WorldWideScience

Sample records for resistance sources application

  1. Neutron sources and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D.L. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rush, J.J. [ed.] [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

  2. Neutron sources and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.L.; Rush, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications

  3. Sustainably Sourced, Thermally Resistant, Radiation Hard Biopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugel, Diane

    2011-01-01

    This material represents a breakthrough in the production, manufacturing, and application of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and radiation shielding, as this represents the first effort to develop a non-metallic, non-ceramic, biomaterial-based, sustainable TPS with the capability to also act as radiation shielding. Until now, the standing philosophy for radiation shielding involved carrying the shielding at liftoff or utilizing onboard water sources. This shielding material could be grown onboard and applied as needed prior to different radiation landscapes (commonly seen during missions involving gravitational assists). The material is a bioplastic material. Bioplastics are any combination of a biopolymer and a plasticizer. In this case, the biopolymer is a starch-based material and a commonly accessible plasticizer. Starch molecules are composed of two major polymers: amylase and amylopectin. The biopolymer phenolic compounds are common to the ablative thermal protection system family of materials. With similar constituents come similar chemical ablation processes, with the potential to have comparable, if not better, ablation characteristics. It can also be used as a flame-resistant barrier for commercial applications in buildings, homes, cars, and heater firewall material. The biopolymer is observed to undergo chemical transformations (oxidative and structural degradation) at radiation doses that are 1,000 times the maximum dose of an unmanned mission (10-25 Mrad), indicating that it would be a viable candidate for robust radiation shielding. As a comparison, the total integrated radiation dose for a three-year manned mission to Mars is 0.1 krad, far below the radiation limit at which starch molecules degrade. For electron radiation, the biopolymer starches show minimal deterioration when exposed to energies greater than 180 keV. This flame-resistant, thermal-insulating material is non-hazardous and may be sustainably sourced. It poses no hazardous

  4. Small plasma source for materials application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizir, A; Oks, E M; Salvadori, M C; Teixeira, F S; Brown, I G

    2007-08-01

    We describe a small hollow-cathode plasma source suitable for small-scale materials synthesis and modification application. The supporting electrical system is minimal. The gaseous plasma source delivers a plasma ion current of up to about 1 mA. Here we outline the source construction and operation, and present some of its basic performance characteristics.

  5. Electrical resistivity tomography and magnetic surveys: applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The magnetic anomaly plots, have mapped the weak zones resulting from subsurface structures and the Euler depth map and 2d magnetic modelling specially depicting the depth of the magnetic sources that are associated with the bedrock. The correlation of the magnetic anomaly plot and 2d inverse model resistivity ...

  6. FECAL SOURCE TRACKING BY ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE ANALYSIS ON A WATERSHED EXHIBITING LOW RESISTANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ongoing development of microbial source tracking has made it possible to identify contamination sources with varying accuracy, depending on the method used. The purpose of this study was done to test the efficiency of the antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) method under low ...

  7. EPICS application source/release control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieman, B.; Anderson, J.; Kraimer, M.

    1995-01-01

    This manual describes a set of Application Source/Release Control tools (appSR) that can be used to develop software for EPICS based control systems. The Application Source/Release Control System (appSR) has been unbundled from base EPICS and is now available as an EPICS extension. Due to this unbundling, two new directories must be added to a user's path (see section ''Environment'' on page 3 for more information) and a new command getapp must be issued after the getrel command to get a specific version of appSR (see section ''Creating The Initial Application System Area'' on page 7 for more information). It is now required that GNU make version 3.71 or later be used for makes instead of SUN make. Users should now type gmake instead of make

  8. Extremozymes: A Potential Source for Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumorné, Kelly; Córdova, David Camacho; Astorga-Eló, Marcia; Renganathan, Prabhaharan

    2017-04-28

    Extremophilic microorganisms have established a diversity of molecular strategies in order to survive in extreme conditions. Biocatalysts isolated by these organisms are termed extremozymes, and possess extraordinary properties of salt allowance, thermostability, and cold adaptivity. Extremozymes are very resistant to extreme conditions owing to their great solidity, and they pose new opportunities for biocatalysis and biotransformations, as well as for the development of the economy and new line of research, through their application. Thermophilic proteins, piezophilic proteins, acidophilic proteins, and halophilic proteins have been studied during the last few years. Amylases, proteases, lipases, pullulanases, cellulases, chitinases, xylanases, pectinases, isomerases, esterases, and dehydrogenases have great potential application for biotechnology, such as in agricultural, chemical, biomedical, and biotechnological processes. The study of extremozymes and their main applications have emerged during recent years.

