propane as a fuel for evaluating fire resistant containment booms. 2 refs., 7 figs

  19. Finite element analysis and fracture resistance testing of a new intraradicular post

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eron Toshio Colauto Yamamoto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to evaluate a prefabricated intraradicular threaded pure titanium post, designed and developed at the São José dos Campos School of Dentistry - UNESP, Brazil. This new post was designed to minimize stresses observed with prefabricated post systems and to improve cost-benefits. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fracture resistance testing of the post/core/root complex, fracture analysis by microscopy and stress analysis by the finite element method were used for post evaluation. The following four prefabricated metal post systems were analyzed: group 1, experimental post; group 2, modification of the experimental post; group 3, Flexi Post, and group 4, Para Post. For the analysis of fracture resistance, 40 bovine teeth were randomly assigned to the four groups (n=10 and used for the fabrication of test specimens simulating the situation in the mouth. The test specimens were subjected to compressive strength testing until fracture in an EMIC universal testing machine. After fracture of the test specimens, their roots were sectioned and analyzed by microscopy. For the finite element method, specimens of the fracture resistance test were simulated by computer modeling to determine the stress distribution pattern in the post systems studied. RESULTS: The fracture test presented the following averages and standard deviation: G1 (45.63±8.77, G2 (49.98±7.08, G3 (43.84±5.52, G4 (47.61±7.23. Stress was homogenously distributed along the body of the intraradicular post in group 1, whereas high stress concentrations in certain regions were observed in the other groups. These stress concentrations in the body of the post induced the same stress concentration in root dentin. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental post (original and modified versions presented similar fracture resistance and better results in the stress analysis when compared with the commercial post systems tested (08/2008-PA/CEP.

  20. Development of a test method for determining the cracking susceptibility of resistance spot welded high strength steel sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    In this study a test method for determining the cracking susceptibility of resistance spot welded high strength steel sheets was investigated. The development of a suitable test procedure is based on the External-Loaded Hot Crack Test (PVC-Test). The test modification for resistance spot welding contains a constant tensile force load. The test method for determining the cracking susceptibility was experimentally verified for a high strength steel, a transformation induced plasticity steel (TR...

  1. Assessment of three cuban sites for testing resistance to sugarcane mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaquelin Puchades

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane mosaic disease is amongst the world’s most important diseases affecting sugarcane worldwide. The objective was to assess the environmental conditions of the sites where the test for SCMV resistance is done. Multi-environment trial Data were analyzed using a Principal Components Analysis Eighteen sugarcane genotypes s were evaluated from the main testing sites in Cuba (Jovellanos, Florida, Mayarí . The information of the climatic conditions was recorded at local weather stations. The assessment of the sites was done by analyzing the main components. Results showed that the testing sites were different from one another, and proved that the environment strongly influences on the mosaic symptom manifestation. PCA was an excellent procedure to assess the testing sites .for SCMV resistance.

  2. Simple test of synergy between ampicillin and vancomycin for resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1994-11-01

    The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin kills some but not all strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. We compared a simple test for synergy utilizing a commercially available microdilution susceptibility system with time-kill studies and determined acceptable breakpoints for this test for 20 strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin was tested for synergy by time-kill, broth macrodilution, and broth microdilution procedures. Repeat testing of isolates by macro- and microdilution synergy methods yielded MICs that were within one twofold dilution of each other for both intra- and intertest comparisons. Synergy was always detected by time-kill studies when the MIC of ampicillin in the combination synergy screen was 16 micrograms/ml in the combination microdilution synergy screen. The determination of the synergy by the broth microdilution procedure appears to be simple, convenient, and accurate.

  3. Detection of antibiotic resistance is essential for gonorrhoea point-of-care testing: a mathematical modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerhuth, Stephanie M; Low, Nicola; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Althaus, Christian L

    2017-07-26

    Antibiotic resistance is threatening to make gonorrhoea untreatable. Point-of-care (POC) tests that detect resistance promise individually tailored treatment, but might lead to more treatment and higher levels of resistance. We investigate the impact of POC tests on antibiotic-resistant gonorrhoea. We used data about the prevalence and incidence of gonorrhoea in men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual men and women (HMW) to calibrate a mathematical gonorrhoea transmission model. With this model, we simulated four clinical pathways for the diagnosis and treatment of gonorrhoea: POC test with (POC+R) and without (POC-R) resistance detection, culture and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). We calculated the proportion of resistant infections and cases averted after 5 years, and compared how fast resistant infections spread in the populations. The proportion of resistant infections after 30 years is lowest for POC+R (median MSM: 0.18%, HMW: 0.12%), and increases for culture (MSM: 1.19%, HMW: 0.13%), NAAT (MSM: 100%, HMW: 99.27%), and POC-R (MSM: 100%, HMW: 99.73%). Per 100 000 persons, NAAT leads to 36 366 (median MSM) and 1228 (median HMW) observed cases after 5 years. Compared with NAAT, POC+R averts more cases after 5 years (median MSM: 3353, HMW: 118). POC tests that detect resistance with intermediate sensitivity slow down resistance spread more than NAAT. POC tests with very high sensitivity for the detection of resistance are needed to slow down resistance spread more than by using culture. POC with high sensitivity to detect antibiotic resistance can keep gonorrhoea treatable longer than culture or NAAT. POC tests without reliable resistance detection should not be introduced because they can accelerate the spread of antibiotic-resistant gonorrhoea.

  4. Wildfire ignition resistant home design(WIRHD) program: Full-scale testing and demonstration final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quarles, Stephen, L.; Sindelar, Melissa

    2011-12-13

    The primary goal of the Wildfire ignition resistant home design(WIRHD) program was to develop a home evaluation tool that could assess the ignition potential of a structure subjected to wildfire exposures. This report describes the tests that were conducted, summarizes the results, and discusses the implications of these results with regard to the vulnerabilities to homes and buildings.

  5. Intestinal transport and fermentation of resistant starch evaluated by the hydrogen breath test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    To study fermentability of different samples of resistant starch (RS), compared to one another and to lactulose, and to study the effect on gastric emptying of addition of RS to test meal. Finally to study if adaptation to RS results in a measurable change in fermentation pattern, (H2/CH4...

  6. Effects of Resistance Training on the Sit-and-Reach Test in Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Santarem Jose Maria; Filho, Wilson Jacob; Marucci, Maria de Fatima Nunes

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week resistance training program on older women's flexibility (evaluated through the sit- and-reach test performed before and after the training program). Participants were compared to inactive older women. The training program resulted in significant increases in participants' flexibility, suggesting that weight…

  7. Integration of HIV testing in tuberculosis drug resistance surveillance in Kazakhstan and Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, E.; van den Hof, S.; Tursynbayeva, A.; Kipruto, H.; Wahogo, J.; Pak, S.; Kutwa, A.; L'Herminez, R.

    2012-01-01

    In Kenya and Kazakhstan, integration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing results into the routine surveillance of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) proved feasible and useful. The integration process improved overall data quality and data validation capacity, and integrated data

  8. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Cloning Vectors for Antiretroviral Resistance Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Picado, Javier; Sutton, Lorraine; De Pasquale, Maria Pia; Savara, Anu V.; D’Aquila, Richard T.

    1999-01-01

    Better detection of minority human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) populations containing gene mutations may improve the usefulness of antiretroviral resistance testing for clinical management. Molecular cloning of HIV-1 PCR products which might improve minority detection can be slow and difficult, and commercially available recombinant virus assays test drug susceptibility of virus pools. We describe novel plasmids and simple methods for rapid cloning of HIV-1 PCR products from patient...

  9. A multistage testing strategy for detection of quantitative trait Loci affecting disease resistance in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Thomas; Fjalestad, Kjersti T; Munck, Hege; Gomez-Raya, Luis

    2004-01-01

    A multistage testing strategy to detect QTL for resistance to infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon is proposed. First, genotyping of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and a transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) were carried out using dead offspring from a disease resistance challenge test. Second, AFLP genotyping among survivors followed by a Mendelian segregation test was performed. Third, within-family survival analyses using all offspring were developed and applied to significant TDT markers with Mendelian inheritance. Maximum-likelihood methodology was developed for TDT with dominant markers to exploit linkage disequilibrium within families. The strategy was tested with two full-sib families of Atlantic salmon sired by the same male and consisting of 79 offspring in total. All dead offspring from the two families were typed for 64 primer combinations, resulting in 340 scored markers. There were 26 significant results out of 401 TDTs using dead offspring. In the second stage, only 17 marker families showed Mendelian segregation and were tested in survival analysis. A permutation test was performed for all survival analyses to compute experimentwise P-values. Two markers, aaccac356 and agccta150, were significant at P < 0.05 when accounting for multiple testing in the survival analyses. The proposed strategy might be more powerful than current mapping strategies because it reduces the number of tests to be performed in the last testing stage. PMID:15238533

  10. Electrical resistivity monitoring of the thermomechanical heater test in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.; Buettner, M.; LaBrecque, L

    1996-01-01

    A test is being conducted in the densely welded Topopah Springs tuff within Yucca Mountain, Nevada to study the thermomechanical and hydrological behavior of this horizon when it is heated. A single 4 kW heater, placed in a horizontal borehole, was turned on August, 1996 and will continue to heat the rockmass until April 1997. Of the several thermal, mechanical and hydrological measurements being used to monitor the rockmass response, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is being used to monitor the movement of liquid water with a special interest in the movement of condensate out of the system. Four boreholes, containing a total of 30 ERT electrodes, were drilled to form the sides of a 30 foot square with the heater at the center and perpendicular to the plane. Images of resistivity change were calculated using data collected before and during the heating episode. The changes recovered show a region of decreasing resistivity approximately centered around the heater. The size this region grows with time and -the resistivity decreases become stronger. The changes in resistivity are caused by both temperature and saturation changes. The observed resistivity changes suggest that the rock adjacent to the heater dries as heating progresses. This dry region is surrounded by a region of increased saturation where steam recondenses and imbibes into the rock

  11. Electrical resistivity monitoring of the thermomechanical heater test in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.; Buettner, M.

    1997-01-01

    A test is being conducted in the densely welded Topopah Springs tuff within Yucca Mountain, Nevada to study the thermomechanical and hydrological behavior of this horizon when it is headed. A single 4 kW heater, placed in a horizontal borehole, was turned on August, 1996 and will continue to heat the rockmass until April 1997. Of the several thermal, mechanical and hydrological measurements being used to monitor the rockmass response, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is being used to monitor the movement of liquid water with a special interest in the movement of condensate out of the system. Four boreholes, containing a total of 30 ERT electrodes, were drilled to form the sides of a 30 foot square with the heater at the center and perpendicular to the plane. Images of resistivity change were calculated using data collected before and during the heating episode. The changes recovered show a region of decreasing resistivity approximately centered around the heater. The size this region grows with time and the resistivity decreases become stronger. The changes in resistivity are caused by both temperature and saturation changes. The observed resistivity changes suggest that the rock adjacent to the heater dries as heating progresses. This dry region is surrounded by a region of increased saturation where steam recondenses and imbibes into the rock

  12. Electrical resistivity and ultrasonic measurements during sequential fracture test of cementitious composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Veselý

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cracks in cover of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete structures significantly influence the ingress of deleterious species causing decrease in durability of these structures. The paper is focused on the effect of fracture process on two selected physical parameters of concrete – the electrical resistivity and the ultrasonic pulse passing time – which might be employed as the quality indicator of concrete cover within (nondestructive procedure(s of assessment of the structural durability. The concrete electrical resistivity and ultrasonic passing time were investigated here with respect to two variants of treatment of the test specimens’ surface (the pre-dried surface and the wet surface. Test configuration of three-point bending of notched beam was utilized to control the crack propagation; the fracture process passed through several loading–unloading sequences between which the electrical resistivity and ultrasonic passing time readings over the fractured region were performed. Equivalent elastic crack model was used for estimation of the fracture advance (described via the effective crack length at the loading stages corresponding to the resistivity and ultrasonic measurements. Relationships between changes of both the concrete resistivity and ultrasonic pulse passing time and the effective crack length is determined and discussed.

  13. Predictors of having a resistance test following confirmed virological failure of combination antiretroviral therapy: data from EuroSIDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Zoe V; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    Background: Guidelines suggest that patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy for >4 months with current viral load (VL)>1,000 copies/ml should be tested for resistance. There are limited data showing the frequency of resistance testing in routine clinical practice following these recommendat......Background: Guidelines suggest that patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy for >4 months with current viral load (VL)>1,000 copies/ml should be tested for resistance. There are limited data showing the frequency of resistance testing in routine clinical practice following...

  14. Simulant Agent Resistance Test Manikin (SMARTMAN) Testing of Protective Mask Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    miniature , automatic, continuous air-monitoring system, OI Analytical, division of OI Corporation, College Station, Texas); Miniature Infrared...testing be- gins. All hazardous waste generated by the execution of the test plan will be disposed of IAW federal, state, and local rules and...report. Adverse environmental conditioning may include exposure to combi- nations of any or all of the following: ozone , temperature shock, high

  15. Testing the permeability and corrosion resistance of micro-mechanically interlocked joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov-Nielsen, Jeppe; Holm, Allan Hjarbæk; Højsholt, Rune

    2011-01-01

    Micro-mechanical interlocking (MMI) can be applied to create new and interesting composite materials. We have employed laser structuring to achieve MMI between stainless steel and plastic with extremely high joint strength. However, the water permeability and corrosion resistance of the joint must...... be taken in order not to degrade the corrosion resistance of the sample to an unacceptable level....... is conducted. The permeability seems to be consistent with the Hagen–Poiseuille equation independent of the laser structuring technique and is orders of magnitudes larger than the diffusion rate through the plastic. Two different types of corrosion tests have been undertaken, and we show that care must...

  16. Electrochemical testing of passivity state and corrosion resistance of supermartensitic stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lasek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On low interstitial - supermartensitic stainless steels (X1CrNiMo 12-5-1, X2CrNiMo 13-6-2, X1CrNiMo 12-6-2 the electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out and the passive state stability and localized corrosion resistance were compared and evaluated. The effect of quenching and tempering as well as the changes in microstructure on polarisation curves and corrosion properties at room temperature were established. Small differences in chemical composition of steels were also registered on their corrosion parameters changes and resistance.

  17. Orthodontic brackets removal under shear and tensile bond strength resistance tests – a comparative test between light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P C G; Porto-Neto, S T; Lizarelli, R F Z; Bagnato, V S

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated if a new LEDs system has enough efficient energy to promote efficient shear and tensile bonding strength resistance under standardized tests. LEDs 470 ± 10 nm can be used to photocure composite during bracket fixation. Advantages considering resistance to tensile and shear bonding strength when these systems were used are necessary to justify their clinical use. Forty eight human extracted premolars teeth and two light sources were selected, one halogen lamp and a LEDs system. Brackets for premolar were bonded through composite resin. Samples were submitted to standardized tests. A comparison between used sources under shear bonding strength test, obtained similar results; however, tensile bonding test showed distinct results: a statistical difference at a level of 1% between exposure times (40 and 60 seconds) and even to an interaction between light source and exposure time. The best result was obtained with halogen lamp use by 60 seconds, even during re-bonding; however LEDs system can be used for bonding and re-bonding brackets if power density could be increased

  18. Radiation resistance of polymer materials. Degradation evaluation by accelerated testing for application condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguchi, Tadao; Tamura, Kiyotoshi; Sorimachi, Masami

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents re-evaluated radiation resistance property data of polymer materials, which had been tested in past times in TAKASAKI Quantum Beam Science Directorate, for the future study of ageing evaluation of low voltage electric cable insulation materials used in light-water nuclear reactors. The radiation resistance of 25 types of plastics and rubbers materials applied in practical environments was evaluated by the accelerated testing of gamma-ray irradiation under oxygen pressure, and was compared with the radiation resistance determined from the traditional testing by irradiation with a high dose rate in air. The polymer materials were formulated to be similar or equivalent to practical materials, and the most of formulation (chemical compounds and quantities) were described. For all materials, the tensile properties (elongation at break, ultimate strength, 100% or 200% modulus), electric resistivity, gel-fraction, and density were measured after irradiation in oxidation conditions and irradiation in air with a high dose rate (non-oxidation conditions). The data of relations between each properties and total dose at various conditions were compiled, and the relations among the changes of mechanical properties, electrical properties, and radiation induced chemical reactions were discussed. (author)

  19. Standard test method for ranking resistance of materials to sliding wear using block-on-ring wear test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers laboratory procedures for determining the resistance of materials to sliding wear. The test utilizes a block-on-ring friction and wear testing machine to rank pairs of materials according to their sliding wear characteristics under various conditions. 1.2 An important attribute of this test is that it is very flexible. Any material that can be fabricated into, or applied to, blocks and rings can be tested. Thus, the potential materials combinations are endless. However, the interlaboratory testing has been limited to metals. In addition, the test can be run with various lubricants, liquids, or gaseous atmospheres, as desired, to simulate service conditions. Rotational speed and load can also be varied to better correspond to service requirements. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. Wear test results are reported as the volume loss in cubic millimetres for both the block and ring. Materials...

  20. Ward-Specific Rates of Nasal Cocolonization with Methicillin-Susceptible and -Resistant Staphylococcus spp. and Potential Impact on Molecular Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Lustig, Sebastien; Lhoste, Yannick; Valour, Florent; Guerin, Claude; Aubrun, Frederic; Tigaud, Sylvestre; Laurent, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    We report that the rates of nasal cocolonization with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci can vary widely between patients admitted to different wards within a single hospital. Such cocolonization can greatly influence the performance of molecular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) screening tests depending on the methods used and targets selected. PMID:23658254

  1. Determination of Heritage SSME Pogo Suppressor Resistance and Inertance from Waterflow Pulse Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, Chris; Eberhart, Chad; Lee, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Waterflow tests of a heritage Space Shuttle Main Engine pogo suppressor were performed to experimentally quantify the resistance and inertance provided by the suppressor. Measurements of dynamic pressure and flow rate in response to pulsing flow were made throughout the test loop. A unique system identification methodology combined all sensor measurements with a one-dimensional perturbational flow model of the complete water flow loop to spatially translate physical measurements to the device under test. Multiple techniques were then employed to extract the effective resistance and inertance for the pogo suppressor. Parameters such as steady flow rate, perturbational flow rate magnitude, and pulse frequency were investigated to assess their influence on the behavior of the pogo suppressor dynamic response. These results support validation of the RS-25 pogo suppressor performance for use on the Space Launch System Core Stage.

  2. Evaluation of reference values for phenotypic tests to detect oxacillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Mello, Priscila L; Abraão, Ligia M; Corrente, José Eduardo; Lourdes Rs Cunha, Maria de

    2018-03-09

    To evaluate the adequacy of the disc-diffusion test and E-test ® compared with detection of mecA for coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from blood cultures, nasal swabs and wounds. Agreement between all techniques was observed in 65.7% of cases. The greatest discrepancy between mecA/susceptible E-test was observed for non-epidermidis species. A resistance breakpoint ≤19 mm using the oxacillin disc was found to best classify all coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates; Staphylococcus epidermidis, ≤19 mm (oxacillin) and ≤27 mm (cefoxitin); Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus capitis, ≤21 mm (oxacillin) and ≤18 mm (cefoxitin); Staphylococcus warneri, MICs ≥0.75 mg/l. Although no longer recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, we observed some cases in which only the oxacillin disc-diffusion test detected resistance. The discrepancy between phenotypic tests and mecA is probably due to heterogeneity and borderline resistance.

  3. Final results from an extensive ageing test of bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Carboni, G; De Capua, S; Dominici, Daniele; Messi, R; Passaleva, G; Santovetti, E; Veltri, M

    2004-01-01

    We present the final results of an extensive aging test, performed at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility on two bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detectors. With a method based on a model describing the behaviour of an RPC under high particle flux conditions, we have periodically measured the electrode resistivity rho of the two RPC prototypes over 3 years. We observed a large spontaneous increase of rho with time, from the initial value of about 10**1**0 Omega cm to more than 200 multiplied by 10**1**0 Omega cm. A corresponding degradation of the RPC rate capabilities, from more than 3 kHz/cm**2 to less than 200 Hz/cm**2, was observed; the reversibility of the process, using a humid gas mixture, has also been studied. We also present a study of the effects of humidity on the bakelite resistivity using two 10 multiplied by 10 cm**2 bakelite samples.

  4. Research on test of alkali-resistant glass fibre enhanced seawater coral aggregate concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Leiyang; Wang, Xingquan

    2017-12-01

    It is proposed in the 13th five-year plan that reefs of the south China sea should be constructed. In the paper, an innovative thinking was proposed for the first time in order to realize local material acquisition in island construction and life dependence on sea, namely alkali-resistant glass fibre is mixed in coralaggregate concrete as reinforcing material. The glass fibre is characterized by low price, low hardness, good dispersibility and convenient construction. Reliable guarantee is provided for widely applying the material in future projects. In the paper, an orthogonal test method is firstly applied to determine the mix proportion of grade C50 coral aggregate concrete. Then, the design plan ofmix proportion of alkali-resistant glass fibre enhanced seawater coral aggregate concrete is determined. Finally, the influence law of alkali-resistant glass fibre dosageon tensile compressiveflexture strength of seawatercoralaggregate concrete is made clear.

  5. Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglan, H.

    2005-08-04

    The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test

  6. Normalized resistance interpretation, the NRI method: Review of NRI disc test applications and guide to calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronvall, Göran; Smith, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The normalized resistance interpretation (NRI) method was developed in response to a call for a method to calibrate disc diffusion test results making inter-laboratory comparisons possible. The main use of NRI so far has been in individual laboratories, in medical and veterinary medicine and in the field of marine microbiology. The applications of NRI for disc diffusion tests are reviewed and, in addition, a detailed description of the calculation procedure is presented. NRI provides a fully objective method for ECOFF calculations of disc diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test results. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Use Of Infrared Thermography And Resistive Load Banks For Testing Electrical Bus Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffrin, R. James

    1988-01-01

    Electrical bus duct is a common feature in both manufacturing facilities and high rise buildings. In the past, bus duct testing involved labor-intensive manual inspection and maintenance and a significant power outage. Infrared thermography can be useful in situations where bus duct loads are balanced and uniform; however, these conditions are not usually found in the field. Resistive load banks combined with infrared thermography provide a controlled and accurate non-destructive test method for electrical bus ducts. Labor and downtime are both reduced and testing may be varied from light to full load.

  8. Is the test of senior friendly/child resistant packaging ethical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bix, Laura; de la Fuente, Javier; Pimple, Kenneth D; Kou, Eric

    2009-12-01

    Research has documented the drastic reduction of unintentional poisonings of children since the introduction of child resistant (CR) packaging. However, studies also indicate that consumers report difficulty using CR packages, in part because tests which determine the 'senior friendliness' of CR designs that are used throughout the world disallow people with 'overt or obvious' disabilities from being test subjects. Our review of drug package usability suggests that the current tests of CR packaging can and should be revised to correct this problem. We use US legislation, regulation and data to exemplify these points, but the conclusions are applicable to all protocols that include the exclusionary provision.

  9. Transverse strength of railway tracks: part 2. Test system for ballast resistance in line measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De Iorio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, testing methods currently adopted to measure the in service ballast resistance are synthetically reviewed to identify the main sources of uncertainty influencing the test loads and to define an experimental methodology allowing the optimal control of the testing parameters without the introduction of spurious or parasitic actions on the track sample. An alternative testing system, which allows applying on a fullscale sample of a railway track testing loads very close the real ones, is presented. Of the new system, both the ways of use for measuring the transversal and axial ballast strength, the general procedure to carry out the experimentation and its application to a real scenario are described, highlighting its main advantages in terms both of modalities for applying the loads and of testing parameter control.

  10. Electrical resistivity monitoring of the single heater test in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.

    1997-10-01

    Of the several thermal, mechanical and hydrological measurements being used to monitor the rockmass response in the Single Heater Test, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is being used to monitor the movement of liquid water with a special interest in the movement of condensate out of the system. Images of resistivity change were calculated using data collected before, during and after the heating episode. This report will concentrate on the results obtained after heating ceased; previous reports discuss the results obtained during the heating phase. The changes recovered show a region of increasing resistivity approximately centered around the heater as the rock mass cooled. The size of this region grows with time and the resistivity increases become stronger. The increases in resistivity are caused by both temperature and saturation changes. The Waxman Smits model has been used to calculate rock saturation after accounting for temperature effects. The saturation estimates suggest that during the heating phase, a region of drying forms around the heater. During the cooling phase, the dry region has remained relatively stable. Wetter rock regions which developed below the heater during the heating phase, are slowly becoming smaller in size during the cooling phase. The last set of images indicate that some rewetting of the dry zone may be occurring. The accuracy of the saturation estimates depends on several factors that are only partly understood

  11. Standard test method for determination of resistance to stable crack extension under low-constraint conditions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This standard covers the determination of the resistance to stable crack extension in metallic materials in terms of the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOAc), ψc and/or the crack-opening displacement (COD), δ5 resistance curve (1). This method applies specifically to fatigue pre-cracked specimens that exhibit low constraint (crack-length-to-thickness and un-cracked ligament-to-thickness ratios greater than or equal to 4) and that are tested under slowly increasing remote applied displacement. The recommended specimens are the compact-tension, C(T), and middle-crack-tension, M(T), specimens. The fracture resistance determined in accordance with this standard is measured as ψc (critical CTOA value) and/or δ5 (critical COD resistance curve) as a function of crack extension. Both fracture resistance parameters are characterized using either a single-specimen or multiple-specimen procedures. These fracture quantities are determined under the opening mode (Mode I) of loading. Influences of environment a...

  12. Evaluation of Etest for Susceptibility Testing of Multidrug-Resistant Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazbón, Manzour Hernando; del Socorro Orozco, Maria; Labrada, Luz Angela; Tovar, Rafael; Weigle, Kristen A.; Wanger, Audrey

    2000-01-01

    To prescribe effective treatment schemes for patients with tuberculosis, more-efficient susceptibility testing techniques for Mycobacterium tuberculosis are needed, especially in regions with multidrug resistance. Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) is a simple technique that provides quantitative drug susceptibility results for M. tuberculosis in 5 to 10 days from a culture grown at low cost. The performance of Etest was compared to that of the reference proportion method, using 95 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates of which 42.1% (40 of 95) were resistant to at least one antibiotic by the reference method. Overall agreement between Etest and the reference method was 98.9% (94 of 95) for detection of multidrug resistance; for resistance to individual drugs, agreement was 97.9% (93 of 95) for rifampin, 96.0% (92 of 95) for ethambutol, 94.7% (90 of 95) for isoniazid, and 85.3% (81 of 95) for streptomycin. This study supports the utility of Etest for timely detection of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis and for use in tuberculosis control programs. PMID:11101602

  13. Validation and Verification (V and V) Testing on Midscale Flame Resistant (FR) Test Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-16

    person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control ...roughly equally over the body surface, excluding the hands and feet. The F1930 test method requires a minimum of 100 sensors [1]. If copper slug ...copper slug . In fact, though a large number of sensors is employed, a comparison with the total sensor area with typical numbers for body surface area

  14. Comparative antimicrobial activity of gatifloxacin tested against Campylobacter jejuni including fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, C L; Erwin, M E; Barrett, M S; Jones, R N

    1999-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen that causes gastroenteritis, as well as other disease states such as meningitis and septic arthritis. In this study, the Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) results were compared to a reference agar dilution method using gatifloxacin, a new 8-methoxyfluoroquinolone. A total of 53 strains of C. jejuni initially isolated from patients in California and Mexico were tested. Results demonstrated a high correlation (r = 0.88) between the two utilized in vitro dilution methods. In addition, gatifloxacin activity was compared to that of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole using the Etest. Gatifloxacin (MIC90, 4 micrograms/ml) was approximately eight- to 16-fold more potent than ciprofloxacin (Mic90, > 32 micrograms/ml), a commonly used fluoroquinolone for Campylobacter infections. Eight strains highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC90, > 32 micrograms/ml) were tested for cross resistance against the newer fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin) and the rank order of potency was: gatifloxacin (MIC50, 16 micrograms/ml) > trovafloxacin = levofloxacin (MIC50, > 32 micrograms/mL). However, only 25% ciprofloxacin-resistant strains were inhibited by < or = 1 microgram/mL of gatifloxacin or trovafloxacin. These results for gatifloxacin against C. jejuni strains must be further assessed in the context of in vivo trials before the clinical role of this new fluoroquinolone can be determined. The Etest appears to be a simple and precise susceptibility test method for testing C. jejuni isolates against fluoroquinolones and other alternative therapeutic agents.

  15. New recommendations for disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility tests for methicillin-resistant (heteroresistant) staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, L K; Thornsberry, C

    1984-01-01

    The agar disk diffusion susceptibility test was reevaluated for its ability to discriminate between susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus (128 strains) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (19 strains) when tested with methicillin, oxacillin, and nafcillin. The results show that the current recommendations for disk potencies and interpretive zone diameters do not fit well with MIC correlates that we now recommend. Based on data from this study, we suggest that these parameters of the test be changed. For methicillin, we recommend a 10-micrograms disk with breakpoints of less than or equal to 11 mm (greater than or equal to 16 micrograms/ml) to indicate resistance and greater than or equal to 15 mm (less than or equal to 4 micrograms/ml) to indicate susceptibility. For oxacillin and nafcillin, we recommend 4-micrograms disks with breakpoints of less than or equal to 12 mm (greater than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml) to indicate resistance and greater than or equal to 16 mm (less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml) to indicate susceptibility. MIC breakpoints were from a broth microdilution system which used a medium containing salt. If one of these three penicillins were to be selected for routine tests, we would recommend oxacillin, based on our data, but we recognize that this may depend upon the population of staphylococci within a particular hospital. Images PMID:6562125

  16. Advances in impact resistance testing for explosion-proof electrical equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasculescu Vlad Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The design, construction and exploitation of electrical equipment intended to be used in potentially explosive atmospheres presents a series of difficulties. Therefore, the approach of these phases requires special attention concerning technical, financial and occupational health and safety aspects. In order for them not to generate an ignition source for the explosive atmosphere, such equipment have to be subjected to a series of type tests aiming to decrease the explosion risk in technological installations which operate in potentially explosive atmospheres. Explosion protection being a concern of researchers and authorities worldwide, testing and certification of explosion-proof electrical equipment, required for their conformity assessment, are extremely important, taking into account the unexpected explosion hazard due to potentially explosive atmospheres, risk which has to be minimized in order to ensure the occupational health and safety of workers, for preventing material losses and for decreasing the environmental pollution. Besides others, one of the type tests, which shall be applied, for explosion-proof electrical equipment is the impact resistance test, described in detail in EN 60079 which specifies the general requirements for construction, testing and marking of electrical equipment and Ex components intended for use in explosive atmospheres. This paper presents an analysis on the requirements of the impact resistance test for explosion-proof electrical equipment and on the possibilities to improve this type of test, by making use of modern computer simulation tools based on finite element analysis, techniques which are widely used nowadays in the industry and for research purposes.

  17. Impact of Rapid Susceptibility Testing and Antibiotic Selection Strategy on the Emergence and Spread of Antibiotic Resistance in Gonorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, Ashleigh R; Gift, Thomas L; Chesson, Harrell W; Hsu, Katherine; Salomon, Joshua A; Grad, Yonatan H

    2017-11-27

    Increasing antibiotic resistance limits treatment options for gonorrhea. We examined the impact of a hypothetical point-of-care (POC) test reporting antibiotic susceptibility profiles on slowing resistance spread. A mathematical model describing gonorrhea transmission incorporated resistance emergence probabilities and fitness costs associated with resistance based on characteristics of ciprofloxacin (A), azithromycin (B), and ceftriaxone (C). We evaluated time to 1% and 5% prevalence of resistant strains among all isolates with the following: (1) empiric treatment (B and C), and treatment guided by POC tests determining susceptibility to (2) A only and (3) all 3 antibiotics. Continued empiric treatment without POC testing was projected to result in >5% of isolates being resistant to both B and C within 15 years. Use of either POC test in 10% of identified cases delayed this by 5 years. The 3 antibiotic POC test delayed the time to reach 1% prevalence of triply-resistant strains by 6 years, whereas the A-only test resulted in no delay. Results were less sensitive to assumptions about fitness costs and test characteristics with increasing test uptake. Rapid diagnostics reporting antibiotic susceptibility may extend the usefulness of existing antibiotics for gonorrhea treatment, but ongoing monitoring of resistance patterns will be critical. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  18. AISI 304 Welding Fracture Resistance by a Charpy Impact Test with a High Speed Sampling Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Riyanta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate fracture resistance in AISI 304. The J-R curve was constructed from data, which resulted from an impact test by Charpy Impact machine equipped with high-speed sampling rate data acquisition equipment. The critical values of fracture resistance in fusion zones (FZ, high temperature heat affected zones (HTHAZ, low temperature heat affected zones (LTHAZ and unaffected base metals (UBM were obtained by calculation methods using some formulas and by graphical methods. Laboratory experiments demonstrated the relationships among the values of energy absorption along the impact test with the obstruction of dislocation movement due to the presence of chromium interstitial solute in all zones and chromium rich carbide precipitates in fusion zones and heat affected zones.

  19. Effect of simulated resistance, fleeing, and use of force on standardized field sobriety testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jeffrey; Dawes, Donald; Nystrom, Paul; Moore, Johanna; Steinberg, Lila; Tilton, Annemarie; Miner, James

    2015-07-01

    When a law enforcement officer (LEO) stops a suspect believed to be operating (a vehicle) while impaired (OWI), the suspect may resist or flee, and the LEO may respond with force. The suspect may then undergo a Standardized Field Sobriety Test (SFST) to gauge impairment. It is not known whether resistance, fleeing, or actions of force can create an inaccurate SFST result. We examined the effect of resistance, fleeing, and force on the SFST. Human volunteers were prospectively randomized to have a SFST before and after one of five scenarios: (1) five-second conducted electrical weapon exposure; (2) 100-yard (91.4 m) sprint; (3) 45-second physical fight; (4) police dog bite with protective gear; and (5) Oleoresin Capsicum spray to the face with eyes shielded. The SFST was administered and graded by a qualified LEO. After the SFST, the volunteer entered their scenario and was then administered another SFST. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. SFST performance was compared before and after using chi-square tests. Fifty-seven subjects enrolled. Three received a single-point penalty during one component of the three-component SFST pre-scenario. No subject received a penalty point in any components of the SFST post-scenario (p = 0.08). This is the first human study to examine the effects of physical resistance, flight, and use of force on the SFST result. We did not detect a difference in the performance of subjects taking the SFST before and after exposure to resistance, flight, or a simulated use of force. © Australian Council for Educational Research 2014.

  20. Cosmic ray test results on resistive plate chamber for the BESIII experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jifeng; Zhang, Jiawen; Chen, Jin; Zhao, Jianbin; Liu, Qian; Xie, Yuguang; Zhang, Qingmin; Qian, Sen; Yao, Ning; Ma, Liehua

    2007-01-01

    A cosmic ray test system has been built to fully qualify the resistive plate chambers for the MUON system of the BESIII experiment. The setup has been designed to measure detector's performance and to verify the stability and reliability of the MUON system. The same electronics, similar readout method and data analysis for BESIII MUON system have been used for this station. With this station, the 72-barrel detectors were tested, only one detector was rejected and then accepted again after reparation, and the average detector efficiency of the double-layer counters has been measured to be 98%

  1. Testing Transgenic Aspen Plants with bar Gene for Herbicide Resistance under Semi-natural Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, V G; Faskhiev, V N; Kovalenko, N P; Shestibratov, K A; Miroshnikov, A I

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining herbicide resistant plants is an important task in the genetic engineering of forest trees. Transgenic European aspen plants (Populus tremula L.) expressing the bar gene for phosphinothricin resistance have been produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Successful genetic transformation was confirmed by PCR analysis for thirteen lines derived from two elite genotypes. In 2014-2015, six lines were evaluated for resistance to herbicide treatment under semi-natural conditions. All selected transgenic lines were resistant to the herbicide Basta at doses equivalent to 10 l/ha (twofold normal field dosage) whereas the control plants died at 2.5 l/ha. Foliar NH4-N concentrations in transgenic plants did not change after treatment. Extremely low temperatures in the third ten-day period of October 2014 revealed differences in freeze tolerance between the lines obtained from Pt of f2 aspen genotypes. Stable expression of the bar gene after overwintering outdoors was confirmed by RT-PCR. On the basis of the tests, four transgenic aspen lines were selected. The bar gene could be used for retransformation of transgenic forest trees expressing valuable traits, such as increased productivity.

  2. Disk Diffusion Testing for Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci: Does Moxalactam Improve upon Cefoxitin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjean, Marie; Hodille, Elisabeth; Dumitrescu, Oana; Dupieux, Céline; Nkoud Mongo, Christina; Allam, Camille; Beghin, Mathilde; Paris, Mickael; Borrel, Ophelie; Chardon, Hubert; Laurent, Fréderic; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Lina, Gerard

    2016-12-01

    Disk diffusion testing is widely used to detect methicillin resistance in staphylococci, and cefoxitin is currently considered the best marker for mecA-mediated methicillin resistance. In low-inoculum diffusion testing (colony suspension at 10 6 CFU/ml), the addition of moxalactam in combination with cefoxitin has been reported to improve on cefoxitin alone for the detection of methicillin-heteroresistant staphylococci. However, moxalactam is absent from EUCAST and CLSI guidelines, which use high-inoculum diffusion testing (colony suspension at 10 8 CFU/ml), calling into question the potential interest of including moxalactam in their recommendations. The inhibition zone diameters of cefoxitin and moxalactam, alone and in combination, were evaluated for concordance with mecA and mecC positivity in a large collection of clinical Staphylococcus isolates (611 Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolates and 307 coagulase-negative staphylococci other than S. lugdunensis and S. saprophyticus isolates, of which 22% and 53% were mecA-positive, respectively) and in 25 mecC-positive S. aureus isolates using high-inoculum diffusion testing. Receiver operating characteristic, sensitivity, and specificity analyses indicated that the detection of mecA- and mecC-positive and negative isolates did not improve with moxalactam, either alone or in combination with cefoxitin, compared to cefoxitin alone. These findings were similar in both the S. aureus/S. lugdunensis/S. saprophyticus group and in the coagulase-negative staphylococci group. Our results do not support the use of moxalactam as an additional marker of methicillin resistance when testing with high-inoculum disk diffusion. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. A cost-effective smartphone-based antimicrobial susceptibility test reader for drug resistance testing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Steve W.; Tseng, Derek; Di Carlo, Dino; Garner, Omai B.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-03-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is commonly used for determining microbial drug resistance, but routine testing, which can significantly reduce the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms, is not regularly performed in resource-limited and field-settings due to technological challenges and lack of trained diagnosticians. We developed a portable cost-effective smartphone-based colorimetric 96-well microtiter plate (MTP) reader capable of automated AST without the need for a trained diagnostician. This system is composed of a smartphone used in conjunction with a 3D-printed opto-mechanical attachment, which holds a set of inexpensive light-emitting-diodes and fiber-optic cables coupled to the 96-well MTP for enabling the capture of the transmitted light through each well by the smartphone camera. Images of the MTP plate are captured at multiple exposures and uploaded to a local or remote server (e.g., a laptop) for automated processing/analysis of the results using a custom-designed smartphone application. Each set of images are combined to generate a high dynamic-range image and analyzed for well turbidity (indicative of bacterial growth), followed by interpretative analysis per plate to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and drug susceptibility for the specific bacterium. Results are returned to the originating device within 1 minute and shown to the user in tabular form. We demonstrated the capability of this platform using MTPs prepared with 17 antibiotic drugs targeting Gram-negative bacteria and tested 82 patient isolate MTPs of Klebsiella pneumoniae, achieving well turbidity accuracy of 98.19%, MIC accuracy of 95.15%, and drug susceptibility interpretation accuracy of 99.06%, meeting the FDA defined criteria for AST.

  4. Indoor accelerated corrosion test and marine field test of corrosion-resistant low-alloy steel rebars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrocell corrosion test and accelerated alternating wet–dry experiment combined with marine field test were employed to study the corrosion behavior of HRB400 carbon steel, 1.5Cr steel, and 5Cr steel in a simulated concrete pore solution and mortar. The macrocell current significantly decreases in samples added with Cr compared with that in HRB400 steel. The corrosion rate is decreased by Cr but increased by Cl−; as a consequence, the corrosion rates of 1.5Cr and 5Cr steel are lower than that of HRB400 steel. However, the corrosion products differ slightly in terms of the contents of α-FeOOH (goethite, γ-FeOOH (lepidocrocite, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 (maghemite or magnetite. The addition of Cr increases the content of the protective α-FeOOH and reduces the content of γ-FeOOH. Both ordinary and high-performance epoxy coatings remain intact after 1 year of marine field test. Among the bare steel rebars, HRB400 steel shows extensive localized corrosion on the surface, whereas 1.5Cr steel exhibits less severe corrosion. The scarcely visible corroded areas in 5Cr steel indicate that this rebar is in the passive state, consistent with results of the indoor accelerated test. Hence, the durability of concrete structures can be prolonged with the utilization of corrosion-resistant low-alloy rebars.

  5. An efficient in vitro test to determine carrot genotypes resistance to cavity spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelon, S; Vandemoortele, J L

    2001-01-01

    As part of a carrot breeding programme, our objective was to develop a test for determining genotypes resistance against two Pythium species responsible for cavity spot. Ten different media were tested for carrot callus culture, Pythium culture and dual cultures. Carrot callus growth was greater on Murashige and Skoog medium plus 1.25 microM 2.4D plus 2.5 microM BA plus 2.5 microM NAA. Pythium violae was more sensitive to medium composition than Pythium sulcatum. When carrot callus were inoculated by Pythium violae or sulcatum on Murashige and Skoog mineral medium, callus growth of Bolero, an resistant cultivar in the field, was highly inhibited whereas Nanco, a susceptible cultivar was not. Such a medium should be used for screening genotypes resistance to Pythium. A Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1.25 microM 2.4D, 2.5 microM BA and 2.5 microM NAA, where callus growth was highly reduced whatever the genotype used, should be useful for selection of cell lines tolerant to Pythium.

  6. Static Pull Testing of a New Type of Large Deformation Cable with Constant Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Tao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new type of energy-absorbing cable, Constant-Resistance Large Deformation cable (CRLD cable with three different specifications, has been recently developed and tested. An effective cable should occupy the ability of absorbing deformation energy from these geodisaster loads and additionally must be able to yield with the sliding mass movements and plastic deformation over large distances at high displacement rates. The new cable mainly consists of constant-resistance casing tube and frictional cone unit that transfers the load from the slope. When experiencing a static or dynamic load and especially the load exceeding the constant resistance force (CR-F, a static friction force derived from the movement of frictional cone unit in casing tube of CRLD cable, the frictional cone unit will move in the casing tube along the axis and absorb deformation energy, accordingly. In order to assess the performance of three different specified cables in situ, a series of field static pull tests have been performed. The results showed that the first type of CRLD cable can yield 2000 mm displacement while acting 850 kN static pull load, which is superior to that of other two types, analyzing based on the length of the displacement and the level of static pull load.

  7. Irradiation tests of radiation resistance optical fibers for fusion diagnostic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi; Shikama, Tatsuo; Nishitani, Takeo; Yamamoto, Shin; Nagata, Shinji; Tsuchiya, Bun; Toh, Kentaro; Hori, Junichi

    2002-11-01

    To promote development of radiation-resistant core optical fibers, the ITER-EDA (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-Engineering Design Activity) recommended carrying out international round-robin irradiation tests of optical fibers to establish a reliable database for their applications in the ITER plasma diagnostics. Ten developed optical fibers were irradiation-tested in a Co-60 gamma cell, a Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). Also, some of them were irradiation tested in a fast neutron irradiation facility of FNS (Fast Neutron Source), especially to study temperature dependence of neutron-associated irradiation effects. Included were several Japanese fluorine doped fibers and one Japanese standard fiber (purified and undoped silica core), as well as seven Russian fibers. Some of Russian fibers were drawn by Japanese manufactures from Russian made pre-form rods to study effects of manufacturing processes to radiation resistant properties. The present paper will describe behaviors of growth of radiation-induced optical transmission loss in the wavelength range of 350-1750nm. Results indicate that role of displacement damages by fast neutrons are very important in introducing permanent optical transmission loss. Spectra of optical transmission loss in visible range will depend on irradiation temperatures and material parameters of optical fibers.

  8. Standard test methods for performance characteristics of metallic bonded resistance strain gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 The purpose of this standard is to provide uniform test methods for the determination of strain gauge performance characteristics. Suggested testing equipment designs are included. 1.2 Test Methods E 251 describes methods and procedures for determining five strain gauge parameters: Section Part I—General Requirements 7 Part II—Resistance at a Reference Temperature 8 Part III—Gauge Factor at a Reference Temperature 9 Part IV—Temperature Coefficient of Gauge Factor\t10 Part V—Transverse Sensitivity\t11 Part VI—Thermal Output\t12 1.3 Strain gauges are very sensitive devices with essentially infinite resolution. Their response to strain, however, is low and great care must be exercised in their use. The performance characteristics identified by these test methods must be known to an acceptable accuracy to obtain meaningful results in field applications. 1.3.1 Strain gauge resistance is used to balance instrumentation circuits and to provide a reference value for measurements since all data are...

  9. Testing the permeability and corrosion resistance of micro-mechanically interlocked joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byskov-Nielsen, Jeppe; Holm, Allan H.; Højsholt, Rune; Sá, Pedro; Balling, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Micro-mechanical interlocking (MMI) can be applied to create new and interesting composite materials. We have employed laser structuring to achieve MMI between stainless steel and plastic with extremely high joint strength. However, the water permeability and corrosion resistance of the joint must be examined. For many industrially relevant applications it is important to keep water away from certain parts and to prevent the sample from corroding. A thorough study of the permeability of the interconnected samples at different temperatures and after employing different laser-structuring techniques is conducted. The permeability seems to be consistent with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation independent of the laser structuring technique and is orders of magnitudes larger than the diffusion rate through the plastic. Two different types of corrosion tests have been undertaken, and we show that care must be taken in order not to degrade the corrosion resistance of the sample to an unacceptable level.

  10. On-line irradiation testing of a Giant Magneto-Resistive (GMR) sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfert, J.; Luloff, B.; MacDonald, D.; Lumsden, R., E-mail: jeff.olfert@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Magneto-resistive sensors are rapidly gaining favour for magnetic field sensing applications owing to their high sensitivity, small size, and low cost. Their metallic, nonsemiconductor construction makes them excellent candidates for use in the harsh environments present in nuclear and space applications. In this work, a commercially available magneto-resistive sensor was irradiated up to a total gamma dose of 2 MGy (200 Mrad), and online testing was performed to monitor the sensor throughout the irradiation to detect any degradation. No significant evidence of degradation of the sensor characteristics was observed. A very small (< 1%) change in the bridge balance of the sensor as a function of accumulated dose was detected. (author)

  11. Methodic aspects of autoclave tests of compact samples on cyclic crack resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhmurskij, V.I.; Gnyp, I.P.; Popov, A.A.; Tarasyuk, G.P.; Dutsyak, I.Z.; Timonin, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory autoclave LAKIM-25 was created for investigation of cyclic and static crack resistance of vessel materials of power plants under the conditions close to operation ones. It enables to investigate the cyclic crack resistance of standard samples of up to 25 mm thickness in water at 623 K and 18 MPa. The friction force changes during tests from 6.1 up to 6.4 kN, therefore it is necessary to correct regularly the force of sample loading, recording the s-n diagram on a drum of UMEh-10TM plant. The periodic record of loading diagram coincides with respect to time with the necessity of controlling the change of sample pliability during crack propagation

  12. Automated sequence analysis and editing software for HIV drug resistance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Daniel; Wallis, Carole L; Denisov, Gennady; Lambert, Christine; Servais, Jean-Yves; Viana, Raquel V; Letsoalo, Esrom; Bronze, Michelle; Aitken, Sue C; Schuurman, Rob; Stevens, Wendy; Schmit, Jean Claude; Rinke de Wit, Tobias; Perez Bercoff, Danielle

    2012-05-01

    Access to antiretroviral treatment in resource-limited-settings is inevitably paralleled by the emergence of HIV drug resistance. Monitoring treatment efficacy and HIV drugs resistance testing are therefore of increasing importance in resource-limited settings. Yet low-cost technologies and procedures suited to the particular context and constraints of such settings are still lacking. The ART-A (Affordable Resistance Testing for Africa) consortium brought together public and private partners to address this issue. To develop an automated sequence analysis and editing software to support high throughput automated sequencing. The ART-A Software was designed to automatically process and edit ABI chromatograms or FASTA files from HIV-1 isolates. The ART-A Software performs the basecalling, assigns quality values, aligns query sequences against a set reference, infers a consensus sequence, identifies the HIV type and subtype, translates the nucleotide sequence to amino acids and reports insertions/deletions, premature stop codons, ambiguities and mixed calls. The results can be automatically exported to Excel to identify mutations. Automated analysis was compared to manual analysis using a panel of 1624 PR-RT sequences generated in 3 different laboratories. Discrepancies between manual and automated sequence analysis were 0.69% at the nucleotide level and 0.57% at the amino acid level (668,047 AA analyzed), and discordances at major resistance mutations were recorded in 62 cases (4.83% of differences, 0.04% of all AA) for PR and 171 (6.18% of differences, 0.03% of all AA) cases for RT. The ART-A Software is a time-sparing tool for pre-analyzing HIV and viral quasispecies sequences in high throughput laboratories and highlighting positions requiring attention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Collaborative update of a rule-based expert system for HIV-1 genotypic resistance test interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Roger; Tzou, Philip L; van Zyl, Gert; Barrow, Geoff; Camacho, Ricardo; Carmona, Sergio; Grant, Philip M; Gupta, Ravindra K; Hamers, Raph L; Harrigan, P Richard; Jordan, Michael R; Kantor, Rami; Katzenstein, David A; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Maldarelli, Frank; Otelea, Dan; Wallis, Carole L; Schapiro, Jonathan M; Shafer, Robert W

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 genotypic resistance test (GRT) interpretation systems (IS) require updates as new studies on HIV-1 drug resistance are published and as treatment guidelines evolve. An expert panel was created to provide recommendations for the update of the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVDB) GRT-IS. The panel was polled on the ARVs to be included in a GRT report, and the drug-resistance interpretations associated with 160 drug-resistance mutation (DRM) pattern-ARV combinations. The DRM pattern-ARV combinations included 52 nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI) DRM pattern-ARV combinations (13 patterns x 4 NRTIs), 27 nonnucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI) DRM pattern-ARV combinations (9 patterns x 3 NNRTIs), 39 protease inhibitor (PI) DRM pattern-ARV combinations (13 patterns x 3 PIs) and 42 integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) DRM pattern-ARV combinations (14 patterns x 3 INSTIs). There was universal agreement that a GRT report should include the NRTIs lamivudine, abacavir, zidovudine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; the NNRTIs efavirenz, etravirine, nevirapine, and rilpivirine; the PIs atazanavir/r, darunavir/r, and lopinavir/r (with "/r" indicating pharmacological boosting with ritonavir or cobicistat); and the INSTIs dolutegravir, elvitegravir, and raltegravir. There was a range of opinion as to whether the NRTIs stavudine and didanosine and the PIs nelfinavir, indinavir/r, saquinavir/r, fosamprenavir/r, and tipranavir/r should be included. The expert panel members provided highly concordant DRM pattern-ARV interpretations with only 6% of NRTI, 6% of NNRTI, 5% of PI, and 3% of INSTI individual expert interpretations differing from the expert panel median by more than one resistance level. The expert panel median differed from the HIVDB 7.0 GRT-IS for 20 (12.5%) of the 160 DRM pattern-ARV combinations including 12 NRTI, two NNRTI, and six INSTI pattern-ARV combinations. Eighteen of these differences were updated in HIVDB 8.1 GRT-IS to reflect the

  14. Collaborative update of a rule-based expert system for HIV-1 genotypic resistance test interpretation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Paredes

    Full Text Available HIV-1 genotypic resistance test (GRT interpretation systems (IS require updates as new studies on HIV-1 drug resistance are published and as treatment guidelines evolve.An expert panel was created to provide recommendations for the update of the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVDB GRT-IS. The panel was polled on the ARVs to be included in a GRT report, and the drug-resistance interpretations associated with 160 drug-resistance mutation (DRM pattern-ARV combinations. The DRM pattern-ARV combinations included 52 nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI DRM pattern-ARV combinations (13 patterns x 4 NRTIs, 27 nonnucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI DRM pattern-ARV combinations (9 patterns x 3 NNRTIs, 39 protease inhibitor (PI DRM pattern-ARV combinations (13 patterns x 3 PIs and 42 integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI DRM pattern-ARV combinations (14 patterns x 3 INSTIs.There was universal agreement that a GRT report should include the NRTIs lamivudine, abacavir, zidovudine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; the NNRTIs efavirenz, etravirine, nevirapine, and rilpivirine; the PIs atazanavir/r, darunavir/r, and lopinavir/r (with "/r" indicating pharmacological boosting with ritonavir or cobicistat; and the INSTIs dolutegravir, elvitegravir, and raltegravir. There was a range of opinion as to whether the NRTIs stavudine and didanosine and the PIs nelfinavir, indinavir/r, saquinavir/r, fosamprenavir/r, and tipranavir/r should be included. The expert panel members provided highly concordant DRM pattern-ARV interpretations with only 6% of NRTI, 6% of NNRTI, 5% of PI, and 3% of INSTI individual expert interpretations differing from the expert panel median by more than one resistance level. The expert panel median differed from the HIVDB 7.0 GRT-IS for 20 (12.5% of the 160 DRM pattern-ARV combinations including 12 NRTI, two NNRTI, and six INSTI pattern-ARV combinations. Eighteen of these differences were updated in HIVDB 8.1 GRT-IS to reflect

  15. Cost-effectiveness of HIV drug resistance testing to inform switching to second line antiretroviral therapy in low income settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Andrew; Cambiano, Valentina; Nakagawa, Fumiyo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To guide future need for cheap resistance tests for use in low income settings, we assessed cost-effectiveness of drug resistance testing as part of monitoring of people on first line ART - with switching from first to second line ART being conditional on NNRTI drug resistance mutations...... being identified. METHODS: An individual level simulation model of HIV transmission, progression and the effect of ART which accounts for adherence and resistance development was used to compare outcomes of various potential monitoring strategies in a typical low income setting in sub-Saharan Africa...... outcomes were assessed over 2015-2025 in terms of viral suppression, first line failure, switching to second line regimen, death, HIV incidence, disability-adjusted-life-years averted and costs. Potential future low costs of resistance tests ($30) were used. RESULTS: The most effective strategy, in terms...