  9. Applications and opportunities for radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Round, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    An important spin-off benefit from the nuclear industry has been the ability to produce a wide variety of ionizing radiation sources for industrial, medical and scientific applications. These sources include radionuclides produced by irradiation of target material in reactors and cyclotrons or recovered from spent fuels, and accelerators. The uses of radiation in both medicine and industry can be expected to evolve. Traditional uses such as cancer therapy will mature and in some cases be displaced by new technology. Major new applications, including food processing and waste treatment, are expected to maintain the demand for isotopes such as cobalt 60 and to stimulate the development of economical and reliable accelerator systems. (L.L.) (Tab., 2 figs.)

  10. Electrical Resistivity Imaging for environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, O.; Bernard, J.; Vermeersch, F.

    2007-01-01

    For a few years, the evolution of measuring equipment and of interpretation software have permitted to develop a new electrical resistivity technique called resistivity imaging where the equipment, which includes a large number of electrodes located along a line at the same time, carries out an automatic switching of these electrodes for acquiring profiling data. The apparent resistivity pseudo sections measured with such a technique are processed by an inversion software which gives interpreted resistivity and depth values for the anomalies detected along the profile. The multi-electrode resistivity technique consists in using a multi-core cable with as many conductors (24, 48, 72, 96) as electrodes plugged into the ground at a fixed spacing, every 5m for instance. In the resistivitymeter itself are located the relays which ensure the switching of those electrodes according to a sequence of readings predefined and stored in the internal memory of the equipment. The various combinations of transmitting (A,B) and receiving (M,N) pairs of electrodes construct the mixed sounding / profiling section, with a maximum investigation depth which mainly depends on the total length of the cable. The 2D resistivity images obtained with such a multi-electrode technique are used for studying the shallow stuctures of the underground located a few tens of metres down to about one hundred metres depth; these images supply an information which complements the one obtained with the more traditionnal Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) technique, which mainly aims at determining the depths of horizontal 1D structures from the surface down to several hundreds metres depths. Several examples are presented for various types of applications: groundwater (intrusion of salt water in fresh water), geotechnics (detection of a fault in a granitic area), environment (delineation of a waste disposal area) and archaeology (discovery of an ancient tomb)

  11. Ion beam source construction and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torab, S.I.R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to improve the performance of a new shape cold cathode Penning ion source to be suitable for some applications. In this work, many trials have been made to reach the optimum dimensions of the new shape of cold Molybdenum cathode Penning ion source with radial extraction. The high output ion beam can be extracted in a direction transverse to the discharge region. The new shape cold cathode Penning ion source consists of Copper cylindrical hollow anode of 40 mm length, 12 mm diameter and has two similar cone ends of 15 mm length, 22 mm upper cone diameter and 12 mm bottom cone diameter. The two movable Molybdenum cathodes are fixed in Perspex insulator and placed symmetrically at two ends of the anode. The Copper emission disc of 2 mm thickness and has central aperture of different diameters is placed at the middle of the anode for ion beam exit. The inner surface of the emission disc is isolated from the anode by Perspex insulator except an area of diameter 5 mm to confine the electrical discharge in this area. A movable Faraday cup is placed at different distances from the emission electrode aperture and used to collect the output ion beam from the ion source. The working gases are admitted to the ion source through a hole in the anode via a needle valve which placed between the gas cylinder and the ion source. The optimum anode- cathode distance, the uncovered area diameter of the emission disc, the central aperture diameter of the emission electrode, the distance between emission electrode and Faraday cup have been determined using Argon gas. The optimum distances of the ion source were found to be equal to 6 mm, 5 mm, 2.5 mm, and 3 cm respectively where stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current at low discharge current can be obtained. The discharge characteristics, ion beam characteristics, and the efficiency of the ion source have been measured at different operating conditions and different gas pressures using

  12. Broiler Chickens as Source of Human Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli, Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsteinsdottir, Thorunn R.; Haraldsson, Gunnsteinn; Fridriksdottir, Vala; Kristinsson, Karl G.; Gunnarsson, Eggert

    2010-01-01

    To investigate feed as a source for fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in broiler chickens, we compared antimicrobial drug?resistant E. coli from broiler feed and broilers with ciprofloxacin-resistant human clinical isolates by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Feed was implicated as a source for ciprofloxacin-resistant broiler-derived E. coli and broilers as a source for ciprofloxacin-resistant human-derived E. coli.

  13. Erosion resistant nozzles for laser plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Glenn D.; Bernardez, II, Luis J.

    2000-01-04

    A gas nozzle having an increased resistance to erosion from energetic plasma particles generated by laser plasma sources. By reducing the area of the plasma-facing portion of the nozzle below a critical dimension and fabricating the nozzle from a material that has a high EUV transmission as well as a low sputtering coefficient such as Be, C, or Si, it has been shown that a significant reduction in reflectance loss of nearby optical components can be achieved even after exposing the nozzle to at least 10.sup.7 Xe plasma pulses.

  14. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeña-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Ortí, Fortunato; Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO 2 emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR&TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NO x, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power management

  15. Corrosion resistant metallic glasses for biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagasti, Ariane; Lopes, Ana Catarina; Lasheras, Andoni; Palomares, Verónica; Carrizo, Javier; Gutierrez, Jon; Barandiaran, J. Manuel

    2018-04-01

    We report the fabrication by melt spinning, the magnetic and magnetoelastic characterization and corrosion behaviour study (by potentiodynamic methods) of an Fe-based, Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B metallic glass to be used as resonant platform for biological and chemical detection purposes. The same study has been performed in Fe-Co-Si-B (with excellent magnetoelastic properties) and Fe-Ni-B (with good corrosion properties due to the substitution of Co by Ni) composition amorphous alloys. The well-known, commercial metallic glass with high corrosion resistance Metglas 2826MB®(Fe40Ni38Mo4B18), widely used for such biological and chemical detection purposes, has been also fully characterized and used as reference. For our Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B alloy, we have measured values of magnetization (1.22 T), magnetostriction (11.5 ppm) and ΔE effect (6.8 %) values, as well as corrosion potential (-0.25 V), current density (2.54 A/m2), and polarization resistance (56.22 Ω.cm2) that make this composition very promising for the desired biosensing applications. The obtained parameters from our exhaustive characterization are compared with the values obtained for the other different composition metallic glasses and discussed in terms of Ni and Cr content.

  16. Energy Recovery Linacs for Light Source Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2011-04-01

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future light sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low energy, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the status of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.

  17. Stem cells in dentistry, sources, and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Khazaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stem cells (SCs, known as cells with characteristics such as self-renewal and multilineage differentiation, are generally obtained from two sources: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs and adult stem cells (ASCs. SC research is expected to play a pivotal role in future medicine. The aim of the present review was to introduce dental and nondental SCs, examining the general characteristics, in vivo and in vitro differentiation capacities, immunosuppressive properties as well as the application of SCs in dentistry and regenerative medicine. Methods: In October 2015, PubMed, Scopus were searched by experienced researchers with the query "stem cells and dentistry "and a focus on SC and dental journals. Results: In the field of dentistry, ASCs, isolated from different structures, are divided into different subpopulations: Dental SCs, population of SCs isolated from different components of immature and mature teeth and nondental SCs, and those isolated from oromaxillofacial tissues. Conclusions: It appears that dental and nondental SCs are popular resources of SCs because of easier accessibility and fewer ethical problems. In addition, they have a high differentiation capacity into different cell lineages. Different studies have introduced dental and nondental SCs as suitable SC sources for SC therapy in dentistry and regenerative medicine.

  18. Renewable energy sources: resistance to change; Energies renouvelables: les resistances au changement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubreuil, Th.; Audrain-Demey, G.; Attal, J.Ph.; Lormeteau, B. [Nantes Univ., Droit de l' Environnement et du Developpement Durable, 44 (France)

    2011-10-15

    This paper is the summary of a conference day organised by the students of the 'environment and sustainable development law' Master of Nantes university (France). This interdisciplinary meeting brought together professionals of renewable energy industries who could testify about the resistance of both politicians and the public opinion against the energy transition towards renewable sources. Legal, political, sociological and cultural considerations are put forward to explain this resistance. The French specificity, with an over-representation of nuclear energy, a constraining legal framework for renewable energies, a regional opposition to renewable energy projects (NIMBY syndrome), and a lack of trust in the political class and in its representatives are as many factors that have contributed to build this French 'cultural exception'. (J.S.)