  16. Testing and Selection of Fire-Resistant Materials for Spacecraft Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert; Jackson, Brian; Olson, Sandra

    2000-01-01

    Spacecraft fire-safety strategy emphasizes prevention, mostly through the selection of onboard items classified accord- ing to their fire resistance. The principal NASA acceptance tests described in this paper assess the flammability of materials and components under "worst-case" normal-gravity conditions of upward flame spread in controlled-oxygen atmospheres. Tests conducted on the ground, however, cannot duplicate the unique fire characteristics in the nonbuoyant low-gravity environment of orbiting spacecraft. Research shows that flammability an fire-spread rates in low gravity are sensitive to forced convection (ventilation flows) and atmospheric-oxygen concentration. These research results are helping to define new material-screening test methods that will better evaluate material performance in spacecraft.

  17. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall not... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. 84.156 Section 84.156 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...

  18. Reliability of Strength Testing using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Kirk L.; Loehr, James A.; Laughlin, Mitzi A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Hagan, R. Donald

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) was developed for use on the International Space Station as a countermeasure against muscle atrophy and decreased strength. This investigation examined the reliability of one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing using ARED and traditional free weight (FW) exercise. Methods: Six males (180.8 +/- 4.3 cm, 83.6 +/- 6.4 kg, 36 +/- 8 y, mean +/- SD) who had not engaged in resistive exercise for at least six months volunteered to participate in this project. Subjects completed four 1RM testing sessions each for FW and ARED (eight total sessions) using a balanced, randomized, crossover design. All testing using one device was completed before progressing to the other. During each session, 1RM was measured for the squat, heel raise, and deadlift exercises. Generalizability (G) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for each exercise on each device and were used to predict the number of sessions needed to obtain a reliable 1RM measurement (G . 0.90). Interclass reliability coefficients and Pearson's correlation coefficients (R) also were calculated for the highest 1RM value (1RM9sub peak)) obtained for each exercise on each device to quantify 1RM relationships between devices.

  19. TEMPEST code modifications and testing for erosion-resisting sludge simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    The TEMPEST computer code has been used to address many waste retrieval operational and safety questions regarding waste mobilization, mixing, and gas retention. Because the amount of sludge retrieved from the tank is directly related to the sludge yield strength and the shear stress acting upon it, it is important to incorporate the sludge yield strength into simulations of erosion-resisting tank waste retrieval operations. This report describes current efforts to modify the TEMPEST code to simulate pump jet mixing of erosion-resisting tank wastes and the models used to test for erosion of waste sludge with yield strength. Test results for solid deposition and diluent/slurry jet injection into sludge layers in simplified tank conditions show that the modified TEMPEST code has a basic ability to simulate both the mobility and immobility of the sludges with yield strength. Further testing, modification, calibration, and verification of the sludge mobilization/immobilization model are planned using erosion data as they apply to waste tank sludges

  20. Functional test of a Radon sensor based on a high-resistivity-silicon BJT detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Betta, G.F., E-mail: dallabe@disi.unitn.it [DISI, Università di Trento, and INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); RSens srl, Modena (Italy); Tyzhnevyi, V. [DISI, Università di Trento, and INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); Bosi, A.; Bonaiuti, M. [RSens srl, Modena (Italy); Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.A.; Morsani, F.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Lusiani, A. [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Ciolini, R.; Curzio, G.; D' Errico, F.; Del Gratta, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione, Università di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bidinelli, L. [En and tech, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia (Italy); RSens srl, Modena (Italy); and others

    2013-08-01

    A battery-powered, wireless Radon sensor has been designed and realized using a BJT, fabricated on a high-resistivity-silicon substrate, as a radiation detector. Radon daughters are electrostatically collected on the detector surface. Thanks to the BJT internal amplification, real-time α particle detection is possible using simple readout electronics, which records the particle arrival time and charge. Functional tests at known Radon concentrations, demonstrated a sensitivity up to 4.9 cph/(100 Bq/m{sup 3}) and a count rate of 0.05 cph at nominally-zero Radon concentration.

  1. Test and characterization of multigap resistive plate chambers for the EEE project

    CERN Document Server

    Bossini, E

    2016-01-01

    The Extreme Energy Events project is based on the deployment of cosmic-ray telescopes in Italian high schools with the active contribution of students and teachers. Each telescope is made by three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers readout by strips. With around 50 telescopes already built and others under construction, specific systems to test and characterize the chambers are needed. In this article I will present a flexible and software-configurable solution to perform chamber efficiency studies with a set of scintillators and hardware to automatically scan detector strips to identify electrical issues. Both systems can provide accurate information but at the same time they can be easily operated by students.

  2. Electric imaging and laboratory resistivity testing for geotechnical investigation of Pusan clay deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giao, P. H.; Chung, S. G.; Kim, D. Y.; Tanaka, H.

    2003-03-01

    Large-scale reclamation works for new land development in the Nakdong River plain have been extensively carried out on soft clays. Several geotechnical characteristics of the clays could not be well evaluated, partly due to easy disturbance during drilling and sampling. Consequently, geophysical methods, seen as nondestructive testing tools, have been applied in geotechnical investigation of Pusan clays for the first time. In this study, the 2D electric imaging technique was employed to map the thick soft clay deposits in four reclamation sites. The Pusan clay deposit was very well mapped. Electric resistivity of Pusan clays was measured on over 50 core samples in the laboratory, and then correlated with other geotechnical parameters such as salinity, organic content, water content, plasticity, unit weight and sampling depth. Additionally, electric resistivity of about 20 natural clays collected worldwide was measured and compared to that of the Pusan clays as an initial effort in creating a database of clay electric resistivity to help further application of electric imaging in geotechnical investigation of clayey soils.

  3. Soil resistivity over root area ratio, soil humidity, and bulk density: laboratory tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastini, Enrico; Giambastiani, Yamuna; Preti, Federico

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge about root system distribution covers an important role in slope shallow stability stud-ies, as this factor grants an increase in soil geotechnical properties (soil cohesion and friction an-gle) and determines a different underground water circulation. Published studies (Amato et al., 2008 and 2011; Censini et al., 2014) about in situ application of ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomo-graphy) analysis show how the root presence affects the measurable soil resistivity values, confirm-ing the suitability to investigate the application of such technique, aiming to estimate root density in soil with an indirect and non-invasive method. This study, laboratory-based and led on reconstructed samples in controlled condition, aim to find a correlation between the resistivity variations and the various factors that can affect them (humid-ity, bulk density, presence of foreign bodies, temperature). The tests involved a clay-loam soil (USDA classification) taken from Quaracchi (Florence, Italy), in an experimental fir-wood (Picea abies) owned by the Department of Agricultural, Food and For-estry System, Florence University, a previously chosen site for field ERT applications. The row ma-terial has been dried out in a lab stove, grounded and sieved at 2 mm, and then placed in a lexan box (30 x 20 x 20 cm) without compaction. Inside the sample have been inserted 3 series of 4 iron electrodes, insulated along the shaft and with the conductive end placed at three different depth: 2 cm from surface, in the middle of the sample and in contact with the bottom of the box; resistivity measures are conducted on the three levels using a Syscal R2 with electrodes connected in a dipole-dipole configuration. Root presence is simulated inserting bamboo spits (simple geometry, replicable "R.A.R.") in varying number from 0 to 16 in every area between two contiguous electrodes. The tests are repeated in time, monitoring the natural variations in humidity (evapotranspiration) and bulk

  4. Diphtheria toxin resistance in human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts in the in vivo somatic cell mutation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkins, D.J.; Wei, L.; Laurie, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    It has been shown that circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used for the enumeration of 6-thioguanine-resistant cells that presumably arise by mutation in vivo. This somatic cell mutation test has been studied in lymphocytes from human populations exposed to known mutagens and/or carcinogens. The sensitivity of the test could be further enhanced by including other gene markers, since there is evidence for locus-specific differences in response to mutagens. Resistance to diphtheria toxin (Dip/sup r/) seemed like a potential marker to incorporate into the test because the mutation acts codominantly, can readily be selected in human diploid fibroblasts and Chinese hamster cells with no evidence for cell density or cross-feeding effects, and can be assayed for in nondividing cells by measuring protein synthesis inhibition. Blood samples were collected from seven individuals, and fresh, cryopreserved, or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphocytes were tested for continued DNA synthesis ( 3 H-thymidine, autoradiography) or protein synthesis ( 35 S-methionine, scintillation counting). Both fresh and cryopreserved lymphocytes, stimulated to divide with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), continued to synthesize DNA in the presence of high doses of diphtheria toxin (DT). Similarly, both dividing (PHA-stimulated) and nondividing fresh lymphocytes carried on significant levels of protein synthesis even 68 hr after exposure to 100 flocculating units (LF)/ml DT. The results suggest that human T and B lymphocytes may not be as sensitive to DT protein synthesis inhibition as human fibroblast and Chinese hamster cells. For this reason, Dip/sup r/ may not be a suitable marker for the somatic cell mutation test

  5. In vitro antimicrobial activity of linezolid tested against vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated in Brazilian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Adriana O.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE has been described recently in Brazil. This is in contrast to the USA and Europe, where the VRE appeared in the late 1980s. The progressive increase in VRE isolation poses important problems in the antimicrobial therapy of nosocomial infections. Treatment options and effective antimicrobial agents for VRE are often limited and the possibility of transfer of vancomycin genes to other Gram-positive microorganisms continues. In the search for antimicrobial agents for multiresistant Gram-positive cocci, compounds such as linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin have been evaluated. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro activity of the oxazolidinone linezolid and 10 other antimicrobial agents, including quinupristin-dalfopristin, against multiresistant enterococci isolated in Brazilian hospitals. Thirty-three vancomycin resistant isolates (17 Enterococcus faecium and 16 E. faecalis, were analyzed. Strains were isolated from patients at São Paulo Hospital, Oswaldo Cruz Hospital, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual, Santa Marcelina Hospital, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, and Hospital de Clínicas do Paraná. The samples were tested by a broth microdilution method following the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS recommendations. All isolates were molecular typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Linezolid was the most active compound against these multiresistant enterococci, showing 100% inhibition at the susceptible breakpoints. Quinupristin/dalfopristin and teicoplanin showed poor activity against both species. The molecular typing results suggest that there has been interhospital spread of vancomycin resistant E. faecium and E. faecalis among Brazilian hospitals. The results of this study indicate that linezolid is an appropriate therapeutic option for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci infections in Brazil.

  6. Identification of commercially available alloys for corrosion-resistant metallic reinforcement and test methods for evaluating corrosion-resistant reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A literature review was conducted with the goal of identifying alternative low-cost corrosion-resistant steel reinforcement materials. The most promising alternate reinforcing materials seen to date that are less expensive than 300 series stainless s...

  7. [Resistance monitoring working group: resistance to erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline in human isolates of Campylobacter spp. in the Czech Republic tested by the EUCAST standard method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žemličková, H; Jakubů, V; Marejková, M; Urbášková, P

    2014-09-01

    To determine the frequency of Campylobacter spp. isolated from humans in the Czech Republic and to test their susceptibility to antimicrobials commonly used to treat campylobacteriosis by the standard EUCAST method. Consecutive Campylobacter isolates recovered from clinical specimens in 49 microbiological laboratories within one month in 2013 were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Susceptibility to erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline was tested by the microdilution method and the results were interpreted based on the EUCAST clinical breakpoints to differentiate between susceptible and resistant strains. Of the study set of 769 Campylobacter spp. strains, 90.1 % were assigned to C. jejuni, 9.8 % to C. coli, and a single strain to C. fetus (0.1 %). Except one blood isolate of C. jejuni, all other isolates were recovered from the stool. Ciprofloxacin resistance (MIC > 0.5 mg/l) was detected in 61.9 % strains of C. jejuni and in 72.0 % strains of C. coli, tetracycline resistance (MIC > 2 mg/l) was detected in 32.0 % of strains of both species, and erythromycin resistance was found in 0.3 % of strains of C. jejuni (MIC > 8 mg/l) and in 2.7 % of strains of C. coli (MIC > 4 mg/l). A C. coli strain was multidrug resistant (i.e. resistant to all three antimicrobials tested). Despite the fact that most Campylobacter infections in humans cure on their own, the resistance of the causative strains to the antimicrobials of choice and alternative agents needs to be studied because of its relevance to the treatment of severe cases that require antibiotics. Resistance to macrolides was found rather infrequently in this study in both C. jejuni (0.1 %) and C. coli (2.7 %) strains. Nevertheless, alarming is ciprofloxacin resistance confirmed in 61.9 % of C. jejuni strains and 72.0 % C. coli strains. As the species C. coli is more often resistant to antimicrobials than C. jejuni and ciprofloxacin

  8. The application of virtual reality technology to testing resistance to motion sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menshikova G. Ya.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prolonged exposure to moving images in virtual reality systems can cause virtual reality induced motion sickness (VIMS. The ability to resist motion sickness may be associated with the level of vestibular function development. objective. The aim of the present research is to study the oculomotor characteristics of individuals whose observation of moving virtual environments causes the VIMS effect. We hypothesized that people who have a robust vestibular function as a result of their professional activity, are less susceptible to VIMS than people who have no such professional abilities. The differences in people’s abilities to resist the effects of the virtual environment may be revealed in the oculomotor characteristics registered during their interaction with a virtual environment. Design. Figure skaters, football players, wushu fighters, and non-trained people were tested. e CAVE virtual reality system was used to initiate the VIMS effect. three virtual scenes were constructed consisting of many bright balls moving as a whole around the observer. e scenes differed in the width of the visual field; all balls subtended either 45°, 90° or 180°. Results. The results showed more active eye movements for athletes compared to non-trained people, i.e. an increase in blink, fixation, and saccade counts. A decrease in saccadic amplitudes was revealed for figure skaters. These characteristics were considered specific indicators of the athletes’ ability to resist motion sickness. Conclusions. It was found that the strength of the VIMS effect increased with the increasing width of the visual field. The effectiveness of virtual reality and eye-tracking technologies to test the VIMS effect was demonstrated.

  9. Evaluation and comparison of tests to detect methicillin resistant S. aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Anila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Phenotypic methods for detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA have been compared with the gold standard which, as of now, is by the detection of mecA gene and femA gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Discrepancies in detection have an adverse effect on patient management, thereby highlighting the importance of accuracy in detection. Our study aims to evaluate the efficacy of cefoxitin disk diffusion test to detect MRSA and compare it with other phenotypic and molecular methods. Methodology; The study was conducted from June 2006 to December 2007 and included 610 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus isolates obtained from clinical samples. All isolates were tested for MRSA using oxacillin screen agar plates with 6 µg/ml of oxacillin, cefoxitin disk diffusion using 30 µg disk and MIC of oxacillin. Selected isolates (55 were tested for presence of mecA gene and Fem A gene by PCR. Results: Out of 610 isolates, MRSA was identified in 34.09% by cefoxitin disk diffusion, 34.9% by oxacillin screen agar, 34.4% by MIC and 37.3% by oxacillin disk diffusion. When selected isolates were tested with molecular methods, the cefoxitin disk diffusion and PCR tests were comparable. Discussion: Prevalence of MRSA (34.09% is quite high as in other studies. The oxacillin disk diffusion test which was used routinely earlier is showing low specificity (56%. Among all phenotypic methods, cefoxitin disk diffusion and PCR alone have similar sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion: Results of cefoxitin disk diffusion test are in concordance with the PCR for mecA gene. Thus, the test can be an alternative to PCR for detection of MRSA in resource constraint settings.

  10. Multi drug resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli to tested antibiotics in strains originating from humans, poultry and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran Ž.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic Campylobacter are among the most common cause of bacterial enteritis in humans. Food animals are considered one of the most important sources of Campylobacter causing infections in man. Campylobacter infection is clinically mild and resolves spontaneously. In severe or long-lasting cases, treatment with antibiotics is necessary. Resistance of Campylobacter spp. to drugs used in treatment of infection is a matter of concern. The aim of this paper is to determine presence of multi drug resistant strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from animals and man. Material for testing was obtained by scraping the cecum surface from boilers, pig cecum and colon, and human feces. For isolation Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli microaerophilic conditions, temperature of 42°C and antibiotic supplement were required to inhibit the growth of other intestinal bacteria. In this research, for sensitivity testing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli three different methods were used: disc diffusion test, E-test, and dilution agar method. A total of 55 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Out of the total, 24 strains originated from man, 16 from broilers were isolated, and 15 from pigs. Multidrug resistance was determined in cases when the strains were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Applying E-test, we detected that the largest number of Campylobacter jejuni were multi drug resistant to two antibiotics (41.2%, and three antibiotics (11.8%. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 5.9% of Campylobacter jejuni from man was resistant to four tested antibiotics. Applying all three methods, it was detected that the largest number of Campylobacter strains was resistant to two antibiotics and three antibiotics. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 50% of Campylobacter coli strains from pigs were resistant to three tested antibiotics.

  11. Tigecycline activity tested against antimicrobial resistant surveillance subsets of clinical bacteria collected worldwide (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Helio S; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N

    2013-06-01

    Tigecycline was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2005 and has generally retained activity against resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. We monitored the in vitro activity of this glycylcycline in 2011 for continued potency worldwide. A total of 22,005 unique clinical isolates were consecutively collected in North America (NA; 9232 isolates), Europe (EU; 6776), Latin America (LA; 2016), and Asia-Pacific region (APAC, 3981) and tested for susceptibility according to the reference broth microdilution method recommendations against tigecycline and numerous comparators. Oxacillin (methicillin) resistance rates in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were 49.3%, 30.2%, 42.9%, and 37.8%, and vancomycin resistance rates in enterococci (VRE) were 27.0%, 11.3%, 6.3%, and 4.0% in NA, EU, LA, and APAC, respectively. All MRSA (2839) and >99% of VRE were susceptible to tigecycline. Among Escherichia coli, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) rates varied from 12.6% in the NA to 57.4% in APAC, and only one strain was nonsusceptible to tigecycline. Tigecycline was active against ESBL phenotype (96.5-98.4% susceptible) and meropenem-nonsusceptible Klebsiella spp. (94.3-100.0% susceptible). Only 4 of 213 (1.9%) meropenem-nonsusceptible Klebsiella spp. were tigecycline-nonsusceptible, all with tigecycline minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4 μg/mL (intermediate). Among ceftazidime-nonsusceptible Enterobacter spp., 94.7-98.2% were susceptible to tigecycline. Meropenem-nonsusceptible Acinetobacter spp. varied from 51.2% in NA to 80.9% in APAC; and 83.8% (LA) to 93.9% (APAC) of strains were inhibited at a tigecycline MIC of ≤2 μg/mL. Tigecycline showed potent activity against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (89.3-98.3% inhibited at ≤2 μg/mL). In summary, tigecycline has sustained potent activity and a broad-spectrum against clinically important bacteria causing infections worldwide, including multidrug-resistant

  12. Evaluation of automated systems for aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones susceptibility testing for Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichang Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated systems (MicroScan WalkAway 96 Plus, Phoenix 100, and Vitek 2 Compact are widely used in clinical laboratories nowadays. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of these three systems for susceptibility testing of aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones against Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE. Methods A total of 75 CRE isolates were used in this study. Quinolone resistance determinants (QRDs (qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, aac(6′-Ib-cr, oqxAB and qepA and aminoglycoside resistance determinants (ARDs (aac(6′-Ib, armA, npmA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD and rmtE of these CRE were screened by PCR. The MICs of aminoglycosides (gentamicin and amikacin and fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin to CRE obtained with the automated systems were compared with the reference method (agar dilution method. Results Totally, 97.3% (73/75 of CRE harbored QRDs. The qnr gene was the most common QRD determinant identified in 68 (96.7%, followed by aac (6′-Ib-cr in 56 (74.7%, oqxAB in 23 (30.7%, and qepA in 2 (2.7%, respectively. 22.7% (17/75 of CRE harbored ARD determinants. rmtA, rmtB and npmA were identified among these isolates in 6 (8.0%, 6 (8.0% and 5 (6.7%, respectively. A total of 900 results were obtained in this study. Overall, the total error rate was 9.89%. Twenty-eight very major errors (3.11%, 22 major errors (2.44% and 39 minor errors (4.33% were identified against agar dilution method. The very major errors were almost evenly distributed between results for fluoroquinolones (2.89% and aminoglycosides (3.33%, while the major errors and minor errors were more commonly found in the results of fluoroquinolones (3.11% and 6.44%, respectively than aminoglycosides (1.78% and 2.22%, respectively. Conclusions Our study shows that testing difficulties in susceptibility testing do exist in automated systems. We suggest clinical laboratories using automated systems should consider using a second

  13. Second line drug susceptibility testing to inform the treatment of rifampin-resistant tuberculosis: a quantitative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Kendall

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment failure and resistance amplification are common among patients with rifampin-resistant tuberculosis (TB. Drug susceptibility testing (DST for second-line drugs is recommended for these patients, but logistical difficulties have impeded widespread implementation of second-line DST in many settings. To provide a quantitative perspective on the decision to scale up second-line DST, we synthesize literature on the prevalence of second-line drug resistance, the expected clinical and epidemiologic benefits of using second-line DST to ensure that patients with rifampin-resistant TB receive effective regimens, and the costs of implementing (or not implementing second-line DST for all individuals diagnosed with rifampin-resistant TB. We conclude that, in most settings, second-line DST could substantially improve treatment outcomes for patients with rifampin-resistant TB, reduce transmission of drug-resistant TB, prevent amplification of drug resistance, and be affordable or even cost-saving. Given the large investment made in each patient treated for rifampin-resistant TB, these payoffs would come at relatively small incremental cost. These anticipated benefits likely justify addressing the real challenges faced in implementing second-line DST in most high-burden settings.

  14. Resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs and practices in drug susceptibility testing in Moldova, 1995-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudu, V; Arnadottir, Th; Laticevschi, D

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate practices in initial drug susceptibility testing (DST) in Moldova, anti-tuberculosis drug resistance and the implications for tuberculosis control. Retrospective record review in the national reference laboratory. Of 3463 cases, 57.1% were recorded as 'new' and 24.6% as 'retreatment' cases; previous treatment status was not recorded for 18.3%. Of the 'new' cases, 1655 were correctly classified according to international recommendations and 322 were misclassified. The number of cases increased from 443 in 1995 to 939 in 1999; the proportion of 'retreatment' increased from 17.4% to 35.5%, 'any drug resistance' from 20.3% to 41.6%, and 'multidrug resistance' from 2.7% to 11.2%. In 1998-1999, 'any drug resistance' and 'multidrug resistance' in 800 previously untreated cases were respectively 29.1% and 5.3%, and respectively 61.0% and 21.9% in 521 'retreatment' cases. Of a total of 216 'multidrug-resistant' cases in 1998-1999, 21.8% were reported resistant to ethambutol and 81.5% to streptomycin. Initial specimens for culture are frequently taken late, after the start of treatment, compromising their usefulness for case management or surveillance. Inadequate treatment has led to an increase in the number of cases, the proportion of previously treated cases and the prevalence of drug resistance. In 1998-1999, a high proportion of cases with 'multidrug resistance' were susceptible to ethambutol.

  15. GenoType HelicoDR test in the determination of antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Nayoung; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Park, Ji Hyun; Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Jung Mogg; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2014-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori is most important factor in eradication success. GenoType HelicoDR test has been developed for rapid detection of antimicrobial resistance. The present study evaluated the clinical usefulness of GenoType HelicoDR test in Korea. To detect 23S rRNA for clarithromycin resistance and gyrA mutations for fluoroquinolone resistance, both DNA sequencing after minimal inhibitory test (MIC) and GenoType HelicoDR test were performed in H. pylori isolates from the gastric mucosa of 101 patients. The eradication results of clarithromycin and moxifloxacin-containing triple therapy were evaluated by the 23S rRNA and gyrA mutations. For 42 isolates with A2143G mutation by GenoType HelicoDR, 83.3% (35/42) of concordance rate was estimated with DNA sequencing method and 85.7% (36/42) for MIC test. For 43 isolates with N87K mutation by GenoType HelicoDR, 71.1% (31/43) of concordance rate was estimated with DNA sequencing and 88.4% (38/43) for MIC test. The sensitivity and specificity of GenoType HelicoDR test in determination of 23S rRNA mutation were 94.9% and 87.1%, and those of gyrA 98.2% and 80.0%. The sensitivity and specificity of GenoType HelicoDR test in determination of clarithromycin resistance based on MIC test were 55.0% and 80.0%, for fluoroquinolone 74.4% and 70.0%. GenoType HelicoDR test is useful to determine mutations responsible for clarithromycin or fluoroquinolone-containing eradication failure but has a limitation for the clinical applicability in determination of resistance.

  16. Effects of native biodiversity on grape loss of four castes: testing the biotic resistance hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nereu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of agricultural landscapes can influence the biodiversity and the ecological services provided by these ecosystems, such as natural biological pest control. Viticulture is a very important economic activity in most countries with Mediterranean climate, often shaping their landscapes and culture. Grape production is affected by a number of pests and diseases, and farmers use prophylactic and response-driven pesticides to control these pests. Here we quantified the main biotic causes of crop losses in four grape castes, two red (Touriga Nacional and Baga and two white (Arinto and Chardonnay, and evaluated the potential effect of native biodiversity to provide biotic resistance to pest outbreaks and grape losses. Specifically, the diversity and abundance of bird and insect communities in these vineyards were quantified and divided into functional guilds (pest, neutral or auxiliary, to test whether these natural communities hold the potential to naturally control grape pests (biotic resistance hypothesis under normal vineyard management (including pesticide application regimes. A potential association between distance to the vineyard edge and grape losses was also evaluated. We recorded a very small proportion of grape losses (mean  =  0.6 %; max  =  7.5 %, with insect pests showing a preference for the castes Baga (red and Chardonnay (white, while bird pests avoided the caste Arinto (white. Grape color did not influence losses caused by insect pests, but birds showed a preference for red castes. The caste Baga was also more vulnerable to losses caused by fungi. Despite their low impact on grape production, most insects and birds detected in the six vineyards were pests, which entails a potentially low level of biotic resistance in this highly managed agricultural ecosystem. Further research is necessary to fully evaluate the role of functional biodiversity in vineyards, particularly if alternative production processes

  17. Affordable HIV drug-resistance testing for monitoring of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzaule, Seth C; Ondoa, Pascale; Peter, Trevor; Mugyenyi, Peter N; Stevens, Wendy S; de Wit, Tobias F Rinke; Hamers, Raph L

    2016-11-01

    Increased provision of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa has led to a growing number of patients with therapy failure and acquired drug-resistant HIV, driving the demand for more costly further lines of antiretroviral therapy. In conjunction with accelerated access to viral load monitoring, feasible and affordable technologies to detect drug-resistant HIV could help maximise the durability and rational use of available drug regimens. Potential low-cost technologies include in-house Sanger and next-generation sequencing in centralised laboratories, and point mutation assays and genotype-free systems that predict response to antiretroviral therapy at point-of-care. Strengthening of centralised high-throughput laboratories, including efficient systems for sample referral and results delivery, will increase economies-of-scale while reducing costs. Access barriers can be mitigated by standardisation of in-house assays into commercial kits, use of polyvalent instruments, and adopting price-reducing strategies. A stepwise rollout approach should improve feasibility, prioritising WHO-recommended population-based surveillance and management of complex patient categories, such as patients failing protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy. Implementation research, adaptations of existing WHO guidance, and political commitment, will be key to support the appropriate investments and policy changes. In this Personal View, we discuss the potential role of HIV drug resistance testing for population-based surveillance and individual patient management in sub-Saharan Africa. We review the strengths and challenges of promising low-cost technologies and how they can be implemented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Simple method to determine beta-lactam resistance phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the disc agar diffusion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedel, G

    2005-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major opportunistic bacterial pathogen in nosocomial infections because of the increasing prevalence of resistance to many of the commonly used antibiotics. To ensure optimal efficiency of antibiotic treatment against this species, antibiotic susceptibility tests must be interpreted with caution. Most microbiologists now consider it essential to characterize the antibiotic resistance expressed by isolates. Particular resistance mechanisms may be suspected when the bacterium is resistant to several antibiotics in the same family (for example beta-lactam agents). Using the disc agar diffusion test, a simple method was developed to distinguish between the common beta-lactam resistance phenotypes of P. aeruginosa and, consequently, the possible resistance mechanism(s). Over a period of 5 years, we analysed 6300 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various pathological specimens collected from different wards of Cochin Port-Royal Hospital, and reference and collection strains. Each strain had the wild-type phenotype or an acquired resistance phenotype. Eight anti-pseudomonal beta-lactams (ticarcillin, cefotaxime or moxalactam, cefepime or cefpirome, imipenem, ceftazidime, aztreonam, cefsulodin and ticarcillin + clavulanic acid) were used as phenotypic markers. The following markers were sufficient to distinguish between the wild-type phenotype and the various acquired resistance phenotypes: beta-lactamase synthesis, reduced cell wall permeability and/or increased expression of efflux transporters (active efflux). Detection of resistance phenotypes allows 'interpretive reading' of antibiotic susceptibility tests. Clearly, improved interpretation of antibiotic susceptibility tests is important for a better appreciation of the effect of antimicrobial agents on bacteria such as P. aeruginosa.

  19. Evaluation of a New Test, GenoType HelicoDR, for Molecular Detection of Antibiotic Resistance in Helicobacter pylori▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambau, Emmanuelle; Allerheiligen, Vera; Coulon, Céline; Corbel, Céline; Lascols, Christine; Deforges, Lionel; Soussy, Claude-James; Delchier, Jean-Charles; Megraud, Francis

    2009-01-01

    The eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori by standard therapy is decreasing due to antibiotic resistance, mainly to clarithromycin. Our aim was to provide a new molecular test to guide the treatment of new and relapsed cases. We first studied 126 H. pylori strains for phenotypic (MIC) and genotypic resistance to clarithromycin (rrl mutation) and levofloxacin (gyrA mutation) and then developed a DNA strip genotyping test on the basis of the correlation results and literature data. Clinical strains (n = 92) and gastric biopsy specimens containing H. pylori (n = 105) were tested blindly with the new molecular test GenoType HelicoDR. The presence of mutations or the absence of hybridization with wild-type sequences was predictive, in rrl for clarithromycin resistance in 91 cases (mostly the A2147G mutation) and in gyrA for levofloxacin resistance in 58 cases (mutations at codon 87 or 91). Genotyping revealed a mix of genotypes in 33% of the cases, reflecting a coinfection or selection for resistant mutants. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting resistance were 94% and 99% for clarithromycin and 87% and 98.5% for levofloxacin, respectively. The concordance scores were 0.96 for clarithromycin and 0.94 for levofloxacin. With global resistance rates of 46% for clarithromycin and 25% for levofloxacin, which were observed for consecutive positive biopsy specimens from 2007 and 2008, the positive and negative predictive values for detecting resistance were 99% and 94% for clarithromycin and 96% and 96% for fluoroquinolone. GenoType HelicoDR is efficient at detecting mutations predictive of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori when applied to strains or directly to gastric biopsy specimens. PMID:19759218

  20. Evaluation of a new test, genotype HelicoDR, for molecular detection of antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambau, Emmanuelle; Allerheiligen, Vera; Coulon, Céline; Corbel, Céline; Lascols, Christine; Deforges, Lionel; Soussy, Claude-James; Delchier, Jean-Charles; Megraud, Francis

    2009-11-01

    The eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori by standard therapy is decreasing due to antibiotic resistance, mainly to clarithromycin. Our aim was to provide a new molecular test to guide the treatment of new and relapsed cases. We first studied 126 H. pylori strains for phenotypic (MIC) and genotypic resistance to clarithromycin (rrl mutation) and levofloxacin (gyrA mutation) and then developed a DNA strip genotyping test on the basis of the correlation results and literature data. Clinical strains (n = 92) and gastric biopsy specimens containing H. pylori (n = 105) were tested blindly with the new molecular test GenoType HelicoDR. The presence of mutations or the absence of hybridization with wild-type sequences was predictive, in rrl for clarithromycin resistance in 91 cases (mostly the A2147G mutation) and in gyrA for levofloxacin resistance in 58 cases (mutations at codon 87 or 91). Genotyping revealed a mix of genotypes in 33% of the cases, reflecting a coinfection or selection for resistant mutants. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting resistance were 94% and 99% for clarithromycin and 87% and 98.5% for levofloxacin, respectively. The concordance scores were 0.96 for clarithromycin and 0.94 for levofloxacin. With global resistance rates of 46% for clarithromycin and 25% for levofloxacin, which were observed for consecutive positive biopsy specimens from 2007 and 2008, the positive and negative predictive values for detecting resistance were 99% and 94% for clarithromycin and 96% and 96% for fluoroquinolone. GenoType HelicoDR is efficient at detecting mutations predictive of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori when applied to strains or directly to gastric biopsy specimens.

  1. Strength resistance test of superior members for elderly people: comparison between dumbbells with different weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Justino Borges

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n3p261 The aim of the study was to compare the performance of elderly people in the strength resistance test of superior members (SRTSM with dumbbells of different weights (1,8 kg and 2 kg for women and 3,6 kg and 4 kg for men. The sample consisted of 407 elderly (349 feminine and 58 masculine, with age of 60 to 88 years, practitioners of physical exercise for at least six months. The used instrument was the SRTSM of the battery of tests American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD. Two executions of the test were carried through with dumbbells of different weights, SRTSM (1,8 kg and 3,6 kg and “adjusted” SRTSM (2 kg and 4 kg. For the analysis of the data, it was proceeded descriptive analysis, test t of Student for independent samples, paired t test for dependent samples and ANOVA with post-hoc of Tukey, adopting itself the 5% level significance. The results demonstrated that the use of dumbbells with 4 weights of 2 and kg, seem not to affect the performance of the elderly ones, mainly of the masculine sex. For the feminine sex significant difference in the averages of the second comparison carried through for the sort was detected. However, this difference can have been resulting from external factors to the test, since, the greater average obtained was for “the adjusted” SRTSM. Nevertheless, one tries to facilitate even more the evaluation of the functional capacity of the elderly population, being recommended for SRTSM the use of dumbbells with weight of 2 kg for women and 4kg for men that they are of low cost, easy acquisition and access in the Brazilian market.

  2. Screening test recommendations for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surveillance practices: A cost-minimization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Melanie D; Curtis, Donna J; Atherly, Adam J; Bradley, Cathy J; Lindrooth, Richard C; Campbell, Jonathan D

    2017-07-01

    To mitigate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, intensive care units (ICUs) conduct surveillance through screening patients upon admission followed by adhering to isolation precautions. Two surveillance approaches commonly implemented are universal preemptive isolation and targeted isolation of only MRSA-positive patients. Decision analysis was used to calculate the total cost of universal preemptive isolation and targeted isolation. The screening test used as part of the surveillance practice was varied to identify which screening test minimized inappropriate and total costs. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the range of total costs resulting from variation in inputs. The total cost of the universal preemptive isolation surveillance practice was minimized when a polymerase chain reaction screening test was used ($82.51 per patient). Costs were $207.60 more per patient when a conventional culture was used due to the longer turnaround time and thus higher isolation costs. The total cost of the targeted isolation surveillance practice was minimized when chromogenic agar 24-hour testing was used ($8.54 per patient). Costs were $22.41 more per patient when polymerase chain reaction was used. For ICUs that preemptively isolate all patients, the use of a polymerase chain reaction screening test is recommended because it can minimize total costs by reducing inappropriate isolation costs. For ICUs that only isolate MRSA-positive patients, the use of chromogenic agar 24-hour testing is recommended to minimize total costs. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel automatic molecular test for detection of multidrug resistance tuberculosis in sputum specimen: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Ou, Xi C; Pang, Yu; Xia, Hui; Huang, Hai R; Zhao, Bing; Wang, Sheng F; Zhao, Yan L

    2017-07-01

    MiniLab tuberculosis (ML TB) assay is a new automatic diagnostic tool for diagnosis of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB). This study was conducted with aims to know the performance of this assay. Sputum sample from 224 TB suspects was collected from tuberculosis suspects seeking medical care at Beijing Chest hospital. The sputum samples were directly used for smear and ML TB test. The left sputum sample was used to conduct Xpert MTB/RIF, Bactec MGIT culture and drug susceptibility test (DST). All discrepancies between the results from DST, molecular and phenotypic methods were confirmed by DNA Sequencing. The sensitivity and specificity of ML TB test for detecting MTBC from TB suspects were 95.1% and 88.9%, respectively. The sensitivity for smear negative TB suspects was 64.3%. For detection of RIF resistance, the sensitivity and specificity of ML TB test were 89.2% and 95.7%, respectively. For detection of INH resistance, the sensitivity and specificity of ML TB test were 78.3% and 98.1%, respectively. ML TB test showed similar performance to Xpert MTB/RIF for detection of MTBC and RIF resistance. In addition, ML TB also had good performance for INH resistance detection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Spermatic Viability of Cryopreserved Semen of Piau swine breed analyzed by Thermo Resistant Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Hoshino da Costa Barros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Barros M.H.C., Shiomi H.H., Amorim L.S., Guimarães S.E.F., Lopes P.S., Siqueira J.B., Pinho R.O. & Guimarães J.D. [Spermatic Viability of Cryopreserved Semen of Piau swine breed analyzed by Thermo Resistant Test.] Viabilidade espermática de sêmen congelado de suínos da raça Piau avaliada pelo Teste de Termorresistência. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária 36(2:131-136, 2014. Departamento de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n, Viçosa, MG 36571-000, Brasil. E-mail: hugoshiomi@hotmail.com The objective of this study was to verify three protocols of semen cryopreservation on spermatic viability after thawing from Piau swine breed (Sus scrofa, by thermo resistant test (TTR. Twenty two ejaculates from 5 Piau mature boars were collected by glove hand technique. To freezing, the ejaculates was split and submitted to three protocols (P: (P1 freezing method proposed by Furst et al. (2005, altered by diluent media, (P2 freezing method proposed by Furst et al. (2005, altered by cooled curve; and (P3 freezing method proposed by Ohata et al. (2001. After thawing, semen was submitted to TTR, been incubated at 37o C by 2 hours, motility sperm (MOT and vigor (VIG was analyzed at 30 minutes of interval. MOT and VIG after thawing was 20.9±12.4, 29.5±10.9 and 49.5±12.1%; 2.5±0.5, 2.9±0.4 and 3.4±0.4, respectively to P1, P2 and P3. The TTR results show gradually decrease of motility and vigor along 2 hours of test procedure utilized, with best average to protocol 3 at all time of analyze. The protocol 3 tested by Piau boars shows highest values in cellular semen cryopreservation.

  5. Testing the apparent resistance of three dominant plants to chronic drought on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, David L.; Duniway, Michael C.; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Many drylands, including the south-western United States, are projected to become more water-limited as these regions become warmer and drier with climate change. Such chronic drought may push individual species or plant functional types beyond key thresholds leading to reduced growth or even mortality. Indeed, recent observational and experimental evidence from the Colorado Plateau suggests that C3 grasses are the most vulnerable to chronic drought, while C4 grasses and C3 shrubs appear to have greater resistance.The effects of chronic, or press-drought are predicted to begin at the physiological level and translate up to higher hierarchical levels. To date, the drought resistance of C4grasses and C3 shrubs in this region has been only evaluated at the community level and thus we lack information on whether there are sensitivities to drought at lower hierarchical levels. In this study, we tested the apparent drought resistance of three dominant species (Pleuraphis jamesii, a C4 rhizomatous grass; Coleogyne ramosissima, a C3 drought-deciduous shrub; and Ephedra viridis, a C3 evergreen shrub) to an ongoing experimental press-drought (-35% precipitation) by comparing individual-level responses (ecophysiology and growth dynamics) to community-level responses (plant cover).For all three species, we observed consistent responses across all hierarchical levels:P. jamesii was sensitive to drought across all measured variables, while the shrubsC. ramosissima and E. viridis had little to no responses to the experimental press-drought at any given level.Synthesis. Our findings suggest that the apparent drought resistance at higher hierarchical levels, such as cover, may serve as good proxies for lower-level responses. Furthermore, it appears the shrubs are avoiding drought, possibly by utilizing moisture at deeper soil layers, while the grasses are limited to shallower layers and must endure the drought conditions. Give this differential sensitivity to drought, a future

  6. New results from an extensive aging test on bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067339; De Capua, Stefano; Domenici, Danilo; Ganis, Gerardo; Messi, Roberto; Passaleva, Giovanni; Santovetti, Emanuele; Veltri, Michele; Carboni, Giovanni; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Capua, Stefano De; Domenici, Danilo; Ganis, Gerardo; Messi, Roberto; Passaleva, Giovanni; Santovetti, Emanuele; Veltri, Michele

    2003-01-01

    We present recent results of an extensive aging test, performed at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility on two single-gap RPC prototypes, developed for the LHCb Muon System. With a method based on a model describing the behaviour of an RPC under high particle flux conditions, we have periodically measured the electrode resistance R of the two RPC prototypes over three years: we observe a large spontaneous increase of R with time, from the initial value of about 2 MOhm to more than 250 MOhm. A corresponding degradation of the RPC rate capabilities, from more than 3 kHz/cm^2 to less than 0.15 kHz/cm^2 is also found.

  7. Standard Test Method for Hail Impact Resistance of Aerospace Transparent Enclosures

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the impact resistance of an aerospace transparent enclosure, hereinafter called windshield, during hailstorm conditions using simulated hailstones consisting of ice balls molded under tightly controlled conditions. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statements see Section 7.

  8. The evaluation of dynamic cracking resistance of chosen casting alloys in the aspect of the impact bending test

    OpenAIRE

    J.Sadowski; T.Szykowny

    2008-01-01

    The increase of quality and durability of produced casting alloys can be evaluated on the base of material tests performed on a high level. One of such modern test methods are tests of the dynamic damage process of materials and the evaluation on the base of obtained courses F(f), F(t) of parameters of dynamic cracking resistance KId, JId, performed with the usage of instrumented Charpy pendulums. In the paper there was presented the evaluation of dynamic cracking resistance parameters of cas...

  9. The corrosion rate of copper in a bentonite test package measured with electric resistance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosborg, Bo [Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Kosec, Tadeja; Kranjc, Andrej; Kuhar, Viljem; Legat, Andraz [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-12-15

    LOT1 test parcel A2 was exposed for six years in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, which offers a realistic environment for the conditions that will prevail in a deep repository for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Sweden. The test parcel contained copper electrodes for real-time corrosion monitoring in bentonite ring 36, where the temperature was 24 deg C, and copper coupons in bentonite rings 22 and 30, where the temperature was higher. After retrieval of the test parcel in January 2006, a bentonite test package consisting of bentonite rings 35 - 37 was placed in a container and sealed with a thick layer of paraffin. Later the same year new copper electrodes were installed in the test package. In January 2007 electric resistance (ER) sensors of pure copper with a thickness of 35 {mu}m were also installed in the test package mainly to facilitate the interpretation of the results from the real-time corrosion monitoring with electrochemical techniques. The ER measurements have shown that the corrosion rate of pure copper exposed in an oxic bentonite/ saline groundwater environment at room temperate decreases slowly with time to low but measurable values. The corrosion rates estimated from the regularly performed EIS measurements replicate the ER data. Thus, for this oxic environment in which copper acquires corrosion potentials of the order of 200 mV (SHE) or higher, electrochemical measurements provide believable data. Comparing the recorded ER data with an estimate of the average corrosion rate based on comparing cross-sections from exposed and protected sensor elements, it is obvious that the former overestimates the actual corrosion rate, which is understandable. It seems as if electrochemical measurements can provide a better estimate of the corrosion rate; however, this is quite dependent on the use of proper measuring frequencies and evaluation methods. In this respect ER measurements are more reliable. It has been shown that real-time corrosion

  10. Resistance test at early larval stage of blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhd Ikhwanuddin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The early larval stage is the crucial phase in the larviculture of blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus. The combination of stress resistance tests have been done to determine the maximum period of starvation and dissolved oxygen, the preferable range of temperature, salinity, pH and ammonia for P. pelagicus larvae survival at early larval stages. Larvae were exposed to various treatments as mentioned above to examine larvae competency against the stressor. In starvation test, at 12 hours, more than 50 percent of larvae were observed dead. While in the dissolved oxygen test, no larvae survived more than 6 hours without aeration treatment. The optimum temperature for larvae was 30C due to high survival rate (43.18% was found in the end of experiment. There were no larvae survival at salinity level 0 ppt, 10 ppt and 50 ppt respectively. The highest larvae survival was found at 30 ppt treatment (60.51%. The suitable pH for larval rearing condition was ranged from 8.0-8.2 (survival rate were 48.60% and 70.47%, respectively owing to larval survival rate in others treatments were very low. In the last experiment, lower concentration of ammonia treatments (0.02, 0.2 ppm showed higher survival rate (58.54% and 23.90% whereas the larvae in 2 ppm and 20 ppm treatments died with 24 hours and 6 hours after spike.

  11. New methods for testing fire resistance of wood façade systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårtensson August

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arson in schools has been a huge problem in Sweden over the last fifteen years. The average amount of school arsons between 2000 and 2014 was 285 cases each year which corresponds to 50% of the total amount of reported fires in school buildings. This is a well-known problem and a lot of research has been done in this area. Investigations has been done about fire and heat detection systems, different technical factors significance in fire scenarios and how to prevent adolescents from starting fires. Another part of the problem that partly been investigated is how the schools are constructed. Roughly 50% of the arsons are outside of the school building. In Sweden one and two storey buildings are allowed to be built with wooden façades in accordance with the building code, which is one of the reasons many schools are built with wooden façade systems. The most critical part in a wood façade system from a fire safety perspective is concluded to be the eaves because of how they usually are built to let air pass through. Even though a wood façade isn't as well resistant to fire compared to a concrete façade, three versions of new test methods for combustible façades have been developed to make it possible to make sure in advance that a construction is resistant enough. The new test methods are focused on specific details and parts of a façade system to provide a more informative and useful result compared to SP Fire 105. Observations and measurements of flame spread and temperature changes in the eave, over the window joints and in the air gap are made. With these parameters in consideration criteria's has been chosen for a critical temperature of 280 ∘C at a critical time of 20 minutes.

  12. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The static... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...

  13. Developing Pairwise Preference-Based Personality Test and Experimental Investigation of Its Resistance to Faking Effect by Item Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Asami; Naito, Jun; Abe, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have shown increased awareness of the importance of personality tests in educational, clinical, and occupational settings, and developing faking-resistant personality tests is a very pragmatic issue for achieving more precise measurement. Inspired by Stark (2002) and Stark, Chernyshenko, and Drasgow (2005), we develop a pairwise…

  14. Rapid detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates by the MRSA-screen latex agglutination test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); C. van Pelt (Cindy); A. Luijendijk (Ad); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe slide agglutination test MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Niigata, Japan) was compared with the mecA PCR ("gold standard") for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The MRSA-Screen test detected the penicillin-binding protein 2a

  15. Monitoring of high temperature area by resistivity tomography during in-situ heating test in sedimentary soft rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kenji; Suzuki, Koichi; Ikenoya, Takafumi; Takakura, Nozomu; Tani, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    One of the major issues in disposal of nuclear waste is that the long term behaviors of sedimentary soft rocks can be affected by various environmental factors such as temperature, mechanical conditions or hydraulic conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a method for evaluating the long term stability of caverns in sedimentary soft rocks as subjected to changes of environment. We have conducted in-situ heating test to evaluate the influence of high temperature to the surrounding rock mass at a depth of 50 m. The well with a diameter of 30 cm and 60 cm of height, was drilled and filled with groundwater. The heater was installed in the well for heating the surrounding rock mass. During the heating, temperature and deformation around the well were measured. To evaluate the influence of heating on sedimentary soft rocks, it is important to monitor the extent of heated area. Resistivity monitoring is thought to be effective to map the extent of the high temperature area. So we have conducted resistivity tomography during the heating test. The results demonstrated that the resistivity of the rock mass around the heating well decreased and this area was gradually expanded from the heated area during the heating. The decreasing rate of resistivity on temperature is correlated to that of laboratory experimental result and existing empirical formula between aqueous solution resistivity and temperature. Resistivity is changed by many other factors, but it is expected that resistivity change by other factors is very few in this test. This suggests that high temperature area is detected and spatial distribution of temperature can be mapped by resistivity tomography. So resistivity tomography is expected to be one of the promising methods to monitor the area heated by nuclear waste. (author)

  16. Finite Element Modeling with Embed Rebar Elements and Steady State Rolling Analysis for Rolling Resistance Test of Pneumatic Tire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvanjumrat Chakrit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element model of tire rolling resistance test on the drum was developed using 3D steady state rolling analysis coupling with pre-inflation of 2D axisymmetric tire analysis. The complex components of the radial tires composing tread, sidewall, ply layers, steel belts, and lead wires were modeled using rebar elements which were embed into the rubber element using the tying equation. The Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic constitutive model was employed to describe the large deformation behavior of tread and sidewall, while other components such as plies, steel belts and bead wires were assigned the linear isotropic material. The tire rolling resistance system was modeled by inflation of slick tire and compression on the drum for the footprint analysis regarding the rolling resistance test. The tire’s steady state characteristics such as footprint contact pressure, rolling resistance force, and time response characteristic of tires were predicted instead the experiment of the prototype.