  19. SoFiA: Source Finding Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, Paolo; Westmeier, Tobias; Giese, Nadine; Jurek, Russell; Flöer, Lars; Popping, Attila; Winkel, Benjamin; van der Hulst, Thijs; Meyer, Martin; Koribalski, Bärbel; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Courtois, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    SoFiA is a flexible source finding pipeline designed to detect and parameterise sources in 3D spectral-line data cubes. SoFiA combines several powerful source finding and parameterisation algorithms, including wavelet denoising, spatial and spectral smoothing, source mask optimisation, spectral

  20. Application of laterolog-3 apparent resistivity to lithologic layering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Wenming

    2007-01-01

    The application of laterolog-3 apparent resistivity to lithologic layering is discribed. The basic principle of laterolog-3 and main factors influencing laterolog-3 apparent resistivity are discussed. The laterolog-3 apparent resistivity has a good lithologic layering ability. compared with the other logging methods, the results measured by the laterolog-3 apparent resistivity are less influenced by these factors such as well, mud and wall rock. (authors)

  1. Thulium heat sources for space power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderman, C.J.

    1992-05-01

    Reliable power supplies for use in transportation and remote systems will be an important part of space exploration terrestrial activities. A potential power source is available in the rare earth metal, thulium. Fuel sources can be produced by activating Tm-169 targets in the space station reactor. The resulting Tm-170 heat sources can be used in thermoelectric generators to power instrumentation and telecommunications located at remote sites such as weather stations. As the heat source in a dynamic Sterling or Brayton cycle system, the heat source can provide a lightweight power source for rovers or other terrestrial transportation systems

  2. 40 CFR 74.16 - Application requirements for combustion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combustion sources. 74.16 Section 74.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for combustion sources. (a) Opt-in permit application. Each complete opt-in permit application for a combustion source shall contain the following elements in a format prescribed by the Administrator: (1...

  3. Cloud based, Open Source Software Application for Mitigating Herbicide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, D.; Scott, B.

    2014-12-01

    The spread of herbicide resistant weeds has resulted in the need for clearly marked fields. In response to this need, the University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service launched a program named Flag the Technology in 2011. This program uses color-coded flags as a visual alert of the herbicide trait technology within a farm field. The flag based program also serves to help avoid herbicide misapplication and prevent herbicide drift damage between fields with differing crop technologies. This program has been endorsed by Southern Weed Science Society of America and is attracting interest from across the USA, Canada, and Australia. However, flags have risk of misplacement or disappearance due to mischief or severe windstorms/thunderstorms, respectively. This presentation will discuss the design and development of a cloud-based, free application utilizing open-source technologies, called Flag the Technology Cloud (FTTCloud), for allowing agricultural stakeholders to color code their farm fields for indicating herbicide resistant technologies. The developed software utilizes modern web development practices, widely used design technologies, and basic geographic information system (GIS) based interactive interfaces for representing, color-coding, searching, and visualizing fields. This program has also been made compatible for a wider usability on different size devices- smartphones, tablets, desktops and laptops.

  4. SoFiA: Source Finding Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Paolo; Westmeier, Tobias; Giese, Nadine; Jurek, Russell; Flöer, Lars; Popping, Attila; Winkel, Benjamin; van der Hulst, Thijs; Meyer, Martin; Koribalski, Bärbel; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Courtois, Hélène

    2014-12-01

    SoFiA is a flexible source finding pipeline designed to detect and parameterise sources in 3D spectral-line data cubes. SoFiA combines several powerful source finding and parameterisation algorithms, including wavelet denoising, spatial and spectral smoothing, source mask optimisation, spectral profile fitting, and calculation of the reliability of detections. In addition to source catalogues in different formats, SoFiA can also generate a range of output data cubes and images, including source masks, moment maps, sub-cubes, position-velocity diagrams, and integrated spectra. The pipeline is controlled by simple parameter files and can either be invoked on the command line or interactively through a modern graphical user interface.

  5. Selection of Power Sources for Portable Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipsen, S.F.J.

    2009-01-01

    New power sources emerge very quickly. Implementation of hybrid power sources for portable electronics depends on the knowledge of industrial designers. For now this group has little understanding of fuel cells and especially fuel-cell hybrids. This slows down implementation and increases the chance

  6. Marine bacteria: potential sources for compounds to overcome antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Young-Mog; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most problematic Gram-positive bacterium in the context of public health due to its resistance against almost all available antibiotics except vancomycin and teicoplanin. Moreover, glycopeptide-resistant S. aureus have been emerging with the increasing use of glycopeptides. Recently, resistant strains against linezolid and daptomycin, which are alternative drugs to treat MRSA infection, have also been reported. Thus, the development of new drugs or alternative therapies is clearly a matter of urgency. In response to the antibiotic resistance, many researchers have studied for alternative antibiotics and therapies. In this review, anti-MRSA substances isolated from marine bacteria, with their potential antibacterial effect against MRSA as potential anti-MRSA agents, are discussed and several strategies for overcoming the antibiotic resistance are also introduced. Our objective was to highlight marine bacteria that have potential to lead in developing novel antibiotics or clinically useful alternative therapeutic treatments.