  17. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Inconsistencies in Vancomycin Susceptibility Testing Methods, Limitations and Advantages of each Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himani; Agrawal, Charu; Madan, Molly; Pandey, Anita; Thakuria, Bhaskar

    2015-10-01

    Vancomycin may be ineffective against an increasing proportion of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) well within the susceptible range. On the other hand it is common knowledge that determination of vancomycin MICs is method dependent. Therefore, given the apparent variability in vancomycin MIC results obtained with the different methods, the use of the vancomycin MIC to predict the outcome of serious S. aureus infections needs to take into account the method used and the results of studies using that particular method. Comparative study was carried out to evaluate the MICs obtained by BMD method, E-test, and Vitek 2 method and to detect inconsistencies in these vancomycin for 66 MRSA isolates obtained from various samples of patients attending the OPDs & IPDs within a period of one year. A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the MICs obtained by BMD method, E-test, and Vitek 2 method to detect vancomycin susceptibility in 66 clinical isolates of MRSA obtained from various samples of patients attending the OPDs & IPDs within a period of one year. The study was conducted in Department of Microbiology, Subharti Medical College, Meerut from January to December 2012. On determination of MICs for vancomycin for the MRSA isolates, all were identified as VSSA by BMD, E-Test & Vitek 2 methods. However, the vancomycin MIC values obtained by E-test correlated better with BMD method (correlation factor= 0.6727) than Vitek 2 (correlation factor=0.5316), indicating E-Test to be a better method for determination of vancomycin MICs as compared to Vitek 2. MRSA isolates with higher vancomycin MICs, even within the susceptibility range, are being observed more frequently which result in treatment failures with vancomycin. Because of the discrepancy that exists in vancomycin MIC results from different methods, the prediction of outcome of serious S.aureus infections should take into account the method used

  18. Characterization of micro-contact resistance between a gold nanocrystalline line and a tungsten electrode probe in interconnect fatigue testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xue; Wang, Yusheng; Li, Xide

    2014-10-01

    An electromechanically-coupled micro-contact resistance measurement system is built to mimic the contact process during fatigue testing of nanoscale-thickness interconnects using multiple probe methods. The design combines an optical microscope, high-resolution electronic balance, and micromanipulator-controlled electric probe, and is coupled with electrical measurements to investigate microscale contact physics. Experimental measurements are performed to characterize the contact resistance response of the gold nanocrystalline pad of a 35-nm-thick interconnect under mechanical force applied by a tungsten electrode probe. Location of a stable region for the contact resistance and the critical contact force provides better understanding of micro-contact behavior relative to the effects of the contact force and the nature of the contact surface. Increasing contact temperature leads to reduced contact resistance, softens the pad material, and modifies the contact surface. The stability of both contact resistance and interconnect resistance is studied under increasing contact force. Major fluctuations emerge when the contact force is less than the critical contact force, which shows that temporal contact resistance will affect interconnect resistance measurement accuracy, even when using the four-wire method. This performance is demonstrated experimentally by heating the Au line locally with a laser beam. Finally, the contact resistances are calculated using the LET (Li-Etsion-Talke) model together with combined Holm and Sharvin theory under various contact forces. Good agreement between the results is obtained. This research provides a way to measure change in interconnect line resistance directly under a stable contact resistance regime with a two-wire method that will greatly reduce the experimental costs.

  19. Resistance temperature sensor aging degradation identification using LCSR (Loop Current Step Response) test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos; Goncalves, Iraci Martine Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Most critical process temperatures in nuclear power plants are measured using RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) and thermocouples. In a PWR (Pressure Water Reactor) plant, the primary coolant temperature and feedwater temperature are measured using RTDs, and the temperature of the water that exits the reactor core is measured using thermocouples. These thermocouples are mainly used for temperature monitoring purposes and are therefore not generally subject to very stringent requirements for accuracy and response-time performance. In contrast, primary coolant RTDs typically feed the plant's control and safety systems and must, therefore, be very accurate and have good dynamic performance. The response time of RTDs and thermocouples has been characterized by a single parameter called the Plunge Time Constant. This is defined as the time it takes the sensor output to achieve 63.2 percent of its final value after a step change in temperature is impressed on its surface. This step change is typically achieved by suddenly immersing the sensor in a rotating tank of water, called Plunge Test. In nuclear reactors, however, plunge testing is inconvenient because the sensor must be removed from the reactor coolant piping and taken to a laboratory for testing. Nuclear reactor service conditions of 150 bar and 300°C are difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Therefore, all laboratory tests are performed at much milder conditions, and the results are extrapolated to service conditions. This leads to significant errors in the measurement of sensor response times and an insitu test method called LCSR - Loop Current Step Response test was developed in the mid-1970s to measure remotely the response time of RTDs. In the LCSR method, the sensing element is heated by an electric current; the current causes Joule heating in the sensor and results in a temperature transient inside the sensor. The temperature transient in the element is recorded, and from this transient, the

  20. Effects of Increased Respiratory Resistance on Maximal O2 Uptake and Anaerobic Threshold during Incremental Exercise Tests

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZÇELİK, Oğuz

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess whether maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) can be used as an index of measuring aerobic capacity under the condition of increased respiratory resistance. Seven male subjects performed two incremental exercise tests on a cycle ergometer on different days: one control (C) and one breathing through an 8 mm bore diameter respiratory resistance (R). Ventilatory and gas exchange responses were measured with a turbine volume transducer and mass spectrometry, and processed...

  1. Outcomes of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with discordant phenotypic isoniazid resistance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sukyeon; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Lee, Nam Yong; Jeong, Byeong-Ho

    2017-12-01

    The discrepancy rates of drug susceptibility testing (DST) results between solid and liquid media have been reported to range from 2.4 to 7.4% for isoniazid. Most isolate with isoniazid DST discrepancies between solid and liquid media test as susceptible on solid medium and resistant in liquid medium, however, the optimal management of patients with discordant testing is unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of treatment regimen on treatment outcomes when patients with rifampicin-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis have isoniazid resistance (INH-R) in liquid medium but isoniazid susceptibility (INH-S) on solid medium. This study was retrospectively conducted by reviewing patient medical records on the liquid compared to solid culture based phenotypic testing at Samsung Medical Center between January 2009 and December 2015. The study population which have INH-R in liquid medium and INH-S on solid medium was divided into two groups: group A (n = 30), which included patients treated for INH-S tuberculosis by discontinuing pyrazinamide (and ethambutol), and group B (n = 56), which included patients treated for INH-R tuberculosis by continuing pyrazinamide and/or adding fluoroquinolone. Unfavorable outcomes included treatment failure and relapse. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups including demographic data, comorbidities, radiologic data, and treatment duration. However, baseline smear positive rates were more frequent in group A (19/30, 63.3%) than in group B (22/56, 39.3%; P = 0.033). Only three patients had unfavorable outcomes; one was bacteriologically proven treatment failure and the other two were clinically judged as unfavorable outcomes. All of them were in the group A (3/30, 10%); no unfavorable outcomes occurred in the group B (0/56, 0%; P = 0.040). Unfavorable outcomes were less frequent in the group B than in the group A, indicating that treatment regimen modification according to DST

  2. Identification of powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars using host-pathogen tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Okoń

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize and identify powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat cultivars using host-pathogen tests. A differential set of six Blumeria graminis f.sp. avenae isolates virulent or avirulent to four cultivars and one line that has known resistance to powdery mildew were used. Among the investigated cultivars, only four of them (13.3% had resistance patterns similar to genotypes belonging to the differential set. The resistance of OMR group 1 was found in the cultivar ‘Dragon’, while that of OMR2 in the cultivar ‘Skrzat’. The cultivars ‘Deresz’ and ‘Hetman’ showed a resistance pattern that corresponded with OMR group 3. The resistance corresponding to OMR4 was not found, which suggests that until now this gene has not been used in Polish oat breeding programmes. The cultivar ‘Canyon’ had a different pat- tern of resistance than the genotypes that have already known OMR genes, which indicates that the resistance of this cultivar is determined by a new gene or a combination of known genes.

  3. Neisseria gonorrhoeae: testing, typing and treatment in an era of increased antimicrobial resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, C.M.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis discusses the management of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections while under threat of emerging antimicrobial resistance. It focuses on improved diagnostics, and antimicrobial resistance to current and future therapies. We describe a new method of targeted deferred culture, using nucleic

  4. Influence of inspiratory resistance on performance during graded exercise tests on a cycle ergometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heus, R.; Hartog, E.A. den; Kistemaker, L.J.A.; Dijk, W.J. van; Swenker, G.

    2004-01-01

    Due to more stringent requirements to protect personnel against hazardous gasses, the inspiratory resistance of the present generation of respiratory protective devices tends to increase. Therefore an important question is to what extent inspiratory resistance may increase without giving problems

  5. Molecular and Growth-Based Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex for Ethambutol Resistance in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell A. Yakrus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethambutol (EMB is used as a part of drug regimens for treatment of tuberculosis (TB. Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC isolates to EMB can be discerned by DNA sequencing to detect mutations in the embB gene associated with resistance. US Public Health Laboratories (PHL primarily use growth-based drug susceptibility test (DST methods to determine EMB resistance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC provides a service for molecular detection of drug resistance (MDDR by DNA sequencing and concurrent growth-based DST using agar proportion. PHL and CDC test results were compared for 211 MTBC samples submitted to CDC from September 2009 through February 2011. Concordance between growth-based DST results from PHL and CDC was 88.2%. A growth-based comparison of 39 samples, where an embB mutation associated with EMB resistance was detected, revealed a higher percentage of EMB resistance by CDC (84.6% than by PHL (59.0% which was significant (P value = 0.002. Discordance between all growth-based test results from PHL and CDC was also significant (P value = 0.003. Most discordance was linked to false susceptibility using the BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 (MGIT growth-based system. Our analysis supports coalescing growth-based and molecular results for an informed interpretation of potential EMB resistance.

  6. Genotyping Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Primary Sputum and Decontaminated Sediment with an Integrated Microfluidic Amplification Microarray Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Yvonne; Knickerbocker, Christopher; Sipes, David; Golova, Julia; Franke, Molly; Calderon, Roger; Lecca, Leonid; Thakore, Nitu; Holmberg, Rebecca; Qu, Peter; Kukhtin, Alexander; Murray, Megan B; Cooney, Christopher G; Chandler, Darrell P

    2018-03-01

    There is a growing awareness that molecular diagnostics for detect-to-treat applications will soon need a highly multiplexed mutation detection and identification capability. In this study, we converted an open-amplicon microarray hybridization test for multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis into an entirely closed-amplicon consumable (an amplification microarray) and evaluated its performance with matched sputum and sediment extracts. Reproducible genotyping (the limit of detection) was achieved with ∼25 M. tuberculosis genomes (100 fg of M. tuberculosis DNA) per reaction; the estimated shelf life of the test was at least 18 months when it was stored at 4°C. The test detected M. tuberculosis in 99.1% of sputum extracts and 100% of sediment extracts and showed 100% concordance with the results of real-time PCR. The levels of concordance between M. tuberculosis and resistance-associated gene detection were 99.1% and 98.4% for sputum and sediment extracts, respectively. Genotyping results were 100% concordant between sputum and sediment extracts. Relative to the results of culture-based drug susceptibility testing, the test was 97.1% specific and 75.0% sensitive for the detection of rifampin resistance in both sputum and sediment extracts. The specificity for the detection of isoniazid (INH) resistance was 98.4% and 96.8% for sputum and sediment extracts, respectively, and the sensitivity for the detection of INH resistance was 63.6%. The amplification microarray reported the correct genotype for all discordant phenotype/genotype results. On the basis of these data, primary sputum may be considered a preferred specimen for the test. The amplification microarray design, shelf life, and analytical performance metrics are well aligned with consensus product profiles for next-generation drug-resistant M. tuberculosis diagnostics and represent a significant ease-of-use advantage over other hybridization-based tests for diagnosing MDR tuberculosis

  7. Irradiation tests of a small-sized motor with radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamichi, M.; Ishitsuka, E.; Shimakawa, S.; Kan, S.

    2007-01-01

    In the Test Blanket Module (TBM) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), tritium production and release behavior will be studied using neutrons from fusion reactions, as the blanket development for a demonstration (DEMO) reactor. For development of the TBM, in-pile functional tests are planned, including an integrated irradiation experiment of a fusion blanket mock-up for pulsed operation simulating the ITER operation mode, using the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA).Due to be installed in an irradiation rig, a small-sized motor has to be developed for rotating a neutron absorber with a window to realize the simulated pulse operation. Since degradation of materials of the motor may be caused by radiation damage due to neutron and gamma-ray irradiation, it is important to examine the soundness of the motor materials under the neutron and gamma irradiation.In the present study, a small-sized motor with increased radiation resistance was developed as follows. A design of a commercial alternate current (AC) servomotor was adopted in the base structure, and some components of the motor were replaced by those made of radiation-proof materials, through elimination of organic materials. Polyester-coated wire for field coil and epoxy for fixed resin were replaced by polyimide-coated wire and polysiloxane filled with MgO and Al 2 O 3 , respectively. Furthermore, inorganic lubricant (Mo-based coating of 4 micro meter in thickness) was treated on the surface of a gear, instead of organic (polyphenylether) oil.Radiation-induced degradation of the components of the developed small-sized motor was examined using JMTR and the Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4) of JAEA. The motor was operating normally up to a gamma-ray dose of 7 x 10 8 Gy, a fast neutron (E>1 MeV) fluence of 2 x 10 21 m -2 and a thermal neutron (E 22 m -2 . The irradiated gamma-ray dose for this motor is about 700 times as high as the operation

  8. Testing of a resistive plate chamber using NINO-ASIC based front end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, M.; Saini, J.; Ahammed, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Ganai, R.; Barai, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) has shown promising results while testing with the NINO FEE board. It has shown ∼ 80% efficiency in detecting cosmic muons with a noise rate of ∼ 40 Hz/cm 2 . The low threshold in the NINO board may be a possible reason for high noise rate. We plan to test the RPC for different gas mixtures to achieve an efficiency above 95%. The calibration of the NINO onboard threshold with input pulse amplitude need to be done. The time resolution of RPC is ∼ 2.66 ns at 12 kV for avalanche mode gas mixture. The minimum time resolution of the RPC has to determined by measuring the time spectra over the full plateau region of voltages. The signal charge has to be measured by time over- threshold for slewing correction. As J7 input of the board was not working properly, efficiency and noise rate data for the particular input has not been measured

  9. Pedicle Screw Fixation Study in Immature Porcine Spines to Improve Pullout Resistance during Animal Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Le Cann

    Full Text Available The porcine model is frequently used during development and validation of new spinal devices, because of its likeness to the human spine. These spinal devices are frequently composed of pedicle screws with a reputation for stable fixation but which can suffer pullouts during preclinical implantation on young animals, leading to high morbidity. With a view to identifying the best choices to optimize pedicle screw fixation in the porcine model, this study evaluates ex vivo the impact of weight (age of the animal, the level of the vertebrae (lumbar or thoracic and the type of screw anchorage (mono- or bi-cortical on pedicle screw pullouts. Among the 80 pig vertebrae (90- and 140-day-old tested in this study, the average screw pullout forces ranged between 419.9N and 1341.2N. In addition, statistical differences were found between test groups, pointing out the influence of the three parameters stated above. We found that the the more caudally the screws are positioned (lumbar level, the greater their pullout resistance is, moreover, screw stability increases with the age, and finally, the screws implanted with a mono-cortical anchorage sustained lower pullout forces than those implanted with a bi-cortical anchorage. We conclude that the best anchorage can be obtained with older animals, using a lumbar fixation and long screws traversing the vertebra and inducing bi-cortical anchorage. In very young animals, pedicle screw fixations need to be bi-cortical and more numerous to prevent pullout.

  10. Pedicle Screw Fixation Study in Immature Porcine Spines to Improve Pullout Resistance during Animal Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cann, Sophie; Cachon, Thibaut; Viguier, Eric; Miladi, Lotfi; Odent, Thierry; Rossi, Jean-Marie; Chabrand, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The porcine model is frequently used during development and validation of new spinal devices, because of its likeness to the human spine. These spinal devices are frequently composed of pedicle screws with a reputation for stable fixation but which can suffer pullouts during preclinical implantation on young animals, leading to high morbidity. With a view to identifying the best choices to optimize pedicle screw fixation in the porcine model, this study evaluates ex vivo the impact of weight (age) of the animal, the level of the vertebrae (lumbar or thoracic) and the type of screw anchorage (mono- or bi-cortical) on pedicle screw pullouts. Among the 80 pig vertebrae (90- and 140-day-old) tested in this study, the average screw pullout forces ranged between 419.9N and 1341.2N. In addition, statistical differences were found between test groups, pointing out the influence of the three parameters stated above. We found that the the more caudally the screws are positioned (lumbar level), the greater their pullout resistance is, moreover, screw stability increases with the age, and finally, the screws implanted with a mono-cortical anchorage sustained lower pullout forces than those implanted with a bi-cortical anchorage. We conclude that the best anchorage can be obtained with older animals, using a lumbar fixation and long screws traversing the vertebra and inducing bi-cortical anchorage. In very young animals, pedicle screw fixations need to be bi-cortical and more numerous to prevent pullout.

  11. Abrasive Wear Resistance of the Iron- and WC-based Hardfaced Coatings Evaluated with Scratch Test Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vencl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abrasive wear is one of the most common types of wear, which makesabrasive wear resistance very important in many industries. Thehard facing is considered as useful and economical way to improve theperformance of components submitted to severe abrasive wear conditions, with wide range of applicable filler materials. The abrasive wear resistance of the three different hardfaced coatings (two iron‐based and one WC‐based, which were intended to be used for reparation of the impact plates of the ventilation mill, was investigated and compared. Abrasive wear tests were carried‐out by using the scratch tester under the dry conditions. Three normal loads of 10, 50 and 100 N and the constant sliding speed of 4 mm/s were used. Scratch test was chosen as a relatively easy and quick test method. Wear mechanism analysis showed significant influence of the hardfaced coatings structure, which, along with hardness, has determined coatings abrasive wear resistance.

  12. Experimental tests of the impact of selected parameters on the indentation rolling resistances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Dariusz; Gładysiewicz, Lech; Konieczna, Martyna

    2018-01-01

    Belt conveyors are main part of transporting systems in mines and in many other branches of industry. During conveyor belt works different types of resistances are generated. Indentation rolling resistance is the most significant component of the resistances from the perspective of energy losses and it cause the biggest costs as well. According to latest state of analyses and measurements it is well known that theoretical rolling resistance were underestimated in comparison with the measured in-situ one. In this paper new method for determination indentation rolling resistance is presented. The authors compared theoretically and experimentally established damping factors. The relation between these two values enabled to obtain more precise equation for damping function. This function is one of the most important component in calculation of the rolling resistance. In new theoretical model value of rolling resistance is nearly twice higher than this used so far.

  13. Systematic review, meta-analysis and economic modelling of molecular diagnostic tests for antibiotic resistance in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobniewski, Francis; Cooke, Mary; Jordan, Jake; Casali, Nicola; Mugwagwa, Tendai; Broda, Agnieszka; Townsend, Catherine; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Green, Nathan; Jit, Mark; Lipman, Marc; Lord, Joanne; White, Peter J; Abubakar, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), especially multidrug-resistant (MDR, resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid) disease, is associated with a worse patient outcome. Drug resistance diagnosed using microbiological culture takes days to weeks, as TB bacteria grow slowly. Rapid molecular tests for drug resistance detection (1 day) are commercially available and may promote faster initiation of appropriate treatment. OBJECTIVES To (1) conduct a systematic review of evidence regarding diagnostic accuracy of molecular genetic tests for drug resistance, (2) conduct a health-economic evaluation of screening and diagnostic strategies, including comparison of alternative models of service provision and assessment of the value of targeting rapid testing at high-risk subgroups, and (3) construct a transmission-dynamic mathematical model that translates the estimates of diagnostic accuracy into estimates of clinical impact. REVIEW METHODS AND DATA SOURCES A standardised search strategy identified relevant studies from EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, Bioscience Information Service (BIOSIS), System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe Social Policy & Practice (SIGLE) and Web of Science, published between 1 January 2000 and 15 August 2013. Additional 'grey' sources were included. Quality was assessed using quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies version 2 (QUADAS-2). For each diagnostic strategy and population subgroup, a care pathway was constructed to specify which medical treatments and health services that individuals would receive from presentation to the point where they either did or did not complete TB treatment successfully. A total cost was estimated from a health service perspective for each care pathway, and the health impact was estimated in terms of the mean discounted quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost as a result of disease and treatment. Costs and QALYs were both discounted at 3.5% per year. An integrated transmission-dynamic and

  14. Systematic review, meta-analysis and economic modelling of molecular diagnostic tests for antibiotic resistance in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobniewski, Francis; Cooke, Mary; Jordan, Jake; Casali, Nicola; Mugwagwa, Tendai; Broda, Agnieszka; Townsend, Catherine; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Green, Nathan; Jit, Mark; Lipman, Marc; Lord, Joanne; White, Peter J; Abubakar, Ibrahim

    2015-05-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), especially multidrug-resistant (MDR, resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid) disease, is associated with a worse patient outcome. Drug resistance diagnosed using microbiological culture takes days to weeks, as TB bacteria grow slowly. Rapid molecular tests for drug resistance detection (1 day) are commercially available and may promote faster initiation of appropriate treatment. To (1) conduct a systematic review of evidence regarding diagnostic accuracy of molecular genetic tests for drug resistance, (2) conduct a health-economic evaluation of screening and diagnostic strategies, including comparison of alternative models of service provision and assessment of the value of targeting rapid testing at high-risk subgroups, and (3) construct a transmission-dynamic mathematical model that translates the estimates of diagnostic accuracy into estimates of clinical impact. A standardised search strategy identified relevant studies from EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, Bioscience Information Service (BIOSIS), System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe Social Policy & Practice (SIGLE) and Web of Science, published between 1 January 2000 and 15 August 2013. Additional 'grey' sources were included. Quality was assessed using quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies version 2 (QUADAS-2). For each diagnostic strategy and population subgroup, a care pathway was constructed to specify which medical treatments and health services that individuals would receive from presentation to the point where they either did or did not complete TB treatment successfully. A total cost was estimated from a health service perspective for each care pathway, and the health impact was estimated in terms of the mean discounted quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost as a result of disease and treatment. Costs and QALYs were both discounted at 3.5% per year. An integrated transmission-dynamic and economic model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of

  15. Evaluations of corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr plated and Zn-plated Fe Substrates Using an Electrolytic Corrosion Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaebong; Kim, Kyungwook; Park, Minwoo; Song, Taejun; Lee, Chaeseung; Lee, Euijong; Kim, Sangyeol

    2013-01-01

    An Eectrolytic Corrosion(EC) test method was evaluated by the comparison with Copper Accelerated Acetic Salt Spray(CASS) and Neutral Salt Spray(SS) tests. Those methods were applied in order to evaluate corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr plated and Zn-plated Fe substrates. The correlations between results obtained by different test methods were investigated. Results showed that the electrochemical method such as the EC test method was superior to the conventional methods such as CASS and SS, in terms of the quantitative accuracy and the test-time span. Furthermore, the EC test method provided the useful means to estimate the initiation of corrosion of each layer by monitoring the rest potentials of the coated layers such as Ni, Cr, and Zn on Fe substrate. With regard to test time spans, the EC test provided the 78 times and 182 times faster results than the CASS test in cases of Fe + 5μm Ni + 0.5 μm Cr and Fe + 20 μm Ni + 0.5 μm Cr respectively, while the EC test was 85 times faster results than the Salt Spray test in the case of Fe + 20 g/m 2 Zn. Therefore, the EC test can be the better method to evaluate the resistance to corrosion of coated layers than the conventional methods such as the SS test and the CASS

  16. Emerging Resistance, New Antimicrobial Agents  …  but No Tests! The Challenge of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing in the Current US Regulatory Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R M; Hindler, J A

    2016-07-01

    Accurate and timely performance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) by the clinical laboratory is paramount to combating antimicrobial resistance. The ability of laboratories in the United States to effectively perform ASTs is challenged by several factors. Some, such as new resistance mechanisms and the associated evolution of testing recommendations and breakpoints, are inevitable. Others are entirely man-made. These include unnecessarily strict US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) limitations on how commercial AST systems can be used for diagnostic testing, the absence of up-to-date performance data on these systems, and the lack of commercially available FDA-cleared tests for newer antimicrobial agents or for older agents with updated breakpoints. This viewpoint will highlight contemporary AST challenges faced by the clinical laboratory, and propose some solutions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Study of Proper Time Range for Current Flow to Resistance Spot Welding Inspected by Mechanical Property and Metallurgy Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearsura, Prachya

    2007-08-01

    Full text: This research used the mechanical property and metallurgy testing to identify the proper time range for current flow. The specimen tested was 1 mm thick mild steel. The welded specimens were tested by Tensile Shear testing following JIS Z 3136: 1999 and Macro Structure testing follow by JIS Z 3139: 1978. Subsequently, the results from analyzing were compared with standard JIS Z 3140. The results show that the suitable current flow is 8 to 10 cycles. This technique can be applied to monitor the process and the quality of resistance spot welding

  18. Detection of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori by polymerase chain reaction using residual samples from rapid urease test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sik Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, which corresponds to a high infection rate. Furthermore, the incidence of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori has increased with the recent rise in use of antibiotics for H. pylori elimination, suggesting growing treatment failures. Aim: The study was aimed to assess the use of residual samples from rapid urease test (RUT for biomolecular testing as an effective and accurate method to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Settings and Design: This study was a retrospective study performed using data obtained from medical records of previously isolated H. pylori strains. Materials and Methods: RUT was conducted for 5440 biopsy samples from individuals who underwent health examination in South Korea. Subsequently, 469 RUT residual samples were randomly selected and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test was used to analyse categorical data. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed a concordance between the results of PCR and conventional RUT in 450 of 469 samples, suggesting that the H. pylori PCR test is a time- and cost-effective detection method. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that PCR test can aid physicians to prescribe the appropriate antibiotics at the time of diagnosis, thus preventing the reduction in H. pylori eradication due to antibiotic resistance, averting progression to serious diseases and increasing the treatment success rate.

  19. Strength resistance test of superior members for elderly people: comparison between dumbbells with different weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marize Amorim Lopes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the performance of elderly people in the strength resistance test of superior members (SRTSM with dumbbells of different weights (1,8 kg and 2 kg for women and 3,6 kg and 4 kg for men. The sample consisted of 407 elderly (349 feminine and 58 masculine, with age of 60 to 88 years, practitioners of physical exercise for at least six months. The used instrument was the SRTSM of the battery of tests American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD. Two executions of the test were carried through with dumbbells of different weights, SRTSM (1,8 kg and 3,6 kg and “adjusted” SRTSM (2 kg and 4 kg. For the analysis of the data, it was proceeded descriptive analysis, test t of Student for independent samples, paired t test for dependent samples and ANOVA with post-hoc of Tukey, adopting itself the 5% level significance. The results demonstrated that the use of dumbbells with 4 weights of 2 and kg, seem not to affect the performance of the elderly ones, mainly of the masculine sex. For the feminine sex significant difference in the averages of the second comparison carried through for the sort was detected. However, this difference can have been resulting from external factors to the test, since, the greater average obtained was for “the adjusted” SRTSM. Nevertheless, one tries to facilitate even more the evaluation of the functional capacity of the elderly population, being recommended for SRTSM the use of dumbbells with weight of 2 kg for women and 4kg for men that they are of low cost, easy acquisition and access in the Brazilian market. ResumoO objetivo do estudo foi comparar o desempenho de idosos no teste de resistência de força de membros superiores (RESISFOR com halteres de diferentes pesos (1,8 kg e 2 kg para mulheres e 3,6 kg e 4 kg para homens. A amostra foi constituída por 407 idosos (349 feminino e 58 masculino, com idade de 60 a 88 anos, praticantes de exercício f

  20. Testing hypotheses that link wood anatomy to cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in the genus Acer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Frederic; Sperry, John S; Christman, Mairgareth A; Choat, Brendan; Rabaey, David; Jansen, Steven

    2011-05-01

    • Vulnerability to cavitation and conductive efficiency depend on xylem anatomy. We tested a large range of structure-function hypotheses, some for the first time, within a single genus to minimize phylogenetic 'noise' and maximize detection of functionally relevant variation. • This integrative study combined in-depth anatomical observations using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy of seven Acer taxa, and compared these observations with empirical measures of xylem hydraulics. • Our results reveal a 2 MPa range in species' mean cavitation pressure (MCP). MCP was strongly correlated with intervessel pit structure (membrane thickness and porosity, chamber depth), weakly correlated with pit number per vessel, and not related to pit area per vessel. At the tissue level, there was a strong correlation between MCP and mechanical strength parameters, and some of the first evidence is provided for the functional significance of vessel grouping and thickenings on inner vessel walls. In addition, a strong trade-off was observed between xylem-specific conductivity and MCP. Vessel length and intervessel wall characteristics were implicated in this safety-efficiency trade-off. • Cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in Acer appear to be controlled by a very complex interaction between tissue, vessel network and pit characteristics. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Ground penetrating radar and direct current resistivity evaluation of the desiccation test cap, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, D.E.; Cumbest, R.J.

    1996-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has a variety of waste units that may be temporarily or permanently stabilized by closure using an impermeable cover to prevent groundwater infiltration. The placement of an engineered kaolin clay layer over a waste unit is an accepted and economical technique for providing an impermeable cover but the long term stability and integrity of the clay in non-arid conditions is unknown. A simulated kaolin cap has been constructed at the SRA adjacent to the Burial Ground Complex. The cap is designed to evaluate the effects of desiccation on clay integrity, therefore half of the cap is covered with native soil to prevent drying, while the remainder of the cap is exposed. Measurements of the continuing impermeability of a clay cap are difficult because intrusive techniques may locally compromise the structure. Point measurements made to evaluate clay integrity, such as those from grid sampling or coring and made through a soil cover, may miss cracks, joints or fissures, and may not allow for mapping of the lateral extent of elongate features. Because of these problems, a non-invasive technique is needed to map clay integrity, below a soil or vegetation cover, which is capable of moderate to rapid investigation speeds. Two non-intrusive geophysical techniques, direct current resistivity and ground penetrating radar (GPR), have been successful at the SRS in geologically mapping shallow subsurface clay layers. The applicability of each technique in detecting the clay layer in the desiccation test cap and associated anomalies was investigated

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pharmacogenomics in clinical practice: relevance of HIV-1 drug resistance testing (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patarca, Roberto; Isava, Alejandro; Campo, Rafael; Rodriguez, Nelson J; Nunez, Enriqueta; Alter, Michael; Marchette, Margaret; Sanabia, Mirtha M; Mitchell, Charles; Rivera, Delia; Scott, Gwendolyn; Jayaweera, Dushyantha; Moreno, Jose; Boulanger, Catherine; Kolber, Michael; Mask, Cindy W; Sierra, Eduardo Meneses; Vallejo, Ricardo; Page, J Brian; Klimas, Nancy G; Fletcher, Mary Ann

    2003-01-01

    Throughout most of the past century, physicians could offer patients no treatments for infections caused by viruses. The experience with treatment of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has changed the way healthcare workers deal with viral infections and has triggered a growing rate of discovery and use of antiviral agents, the first fruits of the expanding genomics revolution. HIV treatment also provides an informative paradigm for pharmacogenomics because control of infection and its consequences is limited by the development of viral drug resistance and by host factors. This report summarizes studies published to date on the significance of testing of HIV-1 resistance to antiretroviral drugs. The only Food and Drug Administration-approved kit for HIV drug resistance testing by genotypic sequencing is commercially available through Visible Genetics, Inc. Genotyping sequencing alone is most likely an adequate test to assist in the therapeutic decision-making process for previous regimen failure, for treatment-naïve patients in areas of high prevalence of transmitted resistant virus, and for pregnant women. However, in exceptional cases of highly complex mutation patterns and extensive cross-resistance, it may be useful to obtain a phenotype test, because that result may more easily identify drugs to which virus is least resistant. There are no published clinical trials results on the usefulness of the so-called virtual phenotype over genotypic sequencing alone. Not only has the paradigm of viral pharmacogenomics in the form of HIV genotypic sequencing been useful in treating other viral diseases, but it is also important to the real-life implementation of the growing discipline ofgenomics or molecular medicine. The application of this paradigm to the thousands of potential therapeutic targets that have become available through the various human genome projects will certainly gradually change the landscape of diagnosis and management of many diseases

  3. Decreased Time to Treatment Initiation for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients after Use of Xpert MTB/RIF Test, Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Helen R; White, Peter J; Riekstiņa, Vija; Cīrule, Andra; Šķenders, Ģirts; Leimane, Vaira; Kuksa, Liga; Dravniece, Gunta; Brown, James; Jackson, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    Few studies have examined whether the Xpert MTB/RIF test improves time to treatment initiation for persons with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB). We determined the impact of this test in Latvia, where it was introduced in 2010. After descriptive analyses of pulmonary MDR TB patients in Latvia during 2009-2012, time to treatment initiation was calculated, and univariate and multivariable accelerated failure time models were constructed. Univariate results showed strong evidence of an association between having rifampin-resistant TB detected by Xpert MTB/RIF and reduced time to treatment initiation versus the test not being used. A multivariable model stratifying by previous TB showed similar results. Our finding that in Latvia, time to treatment initiation was decreased for MDR TB cases that were rifampin-resistant TB by XpertMTB/RIF has implications for the use of this test in other settings with a high burden of MDR TB in which rifampin resistance is highly predictive of MDR TB.

  4. The Electrical Resistivity and Acoustic Emission Response Law and Damage Evolution of Limestone in Brazilian Split Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinji Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian split test was performed on two groups of limestone samples with loading directions vertical and parallel to the bedding plane, and the response laws of the electrical resistivity and acoustic emission (AE in the two loading modes were obtained. The test results showed that the Brazilian split test with loading directions vertical and parallel to the bedding showed obviously different results and anisotropic characteristics. On the basis of the response laws of the electrical resistivity and AE, the damage variables based on the electrical resistivity and AE properties were modified, and the evolution laws of the damage variables in the Brazilian split test with different loading directions were obtained. It was found that the damage evolution laws varied with the loading direction. Specifically, in the time-varying curve of the damage variable with the loading direction vertical to the bedding, the damage variable based on electrical resistivity properties showed an obvious damage weakening stage while that based on AE properties showed an abrupt increase under low load.

  5. A comparative analysis of resistance testing methods in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from St. Johns County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) was tested for resistance to permethrin, bifenthrin, and malathion using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassays and topical toxicology assays on adults and larval bioassays. Eggs were collected from 3 locations across St. Johns C...

  6. Properties of fly ash and metakaolín based geopolymer panels under fire resistance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna-Galiano, Y.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study about the effect of fire on geopolymer paste composed of fly ashes, metakaolin and sodium silicate. 2 cm thick, 28 cm high and 18 cm wide panels were filled with the paste obtained. After 28 days of curing at 20 °C and 45% of relative humidity, different tests were carried out in the geopolymers: physico-chemical (density, water absorption, porosity, mechanical (flexural and compressive strength, fire resistance and environmental (leaching and radioactivity. The panels manufactured have been compared with other commercial panels in order to determine the recycling possibilities of fly ashes in manufacturing new fire-insulating geopolymers. The panels obtained can be utilized for the production of interior wall materials, with a good physical, mechanical, fire resistant properties without any environmental problem.Este documento presenta los resultados de un estudio sobre el efecto del fuego sobre pastas de geopolímeros compuestas de cenizas volantes, metacaolín y silicato sódico. Con la pasta obtenida se han rellenado paneles de dimensiones 2 cm de espesor, 28 cm de altura y 18 cm de ancho. Tras 28 días de curado a 20 °C y un 45% de humedad relativa, diferentes ensayos fueron realizados en los geopolímeros obtenidos: fisicoquímicos (densidad, absorción de agua, porosidad, mecánicos (resistencia a compresión y a flexión, de resistencia al fuego y medioambientales (lixiviación y radioactividad. Los paneles fabricados han sido comparados con paneles comerciales para determinar las posibilidades de reciclaje de las cenizas volantes para la fabricación de nuevos productos geopoliméricos con propiedades aislantes al fuego. Los paneles obtenidos pueden ser utilizados para la producción de paredes interiores, con buenas propiedades físicas, mecánicas y de resistencia al fuego sin ningún problema medioambiental.

  7. Modelling of Two-Seat Connection to the Frame of Rail Wagon in Terms of Resistance at Impact Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čech Rostislav

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores how design changes can affect resistance of rail wagon seat-to-frame connections at impact test and proposes alternative way to construct such connections. Results were due to a nature of presented problem obtained by computer modelling using MSC Nastran with explicit finite element method solution invoked. Physical tests were also conducted and comparison with numerical results is presented.

  8. New test procedure to determine fuel's knock resistance; Neues Kraftstoffpruefverfahren zur Bestimmung der Klopffestigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Karl [Hochschule Ingolstadt (Germany). Thermodynamik und Verbrennungsmotoren; Hauber, Johann; Raba, Andreas [Hochschule Ingolstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Forschung; Nell, Robert [Rofa Laboratory and Process Analyzers, Kritzendorf (Austria). Bereich Produktentwicklung

    2013-07-15

    Knock resistance is one of the most important quality features of gasoline that is determined by standardised motor test procedures. These procedures were developed more than 80 years ago and have been used nearly unchanged since then. During a four-year research project at Ingolstadt University of Applied Sciences, the procedures for determination of octane numbers were analysed in order to develop a new engine-based test method. (orig.)

  9. Test methods for on site measurement of resistivity of concrete. A RILEM TC-154 Technical Recommendation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes methods to assess concrete resistivity on site for various purposes related to corrosion and protection of reinforcement. It is based on a first draft of a RILEM Technical Recommendation. The electrical resistivity of concrete can be related to the two processes involved in

  10. Change in electrical resistance of irradiated nuclear graphite during compressive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Motokuni

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the change in electrical resistance of neutron-irradiated nuclear graphite is measured and compared with that of the unirradiated; the deformation mechanism for irradiated graphite is discussed in relation to the resistance change and the defects which are believed to be produced during irradiation. (orig./RK)

  11. Testing a Model of Resistance to Peer Pressure among Mexican-Origin Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors associated with resistance to peer pressure toward antisocial behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin adolescents (n=564) living in a large Southwestern city in the U.S. A model examining the influence of generational status, emotional autonomy from parents, and self-esteem on resistance to peer pressure was…

  12. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the aminoglycoside arbekacin tested against oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Brazilian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. R. Cordeiro

    Full Text Available Arbekacin is an aminoglycoside used in Japan for treating infections caused by gentamicin and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (ORSA. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of arbekacin against 454 clinical isolates of ORSA. The isolates were consecutively collected between January and July, 2000, from patients hospitalized in 8 Brazilian medical centers. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method according to NCCLS recommendations. The vast majority of the isolates, 453 strains (99.8%, were considered susceptible to arbekacin based on the criteria proposed by the Requirements for Antibiotic Products of Japan. Only 1 isolate (0.2% was classified as resistant. On the other hand, high rates of resistance were demonstrated for other aminoglycosides, such as gentamicin (97.6% resistance and amikacin (97.0% resistance. Resistance rate was also high for ciprofloxacin (98.0%. All isolates were considered susceptible to vancomycin. The excellent in vitro antimicrobial activity of arbekacin demonstrated in this study indicates that this antimicrobial agent may play an important role in the treatment of severe ORSA infections, especially those that show poor clinical response with vancomycin monotherapy. Since the aminoglycosides should not be used as monotherapy to treat Gram positive infections, further studies evaluating in vitro and in vivo synergistic activity of arbekacin combinations are necessary to clarify the clinical role of this aminoglycoside.

  13. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the aminoglycoside arbekacin tested against oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Brazilian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordeiro Julio C. R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Arbekacin is an aminoglycoside used in Japan for treating infections caused by gentamicin and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (ORSA. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of arbekacin against 454 clinical isolates of ORSA. The isolates were consecutively collected between January and July, 2000, from patients hospitalized in 8 Brazilian medical centers. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method according to NCCLS recommendations. The vast majority of the isolates, 453 strains (99.8%, were considered susceptible to arbekacin based on the criteria proposed by the Requirements for Antibiotic Products of Japan. Only 1 isolate (0.2% was classified as resistant. On the other hand, high rates of resistance were demonstrated for other aminoglycosides, such as gentamicin (97.6% resistance and amikacin (97.0% resistance. Resistance rate was also high for ciprofloxacin (98.0%. All isolates were considered susceptible to vancomycin. The excellent in vitro antimicrobial activity of arbekacin demonstrated in this study indicates that this antimicrobial agent may play an important role in the treatment of severe ORSA infections, especially those that show poor clinical response with vancomycin monotherapy. Since the aminoglycosides should not be used as monotherapy to treat Gram positive infections, further studies evaluating in vitro and in vivo synergistic activity of arbekacin combinations are necessary to clarify the clinical role of this aminoglycoside.

  14. Testing hypotheses on the resistance to metals by Daphnia longispina: differential acclimation, endpoints association, and fitness costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saro, Liliana; Lopes, Isabel; Martins, Nelson; Ribeiro, Rui

    2012-04-01

    Pollution by metals may lead to an increased tolerance in the exposed population through adaptive microevolution, with resistant genotypes becoming more abundant than in reference sites. This work investigated the outcomes associated with selection for resistance by testing three hypotheses to assess the following: Do resistant versus sensitive clonal lineages of Daphnia longispina differentially acclimate to metals during a long-term sublethal exposure, is there a significant correlation between lethal and sublethal responses, and does resistance to metals entail costs to fitness under uncontaminated conditions? No evidence of acclimation was observed. The median effective dilutions of acid mine drainage for reproduction were similar for successive broods within clones during long-term exposures. Lethal and sublethal responses were not correlated, indicating that mechanisms regulating the two types of response were more than likely different. Finally, fitness costs associated with the resistance to lethal levels of metals were not detected, but resistance to sublethal levels of Cu was found to be correlated with a lower intrinsic growth rate under control conditions. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  15. Allelic Tests and Sequence Analysis of Three Genes for Resistance to Xanthomonas perforans Race T3 in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Baimei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Three crosses, Hawaii7981 × PI128216, Hawaii7981 × LA1589, and PI128216 × LA1589, were made to develop F2 populations for testing allelism among three genes Xv3, Rx4, and RxLA1589 conferring resistance to bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas perforans race T3 in tomato. Each population consisted of 535–1 655 individuals. An infiltration method was used to inoculate the leaves of the parental and F2 plants as well as the susceptible control OH88119 for detecting hypersensitive resistance (HR. The results showed that all the tomato plants except OH88119 had HR to race T3, indicating that Xv3, Rx4, and RxLA1589 were allelic genes. Genomic DNA fragments of the Rx4 alleles from Hawaii7981, PI128216, and LA1589 were amplified using gene-specific primers and sequenced. No sequence variation was observed in the coding region of Rx4 in the three resistant lines. Based on the published map positions of these loci as well as the allelic tests and sequence data obtained in this study, we speculated that Xv3, Rx4, and RxLA1589 were the same gene. The results will provide useful information for understanding the mechanism of resistance to race T3 and developing resistant tomato varieties.

  16. Designing and Implementation a Lab Testing Method for Power Cables Insulation Resistance According with STAS 10411-89, SR EN ISO/CEI/17025/2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobra, R.; Pasculescu, D.; Marc, G.; Risteiu, M.; Antonov, A.

    2017-06-01

    Insulation resistance measurement is one of the most important tests required by standards and regulations in terms of electrical safety. Why these tests are is to prevent possible accidents caused by electric shock, damage to equipment or outbreak of fire in normal operating conditions of electrical cables. The insulation resistance experiment refers to the testing of electrical cable insulation, which has a measured resistance that must be below the imposed regulations. Using a microcontroller system data regarding the insulation resistance of the power cables is acquired and with SCADA software the test results are displayed.

  17. Comparison of disc diffusion, Etest and broth microdilution for testing susceptibility of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa to polymyxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fung Liang

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the increasing use of polymyxins to treat infections due to multidrug resistant Gram-negative in many countries, it is important to evaluate different susceptibility testing methods to this class of antibiotic. Methods Susceptibility of 109 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa to polymyxins was tested comparing broth microdilution (reference method, disc diffusion, and Etest using the new interpretative breakpoints of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results Twenty-nine percent of isolates belonged to endemic clone and thus, these strains were excluded of analysis. Among 78 strains evaluated, only one isolate was resistant to polymyxin B by the reference method (MIC: 8.0 μg/mL. Very major and major error rates of 1.2% and 11.5% were detected comparing polymyxin B disc diffusion with the broth microdilution (reference method. Agreement within 1 twofold dilution between Etest and the broth microdilution were 33% for polymyxin B and 79.5% for colistin. One major error and 48.7% minor errors were found comparing polymyxin B Etest with broth microdilution and only 6.4% minor errors with colistin. The concordance between Etest and the broth microdilution (reference method was respectively 100% for colistin and 90% for polymyxin B. Conclusion Resistance to polymyxins seems to be rare among hospital carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates over a six-year period. Our results showed, using the new CLSI criteria, that the disc diffusion susceptibility does not report major errors (false-resistant results for colistin. On the other hand, showed a high frequency of minor errors and 1 very major error for polymyxin B. Etest presented better results for colistin than polymyxin B. Until these results are reproduced with a large number of polymyxins-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates, susceptibility to polymyxins should be confirmed by a reference method.

  18. Linking disturbance and resistance to invasion via changes in biodiversity: a conceptual model and an experimental test on rocky reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulleri, Fabio; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Jaklin, Andrej; Iveša, Ljiljana

    2016-04-01

    Biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. Nonetheless, a unified theory linking disturbance and resistance to invasion through a mechanistic understanding of the changes caused to biodiversity is elusive. Building on different forms of the disturbance-biodiversity relationship and on the Biotic Resistance Hypothesis (BRH), we constructed conceptual models showing that, according to the main biodiversity mechanism generating invasion resistance (complementary vs. identity effects), disturbance can either promote or hinder invasion. Following the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis (IDH), moderate levels of disturbance (either frequency or intensity) are expected to enhance species richness. This will promote invasion resistance when complementarity is more important than species identity. Negative effects of severe disturbance on invasion resistance, due to reductions in species richness, can be either overcompensated or exacerbated by species identity effects, depending on the life-traits becoming dominant within the native species pool. Different invasion resistance scenarios are generated when the diversity-disturbance relationship is negative or positive monotonic. Predictions from these models were experimentally tested on rocky reefs. Macroalgal canopies differing in species richness (1 vs. 2 vs. 3) and identity, were exposed to either a moderate or a severe pulse disturbance. The effects of different canopy-forming species on the seaweed, Caulerpa cylindracea, varied from positive (Cystoseira crinita) to neutral (Cystoseira barbata) to negative (Cystoseira compressa). After 2 years, severely disturbed plots were monopolized by C. compressa and supported less C. cylindracea. Our study shows that the effects of disturbance on invasion depend upon its intensity, the main mechanism through which biodiversity generates invasion resistance and the life-traits selected within the native species pool. Disturbance can sustain invasion resistance when

  19. Infection control, genetic assessment of drug resistance and drug susceptibility testing in the current management of multidrug/extensively-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothamley, Graham H.; Lange, Christoph; Albrecht, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Europe has the highest documented caseload and greatest increase in multidrug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) of all World Health Organization (WHO) regions. This survey examines how recommendations for M/XDR-TB management are being implemented. METHODS: TBNET is a pan......-European clinical research collaboration for tuberculosis. An email survey of TBNET members collected data in relation to infection control, access to molecular tests and basic microbiology with drug sensitivity testing. RESULTS: 68/105 responses gave valid information and were from countries within the WHO...... widely available (88%), even in lower income and especially in high incidence countries. Molecular tests for other first line and second line drugs were less accessible (76 and 52% respectively). A third of physicians considered that drug susceptibility results were delayed by > 2 months. CONCLUSION...

  20. Use of the delayed luminescence test for evaluation of changes in frost-resistance of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Brzóstowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of frost hardening conditions on the frost-resistance of three winter wheat cultivars ('Mironowska 808', 'Grana' and 'Maris Huntsman' was studied. Frost resistance was measured periodically during the autumn and winter season by the delayed luminescence method. Parallelly an electrical conductivity test was performed for comparison. It was found that the temperature which delayed luminescence reaches its maximum (tN correlates with (t50 obtained by the conductometric method. The differences in response of particular cultivars to frost and hardening conditions are described.

  1. Validation of the finite element simulation to estimate the rolling resistance of a non-driving wheel with experimental tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dibagar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Encountering soil from the viewpoint of management and product manufacturing has always been considered important, and an attempt is always made hat the tools and contrasting methods of soil be designed in such a way that itself prevents, as much as possible, the destructive consequences or energy waste that include economical or environmental limitations. Enhancing the soil encountering methods, quality reformation, and its related equipment, requires performing reliable tests in actual soil conditions. Considering the complexity and variety of variables in soil and machine contrast, this is a hard task. Hence, the numeral simulations are the key of all optimizations that illustrate efficient models by removing the costly farm tests and reducing research time. Tire is one of the main factors engaged with soil, and it is one of those tools that are discussable in both farms, and software environments. Despite the complexities in soil behavior, and tire geometry, modeling, tire movement on the soil has been the researchers’ objective from the past. Materials and methods: A non-linear finite element (FE model of the interaction of a non-driving tire with soil surface was developed to investigate the influence of the forward speed, tire inflation pressure and vertical load on rolling resistance using ABAQUS/Explicit code. In this research numerical and experimental tests were done under different conditions in order to estimate tire rolling resistance. In numerical tests, the soil part was simulated as a one-layer viscous-elastic material with a Drucker-Prager model by considering realistic soil properties. These properties included elastic and plastic properties which were obtained in the soil laboratory using relevant tests. The soil samples were prepared from the soil which was inside the soil bin. The same soil was utilized in experimental tests. Finite strain hyper elasticity model is developed to model nearly incompressible

  2. Genotypic Resistance Tests Sequences Reveal the Role of Marginalized Populations in HIV-1 Transmission in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilaih, Mohaned; Marzel, Alex; Yang, Wan Lin; Scherrer, Alexandra U; Schüpbach, Jörg; Böni, Jürg; Yerly, Sabine; Hirsch, Hans H; Aubert, Vincent; Cavassini, Matthias; Klimkait, Thomas; Vernazza, Pietro L; Bernasconi, Enos; Furrer, Hansjakob; Günthard, Huldrych F; Kouyos, Roger

    2016-06-14

    Targeting hard-to-reach/marginalized populations is essential for preventing HIV-transmission. A unique opportunity to identify such populations in Switzerland is provided by a database of all genotypic-resistance-tests from Switzerland, including both sequences from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) and non-cohort sequences. A phylogenetic tree was built using 11,127 SHCS and 2,875 Swiss non-SHCS sequences. Demographics were imputed for non-SHCS patients using a phylogenetic proximity approach. Factors associated with non-cohort outbreaks were determined using logistic regression. Non-B subtype (univariable odds-ratio (OR): 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8-2.1), female gender (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-1.7), black ethnicity (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.7-2.1) and heterosexual transmission group (OR:1.8; 95% CI: 1.6-2.0), were all associated with underrepresentation in the SHCS. We found 344 purely non-SHCS transmission clusters, however, these outbreaks were small (median 2, maximum 7 patients) with a strong overlap with the SHCS'. 65% of non-SHCS sequences were part of clusters composed of >= 50% SHCS sequences. Our data suggests that marginalized-populations are underrepresented in the SHCS. However, the limited size of outbreaks among non-SHCS patients in-care implies that no major HIV outbreak in Switzerland was missed by the SHCS surveillance. This study demonstrates the potential of sequence data to assess and extend the scope of infectious-disease surveillance.