  7. Digestion of so-called resistant starch sources in the human small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, RJ; Hagedoorn, RE; de Graaff, R; Elzinga, H; Tabak, S; Yang, YX; Stellaard, F

    Background: Resistant starch sources, which are only partially digested in the small intestine, can be used to increase colonic availability of short-chain fatty acids. Objective: To study the characteristics of the fermentation of resistant starch, the digestion of resistant starch in the small

  8. Impact of aerodynamic resistance formulations used in two-source modeling of energy exchange from the soil and vegetation using land surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of the Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) Model using land surface temperature (LST) requires aerodynamic resistance parameterizations for the flux exchange above the canopy layer, within the canopy air space and at the soil/substrate surface. There are a number of aerodynamic resistance f...

  9. Wastewater as a Source of Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical studies have reported that the occurrence of carbapenem resistant E. coli is on the rise. This is of concern because carbapenem antibiotics are typically reserved for treating infections caused by bacteria resistant to other classes of antibiotics. Current literature st...

  10. Providing context: antimicrobial resistance from multiple environmental sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Animal agriculture has been identified as encouraging the spread of resistance due to the use of large quantities of antimicrobials for animal production purposes. When antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is reported in agricultural settings without comparison to other environments there is a...

  11. Antibiotic resistance profile of staphylococci from clinical sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infants, children and the aged are among the groups most vulnerable to microbial infections more so when these microbial agents become resistant to antimicrobials. The antibiotic resistant profile of Staphylococcus aureus and selected coagulase negative staphylococci were determined by standard methods. Of the 178 ...

  12. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Drinking Water Sources in Hangzhou City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojun Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the distribution of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli and examined the possible relationship between water quality parameters and antibiotic resistance from two different drinking water sources (the Qiantang River and the Dongtiao Stream in Hangzhou city of China. E. coli isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 18 antibiotics. Most of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline (TE, followed by ampicillin (AM, piperacillin (PIP, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT, and chloramphenicol (C. The antibiotic resistance rate of E. coli isolates from two water sources was similar; For E. coli isolates from the Qiantang River, their antibiotic resistance rates decreased from up- to downstream. Seasonally, the dry and wet season had little impact on antibiotic resistance. Spearman's rank correlation revealed significant correlation between resistance to TE and phenicols or ciprofloxacin (CIP, as well as quinolones (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin and cephalosporins or gentamicin (GM. Pearson's chi-square tests found certain water parameters such as nutrient concentration were strongly associated with resistance to some of the antibiotics. In addition, tet genes were detected from all 82 TE-resistant E. coli isolates, and most of the isolates (81.87% contained multiple tet genes, which displayed 14 different combinations. Collectively, this study provided baseline data on antibiotic resistance of drinking water sources in Hangzhou city, which indicates drinking water sources could be the reservoir of antibiotic resistance, potentially presenting a public health risk.

  13. Examples of application of tensorial resistivity probability tomography to architectonic and archaeological targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Patella

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the application of the tensor resistivity method to the assessment of the state of conservation of some architectonic features of the S.Giovanni a Carbonara monumental monastery (Naples, Italy and to the recognition of buried remains in the archaeological site of the roman Port of Claudius at Fiumicino (Rome, Italy. The 3D tomographic approach, based on the concept of resistivity anomaly source occurrence probability, has been used for the analysis of the invariant parameter related to the trace of the determinant of the apparent resistivity tensor.

  14. Industrial application of electron sources with plasma emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Belyuk, S I; Rempe, N G

    2001-01-01

    Paper contains a description, operation, design and parameters of electron sources with plasma emitters. One presents examples of application of these sources as part of automated electron-beam welding lines. Paper describes application of such sources for electron-beam deposition of composite powders. Electron-beam deposition is used to rebuild worn out part and to increase strength of new parts of machines and tools. Paper presents some examples of rebuilding part and the advantages gained in this case

  15. Blind source separation theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xianchuan; Xu, Jindong

    2013-01-01

    A systematic exploration of both classic and contemporary algorithms in blind source separation with practical case studies    The book presents an overview of Blind Source Separation, a relatively new signal processing method.  Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the subject, the book has been written so as to appeal to an audience from very different backgrounds. Basic mathematical skills (e.g. on matrix algebra and foundations of probability theory) are essential in order to understand the algorithms, although the book is written in an introductory, accessible style. This book offers