  3. Durability of Compressed Earth Bricks: Assessing Erosion Resistance Using the Modified Spray Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malarvizhi Baskaran

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The discussion in this paper is part of research directed at establishing optimal stabilization strategy for compressed bricks. The deployment context for the use of the compressed bricks was Dar es Salaam (Tanzania where manually fabricated bricks are increasingly being used in low cost housing units. This discussion specifically focuses on strategies that can be used to counter deterioration due to wind-driven rain erosion. The impact of using cement, lime, fiber and a commercial stabilizing fluid was assessed. Factory-produced bricks were used for benchmarking. The durability of the bricks was assessed using the “modified” Bulletin 5 Spray Test. The different brick specimens were sprayed with water at 2.07 MPa and 4.14 MPa over one-hour time period while measuring the depth of erosion every 15 minutes. Factory-produced bricks hardly eroded at both 2.07 MPa and 4.14 MPa pressure levels. The maximum depth of erosion for Soil-Cement bricks ranged from a maximum of 0.5 mm at 2.07 MPa water pressure to 0.8 mm at 4.14 MPa. The maximum and minimum depths of erosion for Soil-Cement-Lime bricks were 25mm and 17 mm respectively. The inclusion of natural fiber in the bricks resulted in a sharp increase of the erosion depth to a maximum of 40 mm at 2.07 MPa and 55 mm at 4.14 Mpa. As the use of natural fibers and lime enhances some physio-mechanical properties, further research is necessary to determine ways of achieving this goal while maintaining acceptable levels of erosion resistance.

  4. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp.: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Kristensen, Lise; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have emerged to become a significant nosocomial pathogen. However, detection may be challenging and treatment possibilities are limited. Reports of resistance to linezolide, daptomycin and tigecycline underline the need for reliable susceptibility testing...... with respect to these compounds. We evaluated the in vitro activity of vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline against a panel of VRE and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci by broth microdilution (BMD). Etest for determination of minimum inhibitory concentration of these four antibiotics and two disc...... diffusion assays for detecting VRE and for susceptibility testing against tigecycline and linezolid were evaluated. Before susceptibility testing, all isolates were classified by polymerase chain reaction as vanA or vanB gene positive or vanA/B gene negative. Linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline had...

  5. The evaluation of dynamic cracking resistance of chosen casting alloys in the aspect of the impact bending test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Sadowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase of quality and durability of produced casting alloys can be evaluated on the base of material tests performed on a high level. One of such modern test methods are tests of the dynamic damage process of materials and the evaluation on the base of obtained courses F(f, F(t of parameters of dynamic cracking resistance KId, JId, performed with the usage of instrumented Charpy pendulums. In the paper there was presented the evaluation of dynamic cracking resistance parameters of casting alloys such as: AK12 aluminum alloy, L20G cast steel and spheroid cast iron. The methodology of the evaluation of that parameters was described and their change as well, for the AK12 alloy with the cold work different level, L20G cast steel cooled from different temperatures in the range +20oC -60oC, and for the spheroid cast iron in different stages of treatment i.e. raw state, after normalization, spheroid annealing and graphitizing annealing.Obtained parameters of dynamic cracking resistance KId, JId of tested casting alloys enabled to define the critical value of the ad defect that can be tolerated by tested castings in different work conditions with impact loadings.

  6. Design and test of a novel isolator with negative resistance electromagnetic shunt damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Bo; Zhang, Xinong; Niu, Hongpan

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a negative resistance electromagnetic shunt damping vibration isolator and investigates the effectiveness of the isolator. The isolator consists of a shunt circuit and a pair of electromagnet and permanent magnets that are pasted onto a box-shaped spring. A kind of negative resistance shunt impedance is proposed to cancel the inherent resistance of the electromagnet. The electromechanical coupling coefficient and the electromagnetic damping force calculation formula are obtained by Biot–Savart’s law and Ampère’s law, respectively. A single degree of freedom system is employed to verify the performance of the proposed isolator. The governing equation is established. The performance of the proposed isolator under a half-cycle sine pulse is investigated and discussed. Experiments were carried out and the results agreed well with the numerical predictions. Both the results demonstrate that the negative resistance electromagnetic shunt damping vibration isolator could suppress vibration transmitted to the structure effectively. (paper)

  7. Interpretation of hole-to-surface resistivity measurements at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.J.; Scott, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Hole-to-surface resistivity measurements at Yucca Mountain indicate the presence of many near-surface geologic inhomogeneities, with no definite indication of deep structural features. A resistive anomaly near drill hole UE25a-6 is interpreted as a thin, vertical, resistive body that nearly intersects the surface, and may be caused by a silicified, or calcified, fracture zone. A resistive anomaly near hole UE25a-7 is probably caused by a near surface, horizontal, lens-shaped body that may represent a devitrified zone in the Tiva Canyon Member. Many conductive anomalies were detected to the southwest of hole UE25a-4. However, these anomalies are interpreted to be caused by variations in the thickness of the surface alluvium

  8. Timing of tensor and levator veli palatini force application determines eustachian tube resistance patterns during the forced-response test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiali, Samir N; Bell, E David; Swarts, J Douglas

    2010-12-01

    The forced-response test (FRT) is used to assess eustachian tube (ET) function in patients with middle ear disease (otitis media). This test often documents a dynamic pattern of luminal dilation and constriction during swallowing which can be quantified as a function relating active tubal resistance with time. The goal of this study is to use a generalized finite element model (FEM) to test the hypothesis that the relative timing of muscle force application by the tensor veli palatini muscle (mTVP) and levator veli palatini muscle (mLVP) on the ET determines the form of active resistance functions. Seven resistance waveforms were obtained during the FRT in five adult subjects. A 2D FEM of the ET was constructed from an adult histological specimen and viscoelastic tissue mechanical properties were specified based on measurements obtained in each subject. Least-squared regression routines were used to vary the timing and magnitude of mTVP and mLVP force applications to the ET in order to match the active resistance functions recorded during the FRT. Variation of muscle force timing and magnitude in the FEM simulations reproduced the seven active resistance waveforms with high fidelity. Early application of mTVP force in combination with mLVP force produced a waveform characterized by an initial dilation (low resistances) followed by lumen constriction (higher resistances), while delayed mTVP force application caused an initial lumen constriction followed by dilation. These results indicate that the active resistance waveforms observed during the FRT reflect differences in the temporal pattern of mLVP and mTVP force application to the ET and emphasize that, like the mTVP, the mLVP functionally interacts with the ET. Results also indicate that in normal adults contraction of the mLVP promotes lumen constriction and that the initial lumen constriction is highly sensitive to the relative delay timing of mTVP and mLVP force application. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland

  9. Putting plant resistance traits on the map: a test of the idea that plants are better defended at lower latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, Angela T; Wallis, Ian R; Foley, William J; Warton, David I; Stegen, James C; Bisigato, Alejandro J; Cella-Pizarro, Lucrecia; Clark, Connie J; Cohen, Philippe S; Cornwell, William K; Edwards, Will; Ejrnaes, Rasmus; Gonzales-Ojeda, Therany; Graae, Bente J; Hay, Gregory; Lumbwe, Fainess C; Magaña-Rodríguez, Benjamín; Moore, Ben D; Peri, Pablo L; Poulsen, John R; Veldtman, Ruan; von Zeipel, Hugo; Andrew, Nigel R; Boulter, Sarah L; Borer, Elizabeth T; Campón, Florencia Fernández; Coll, Moshe; Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; De Gabriel, Jane; Jurado, Enrique; Kyhn, Line A; Low, Bill; Mulder, Christa P H; Reardon-Smith, Kathryn; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Seabloom, Eric W; Vesk, Peter A; van Cauter, An; Waldram, Matthew S; Zheng, Zheng; Blendinger, Pedro G; Enquist, Brian J; Facelli, Jose M; Knight, Tiffany; Majer, Jonathan D; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; McQuillan, Peter; Prior, Lynda D

    2011-08-01

    • It has long been believed that plant species from the tropics have higher levels of traits associated with resistance to herbivores than do species from higher latitudes. A meta-analysis recently showed that the published literature does not support this theory. However, the idea has never been tested using data gathered with consistent methods from a wide range of latitudes. • We quantified the relationship between latitude and a broad range of chemical and physical traits across 301 species from 75 sites world-wide. • Six putative resistance traits, including tannins, the concentration of lipids (an indicator of oils, waxes and resins), and leaf toughness were greater in high-latitude species. Six traits, including cyanide production and the presence of spines, were unrelated to latitude. Only ash content (an indicator of inorganic substances such as calcium oxalates and phytoliths) and the properties of species with delayed greening were higher in the tropics. • Our results do not support the hypothesis that tropical plants have higher levels of resistance traits than do plants from higher latitudes. If anything, plants have higher resistance toward the poles. The greater resistance traits of high-latitude species might be explained by the greater cost of losing a given amount of leaf tissue in low-productivity environments. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing before first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with dual or triple antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Angel; Montes, Milagrosa; Ibarra, Begoña; Tamayo, Esther; Alonso, Horacio; Mendarte, Usua; Lizasoan, Jacobo; Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Bujanda, Luis

    2017-05-14

    To evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial susceptibility-guided therapy before first-line treatment for infection in patients with dual or triple antibiotic resistance. A total of 1034 patients infected by Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) during 2013-2014 were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. 157 of 1034 (15%) patients showed resistance to two (127/1034; 12%) and to three (30/1034; 3%) antibiotics. Sixty-eight patients with dual H. pylori -resistance (clarithromycin, metronidazole or levofloxacin) were treated for 10 d with triple therapies: OAL (omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and levofloxacin 500 mg b.i.d.) 43 cases, OAM (omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d.) 12 cases and OAC (omeprazole 20 mg b.id., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.) 13 cases based on the antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Twelve patients showed triple H. pylori -resistance (clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin) and received for 10 d triple therapy with OAR (omeprazole 20 mg b.id., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and rifabutin 150 mg b.i.d.). Eradication was confirmed by 13C-urea breath test. Adverse effects and compliance were assessed by a questionnaire. Intention-to-treat eradication rates were: OAL (97.6%), OAM (91.6%), OAC (92.3%) and OAR (58.3%). Cure rate was significantly higher in naïve patients treated with OAR-10 compared to patients who had two or three previous treatment failures (83% vs 33%). Adverse events rates for OAL, OAM, OAC and OAR were 22%, 25%, 23% and 17%, respectively, all of them mild-moderate. Antimicrobial susceptibility-guided triple therapies during 10 d for first-line treatment leads to an eradication rate superior to 90% in patients with dual antibiotic H. pylori resistance.

  11. A Novel Stool PCR Test for Helicobacter pylori May Predict Clarithromycin Resistance and Eradication of Infection at a High Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Erin; Saracino, Ilaria; Fiorini, Giulia; Clark, Courtney; Slepnev, Vladimir; Patel, Denise; Gomez, Clarissa; Ponaka, Reddy; Elagin, Vecheslav; Vaira, Dino

    2017-08-01

    Clarithromycin-based regimens are commonly used as a first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori -positive patients; however, resistance to clarithromycin has led to treatment failures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using stool samples to detect the presence of H. pylori DNA while concurrently detecting mutations associated with resistance to clarithromycin. For this purpose, total DNA was extracted from 294 raw stool specimens from H. pylori -positive and -negative patients. TaqMan real-time PCR amplification was used to detect the presence of H. pylori as well as to predict the phenotype of the organism and the related outcome for patients treated with clarithromycin. Clarithromycin resistance was determined upon analysis of the PCR result. Patients were also tested by a urea breath test and were subjected to esophagogastroduodenoscopy, followed by histology, culture, and a rapid urease test, in order to obtain a consensus patient infection status. Of 294 total stool samples, 227 were deemed true positive. The sensitivity of H. pylori detection by PCR was 93.8%. Of 213 true-positive samples that were sequenced, 36.2% showed point mutations associated with clarithromycin resistance (A2142C, A2142G, A2143G). The final correlation of the mutant genotypes as determined by sequencing with the eradication of infection was 86%. We found that Helicobacter pylori DNA can be detected in human stool specimens with high sensitivity and can therefore be used to determine the presence of the bacterium without obtaining a biopsy sample. Moreover, genotypic resistance to clarithromycin can be predicted without obtaining a biopsy sample, facilitating the choice of the right therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Analysis of earth resistivity frequency dependence: Test method and its practical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Vojin I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first step in planning and designing of the proper grounding system, is the earth resistivity measurement. Measurements are carried out before the construction of the power facility. However, it is not an uncommon situation that during construction, subsequent leveling and raising of the ground level is performed. For this purpose, it is customary to use the land from the locations far away. Delivered soil has largely different electromagnetic characteristics (electric conductivity, permittivity and dielectric constant in relation to the soil on which the previous measurement of the earth resistivity was conducted. Since the value of the earth resistivity directly affects the grounding system electrical parameters - grounding system impedance, touch and step voltages - additional measurements are required and according to this appropriate corrections of the grounding system In this paper, we propose a practical method for earth resistivity measurement. The method is applicable in the design phase, and also for the revision of the installed grounding system. A practical example of a power facility (RP 400 kV Mladost, Elektromreža Srbije, based on laboratory measurements of the soil samples earth resistivity and grounding system impedance measurement, clearly shows what consequences might occur by leveling and raising of the ground level using ash coal dump.

  13. Dynamic Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Nasal Airflow Resistance during Nasal Allergen Provocation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, Tiina M.; Alho, Olli-Pekka; Seppänen, Tapio

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a major chronic respiratory disease and an immunoneuronal disorder. We aimed at providing further knowledge on the function of the neural system in nasal allergic reaction. Here, a method to assess simultaneously the nasal airflow resistance and the underlying function of autonomic nervous system (ANS) is presented and used during the nasal provocation of allergic and nonallergic subjects. Continuous nasal airflow resistance and spectral heart rate variability parameters show in detail the timing and intensity differences in subjects' reactions. After the provocation, the nasal airflow resistance of allergic subjects showed a positive trend, whereas LF/HF (Low Frequency/High Frequency) ratio and LF power showed a negative trend. This could imply a gradual sympathetic withdrawal in allergic subjects after the allergen provocation. The groups differed significantly by these physiological descriptors. The proposed method opens entirely new opportunities to research accurately concomitant changes in nasal breathing function and ANS. PMID:27196870

  14. Dynamic Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Nasal Airflow Resistance during Nasal Allergen Provocation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina M. Seppänen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is a major chronic respiratory disease and an immunoneuronal disorder. We aimed at providing further knowledge on the function of the neural system in nasal allergic reaction. Here, a method to assess simultaneously the nasal airflow resistance and the underlying function of autonomic nervous system (ANS is presented and used during the nasal provocation of allergic and nonallergic subjects. Continuous nasal airflow resistance and spectral heart rate variability parameters show in detail the timing and intensity differences in subjects’ reactions. After the provocation, the nasal airflow resistance of allergic subjects showed a positive trend, whereas LF/HF (Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio and LF power showed a negative trend. This could imply a gradual sympathetic withdrawal in allergic subjects after the allergen provocation. The groups differed significantly by these physiological descriptors. The proposed method opens entirely new opportunities to research accurately concomitant changes in nasal breathing function and ANS.

  15. Resistance testing of clinical herpes simplex virus type 2 isolates collected over 4 decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn-Wippert, Kathrin; Schmidt, Susanne; Runtze, Anna; Zell, Roland; Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    There is only little information about the role of mutations of the thymidine kinase (TK) and DNA polymerase (pol) genes of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) for the development of antiviral resistance. In this study, the polymorphism of TK and DNA pol genes was examined in 82 clinical isolates collected routinely between 1973 and 2013. If novel, presently unclear or resistance-related mutations were found, the resistance phenotype against acyclovir (ACV) and foscarnet (FOS) was analyzed. The four novel amino acid changes G150D, A157T, R248W, L342W and the hitherto phenotypically unclear substitution T131M within the TK gene were identified as natural polymorphisms. Within the DNA pol gene, 17 novel substitutions and the to-date unclear change R628C were characterized as part of natural gene polymorphism. Two novel DNA pol mutations were linked to resistance (M910T) and weak susceptibility to ACV (684 insertion ED), respectively. In one isolate, the genomic cause of ACV resistance could not be identified. Phylogenetic analysis including sequences of this study and of the GenBank revealed a hierarchy of mutation clusters in TK displaying G39E as first common mutation step, followed by N78D and L140F. In conclusion, the present findings allow a deeper insight in the variability of HSV-2 TK and DNA pol genes. The most common substitution G39E can be excluded as unique cause of HSV-2 resistance. This study supports once more the importance of phenotypic adjustment of genotypic results to enhance the clinical utility of genotypic findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Standard test method for ranking resistance of plastic materials to sliding wear using a block-on-ring configuration

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory procedure to measure the resistance of plastic materials under dry sliding conditions. The test utilizes a block-on-ring geometry to rank materials according to their sliding wear characteristics under various conditions. 1.2 The test specimens are small so that they can be molded or cut from fabricated plastic parts. The test may be run at the load, velocity, and temperature which simulate the service condition. 1.3 Wear test results are reported as specific wear rates calculated from volume loss, sliding distance, and load. Materials with superior wear resistance have lower specific wear rates. 1.4 This test method allows the use of both single- and multi-station apparatus to determine the specific wear rates. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibil...

  17. Evaluation of stress and saturation effects on seismic velocity and electrical resistivity - laboratory testing of rock samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelm, Jan; Jirků, Jaroslav; Slavík, Lubomír; Bárta, Jaroslav

    2016-04-01

    Repository, located in a deep geological formation, is today considered the most suitable solution for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. The geological formations, in combination with an engineered barrier system, should ensure isolation of the waste from the environment for thousands of years. For long-term monitoring of such underground excavations special monitoring systems are developed. In our research we developed and tested monitoring system based on repeated ultrasonic time of flight measurement and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). As a test site Bedřichov gallery in the northern Bohemia was selected. This underground gallery in granitic rock was excavated using Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). The seismic high-frequency measurements are performed by pulse-transmission technique directly on the rock wall using one seismic source and three receivers in the distances of 1, 2 and 3 m. The ERT measurement is performed also on the rock wall using 48 electrodes. The spacing between electrodes is 20 centimeters. An analysis of relation of seismic velocity and electrical resistivity on water saturation and stress state of the granitic rock is necessary for the interpretation of both seismic monitoring and ERT. Laboratory seismic and resistivity measurements were performed. One series of experiments was based on uniaxial loading of dry and saturated granitic samples. The relation between stress state and ultrasonic wave velocities was tested separately for dry and saturated rock samples. Other experiments were focused on the relation between electrical resistivity of the rock sample and its saturation level. Rock samples with different porosities were tested. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic, project No. TA 0302408

  18. A Rapid Method to Test for Chloroplast DNA Involvement in Atrazine Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Sheila; Bettini, Priscilla; Sevignac, Mireille; Darmency, Henry; Gasquez, Jacques; Dron, Michel

    1987-01-01

    A point mutation in the chloroplast psbA gene at codon 264 resulting in an animo acid substitution (ser-gly) manifests itself as atrazine resistance in all recognized weed species studied to date. The single base substitution overlaps a highly conserved Mae1 restriction site which is present in susceptible but not in resistant plants. This restriction enzyme, recently commercialized, has been used to show that it is now possible to discriminate rapidly between the two biotypes without the need for DNA sequencing. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16665229

  19. Fluoroquinolone susceptibility testing of Salmonella enterica: detection of acquired resistance and selection of zone diameter breakpoints for levofloxacin and ofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; Howie, Rebecca L; Crump, John A; Whichard, Jean M

    2014-03-01

    Fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) have become a mainstay for treating severe Salmonella infections in adults. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella is mostly due to mutations in the topoisomerase genes, but plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) mechanisms have also been described. In 2012, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) revised the ciprofloxacin interpretive criteria (breakpoints) for disk diffusion and MIC test methods for Salmonella. In 2013, the CLSI published MIC breakpoints for Salmonella to levofloxacin and ofloxacin, but breakpoints for assigning disk diffusion results to susceptible (S), intermediate (I), and resistant (R) categories are still needed. In this study, the MICs and inhibition zone diameters for nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and ofloxacin were determined for 100 clinical isolates of nontyphi Salmonella with or without resistance mechanisms. We confirmed that the new levofloxacin MIC breakpoints resulted in the highest category agreement (94%) when plotted against the ciprofloxacin MICs and that the new ofloxacin MIC breakpoints resulted in 92% category agreement between ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. By applying the new MIC breakpoints in the MIC zone scattergrams for levofloxacin and ofloxacin, the following disk diffusion breakpoints generated the least number of errors: ≥28 mm (S), 19 to 27 mm (I), and ≤18 mm (R) for levofloxacin and ≥25 mm (S), 16 to 24 mm (I), and ≤15 mm (R) for ofloxacin. Neither the levofloxacin nor the ofloxacin disk yielded good separation of isolates with and without resistance mechanisms. Further studies will be needed to develop a disk diffusion assay that efficiently detects all isolates with acquired resistance to fluoroquinolones.

  20. Comparison of 3 tests to detect acaricide resistance in Boophilus decoloratus on dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mekonnen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the larval offspring of engorged female Boophilus decoloratus, and of the engorged females, collected from cattle on the dairy farms Brycedale, Sunny Grove and Welgevind in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, was tested against the acaricides amitraz, chlorfenvinphos and cypermethrin. Resistance was determined by means of the Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT for larvae and the Reproductive Estimate Test (RET and Egg Laying Test (ELT for adults. At Brycedale the tests all indicated resistance to chlorfenvinphos, and RET and ELT indicated resistance to amitraz and emerging resistance to cypermethrin. At Sunny Grove, B. decoloratus was resistant to cypermethrin using SLIT and exhibited emerging resistance to chlorfenvinphos with SLIT and to cypermethrin with both RET and ELT. At Welgevind, resistance was recorded against chlorfenvinphos (SLIT and against cypermethrin (ELT, and emerging resistance against permethrin (RET. The results obtained with RET and ELT were generally comparable, but often differed from those obtained with SLIT. Resistance could be detected within 7 days with ELT compared to 42 days with RET and 60 days with SLIT.

  1. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected with a drug-resistant strain of HIV. Drug-resistance testing results are used to decide which HIV medicines to include in a person’s first HIV regimen. After treatment is started, drug-resistance testing is repeated if ...

  2. Eggshell strength of an obligate brood parasite: a test of the puncture resistance hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonov, A.; Stokke, B. G.; Moksnes, A.; Kleven, O.; Honza, Marcel; Roskaft, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2006), s. 11-18 ISSN 0340-5443 Grant - others:Research Council of Norway(NO) 151641/432 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : brood parasitism * eggshell thickness * puncture resistance * Acrocephalus * cuckoo Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.316, year: 2006

  3. A greenhouse test for screening sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) for resistance to Rhizoctonia solani

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.E.; Panella, L.; Bock, de T.S.M.; Lange, W.

    2001-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is a serious plant pathogenic fungus, causing various types of damage to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). In Europe, the disease is spreading and becoming a threat for the growing of this crop. Plant resistance seems to be the most practical and economical way to control the

  4. A Quantitative Analysis of the Effect of Resistance Training on Strength Test Score Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-02

    strength development and steroid hormone responses to heavy-resistance training. J Appl Physiol, 76, 663-670. *Hoffman, J. R., Klafeld, S., & 1998...Painter, T. L., & Wilmore, J. H. (1992). Alternation in concentric strength consequent to powercise and universal gym circuit training. J Appl Sprts

  5. Affordable HIV drug-resistance testing for monitoring of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inzaule, Seth C.; Ondoa, Pascale; Peter, Trevor; Mugyenyi, Peter N.; Stevens, Wendy S.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Hamers, Raph L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased provision of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa has led to a growing number of patients with therapy failure and acquired drug-resistant HIV, driving the demand for more costly further lines of antiretroviral therapy. In conjunction with accelerated access to viral load

  6. Why Do People Resist Healthcare It? Literature Analysis, Model Testing, and Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samhan, Bahae

    2016-01-01

    Health Information Technology (HIT) has the potential of improving the overall performance of healthcare organizations. However, there are worldwide evidence of HIT resistance and avoidance behaviors. IS researchers have provided valuable insights about these behaviors towards IT in general. Very limited work has aimed to explain these behaviors…

  7. The Effect of the Nature of Surfaces on Resistance as Tested on Struts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieselsberger, Ing C

    1921-01-01

    The chief concern was to measure the variations of resistance brought about by the nature of the surface of the struts. The struts were spanned with aviation linen, and then covered with one coat of varnish. The top surface was not perfectly smooth after this treatment, being slightly rough owing to the threads and raised fibers of the fabric. The results of the measurements of the surfaces are shown by the dotted lines of the curves plotted in several figures. The resistance is given in terms of the characteristic value. Next, the surface was altered by the removal of any roughness on it by means of filing with sandpaper. The measurements of surfaces thus treated gave values represented by extended lines. The increase of resistance with increasing characteristic value, more or less marked in the first series of measurements, was no longer observable. Resistance always decreases with the increase of characteristic value, excepting in the case of strut 7, which shows a slight tendency to rise again. The reasons for this phenomenon have not yet been fully explained.

  8. Comparison of HIV-1 genotypic resistance test interpretation systems in predicting virological outcomes over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Frentz (Dineke); C.A.B. Boucher (Charles); M. Assel (Matthias); A. de Luca (Andrea); M. Fabbiani (Massimiliano); F. Incardona (Francesca); P. Libin (Pieter); N. Manca (Nino); V. Müller (Viktor); B.O. Nualláin (Breanndán); R. Paredes (Roger); M. Prosperi (Mattia); E. Quiros-Roldan (Eugenia); L. Ruiz (Lidia); P.M.A. Sloot (Peter); C. Torti (Carlo); A.M. Vandamme (Anne Mieke); K. Laethem (Kristel); M. Zazzi (Maurizio); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Several decision support systems have been developed to interpret HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping results. This study compares the ability of the most commonly used systems (ANRS, Rega, and Stanford's HIVdb) to predict virological outcome at 12, 24, and 48 weeks.

  9. Test-Retest Reliability of Respiratory Resistance Measured with the Airflow Perturbation Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallena, Sally K.; Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Johnson, Arthur T.; Vossoughi, Jafar; Tian, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine reliability of the airflow perturbation device (APD) to measure respiratory resistance within and across sessions during resting tidal (RTB) and postexercise breathing in healthy athletes, and during RTB across trials within a session in athletes with paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM)…

  10. evaluation of striga-resistant early maize hybrids and test locations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    to evaluate selected Striga-resistant maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids for grain yield and stability of performance based on multiple ... infestation based on multiple traits than based on yield per se, suggesting that grain yield alone is not a precise predictor of ..... environment interaction components were not significant, there was ...

  11. Standard Test Method for Determining Resistance of Photovoltaic Modules to Hail by Impact with Propelled Ice Balls

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides a procedure for determining the ability of photovoltaic modules to withstand impact forces of falling hail. Propelled ice balls are used to simulate falling hailstones. 1.2 This test method defines test specimens and methods for mounting specimens, specifies impact locations on each test specimen, provides an equation for determining the velocity of any size ice ball, provides a method for impacting the test specimens with ice balls, provides a method for determining changes in electrical performance, and specifies parameters that must be recorded and reported. 1.3 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable levels of ice ball impact resistance is beyond the scope of this test method. 1.4 The size of the ice ball to be used in conducting this test is not specified. This test method can be used with various sizes of ice balls. 1.5 This test method may be applied to concentrator and nonconcentrator modules. 1.6 The v...

  12. Model tests on resistance and seakeeping performance of wave-piercing high-speed vessel with spray rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghwa Seo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The resistance and seakeeping performance of a high-speed monohull vessel were investigated through a series of model tests in a towing tank. The hull had a slender wave-piercing bow, round bilge, and small deadrise angle on stern. Tests on the bare hull in calm water were first conducted and tests on spray rails followed. The spray rails were designed to control the flow direction and induce a hydrodynamic lift force on the hull bottom to reduce trim angle and increase rise of the hull. The maximum trim of the bare hull was 4.65° at the designed speed, but the spray rails at optimum location reduced trim by 0.97°. The ship motion in head seas was examined after the calm water tests. Attaching the rails on the optimum location effectively reduced the pitch and heave motion responses. The vertical acceleration at the fore perpendicular reduced by 11.3%. The effective power in full scale was extrapolated from the model test results and it was revealed that the spray rails did not have any negative effects on the resistance performance of the hull, while they effectively stabilized the vessel in calm water and waves.

  13. Effects of Periodic Task-Specific Test Feedback on Physical Performance in Older Adults Undertaking Band-Based Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Hasegawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of periodic task-specific test feedback on performance improvement in older adults undertaking community- and home-based resistance exercises (CHBRE. Fifty-two older adults (65–83 years were assigned to a muscular perfsormance feedback group (MPG, n=32 or a functional mobility feedback group (FMG, n=20. Both groups received exactly the same 9-week CHBRE program comprising one community-based and two home-based sessions per week. Muscle performance included arm curls and chair stands in 30 seconds, while functional mobility was determined by the timed up and go (TUG test. MPG received fortnightly test feedback only on muscle performance and FMG received feedback only on the TUG. Following training, there was a significant (P<0.05 interaction for all performance tests with MPG improving more for the arm curls (MPG 31.4%, FMG 15.9% and chair stands (MPG 33.7%, FMG 24.9% while FMG improved more for the TUG (MPG-3.5%, FMG-9.7%. Results from this nonrandomized study suggest that periodic test feedback during resistance training may enhance task-specific physical performance in older persons, thereby augmenting reserve capacity or potentially reducing the time required to recover functional abilities.

  14. HIV drug resistance testing among patients failing second line antiretroviral therapy. Comparison of in-house and commercial sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimukangara, Benjamin; Varyani, Bhavini; Shamu, Tinei; Mutsvangwa, Junior; Manasa, Justen; White, Elizabeth; Chimbetete, Cleophas; Luethy, Ruedi; Katzenstein, David

    2017-05-01

    HIV genotyping is often unavailable in low and middle-income countries due to infrastructure requirements and cost. We compared genotype resistance testing in patients with virologic failure, by amplification of HIV pol gene, followed by "in-house" sequencing and commercial sequencing. Remnant plasma samples from adults and children failing second-line ART were amplified and sequenced using in-house and commercial di-deoxysequencing, and analyzed in Harare, Zimbabwe and at Stanford, U.S.A, respectively. HIV drug resistance mutations were determined using the Stanford HIV drug resistance database. Twenty-six of 28 samples were amplified and 25 were successfully genotyped. Comparison of average percent nucleotide and amino acid identities between 23 pairs sequenced in both laboratories were 99.51 (±0.56) and 99.11 (±0.95), respectively. All pairs clustered together in phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing analysis identified 6/23 pairs with mutation discordances resulting in differences in phenotype, but these did not impact future regimens. The results demonstrate our ability to produce good quality drug resistance data in-house. Despite discordant mutations in some sequence pairs, the phenotypic predictions were not clinically significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A capacitive DNA sensor-based test for simple and sensitive analysis of antibiotic resistance in field setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Hedström, Martin; Chen, Dongfeng; Fan, Xiaolong; Mattiasson, Bo

    2015-02-15

    To meet urgent needs for solving serious worldwide drug-resistance problems, a sensitive label-free capacitive sensor developed in our group was investigated as a tool to be applied in the field of antibiotic resistance genotyping, for instance the detection of ampicillin resistance gene (ampR). Proof-of-concept data demonstrated its detection sensitivity of pico-molar without any signal amplification step and a dynamic range of at least three orders of magnitude. The detection limits of less than 1 pM for the single-stranded ampR oligonucleotide and 4 pM for the double-stranded target can reliably be achieved after only 2.5 min sample reaction. Reusability of the probe-functionalized disposable electrode was investigated by comparing different regeneration solutions; mix of 25 mM NaOH/30% formamide was employed to regenerate the electrode for at least six cycles without significant loss of sensing ability. Assay is performed automatically and result is retrieved in 20 min. The developed sensitive genotyping tool is expected to provide simple, fast and affordable screening for monitoring spread of antibiotic resistances, which is suitable for testing in field setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Histologia da pele da carpa prateada (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix e testes de resistência do couro Histology of silver-plated carp skin (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix and leather resistance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com os objetivos de analisar a histologia da pele e avaliar a influência da técnica de curtimento e da posição da retirada do corpo-de-prova sobre a qualidade da pele de carpa prateada (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix. Vinte e três peixes foram insensibilizados para retirada das peles para curtimento. Amostras referentes a três peixes foram fixadas em formol 10%. Após a inclusão em parafina, foram cortadas com aproximadamente 5 mm de espessura e coradas pela técnica de hematoxilina-eosina (HE. Após o curtimento das peles, foram retirados os corpos-de-prova para os testes de resistência. Os testes foram realizados com dinamômetro EMIC, com velocidade de afastamento entre cargas de 100 ± 20 mm/mm, em ambiente climatizado a 23ºC e umidade relativa do ar de 50% por um período de 24 horas. As peles curtidas com sais de cromo apresentaram maior resistência à tração (16,96 N/mm², ao alongamento (51,49% e ao rasgamento progressivo (16,75 N/mm quando comparadas àquelas curtidas sem sais de cromo (tração = 9,12 N/mm², alongamento = 17,48% e rasgamento = 11,36 N/mm. O sentido da retirada dos corpos-de-prova não interferiu nas características de tração, elongação, carga de ruptura, rasgo, força máxima e carga de força. A técnica de curtimento (utilizando ou não sais de cromo influencia a resistência das peles de carpa prateada. A técnica empregando os sais de cromo proporciona maior resistência ao couro.The objectives of this trial were to analyze the skin histology and to evaluate the influence of tanning technique and the direction removal of samples on skin quality of silver-plated carp (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix. Twenty-three fishes were sacrificed and the skin was removed for tanning. Samples of three fishes were settled in formol 10% and, after inclusion in paraffin, the samples were cut with approximately 5 mm of thickness and colored by the hematoxylin-eosin technique (HE. After skin

  17. Testing and design of radon resisting membranes based on the experience from the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiranek, M.

    2004-01-01

    Testing of barrier properties of insulating materials against radon is usually based on the measurement of the radon diffusion coefficient. Presented report summarizes results of radon diffusion coefficients measurements in more than 120 insulating materials obtained throughout Europe. All measurements were performed by the Czech Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering in cooperation with the Radiation Protection Institute. We have found out that great differences exist in diffusion properties, because the diffusion coefficients vary within eight orders from 10 -15 m 2 /s to 10 -8 m 2 /s. For each material category of different chemical composition statistical evaluation of results is presented. Possibilities of usage of the radon diffusion coefficient for the design of radon resisting membranes are discussed. Based on the experience from the Czech Republic the paper is trying to show that controlling applicability of membranes by setting of the upper limit for the radon diffusion coefficient is not a convenient approach. The main reason is that it is almost impossible to choose correctly one limit value for the whole Europe. The second reason is that a great number of common waterproofing materials have their radon diffusion coefficients above the probable limit value. As a consequence of this the protection against radon will be solved preferably by materials with Al foils, which is from the technical point of view meaningless, because membranes with Al foils have very low elongation and therefore they can very easily loose their barrier properties by destroying of the Al foil. The paper will show that it seems to be reasonable to replace strict limits by the real design of the insulation in dependence on particular building and soil characteristics. The design is proposed to be based on the calculation of the insulation thickness according to the formula: d ≥ l.arc sinh ((α 1 .l.λ.C S .(A f + A w ))/C dif .n.V)) (in m), where C S is the third

  18. Results of the freeze resistance test, swelling index and coefficient of permeability of finegrained mining waste reinforced with cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morman, Justyna

    2018-04-01

    The article presents the result of laboratory tests for mining waste with grain size of 0 to 2 mm stabilized with cement. Used for stabilization of cement CEM I 42.5 R and blast furnace cement CEM III / A 42.5N - LH / HSR / NA and a plasticizer sealant. Cement was added to the mining waste test in the proportions of 5 - 8% in relation to the skeleton's weight. For the cemented samples, the freeze resistance test, swelling index, coefficient of permeability and pH of water leachate were tested. The addition of a cement binder resulted in diminishing the water permeability of mining waste and limiting the leaching of fine particles from the material.

  19. Irradiation test of component for radiation-resistant small sized motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamichi, M.; Ishitsuka, E.; Shimakawa, S.; Kan, S.

    2009-01-01

    A small-sized motor with a resistance to radiation was developed. This motor has been able to operate at a gamma-ray dose of a value 700 times as high as the specification of a commercial motor. The present work describes results of post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) to evaluate effects of neutron irradiation on the lifetime of some major components of the motor such as a bearing, a magnet and a fixation agent for a field coil wire. It became clear from the results of PIEs that the radiation-resistance dose of the motor using a Sm-Co magnet will be expected to be one order of magnitude higher than that of the motor using a Nb-Fe-B magnet.

  20. Isolation and resistance test of several isolates of Lactobacillus in low pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIANI HARDININGSIH

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several isolates of Lactobacillus had been isolated from Indonesian fermented foods. Four isolates where isolated from tongcai (TT2, saguer drink (Sg.Mnd.N2, pindang ikan selar (PSl1 and sawi asin (S5 had been used in this research. The aim of the research was to get Lactobacillus isolates as probiotic candidate and to know its resistance to low pH. The treatment were several concentration of low pH of MRS broth medium, i.e. 2; 2.5; 3; and 6.5 (optimal pH. The optical density (OD was measured after 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours respectively, with three replication by using spectrophotometer ( = 600 nm. The results showed that all Lactobacillus isolates (i.e. TT2, Sg.Mnd.N2, PSl1, and S5 could been used as probiotic candidate because they were resistant to all of low pH used.

  1. Evolution of resistance and tolerance to herbivores: testing the trade-off hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariñho-Betancourt, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    Background. To cope with their natural enemies, plants rely on resistance and tolerance as defensive strategies. Evolution of these strategies among natural population can be constrained by the absence of genetic variation or because of the antagonistic genetic correlation (trade-off) between them. Also, since plant defenses are integrated by several traits, it has been suggested that trade-offs might occur between specific defense traits. Methodology/Principal Findings. We experimentally assessed (1) the presence of genetic variance in tolerance, total resistance, and leaf trichome density as specific defense trait, (2) the extent of natural selection acting on plant defenses, and (3) the relationship between total resistance and leaf trichome density with tolerance to herbivory in the annual herb Datura stramonium. Full-sib families of D. stramonium were either exposed to natural herbivores (control) or protected from them by a systemic insecticide. We detected genetic variance for leaf trichome density, and directional selection acting on this character. However, we did not detect a negative significant correlation between tolerance and total resistance, or between tolerance and leaf trichome density. We argue that low levels of leaf damage by herbivores precluded the detection of a negative genetic correlation between plant defense strategies. Conclusions/Significance. This study provides empirical evidence of the independent evolution of plant defense strategies, and a defensive role of leaf trichomes. The pattern of selection should favor individuals with high trichomes density. Also, because leaf trichome density reduces damage by herbivores and possess genetic variance in the studied population, its evolution is not constrained. PMID:25780756

  2. Evolution of resistance and tolerance to herbivores: testing the trade-off hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Kariñho-Betancourt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. To cope with their natural enemies, plants rely on resistance and tolerance as defensive strategies. Evolution of these strategies among natural population can be constrained by the absence of genetic variation or because of the antagonistic genetic correlation (trade-off between them. Also, since plant defenses are integrated by several traits, it has been suggested that trade-offs might occur between specific defense traits.Methodology/Principal Findings. We experimentally assessed (1 the presence of genetic variance in tolerance, total resistance, and leaf trichome density as specific defense trait, (2 the extent of natural selection acting on plant defenses, and (3 the relationship between total resistance and leaf trichome density with tolerance to herbivory in the annual herb Datura stramonium. Full-sib families of D. stramonium were either exposed to natural herbivores (control or protected from them by a systemic insecticide. We detected genetic variance for leaf trichome density, and directional selection acting on this character. However, we did not detect a negative significant correlation between tolerance and total resistance, or between tolerance and leaf trichome density. We argue that low levels of leaf damage by herbivores precluded the detection of a negative genetic correlation between plant defense strategies.Conclusions/Significance. This study provides empirical evidence of the independent evolution of plant defense strategies, and a defensive role of leaf trichomes. The pattern of selection should favor individuals with high trichomes density. Also, because leaf trichome density reduces damage by herbivores and possess genetic variance in the studied population, its evolution is not constrained.

  3. Electrical resistivity monitoring of the drift scale test in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.

    1997-01-01

    Of the several thermal, mechanical and hydrological measurements being used to monitor the rockmass response, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is being used to monitor the movement of liquid water with a special interest in the movement of condensate out of the system. Eight boreholes, containing a total of 140 ERT electrodes, were drilled above and below the Heated Drift (HD) to form vertical planes parallel to the drift. In addition, 4 boreholes, containing 60 electrodes, drilled from the Access Observation Drift (AOD) form vertical planes at right angles to the HD. Four ERT surveys, three before and one after heating began, were conducted during the first quarter of FY 98. Tomographic images of absolute electrical resistivity have been calculated using these data and are presented in this report. The report also presents the coordinates of the electrodes used for the ERT surveys. Future reports will include images of electrical resistivity change calculated using data collected before and during the heating episode. The changes to be recovered will then be used in combination with temperature maps of the region to calculate maps of saturation change around the HD

  4. Development and Testing of Abrasion Resistant Hard Coats For Polymer Film Reflectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, G.; Gee, R.; DiGrazia, M.

    2010-10-01

    Reflective polymer film technology can significantly reduce the cost of solar reflectors and installed Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants by both reduced material cost and lower weight. One challenge of polymer reflectors in the CSP environment pertains to contact cleaning methods typically used with glass mirrors. Such contact cleaning methods can scratch the surface of polymer reflectors and thereby reduce specular reflectance. ReflecTech, Inc. (a subsidiary of SkyFuel, Inc.) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initiated a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to devise and develop an abrasion resistant coating (ARC) suitable for deposition onto polymer based mirror film. A number of candidate ARC products were identified as candidate formulations. Industrial collaborators prepared samples having their ARCs deposited onto ReflecTech Mirror Film pre-laminated to aluminum sheet substrates. Samples were provided for evaluation and subjected to baseline (unweathered) and accelerated exposure conditions and subsequently characterized for abrasion resistance and adhesion. An advanced ARC product has been identified that exhibits outstanding initial abrasion resistance and adhesion to ReflecTech Mirror Film. These properties were also retained after exposure to the various accelerated stress conditions. This material has been successfully manufactured as a 1.5 m wide roll-to-roll construction in a production environment.

  5. ASTM F739 method for testing the permeation resistance of protective clothing materials: critical analysis with proposed changes in procedure and test-cell design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, D H; Zellers, E T; Sulewski, R

    1998-08-01

    ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Method F739-96 specifies a test-cell design and procedures for measuring the permeation resistance of chemical protective clothing. Among the specifications are open-loop collection stream flow rates of 0.050 to 0.150 L/min for a gaseous medium. At elevated temperatures the test must be maintained within 1 degree C of the set point. This article presents a critical analysis of the effect of the collection stream flow rate on the measured permeation rate and on the temperature uniformity within the test cell. Permeation tests were conducted on four polymeric glove materials with 44 solvents at 25 degrees C. Flow rates > 0.5 L/min were necessary to obtain accurate steady-state permeation rate (SSPR) values in 25 percent of the tests. At the lower flow rates the true SSPR typically was underestimated by a factor of two or less, but errors of up to 33-fold were observed. No clear relationship could be established between the need for a higher collection stream flow rate and either the vapor pressure or the permeation rate of the solvent, but test results suggest that poor mixing within the collection chamber was a contributing factor. Temperature gradients between the challenge and collection chambers and between the bottom and the top of the collection chamber increased with the water-bath temperature and the collection stream flow rate. Use of a test cell modified to permit deeper submersion reduced the gradients to < or = 0.5 degrees C. It is recommended that all SSPR measurements include verification of the adequacy of the collection stream flow rate. For testing at nonambient temperatures, the modified test cell described here could be used to ensure temperature uniformity throughout the cell.

  6. Comparison of Superelasticity of Nickel Titanium Orthodontic Arch wires using Mechanical Tensile Testing and Correlating with Electrical Resistivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraj, Aravind

    2013-06-01

    Application of light and continuous forces for optimum physiological response and least damage to the tooth supporting structures should be the primary aim of the orthodontist. Nickel titanium alloys with the properties of excellent spring back, super elasticity and wide range of action is one of the natural choices for the clinicians to achieve this goal. In recent periods, various wire manufacturers have come with a variety of wires exhibiting different properties. It is the duty of the clinician to select appropriate wires during various stages of treatment for excellent results. For achieving this evaluation of the properties of these wires is essential. This study is focussed on evaluating the super elastic property of eight groups of austenite active nickel titanium wires. Eight groups of archwires bought from eight different manufacturers were studied. These wires were tested through mechanical tensile testing and electrical resistivity methods. Unloading curves were carefully assessed for superelastic behaviour on deactivation. Rankings of the wires tested were based primarily upon the unloading curve's slope Conclusion: Ortho organisers wires ranked first and superior, followed by American Orthodontics and Ormco A wires. Morelli and GAClowland NiTi wires were ranked last. It can be concluded that the performance of these wires based on rankings should be further evaluated by clinical studies. How to cite this article: Sivaraj A. Comparison of Superelasticity of Nickel Titanium Orthodontic Arch wires using Mechanical Tensile Testing and Correlating with Electrical Resistivity. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):1-12.

  7. Evaluation of whole antioxidant defenses of human mononuclear cells by a new in vitro biological test: lack of correlation between erythrocyte and mononuclear cell resistance to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar-Bauguil, Sylvie; Maestre, Nicolas; Segafredo, Céline; Galinier, Anne; Garcia, Jésus; Prost, Michel; Périquet, Brigitte; Pénicaud, Luc; Salvayre, Robert; Casteilla, Louis

    2009-04-01

    This work aims to evaluate the resistance of mononuclear cells to oxidative stress using a "KRL" test, formerly utilized to evaluate the resistance of erythrocyte to free radicals. The "KRL" test evaluates the resistance to lysis of cells treated by free radicals generated under standardized conditions. We defined new analytical parameters (level of radical production, time course, number of cells) to obtain an accurate assay determining the resistance to oxidative stress of mononuclear cells, in comparison to that of erythrocytes. This test allows the evaluation of change in the redox state of mononuclear cells (improved by an antioxidant mix or deteriorated by antimycin A-induced mitochondrial radical overproduction). Interestingly, our data show that the sensitivity of mononuclear cells to oxidative stress is not correlated with the susceptibility of erythrocytes to oxidative stress. The quantification of the susceptibility of mononuclear cells to oxidative stress gives additional information (in addition to erythrocyte resistance) and could be helpful for patients with chronic inflammation.

  8. The test of eight tree species resistance to the attack of Armillaria mellea and A. ostoyae by artificial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Nenad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the forest ecosystems in Serbia five Armillaria species are present. Understanding differences in the pathogenicity of Armillaria species to the tree species is of a great importance for the foresters. The aim of study was to test susceptibility of eight forest tree species to attack of Armillaria mellea and A. ostoyae. The sticks of Hazel previously infected with mycelium of two Armillaria were placed next to the root collar of two years old seediling. In the period of eighteen months health status of tested seedlings was observed. Differences in susceptibility among tested tree species was observed, while there was no difference in the pathogenicity between Armillaria mellea and A. ostoyae. The most susceptible species were Serbian Spruce, Common Fir, Scots and Austrian Pine, following by Spruce and Douglas Fir, while more resistant were Pedunculate and Sessile oak.

  9. Testing the limits of resistance: a 19-year study of Mediterranean grassland response to grazing regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Marcelo; Golodets, Carly; Gutman, Mario; Perevolotsky, Avi; Ungar, Eugene D; Kigel, Jaime; Henkin, Zalmen

    2015-05-01

    A synthesis of a long-term (19 years) study assessing the effects of cattle grazing on the structure and composition of a Mediterranean grassland in north-eastern Israel is presented, with new insights into the response of the vegetation to grazing management and rainfall. We hypothesized that the plant community studied would be resistant to high grazing intensities and rainfall variability considering the combined long history of land-use and unpredictable climatic conditions where this community evolved. Treatments included manipulations of stocking densities (moderate, heavy, and very heavy) and of grazing regimes (continuous vs. seasonal), in a factorial design. The effect of interannual rainfall variation on the expression of grazing impacts on the plant community was minor. The main effects of grazing on relative cover of plant functional groups were related to early vs. late seasonal grazing. Species diversity and equitability were remarkably stable across all grazing treatments. A reduction in tall grass cover at higher stocking densities was correlated with increased cover of less palatable groups such as annual and perennial thistles, as well as shorter and prostrate groups such as short annual grasses. This long-term study shows that interannual fluctuations in plant functional group composition could be partly accounted for by grazing pressure and timing, but not by the measured rainfall variables. Grazing affected the dominance of tall annual grasses. However, the persistence of tall grasses and more palatable species over time, despite large differences in grazing pressure and timing, supports the idea that Mediterranean grasslands are highly resistant to prolonged grazing. Indeed, even under the most extreme grazing conditions applied, there were no signs of deterioration or collapse of the ecosystem. This high resistance to grazing intensity and interannual fluctuation in climatic conditions should favor the persistence of the plant community under

  10. TUBERCULOSIS AND RIFAMPICIN RESISTANCE AMONG MIGRANTS IN KYRGYZSTAN: DETECTION BY A NEW DIAGNOSTIC TEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARMANKULOVA, AIGUL; HIGUCHI, MICHIYO; SARKER, MOHAMMAD ABUL BASHAR; ALIM, MD. ABDUL; HAMAJIMA, NOBUYUKI

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This cross-sectional study aimed to describe suspected tuberculosis (TB) cases among migrants in Kyrgyzstan and to estimate the accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF, which has been operated in Kyrgyzstan since 2012. Characteristics of 3,714 suspected cases among migrants were analysed. In addition, by using data of 300 cases with culture results, sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF, both for detection of TB and rifampicin susceptibility, were assessed. Among 3,714 suspected cases, 56.1% were male, and the median age was 35 years old. Of the suspected cases, 17.2% were previously-treated. In total, 809 (21.8%) were smear-positive; 36.8% among previously-treated cases and 18.7% among new cases. Among 300 selected participants, 235 (78.3%) were culture-positive. Of those who were confirmed as TB positive, recurrent cases showed a higher proportion of rifampicin resistance than new cases (59.3% vs 42.6%). For detection of TB, the sensitivity and specificity of XpertMTB/RIF (81.3% and 98.2%) were higher than those of microscopy (70.2% and 71.4%). Sensitivity and specificity for detection of rifampicin resistance were 96.8% and 91.8%, respectively. The rifampicin resistance rate in the study population was higher than the national average. Xpert MTB/RIF showed higher accuracy in detecting TB cases than microscopic diagnosis. Higher accuracy and earlier detection of drug susceptibility is especially important for those who have difficulty in accessing healthcare and those who are easily lost from tracking, including migrants. PMID:25797969

  11. Genome-Wide Scan and Test of Candidate Genes in the Snail Biomphalaria glabrata Reveal New Locus Influencing Resistance to Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A Tennessen

    Full Text Available New strategies to combat the global scourge of schistosomiasis may be revealed by increased understanding of the mechanisms by which the obligate snail host can resist the schistosome parasite. However, few molecular markers linked to resistance have been identified and characterized in snails.Here we test six independent genetic loci for their influence on resistance to Schistosoma mansoni strain PR1 in the 13-16-R1 strain of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata. We first identify a genomic region, RADres, showing the highest differentiation between susceptible and resistant inbred lines among 1611 informative restriction-site associated DNA (RAD markers, and show that it significantly influences resistance in an independent set of 439 outbred snails. The additive effect of each RADres resistance allele is 2-fold, similar to that of the previously identified resistance gene sod1. The data fit a model in which both loci contribute independently and additively to resistance, such that the odds of infection in homozygotes for the resistance alleles at both loci (13% infected is 16-fold lower than the odds of infection in snails without any resistance alleles (70% infected. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium is high, with both sod1 and RADres residing on haplotype blocks >2 Mb, and with other markers in each block also showing significant effects on resistance; thus the causal genes within these blocks remain to be demonstrated. Other candidate loci had no effect on resistance, including the Guadeloupe Resistance Complex and three genes (aif, infPhox, and prx1 with immunological roles and expression patterns tied to resistance, which must therefore be trans-regulated.The loci RADres and sod1 both have strong effects on resistance to S. mansoni. Future approaches to control schistosomiasis may benefit from further efforts to characterize and harness this natural genetic variation.

  12. Influence of supplementary lighting during artificial scab inoculation tests in an apple breeding programm focused on partial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrancq, B; Lateur, M

    2006-01-01

    In 1988, the Department of Biological Control and Plant Genetic Resources at the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre started an apple-breeding programme using local genetic resources and modern varieties. Our objective is to create high quality commercial cultivars with durable resistance to scab (Venturia inaequalis), powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and canker (Nectria galligena). The breeding strategy is based on crossing old apple cultivars and landraces selected as parents for low disease susceptibility and possessing other desirable horticultural characteristics. The programme aims to develop an early and efficient selection methodology adapted to partial disease resistance. One of the objectives is to define the optimal screening limit for discarding individuals after artificial scab inoculation tests. Working with large populations of seedlings entails spacing the seedling scab tests throughout the year. In order to work during winter, seedlings were grown in controlled cabinet conditions and in a glasshouse with supplementary lighting. To assess the bias introduced by these conditions, two trials were conducted: the first one to compare the influence of both environments on the results of scab inoculation tests, and the second one to assess the influence of the duration of supplementary lighting. The results enabled us to evaluate the limits of artificial cultural systems.

  13. Materials, Manufacturing, and Test Development of a Composite Fan Blade Leading Edge Subcomponent for Improved Impact Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Handschuh, Katherine; Sinnott, Matthew J.; Kohlman, Lee W.; Roberts, Gary D.; Martin, Richard E.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Pereira, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Application of polymer matrix composite materials for jet engine fan blades is becoming attractive as an alternative to metallic blades; particularly for large engines where significant weight savings are recognized on moving to a composite structure. However, the weight benefit of the composite is offset by a reduction of aerodynamic efficiency resulting from a necessary increase in blade thickness; relative to the titanium blades. Blade dimensions are largely driven by resistance to damage on bird strike. Further development of the composite material is necessary to allow composite blade designs to approximate the dimensions of a metallic fan blade. The reduction in thickness over the state of the art composite blades is expected to translate into structural weight reduction, improved aerodynamic efficiency, and therefore reduced fuel consumption. This paper presents test article design, subcomponent blade leading edge fabrication, test method development, and initial results from ballistic impact of a gelatin projectile on the leading edge of composite fan blades. The simplified test article geometry was developed to realistically simulate a blade leading edge while decreasing fabrication complexity. Impact data is presented on baseline composite blades and toughened blades; where a considerable improvement to impact resistance was recorded.

  14. Multiple Genetic Analysis System-Based Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing in Helicobacter pylori and High Eradication Rate With Phenotypic Resistance-Guided Quadruple Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fangyuan; Ji, Danian; Huang, Renxiang; Zhang, Fan; Huang, Yiqin; Xiang, Ping; Kong, Mimi; Nan, Li; Zeng, Xianping; Wu, Yong; Bao, Zhijun

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotics resistance in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major factor for eradication failure. Molecular tests including fluorescence in situ hybridization, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and dual priming oligonucleotide-PCR (DPO-PCR) play critical roles in the detection of antibiotic susceptibility; however, limited knowledge is known about application of multiple genetic analysis system (MGAS) in the area of H. pylori identification and antibiotics resistance detection.The aim of this study is to determine the antibiotics resistance using different molecular tests and evaluate the treatment outcomes of E-test-based genotypic resistance.A total of 297 patients with dyspepsia complaint were recruited for gastroscopies. Ninety patients with H. pylori culture positive were randomly divided into 2 groups (test group and control group). E-test, general PCR, and MGAS assay were performed in test group. Patients in control group were treated with empirical therapy (rabeprazole + bismuth potassium citrate + amoxicillin [AMX] + clarithromycin [CLR]), whereas patients in test group received quadruple therapy based on E-test results twice daily for 14 consecutive days. The eradication effect of H. pylori was confirmed by C-urea breath test after at least 4 weeks when treatment was finished.Rapid urease test showed 46.5% (128/297) patients with H. pylori infection, whereas 30.3% (90/297) patients were H. pylori culture positive. E-test showed that H. pylori primary resistance rate to CLR, AMX, metronidazole, tetracycline, and levofloxacin (LVX) was 40.0% (18/45), 4.4% (2/45), 53.3% (24/45), 0% (0/45), and 55.6% (25/45), respectively. In addition, there are many multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes, and the MDR strains have higher minimum inhibitory concentration than their single-drug resistant counterparts. Considering E-test as the reference test, the sensitivities of general PCR and MGAS in detecting CLR resistance were 83.3% (15/18) and 94.4% (17

  15. Study on Single-yarn Pullout Test of Ballistic Resistant Fabric under Different Preloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Q. C.; Lei, Z. K.; Y Qin, F.; Li, W. K.; Bai, R. X.

    2017-12-01

    During bullet penetrating fabric, the pull-out force of yarn in fabric is related to the impact resistance of fabric when the yarn is pulled out from the fabric. The complex uncrimping and friction slip behavior occur during the yarn pullout process, which is critical to learn the impact resistance of fabric. Based on digital image correlation technique, the deformation behavior of Kevlar 49 fabric subjected to preload during the single-yarn pullout process was studied in this paper. The pullout force and displacement curve shows a straight rise and an oscillated decrease. In the linear rise stage, the yarn uncrimping causes a static friction effect. The maximum of the pullout force is not linearly increased with the preload. In the oscillating descending stage, the local descent of the pullout force indicates that the yarn end is gradually withdrawn from the fabric, and the local rise indicates that the yarn end moves to the next weft/warp interaction until the yarn is completely pulled out. The shear deformation of fabric corresponds to the single-yarn pullout process.

  16. Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the normal range. What happens with insulin resistance? In insulin resistance, muscle, fat, and liver cells do not ... they do not usually test specifically for insulin resistance. Insulin resistance can be assessed by measuring the level ...

  17. Development of a Standard Test to Assess the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Cells to Disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppens, S.B.I.; Reij, M.W.; Heijden, van der R.W.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2002-01-01

    A standardized disinfectant test for Staphylococcus aureus cells in biofilms was developed. Two disinfectants, the membrane-active compound benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and the oxidizing agent sodium hypochlorite, were used to evaluate the biofilm test. S. aureus formed biofilms on glass, stainless

  18. Evaluation of a rapid screening test for rifampicin resistance in re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study was done comparing performance of the rapid phage test with conventional culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) in AFB-positive TB patients. Setting. Five primary health clinics and one TB referral centre in the Port Elizabeth Metropolitan area, Eastern Cape. Outcome measures. Sensitivity ...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 178 - Flame Penetration Resistance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... testing are the Lenox Model OB-32, Carlin Model 200 CRD and Park Model DPL. (3) Calorimeter. (i) The calorimeter to be used in testing must be a total heat flux Foil Type Gardon Gage of an appropriate range... burner to be used in tesing must— (i) Be a modified gun type. (ii) Use a suitable nozzle and maintain...

  20. Radiation resistance of elastomeric O-rings in mixed neutron and gamma fields: Testing methodology and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenoni, A.; Bignotti, F.; Donzella, A.; Donzella, G.; Ferrari, M.; Pandini, S.; Andrighetto, A.; Ballan, M.; Corradetti, S.; Manzolaro, M.; Monetti, A.; Rossignoli, M.; Scarpa, D.; Alloni, D.; Prata, M.; Salvini, A.; Zelaschi, F.

    2017-11-01

    Materials and components employed in the presence of intense neutron and gamma fields are expected to absorb high dose levels that may induce deep modifications of their physical and mechanical properties, possibly causing loss of their function. A protocol for irradiating elastomeric materials in reactor mixed neutron and gamma fields and for testing the evolution of their main mechanical and physical properties with absorbed dose has been developed. Four elastomeric compounds used for vacuum O-rings, one fluoroelastomer polymer (FPM) based and three ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) based, presently available on the market have been selected for the test. One EPDM is rated as radiation resistant in gamma fields, while the other elastomers are general purpose products. Particular care has been devoted to dosimetry calculations, since absorbed dose in neutron fields, unlike pure gamma fields, is strongly dependent on the material composition and, in particular, on the hydrogen content. The products have been tested up to about 2 MGy absorbed dose. The FPM based elastomer, in spite of its lower dose absorption in fast neutron fields, features the largest variations of properties, with a dramatic increase in stiffness and brittleness. Out of the three EPDM based compounds, one shows large and rapid changes in the main mechanical properties, whereas the other two feature more stable behaviors. The performance of the EPDM rated as radiation resistant in pure gamma fields does not appear significantly better than that of the standard product. The predictive capability of the accelerated irradiation tests performed as well as the applicable concepts of threshold of radiation damage is discussed in view of the use of the examined products in the selective production of exotic species facility, now under construction at the Legnaro National Laboratories of the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. It results that a careful account of dose rate effects

  1. Investigation of a slope endangered by rainfall-induced landslides using 3D resistivity tomography and geotechnical testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, S.; Thielen, A.; Springman, S. M.

    2006-10-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides pose a common problem in areas with slopes steeper than the friction angle of the soil. A series of such landslides in North Switzerland inspired a detailed geophysical and geotechnical site investigation prior to a monitoring experiment. High-resolution 2D and 3D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used to derive a detailed subsurface image, which was verified by direct penetration tests, boreholes and laboratory analysis of soil samples with respect to grain size distribution and plasticity. Resolution analysis of ERT configurations proved a combination of Wenner-, Schlumberger- and Dipole-Dipole data to be a reasonable compromise between measurement time and model accuracy. Furthermore, a statistical approach to reducing subjectivity in the interpretation of 3D resistivity models is suggested. Applying this classification scheme to field data yields a model in very good agreement with the geotechnical model. The 3D resistivity model is then interpreted quantitatively using laboratory data and a constitutive relation accounting for clay and silt contents. The dominant influence of saturation on resistivity predicted by this model is confirmed and exemplified during repeated surveys in a dry and a wet period. In wet summer 2004, a silty sand layer of high water saturation is confined between two less permeable layers, the sandstone bedrock below and a clayey sand layer on top. This layer may locally form an aquifer, which becomes rapidly saturated during heavy rainfalls and contributes to the risk of failure. The combined ERT and geotechnical survey helped to optimize the design of the forthcoming monitoring experiment and may be used as a guideline for the investigation of similar slope conditions.

  2. Assessment of the Resistance of a Polymethylmethacrylate (Pmma Dynamic Compression Plate (DCP Prototype Tested on Osteotomized Canine Femurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Cardona R.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Femur fractures are the most frequent long bone fractures in small animals. Due to the femur’s anatomical position, it is difficult to immobilize, and therefore internal fixations are very useful. Dynamic compression plates (DCP provide high stability, are durable, minimize fragment movement and promote primary healing of the bone. Advantages of this treatment include anatomical reconstruction, early mobility and carrying capacity of the affected limb. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA is an acrylic resin that has proved very useful in bone tumor treatment, cranial deformation prosthesis, percutaneous vertebroplasty and testicular prosthesis in animals. The purpose of this study was to manufacture DCP-PMMA and test its resistance to the different forces present in a fracture. Forty-eight (48 3.5MM x 4-hole DCP were made from an alginate mold. Six (6 femurs were obtained from canine cadavers zeighing from 10 to 20 kg, which underwent osteotomy simulating an oblique fracture. The plates were subsequently positioned in the osteotomized bones to submit them to the various forces involved in a fracture. The DCP-PMMA resisted a torque force of 2.83 newton/metres and a compression and flexion force of 0.21 kilonewton. The obtained resistance of the DCP-PMMA was an average of 20 kg per force. The results of this study show that it is possible to make a DCP-PMMA 3.5 mm x 4-hole, the resistance of which is of 20 kg against the three applied forces, and that it can be used to stabilize long bone fractures subjected to a pressure of less than 20 kg.

  3. Resistência do cafeeiro a nematóides: I - Testes em progênies e híbridos, para Meloidogyne exigua Coffee breeding for resistance to Meloidogyne exigua: I - Screening test using arabica progenies and interespecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Fazuoli

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se identificar fontes de resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne exígua em cafeeiros derivados de híbridos interespecíficos e em progênies de café arábica oriundas da Etiópia, em experimentos estabelecidos em duas localidades. A infestação foi feita por dois processos usados com freqüência nesse tipo de trabalho. As avaliações do grau de ataque foram feitas quatro e 12 meses após a infestação, em Campinas e Ribeirão Preto, respectivamente, adotando-se escala variando de zero, para ausência de galhas, a cinco pontos para grande intensidade de ataque. Verificou-se que a leitura feita aos quatro meses é tão eficiente quanto aos 12 meses, indicando a possibilidade de abreviar consideravelmente a duração dessas avaliações. Notou-se, no experimento de Ribeirão Preto, uma redução de aproximadamente 8% no crescimento das mudas infestadas e verificou-se, também, uma redução de 11,5% e 12% nos pesos verde e seco das plantas, devido ao ataque do nematóide. De 1.692 plantas examinadas nos dois experimentos, selecionaram-se 106 (6,3%, caracterizadas pela ausência de galhas. As populações derivadas dos híbridos entre Coffea arabica e C. canephora revelaram-se mais promissoras, contribuindo com maior número de plantas resistentes. As plantas do experimento instalado em Campinas foram inoculadas também com a raça II de Hemileia vastatrix para o estudo da resistência conjunta aos dois patógenos. Essas seleções, em número de 38, representam valioso material para o programa de melhoramento do cafeeiro.Two coffee screening tests were undertaken in order to find out sources of resistance to the nematode M. exigua. Arabica progenies from Ethiopia origin and advanced popu-lations derived from interspecific crosses (Coffea arabica x C. canephora and C. arabica x C. dewevrei were evaluated. A five point scale (0 point to the roots without galls and 5 points to severely attacked roots was used for determination of the

  4. Expansion of Viral Load Testing and the Potential Impact on HIV Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizes, Elliot; Hader, Shannon; Birx, Deborah

    2017-12-01

    The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) supports aggressive scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in high-burden countries and across all genders and populations at risk toward global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic control. PEPFAR recognizes the risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) as a consequence of aggressive ART scale-up and is actively promoting 3 key steps to mitigate the impact of HIVDR: (1) routine access to routine viral load monitoring in all settings; (2) optimization of ART regimens; and (3) routine collection and analysis of HIVDR data to monitor the success of mitigation strategies. The transition to dolutegravir-based regimens in PEPFAR-supported countries and the continuous evolution of HIVDR surveillance strategies are essential elements of PEPFAR implementation. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Advanced Testing Techniques to Measure the PWSCC Resistance of Alloy 690 and its Weld Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.Andreson

    2004-10-01

    Wrought Alloy 600 and its weld metals (Alloy 182 and Alloy 82) were originally used in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) due to the material's inherent resistance to general corrosion in a number of aggressive environments and because of a coefficient of thermal expansion that is very close to that of low alloy and carbon steel. Over the last thirty years, stress corrosion cracking in PWR primary water (PWSCC) has been observed in numerous Alloy 600 component items and associated welds, sometimes after relatively long incubation times. The occurrence of PWSCC has been responsible for significant downtime and replacement power costs. As part of an ongoing, comprehensive program involving utilities, reactor vendors and engineering/research organizations, this report will help to ensure that corrosion degradation of nickel-base alloys does not limit service life and that full benefit can be obtained from improved designs for both replacement components and new reactors.

  6. Full-Scale Test Evaluation of Aircraft Fuel Fire Burnthrough Resistance Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    versions of the FB-300 were somewhat inferior to the current fiberglass materials in terms of sound absorption and noise attenuation, which is the...430, supplied by the Imi-Tech® Corporation. Solimide® AC-430 has excellent sound absorption and good thermal insulating properties but does not...composites on commercial and military aircraft and helicopters. In this test a dot printed, nonwoven paper of Nextel™ was tested to determine its

  7. First joint test beam of CMS Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    Paolo Giacomelli

    2001-01-01

    The first full size muon drift tube chamber ever built for the CMS barrel with the final cell design (constructed at CIEMAT, Madrid) was succesfully tested with a muon beam in September 2001 at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN. For the first time also both muon detectors for the CMS barrel (DT + RPC) were coupled together. The results of this test were fully succesful and confirmed the excellent performance of both detectors together in a radiation environment.

  8. Impact Resistance of Structural Ceramics. Part 1. Instrumented Drop- Weight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    is conventionally obtained for metels using heavy pendulum impact machines in the Charpy or Izod configuration. In the Charpy configuration the... Charpy mode. The tup of the pendulum has a force transducer attached, the output of which is recorded on an oscilloscope. Thus, the load as a function...clear distinction should be made between the energy loss of an impactor in an impact test (the pendulum in a Charpy test or the ball in a DWT) and the

  9. Erosion-corrosion resistance of engineering materials in various test conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rajahram, S.S; Harvey, T.J.; Wood, R.J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Erosion–corrosion is a complex phenomenon which involves the interaction between the mechanical processes of solid particle erosion and the electrochemical processes of corrosion. A whole range of issues is faced by a designer when trying to obtain relevant information on erosion–corrosion performance of a material. Amongst the constraints are the dispersed test conditions and test rigs available in the literature making comparisons and quantifying erosion–corrosion wear rates of different ma...

  10. Replicative phenotyping adds value to genotypic resistance testing in heavily pre-treated HIV-infected individuals - the Swiss HIV Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinetti Gladys

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replicative phenotypic HIV resistance testing (rPRT uses recombinant infectious virus to measure viral replication in the presence of antiretroviral drugs. Due to its high sensitivity of detection of viral minorities and its dissecting power for complex viral resistance patterns and mixed virus populations rPRT might help to improve HIV resistance diagnostics, particularly for patients with multiple drug failures. The aim was to investigate whether the addition of rPRT to genotypic resistance testing (GRT compared to GRT alone is beneficial for obtaining a virological response in heavily pre-treated HIV-infected patients. Methods Patients with resistance tests between 2002 and 2006 were followed within the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS. We assessed patients' virological success after their antiretroviral therapy was switched following resistance testing. Multilevel logistic regression models with SHCS centre as a random effect were used to investigate the association between the type of resistance test and virological response (HIV-1 RNA Results Of 1158 individuals with resistance tests 221 with GRT+rPRT and 937 with GRT were eligible for analysis. Overall virological response rates were 85.1% for GRT+rPRT and 81.4% for GRT. In the subgroup of patients with >2 previous failures, the odds ratio (OR for virological response of GRT+rPRT compared to GRT was 1.45 (95% CI 1.00-2.09. Multivariate analyses indicate a significant improvement with GRT+rPRT compared to GRT alone (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.31-2.15. Conclusions In heavily pre-treated patients rPRT-based resistance information adds benefit, contributing to a higher rate of treatment success.

  11. Oxidative stress responses to a graded maximal exercise test in older adults following explosive-type resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceci, R.; Beltran Valls, M.R.; Duranti, G.

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that low frequency, moderate intensity, explosive-type resistance training (EMRT) is highly beneficial in elderly subjects towards muscle strength and power, with a systemic adaptive response of anti-oxidant and stress-induced markers. In the present study, we aimed...... to evaluate the impact of EMRT on oxidative stress biomarkers induced in old people (70-75 years) by a single bout of acute, intense exercise. Sixteen subjects randomly assigned to either a control, not exercising group ( n=8) or a trained group performing EMRT protocol for 12-weeks ( n=8), were submitted...... to a graded maximal exercise stress test (GXT) at baseline and after the 12-weeks of EMRT protocol, with blood samples collected before, immediately after, 1 and 24. h post-GXT test. Blood glutathione (GSH, GSSG, GSH/GSSG), plasma malonaldehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls and creatine kinase (CK) levels, as well...

  12. Effect of a test meal on meal responses of satiation hormones and their association to insulin resistance in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beglinger, Svetlana; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Graf, Steffi; Zumsteg, Urs; Drewe, Jürgen; Beglinger, Christoph; Gutzwiller, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-01

    The role of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones in the pathophysiology of obesity is unclear, although they are involved in the regulation of satiation and glucose metabolism. To (i) examine glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), amylin, ghrelin, and glucagon responses to a meal in obese adolescents and to (ii) test which GI peptides are associated with insulin resistance are presented. A total of 16 obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 97th percentile for age and gender) and 14 control (BMI between 25th and 75th percentiles) adolescents were included. Subjects were instructed to eat a test meal (490 kcal). Plasma samples were collected for hormone and glucose analysis. Obese adolescents were insulin resistant as expressed by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index and had significantly increased fasting glucagon and amylin levels compared to the control group (P = 0.003 and 0.044, respectively). In response to the meal, the increase in GLP-1 levels was reduced in obese adolescents (P < 0.001). In contrast, amylin secretion was significantly increased in the obese population compared to the control group (P < 0.005). Obese adolescents have increased fasting glucagon and amylin levels and attenuated post-prandial GLP-1 concentrations compared with the control group. These factors could contribute to the metabolic syndrome. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  13. Optimization of a Laboratory-Developed Test Utilizing Roche Analyte-Specific Reagents for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus, and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Species▿

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Maitry S.; Paule, Suzanne M.; Hacek, Donna M.; Thomson, Richard B.; Kaul, Karen L.; Peterson, Lance R.

    2008-01-01

    Nasal and perianal swab specimens were tested for detection of Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species (VRE) using a laboratory-developed real-time PCR test and microbiological cultures. The real-time PCR and culture results for S. aureus were similar. PCR had adequate sensitivity, but culture was more specific for the detection of VRE.

  14. Correlation between genotypic and phenotypic testing for resistance to rifampin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in Haiti: investigation of cases with discrepant susceptibility results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Ocheretina

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization has recommended use of molecular-based tests MTBDRplus and GeneXpert MTB/RIF to diagnose multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in developing and high-burden countries. Both tests are based on detection of mutations in the Rifampin (RIF Resistance-Determining Region of DNA-dependent RNA Polymerase gene (rpoB. Such mutations are found in 95-98% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains determined to be RIF-resistant by the "gold standard" culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST. We report the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of 153 consecutive clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains diagnosed as RIF-resistant by molecular tests in our laboratory in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 133 isolates (86.9% were resistant to both RIF and Isoniazid and 4 isolates (2.6% were RIF mono-resistant in MGIT SIRE liquid culture-based DST. However the remaining 16 isolates (10.5% tested RIF-sensitive by the assay. Five strains with discordant genotypic and phenotypic susceptibility results had RIF minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC close to the cut-off value of 1 µg/ml used in phenotypic susceptibility assays and were confirmed as resistant by DST on solid media. Nine strains had sub-critical RIF MICs ranging from 0.063 to 0.5 µg/ml. Finally two strains were pan-susceptible and harbored a silent rpoB mutation. Our data indicate that not only detection of the presence but also identification of the nature of rpoB mutation is needed to accurately diagnose resistance to RIF in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Observed clinical significance of low-level resistance to RIF supports the re-evaluation of the present critical concentration of the drug used in culture-based DST assays.

  15. Validation of the abrasion resistance test protocols and performance criteria of EN13595: The probability of soft tissue injury to motorcycle riders by abrasion resistance of their clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Lauren; Hurren, Christopher; Clarke, Elizabeth; Fitzharris, Michael; Baldock, Matthew; de Rome, Liz; Olivier, Jake; Brown, Julie

    2017-06-01

    Motorcyclists represent an increasing proportion of road users globally and are increasingly represented in crash statistics. Soft tissue injuries are the most common type of injuries to crashed motorcyclists. These injuries can be prevented through the use of protective clothing designed for motorcycle use. However, the quality of such clothing is not controlled in many countries around the world. A European Standard was developed to assess the performance of clothing but as this is not mandatory, clothing certified to this Standard is difficult to obtain. Given the importance of this Standard, and that it has been validated only once, further validation work is required. In-depth crash investigation data were used to investigate the relationship between the abrasion resistance performance of clothing and real-world injury outcome. Clothing was collected from riders who crashed on public roads in Sydney and Newcastle, Australia. This clothing was tested according to the EU Standard and the time to hole was recorded. Hospital medical records were reviewed and the association between a rider suffering a soft tissue injury and the time-to-hole for the garment was examined. The probability of soft tissue injury for Level 1 Standard garments was between 40-60%, but more than 60% of garments tested failed to meet the minimum requirement. The findings of this study provide qualified support for the Standard, with a marginal association between time-to-hole and injury being found. This work supports the need for improved safety performance and an increased number of high performing garments being available to motorcyclists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  16. A Robust PCR Protocol for HIV Drug Resistance Testing on Low-Level Viremia Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of drug resistance (DR mutations in people with HIV-1 infection, particularly those with low-level viremia (LLV, supports the need to improve the sensitivity of amplification methods for HIV DR genotyping in order to optimize antiretroviral regimen and facilitate HIV-1 DR surveillance and relevant research. Here we report on a fully validated PCR-based protocol that achieves consistent amplification of the protease (PR and reverse transcriptase (RT regions of HIV-1 pol gene across many HIV-1 subtypes from LLV plasma samples. HIV-spiked plasma samples from the External Quality Assurance Program Oversight Laboratory (EQAPOL, covering various HIV-1 subtypes, as well as clinical specimens were used to optimize and validate the protocol. Our results demonstrate that this protocol has a broad HIV-1 subtype coverage and viral load span with high sensitivity and reproducibility. Moreover, the protocol is robust even when plasma sample volumes are limited, the HIV viral load is unknown, and/or the HIV subtype is undetermined. Thus, the protocol is applicable for the initial amplification of the HIV-1 PR and RT genes required for subsequent genotypic DR assays.

  17. Analysis of Samples Treated by Resistance Test Method Exposed to Accelerated Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bates

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Global awareness that packaging has to be fully adequate and of high quality, is gradually increasing. That is why printing inks and substrates, which have no detrimental effect on packed products, should be considered a compulsory precondition for food and tobacco packaging. Printing inks that have been developed in the recent years, especially for food and tobacco packaging, have low-odour and low migration into the printing substrate during the drying process. Their migration into the printing substrate is within the acceptable limits and has no detrimental effect in terms of food safety. Another extremely important element of prints in high quality food and tobacco packaging is their stability, as they have to be resistant to liquids and chemicals, which are a part of packed product. The selection of an appropriate printing substrate is also extremely relevant, since the interaction of substrate with printing inks should have zero effect on the packed product and should not change the physical appearance of packaging. This paper presents the results of analysing the stability of laboratory samples printed with low-migration inks, observed immediately after the printing (unaged and two treatments of accelerated aging. The accelerated aging of prints was conducted in order to simulate conditions in which food and tobacco packaging can be found due to the prolonged indoors storage. The stability of prints was analysed based on optical characteristics by observing the prints’ relative reflectance curves.

  18. Shortened Time to Identify Staphylococcus Species from Blood Cultures and Methicillin Resistance Testing Using CHROMAgar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Chihara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to rapidly differentiate coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS from Staphylococcus aureus and to determine methicillin resistance is important as it affects the decision to treat empiric antibiotic selection. The objective of this study was to evaluate CHROMagar S. aureus and CHROMagar MRSA (Becton Dickinson for rapid identification of Staphylococcus spp. directly from blood cultures. Consecutive blood culture bottles (BacT Alert 3D SA and SN, bioMérieux growing gram-positive cocci in clusters were evaluated. An aliquot was plated onto CHROMagar MRSA (C-MRSA and CHROMagar S. aureus (C-SA plates, which were read at 12 to 16 hours. C-SA correctly identified 147/147 S. aureus (100% sensitivity; 2 CoNS were misidentified as S. aureus (98% specificity. C-MRSA correctly identified 74/77 MRSA (96% sensitivity. None of the MSSA isolates grew on C-MRSA (100% specificity. In conclusion, CHROMagar is a rapid and sensitive method to distinguish MRSA, MSSA, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and may decrease time of reporting positive results.

  19. Wastage-resistant characteristics of 12Cr steel tube material. Small leak sodium-water reaction test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyama, Kazuhito

    2004-03-01

    In the water leak accident of a steam generator designed for a sodium cooled reactor in the Feasibility Study, the localization of tube failure propagation by using an advanced water leak detector will be required from the viewpoints of the safety and economical efficiency of the plant. So far, the conventional knowledge and analytical tools have been used in the investigation and evaluation of water leak phenomenon; nevertheless, there was neither test data nor the study of quantitative evaluation on the corrosion behavior, so-called wastage-resistant characteristics, of 12Cr steel tube material in sodium-water reactions. Wastage tests for the 12Cr steel tube material were conducted in small water leaks by use of the Sodium-Water Reaction Test Rig (SWAT-1R), and the data of wastage rate were obtained in the parameter of water leak rate under the constant sodium temperature and distance between leak and target tubes. The test results lead to the following conclusions: (1) The wastage-resistibility of 12Cr steel is 1.6 times greater than that of 9Cr steel and is 2.7 times greater than that of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. (2)The wastage-resistibility of 12Cr steel increases in smaller water leaks; especially in water leak rates of 1 g/sec or less, it is more excellent than that of SUS321 stainless steel used as Monju superheater tube material. (3) Based on the correlation of wastage rate for the 9Cr steel, the correlation for the 12Cr steel has been obtained to be used for the evaluation of tube failure propagation. As the correlation of wastage rate for the 12Cr steel is based on the correlation for the 9Cr steel, it gives enough conservatism in smaller water leaks. To serve in accurately evaluating the tube failure propagation in smaller water leaks, it is necessary to obtain new correlation of wastage rate for the 12Cr steel based on the data in the wide range of water leak rates. (author)

  20. Testing hypotheses that link wood anatomy to cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in the genus Acer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Sperry, J.S.; Christmas, M.A.; Rabaey, D.; Jansen, S.

    2011-01-01

    • Vulnerability to cavitation and conductive efficiency depend on xylem anatomy. We tested a large range of structure–function hypotheses, some for the first time, within a single genus to minimize phylogenetic ‘noise’ and maximize detection of functionally relevant variation. • This integrative

  1. Why testes are resistant to hydatidosis: Is blood-testis-barrier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testes are extremely rare sites for echinococcosis. To our knowledge only three cases of testicular hydatid disease have been reported so far. In this laboratory animal model, we studied hydatidosis in rabbit testis. Fourteen male albino rabbits (body weight 2.5-3 kg) were randomized into two groups: Group A (study group), ...

  2. Forcing attacks of western pine beetles to test resistance of pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Smith

    1967-01-01

    Success--defined as oviposition or tree-killing--was obtained by attracting western pine beetles to groups of pines with natural attractants and by en-massed forced attacks on individual trees combined with either physical or biological stress. Preliminary results show considerable agreement with laboratory tests of vapor toxicity.

  3. Effect of Explosion Bulge Test Parameters on the Measurement of Deformation Resistance for Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    cDAQ 9172 chassis , which was in turn connected to a notebook computer by a USB port. A schematic of the test plate is shown in Figure 1, identifying...for automobile applications’, 2006, Internal Technical paper. [13] D. Cornette, P.Cugy, A. Hildenbrand, and M. Bouzekri, ‘Ultra high strength Fe-Mn

  4. Soft Salt-Mannitol Agar–Cloxacillin Test: a Highly Specific Bedside Screening Test for Detection of Colonization with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Nuria; Sánchez, Miguel; Baquero, Fernando; López, Blanca; Calderón, Celia; Cantón, Rafael

    1998-01-01

    The early detection of colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of patients in intensive-care units is an essential step in the strategy for preventing MRSA epidemics. In this study, tubes containing soft salt-mannitol agar with cloxacillin (6 μg/ml) (SSMAC) were prepared for inoculation of clinical samples at patients’ bedsides by personnel of an intensive-care unit. A total of 1,914 swabs from different sample sites of 81 patients were dipped into SSMAC tubes, and after 24 h of incubation (in an incubator located near the intensive-care unit), an evident color change was considered by the intensive-care-unit personnel to be an MRSA alarm. Sixty-three (3.3%) SSMAC tubes were considered positive for MRSA, 1,827 (95.4%) were considered negative, and 24 (1.2%) were considered intermediate. Compared with values for parallel conventional surveillance cultures for MRSA, excluding tubes with intermediate results, the SSMAC test had a sensitivity of 72.7%, a specificity of 99.2%, a positive predictive value of 76.2%, and a negative predictive value of 99.0%. When intermediate tubes were considered positive, the corresponding values were 75.3, 98.2, 63.2, and 99.0%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity values of the test to identify MRSA-colonized patients were 89.4 and 100%, respectively. Oropharyngeal and naris specimens were the most reliable samples for MRSA detection. False-negative results were frequent in bronchial aspirates with low (<103 to 106 CFU/ml) MRSA counts. False-positive results were mainly due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus. The SSMAC tube is a useful, rapid, and inexpensive tool for the early identification of MRSA-colonized patients and, consequently, for the implementation of measures to prevent the spread of MRSA. PMID:9542922

  5. Antibiotic susceptibility of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) of food origin: A comparison of agar disc diffusion method and a commercially available miniaturized test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzón-Durán, Laura; Capita, Rosa; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2018-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are a major concern to public and animal health. Thirty MRS (Staphylococcus aureus, S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lentus, S. lugdunensis, S. sciuri, and S. xylosus) isolates from meat and poultry preparations were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials (belonging to seven different categories) of clinical significance using both the standard agar disc diffusion method and a commercially available miniaturized system (Sensi Test Gram-positive). It is worth stressing that 16 isolates (53.33%) exhibited an extensively drug-resistant phenotype (XDR). The average number of resistances per strain was 4.67. These results suggest that retail meat and poultry preparations are a likely vehicle for the transmission of multi-drug resistant MRS. Resistance to erythromycin was the commonest finding (76.67% of strains), followed by tobramycin, ceftazidime (66.67%), ciprofloxacin (56.67%) and fosfomycin (53.33%). An agreement (kappa coefficient) of 0.64 was found between the two testing methods. Using the agar disc diffusion as the reference method, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the miniaturized test were 98.44%, 69.44% and 83.33%, respectively. Most discrepancies between the two methods were due to isolates that were susceptible according to the disc diffusion method but resistant according to the miniaturized test (false positives). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Pneumatic muscle actuator for resistive exercise in microgravity: test with a leg model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serres, Jennifer L; Phillips, Chandler A; Reynolds, David B; Mohler, Stanley R; Rogers, Dana B; Repperger, Daniel W; Gerschutz, Maria J

    2010-02-01

    A proof-of-concept demonstration is described in which a DC servomotor (simulating the quadriceps of a human operator) rotated a pulley 90 degrees (simulating knee extension). A pneumatic muscle actuator (PMA) generated an opposing force (antagonist) to the rotating pulley. One application of such a device is for use in microgravity environments because the PMA is compact, simple, and of relatively small mass (283 g). In addition, the operator can set a computer-controlled force-level range in response to individual user changes in exercise conditioning over time. A PMA was used in this study and interacted with a DC servomotor. For each trial, the PMA contracted in response to internal pressure. An input voltage profile activated the DC servomotor, resulting in the following three phases: an isokinetic counterclockwise pulley rotation of 90 degrees over 5 s (Phase I), the position was held for 5 s (Phase II), and an isokinetic clockwise rotation of 90 degrees over 5 s (Phase III). Root mean square error (RMSE) values were used to evaluate the pulley rotation. For Phase I, when the PMA pressures (in kPa) were 300, 450, and 575, the percent RMSE, respectively, were 5.24, 6.23, and 4.59. For Phase II, the percent RMSE were 2.81, 2.57, and 5.63, respectively. For Phase III, the percent RMSE were 5.69, 2.63, and 3.30, respectively. This study presents a demonstration of a PMA device that can enhance exercise by providing a wide range of resistive loads.

  7. Diagnostic Testing Approaches for Activated Protein C Resistance and Factor V Leiden: A Comparison of Institutional and National Provider Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Botero, Juliana; Majerus, Julie A; Strege, Ann K; Johnson, Ryan D; Chen, Dong; Pruthi, Rajiv K

    2017-06-01

    To analyze the economic impact of testing for activated protein C resistance (APC-R) due to factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation with APC-R with reflexive FVL genotyping (algorithmic approach) or genotyping alone. OptumLabs Data Warehouse (OLDW) data were used to assess testing approaches. Insurance claims for APC-R and FVL in 2013 were compared with the Mayo Clinic database. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services diagnostic fee schedules were used to assign costs. Of 19.3 million OLDW-covered individuals, 74,242 (0.385%) received 75,608 tests: APC-R, 2,265 (2.9%); FVL genotyping, 70,619 (90.1%); and both APC-R and FVL, 2,724 (7.0%). In total, 1,317 tests were performed at Mayo Clinic: APC-R with reflex FVL (1,256; 95.4%) and FVL alone (61; 4.6%). Costs per evaluated individual and per total population (person/year) in OLDW and algorithmic approach were $83.77 vs $36.38 and $0.32 vs $0.14, respectively. The cost-optimized algorithmic approach reduces health care costs. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. The use of model-test data for predicting full-scale ACV resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstell, B. G.; Harry, C. W.

    The paper summarizes the analysis of test data obtained with a 1/12-scale model of the Amphibious Assault Landing Craft (AALC) JEFF(B). The analysis was conducted with the objective of improving the accuracy of drag predictions for a JEFF(B)-type air-cushion vehicle (ACV). Model test results, scaled to full-scale, are compared with full-scale drag obtained in various sea states during JEFF(B) trials. From the results of this comparison, it is found that the Froude-scale model rough-water drag data is consistently greater than full-scale derived drag, and is a function of both wave height and craft forward speed. Results are presented indicating that Froude scaling model data obtained in calm water also causes an over-prediction of calm-water drag at full-scale. An empirical correction that was developed for use on a JEFF(B)-type craft is discussed.

  9. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 179 - Procedures for Tank-Head Puncture-Resistance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and duplicate the condition of a conventional draft sill including the draft yoke and draft gear. The...-minus 2.5 cm (1 inch), above the top of the sill; the other test must be conducted with the coupler height at 79 cm (31 inches), plus-or-minus 2.5 cm (1 inch), above the top of the sill. If the combined...

  10. Culture and Next-generation sequencing-based drug susceptibility testing unveil high levels of drug-resistant-TB in Djibouti: results from the first national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliani, Elisa; Hassan, Mohamed Osman; Waberi, Yacine; De Filippo, Maria Rosaria; Falzon, Dennis; Dean, Anna; Zignol, Matteo; Supply, Philip; Abdoulkader, Mohamed Ali; Hassangue, Hawa; Cirillo, Daniela Maria

    2017-12-15

    Djibouti is a small country in the Horn of Africa with a high TB incidence (378/100,000 in 2015). Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and resistance to second-line agents have been previously identified in the country but the extent of the problem has yet to be quantified. A national survey was conducted to estimate the proportion of MDR-TB among a representative sample of TB patients. Sputum was tested using XpertMTB/RIF and samples positive for MTB and resistant to rifampicin underwent first line phenotypic susceptibility testing. The TB supranational reference laboratory in Milan, Italy, undertook external quality assurance, genotypic testing based on whole genome and targeted-deep sequencing and phylogenetic studies. 301 new and 66 previously treated TB cases were enrolled. MDR-TB was detected in 34 patients: 4.7% of new and 31% of previously treated cases. Resistance to pyrazinamide, aminoglycosides and capreomycin was detected in 68%, 18% and 29% of MDR-TB strains respectively, while resistance to fluoroquinolones was not detected. Cluster analysis identified transmission of MDR-TB as a critical factor fostering drug resistance in the country. Levels of MDR-TB in Djibouti are among the highest on the African continent. High prevalence of resistance to pyrazinamide and second-line injectable agents have important implications for treatment regimens.

  11. Comparison of tau-fluvalinate, acrinathrin, and amitraz effects on susceptible and resistant populations of Varroa destructor in a vial test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamler, Martin; Nesvorna, Marta; Stara, Jitka; Erban, Tomas; Hubert, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major pest of the western honeybee, Apis mellifera. The development of acaricide resistance in Varroa populations is a global issue. Discriminating concentrations of acaricides are widely used to detect pest resistance. Two methods, using either glass vials or paraffin capsules, are used to screen for Varroa resistance to various acaricides. We found the glass vial method to be useless for testing Varroa resistance to acaridices, so we developed a polypropylene vial bioassay. This method was tested on tau-fluvalinate-, acrinathrin-, and amitraz-resistant mite populations from three apiaries in Czechia. Acetone was used as a control and technical grade acaricide compounds diluted in acetone were applied to the polypropylene vials. The solutions were spread on the vial surface by rolling the vial, and were then evaporated. Freshly collected Varroa females were placed in the vials and the mortality of the exposed mites was measured after 24 h. The Varroa populations differed in mortality between the apiaries and the tested compounds. Mites from the Kyvalka site were resistant to acrinathrin, tau-fluvalinate, and amitraz, while mites from the Postrizin site were susceptible to all three acaricides. In Prelovice apiary, the mites were susceptible to acrinathrin and amitraz, but not to tau-fluvalinate. The calculated discriminating concentrations for tau-fluvalinate, acrinathrin, and amitraz were 0.66, 0.26 and 0.19 µg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that polyproplyne vial tests can be used to determine discriminating concentrations for the early detection of acaricide resistant Varroa. Finally, multiple-resistance in Kyvalka may indicate metabolic resistance.

  12. Haptic control of a pneumatic muscle actuator to provide resistance for simulated isokinetic exercise; part II: control development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kara L; Phillips, Chandler A; Reynolds, David B; Mohler, Stanley R; Rogers, Dana B; Neidhard-Doll, Amy T

    2015-01-01

    Pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) have a high power to weight ratio and possess unique characteristics which make them ideal actuators for applications involving human interaction. PMAs are difficult to control due to nonlinear dynamics, presenting challenges in system implementation. Despite these challenges, PMAs have great potential as a source of resistance for strength training and rehabilitation. The objective of this work was to control a PMA for use in isokinetic exercise, potentially benefiting anyone in need of optimal strength training through a joint's range of motion. The controller, based on an inverse three-element phenomenological model and adaptive nonlinear control, allows the system to operate as a type of haptic device. A human quadriceps dynamic simulator was developed (as described in Part I of this work) so that control effectiveness and accommodation could be tested prior to human implementation. Tracking error results indicate that the control system is effective at producing PMA displacement and resistance necessary for a scaled, simulated neuromuscular actuator to maintain low-velocity isokinetic movement during simulated concentric and eccentric knee extension.

  13. Comparison and ranking of superelasticity of different austenite active nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires using mechanical tensile testing and correlating with its electrical resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, D.; Baskaranarayanan, Balashanmugam; Usha, K.; Jayanthi, M. S.; Vijjaykanth, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The application of light and continuous forces for optimum physiological response and the least damage to the tooth supporting structures should be the primary aim of an orthodontist. Nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys with their desirable properties are one of the natural choices of the clinicians. Aim: This study was aimed to compare and rank them based on its tensile strength and electrical resistivity. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of eight groups of 0.017 inch × 0.025 inch rectangular archwires from eight different manufacturers, and five samples from each group for tensile testing and nine samples for electrical resistivity tests were used. Data for stress at 10% strain and the initial slope were statistically analyzed with an analysis of variance and Scheffe tests with P wires tested were based primarily on the unloading curve's slope which is indicative of the magnitude of the deactivation force and secondarily on the length of the horizontal segment which is indicative of continuous forces during deactivation. For calculating the electric resistivity, the change in resistance after inducing strain in the wires was taken into account for the calculation of degree of martensite transformation and for ranking. Results: In tensile testing Ortho Organizers wires ranked first and GAC Lowland NiTi wires ranked last. For resistivity tests Ormco A wires were found superior and Morelli remained last. Conclusion: these rankings should be correlated clinically and need further studies. PMID:27829751

  14. The Genotype MTBDRplus ver. 2.0 test as a quick indicator of resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Nisticò

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a global emergency and a major public health problem, in some cases related to the appearance of strains of multi drug resistance (MDR and extensive drug resistance (XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.The correct determination of antibiotic sensitivity profiles is therefore crucial to carry out appropriate treatment aimed to decrease the infectivity of each patient and to reduce mortality. The poor adherence to treatment by the patient or the use of therapies based on a single drug, as a result of incorrect requirements, promote the development of drug-resistance. Have some time on the market of molecular diagnostic tests that allow, quickly and directly from biological sample to search for resistance genes some key drugs of anti-TB therapy (Rifampicin and Isoniazid. One of the tests in question is the Genotype MTBDRplus ver 2.0 which can reveal the presence of genes for resistance to Isoniazid (INH and Rifampin (RMP.The loci analyzed are those corresponding to the rpoB gene for rifampicin, katG and inhA for isoniazid. Our study is based on the analysis of 83 strains of tubercular Mycobacteria identified and isolated from patients with tuberculosis disease and subjected to the tests sensitivity, searching for mutations and phenotypic susceptibility testing for Rifampicin and Isoniazid.The comparison of the results has shown that the results obtained using the Genotype MTBDRplus ver 2.0 test, were similar to the results obtained by the traditional susceptibility testing.

  15. Standard Test Method for Impact Resistance of Monolithic Polycarbonate Sheet by Means of a Falling Weight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the energy required to initiate failure in monolithic polycarbonate sheet material under specified conditions of impact using a free falling weight. 1.2 Two specimen types are defined as follows: 1.2.1 Type A consists of a flat plate test specimen and employs a clamped ring support. 1.2.2 Type B consists of a simply supported three-point loaded beam specimen (Fig. 1) and is recommended for use with material which can not be failed using the Type A specimen. For a maximum drop height of 6.096 m (20 ft) and a maximum drop weight of 22.68 kg (50 lb), virgin polycarbonate greater than 12.70 mm (1/2 in.) thick will probably require use of the Type B specimen. Note 1 - See also ASTM Methods: D 1709, D 2444 and D 3029. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of reg...

  16. Liquid Metal Embrittlement in Resistance Spot Welding and Hot Tensile Tests of Surface-refined TWIP Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmie, J.; Schram, A.; Wesling, V.

    2016-03-01

    Automotive industry strives to reduce vehicle weight and therefore fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Especially in the auto body, material light weight construction is practiced, but the occupant safety must be ensured. These requirements demand high-strength steels with good forming and crash characteristics. Such an approach is the use of high- manganese-content TWIP steels, which achieve strengths of around 1,000 MPa and fracture strains of more than 60%. Welding surface-refined TWIP steels reduces their elongation at break and produces cracks due to the contact with liquid metal and the subsequent liquid metal embrittlement (LME). The results of resistance spot welds of mixed joints of high-manganese- content steel in combination with micro-alloyed ferritic steel and hot tensile tests are presented. The influence of different welding parameters on the sensitivity to liquid metal embrittlement is investigated by means of spot welding. In a high temperature tensile testing machine, the influence of different parameters is determined regardless of the welding process. Defined strains just below or above the yield point, and at 25% of elongation at break, show the correlation between the applied strain and liquid metal crack initiation. Due to the possibility to carry out tensile tests on a wide range of temperatures, dependencies of different temperatures of the zinc coating to the steel can be identified. Furthermore, the attack time of the zinc on the base material is investigated by defined heating periods.

  17. Rapid diagnostic test and use of antibiotic against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in adult intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dureau, A-F; Duclos, G; Antonini, F; Boumaza, D; Cassir, N; Alingrin, J; Vigne, C; Hammad, E; Zieleskiewicz, L; Leone, M

    2017-02-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with excess mortality and costs. Molecular biology test allows rapid identification of MRSA in sputum with high negative predictive value. We hypothesized that use of a rapid diagnostic test in patients with suspected VAP was associated with reduced use of antibiotics directed against MRSA. This retrospective, observational study was conducted in a polyvalent intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital. We compared two periods: before (2007-2010) and after (2010-2015) the implementation of a rapid diagnostic test, which uses RT-PCR to detect pathogens in 60 minutes. The primary endpoint was the effect on the empirical use of anti-MRSA antibiotics. The second endpoint was the effect of this strategy on the cost regarding antibiotic treatment. The first group included 120 suspected VAP (88 patients) and the second group 121 suspected VAP (89 patients). Empirical use of vancomycin and linezolid decreased by 50 % between the two periods. Twenty-seven VAP (22 %) were treated with an anti-MRSA treatment between 2007 and 2010, and 13 (11 %) between 2010 and 2015 (p = 0.04). The mean cost of anti-MRSA treatment by patients in the first group was 63 ± 223 €, and 13 ± 52 € in the second group (p MRSA antibiotics in patients with suspected VAP. These results should be confirmed by further multicenter prospective studies.

  18. Can a fatigue test of the isolated lumbar extensor muscles of untrained young men predict strength progression in a resistance exercise program?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmhout, P.; Staal, B.; Dijk, J. van; Harts, C.; Bertina, F.; Bie, R. de

    2010-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the predictive value of a fatigue test of the lumbar extensor muscles for training progression in a group of 28 healthy but predominantly sedentary male students, in an 8-week resistance exercise program. METHODS: A three-phased fatigue test

  19. Utility of Phenotypic and Genotypic Testing in the Study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Resistance to First-Line Anti-Tuberculosis drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba Álvarez, Luz María; García García, José María; Pérez Hernández, M Dolores; Martínez González, Susana; Palacios Gutiérrez, Juan José

    2017-04-01

    To determine the utility of molecular techniques in the diagnosis of resistance and the extent of resistance to first-line drugs in our region. From 2004 to 2013, 1,889 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated in Asturias, Spain, were studied using phenotypic (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines) and molecular (INNOLiPA RIF-TB © ; GenotypeMDRplus © ; GenotypeMDRsl © ) sensitivity tests. 1,759 strains (94.52%) were sensitive to all first-line drugs, and 102 strains (5.48%) showed some resistance: 81 strains (4.35%) were resistant to 1 single drug, 14 (0.75%) were polyresistant, and 7 (0.37%) were multiresistant (resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid). In total, 137 resistances were identified: 60 to isoniazid (3.22%), 7 to rifampicin (0.37%), 9 to pyrazinamide (0.48%), 11 to ethambutol (0.59%), and 50 to streptomycin (2.68%). Of the mutations detected, 75.9% (63/83) correlated with resistance, while 24.09% of mutations detected (20/83) were not associated with resistance; 16 of these involved a silent mutation at codon 514 of the rpoB gene. Between 0 and 90% of strains, depending on the drug under consideration, were resistant even when no gene mutations were detected using marketed systems. Molecular techniques are very useful, particularly for obtaining rapid results, but these must be confirmed with standard phenotypic sensitivity testing. The rate of resistance in our region is low and multi-drug resistantcases (0.37%) are sporadic. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical genetic testing using a custom-designed steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome gene panel: analysis and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ethan S; Dean, Philip; Yarram-Smith, Laura; Bierzynska, Agnieszka; Woodward, Geoff; Buxton, Chris; Dennis, Gemma; Welsh, Gavin I; Williams, Maggie; Saleem, Moin A

    2017-12-01

    There are many single-gene causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and the list continues to grow rapidly. Prompt comprehensive diagnostic testing is key to realising the clinical benefits of a genetic diagnosis. This report describes a bespoke-designed, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) diagnostic gene panel assay to detect variants in 37 genes including the ability to identify copy number variants (CNVs). This study reports results of 302 patients referred for SRNS diagnostic gene panel analysis. Phenotype and clinical impact data were collected using a standard proforma. Candidate variants detected by NGS were confirmed by Sanger sequencing/Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification with subsequent family segregation analysis where possible. Clinical presentation was nephrotic syndrome in 267 patients and suspected Alport syndrome (AS) in 35. NGS panel testing determined a likely genetic cause of disease in 44/220 (20.0%) paediatric and 10/47 (21.3%) adult nephrotic cases, and 17/35 (48.6%) of haematuria/AS patients. Of 71 patients with genetic disease, 32 had novel pathogenic variants without a previous disease association including two with deletions of one or more exons of NPHS1 or NPHS2 . Gene panel testing provides a genetic diagnosis in a significant number of patients presenting with SRNS or suspected AS. It should be undertaken at an early stage of the care pathway and include the ability to detect CNVs as an emerging mechanism for genes associated with this condition. Use of clinical genetic testing after diagnosis of SRNS has the potential to stratify patients and assist decision-making regarding management. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. FIND Tuberculosis Strain Bank: a Resource for Researchers and Developers Working on Tests To Detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Related Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessema, Belay; Nabeta, Pamela; Valli, Eloise; Albertini, Audrey; Collantes, Jimena; Lan, Nguyen Huu; Romancenco, Elena; Tukavdze, Nestani; Denkinger, Claudia M; Dolinger, David L

    2017-04-01

    The spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB hampers global efforts in the fight against tuberculosis. To enhance the development and evaluation of diagnostic tests quickly and efficiently, well-characterized strains and samples from drug-resistant tuberculosis patients are necessary. In this project, the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) has focused on the collection, characterization, and storage of such well-characterized reference materials and making them available to researchers and developers. The collection is being conducted at multiple centers in Southeast Asia, South America, Eastern Europe, and soon the sub-Saharan Africa regions. Strains are characterized for their phenotypic resistances and MICs to first-line drugs (FLDs) and second-line drugs (SLDs) using the automated MGIT 960 system following validated procedures and WHO criteria. Analysis of resistance-associated mutations is done by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) using the Illumina NextSeq system. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat analysis and WGS are used to determine strain lineages. All strains are maintained frozen at -80°C ± 10°C as distinct mother and daughter lots. All strains are extensively quality assured. The data presented here represent an analysis of the initial part of the collection. Currently, the bank contains 118 unique strains with extracted genomic DNA and matched sputum, serum, and plasma samples and will be expanded to a minimum of 1,000 unique strains over the next 3 years. Analysis of the current strains by phenotypic resistance testing shows 102 (86.4%), 10 (8.5%), and 6 (5.1%) MDR, XDR, and mono/poly resistant strains, respectively. Two of the strains are resistant to all 11 drugs that were phenotypically tested. WGS mutation analysis revealed FLD resistance-associated mutations in the rpoB , katG , inhA , embB , embA , and pncA genes; SLD resistance in the gyr

  2. Effect of Resistance Tube Exercises on Kicking Accuracy, Vertical Jump and 40-Yard Technical Test in Competitive Football Players – An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirumala Alekhya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Kicking, jumping and agility are important skills in football. These activities require adequate lower limb strength, which can be enhanced with resistance training. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of resistance tube exercises on kicking accuracy, vertical jump performance and 40-yard technical test results in competitive football players. Methods. The study involved 23 competitive football players (11 males, 12 females aged from 18-20 years recruited from three different universities in Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Back heel kick accuracy, vertical jump height and 40-yard technical test time were evaluated before and after a 2-week resistance tube exercise program. Results. Significant improvements in post-intervention kicking accuracy were found when males and females were treated as a single group (p = 0.01. Vertical jump height also showed a highly significant post-intervention improvement in the males and for the combined group of males and females (p = 0.001. The 40-yard technical test values significantly improved in the females and in the combined results for males and females (p = 0.001. Conclusions. The two-week resistance tube exercise program was found to have an effect on kicking accuracy, vertical jump height and 40-yard technical test performance in competitive football players. Resistance tube exercises can thus be included as a component of a regular strength training program for such athletes.