  16. Virulence Determinants and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Vancomycin-resistantEnterococcus faeciumIsolated from Different Sources in Southwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshadi, Maniya; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Motahar, Moloud Sadat; Soltani, Saber; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the incidence of antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from different sources in southwest Iran from Mar to Sep 2015. Overall, 120 E. faecium isolates (80 VRE and 40 vancomycin-susceptible enterococci [VSE] isolates) were obtained from four hospitals. The resistance of the VRE isolates was determined by disk diffusion method. Multiplex PCR was performed to detect the virulence genes carried by the E. faecium isolates, namely, enterococcal surface protein ( esp ), hyaluronidase ( hyl ), and collagen-binding adhesin ( acm ). All the VRE isolates exhibited multidrug resistance, with the rates of resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin reaching high levels. The isolates were least resistant to chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin, but all of them were susceptible to linezolid. 46.6%, 20.8%, and 86.6% of the E. faecium isolates carried the esp , hyl , and acm genes, respectively. There is a significant difference between the prevalence of esp and hyl genes in the VRE and VSE isolates. In the VRE isolates, the high prevalence of multidrug resistance were found and the difference in the prevalence of esp among various sources was significant. The findings reflected a relationship between the prevalence of esp and hyl and resistance to certain antibiotics.

  17. Applications of Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandedkar, R.V.

    2003-01-01

    Indus-1 is a 450 MeV electron storage ring. This is a soft X-ray and Vacuum Ultra Violet radiation source with the critical wavelength being 61 A. In this source, the first beam was stored in mid-1999 and was then made available, after initial storage and beam cleaning of the vacuum components, for beamline installation in the early 2000. Two beamlines are commissioned and are working. Other beamlines are in the advanced stage of commissioning. For Indus-1, the injection system consists of a 20 MeV classical microtron as a preinjector and a booster synchrotron that can go up to 700 MeV. For Indus-1, the injection into the storage ring is at full 450 MeV from this booster synchrotron

  18. Application of dating for searching geothermic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Negrin, L.; Balcazar-Garcia, M.; Lopez-Martinez, A.

    1984-01-01

    A Geothermal field is usually associated with a volcanic region and, therefore, with an abundance of volcanic glasses such as obsidians. The magmatic chambers constitute an excellent source of heat for a geothermical system. These chambers can be geologically identified from the surface by its recent volcanic products. Therefore, the geological age of the volcanic units is of great interest for a location of a worthwile thermal energy field. This paper presents some preliminary results of the ages obtained by dating obsidians.

  19. Developments of saddle field ion sources and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrahman, M.M.; Helal, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Ion sources should have different performance parameters according to the various applications for which they are used, ranging from ion beam production to high energy ion implanters. There are many kinds of ion sources, which produce different ion beams with different characteristics. This paper deals with the developments and applications of some saddle field ion sources which were designed and constructed in our lab. Theory of operation and types of saddle field ion sources are discussed in details. Some experimental results are given. The saddle field ion sources operate at low gas pressure and require neither magnetic field nor filament. This type of ion sources is used for many different applications as ion beam machining, sputtering, cleaning and profiling for surface analysis etc

  20. Ion source design for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The more frequently used design techniques for the components of broad-beam electron bombardment ion sources are discussed. The approach used emphasizes refractory metal cathodes and permanent-magnet multipole discharge chambers. Design procedures and sample calculations are given for the discharge chamber, ion optics, the cathodes, and the magnetic circuit. Hardware designs are included for the isolator, cathode supports, anode supports, pole-piece assembly, and ion-optics supports. A comparison is made between two-grid and three-grid optics. The designs presented are representative of current technology and are adaptable to a wide range of configurations.

  1. prevalence of angular leaf spot disease and sources of resistance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-02-17

    Feb 17, 2017 ... Some of these varieties possess useful traits, in addition to acceptable seed market class, and are hence recommended as suitable parents for ALS resistant variety development and promotion in ALS prone environments. Key Words: Phaseolus vulgaris, Pseudocercospora griseola, severity. RÉSUMÉ.

  2. Resistance source to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study evaluated the resistance of 7 varieties of the broad bean Vicia faba L. to cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, 1854. These landraces from the region of Biskra (in the south of Algeria) were selected in an initial field trial and subjected to further testing in the greenhouse. Landrace V51 proved to be the ...

  3. Resistance source to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... The present study evaluated the resistance of 7 varieties of the broad bean Vicia faba L. to cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, 1854. These landraces from the region of Biskra (in the south of Algeria) were selected in an initial field trial and subjected to further testing in the greenhouse. Landrace V51.

  4. New sources of grain mold resistance among accessions from Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifty-nine sorghum accessions from Sudan were evaluated in replicated plots at Isabela, Puerto Rico, for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum, one of the causal agents of grain mold. The environmental conditions during this study, especially at and after physiological maturity were optimal for gra...