  3. Testiranje balističke otpornosti zaštitnih prsluka / Ballistic resistance of body armour testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuro Jovanić

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available U radu je predstavljena osnova standarda NIJ 0101.04 (Nacionalni Institut Pravde, namenjenog za utvrđivanje minimuma tehničkih zahteva i propisivanje metoda ispitivanja balističke otpornosti zaštitnih prsluka, koji treba da zaštite gornji deo tela od dejstva streljačkog oružja. Standard jeste revizija standarda NIJ 0101.03 iz aprila 1987. i preciznije definiše zahteve u pogledu obeležavanja, kriterijume za prijem i postupke merenja otiska u materijalu iza prsluka. Područje ovog standarda odnosi se samo na balističku otpornost, ali ne i na pretnje od noža i predmeta sa oštrim vrhom. Takođe, ne odnosi se na zaštitne prsluke koji sadrže dopunske elemente ili varijacije u konstrukciji balističkih panela za malu površinu torza, radi povećanja osnovnog nivoa zaštite na ograničenim površinama (bilo balističke ili povrede od tupog vrha. / This work is a basic presentation of NIJ 0101.04 (National Institute of Justice standard, -whose purpose is to establish minimum performance requirements and methods of testing ballistic resistance of body armor intended to protect the torso against gunfire. This standard is a revision of NIJ Standard 0101.03 dated April 1987 and it clarifies the labeling requirements, acceptance criteria, and backface signature measurement procedure. The scope of this standard is limited only to ballistic resistance; and it does not include threats from knives and sharply pointed instruments. In addition, the standard does not include armor that incorporates inserts, or variations in construction of the ballistic panel over small areas of the torso, used for increasing the basic level of protection of the armor (whether ballistic or blunt trauma on localized areas.

  4. The European iNPH Multicentre Study on the predictive values of resistance to CSF outflow and the CSF Tap Test in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikkelsø, Carsten; Hellström, Per; Klinge, Petra Margarete

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the CSF Tap Test (CSF TT) and resistance to CSF outflow (Rout) for the outcome of shunting in a sample of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH).......The objective was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the CSF Tap Test (CSF TT) and resistance to CSF outflow (Rout) for the outcome of shunting in a sample of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH)....

  5. Increasing Model Complexity: Unit Testing and Validation of a Coupled Electrical Resistive Heating and Macroscopic Invasion Percolation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, I. L.; Krol, M.; Mumford, K. G.

    2016-12-01

    Geoenvironmental models are becoming increasingly sophisticated as they incorporate rising numbers of mechanisms and process couplings to describe environmental scenarios. When combined with advances in computing and numerical techniques, these already complicated models are experiencing large increases in code complexity and simulation time. Although, this complexity has enabled breakthroughs in the ability to describe environmental problems, it is difficult to ensure that complex models are sufficiently robust and behave as intended. Many development tools used for testing software robustness have not seen widespread use in geoenvironmental sciences despite an increasing reliance on complex numerical models, leaving many models at risk of undiscovered errors and potentially improper validations. This study explores the use of unit testing, which independently examines small code elements to ensure each unit is working as intended as well as their integrated behaviour, to test the functionality and robustness of a coupled Electrical Resistive Heating (ERH) - Macroscopic Invasion Percolation (MIP) model. ERH is a thermal remediation technique where the soil is heated until boiling and volatile contaminants are stripped from the soil. There is significant interest in improving the efficiency of ERH, including taking advantage of low-temperature co-boiling behaviour which may reduce energy consumption. However, at lower co-boiling temperatures gas bubbles can form, mobilize and collapse in cooler areas, potentially contaminating previously clean zones. The ERH-MIP model was created to simulate the behaviour of gas bubbles in the subsurface and to evaluate ERH during co-boiling1. This study demonstrates how unit testing ensures that the model behaves in an expected manner and examines the robustness of every component within the ERH-MIP model. Once unit testing is established, the MIP module (a discrete gas transport algorithm for gas expansion, mobilization and

  6. Using the Resistivity Imaging Method to Monitor the Dynamic Effects on the Vadose Zone During Pumping Tests at the Pengtsuo Site in Pingtung, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Yu Chang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a time-lapse monitoring study during a well-pumping test at the Pengtsuo site in Pingtung, Taiwan. Water-level gauges were installed in four wells (P1, W1, O1, and O2 at the Pengtsuo site with different screen depths for the observation. We designed the pumping test to be executed in three phases: the background, the stepwise-pumping, and the continuous-pumping phases. The survey line crossed the four wells so that a comparison would be possible between the resistivity measurements and the water-level records. The resistivity differences relative to the pre-pumping background show that electrical resistivity imaging (ERI can resolve changes due to dewatering from pumping activity. The time-lapse resistivity images reveal that the maximum resistivity increase took place at the locations in the vadose zone instead of at the groundwater surface. The variation in the resistivity differences in the vadose zone correlated to the change in groundwater level in the stepwise phase. On the other hand, the resistivity-difference change was not fully consistent with the groundwater-level change in the continuous-pumping phase. We attribute the abnormal ERI signals to the dynamic non-equilibrium of the water movement in the vadose zone. The findings suggest that pumping designs can affect the changing resistivity differences and water-content distribution patterns. We show the potential of the ER method to reveal both the water flow and water-content changes in the vadose zone with different transient boundary conditions.

  7. A Built-In Self-Test Structure (BIST) for Resistive RAMs characterization: Application to bipolar OxRRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziza, H.; Bocquet, M.; Moreau, M.; Portal, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) is a form of nonvolatile storage that operates by changing the resistance of a specially formulated solid dielectric material [1]. Among RRAMs, oxide-based Resistive RAMs (so-called OxRRAMs) are promising candidates due their compatibility with CMOS processes and high ON/OFF resistance ratio. Common problems with OxRRAM are related to high variability in operating conditions and low yield. OxRRAM variability mainly impact ON/OFF resistance ratio. This ratio is a key parameter to determine the overall performance of an OxRRAM memory. In this context, the presented built-in structure allows collecting statistical data related to the OxRRAM memory array (ON/OFF resistance distributions) for reliability assessment of the technology.

  8. The Influences of Arm Resist Motion on a CAR Crash Test Using Hybrid III Dummy with Human-Like Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongchul; Youm, Youngil; Bae, Hanil; Choi, Hyeonki

    Safety of the occupant during the crash is very essential design element. Many researches have been investigated in reducing the fatal injury of occupant. They are focusing on the development of a dummy in order to obtain the real human-like motion. However, they have not considered the arm resist motion during the car accident. In this study, we would like to suggest the importance of the reactive force of the arm in a car crash. The influences of reactive force acting on the human upper extremity were investigated using the impedance experimental method with lumped mass model of hand system and a Hybrid III dummy with human-like arm. Impedance parameters (e.g. inertia, spring constant and damping coefficient) of the elbow joint in maximum activation level were measured by free oscillation test using single axis robot. The results showed that without seat belt, the reactive force of human arm reduced the head, chest, and femur injury, and the flexion moment of the neck is higher than that of the conventional dummy.

  9. Characterization and acid resistance test of one-part geopolymer from fly ash and water treatment sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orbecido Aileen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of geopolymers from wastes or by-products introduces a sustainable approach to replace ordinary Portland cement (OPC-based concrete with an eco-material of lower green-house gases emissions. However, safety concerns related to the conventional two-part geopolymer has limited large-scale applications of the product. In this context, a novel one-part geopolymer from coal fly ash and water treatment sludge has been presented. The transformation of raw materials to geopolymer was observed by FTIR, SEM and XRD analyses. Acid resistance test has proved that the new binder had great durability against sulphuric acid attack. After 28 days immersion in 5% H2SO4 solution, weight of all samples was hardly changed. Compressive strength, on the other hand, has not decreased but significantly increased as curing time increased. The properties were also compared to those of control samples cured in water. It was demonstrated that strong acid immersion did not create any noticeable effect on the weight and strength of one-part geopolymer system developed from coal fly ash and water treatment sludge.

  10. Design, Qualification and Integration Testing of the High-Temperature Resistance Temperature Device for Stirling Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jack; Hill, Dennis H.; Elisii, Remo; White, Jonathan R.; Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), developed from 2006 to 2013 under the joint sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to provide a high-efficiency power system for future deep space missions, employed Sunpower Incorporated's Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) with operating temperature up to 840 C. High-temperature operation was made possible by advanced heater head materials developed to increase reliability and thermal-to-mechanical conversion efficiency. During a mission, it is desirable to monitor the Stirling hot-end temperature as a measure of convertor health status and assist in making appropriate operating parameter adjustments to maintain the desired hot-end temperature as the radioisotope fuel decays. To facilitate these operations, a Resistance Temperature Device (RTD) that is capable of high-temperature, continuous long-life service was designed, developed and qualified for use in the ASRG. A thermal bridge was also implemented to reduce the RTD temperature exposure while still allowing an accurate projection of the ASC hot-end temperature. NASA integrated two flight-design RTDs on the ASCs and assembled into the high-fidelity Engineering Unit, the ASRG EU2, at Glenn Research Center (GRC) for extended operation and system characterization. This paper presents the design implementation and qualification of the RTD, and its performance characteristics and calibration in the ASRG EU2 testing.

  11. Standard test methods for pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of stainless steels and related alloys by use of ferric Chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the determination of the resistance of stainless steels and related alloys to pitting and crevice corrosion (see Terminology G 15) when exposed to oxidizing chloride environments. Six procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, C, D, E, and F. 1.1.1 Method A—Ferric chloride pitting test. 1.1.2 Method B—Ferric chloride crevice test. 1.1.3 Method C—Critical pitting temperature test for nickel-base and chromium-bearing alloys. 1.1.4 Method D—Critical crevice temperature test for nickel-base and chromium-bearing alloys. 1.1.5 Method E—Critical pitting temperature test for stainless steels. 1.1.6 Method F—Critical crevice temperature test for stainless steels. 1.2 Method A is designed to determine the relative pitting resistance of stainless steels and nickel-base, chromium-bearing alloys, whereas Method B can be used for determining both the pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of these alloys. Methods C, D, E and F allow for a rankin...

  12. Implementation of a reference standard and proficiency testing programme by the World Wide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Karen I

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN is a global collaboration to support the objective that anyone affected by malaria receives effective and safe drug treatment. The Pharmacology module aims to inform optimal anti-malarial drug selection. There is an urgent need to define the drug exposure - effect relationship for most anti-malarial drugs. Few anti-malarials have had their therapeutic blood concentration levels defined. One of the main challenges in assessing safety and efficacy data in relation to drug concentrations is the comparability of data generated from different laboratories. To explain differences in anti-malarial pharmacokinetics in studies with different measurement laboratories it is necessary to confirm the accuracy of the assay methods. This requires the establishment of an external quality assurance process to assure results that can be compared. This paper describes this process. Methods The pharmacology module of WWARN has established a quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC programme consisting of two separate components: 1. A proficiency testing programme where blank human plasma spiked with certified reference material (CRM in different concentrations is sent out to participating bioanalytical laboratories. 2. A certified reference standard programme where accurately weighed amounts of certified anti-malarial reference standards, metabolites, and internal standards are sent to participating bioanalytical and in vitro laboratories. Conclusion The proficiency testing programme is designed as a cooperative effort to help participating laboratories assess their ability to carry out drug analysis, resolve any potential problem areas and to improve their results - and, in so doing, to improve the quality of anti-malarial pharmacokinetic data published and shared with WWARN. By utilizing the same source of standards for all laboratories, it is possible to minimize bias arising from poor

  13. Porcine E. coli: virulence-associated genes, resistance genes and adhesion and probiotic activity tested by a new screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierack, Peter; Rödiger, Stefan; Kuhl, Christoph; Hiemann, Rico; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Li, Ganwu; Weinreich, Jörg; Berger, Enrico; Nolan, Lisa K; Nicholson, Bryon; Römer, Antje; Frömmel, Ulrike; Wieler, Lothar H; Schröder, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We established an automated screening method to characterize adhesion of Escherichia coli to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and their probiotic activity against infection by enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). 104 intestinal E. coli isolates from domestic pigs were tested by PCR for the occurrence of virulence-associated genes, genes coding for resistances to antimicrobial agents and metals, and for phylogenetic origin by PCR. Adhesion rates and probiotic activity were examined for correlation with the presence of these genes. Finally, data were compared with those from 93 E. coli isolates from wild boars. Isolates from domestic pigs carried a broad variety of all tested genes and showed great diversity in gene patterns. Adhesions varied with a maximum of 18.3 or 24.2 mean bacteria adherence per epithelial cell after 2 or 6 hours respectively. Most isolates from domestic pigs and wild boars showed low adherence, with no correlation between adhesion/probiotic activity and E. coli genes or gene clusters. The gene sfa/foc, encoding for a subunit of F1C fimbriae did show a positive correlative association with adherence and probiotic activity; however E. coli isolates from wild boars with the sfa/foc gene showed less adhesion and probiotic activity than E. coli with the sfa/foc gene isolated from domestic pigs after 6 hour incubation. In conclusion, screening porcine E. coli for virulence associated genes genes, adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, and probiotic activity revealed a single important adhesion factor, several probiotic candidates, and showed important differences between E. coli of domestic pigs and wild boars.

  14. Porcine E. coli: virulence-associated genes, resistance genes and adhesion and probiotic activity tested by a new screening method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schierack

    Full Text Available We established an automated screening method to characterize adhesion of Escherichia coli to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2 and their probiotic activity against infection by enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC. 104 intestinal E. coli isolates from domestic pigs were tested by PCR for the occurrence of virulence-associated genes, genes coding for resistances to antimicrobial agents and metals, and for phylogenetic origin by PCR. Adhesion rates and probiotic activity were examined for correlation with the presence of these genes. Finally, data were compared with those from 93 E. coli isolates from wild boars. Isolates from domestic pigs carried a broad variety of all tested genes and showed great diversity in gene patterns. Adhesions varied with a maximum of 18.3 or 24.2 mean bacteria adherence per epithelial cell after 2 or 6 hours respectively. Most isolates from domestic pigs and wild boars showed low adherence, with no correlation between adhesion/probiotic activity and E. coli genes or gene clusters. The gene sfa/foc, encoding for a subunit of F1C fimbriae did show a positive correlative association with adherence and probiotic activity; however E. coli isolates from wild boars with the sfa/foc gene showed less adhesion and probiotic activity than E. coli with the sfa/foc gene isolated from domestic pigs after 6 hour incubation. In conclusion, screening porcine E. coli for virulence associated genes genes, adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, and probiotic activity revealed a single important adhesion factor, several probiotic candidates, and showed important differences between E. coli of domestic pigs and wild boars.

  15. Evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST Kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl Test for Detecting Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Kemal; Albay, Ali; Simsek, Hulya; Sig, Ali Korhan; Guney, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the performances of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test for detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance in Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases. Materials and Methods: Forty-six MDR-TB strains were studied. Second-line antituberculosis drug resistances were detected using the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test. The Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method was used as the reference test. Results: The sensitivity and specificity values for the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit were both 100% for amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin (4 µg/mL), and ofloxacin; 100% and 95.3%, respectively, for capreomycin (10 µg/mL); and 85.7% and 100%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The sensitivity and specificity values for the GenoType MTBDRsl test to detect fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside/cyclic peptide resistance were 88.9% and 100%, respectively, for ofloxacin and 85.7% and 94.9%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The accuracy of the GenoType MTBDRsl assay for kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin was lower than that of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST. Conclusion: The BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl were successful in detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance. Preliminary results of the GenoType MTBDRsl are very valuable for early treatment decisions, but we still recommend additional BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit usage in the routine evaluation of drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:29123441

  16. Evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST Kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl Test for Detecting Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Kemal; Albay, Ali; Simsek, Hulya; Sig, Ali Korhan; Guney, Mustafa

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the performances of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test for detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance in Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases. Forty-six MDR-TB strains were studied. Second-line antituberculosis drug resistances were detected using the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test. The Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method was used as the reference test. The sensitivity and specificity values for the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit were both 100% for amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin (4 µg/mL), and ofloxacin; 100% and 95.3%, respectively, for capreomycin (10 µg/mL); and 85.7% and 100%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The sensitivity and specificity values for the GenoType MTBDRsl test to detect fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside/cyclic peptide resistance were 88.9% and 100%, respectively, for ofloxacin and 85.7% and 94.9%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The accuracy of the GenoType MTBDRsl assay for kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin was lower than that of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST. The BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl were successful in detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance. Preliminary results of the GenoType MTBDRsl are very valuable for early treatment decisions, but we still recommend additional BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit usage in the routine evaluation of drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  17. Empirical ranking of a wide range of WC-Co grades in terms of their abrasion resistance measured by the ASTM standard B 611-85 test

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Quigley, DGF

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a comprehensive investigation into the abrasion resistance of WC-Co alloys, as measured by the ASTM Standard B 611-85 test. The alloys ranged from 3 to 50 wt% and from 0.6 to 5 mu-m average grain size. Careful...

  18. Feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and effectiveness of decentralised use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for diagnosis of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance: a multicentre implementation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boehme, Catharina C.; Nicol, Mark P.; Nabeta, Pamela; Michael, Joy S.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Tahirli, Rasim; Gler, Ma Tarcela; Blakemore, Robert; Worodria, William; Gray, Christen; Huang, Laurence; Caceres, Tatiana; Mehdiyev, Rafail; Raymond, Lawrence; Whitelaw, Andrew; Sagadevan, Kalaiselvan; Alexander, Heather; Albert, Heidi; Cobelens, Frank; Cox, Helen; Alland, David; Perkins, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    The Xpert MTB/RIF test (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) can detect tuberculosis and its multidrug-resistant form with very high sensitivity and specificity in controlled studies, but no performance data exist from district and subdistrict health facilities in tuberculosis-endemic countries. We aimed to

  19. Evaluation of ceftiofur and cefquinome for phenotypic detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus using disk diffusion testing and MIC-determinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Skov, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have emerged in animals. Testing 98 mecA negative and 71 mecA positive S. aureus we compared the usefulness of ceftiofur and cefquinome to cefoxitin, for detection of MRSA and found that these cephalosporins are not as efficient as cefoxitin....

  20. The effect of the Growth Phase of Staphylococcus aureus on Resistance to Disinfectants in a Suspension Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppens, S.B.I.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of growth phase on the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to the surface-active agents benzalkonium chloride and dodecylbenzyl sulfonic acid and the oxidizing agents sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide was studied. The resistances of cells in different growth phases were

  1. Measuring enzymatic HIV-1 susceptibility to two reverse transcriptase inhibitors as a rapid and simple approach to HIV-1 drug-resistance testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Simple and cost-effective approaches for HIV drug-resistance testing are highly desirable for managing increasingly expanding HIV-1 infected populations who initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART, particularly in resource-limited settings. Non-nucleoside reverse trancriptase inhibitor (NNRTI-based regimens with an NRTI backbone containing lamivudine (3TC or emtricitabine (FTC are preferred first ART regimens. Failure with these drug combinations typically involves the selection of NNRTI- and/or 3TC/FTC-resistant viruses. Therefore, the availability of simple assays to measure both types of drug resistance is critical. We have developed a high throughput screening test for assessing enzymatic resistance of the HIV-1 RT in plasma to 3TC/FTC and NNRTIs. The test uses the sensitive "Amp-RT" assay with a newly-developed real-time PCR format to screen biochemically for drug resistance in single reactions containing either 3TC-triphosphate (3TC-TP or nevirapine (NVP. Assay cut-offs were defined based on testing a large panel of subtype B and non-subtype B clinical samples with known genotypic profiles. Enzymatic 3TC resistance correlated well with the presence of M184I/V, and reduced NVP susceptibility was strongly associated with the presence of K103N, Y181C/I, Y188L, and G190A/Q. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting resistance were 97.0% and 96.0% in samples with M184V, and 97.4% and 96.2% for samples with NNRTI mutations, respectively. We further demonstrate the utility of an HIV capture method in plasma by using magnetic beads coated with CD44 antibody that eliminates the need for ultracentifugation. Thus our results support the use of this simple approach for distinguishing WT from NNRTI- or 3TC/FTC-resistant viruses in clinical samples. This enzymatic testing is subtype-independent and can assist in the clinical management of diverse populations particularly in resource-limited settings.

  2. In vitro activity of tigecycline and comparators against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Africa-Middle East countries: TEST 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, M I; Biedenbach, D J; Bouchillon, S K; Hoban, D J; Raghubir, N; Sajben, P

    2014-09-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae are an emerging concern for healthcare providers. Infections caused by MDR pathogens are associated with increased costs, length of hospital stay, and morbidity and mortality rates. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) continue to increase, and infections with these organisms are observed worldwide not only as hospital-acquired infections but also as community-acquired infections. Increasing antimicrobial resistance dictates the need for continued surveillance studies of common and MDR pathogens. The Tigecycline Evaluation Surveillance Trial (TEST) examined the susceptibility of pathogens isolated in Africa and the Middle East from 2007 to 2012. A total of 4155 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were evaluated to determine the in vitro activity and changes in resistance patterns for tigecycline and comparators. Carbapenem resistance was found in 191 (4.6%) of the isolates tested. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common CRE (64.9%), followed by Enterobacter cloacae (14.1%) and Escherichia coli (9.9%). Tigecycline MIC 90 values (minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit 90% of the isolates) were 2μg/mL against all of these enteric species, with susceptibility rates of 96.8%, 92.6% and 100%, respectively. Tigecycline had in vitro activity against CRE, with a 95.3% susceptibility rate. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Observations on macrolide resistance and susceptibility testing performance in field isolates collected from clinical bovine respiratory disease cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonder, Keith D; Harhay, Dayna M; Apley, Michael D; Lubbers, Brian V; Clawson, Michael L; Schuller, Gennie; Harhay, Gregory P; White, Brad J; Larson, Robert L; Capik, Sarah F; Riviere, Jim E; Kalbfleisch, Ted; Tessman, Ronald K

    2016-08-30

    The objectives of this study were; first, to describe gamithromycin susceptibility of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni isolated from cattle diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and previously treated with either gamithromycin for control of BRD (mass medication=MM) or sham-saline injected (control=CON); second, to describe the macrolide resistance genes present in genetically typed M. haemolytica isolates; third, use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to correlate the phenotypic resistance and genetic determinants for resistance among M. haemolytica isolates. M. haemolytica (n=276), P. multocida (n=253), and H. somni (n=78) were isolated from feedlot cattle diagnosed with BRD. Gamithromycin susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution. Whole-genome sequencing was utilized to determine the presence/absence of macrolide resistance genes and to genetically type M. haemolytica. Generalized linear mixed models were built for analysis. There was not a significant difference between MM and CON groups in regards to the likelihood of culturing a resistant isolate of M. haemolytica or P. multocida. The likelihood of culturing a resistant isolate of M. haemolytica differed significantly by state of origin in this study. A single M. haemolytica genetic subtype was associated with an over whelming majority of the observed resistance. H. somni isolation counts were low and statistical models would not converge. Phenotypic resistance was predicted with high sensitivity and specificity by WGS. Additional studies to elucidate the relationships between phenotypic expression of resistance/genetic determinants for resistance and clinical response to antimicrobials are necessary to inform judicious use of antimicrobials in the context of relieving animal disease and suffering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Its Association with Adrenal Insufficiency: Assessment with the Low-Dose ACTH Stimulation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a major public health care concern that affects the life of millions of people around the world. The association of tuberculosis and adrenal insufficiency is well known; however, it is thought to be less prevalent every time. A spike in TB incidence and a lack of evidence of this association in patients with MDR-TB call for reassessment of an illness (adrenal dysfunction that if not diagnosed could seriously jeopardize patients’ health. Objective. To determine the prevalence of adrenocortical insufficiency in patients with MDR-TB using the low-dose (1 μg ACTH stimulation test at baseline and at 6–12 months of follow-up after antituberculosis treatment and culture conversion. Methods. A total of 48 men or women, aged ≥18 years (HIV-negative patients diagnosed with pulmonary MDR-TB were included in this prospective observational study. Blood samples for serum cortisol were taken at baseline and 30 and 60 minutes after 1 μg ACTH stimulation at our tertiary level university hospital before and after antituberculosis treatment. Results. Forty-seven percent of subjects had primary MDR-TB; 43.8% had type 2 diabetes; none were HIV-positive. We found at enrollment 2 cases (4.2% of adrenal insufficiency taking 500 nmol/L as the standard cutoff point value and 4 cases (8.3% alternatively, using 550 nmol/L. After antituberculosis intensive phase drug-treatment and a negative mycobacterial culture (10.2±3.6 months adrenocortical function was restored in all cases. Conclusions. In patients with MDR-TB, using the low-dose ACTH stimulation test, a low prevalence of mild adrenal insufficiency was observed. After antituberculosis treatment adrenal function was restored in all cases. Given the increasing and worrying epidemic of MDR-TB these findings have important clinical implications that may help clinicians and patients make better decisions when deciding to test for adrenocortical

  5. Assessment of the Efficiency of Consolidation Treatment through Injections of Expanding Resins by Geotechnical Tests and 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuani, T; Giani, G P; d'Attoli, M; Fischanger, F; Morelli, G; Ranieri, G; Santarato, G

    2015-01-01

    The design and execution of consolidation treatment of settled foundations by means of injection of polyurethane expanding resins require a proper investigation of the state of the foundation soil, in order to better identify anomalies responsible for the instability. To monitor the injection process, a procedure has been developed, which involves, in combination with traditional geotechnical tests, the application of a noninvasive, geophysical technique based on the electrical resistivity, which is strongly sensitive to presence of water or voids. Three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography is a useful tool to produce effective 3D images of the foundation soils before, during, and after the injections. The achieved information allows designing the consolidation scheme and monitoring its effects on the treated volumes in real time. To better understand the complex processes induced by the treatment and to learn how variations of resistivity accompany increase of stiffness, an experiment was carried out in a full-scale test site. Injections of polyurethane expanding resin were performed as in real worksite conditions. Results confirm that the experimented approach by means of 3D resistivity imaging allows a reliable procedure of consolidation, and geotechnical tests demonstrate the increase of mechanical stiffness.

  6. TREAT Asia Quality Assessment Scheme (TAQAS) to standardize the outcome of HIV genotypic resistance testing in a group of Asian laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Sally; Cunningham, Philip; Zhou, Jialun; Frost, Kevin; Katzenstein, David; Kantor, Rami; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur; Oka, Shinichi; DeLong, Allison; Sayer, David; Smith, Jeffery; Dax, Elizabeth M.; Law, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The TREAT Asia (Therapeutics, Research, Education, and AIDS Training in Asia) Network is building capacity for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) drug resistance testing in the region. The objective of the TREAT Asia Quality Assessment Scheme – designated TAQAS – is to standardize HIV-1 genotypic resistance testing (HIV genotyping) among laboratories to permit rigorous comparison of results from different clinics and testing centres. TAQAS has evaluated three panels of HIV-1-positive plasma from clinical material or low-passage, culture supernatant for up to 10 Asian laboratories. Laboratory participants used their standard protocols to perform HIV genotyping. Assessment was in comparison to a target genotype derived from all participants and the reference laboratory’s result. Agreement between most participants at the edited nucleotide sequence level was high (>98%). Most participants performed to the reference laboratory standard in detection of drug resistance mutations (DRMs). However, there was variation in the detection of nucleotide mixtures (0–83%) and a significant correlation with the detection of DRMs (p 90% agreement with a common interpretation system, within the Stanford University Drug Resistance Database. Using the principles of external quality assessment and a reference laboratory, TAQAS has demonstrated high quality HIV genotyping results from Asian laboratories. PMID:19490972

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Escherichia coli strains isolated from urinary tract infections to fluoroquinolones and detection of gyrA mutations in resistant strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbari-Nakhjavani F.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Widespread uses of fluoroquinolones have resulted in increasing incidences of resistance against these agents all over the world. The aim of this study was to assess, susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains from patients with Urinary Tract Infection against common fluoroquinolones and detection of mutations in the gyrA gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 164 E.coli isolates from patients with UTI, was evaluated by disk agar diffusion (DAD and MIC methods. Polymerase chain reaction of E.coli strains were performed by amplification of Quinolone Resistance Determining Region (QRDR of gyrA gene. PCR products were tested by Conformational Sensitive Gel Electrophoresis (CSGE and those with hetrodublexes were selected and examined by DNA sequencing. According to disc agar diffusion, 49.3% were resistant to nalidixic acid, 41.4% to norfloxacin, 44.5% to ofloxacin and 40.2 % to ciprofloxacin. By Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC testing a high-level of resistance (42.1% to ciprofloxacin was observed. Mutations in codons 83 and 87 in all 81 isolates were positive by CSGE method.

  8. Further Modification of the Modified Hodge Test for Detecting Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Ki; Park, Jeong Su; Sung, Heungsup

    2015-01-01

    Background The modified Hodge test (MHT) was designed to detect carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). This study evaluated variables to improve the performance of MHT. Methods Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from November 2010 to March 2013 at the Asan Medical Center, were evaluated, including 33 metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) producers and 103 non-CPEs. MHT was performed by using two carbapenem disks (ertapenem and meropenem; Becton Dickinson, USA), three media (Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA), MacConkey agar (MAC), and zinc-enriched MHA), and two inoculums (0.5-McFarland [McF] suspension and a 10-fold dilution of it.) PCR was performed to detect β-lactamase genes of the MBL, AmpC, and CTX-M types. Results The sensitivity of MHT for detecting New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) producers was highest using ertapenem and 0.5-McF, 52.0% on MHA and 68.0% on MAC, respectively. NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (NDMKP) were detected with higher sensitivity on MAC (78.6%) vs. MHA (28.6%) (P=0.016), but VIM-producing Enterobacter, Citrobacter, and Serratia were detected with higher sensitivity on MHA (78.5%) vs. MAC (14.3%) (P=0.004). MBL producers were consistently identified with lower sensitivity using meropenem vs. ertapenem, 39.4% vs. 60.6% (P=0.0156), respectively. The effects of zinc and inoculum size were insignificant. Enterobacter aerogenes producing unspecified AmpC frequently demonstrated false positives, 66.7% with ertapenem and 22.2% with meropenem. Conclusions The MHT should be adjusted for the local distribution of species and the carbapenemase type of MBL producers. MAC and ertapenem are preferable for assessing NDMKP, but MHA is better for VIM. Laboratory physicians should be aware of the limited sensitivity of MHT and its relatively high false-positive rate. PMID:25932437

  9. Estimation of Insulin Resistance in Mexican Adults by the [13C]Glucose Breath Test Corrected for Endogenous Total CO2 Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ibarra-Pastrana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of the [13C]glucose breath test for measuring insulin resistance in Mexican adults with different glycemic states. Research Design and Methods. Fifty-eight adults underwent a [13C]glucose breath test with simultaneous measurement of total CO2 production by indirect calorimetry, at baseline and 90 minutes after the ingestion of 15 g of dextrose and 25 mg of [13C]glucose. HOMA was used as a marker of insulin resistance. Results. We found an inverse correlation between HOMA and the breath test δ13CO2 (‰, r=-0.41 (P=0.001. After adjusting for total CO2 production, correlations between HOMA and fasting glucose were less strong but remained significant. An ROC curve was constructed using δ13CO2 (‰ and HOMA values; the cut-off point was 9.99‰ δ13CO2, corresponding to a sensitivity of 80.0 (95% CI: 51.9, 95.7 and a specificity of 67.4 (95% CI: 51.5, 80.9. Conclusions. The [13C]glucose breath test is a simple noninvasive procedure but was not sufficiently robust for an accurate diagnosis of insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that the test might be helpful in identifying individuals who are not IR, which in turn may contribute to improved diabetes prevention.

  10. Estimation of Insulin Resistance in Mexican Adults by the [13C]Glucose Breath Test Corrected for Endogenous Total CO2 Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Pastrana, Erika; Candia Plata, Maria del Carmen; Alvarez, Gerardo; Valencia, Mauro E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of the [13C]glucose breath test for measuring insulin resistance in Mexican adults with different glycemic states. Research Design and Methods. Fifty-eight adults underwent a [13C]glucose breath test with simultaneous measurement of total CO2 production by indirect calorimetry, at baseline and 90 minutes after the ingestion of 15 g of dextrose and 25 mg of [13C]glucose. HOMA was used as a marker of insulin resistance. Results. We found an inverse correlation between HOMA and the breath test δ 13CO2 (‰), r = −0.41 (P = 0.001). After adjusting for total CO2 production, correlations between HOMA and fasting glucose were less strong but remained significant. An ROC curve was constructed using δ 13CO2 (‰) and HOMA values; the cut-off point was 9.99‰ δ 13CO2, corresponding to a sensitivity of 80.0 (95% CI: 51.9, 95.7) and a specificity of 67.4 (95% CI: 51.5, 80.9). Conclusions. The [13C]glucose breath test is a simple noninvasive procedure but was not sufficiently robust for an accurate diagnosis of insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that the test might be helpful in identifying individuals who are not IR, which in turn may contribute to improved diabetes prevention. PMID:22848216

  11. Accounting the mechanical resistance of testing device for straight-flow branch pipe in the transverse direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikov, D. V.; Klishin, S. V.; Zubarev, A. V.; Shvarts, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    The flexible inserts as a rubber-cord branch pipe are used to reduce the vibrations distributed from units of a hydraulic system through the pipelines. The device with completely rigid elements is used for the experimental determination of the stiffness characteristics of the branch pipes that determine their anti-vibration properties. In the paper the study of the mechanical resistances of an experimental device construction is carried out by method of the harmonic analysis in a frequency range of 1 Hz to 1000 Hz. Then these mechanical resistances are compared with the mechanical resistance of the branch pipe with diameter 100 mm obtained experimentally. It is found as a result it is necessary to take into account the value of the device mechanical resistance when the stiffness characteristics of the rubber-cord branch pipes with diameter 100 mm in the transverse direction at frequencies above 735 Hz are determined experimentally.

  12. Development of recommended resistance factors for drilled shafts in weak rocks based on o-cell tests : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Since October 1st 2007, federal-funded projects including new bridges have been mandated to be designed to meet American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Bridge Design Specifi...

  13. Development of recommended resistance factors for drilled shafts in weak rocks based on o-cell tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    From October 1, 2007, the new bridges on federal-aid funded projects are mandated to be designed to meet : American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Load and Resistance Factor Design : (LRFD) Bridge Design Specificat...

  14. Reducing Uncertainty in the Distribution of Hydrogeologic Units within Volcanic Composite Units of Pahute Mesa Using High-Resolution 3-D Resistivity Methods, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sweetkind, Don; Burton, Bethany L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. From 1951 to 1992, 828 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) northwest of Las Vegas (DOE UGTA, 2003). Most of these tests were conducted hundreds of feet above the groundwater table; however, more than 200 of the tests were near, or within, the water table. This underground testing was limited to specific areas of the NTS including Pahute Mesa, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Frenchman Flat, and Yucca Flat. Volcanic composite units make up much of the area within the Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Unit (CAU) at the NTS, Nevada. The extent of many of these volcanic composite units extends throughout and south of the primary areas of past underground testing at Pahute and Rainier Mesas. As situated, these units likely influence the rate and direction of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Currently, these units are poorly resolved in terms of their hydrologic properties introducing large uncertainties into current CAU-scale flow and transport models. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with DOE and NNSA-NSO acquired three-dimensional (3-D) tensor magnetotelluric data at the NTS in Area 20 of Pahute Mesa CAU. A total of 20 magnetotelluric recording stations were established at about 600-m spacing on a 3-D array and were tied to ER20-6 well and other nearby well control (fig. 1). The purpose of this survey was to determine if closely spaced 3-D resistivity measurements can be used to characterize the distribution of shallow (600- to 1,500-m-depth range) devitrified rhyolite lava-flow aquifers (LFA) and zeolitic tuff confining units (TCU) in areas of limited drill hole control on

  15. The resistance of the lichen Circinaria gyrosa (nom. provis.) towards simulated Mars conditions—a model test for the survival capacity of an eukaryotic extremophile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, F. J.; Mateo-Martí, E.; Raggio, J.; Meeßen, J.; Martínez-Frías, J.; Sancho, L. G.a..; Ott, S.; de la Torre, R.

    2012-11-01

    The "Planetary Atmospheres and Surfaces Chamber" (PASC, at Centro de Astrobiología, INTA, Madrid) is able to simulate the atmosphere and surface temperature of most of the solar system planets. PASC is especially appropriate to study irradiation induced changes of geological, chemical, and biological samples under a wide range of controlled atmospheric and temperature conditions. Therefore, PASC is a valid method to test the resistance potential of extremophile organisms under diverse harsh conditions and thus assess the habitability of extraterrestrial environments. In the present study, we have investigated the resistance of a symbiotic organism under simulated Mars conditions, exemplified with the lichen Circinaria gyrosa - an extremophilic eukaryote. After 120 hours of exposure to simulated but representative Mars atmosphere, temperature, pressure and UV conditions; an unaltered photosynthetic performance demonstrated high resistance of the lichen photobiont.

  16. Importance of the Genetic Diversity within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex for the Development of Novel Antibiotics and Diagnostic Tests of Drug Resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Koser, C. U.

    2012-09-24

    Despite being genetically monomorphic, the limited genetic diversity within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) has practical consequences for molecular methods for drug susceptibility testing and for the use of current antibiotics and those in clinical trials. It renders some representatives of MTBC intrinsically resistant against one or multiple antibiotics and affects the spectrum and consequences of resistance mutations selected for during treatment. Moreover, neutral or silent changes within genes responsible for drug resistance can cause false-positive results with hybridization-based assays, which have been recently introduced to replace slower phenotypic methods. We discuss the consequences of these findings and propose concrete steps to rigorously assess the genetic diversity of MTBC to support ongoing clinical trials.

  17. [Identification of anaerobic gram-negative bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens and determination of antibiotic resistance profiles with E-test methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Cengiz; Keşli, Recep

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens that were obtained from patients with suspected anaerobic infections and to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles by using the antibiotic concentration gradient method. The study was performed in Afyon Kocatepe University Ahmet Necdet Sezer Research and Practice Hospital, Medical Microbiology Laboratory between 1 November 2014 and 30 October 2015. Two hundred and seventyeight clinical specimens accepted for anaerobic culture were enrolled in the study. All the samples were cultivated anaerobically by using Schaedler agar with 5% defibrinated sheep blood and Schaedler broth. The isolated anaerobic gram-negative bacilli were identified by using both the conventional methods and automated identification system (VITEK 2, bioMerieux, France). Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed with antibiotic concentration gradient method (E-test, bioMerieux, France); against penicillin G, clindamycin, cefoxitin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem for each isolate. Of the 28 isolated anaerobic gram-negative bacilli; 14 were identified as Bacteroides fragilis group, 9 were Prevotella spp., and 5 were Fusobacterium spp. The highest resistance rate was found against penicillin (78.5%) and resistance rates against clindamycin and cefoxitin were found as 17.8% and 21.4%, respectively. No resistance was found against metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem. As a result, isolation and identification of anaerobic bacteria are difficult, time-consuming and more expensive when compared with the cost of aerobic culture. The rate of anaerobic bacteria isolation may be increased by obtaining the appropriate clinical specimen and appropriate transportation of these specimens. We believe that the data obtained from the study in our center may offer benefits for the follow up and treatment of infections

  18. A new method for testing thermal shock resistance properties of soapstone – Effects of microstructures and mineralogical variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Huhta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soapstone industry utilizes different types of soapstone mainly as a construction material for fireplaces. In this application soapstone has to meet different temperature requirements in different parts of fireplaces. Mineralogical and structural information is needed for placing an appropriate type of soapstone in an appropriate position in the fireplace construction. This allows employment of higher temperatures resulting in more particulate-free combustion, which makes it possible for soapstone industry to develop more efficient and environmentally friendly fireplaces. Of many soapstone types, which differ from each other in their chemical composition and thermal properties, carbonate soapstone and its microstructural variations were investigated in this study. A new method was developed to measure thermal shock resistant of natural stones. By exposing carbonate soapstone samples of different textural types to rapid temperature changes, it was possible to determine the parameters that affect the capacity of the rock to resist thermal shock. The results indicate that the type of microtexture is an important factor in controlling the thermal shock resistance of carbonate soapstone. The soapstone samples with a high thermal shock resistance show deformation textures, such as crenulation cleavage and S/C mylonite. A strong negative correlation was observed between the thermal shock resistance and length of cleavage domains in foliated rocks. Also a slight elevation in the iron concentration of talc and magnesite was discovered to improve the thermal shock resistance of carbonate soapstone. Attention should especially be paid to the length and planarity of cleavage domains of spaced foliation.

  19. Effect of 6 Weeks of Resistance Training and Boldenone Supplementation on 5-alpha Reductase and Aromatase Gene Expression in Testes Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadeghi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Using anabolic androgenic steroids by athletes has significant side effects on sex hormones and the reproductive system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 weeks of resistance exercise and Boldenone supplements on the expression of 5-alpha reductase and aromatase genes of the testis tissue in Wistar rats. Material & Methods: In this experimental study, thirty 12-week old male Wistar rats with the average weight of 195.00±7.94 grams were divided randomly into 5 groups; control, sham, Boldenone supplements (2mg per each kilogram of body weight, resistance exercise and Boldenone exercise. Resistance exercise program was 5 sessions of climbing the ladder each week (3 sets of 5 repeats for 6 weeks that was started by 50% of one maximum repetition and reached 100% at the end. The level of 5-alpha reductase and aromatase genes expression were measured after the anesthesia and the removal of the testes tissue in the samples. Data was analyzed by paired T, ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests by using SPSS 22 software. Findings: The average weight of all groups’ mice were significantly increased in week 6 comparing to the first week (p=0.0001. There was significant increasing in 5-alpha-reductase expression in Boldenone and Boldenone exercise than the control group and also in the Boldenone exercise than resistance exercise group after the intervention. There was significant increasing in aromatase gene expression in resistance exercise and Boldenone exercise groups than the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Boldenone supplement along with 6 weeks of resistance exercise increases the levels of 5-alpha reductase and aromatase genes expression in testis tissue of Wistar rats.

  20. High prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium in nongonococcal urethritis: the need for routine testing and the inadequacy of current treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Marcus J; Nori, Achyuta V; Witney, Adam A; Lopeman, Rose C; Butcher, Philip D; Sadiq, Syed Tariq

    2014-03-01

     Empirical antibiotic therapy for nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) and cervicitis is aimed at Chlamydia trachomatis, but Mycoplasma genitalium, which also commonly causes undiagnosed NGU, necessitates treatment with macrolides or fluoroquinolones rather than doxycycline, the preferred chlamydia treatment. Prevalence of M. genitalium and associated genotypic markers of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance among men symptomatic of urethritis were investigated. Genetic diversity of M. genitalium populations was determined to infer whether findings were applicable beyond our setting.  Mycoplasma genitalium and other NGU pathogens were detected using nucleic acid amplification methods, and DNA sequencing was used to detect genotypic resistance markers of macrolide and fluoroquinolone antibiotics in 23S ribosomal RNA, gyrA, gyrB, and parC genes. MG191 single-nucleotide polymorphism typing and MG309 variable number tandem analysis were combined to assign a dual locus sequence type (DLST) to each positive sample.  Among 217 men, M. genitalium prevalence was 16.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.5%-24.0%) and C. trachomatis prevalence was 14.7% (95% CI, 7.8%-21.6%) in NGU cases. Nine of 22 (41%; 95% CI, 20%-62%) patients with M. genitalium were infected with DLSTs possessing genotypic macrolide resistance and 1 patient was infected with a DLST having genotypic fluoroquinolone resistance. Typing assigned M. genitalium DLSTs to 2 major clusters, broadly distributed among previously typed international strains. Genotypic macrolide resistance was spread within these 2 clusters.  Mycoplasma genitalium is a frequent undiagnosed cause of NGU in this population with rates of macrolide resistance higher than those previously documented. Current guidelines for routine testing and empirical treatment of NGU should be modified to reduce treatment failure of NGU and the development of further resistance.

  1. Selective Advantage of Resistant Strains at Trace Levels of Antibiotics: a Simple and Ultrasensitive Color Test for Detection of Antibiotics and Genotoxic Agents▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anne; Fong, Amie; Becket, Elinne; Yuan, Jessica; Tamae, Cindy; Medrano, Leah; Maiz, Maria; Wahba, Christine; Lee, Catherine; Lee, Kim; Tran, Katherine P.; Yang, Hanjing; Hoffman, Robert M.; Salih, Anya; Miller, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have examined the evolution of bacterial mutants that are resistant to specific antibiotics, and many of these focus on concentrations at and above the MIC. Here we ask for the minimum concentration at which existing resistant mutants can outgrow sensitive wild-type strains in competition experiments at antibiotic levels significantly below the MIC, and we define a minimum selective concentration (MSC) in Escherichia coli for two antibiotics, which is near 1/5 of the MIC for ciprofloxacin and 1/20 of the MIC for tetracycline. Because of the prevalence of resistant mutants already in the human microbiome, allowable levels of antibiotics to which we are exposed should be below the MSC. Since this concentration often corresponds to low or trace levels of antibiotics, it is helpful to have simple tests to detect such trace levels. We describe a simple ultrasensitive test for detecting the presence of antibiotics and genotoxic agents. The test is based on the use of chromogenic proteins as color markers and the use of single and multiple mutants of Escherichia coli that have greatly increased sensitivity to either a wide range of antibiotics or specific antibiotics, antibiotic families, and genotoxic agents. This test can detect ciprofloxacin at 1/75 of the MIC. PMID:21199928

  2. Standard test method for ranking resistance of plastics to sliding wear using block-on-ring wear test—cumulative wear method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers laboratory procedures for determining the resistance of plastics to sliding wear. The test utilizes a block-on-ring friction and wear testing machine to rank plastics according to their sliding wear characteristics against metals or other solids. 1.2 An important attribute of this test is that it is very flexible. Any material that can be fabricated into, or applied to, blocks and rings can be tested. Thus, the potential materials combinations are endless. In addition, the test can be run with different gaseous atmospheres and elevated temperatures, as desired, to simulate service conditions. 1.3 Wear test results are reported as the volume loss in cubic millimetres for the block and ring. Materials of higher wear resistance will have lower volume loss. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with it...

  3. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  4. Effect of the pacing strategy during half-duration resistance test on the mechanic, metabolic and cardio-respiratory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pérez-Guerra

    2017-12-01

    ção. Foram observadas diferenças significativas na eficiência energética durante o 3°-min entre CP vs. KP, RP vs. KP e KP vs. IP. Estas diferenças significativas foram estendidas para o 4°-min na comparação CP vs. IP, CP vs. KP, CP vs. KP, KP vs. RP e KP vs. IP. No último minuto do teste, houve diferenças significativas entre CP vs. KP. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas em nenhuma das variáveis que avaliam o metabolismo anaeróbico (déficit de oxigênio acumulado, débito de oxigênio, cinética do consumo de oxigênio e lactato no sangue entre ambos os protocolos. Conclusões: Os resultados sugerem que as principais respostas dos sistemas funcionais são afetadas significativamente pela estratégia de corrida usado por indivíduos de nível médio durante a meia-corrida de longa distância. Keywords: Resistance test, Metabolic response, Cardio-respiratory response, Mechanic response, Students, Palabras clave: Test de resistencia, Respuesta metabólica, Respuesta cardiorespiratoria, Respuesta mecánica, Estudiantes, Palavras-chave: Teste de resistência, Resposta metabólica, Resposta cardiorrespiratória, Resposta mecânica, Estudantes

  5. Fundamentos e testes preliminares de resistência a erosão em concretos refratários Erosion resistance of refractory castables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. A. dos Santos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O desgaste de revestimentos refratários é um dos principais problemas em processos industriais onde as linhas de transferência estão sujeitas à alta velocidade de fluidos contendo partículas sólidas. Os trabalhos encontrados na literatura sobre desgaste erosivo em materiais refratários são raros. Como conseqüência, o desenvolvimento de materiais mais resistentes à erosão tem sido lento e, em geral, por meios empíricos. Este trabalho teve como objetivos apresentar uma revisão sobre a importância da erosão nas aplicações industriais e averiguar a resistência ao desgaste de concretos refratários em unidades de fabricação de alumínio e em petroquímicas. As variáveis avaliadas foram: o ângulo de impacto, a pressão da linha, a granulometria e a dureza do agente erosivo, e a temperatura do tratamento térmico a que o material foi submetido. Verificou-se que o histórico do tratamento térmico pode levar a comportamentos distintos quanto ao desgaste erosivo, devido a mudanças nas características dos aditivos ligantes usados em cada material. Constatou-se que o maior desgaste ocorre com um ângulo de impacto de 90º entre o jato erosivo e o material, decrescendo gradativamente até o ângulo de 30º. Verificou-se também que maiores valores de velocidade, dureza e raio da partícula resultam em maior erosão.The wear of refractory linings is often a critical problem in process units where transfer lines are subject to high velocity gas stream containing solid particles. Knowledge related to erosive wear of refractories linings under these conditions is restricted, as consequence, technological development is slow and, in general, developed in an empirical way. The goals of the present work were to review relevant aspects regarding erosive wear on industrial applications and to investigate the erosion resistance of refractory castables currently used by the aluminum industry and in catalyst cracking units. The parameters

  6. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) DHEAS ... can develop resistance to the drugs used to treat them, but that type of testing is performed ...

  7. Standard test method for determining the crevice repassivation potential of corrosion-resistant alloys using a potentiodynamic-galvanostatic-potentiostatic technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for conducting anodic polarization studies to determine the crevice repassivation potential for corrosion–resistant alloys. The concept of the repassivation potential is similar to that of the protection potential given in Reference Test Method G 5. 1.2 The test method consists in applying successively potentiodynamic, galvanostatic, and potentiostatic treatments for the initial formation and afterward repassivation of crevice corrosion. 1.3 This test method is a complement to Test Method G 61. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. Characterisation of drug resistance of nosocomial ESBL-producing E. coli isolates obtained from a Turkish university hospital between 2009 and 2012 by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and antibiotic resistance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöz, Alper; Sunnetcioglu, Mahmut; Ceylan, Mehmet Resat; Bayram, Yasemin; Yalcin, Gozde; Kocak, Nadir; Suvak, Burak; Andac, Cenk A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, drug resistance of 28 ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates obtained from 144 patients hospitalized at the Yüzüncüyil University Hospital at Van (YUH), Turkey, between 2009 and 2012 were characterized by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and antibiotic susceptibility tests. Antibiotic resistance profile was determined by Phoenix automated system (BD, USA). The ratio of ESBL-producing E. coli strains was determined to be 19.4% (28 out of 144 E. coli isolates). It was determined that the anaesthesiology, paediatrics and thoracic medicine intensive care units in YUH were cross-contaminated between 2009 and 2012 by ESBL-producing E. coli strains, which is a sign of nosocomial infection in YUH. Analysis of PFGE results gave rise to two main PFGE profiles, profile-A with four subprofiles and profile-B with three subprofiles, where profile-A predominates over profile-B (14%). Comparison of the antibiotic resistance profile with the PFGE profile yielded similarities while some differences also exist due to either identical restriction enzyme cutting sites with slightly different genetic sequences in between the cutting sites or newly formed restriction enzyme cutting sites that do not affect antibiotic resistance genes. Enterobacteriaceae, particularly E. coli, have developed resistance in YUH by producing ESBLs against oxyimino and non-oxyimino cephalosporins, and penicillin-type antibiotics. Therefore, more effective antibiotics such as cefoxitin or cefoperazone-sulbactam should be used for the treatment of future nosocomial infections in YUH while hospital staff should take care with hygiene, such as hand washing.

  9. Primary resistance of HIV to antiretrovirals among individuals recently diagnosed at voluntary counselling and testing centres in the metropolitan region of Recife, Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Salustiano Cavalcanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining the prevalence and type of antiretroviral (ARV resistance among ARV-naïve individuals is important to assess the potential responses of these individuals to first-line regimens. The prevalence of primary resistance and the occurrence of recent infections among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS were identified among recently diagnosed patients at five sexually transmitted disease/AIDS testing and counselling centres in the metropolitan region of Recife (RMR, Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2007-2009. One-hundred and eight samples were analysed using the Calypte® BED assay. Males predominated (56%, as did patients aged 31-50 years. Twenty-three percent presented evidence of a recent HIV infection. The median CD4+ T lymphocyte count was 408 cells/mm³ and the median viral load was 3.683 copies/mL. The prevalence of primary resistance was 4.6% (confidence interval 95% = 1-8.2% based on criteria that excluded common polymorphisms in accordance with the surveillance drug resistance mutation criteria. The prevalence of resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase, nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors were 3.8%, 1.5% and 0.8%, respectively. Fifty-seven percent of strains were from clade B, 37.7% were clade F and 3.1% were clade C; there were no statistically significant differences with respect to resistance between clades. Recent infection tended to be more common in men (p = 0.06 and in municipalities in the south of the RMR (Jaboatão dos Guararapes and Cabo de Santo Agostinho (p = 0.046. The high prevalence of recent infection and the high prevalence of non-B strains in this poor Brazilian region merit further attention.

  10. Primary resistance of HIV to antiretrovirals among individuals recently diagnosed at voluntary counselling and testing centres in the metropolitan region of Recife, Pernambuco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Ana Maria Salustiano; Brito, Ana Maria de; Salustiano, Daniela Medeiros; Lima, Kledoaldo Oliveira de; Silva, Sirleide Pereira da; Diaz, Ricardo Sobhie; Lacerda, Heloisa Ramos

    2012-06-01

    Determining the prevalence and type of antiretroviral (ARV) resistance among ARV-naïve individuals is important to assess the potential responses of these individuals to first-line regimens. The prevalence of primary resistance and the occurrence of recent infections among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were identified among recently diagnosed patients at five sexually transmitted disease/AIDS testing and counselling centres in the metropolitan region of Recife (RMR), Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2007-2009. One-hundred and eight samples were analysed using the Calypte® BED assay. Males predominated (56%), as did patients aged 31-50 years. Twenty-three percent presented evidence of a recent HIV infection. The median CD4+ T lymphocyte count was 408 cells/mm³ and the median viral load was 3.683 copies/mL. The prevalence of primary resistance was 4.6% (confidence interval 95% = 1-8.2%) based on criteria that excluded common polymorphisms in accordance with the surveillance drug resistance mutation criteria. The prevalence of resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase, nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors were 3.8%, 1.5% and 0.8%, respectively. Fifty-seven percent of strains were from clade B, 37.7% were clade F and 3.1% were clade C; there were no statistically significant differences with respect to resistance between clades. Recent infection tended to be more common in men (p = 0.06) and in municipalities in the south of the RMR (Jaboatão dos Guararapes and Cabo de Santo Agostinho) (p = 0.046). The high prevalence of recent infection and the high prevalence of non-B strains in this poor Brazilian region merit further attention.

  11. A Highly Sensitive Assay Using Synthetic Blood Containing Test Microbes for Evaluation of the Penetration Resistance of Protective Clothing Material under Applied Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimasaki, Noriko; Hara, Masayuki; Kikuno, Ritsuko; Shinohara, Katsuaki

    2016-01-01

    To prevent nosocomial infections caused by even either Ebola virus or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), healthcare workers must wear the appropriate protective clothing which can inhibit contact transmission of these pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of protective clothing for penetration resistance against infectious agents. In Japan, some standard methods were established to evaluate the penetration resistance of protective clothing fabric materials under applied pressure. However, these methods only roughly classified the penetration resistance of fabrics, and the detection sensitivity of the methods and the penetration amount with respect to the relationship between blood and the pathogen have not been studied in detail. Moreover, no standard method using bacteria for evaluation is known. Here, to evaluate penetration resistance of protective clothing materials under applied pressure, the detection sensitivity and the leak amount were investigated by using synthetic blood containing bacteriophage phi-X174 or S. aureus. And the volume of leaked synthetic blood and the amount of test microbe penetration were simultaneously quantified. Our results showed that the penetration detection sensitivity achieved using a test microbial culture was higher than that achieved using synthetic blood at invisible leak level pressures. This finding suggested that there is a potential risk of pathogen penetration even when visual leak of contaminated blood through the protective clothing was not observed. Moreover, at visible leak level pressures, it was found that the amount of test microbe penetration varied at least ten-fold among protective clothing materials classified into the same class of penetration resistance. Analysis of the penetration amount revealed a significant correlation between the volume of penetrated synthetic blood and the amount of test microbe penetration, indicating that the leaked volume of synthetic

  12. Testing the frost resistance of backfilling materials for geothermal heat probes; Pruefung der Frostbestaendigkeit von Verfuellmassen fuer Erdwaermesonden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Tobias; Schnell, Kurt [HDG Umwelttechnik GmbH, Kisslegg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Groundwater protection, general operational safety and the reliable operation over many years are the key factors in the use of geothermal probes. Backfilling materials with which probes are pressed in the hole meet these requirements. For several years, manufacturers and researchers devote a great attention to the issue of an adequate freeze-thaw resistance of these components.

  13. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Increases Resistance to Extinction: Clinical Demonstration, Animal Modeling, and Clinical Test of One Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, F. Charles; McComas, Jennifer J.; Mauro, Benjamin C.; Progar, Patrick R.; Taylor, Bridget; Ervin, Ruth; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2010-01-01

    Basic research with pigeons on behavioral momentum suggests that differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) can increase the resistance of target behavior to change. This finding suggests that clinical applications of DRA may inadvertently increase the persistence of target behavior even as it decreases its frequency. We conducted…

  14. Field testing Northern U.S. adapted 2,4-D resistant red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) resistant red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) varieties would offer producers more weed control options, particularly in mixed grass/red clover pastures. In the 1980s, work was initiated in Florida to select for 2,4-D tolerant red clover (Taylor, 1989). This Flo...

  15. A Strategy for Maintaining Public Opinion Support on a Controversial Issue: An Empirical Test of Resistance Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudino, James L.; Harris, Allen C.

    To extend the resistance-to-persuasion literature into a context relevant to public relations, a study examined the reactions of 147 Michigan State University students after viewing edited versions of President Ronald Reagan's televised address of February 26, 1986. Reagan's address, concerning his request for public support of an increase in…

  16. A European multi-centre External Quality Assessment (EQA) study on phenotypic and genotypic methods used for Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) drug resistance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Baharak; Bibby, David F; Piorkowska, Renata; Ohemeng-Kumi, Natasha; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela; Gillemot, Sarah; Morfin, Florence; Frobert, Emilie; Burrel, Sonia; Boutolleau, David; Crowley, Brendan; Mbisa, Jean L

    2017-11-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) drug resistance is a significant public health concern among immunocompromised individuals. Phenotypic assays are considered the gold standard method for detecting HSV drug resistance. However, plaque reduction assays (PRAs) are technically demanding, often with long turnaround times of up to four weeks. In contrast, genotypic tests can be performed within a few days. The development and coordination of the first European External Quality Assessment (EQA) study to evaluate phenotypic and genotypic methods used for HSV drug resistance testing in specialised reference laboratories. Four HSV-1 or HSV-2 strains with different antiviral susceptibility profiles were isolated from clinical samples. Isolates were quantified by qPCR, and aliquoted in culture medium. One isolate was distributed at two dilutions to help assess assay sensitivity. The panel was distributed to five European centres with a six-week deadline for the return of phenotypic and genotypic results, together with clinical reports. Four out of five participating labs returned results by the deadline. Limited results were later available from the fifth lab. Phenotypic and genotypic data were largely, but not completely, concordant. An unusual resistance profile shown by one of the samples was explained by the detection of a mixed virus population after extensive further investigation by one of the centres. Discordant clinical outputs reflecting the diversity of phenotypic methodologies demonstrated the utility of this exercise. With emerging genotypic technologies looking to supplant phenotyping, there is a need for curated public databases, accessible interpretation tools and standardised control materials for quality management. By establishing a network of testing laboratories, we hope that this EQA scheme will facilitate ongoing progress in this area. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurement of shear strength resistance in flexion test on PUR sandwich panels: analysis of difficulties and finite element method simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chillón Moreno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of the composite construction elements combining different materials with complementary characteristics, it has spread increasingly. The sandwich panels composed by external metallic sheets that they contributes resistance and core of rigid insulating thermal foam, that provides qualities that improve the thermal comfort inside all kinds of constructions. They are in use in closings and covers that shape the surrounding one of the buildings. Of the different quality controls to which they have to surrender. In this article one proposes an improvement to the indicated one in the procedure for the determination of the resistance to the shear strength, Managing to avoid many anomalous results obtained by the utilization of rigid plates in the supports. Finally, so much the problem observed as the proposed solution, they are modeled and simulate by means of the method of finite elements.

  18. Use of serologic tests to predict resistance to Canine distemper virus-induced disease in vaccinated dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Wayne A; Totten, Janet S; Lappin, Michael R; Schultz, Ronald D

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine whether detection of Canine distemper virus (CDV)-specific serum antibodies correlates with resistance to challenge with virulent virus. Virus neutralization (VN) assay results were compared with resistance to viral challenge in 2 unvaccinated Beagle puppies, 9 unvaccinated Beagle dogs (4.4-7.2 years of age), and 9 vaccinated Beagle dogs (3.7-4.7 years of age). Eight of 9 (89%) unvaccinated adult dogs exhibited clinical signs after virus challenge, and 1 (13%) dog died. As compared to adult dogs, the 2 unvaccinated puppies developed more severe clinical signs and either died or were euthanized after challenge. In contrast, no clinical signs were detected after challenge of the 9 adult vaccinated dogs with post-vaccination intervals of up to 4.4 years. In vaccinated dogs, the positive and negative predictive values of VN assay results for resistance to challenge were 100% and 0%, respectively. Results indicate that dogs vaccinated with modified live CDV can be protected from challenge for ≤4.4 years postvaccination and that detection of virus-specific antibodies is predictive of whether dogs are resistant to challenge with virulent virus. Results also indicate that CDV infection in unvaccinated dogs results in age-dependent morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of age-dependent morbidity and mortality, duration of vaccine-induced immunity, and the positive and negative predictive values of detection of virus-specific serum antibodies are useful in development of rational booster vaccination intervals for the prevention of CDV-mediated disease in adult dogs. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Field test of low-pressure turbine blading with improved resistance against corrosion fatigue; Faeltprovning av laagtrycksturbinskovlar med foerbaettrad haerdighet mot korrosionsutmattning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavast, Jueri [Alstom Power Sweden AB, Finspong (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    Corrosion fatigue of turbine blades in low-pressure turbines is one of the most common reasons for reduced availability and reliability in fossil fueled as well as in nuclear steam turbine plants. The problem is almost exclusively localized to the area where the first condensation takes place. There is therefore a need for materials with improved resistance towards corrosion fatigue for blades in stages in the transition zone between dry and wet steam. The phase hardening stainless steel 15/5 PH is such an alternative material. This material has shown a significantly better resistance towards corrosion and corrosion fatigue in laboratory tests. The lack of field experience of this material in real plants has, however, made it difficult to introduce this relatively new and untried material. Corrosion fatigue has caused problems in the some of the nuclear units in Forsmark. Forsmark 2 was therefore regarded as a suitable plant for a field test. The result of the field test is applicable to conventional as well as to nuclear units. A total of 10 blades of 15/5 PH were installed to replace blades of conventional blade material in a stage with a ar and 40 previous history of corrosion fatigue. The field test was interrupted after 5 years and 40,000 hours of operation. The main objective of the field test was to demonstrate that blades of 15/5 PH could be successfully machined, tested, installed and of course also used in a real plant. The field test also enabled a comparison of the corrosion resistance of the two alloys. It should be underlined that demonstration of the improved resistance towards corrosion fatigue has not been an objective during this field test as this has already been evidenced by various laboratory investigations. The properties of the parent material as well as of the finished blades were controlled and documented as carefully as possible before the field test to enable evaluation of the field test. The condition of the 10 blades of 15/5 PH

  20. Field efficacy of four anthelmintics and confirmation of drug-resistant nematodes by controlled efficacy test and pyrosequencing on a sheep and goat farm in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Thamsborg, Stig M; Demeler, Janina; Enemark, Heidi L

    2014-12-15

    We describe a case of anthelmintic resistance on one of the largest organic small ruminant farms in Denmark. The flock was established in 2007 by purchase of animals from other Danish farms and had history of clinical parasitism, high mortality of young stock and anthelmintic treatment failure. In October 2011, 40 lambs and 40 kids were selected for a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) with fenbendazole (FBZ), ivermectin (IVM), moxidectin (MOX) and levamisole (LEV). Lambs were treated with the recommended sheep dose of each product while kids received the sheep dose of IVM, 1.5× sheep dose of MOX and 2× sheep dose of FBZ and LEV. Untreated lambs and kids were also included and three methods for calculating faecal egg count (FEC) reduction were compared. In a subsequent investigation, a controlled efficacy test (CET) with FBZ and IVM was performed in lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis isolated from adult goats on the farm. Recovered specimens of H. contortus were subjected to pyrosequencing for detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to benzimidazole (BZ) resistance. During the FECRT, FECs in untreated lambs dropped significantly by 47%. No FEC reduction was detected in untreated kids. After FBZ treatments, FEC reductions in lambs and kids ranged from 15 to 54% and 49-56%, respectively, according to the different calculation methods. Post IVM treatments, FEC reductions in lambs and kids varied between 71-90% and 81-83%, correspondingly. LEV and MOX reduced FECs by 98-100% in both species. In the CET, FBZ reduced H. contortus worm counts by 52-56% and no reduction in T. colubriformis counts were detected after treatment. IVM eliminated 100% of H. contortus and reduced T. colubriformis counts by 84-92%, according to different calculation methods. Pyrosequencing of isolated H. contortus revealed increased frequencies of the BZ resistance-related SNP in codon 200 of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene

  1. Evaluation of resistance in a selected field strain of Haemonchus contortus to ivermectin and moxidectin using the Larval Migration on Agar Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. Fortes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is one of the most common and economically significant causes of disease in small ruminants worldwide, and the control programs of parasitic nematodes - including H. contortus - rely mostly on the use of anthelmintic drugs. The consequence of the use of this, as the sole sanitary strategy to avoid parasite infections, was the reduction of the efficacy of all chemotherapeutic products with a heavy selection for resistance. The widespread of anthelmintic resistance and the difficulty of its early diagnosis has been a major concern for the sustainable parasite management on farms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the ivermectin (IVM and moxidectin (MOX effect in a selected field strain of H. contortus with a known resistance status, using the in vitro larval migration on agar test (LMAT. Third stage larvae of the selected isolate were obtained from faecal cultures of experimentally infected sheep and incubated in eleven increasing diluted concentrations of IVM and MOX (6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1536, 3072 and 6144µg/mL. The dose-response sigmoidal curves were obtained using the R² value of >0.90 and the lethal concentration (LC50 dose for the tested anthelmintic drugs using a four-parameter logistic model. The LC50 value for MOX was significantly lower than IVM (1.253µg/mL and 91.06µg/mL, identifying the H. contortus isolate as considerably less susceptible to IVM compared to MOX. Furthermore, the LMAT showed a high consistency (p<0.0001 and provided to be a useful diagnostic tool for monitoring the resistance status of IVM and MOX in H. contortus field isolate, as well as it may be used for official routine drug monitoring programs under the Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA guidance.

  2. HIV-1 diversity and drug resistance mutations among people seeking HIV diagnosis in voluntary counseling and testing sites in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Velasco-de-Castro

    Full Text Available The remarkable viral diversity remains a big challenge to the development of HIV vaccines and optimal therapy worldwide. In the latest years, as a consequence of the large expansion of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART availability worldwide, an increase in transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM has been observed, varying according the region. This study assessed HIV-1 diversity and TDRM profile over time among newly HIV-1 diagnosed individuals from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from individuals seeking HIV diagnosis in four voluntary counseling and testing (VCTs sites located in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area, in 2005-2007. Recent (RS and long-term (LTS HIV-1 seroconverters were distinguished using BED-CEIA. Pol viral sequences were obtained for 102 LTS identified in 2005 and 144 RS from 2005-2007. HIV-1 subtype and pol recombinant genomes were determined using Rega HIV-1 Subtyping Tool and by phylogenetic inferences and bootscanning analyses. Surveillance of HIV-1 TDRM to protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors were performed according to the Calibrated Population Resistance (CPR Tool 6.0. Overall, subtype B remains the most prevalent in Rio de Janeiro in both LTS and RS HIV-1 infected individuals. An increased proportion of recombinant samples was detected over time, especially in RS heterosexual men, due to the emergence of CRF02_AG and URF samples bearing a subtype K fragment. The prevalence of HIV-1 samples carrying TDRM was high and similar between LTS and RS (15.7% vs 14.6% or age (25yo 16.6% along the study period. The high resistance levels detected in both populations are of concern, especially considering the dynamics of HIV-1 diversity over time. Our results suggest that the incorporation of resistance testing prior to HAART initiation should be highly considered, as well as permanent surveillance, aiming to carefully monitoring HIV-1 diversity, with focus on CRF/URF emergence and

  3. HIV-1 diversity and drug resistance mutations among people seeking HIV diagnosis in voluntary counseling and testing sites in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-de-Castro, Carlos A; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdiléa G; Bastos, Francisco I; Pilotto, José H; Fernandes, Nilo; Morgado, Mariza G

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable viral diversity remains a big challenge to the development of HIV vaccines and optimal therapy worldwide. In the latest years, as a consequence of the large expansion of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) availability worldwide, an increase in transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) has been observed, varying according the region. This study assessed HIV-1 diversity and TDRM profile over time among newly HIV-1 diagnosed individuals from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from individuals seeking HIV diagnosis in four voluntary counseling and testing (VCTs) sites located in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area, in 2005-2007. Recent (RS) and long-term (LTS) HIV-1 seroconverters were distinguished using BED-CEIA. Pol viral sequences were obtained for 102 LTS identified in 2005 and 144 RS from 2005-2007. HIV-1 subtype and pol recombinant genomes were determined using Rega HIV-1 Subtyping Tool and by phylogenetic inferences and bootscanning analyses. Surveillance of HIV-1 TDRM to protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors were performed according to the Calibrated Population Resistance (CPR) Tool 6.0. Overall, subtype B remains the most prevalent in Rio de Janeiro in both LTS and RS HIV-1 infected individuals. An increased proportion of recombinant samples was detected over time, especially in RS heterosexual men, due to the emergence of CRF02_AG and URF samples bearing a subtype K fragment. The prevalence of HIV-1 samples carrying TDRM was high and similar between LTS and RS (15.7% vs 14.6%) or age (25yo 16.6%) along the study period. The high resistance levels detected in both populations are of concern, especially considering the dynamics of HIV-1 diversity over time. Our results suggest that the incorporation of resistance testing prior to HAART initiation should be highly considered, as well as permanent surveillance, aiming to carefully monitoring HIV-1 diversity, with focus on CRF/URF emergence and putative

  4. Use of a molecular diagnostic test in AFB smear positive tuberculosis suspects greatly reduces time to detection of multidrug resistant tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestani Tukvadze

    Full Text Available The WHO has recommended the implementation of rapid diagnostic tests to detect and help combat M/XDR tuberculosis (TB. There are limited data on the performance and impact of these tests in field settings.The performance of the commercially available Genotype MTBDRplus molecular assay was compared to conventional methods including AFB smear, culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST using both an absolute concentration method on Löwenstein-Jensen media and broth-based method using the MGIT 960 system. Sputum specimens were obtained from TB suspects in the country of Georgia who received care through the National TB Program.Among 500 AFB smear-positive sputum specimens, 458 (91.6% had both a positive sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a valid MTBDRplus assay result. The MTBDRplus assay detected isoniazid (INH resistance directly from the sputum specimen in 159 (89.8% of 177 specimens and MDR-TB in 109 (95.6% of 114 specimens compared to conventional methods. There was high agreement between the MTBDRplus assay and conventional DST results in detecting MDR-TB (kappa = 0.95, p<0.01. The most prevalent INH resistance mutation was S315T (78% in the katG codon and the most common rifampicin resistance mutation was S531L (68% in the rpoB codon. Among 13 specimens from TB suspects with negative sputum cultures, 7 had a positive MTBDRplus assay (3 with MDR-TB. The time to detection of MDR-TB was significantly less using the MTBDRplus assay (4.2 days compared to the use of standard phenotypic tests (67.3 days with solid media and 21.6 days with broth-based media.Compared to conventional methods, the MTBDRplus assay had high accuracy and significantly reduced time to detection of MDR-TB in an area with high MDR-TB prevalence. The use of rapid molecular diagnostic tests for TB and drug resistance should increase the proportion of patients promptly placed on appropriate therapy.

  5. Helicobacter pylori from Peptic Ulcer Patients in Uganda Is Highly Resistant to Clarithromycin and Fluoroquinolones: Results of the GenoType HelicoDR Test Directly Applied on Stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denish Calmax Angol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Around 70–90% of peptic ulcer disease (PUD is due to Helicobacter pylori and requires treatment with antimicrobials to which these bacteria are susceptible. Common H. pylori diagnostic tests do not provide drug susceptibility data. Using the GenoType HelicoDR PCR test designed for gastric biopsies for simultaneous detection of H. pylori and its resistance to clarithromycin (CLA/fluoroquinolones (FLQ, we present evidence for stool as an optional test specimen and also provide data on prevalence of H. pylori resistance to CLA and FLQ in Uganda. Methods. Stool from 142 symptomatic PUD patients at three hospitals in Kampala was screened for H. pylori using a rapid antigen test. The GenoType HelicoDR test was run on all H. pylori antigen positives to determine PCR positivity and resistance to CLA/FLQ. Results. Thirty-one samples (22% were H. pylori antigen positive, and 21 (68% of these were H. pylori PCR positive. Six of the 21 (29% were resistant to CLA and eight to FLQ (42%, while two gave invalid FLQ resistance results. Conclusion. Stool is a possible specimen for the GenoType HelicoDR test for rapid detection of H. pylori and drug resistance. In Uganda, Helicobacter pylori is highly resistant to CLA and FLQ.

  6. Use of fungicides against powdery mildew during an artificial scab inoculation test in an apple breeding programme focused on partial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrancq, B; Lateur, M

    2005-01-01

    Our project aimed to develop an effective selection methodology for partial disease resistance. One of its objectives was to define the optimal selection threshold for discarding individual seedlings after artificial scab inoculation tests. Working with large populations of seedlings, it was necessary to conduct the scab tests at intervals throughout the season, with the risk of powdery mildew infection of the young plantlets during the summer. Because Podosphaera leucotricha symptoms prevent breeders from properly evaluating scab symptoms, a trial was conducted to assess the effect of specific anti-mildew fungicides on the results of the scab inoculation test. The results allowed the active ingredient and the optimum time for application in relation to the inoculation date to be determined.

  7. Resistance pattern of mupirocin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in trauma patients and comparison between disc diffusion and E-test for better detection of resistance in low resource countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonika Rajkumari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: All the MRSA isolates in our study were sensitive to mupirocin which is an encouraging finding. Though good screening for sensitivity can be done with 5 μg mupirocin disc, E-test provides a much clear and accurate results in clinical set-up. Hence, disc test can be used in resource poor countries and supplemented with E-test when needed.

  8. Comparative Stress Corrosion Cracking and General Corrosion Resistance of Annealed and Hardened 440 C Stainless Steel - New Techniques in Stress Corrosion Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendreck, M. J.; Hurless, B. E.; Torres, P. D.; Danford, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    The corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) characteristics of annealed and hardened 440C stainless steel were evaluated in high humidity and 3.5-percent NaCl solution. Corrosion testing consisted of an evaluation of flat plates, with and without grease, in high humidity, as well as electrochemical testing in 3.5-percent NaCl. Stress corrosion testing consisted of conventional, constant strain, smooth bar testing in high humidity in addition to two relatively new techniques under evaluation at MSFC. These techniques involve either incremental or constant rate increases in the load applied to a precracked SE(B) specimen, monitoring the crack-opening-displacement response for indications of crack growth. The electrochemical corrosion testing demonstrated an order of magnitude greater general corrosion rate in the annealed 440C. All techniques for stress corrosion testing showed substantially better SCC resistance in the annealed material. The efficacy of the new techniques for stress corrosion testing was demonstrated both by the savings in time and the ability to better quantify SCC data.

  9. Anticoagulant Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte

    Although sewer rat control is carried out in more than 80 % of all Danish municipalities, with usage of large amounts of anticoagulant rodenticides, knowledge on anticoagulant resistance among rats living in the sewers is limited. As rat problems in urban areas are believed to be related to sewer...... problems (70-90 % in UK and DK) unawareness of resistance amongst these populations of Brown rats may constitute a future control problem and knowledge on this issue has become crucial. Rats were captured in sewers from seven different locations in the suburban area of Copenhagen. Locations was chosen...... to represent different sewer rat management strategies i) no anticoagulants for approx. 20 years ii) no anticoagulants for the last 5 years and iii) continuous control for many years. Animals were tested for resistance to bromadiolone by Blood-Clotting Response test, as bromadiolone is the most frequently used...

  10. Using biological and physico-chemical test methods to assess the role of concrete mixture design in resistance to microbially induced corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Mitchell Wayne

    Concrete is the most widely used material for construction of wastewater collection, storage, and treatment infrastructure. The chemical and physical characteristics of hydrated portland cement make it susceptible to degradation under highly acidic conditions. As a result, some concrete wastewater infrastructure may be susceptible to a multi-stage degradation process known as microbially induced corrosion, or MIC. MIC begins with the production of aqueous hydrogen sulfide (H2S(aq)) by anaerobic sulfate reducing bacteria present below the waterline. H2S(aq) partitions to the gas phase where it is oxidized to sulfuric acid by the aerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria Thiobacillus that resides on concrete surfaces above the waterline. Sulfuric acid then attacks the cement paste portion of the concrete matrix through decalcification of calcium hydroxide and calcium silica hydrate coupled with the formation of expansive corrosion products. The attack proceeds inward resulting in reduced service life and potential failure of the concrete structure. There are several challenges associated with assessing a concrete's susceptibility to MIC. First, no standard laboratory tests exist to assess concrete resistance to MIC. Straightforward reproduction of MIC in the laboratory is complicated by the use of microorganisms and hydrogen sulfide gas. Physico-chemical tests simulating MIC by immersing concrete specimens in sulfuric acid offer a convenient alternative, but do not accurately capture the damage mechanisms associated with biological corrosion. Comparison of results between research studies is difficult due to discrepancies that can arise in experimental methods even if current ASTM standards are followed. This thesis presents two experimental methods to evaluate concrete resistance to MIC: one biological and one physico-chemical. Efforts are made to address the critical aspects of each testing method currently absent in the literature. The first method presented is a new test

  11. The Higher the Insulin Resistance the Lower the Cardiac Output in Men with Type 1 Diabetes During the Maximal Exercise Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiecki, Pawel; Naskret, Dariusz; Pilacinski, Stanislaw; Pempera, Maciej; Uruska, Aleksandra; Adamska, Anna; Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz, Dorota

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the hemodynamic parameters analyzed in bioimpedance cardiography during maximal exercise in patients with type 1 diabetes differing in insulin resistance. The study group consisted of 40 men with type 1 diabetes. Tissue sensitivity to insulin was assessed on the basis of the glucose disposal rate (GDR) analyzed during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Patients were divided into groups with GDR insulin sensitivity) and GDR ≥4.5 mg/kg/min (G2 group-higher insulin sensitivity). During the exercise test, the heart rate, systolic volume, cardiac output, cardiac index were measured by the impedance meter (PhysioFlow). Compared with the G2 group, the G1 group had a lower cardiac output (CO): during exercise 8.6 (IQR 7.7-10.0) versus 12.8 (IQR 10.8-13.7) L/min; P insulin resistance is associated with cardiac hemodynamic parameters assessed during and after exercise. The higher the insulin resistance the lower the cardiac output during maximal exercise in men with type 1 diabetes.

  12. Testing hypotheses of aging in long-lived mice of the genus Peromyscus: association between longevity and mitochondrial stress resistance, ROS detoxification pathways, and DNA repair efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungvari, Zoltan; Krasnikov, Boris F; Csiszar, Anna; Labinskyy, Nazar; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Pacher, Pal; Cooper, Arthur J L; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Austad, Steven N; Podlutsky, Andrej

    2008-09-01

    In the present review we discuss the potential use of two long-lived mice of the genus Peromyscus--the white-footed mouse (P. leucopus) and the deer mouse (P. maniculatus) maximum lifespan potential approximately 8 years for both--to test predictions of theories about aging from the oxidative stress theory, mitochondrial theory and inflammatory theory. Previous studies have shown that P. leucopus cells exhibit superior antioxidant defense mechanisms and lower cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) than do cells of the house mouse, Mus musculus (maximum lifespan approximately 3.5 years). We present new data showing that mitochondria in P. leucopus cells produce substantially less ROS than mitochondria in M. musculus cells, and that P. leucopus mitochondria exhibit superior stress resistance to those of M. musculus. We also provide evidence that components of the DNA repair system (e.g., pathways involved in repair of DNA damage induced by gamma-irradiation) are likely to be more efficient in P. leucopus than in M. musculus. We propose that mitochondrial stress resistance, ROS detoxification pathways and more efficient DNA repair contribute to the previously documented resistance of P. leucopus cells toward oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. The link between these three pathways and species longevity is discussed.

  13. An AFLP marker linked to the leaf rust resistance gene LrBi16 and test of allelism with Lr14a on chromosome arm 7BL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf rust (LR, caused by Puccinia triticina, is one of the most widespread diseases of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. worldwide. The LR resistance gene LrBi16 has been mapped on chromosome arm 7BL in Chinese wheat cultivar Bimai 16 and was closely linked to SSR loci Xcfa2257 and Xgwm344 with genetic distances of 2.8 cM and 2.9 cM, respectively. In the present study, a total of 304 AFLP primer pairs were used to screen Bimai 16 and Thatcher and resistant and susceptible DNA bulks. The polymorphic AFLP marker P-ATT/M-CGC173 bp was used to genotype F2 and F3 populations to identify markers more closely linked to LrBi16. Marker P-ATT/M-CGC173 bp was tightly linked to LrBi16 with a genetic distance of 0.5 cM. As LrBi16 was mapped near the Lr14a locus, 809 F2 plants from the Bimai 16/RL6013 (Lr14a cross were inoculated with the Pt pathotype FHNQ to test the allelism of Lr14a and LrBi16. All of the F2 plants were resistant to FHNQ (IT between; and 2, suggesting that Lr14a and LrBi16 are allelic.

  14. Evaluation of non destructive testing to characterize the resistance of the prefabricated system of columns and floor tiles for single family homes of a level: permeability meter, determination of wave velocity by ultrasound, Schmidt sclerometer and metal detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada Chacon, Dannell

    2014-01-01

    Non destructive testing are determined to be correlated with resistance to compression and flexion of elements belonging to prefabricated system of columns and floor tiles for single family homes of a level. The characteristics of the non destructive testing are described, such as: measurer of permeability, Schmidt sclerometer, determination of wave velocity by ultrasound and metal detector. The columns and floor tiles are elaborated with 2 mixtures of different resistances at 28 days. The first more than 30 MPa and the second less than 25 MPa are sampled together with the control cylinders necessary to obtain the actual resistance according to ASTM C39. Last resistance testings to compression and Schmidt sclerometer are realized to control cylinders to 1, 2, and 4 weeks after being cast. Non destructive testings (permeability meter Torrent, Schmidt sclerometer and determination of wave velocity by ultrasound) are performed in columns and floor tiles to 1, 2, and 4 weeks after being cast. Last resistance testings to flexion is obtained by means of destructive tests of the columns and floor tiles sampled. The correlation of the data obtained is determined to derive values of compression resistance from non destructive testing [es

  15. Applying the Network Simulation Method for testing chaos in a resistively and capacitively shunted Josephson junction model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gimeno Bellver

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the chaotic behavior of resistively and capacitively shunted Josephson junctions via the so-called Network Simulation Method. Such a numerical approach establishes a formal equivalence among physical transport processes and electrical networks, and hence, it can be applied to efficiently deal with a wide range of differential systems.The generality underlying that electrical equivalence allows to apply the circuit theory to several scientific and technological problems. In this work, the Fast Fourier Transform has been applied for chaos detection purposes and the calculations have been carried out in PSpice, an electrical circuit software.Overall, it holds that such a numerical approach leads to quickly computationally solve Josephson differential models. An empirical application regarding the study of the Josephson model completes the paper. Keywords: Electrical analogy, Network Simulation Method, Josephson junction, Chaos indicator, Fast Fourier Transform

  16. Differentiation between Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species by real-time PCR including detection of methicillin resistants in comparison to conventional microbiology testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaschik, Sven; Lehmann, Lutz E; Steinhagen, Folkert; Book, Malte; Molitor, Ernst; Hoeft, Andreas; Stueber, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus has long been recognized as a major pathogen. Methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant strains of S. epidermidis (MRSE) are among the most prevalent multiresistant pathogens worldwide, frequently causing nosocomial and community-acquired infections. In the present pilot study, we tested a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to quickly differentiate Staphylococci and identify the mecA gene in a clinical setting. Compared to the conventional microbiology testing the real-time PCR assay had a higher detection rate for both S. aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS; 55 vs. 32 for S. aureus and 63 vs. 24 for CoNS). Hands-on time preparing DNA, carrying out the PCR, and evaluating results was less than 5 h. The assay is largely automated, easy to adapt, and has been shown to be rapid and reliable. Fast detection and differentiation of S. aureus, CoNS, and the mecA gene by means of this real-time PCR protocol may help expedite therapeutic decision-making and enable earlier adequate antibiotic treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Comparison of M.I.C.E. and Etest with CLSI agar dilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing against oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloiza H Campana

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate the performance of M.I.C.E. and Etest methodologies to that of agar dilution for determining the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. METHODS: A total of 100 oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. isolates were collected from hospitalized patients at a teaching hospital. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid was performed using the reference CLSI agar dilution method (2009, Etest and M.I.C.E. methodologies. The MIC values were interpreted according to CLSI susceptibility breakpoints and compared by regression analysis. RESULTS: In general, the essential agreement (±1-log2 between M.I.C.E. and CLSI agar dilution was 93.0%, 84.0% and 77.0% for linezolid, teicoplanin and vancomycin, respectively. Essential agreement rates between M.I.C.E. and Etest were excellent (>90.0% for all antibiotics tested. Both strips (M.I.C.E. and Etest yielded two very major errors for linezolid. Unacceptable minor rates were observed for teicoplanin against CoNS and for vancomycin against S. aureus. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, linezolid and teicoplanin MICs against all staphylococci and S. aureus, respectively, were more accurately predicted by M.I.C.E. strips. However, the Etest showed better performance than M.I.C.E. for predicting vancomycin MICs against all staphylococci. Thus, microbiologists must be aware of the different performance of commercially available gradient strips against staphylococci.

  18. Implementing the Xpert® MTB/RIF Diagnostic Test for Tuberculosis and Rifampicin Resistance: Outcomes and Lessons Learned in 18 Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Ardizzoni

    Full Text Available The Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert is an automated molecular test for simultaneous detection of tuberculosis (TB and rifampicin resistance, recommended by the World Health Organization as the preferred diagnostic method for individuals presumed to have multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB or HIV-associated TB. We describe the performance of Xpert and key lessons learned during two years of implementation under routine conditions in 33 projects located in 18 countries supported by Médecins Sans Frontières across varied geographic, epidemiological and clinical settings.Xpert was used following three strategies: the first being as the initial test, with microscopy in parallel, for all presumptive TB cases; the second being only for patients at risk of MDR-TB, or with HIV- associated TB, or presumptive paediatric TB; and the third being as the initial test for these high-risk patients plus as an add-on test to microscopy in others. Routine laboratory data were collected, using laboratory registers. Qualitative data such as logistic aspects, human resources, and tool acceptance were collected using a questionnaire.In total, 52,863 samples underwent Xpert testing from April 2011 to December 2012. The average MTB detection rate was 18.5%, 22.3%, and 11.6% for the three different strategies respectively. Analysis of the results on samples tested in parallel showed that using Xpert as add-on test to microscopy would have increased laboratory TB confirmation by 49.7%, versus 42.3% for Xpert replacing microscopy. The main limitation of the test was the high rate of inconclusive results, which correlated with factors such as defective modules, cartridge version (G3 vs. G4 and staff experience. Operational and logistical hurdles included infrastructure renovation, basic computer training, regular instrument troubleshooting and maintenance, all of which required substantial and continuous support.The implementation of Xpert was feasible and significantly increased TB

  19. C-Peptide, Baseline and Postprandial Insulin Resistance after a Carbohydrate-Rich Test Meal - Evidence for an Increased Insulin Clearance in PCOS Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassek, J; Erdmann, J; Ohnolz, F; Berg, F D; Kiechle, M; Seifert-Klauss, V

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Known characteristics of patients with PCOS include infertility, menstrual disorders, hirsutism and also often insulin resistance. These symptoms increase with increasing body weight. In the LIPCOS study ( L ifestyle I ntervention for Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome [ PCOS ]) long-term changes of the PCOS in dependence on pregnancy and parenthood were systematically assessed. In the framework of the LIPCOS study, PCOS patients were given a standardised carbohydrate-rich test meal in order to examine glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The results were compared with those of a eumenorrhoeic control group who all had corresponding BMI values and corresponding ages. Methods and Patients 41 PCOS patients (without diabetes) and 68 controls received a standardised carbohydrate-rich test meal (260 kcal, 62 % carbohydrates, 32 % fat, 6 % proteins) in order to generate a submaximal insulin and glucose stimulation. The values were determined at baseline and postprandial after 60, 120 and 180 minutes. In addition, the corresponding C-peptide levels were recorded. Results In the PCOS patients (n = 41), the insulin secretion test after a standardised test meal showed almost identical baseline and postprandial insulin levels when compared with those of the age- and BMI-matched eumenorrhoeic controls (n = 68). In the PCOS patients, the baseline and postprandial glucose levels were significantly elevated (92.88 ± 10.28 [PCOS] vs. 85.07 ± 9.42 mg/dL [controls]; p PCOS patients formally exhibit a higher fasting insulin resistance than controls. In spite of the higher stimulated C-peptide levels, the insulin levels did not increase more strongly with increasing glucose levels than in controls which may be indicative of a higher insulin clearance in PCOS patients.

  20. The potential impact of density dependent fecundity on the use of the faecal egg count reduction test for detecting drug resistance in human hookworms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Kotze

    Full Text Available Current efforts to control human soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections involve the periodic mass treatment of people, particularly children, in all endemic areas, using benzimidazole and imidothiazole drugs. Given the fact that high levels of resistance have developed to these same drugs in roundworms of livestock, there is a need to monitor drug efficacy in human STHs. The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT, in which faecal egg output is measured pre- and post-drug treatment, is presently under examination by WHO as a means of detecting the emergence of resistance. We have examined the potential impact of density dependent fecundity on FECRT data. Recent evidence with the canine hookworm indicates that the density dependent egg production phenomenon shows dynamic properties in response to drug treatment. This will impact on measurements of drug efficacy, and hence drug resistance. It is likely that the female worms that survive a FECRT drug treatment in some human cases will respond to the relaxation of density dependent constraints on egg production by increasing their egg output significantly compared to their pre-treatment levels. These cases will therefore underestimate drug efficacy in the FECRT. The degree of underestimation will depend on the ability of the worms within particular hosts to increase their egg output, which will in turn depend on the extent to which their egg output is constrained prior to the drug treatment. As worms within different human cases will likely be present at quite different densities prior to a proposed FECRT, there is potential for the effects of this phenomenon on drug efficacy measurements to vary considerably within any group of potential FECRT candidates. Measurement of relative drug efficacy may be improved by attempting to ensure a consistent degree of underestimation in groups of people involved in separate FECRTs. This may be partly achieved by omission of cases with the heaviest infections

  1. Adaptação do Threshold® IMT para teste de resistência dos músculos inspiratórios Adaptation of Threshold® IMT for endurance tests on inspiratory muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA Alves

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: para avaliação da resistência muscular inspiratória através de dispositivos do tipo threshold loading estudos anteriores empregaram equipamentos artesanais e indisponíveis comercialmente. Objetivos: verificar a aplicabilidade e reprodutibilidade de um teste de resistência muscular inspiratória utilizando a adaptação de um antigo modelo do THRESHOLD® IMT (não disponível comercialmente com ampla gama de pressões, avaliando sua resistência intrínseca ao fluxo inspiratório, sua característica limiar pressórica e sua relativa independência do fluxo aéreo na geração de pressão durante os testes. Métodos: um antigo modelo do THRESHOLD® IMT foi aberto, retirado sua mola interna e adaptado seu êmbolo. Após montagem vertical, um sistema de peso externo foi instalado como gerador de carga. Válvulas foram instaladas para evitar re-inalação de gás carbônico. Essa adaptação foi testada aplicando-se diversas razões de fluxo sem a presença do êmbolo e de carga para avaliação da resistência intrínseca e aplicando-se diversas razões de fluxo quando instaladas cargas de 10 até 130 cmH2O para avaliar a real pressão de abertura da válvula e o comportamento pressórico em altas razões de fluxo. Resultados: a resistência média foi de 4,8 ± 0,7 cmH2O / L.s-1, mas teve seu valor aumentado proporcionalmente ao fluxo. A pressão real de abertura foi inferior ao valor esperado (p = 0,002, condição encontrada em outros estudos. O comportamento pressórico após a abertura da válvula foi similar em todas as cargas: um aumento médio de 3,8 ± 2,0 cmH2O para cada 1,0 L /s de fluxo gerado. Conclusão: a adaptação proposta do THRESHOLD® IMT produziu um dispositivo barato e confiável para emprego em testes de resistência muscular inspiratória.Background: In assessments of inspiratory muscle endurance using threshold loading devices, previous papers made use of homemade devices that are not commercially

  2. Testing the Role of Genetic Background in Parallel Evolution Using the Comparative Experimental Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogwill, Tom; Kojadinovic, Mila; Furió, Victoria; MacLean, R. Craig

    2014-01-01

    Parallel evolution is the independent evolution of the same phenotype or genotype in response to the same selection pressure. There are examples of parallel molecular evolution across divergent genetic backgrounds, suggesting that genetic background may not play an important role in determining the outcome of adaptation. Here, we measure the influence of genetic background on phenotypic and molecular adaptation by combining experimental evolution with comparative analysis. We selected for resistance to the antibiotic rifampicin in eight strains of bacteria from the genus Pseudomonas using a short term selection experiment. Adaptation occurred by 47 mutations at conserved sites in rpoB, the target of rifampicin, and due to the high diversity of possible mutations the probability of within-strain parallel evolution was low. The probability of between-strain parallel evolution was only marginally lower, because different strains substituted similar rpoB mutations. In contrast, we found that more than 30% of the phenotypic variation in the growth rate of evolved clones was attributable to among-strain differences. Parallel molecular evolution across strains resulted in divergent phenotypic evolution because rpoB mutations had different effects on growth rate in different strains. This study shows that genetic divergence between strains constrains parallel phenotypic evolution, but had little detectable impact on the molecular basis of adaptation in this system. PMID:25228081

  3. Design, construction, quality checks and test results of first resistive-Micromegas read-out boards for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Iengo, Paolo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The development work carried out at CERN to push the Micromegas technology to a new frontier is now coming to an end. The construction of the first read-out boards for the upgrade of the ATLAS muon system will demonstrate in full-scale the feasibility of this ambitious project. The read-out boards, representing the heart of the detector, are manufactured in industries, making the Micromegas for ATLAS the first MPGD for a large experiment with a relevant part industrially produced. The boards are 50 cm wide and up to 220 cm long, carrying copper strips 315 μm wide with 415 μm pitch. Interconnected resistive strips, having the same pattern as the copper strips, provide spark protection. The boards are completed by the creation of cylindrical pillars 128 μm high, 280 μm in diameter and arranged in a triangular array 7 mm aside. The total number of boards to be produced for ATLAS is 2048 of 32 different types. We will review the main design parameters of the read-out boards for the ATLAS Micromegas, following...

  4. Synergism between tobramycin and ceftazidime against a resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain, tested in an in vitro pharmacokinetic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. den Hollander (Jan); A.M. Horrevorts; M.L. van Goor; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); J.W. Mouton (Johan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSynergism between two antibiotics is usually tested by a checkerboard titration technique, or by time-kill methods. Both methods have the disadvantage that synergism is determined at constant concentrations of the antibiotics, which do not reflect reality in

  5. Evaluation of phenotypic tests to detect carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in colonized patients hospitalized in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Reus Rodrigues Perez

    2015-07-01

    It is important to state that combined-disk test with phenylboronic acid is not suitable for bacterial identification/isolation. Conversely, selective/chromogenic agar after 48h of incubation showed to be a useful tool, with the advantage of presumptive bacterial identification.

  6. Deicer scaling resistance of concrete mixtures containing slag cement. Phase 2 : evaluation of different laboratory scaling test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    With the use of supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) in concrete mixtures, salt scaling tests such as ASTM C672 have been found to be overly aggressive and do correlate well with field scaling performance. The reasons for this are thought to be b...

  7. A Simple Non-destructive Test of Cellular Activity (NTCA) for in vitro Assessment of Cancer Cell Chemosensitivity/resistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netíková, I.; Buršíková, Eva; Veselý, Pavel; Prchalová, M.; Kleibl, Z.; Matoušková, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, 4B (2007), s. 2331-2337 ISSN 0250-7005 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8145 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : in vitro chemosensitivity * primary cells * non-destructive test Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.414, year: 2007

  8. Diving in or Guarding the Tower: Mina Shaughnessy's Resistance and Capitulation to High-Stakes Writing Tests at City College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Mina Shaughnessy continues to exert powerful influences over Basic Writing practices, discourses and pedagogy thirty-five years after her death: Basic Writing remains in some ways trapped by Shaughnessy's legacy in what Min-Zhan Lu labeled as essentialism, accommodationism and linguistic innocence. High-stakes writing tests, a troubling hallmark…

  9. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, H F

    1988-01-01

    Strains of staphylococci resistant to methicillin were identified immediately after introduction of this drug. Methicillin-resistant strains have unusual properties, the most notable of which is extreme variability in expression of the resistance trait. The conditions associated with this heterogeneous expression of resistance are described. Methicillin resistance is associated with production of a unique penicillin-binding protein (PBP), 2a, which is bound and inactivated only at high concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics. PBP2a appears to be encoded by the mec determinant, which also is unique to methicillin-resistant strains. The relationships between PBP2a and expression of resistance and implications for the mechanism of resistance are discussed. The heterogeneous expression of methicillin resistance by staphylococci poses problems in the detection of resistant strains. Experience with several susceptibility test methods is reviewed and guidelines for performance of these tests are given. Treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci is discussed. Vancomycin is the treatment of choice. Alternatives have been few because methicillin-resistant strains often are resistant to multiple antibiotics in addition to beta-lactam antibiotics. New agents which are active against methicillin-resistant staphylococci are becoming available, and their potential role in treatment is discussed. Images PMID:3069195

  10. Optimizing a Test Method to Evaluate Resistance of Pervious Concrete to Cycles of Freezing and Thawing in the Presence of Different Deicing Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chehong Tsang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a standard test method for evaluating the resistance of pervious concrete to cycles of freezing and thawing in the presence of deicing salts is the motive behind this study. Different sample size and geometry, cycle duration, and level of submersion in brine solutions were investigated to achieve an optimized test method. The optimized test method was able to produce different levels of damage when different types of deicing salts were used. The optimized duration of one cycle was found to be 24 h with twelve hours of freezing at −18 °C and twelve hours of thawing at +21 °C, with the bottom 10 mm of the sample submerged in the brine solution. Cylinder samples with a diameter of 100 mm and height of 150 mm were used and found to produce similar results to 150 mm-cubes. Based on the obtained results a mass loss of 3%–5% is proposed as a failure criterion of cylindrical samples. For the materials and within the cycles of freezing/thawing investigated here, the deicers that caused the most damage were NaCl, CaCl 2 and urea, followed by MgCl 2 , potassium acetate, sodium acetate and calcium-magnesium acetate. More testing is needed to validate the effects of different deicers under long term exposures and different temperature ranges.

  11. Performance of the cobas MRSA/SA Test for Simultaneous Detection of Methicillin-Susceptible and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus From Nasal Swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lance R; Woods, Christopher W; Davis, Thomas E; Wang, Zi-Xuam; Young, Stephen A; Osiecki, John C; Lewinski, Michael A; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2017-08-01

    Health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) infections are continuing problems. Rapidly determining the MRSA colonization status of a patient facilitates practice to reduce spread of MRSA clinical disease. Sensitive detection of all SA prior to surgery, followed by decolonization, can significantly reduce postoperative infection from this pathogen. Our goal was to validate a new automated assay for this testing. We compared performance of the cobas MRSA/SA Test on the cobas 4800 System to direct and enriched chromogenic culture using nasal swabs collected from patients at six United States sites. Compared to direct and enriched culture, the sensitivity for MRSA and SA was 93.1% and 93.9%, and the specificity was 97.5% and 94.2%, respectively. After discrepancy analysis, the sensitivity for MRSA and SA was 97.1% and 98.6%, and the specificity was 98.3% and 95.5%, respectively. Compared to direct culture, sensitivity for detecting any SA was 99.6%. The cobas MRSA/SA Test is an effective tool to simultaneously perform surveillance testing for nasal colonization of both MRSA and MSSA.