  5. Fire resistant films for aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative sandwich panel decorative films were investigated as replacements for the polyvinyl fluoride currently used in aircraft interiors. Candidate films were studied for flammability, smoke emission, toxic gas emission, flame spread, and suitability as a printing surface for the decorative acrylic ink system. Several of the candidate films tested were flame modified polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyimide, polyamide, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyethersulfone, polybenzimidazole, polycarbonate, polyparabanic acid, polyphosphazene, polyetheretherketon, and polyester. The films were evaluated as pure films only, films silk-screened with an acrylic ink, and films adhered to a phenolic fiberglass substrate. Films which exhibited the highest fire resistant properties included PEEK polyetheretherketon, Aramid polyamide, and ISO-BPE polyester.

  6. Nickel ferrule applicators: a source of nickel exposure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Rizk, Christopher; Silverberg, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Eye makeup has been investigated for nickel content and found to have no direct association with nickel allergy and cosmetic dermatitis. However, the tools used (e.g., eyelash curlers, hairdressing scissors, hair curlers, and eye shadow and makeup applicators) may be sources. Nickel is ubiquitous and a wide range of sources have been reported, and makeup applicators (ferrules) now join the list. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Induced mutations to develop sources of resistance to rice blast, Pyricularia grisea Sacc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa-Victoria, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Rice blast caused by Pyricularia grisea is the most important disease limiting yields worldwide. The pathogen has many virulent forms or pathotypes, hence durable blast resistance is lacking. Studies on strategy to develop durable blast resistance based on defining the genetic structure of the population, using DNA-fingerprinting, and virulence diversity are described. This strategy is leading to the identification of resistance genes/sources against all isolates within a genetic family of the pathogen. Combinations of genes showing complementary resistance to different genetic families of the fungus exclude any compatible interaction with a blast isolate. Identification of complementary resistance genes is based on detecting those virulence factors whose combinations in individual isolates within the pathogen population have a frequency near zero. Identifying and combining resistance genes to which combinations of corresponding virulence genes are absent in the pathogen population should confer more durable resistance than that previously obtained. The use of induced mutations in the development of resistance was limited, since in most cases single gene changes were responsible for the induced resistance against all the pathogen population. The main objective here is to develop many mutants, each with a gene resistant to just one or a few families of the blast pathogen; and crossing them can accumulate the different resistance genes. A total of 201 Latin American commercial cultivars, including Cuban, Brazilian and Venezuelan were analyzed with different genetic families of the blast pathogen to identify potential sources of resistance to blast and identify complementary resistance sources. Characterization of the resistance of 37 mutants of the Colombian rice cultivar Oryzica 1 was conducted in collaboration with the INEA in Colombia. Results suggested that mutations for resistance to genetic families to which Oryzica 1 is susceptible were induced, although one

  8. Common source cascode amplifiers for integrating IR-FPA applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolaway, James T.; Young, Erick T.

    1989-01-01

    Space based astronomical infrared measurements present stringent performance requirements on the infrared detector arrays and their associated readout circuitry. To evaluate the usefulness of commercial CMOS technology for astronomical readout applications a theoretical and experimental evaluation was performed on source follower and common-source cascode integrating amplifiers. Theoretical analysis indicates that for conditions where the input amplifier integration capacitance is limited by the detectors capacitance the input referred rms noise electrons of each amplifier should be equivalent. For conditions of input gate limited capacitance the source follower should provide lower noise. Measurements of test circuits containing both source follower and common source cascode circuits showed substantially lower input referred noise for the common-source cascode input circuits. Noise measurements yielded 4.8 input referred rms noise electrons for an 8.5 minute integration. The signal and noise gain of the common-source cascode amplifier appears to offer substantial advantages in acheiving predicted noise levels.

  9. Laser wakefield accelerator based light sources: potential applications and requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). NIF and Photon Sciences; Thomas, A. G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences; Mangles, S. P.D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Corde, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Flacco, A. [ENSTA, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Litos, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neely, D. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Viera, J. [Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal). GoLP-Inst. de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear-Lab. Associado; Najmudin, Z. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Bingham, R. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Joshi, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Katsouleas, T. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Platt School of Engineering

    2015-01-15

    In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser-plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future efforts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefield accelerators for these specific applications.