  12. Nasal Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PCR Testing Reduces the Duration of MRSA-Targeted Therapy in Patients with Suspected MRSA Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Nidhu; Faust, Andrew C; Smith, Terri; Sheperd, Lyndsay A; Knoll, Laura; Goodman, Edward L

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-ordered methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PCR testing on the duration of empirical MRSA-targeted antibiotic therapy in patients with suspected pneumonia. This is a retrospective analysis of patients who received vancomycin or linezolid for suspected pneumonia before and after the implementation of a pharmacist-driven protocol for nasal MRSA PCR testing. Patients were included if they were adults of >18 years of age and initiated on vancomycin or linezolid for suspected MRSA pneumonia. The primary endpoint was the duration of vancomycin or linezolid therapy. After screening 368 patients, 57 patients met inclusion criteria (27 pre-PCR and 30 post-PCR). Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups, with the majority of patients classified as having health care-associated pneumonia (68.4%). The use of the nasal MRSA PCR test reduced the mean duration of MRSA-targeted therapy by 46.6 h (74.0 ± 48.9 h versus 27.4 ± 18.7 h; 95% confidence interval [CI], 27.3 to 65.8 h; P MRSA PCR testing in patients with suspected MRSA pneumonia reduced the duration of empirical MRSA-targeted therapy by approximately 2 days without increasing adverse clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Testing the fetal overnutrition hypothesis; the relationship of maternal and paternal adiposity to adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Karat, Samuel C; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline H D

    2013-09-01

    We aimed to test the fetal overnutrition hypothesis by comparing the associations of maternal and paternal adiposity (sum of skinfolds) with adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in children. Children from a prospective birth cohort had anthropometry, fat percentage (bio-impedance), plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations and blood pressure measured at 9.5 years of age. Detailed anthropometric measurements were recorded for mothers (at 3±2 weeks’ gestation) and fathers (5 years following the index pregnancy). Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India. Children (n 504), born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Twenty-eight per cent of mothers and 38% of fathers were overweight/ obese (BMI≥25.0 kg/m²), but only 4% of the children were overweight/obese (WHO age- and sex-specific BMI≥18.2 kg/m²). The children’s adiposity (BMI, sum of skinfolds, fat percentage and waist circumference), fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance increased with increasing maternal and paternal sum of skinfolds adjusted for the child’s sex, age and socio-economic status. Maternal and paternal effects were similar. The associations with fasting insulin and insulin resistance were attenuated after adjusting for the child’s current adiposity. In this population, both maternal and paternal adiposity equally predict adiposity and insulin resistance in the children. This suggests that shared family environment and lifestyle, or genetic/epigenetic factors, influence child adiposity. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that there is an intrauterine overnutrition effect of maternal adiposity in non-diabetic pregnancies, although we cannot rule out such an effect in cases of extreme maternal obesity, which is rare in our population.

  14. Laboratory test results on the thermal resistance of polyisocyanurate foamboard insulation blown with CFC-11 substitutes: A cooperative industry/government project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, D.L.; Graves, R.S.; Yarbrough, D.W.; Weaver, F.J.

    1991-09-01

    The fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbon gases (CFC-11 and CFC-12) are used as blowing agents for foam insulations for building and appliance applications. The thermal resistance per unit thickness of these insulations is greater than that of other commercially available insulations. Mandated reductions in the production of these chemicals may lead to less efficient substitutes and increase US energy consumption by one quad or more. This report describes laboratory thermal and aging tests on a set of industry-produced, experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) laminate boardstock to evaluate the viability of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFSs) as alternative blowing agents to chlorofluorcarbon-11 (CFC-11). The PIR boards were blown with five gases: CFC-11, HCFC- 123, HCFC-141b, and 50/50 and 65/35 blends of HCFC-123/HCFC-141b. These HCFC gases have a lower ozone depletion potential than CFC-11 or CFC-12. Apparent thermal conductivity (k) was determined from 0 to 50{degrees}C. Results on the laminate boards provide an independent laboratory check on the increase in k observed for field exposure in the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA). The measured laboratory increase in k was between 8 and 11% after a 240-d field exposure in the RTRA. Results are reported on a thin-specimen, aging procedure to establish the long-term thermal resistance of gas-filled foams. These thin specimens were planed from the industry-produced boardstock foams and aged at 75 and 150{degrees}F for up to 300 d. The resulting k-values were correlated with an exponential dependency on (diffusion coefficient {times} time){sup {1/2}}/thickness and provided diffusion coefficients for air components into, and blowing agent out of, the foam. This aging procedure was used to predict the five-year thermal resistivity of the foams. The thin-specimen aging procedure is supported with calculations by a computer model for aging of foams. 43 refs., 33 figs., 25 tabs.

  15. Testing and prediction of erosion-corrosion for corrosion resistant alloys used in the oil and gas production industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon, Hernan E.

    The corrosion behavior of CRAs has been thoroughly investigated and documented in the public literature by many researchers; however, little work has been done to investigate erosion-corrosion of such alloys. When sand particles are entrained in the flow, the degradation mechanism is different from that observed for sand-free corrosive environment. There is a need in the oil and gas industry to define safe service limits for utilization of such materials. The effects of flow conditions, sand rate, pH and temperature on the erosion-corrosion of CRAs were widely studied. An extensive experimental work was conducted using scratch tests and flow loop tests using several experimental techniques. At high erosivity conditions, a synergistic effect between erosion and corrosion was observed. Under the high sand rate conditions tested, erosivity is severe enough to damage the passive layer protecting the CRA thereby enhancing the corrosion rate. In most cases there is likely a competition between the rates of protective film removal due to mechanical erosion and protective film healing. Synergism occurs for each of the three alloys examined (13Cr and Super13Cr and 22Cr); however, the degree of synergism is quite different for the three alloys and may not be significant for 22Cr for field conditions where erosivities are typically much lower that those occurring in the small bore loop used in this research. Predictions of the corrosion component of erosion-corrosion based on scratch test data compared reasonably well to test results from flow loops for the three CRAs at high erosivity conditions. Second order behavior appears to be an appropriate and useful model for representing the repassivation process of CRAs. A framework for a procedure to predict penetration rates for erosion-corrosion conditions was developed based on the second order model behavior observed for the re-healing process of the passive film of CRAs and on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations

  16. Ceftaroline activity tested against bacterial isolates from pediatric patients: results from the assessing worldwide antimicrobial resistance and evaluation program for the United States (2011-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Helio S; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Farrell, David J; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N

    2014-08-01

    Ceftaroline, the active form of ceftaroline fosamil, is a cephalosporin with broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against resistant Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ceftriaxone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and many Enterobacteriaceae species. Ceftaroline fosamil is approved in the United States for treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in adults. A total of 5291 consecutive unique pediatric patient strains of clinical significance were collected from 157 US medical centers. The isolates were identified locally and forwarded to a central monitoring laboratory for reference antimicrobial susceptibility testing. S. pneumoniae isolates from the 2011 to 2012 respiratory season were serotyped. Susceptibility results were analyzed according to patient age as follows: ≤ 1 years old (yo; 1857 strains); 2-5 (1342); 6-12 (1281) and 13-17 (811). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus rates were slightly lower in isolates from patients 13-17 yo (39.9%) compared with other age groups (48.2-51.5%), and ceftaroline was consistently active against S. aureus isolates from all 4 age groups [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC50/90): 0.25-05/1 μg/mL; 99.8-100.0% susceptible]. Overall, 99.8% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were ceftaroline susceptible (MIC50/90: 0.5/1 μg/mL). All S. pneumoniae strains (1178) were ceftaroline susceptible (MIC50/90: ≤ 0.015/0.12 μg/mL), whereas ceftriaxone susceptibility varied from only 84.8 (≤ 1 yo) to 89.7% (13-17 yo). 19A was the most frequent serotype identified among S. pneumoniae and these isolates exhibited low susceptibility to ceftriaxone (42.4%) and most other antimicrobials tested. The highest ceftaroline MIC among Haemophilus influenzae (587 strains) was 0.12 μg/mL (100.0% susceptible), and β-lactamase production rates varied from 24.2 (13-17 yo) to 30.1% (6-12 yo); 27.9% overall

  17. Beam test results of a monolithic pixel sensor in the 0.18 μm tower-jazz technology with high resistivity epitaxial layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattiazzo, S., E-mail: serena.mattiazzo@pd.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Padova, Padova IT 35131 (Italy); Aimo, I. [Politecnico di Torino and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Torino, Torino IT 10129 (Italy); Baudot, J. [Universitè de Strasbourg, IPHC, Strasbourg F67037 (France); CNRS, MMR7178, Strasbourg F67037 (France); Bedda, C. [Politecnico di Torino and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Torino, Torino IT 10129 (Italy); La Rocca, P. [Università di Catania and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Catania, Catania IT 95123 (Italy); Perez, A. [Universitè de Strasbourg, IPHC, Strasbourg F67037 (France); CNRS, MMR7178, Strasbourg F67037 (France); Riggi, F. [Università di Catania and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Catania, Catania IT 95123 (Italy); Spiriti, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati and Sezione di Roma 3, Roma IT 00146 (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will undergo a major upgrade in the second Long LHC Shutdown in the years 2018–2019; this upgrade includes the full replacement of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), deploying seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). For the development of the new ALICE ITS, the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS imaging sensor process has been chosen as it is possible to use full CMOS in the pixel and different silicon wafers (including high resistivity epitaxial layers). A large test campaign has been carried out on several small prototype chips, designed to optimize the pixel sensor layout and the front-end electronics. Results match the target requirements both in terms of performance and of radiation hardness. Following this development, the first full scale chips have been designed, submitted and are currently under test, with promising results. A telescope composed of 4 planes of Mimosa-28 and 2 planes of Mimosa-18 chips is under development at the DAFNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) in Italy with the final goal to perform a comparative test of the full scale prototypes. The telescope has been recently used to test a Mimosa-22THRb chip (a monolithic pixel sensor built in the 0.18 μm Tower-Jazz process) and we foresee to perform tests on the full scale chips for the ALICE ITS upgrade at the beginning of 2015. In this contribution we will describe some first measurements of spatial resolution, fake hit rate and detection efficiency of the Mimosa-22THRb chip obtained at the BTF facility in June 2014 with an electron beam of 500 MeV.

  18. Haptic control of a pneumatic muscle actuator to provide resistance for simulated isokinetic exercise: Part I--dynamic test station and human quadriceps dynamic simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kara L; Phillips, Chandler A; Reynolds, David B; Mohler, Stanley R; Rogers, Dana B; Neidhard-Doll, Amy T

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) have a high power to weight ratio and possess unique characteristics which make them ideal actuators for applications involving human interaction. PMAs are difficult to control due to nonlinear dynamics, presenting challenges in system implementation. Despite these challenges, PMAs have great potential as a source of resistance for strength training and rehabilitation. The objective of this work was to control a PMA for use in isokinetic exercise, potentially benefiting anyone in need of optimal strength training through a joint's range of motion. A human quadriceps dynamic simulator (HQDS) was developed so that control effectiveness and accommodation could be tested prior to human implementation. The experimental set-up and HQDS are discussed in Part I of this work. The development of a PMA haptic controller and its interaction with the HQDS are discussed in Part II.

  19. Integrated self-regulating resistive heating for isothermal nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) in Lab-on-a-Chip (LoC) devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardy, Tamas; Tulp, Indrek; Kremer, Clemens; Rang, Toomas; Stewart, Ray

    2017-01-01

    Isothermal nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) in a Lab-on-a-Chip (LoC) format promise to bring high-accuracy, non-instrumented rapid tests to the point of care. Reliable rapid tests for infectious diseases allow for early diagnosis and treatment, which in turn enables better containment of potential outbreaks and fewer complications. A critical component to LoC NAATs is the heating element, as all NAAT protocols require incubation at elevated temperatures. We propose a cheap, integrated, self-regulating resistive heating solution that uses 2xAAA alkaline batteries as the power source, can maintain temperatures in the 60-63°C range for at least 25 minutes, and reaches the target range from room temperature in 5 minutes. 4 heating element samples with different electrical characteristics were evaluated in a thermal mock-up for a LoC NAAT device. An optimal heating element candidate was chosen based on temperature profiling. The optimal candidate was further evaluated by thermal modelling via finite element analysis of heat transfer and demonstrated suitable for isothermal nucleic acid amplification.

  20. Using open hole and cased-hole resistivity logs to monitor gas hydrate dissociation during a thermal test in the mallik 5L-38 research well, Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B.I.; Collett, T.S.; Lewis, R.E.; Dubourg, I.

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrates, which are naturally occurring ice-like combinations of gas and water, have the potential to provide vast amounts of natural gas from the world's oceans and polar regions. However, producing gas economically from hydrates entails major technical challenges. Proposed recovery methods such as dissociating or melting gas hydrates by heating or depressurization are currently being tested. One such test was conducted in northern Canada by the partners in the Mallik 2002 Gas Hydrate Production Research Well Program. This paper describes how resistivity logs were used to determine the size of the annular region of gas hydrate dissociation that occurred around the wellbore during the thermal test in the Mallik 5L-38 well. An open-hole logging suite, run prior to the thermal test, included array induction, array laterolog, nuclear magnetic resonance and 1.1-GHz electromagnetic propagation logs. The reservoir saturation tool was run both before and after the thermal test to monitor formation changes. A cased-hole formation resistivity log was run after the test.Baseline resistivity values in each formation layer (Rt) were established from the deep laterolog data. The resistivity in the region of gas hydrate dissociation near the wellbore (Rxo) was determined from electromagnetic propagation and reservoir saturation tool measurements. The radius of hydrate dissociation as a function of depth was then determined by means of iterative forward modeling of cased-hole formation resistivity tool response. The solution was obtained by varying the modeled dissociation radius until the modeled log overlaid the field log. Pretest gas hydrate production computer simulations had predicted that dissociation would take place at a uniform radius over the 13-ft test interval. However, the post-test resistivity modeling showed that this was not the case. The resistivity-derived dissociation radius was greatest near the outlet of the pipe that circulated hot water in the wellbore

  1. Correlation of molecular resistance mechanisms and phenotypic resistance levels in streptomycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, A; Sander, P; Schaper, K J; Scholz, M; Böttger, E C

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of streptomycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis demonstrated that there is a close correlation between the molecular resistance mechanism and the in vitro activity of streptomycin: mutations in rpsL were mainly associated with high-level resistance, mutations in rrs were associated with an intermediate level of resistance, and streptomycin-resistant isolates with wild-type rpsL and rrs exhibited a low-level resistance phenotype. In...

  2. Containing Unusual Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the health department to stop spread of unusual resistance. Review and support infection control in the facility. Clinical labs: Know what isolates to send for testing. Establish protocols that immediately ... of unusual resistance. Validate new tests to identify the latest threats. ...

  3. Testing pollen of single and stacked insect-resistant Bt-maize on in vitro reared honey bee larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmen P Hendriksma

    Full Text Available The ecologically and economic important honey bee (Apis mellifera is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA of genetically modified (GM crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata. Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops.

  4. Testing pollen of single and stacked insect-resistant Bt-maize on in vitro reared honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksma, Harmen P; Härtel, Stephan; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    The ecologically and economic important honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata. Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops.

  5. Variação da pressão intraocular após teste submáximo de força no treinamento resistido Intraocular pressure variation after submaximal strength test in resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Conte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a variação da pressão intraocular (PIO decorrente da aplicação do teste de predição para uma repetição máxima (1RM. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados em estudo observacional 145 calouros (22,04 ± 4,17 anos; de ambos os sexos do curso de Educação Física da Escola Superior de Educação Física de Jundiaí (ESEFJ. Os critérios de exclusão foram: opacidade de meios, alteração de globo ocular ou ausência de globo ocular. Todos os participantes assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. A avaliação da PIO foi determinada por duas medidas consecutivas com o tonômetro de Perkins: i pré-teste: antes do teste de 1RM e ii pós-teste: logo após a realização do teste. O teste de 1RM consistiu em predizer o valor de uma repetição máxima através de repetições até a fadiga. Foram utilizados os seguintes exercícios resistidos: supino, pulley dorsal, desenvolvimento, rosca direta e leg press 45º. Como procedimento estatístico foi empregado o teste "t" de Student pareado. RESULTADOS: Ocorreu redução da PIO após a realização do teste de predição de 1RM: 13,48 ± 3,32 vs.10,20 ± 3,72 mmHg (pPURPOSE: To verify the intraocular pressure (IOP after sub-maximal strength test. METHODS: 145 Physical Education freshmen (22.04 ± 4.17 years old; female and male from Superior Physical Education School of Jundiaí (ESEFJ were evaluated in an observacional study. The exclusion criteria were: media opacity and eyeball absence or changes. All subjects agreed to take part in this research and signed up the Informed Consent. IOP was measured by Perkins tonometer: i pretest: just before the submaximal strength test performance and ii post-test: immediately after the strength test. The strength test consisted in the one-repetition-maximum-assessment through repetition until fatigue. Resistance training exercises such as bench press, pulley dorsal high, shoulder press, arm curl and leg press 45º were performed

  6. Identificação de biótipos de Bidens spp. resistentes aos inibidores da ALS através de teste germinativo Identification of Bidens spp. biotypes resistant to ALS-inhibiting herbicides through germinative test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J.P. Carvalho

    2004-09-01

    B idens subalternans populations resistant to ALS-inhibiting herbicides have been reported in different soybean areas of Brazil. This research aimed to develop a methodology to identify Bidens spp. biotypes resistant to ALS-inhibiting herbicides through germinative tests in herbicide solutions. The work was divided into three phases consisting of independent experiments. The first phase consisted of dose-response curves prepared for a susceptible biotype of Bidens spp., germinated in solutions of four pre-emergence herbicides (flumetsulan, diclosulan, imazaquin and metribuzin. The objective of this phase was to select the herbicides best adapted to the methodology, by using the following rates: 2C, 1C, 1/2C, 1/4C, 1/8C, 1/16C, 1/32C, 1/64C and water (where C = recommended rate. The second phase consisted of dose-response curves prepared for the herbicides selected in the first phase (imazaquin and metribuzin using a resistant biotype, to identify the dose providing the largest response range between the biotypes. The third phase consisted of a comparative test between three resistant and one susceptible biotypes, exposed to germination in the solutions of the herbicides chosen in the first phase, applying the doses chosen in the second phase. The resistant Bidens spp. biotypes demonstrated a better capacity to develop roots in imazaquin herbicide solution (87 mg L-1,than the susceptible biotype, a fact that proves the method's applicability. The methodology applied to identify Bidens spp. resistant biotypes through germinative tests in herbicide solution is a fast and efficient alternative for biotype identification.

  7. Effect of Introducing Xpert MTB/RIF to Test and Treat Individuals at Risk of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Kazakhstan: A Prospective Cohort Study.

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    Sanne Christine van Kampen

    Full Text Available Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert was piloted in Kazakhstan to detect tuberculosis (TB and rifampicin resistance (RR-TB among individuals at risk of multidrug-resistant (MDR- TB. This study assessed the performance of Xpert compared to conventional diagnostic methods, RR-TB case detection among various risk groups, treatment initiation and time to diagnosis and treatment.Eligible individuals were tested with Xpert, smear microscopy, culture and drug-susceptibility testing (DST at the national TB reference laboratory and three provincial laboratories. Data was collected prospectively from August 2012 to May 2013 from routine laboratory and treatment registers.A total of 5,611 Xpert tests were performed mostly targeting contacts of MDR-TB patients, 'other' presumptive MDR-TB patients, and retreatment cases (26%, 24% and 22%, respectively. Compared to phenotypic DST, the positive predictive value of Xpert to detect RR-TB was 93.1% and 96.4% and the negative predictive value was 94.6% and 92.7% using solid and liquid culture media, respectively. RR-TB detection was highest among (former prisoners, retreatment cases, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA, and TB patients with positive smears after intensive phase of treatment (59%, 58%, 54% and 53% among TB positives, respectively. 88.9% of RR-TB patients were registered to have started second-line TB treatment. Median time to diagnosis with Xpert was 0.0 days (IQR 0.0-1.0, time from diagnosis to start of first-line treatment 3.0 days (IQR 1.0-7.0, and to start of second-line treatment 7.0 days (IQR 4.0-16.Compared to conventional culture and DST, Xpert had a shorter result turn-around-time and excellent concordance to detect RR-TB. Time from sputum collection to start of second-line treatment was reduced to one week. The yield of Xpert could be maximized by increasing referrals from penitentiary and HIV centers to TB centers.

  8. Effect of Introducing Xpert MTB/RIF to Test and Treat Individuals at Risk of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Kazakhstan: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, Sanne Christine; Tursynbayeva, Aigul; Koptleuova, Aliya; Murzakhmetova, Zauresh; Murzabekova, Zauresh; Bigalieva, Lyazzat; Aubakirova, Moldir; Pak, Svetlana; van den Hof, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) was piloted in Kazakhstan to detect tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin resistance (RR-)TB among individuals at risk of multidrug-resistant (MDR-) TB. This study assessed the performance of Xpert compared to conventional diagnostic methods, RR-TB case detection among various risk groups, treatment initiation and time to diagnosis and treatment. Eligible individuals were tested with Xpert, smear microscopy, culture and drug-susceptibility testing (DST) at the national TB reference laboratory and three provincial laboratories. Data was collected prospectively from August 2012 to May 2013 from routine laboratory and treatment registers. A total of 5,611 Xpert tests were performed mostly targeting contacts of MDR-TB patients, 'other' presumptive MDR-TB patients, and retreatment cases (26%, 24% and 22%, respectively). Compared to phenotypic DST, the positive predictive value of Xpert to detect RR-TB was 93.1% and 96.4% and the negative predictive value was 94.6% and 92.7% using solid and liquid culture media, respectively. RR-TB detection was highest among (former) prisoners, retreatment cases, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), and TB patients with positive smears after intensive phase of treatment (59%, 58%, 54% and 53% among TB positives, respectively). 88.9% of RR-TB patients were registered to have started second-line TB treatment. Median time to diagnosis with Xpert was 0.0 days (IQR 0.0-1.0), time from diagnosis to start of first-line treatment 3.0 days (IQR 1.0-7.0), and to start of second-line treatment 7.0 days (IQR 4.0-16). Compared to conventional culture and DST, Xpert had a shorter result turn-around-time and excellent concordance to detect RR-TB. Time from sputum collection to start of second-line treatment was reduced to one week. The yield of Xpert could be maximized by increasing referrals from penitentiary and HIV centers to TB centers.

  9. Transferência da resistência a Fusarium oxysporum f. vasinfectum baseada em inoculações durante a germinação de sementes de algodoeiro e em testes sob condições naturais Transfer of Fusarium wilt resistance based on inoculation of germinating cotton seeds and on field tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Lajos Gridi-Papp

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available No programa de melhoramento da Seção de Algodão do Instituto Agronômico, freqüentemente são obtidas linhagens melhoradas que não podem ser lançadas na lavoura do Estado de São Paulo por serem suscetíveis ao fungo da murcha de Fusarium. Tal foi o caso da IAC 67/59, híbrido entre variedades paulistas e mocó. Foi projetada a transferência de resistência ao patógeno para essa linhagem a partir da variedade 'IAC 17'. Realizaram-se cinco retrocruzamentos para a IAC 67/59, sem passagem por gerações autofecundadas, assegurando-se a retenção dos heterozigotos para resistência através de uma técnica de inoculação em caixas de germinação, nas gerações retrocruzadas. Estas e as gerações F1 e F2 foram comparadas em testes de campo com infestação natural pelo agente patogênico, e avaliadas em função das populações paternais e da testemunha resistente, através de índices relativos de tolerância e de resistência. A seleção em caixas foi eficiente em aumentar o índice de tolerância, o vigor e a uniformidade das populações, conferindo ao material resistência do tipo horizontal. A técnica de "dipping" pareceu ser mais eficiente na seleção de genes específicos para resistência. Foram isoladas linhagens promissoras, tanto por seleção em F2 quanto pelo processo de retrocruzamentos seguidos de autofecundação e seleção em condições de campo.Due to the importance of Fusarium oxysporum, F. vasinfectum (Atk. Snyder & Hansen in the State of São Paulo, improved strains, obtained by the cotton breeders of the "Instituto Agronômico", are often discarded because they are susceptible to Fusarium. This was the case of IAC 67/59. Wilt resistance was transfered to this line from 'IAC 17' by five backcrosses, without passing through selfed generations. The selection of the.

  10. Development of Conductivity Method as an Alternative to Titration for Hydrolytic Resistance Testing Used for Evaluation of Glass Vials Used in Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Kiyoshi; Lee, Hans; Phillips, Joseph; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser

    The European Pharmacopeia surface test to analyze the hydrolytic resistance is a common industrial method to understand and ensure the quality of produced glass vials. Hydrolytic resistance is evaluated by calculating the alkalinity of water extract from autoclaved vials by titration. As an alternative to this titration technique, a conductivity technique was assessed, which directly measures the ions in the water extract. A conductivity meter with a 12 mm diameter electrode was calibrated with a 100 μS/cm conductivity standard and carryover minimized by rinsing the probe in a water beaker per analysis. The limit of quantification at 1 μS/cm was determined as having a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 compared with the water blank. The conductivity method was selective for glass-composing elements (boron, sodium, aluminum, silicon, potassium, and calcium) within the vial extract. Accuracies of spiked conductivity standard within the range of 1 to 100 μS/cm were ±7% and had linearity with coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of ≥0.9999. Intraday precision had a relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 5) of ≤6% for spiked conductivity standard within the range of 1 to 100 μS/cm. Interday precision had a RSD (n = 4) of ≤6% for 10 vials from three glass vial lots. Conductivity of water extracts from nine sets of seven lots of glass vials had a precise linear relationship [R 2 = 0.9876, RSD = 1% (n = 9)] with titration volumes of the same lots. Conductivity results in μS/cm could be converted to titration volumes in milliliters by a conversion factor of 0.0275. The simplicity, sample stability, and individual vial analysis of the conductivity technique were more advantageous than the current titration technique. The quality of glass vials used as primary containers in the pharmaceutical industry is of concern due to recent observations of glass flake-like delamination, or lamellae, under specific storage conditions. The current European Pharmacopoeia method to assess

  11. Genetic Transformation of Transcription Factor (35S-oshox4 Gene into Rice Genome and Transformant Analysis of hpt Gene by PCR and Hygromycin Resistance Test

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    INEZ HORTENZE SLAMET-LOEDIN

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Global warming, climate change and crop extensification in marginal dryland areas are related to long dry season and water deficit. The water availability is an important factor in improving plant production. Application of drought tolerant rice cultivars is one of several options that might be used. Genetic engineering at the level of transcription factors is particularly promising strategy to develop drought tolerant rice varieties. Transcription factors regulate a wide range of target genes in which of them contribute to stress tolerance. HD Zip genes are transcription factor that potential in the adaptation of plants to some environment stresses including water deficit. HD-ZIP oshox4 (oryza sativa homeobox gene controlled by 35S promotor is inserted into pCAMBIA 1300 vector with hpt (hygromycin gene as a selectable marker. The aim of this research is to obtain transgenic rice plant from transformation with 35S-oshox4 plasmid, segregation analysis of marker gene (hpt by PCR method at T0 and T1 generation, and hygromycin resistance analysis of seeds. Recombinant plasmid was transformed into rice genome of IRAT 112 and rojolele cultivars using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The results showed that transformation efficiency of IRAT 112 is 5.7-13.6% and 26-66,7% for rojolele. While regeneration efficiency for IRAT 112 is 4.7-43.7% and 23-44.1% for rojolele. The result of hygromycin resistance test at T1 seeds were obtained 14 lines cv. rojolele segregation Mendelian for hpt gene. The PCR analysis using specific primers for hpt gene at the parent (T0 from 14 lines showed that 7 lines contain the gene. At the second generation (T1, PCR analysis using hpt primers showed that 3 from 4 lines were followed Mendelian segregation pattern by the presence of specific band.

  12. A Follow-Up of the Multicenter Collaborative Study on HIV-1 Drug Resistance and Tropism Testing Using 454 Ultra Deep Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Elizabeth P; Simen, Birgitte B; Turenchalk, Gregory S; Braverman, Michael S; Abbate, Isabella; Aerssens, Jeroen; Bouchez, Olivier; Gabriel, Christian; Izopet, Jacques; Meixenberger, Karolin; Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Schlapbach, Ralph; Paredes, Roger; Sakwa, James; Schmitz-Agheguian, Gudrun G; Thielen, Alexander; Victor, Martin; Metzner, Karin J; Däumer, Martin P

    2016-01-01

    Ultra deep sequencing is of increasing use not only in research but also in diagnostics. For implementation of ultra deep sequencing assays in clinical laboratories for routine diagnostics, intra- and inter-laboratory testing are of the utmost importance. A multicenter study was conducted to validate an updated assay design for 454 Life Sciences' GS FLX Titanium system targeting protease/reverse transcriptase (RTP) and env (V3) regions to identify HIV-1 drug-resistance mutations and determine co-receptor use with high sensitivity. The study included 30 HIV-1 subtype B and 6 subtype non-B samples with viral titers (VT) of 3,940-447,400 copies/mL, two dilution series (52,129-1,340 and 25,130-734 copies/mL), and triplicate samples. Amplicons spanning PR codons 10-99, RT codons 1-251 and the entire V3 region were generated using barcoded primers. Analysis was performed using the GS Amplicon Variant Analyzer and geno2pheno for tropism. For comparison, population sequencing was performed using the ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system. The median sequencing depth across the 11 sites was 1,829 reads per position for RTP (IQR 592-3,488) and 2,410 for V3 (IQR 786-3,695). 10 preselected drug resistant variants were measured across sites and showed high inter-laboratory correlation across all sites with data (P20% were missed, variants 2-10% were detected at most sites (even at low VT), and variants 1-2% were detected by some sites. All mutations detected by population sequencing were also detected by UDS. This assay design results in an accurate and reproducible approach to analyze HIV-1 mutant spectra, even at variant frequencies well below those routinely detectable by population sequencing.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge, which has accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics worldwide. Increased antimicrobial resistance is the cause of severe infections, complications, longer hospital stays and increased mortality. Overprescribing of antibiotics......-the-counter sale of antibiotics, the use of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, the active participation of clinicians in audits, the utilization of valid rapid point-of-care tests, the promotion of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies, the enhancement of communication skills with patients with the aid...... is associated with an increased risk of adverse effects, more frequent re-attendance and increased medicalization of self-limiting conditions. Antibiotic overprescribing is a particular problem in primary care, where viruses cause most infections. About 90% of all antibiotic prescriptions are issued by general...

  14. Resistance-resistant antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-12-01

    New antibiotics are needed because drug resistance is increasing while the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. We discuss here six possible approaches to develop 'resistance-resistant' antibiotics. First, multitarget inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy owing to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, repurposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multitarget therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and, in some cases, suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored in otherwise drug-resistant organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of insulin sensitivity (S I) and glucose effectiveness (S G) from a standardized hyperglucidic breakfast test in type 2 diabetics exhibiting various levels of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Jean-Frédéric; Ghanassia, Edouard; Fédou, Christine; Bordenave, Sylvain; Raynaud de Mauverger, Eric; Mercier, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the measurement of insulin sensitivity (S I) with a standardized hyperglucidic breakfast (SHB) compared to minimal model analysis of an intravenous glucose tolerance test (S I-IVGTT) in 17 patients clinically referred as type 2 diabetics, not yet treated by insulin, and representing a wide range of body mass index and S I. To classify the patients, ten meal-tolerance test-based calculations of S I (MTT-S I) were compared to S I-IVGTT, and their reference values and distribution were measured on a separate sample of 200 control SHBs and 209 control IVGTTs. Eight MTT-SI indices exhibit significant correlations with S I-IVGTT: Mari's OGIS index, BIGTT-SI|0-30-120, BIGTT-SI|0-60-120, 1/G b I m, Caumo's oral minimal model (OMM), Sluiter's index "A" = 10(4)/(I p·G p), Matsuda's composite index given by the formula ISIcomp = 10(4)/(I b G b I m G m)(0.5), S I = 1/I b G b I m G m with r (2) ranging between 0,53 and 0,28. S I-IVGTT and S I-MTT exhibited in the lower range a very different (non-normal) pattern of distribution and thus the cutoff value for defining insulin resistance varied among indices. With such cutoffs, S I-MTT resistance defined as S I-IVGTT < 2 min(-1)/(μU/ml) 10(-4). Other indices, including OGIS and BIGTT, resulted in more misclassifications of patients. HOMA-IR and QUICKI were poor predictors. The formula [Formula: see text] satisfactorily predicts IVGTT-derived glucose effectiveness in type 2 diabetics. Thus, SHB appears suitable for the measurement of S I and S G in type 2 diabetics, and the OMM seems to provide the most accurate SHB-derived index in this population.

  16. Japanese external quality assessment program to standardize HIV-1 drug-resistance testing (JEQS2010 program) using in vitro transcribed RNA as reference material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shigeru; Hattori, Junko; Matsuda, Masakazu; Okada, Kiyomi; Kazuyama, Yukumasa; Hashimoto, Osamu; Ibe, Shiro; Fujisawa, Shin-ichi; Chiba, Hitoshi; Tatsumi, Masashi; Kato, Shingo; Sugiura, Wataru

    2015-03-01

    To design appropriate antiretroviral therapy regimens and avoid the emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 variants with reduced susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs, genotypic drug-resistance testing (HIV genotyping) is strongly recommended. To monitor the quality of HIV genotyping in Japan, we performed an external quality assessment (EQA), named the Japanese external quality assessment program, to standardize HIV genotyping (JEQS). To accurately evaluate the quality of HIV genotyping, we employed as reference material (RM) a well-characterized sample, in vitro transcribed RNA (trRNA) that includes the HIV gag-pol sequence, and created a JEQS2010 panel consisting of three single variant and three mixed trRNA samples. All 11 participating laboratories showed high concordance rates (>96%) for the single variant samples. Eight laboratories also showed good rates of detecting minor variants, but three laboratories failed to detect the variants comprising one-half of the sample. These three laboratories used a common primer that had four internal mismatches to the minor trRNA clone. This program showed the usefulness of trRNA as RM, the high quality of HIV genotyping, and extensive interlaboratory variation in the ability to detect minor variants. These results suggest that improving the quality of HIV genotyping in Japan requires regularly implementing the EQA program and improving the HIV genotyping protocol in each laboratory.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Whole Body and Hepatic Insulin Resistance Using Indices from Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Morbidly Obese Subjects with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Qureshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is a marker of Insulin Resistance (IR. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp is the gold standard for measuring whole body IR (hepatic + peripheral IR. However, it is an invasive and expensive procedure. Homeostasis Model Assessment Index for Insulin Sensitivity (HOMA-IS, Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI for hepatic IR and Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI0,120, and Whole Body Insulin Sensitivity Index (WBISI for whole body IR are the indices calculated after Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT. We used these indices as noninvasive methods of IR (inverse of insulin sensitivity estimation and compared hepatic/peripheral components of whole body IR in NAFLD. Methods. 113 morbidly obese, nondiabetic subjects who underwent gastric bypass surgery and intraoperative liver biopsy were included in the study. OGTT was performed preoperatively and the indices were calculated. Subjects were divided into closely matched groups as normal, fatty liver (FL and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH based on histology. Results. Whole body IR was significantly higher in both FL and NASH groups (NAFLD as compared to Normal, while hepatic IR was higher only in NASH from Normal. Conclusions. FL is a manifestation of peripheral IR but not hepatic IR.

  18. Estimating the hydrogeological parameters of an unconfined aquifer with the time-lapse resistivity-imaging method during pumping tests: Case studies at the Pengtsuo and Dajou sites, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ping-Yu; Chang, Lian-Cheng; Hsu, Shao-Yiu; Tsai, Jui-Pin; Chen, Wen-Fu

    2017-09-01

    We conducted time-lapse resistivity imaging during pumping tests at the Pengtsuo and Dajou test sites in Taiwan in order to examine the feasibility of estimating hydrogeological parameters with resistivity variations. Core logs reveal that the subsurface consists mainly of at least 100-m-thick gravel and sand at the two test sites. The resistivity differences between the pumping stages and pre-pumping background are well correlated to water level changes that are due to the dewatering of pumping activity. Therefore, it is possible to use the geometry of resistivity anomalies to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the unconfined aquifer using the distance-drawdown equation for pumping tests in unsaturated aquifers. For each site, we used the contours of resistivity variations and recorded water levels in the pumping well to depict the bottom of the drawdown cone. The estimated hydraulic conductivity and specific yield, respectively, are 1.33 × 10- 4 m/s and 0.12 at the Pengtsuo site, and are 2.50 × 10- 4 m/s and 0.22 at the Dajou site. These values are consistent with the parameters that engineers from Taiwan Sugar Company calculated previously regarding groundwater-level variations in multiple wells (9.65 × 10- 5 m/s and 0.13 at Pengtsuo, and 1.00 × 10- 3 m/s and 0.19 at Dajou). This consistency suggests that resistivity imaging can perhaps serve as an alternative way to yield information about hydrogeological parameters.

  19. Novel mutations in penicillin-binding protein genes in clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates that are methicillin resistant on susceptibility testing, but lack the mec gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Xiaoliang; Harrison, Ewan M; Edwards, Giles F; Holden, Matthew T G; Larsen, Anders Rhod; Petersen, Andreas; Skov, Robert L; Peacock, Sharon J; Parkhill, Julian; Paterson, Gavin K; Holmes, Mark A

    2014-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important global health problem. MRSA resistance to β-lactam antibiotics is mediated by the mecA or mecC genes, which encode an alternative penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2a that has a low affinity to β-lactam antibiotics. Detection of mec genes or PBP2a is regarded as the gold standard for the diagnosis of MRSA. We identified four MRSA isolates that lacked mecA or mecC genes, but were still phenotypically resistant to pencillinase-resistant β-lactam antibiotics. The four human S. aureus isolates were investigated by whole genome sequencing and a range of phenotypic assays. We identified a number of amino acid substitutions present in the endogenous PBPs 1, 2 and 3 that were found in the resistant isolates but were absent in closely related susceptible isolates and which may be the basis of resistance. Of particular interest are three identical amino acid substitutions in PBPs 1, 2 and 3, occurring independently in isolates from at least two separate multilocus sequence types. Two different non-conservative substitutions were also present in the same amino acid of PBP1 in two isolates from two different sequence types. This work suggests that phenotypically resistant MRSA could be misdiagnosed using molecular methods alone and provides evidence of alternative mechanisms for β-lactam resistance in MRSA that may need to be considered by diagnostic laboratories.

  20. Skid Resistance Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Skidding causes many traffic accidents. Streets and highways with skid-resisting surfaces reduce the incidence of such accidents. In fact, resurfacing roads to improve skid resistance is now required by federal law. Skid resistance is measured by road testing with specially equipped skid trailers. A project underway at NASA-Langley may considerably reduce the cost of skid trailers, thus making them more widely available to highway departments. For testing the skid resistance of aircraft runways, Langley engineers developed a relatively inexpensive test vehicle and a "pulsed braking" technique that is now being applied experimentally to road testing. The vehicle is a standard automobile modified to incorporate instrumentation, special test tires and valves, and a trailing fifth wheel for monitoring distance and velocity. The instrumentation includes a low-cost meter, a set of accelerometers that sense motion changes, and a chart recorder.

  1. Ex Vivo Drug Susceptibility Testing and Molecular Profiling of Clinical Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia from 2008 to 2013 Suggest Emerging Piperaquine Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Saunders, David L.; Sea, Darapiseth; Chanarat, Nitima; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Saingam, Piyaporn; Buathong, Nillawan; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chann, Soklyda; Se, Youry; Yom, You; Heng, Thay Kheng; Kong, Nareth; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Tangthongchaiwiriya, Kuntida; Jacob, Christopher; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Plowe, Christopher; Lin, Jessica T.; Chuor, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Tyner, Stuart D.; Gosi, Panita; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Lon, Chanthap

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia's first-line artemisinin combination therapy, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), is no longer sufficiently curative against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria at some Thai-Cambodian border regions. We report recent (2008 to 2013) drug resistance trends in 753 isolates from northern, western, and southern Cambodia by surveying for ex vivo drug susceptibility and molecular drug resistance markers to guide the selection of an effective alternative to DHA-PPQ. Over the last 3 study years, PPQ susceptibility declined dramatically (geomean 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] increased from 12.8 to 29.6 nM), while mefloquine (MQ) sensitivity doubled (67.1 to 26 nM) in northern Cambodia. These changes in drug susceptibility were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 gene (Pfmdr1) multiple copy isolates and coincided with the timing of replacing artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ) with DHA-PPQ as the first-line therapy. Widespread chloroquine resistance was suggested by all isolates being of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene CVIET haplotype. Nearly all isolates collected from the most recent years had P. falciparum kelch13 mutations, indicative of artemisinin resistance. Ex vivo bioassay measurements of antimalarial activity in plasma indicated 20% of patients recently took antimalarials, and their plasma had activity (median of 49.8 nM DHA equivalents) suggestive of substantial in vivo drug pressure. Overall, our findings suggest DHA-PPQ failures are associated with emerging PPQ resistance in a background of artemisinin resistance. The observed connection between drug policy changes and significant reduction in PPQ susceptibility with mitigation of MQ resistance supports reintroduction of AS-MQ, in conjunction with monitoring of the P. falciparum mdr1 copy number, as a stop-gap measure in areas of DHA-PPQ failure. PMID:26014942

  2. Resistent tuberkulose i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, V O; Johansen, I S; Bauer, J O

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Increased rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) has been reported from countries close to Denmark. We evaluated the incidence of drug resistance in Denmark in order to determine the magnitude of the problem. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Susceptibility testing was performed ...

  3. Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance using matched plasma and dried blood spot specimens from voluntary counseling and testing sites in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Nguyen Bui; Hien, Bui Thu; Wagar, Nick; Tram, Tran Hong; Giang, Le Truong; Yang, Chunfu; Wolfe, Mitchell I; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Tuan, Nguyen Anh

    2012-05-01

    During 2007-2008, surveillance of transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance (TDR) was performed following World Health Organization guidance among clients with newly diagnosed HIV infection attending voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) sites in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Moderate (5%-15%) TDR to nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) was observed among VCT clients aged 18-21 years. Follow-up surveillance of TDR in HCMC and other geographic regions of Vietnam is warranted. Data generated will guide the national HIV drug resistance surveillance strategy and support selection of current and future first-line antiretroviral therapy and HIV prevention programs.

  4. Surveillance of Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance Using Matched Plasma and Dried Blood Spot Specimens From Voluntary Counseling and Testing Sites in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Bui Thu; Wagar, Nick; Tram, Tran Hong; Giang, Le Truong; Yang, Chunfu; Wolfe, Mitchell I.; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Tuan, Nguyen Anh

    2012-01-01

    During 2007–2008, surveillance of transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance (TDR) was performed following World Health Organization guidance among clients with newly diagnosed HIV infection attending voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) sites in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Moderate (5%–15%) TDR to nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) was observed among VCT clients aged 18–21 years. Follow-up surveillance of TDR in HCMC and other geographic regions of Vietnam is warranted. Data generated will guide the national HIV drug resistance surveillance strategy and support selection of current and future first-line antiretroviral therapy and HIV prevention programs. PMID:22544201

  5. Useful marker of oscillatory lung function in methacholine challenge test-comparison of reactance and resistance with dose-response slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung Won; Shin, Youn Ho; Jee, Hye Mi; Chang, Sun Jung; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Choi, Sun Hee; Kim, Hyeong Yun; Han, Man Yong

    2014-06-01

    There are few studies focusing on the comparison of resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) in impulse oscillometry system (IOS) in the bronchial challenge test using dose-response slope (DRS), a quantitative index of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We conducted a case-control study of 144 asthmatic and 218 non-asthmatic children to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two-point linear DRS for FEV1 , Rrs5 , and Xrs5 (DRS_FEV1 , DRS_Rrs5 , and DRS_Xrs5 ) and assessed various diagnostic cut-off points of provocation concentrations (PC) using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. DRS_FEV1 had a stronger correlation with DRS_Xrs5 (r = 0.739, P  percent change of FEV1 (Pch_FEV1 ) (0.735) > Pch_Xrs5 (0.727) > Abs_Rrs5 (0.690) > Pch_Rrs5 (0.630). PC78 _Xrs5 and PC0.17 _Xrs5 of IOS showed considerably good sensitivity and specificity comparable to those of PC20 _FEV1 by spirometry. Additional 18 (13%) children who showed normal spirometric measures were identified as asthmatics with the use of IOS. The utility of the DRS_Xrs5 to differentiate asthmatics from controls was comparable to that of the DRS_FEV1 and better than that of the DRS_Rrs5 . In addition, IOS could detect additional asthmatic patients who did not show positive responses in spirometry. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Trends in antibiotic resistance among major bacterial pathogens isolated from blood cultures tested at a large private laboratory network in India, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandra, Sumanth; Mojica, Nestor; Klein, Eili Y; Ashok, Ashvin; Nerurkar, Vidya; Kumari, Mamta; Ramesh, Uma; Dey, Sunanda; Vadwai, Viral; Das, Bibhu R; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2016-09-01

    There have been no long-term studies on trends in antibiotic resistance (ABR) on a national scale in India. Using a private laboratory network, the ABR patterns of organisms most commonly associated with bacteremia, obtained from patients across India between 2008 and 2014, were examined. A retrospective study of patient blood cultures collected over a 7-year period (January 1, 2008-December 31, 2014) was conducted. Data on the microorganism(s) identified and their antimicrobial susceptibility were obtained from SRL Diagnostics (Mumbai, India). Of 135268 blood cultures, 18695 (14%) had at least one identified pathogen. In addition to continual high rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; approximately 44.2%), high resistance to nalidixic acid among Salmonella Typhi (98%) was observed, and carbapenem resistance increased in both Escherichia coli (7.8% to 11.5%; p=0.332) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (41.5% to 56.6%; presistance was also stable and high for both Acinetobacter species (approximately 69.6%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (approximately 49%). Resistance was also detected to colistin in the Gram-negatives and to vancomycin and linezolid in S. aureus. Increasing resistance to antibiotics of last-resort, particularly among Gram-negatives, suggests an urgent need for new antibiotics and improved antimicrobial stewardship programs in India. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. HT-SPOTi: A Rapid Drug Susceptibility Test (DST) to Evaluate Antibiotic Resistance Profiles and Novel Chemicals for Anti-Infective Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danquah, Cynthia A; Maitra, Arundhati; Gibbons, Simon; Faull, Jane; Bhakta, Sanjib

    2016-02-08

    Antibiotic resistance is one of the major threats to global health and well-being. The past decade has seen an alarming rise in the evolution and spread of drug-resistant strains of pathogenic microbes. The emergence of extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and antimicrobial resistance among the ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) as well as fungal pathogens (such as certain species of Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and Trichophyton) poses a significant 21st century scientific challenge. With an extremely limited arsenal of efficacious antibiotics, techniques that can (a) identify novel antimicrobials and (b) detect antimicrobial resistance are becoming increasingly important. In this article, we illustrate the HT-SPOTi, an assay that is principally based on the growth of an organism on agar medium containing a range of different concentrations of drugs or inhibitors. The simple methodology makes this assay ideal for evaluating novel antimicrobial compounds as well as profiling an organism's antibiotic resistance profile. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Evaluation of resistance in a selected field strain of Haemonchus contortus to ivermectin and moxidectin using the Larval Migration on Agar Test Avaliação da resistência em um isolado de campo selecionado de Haemonchus contortus à ivermectina e moxidectina usando o Teste de Migração de Larvas em Ágar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. Fortes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is one of the most common and economically significant causes of disease in small ruminants worldwide, and the control programs of parasitic nematodes - including H. contortus - rely mostly on the use of anthelmintic drugs. The consequence of the use of this, as the sole sanitary strategy to avoid parasite infections, was the reduction of the efficacy of all chemotherapeutic products with a heavy selection for resistance. The widespread of anthelmintic resistance and the difficulty of its early diagnosis has been a major concern for the sustainable parasite management on farms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the ivermectin (IVM and moxidectin (MOX effect in a selected field strain of H. contortus with a known resistance status, using the in vitro larval migration on agar test (LMAT. Third stage larvae of the selected isolate were obtained from faecal cultures of experimentally infected sheep and incubated in eleven increasing diluted concentrations of IVM and MOX (6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1536, 3072 and 6144µg/mL. The dose-response sigmoidal curves were obtained using the R² value of >0.90 and the lethal concentration (LC50 dose for the tested anthelmintic drugs using a four-parameter logistic model. The LC50 value for MOX was significantly lower than IVM (1.253µg/mL and 91.06µg/mL, identifying the H. contortus isolate as considerably less susceptible to IVM compared to MOX. Furthermore, the LMAT showed a high consistency (pHaemonchus contortus é uma das causas mais comuns e economicamente significativas de doença em produções de pequenos ruminantes em todo o mundo, e os programas de controle de parasitas nematoides - incluindo H. contortus - baseiam-se principalmente no uso de drogas anti-helmínticas. A consequência da utilização desses compostos, como sendo a única estratégia sanitária para evitar infecções por parasitas, tem sido a redução da eficácia de todos os

  9. Fasciola hepatica: a comparative survey of adult fluke resistance to triclabendazole, nitroxynil and closantel on selected upland and lowland sheep farms in Northern Ireland using faecal egg counting, coproantigen ELISA testing and fluke histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, R E B; McMahon, C; Ellison, S; Edgar, H W; Kajugu, P-E; Gordon, A; Irwin, D; Barley, J P; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-01-15

    In order to investigate the incidence and distribution of adult fluke resistance to the fasciolicide tricalbendazole (TCBZ) amongst populations of Fasciola hepatica in sheep flocks in Northern Ireland (NI), individual rectal faeces samples were collected from 3 groups of 20 sheep, before (pre-dose), and 21 days after (post-dose) treatment of the animals with TCBZ, nitroxynil or closantel, on each of 13 well-managed sheep farms distributed across the province. The efficacy of each flukicide was determined for each farm, using faecal egg count reduction (FECRT) and F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA testing. In certain flocks, 2 sheep with high pre-dose faecal egg counts (FEC) were killed 3 days and 21 days respectively after TCBZ treatment, and the histology of the fluke reproductive organs was compared with that of flukes from untreated sheep, and from sheep treated with nitroxynil or closantel 2 days prior to death, using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and an in situ hybridisation method (TdT-mediated dUDP nick end labelling [TUNEL]) to demonstrate apoptosis. Results from FECRT revealed that in all flocks with a high fluke burden, TCBZ was ineffective in treating chronic fasciolosis, and this finding was generally supported by the results of the coproantigen reduction test (CRT). The histology of reproductive organs of flukes from TCBZ-treated sheep in these flocks was normal, when compared with untreated flukes, and this, together with the FECRT and CRT findings, indicated a likely diagnosis of TCBZ resistance in all the flocks with a high fluke burden. In contrast, nitroxynil and closantel were found to be fully effective against TCBZ-resistant flukes in each of the flocks bearing a high chronic fluke burden. All of the flocks with a high fluke burden and TCBZ resistance were managed on lowland in the South and East of NI. Upland flocks, in the North and West, had low fluke burdens, or were clear of infection; and FECs were too low to allow valid resistance

  10. The REVAMP trial to evaluate HIV resistance testing in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study in clinical trial design in resource limited settings to optimize effectiveness and cost effectiveness estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedner, Mark J; Bwana, Mwebesa B; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S; Paul, Michelle; Pillay, Selvan; McCluskey, Suzanne; Aturinda, Isaac; Ard, Kevin; Muyindike, Winnie; Moodley, Pravikrishnen; Brijkumar, Jaysingh; Rautenberg, Tamlyn; George, Gavin; Johnson, Brent; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Sunpath, Henry; Marconi, Vincent C

    2017-07-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, rates of sustained HIV virologic suppression remain below international goals. HIV resistance testing, while common in resource-rich settings, has not gained traction due to concerns about cost and sustainability. We designed a randomized clinical trial to determine the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of routine HIV resistance testing in sub-Saharan Africa. We describe challenges common to intervention studies in resource-limited settings, and strategies used to address them, including: (1) optimizing generalizability