  10. Application of ECR ion source beams in atomic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of intense, high charge state ion beams from ECR ion sources has had significant impact not only on the upgrading of cyclotron and synchrotron facilities, but also on multicharged ion collision research, as evidenced by the increasing number of ECR source facilities used at least on a part time basis for atomic physics research. In this paper one such facility, located at the ORNL ECR source, and dedicated full time to the study of multicharged ion collisions, is described. Examples of applications of ECR ion source beams are given, based on multicharged ion collision physics studies performed at Oak Ridge over the last few years. 21 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Winter wheat susceptibilty to leaf rust and resistance sources to diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Chełkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter wheat cultivars were significantly infected by Puccinia triticina causing leaf rust in seasons 2000-2002 in southern and also central regions of Poland. Resistance genes Lr9, Lr19 and Lr24 were found to be effective against dominating populations of the pathogen and typical isolates of P. triticina. Mentioned three resistance genes as well as genes Lr10 and Lr37 were identified using STS (Sequence Tagged Site DNA - PCR markers in cultivars and resistance sources. Mentioned markers were found very useful in resistance breeding of wheat.

  12. Dynamic mobility applications open source application development portal : Task 4 : system requirements specifications : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    This document describes the System Requirements Specifications (SyRS) of the Dynamic Mobility Applications (DMA) Open Source Application Development Portal (OSADP) system in details according to IEEE-Std. 1233-1998. The requirement statements discuss...

  13. The drinking water treatment process as a potential source of affecting the bacterial antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaohui; Ma, Xiaolin; Xu, Fengming; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hang; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-11-15

    Two waterworks, with source water derived from the Huangpu or Yangtze River in Shanghai, were investigated, and the effluents were plate-screened for antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) using five antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP), kanamycin (KAN), rifampicin (RFP), chloramphenicol (CM) and streptomycin (STR). The influence of water treatment procedures on the bacterial antibiotic resistance rate and the changes that bacteria underwent when exposed to the five antibiotics at concentration levels ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL were studied. Multi-drug resistance was also analyzed using drug sensitivity tests. The results indicated that bacteria derived from water treatment plant effluent that used the Huangpu River rather than the Yangtze River as source water exhibited higher antibiotic resistance rates against AMP, STR, RFP and CM but lower antibiotic resistance rates against KAN. When the antibiotic concentration levels ranged from 1 to 10 μg/mL, the antibiotic resistance rates of the bacteria in the water increased as water treatment progressed. Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration played a key role in increasing the antibiotic resistance rate of bacteria. Chloramine disinfection can enhance antibiotic resistance. Among the isolated ARB, 75% were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Ozone oxidation, BAC filtration and chloramine disinfection can greatly affect the relative abundance of bacteria in the community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic Mapping of Resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in Arachis stenosperma: A New Source of Nematode Resistance for Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya C. M. Leal-Bertioli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne sp. are a major threat to crops in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. The use of resistant crop varieties is the preferred method of control because nematicides are expensive, and hazardous to humans and the environment. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea is infected by four species of RKN, the most damaging being M. arenaria, and commercial cultivars rely on a single source of resistance. In this study, we genetically characterize RKN resistance of the wild Arachis species A. stenosperma using a population of 93 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between A. duranensis and A. stenosperma. Four quantitative trait loci (QTL located on linkage groups 02, 04, and 09 strongly influenced nematode root galling and egg production. Drought-related, domestication and agronomically relevant traits were also evaluated, revealing several QTL. Using the newly available Arachis genome sequence, easy-to-use KASP (kompetitive allele specific PCR markers linked to the newly identified RKN resistance loci were developed and validated in a tetraploid context. Therefore, we consider that A. stenosperma has high potential as a new source of RKN resistance in peanut breeding programs.

  15. State Waste Discharge Permit Application: Electric resistance tomography testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This permit application documentation is for a State Waste Discharge Permit issued in accordance with requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The activity being permitted is a technology test using electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography technology was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has been used at other waste sites to track underground contamination plumes. The electrical resistance tomography technology measures soil electrical resistance between two electrodes. If a fluid contaminated with electrolytes is introduced into the soil, the soil resistance is expected to drop. By using an array of measurement electrodes in several boreholes, the areal extent of contamination can be estimated. At the Hanford Site, the purpose of the testing is to determine if the electrical resistance tomography technology can be used in the vicinity of large underground metal tanks without the metal tank interfering with the test. It is anticipated that the electrical resistance tomography technology will provide a method for accurately detecting leaks from the bottom of underground tanks, such as the Hanford Site single-shell tanks

  16. State Waste Discharge Permit Application: Electric resistance tomography testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This permit application documentation is for a State Waste Discharge Permit issued in accordance with requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The activity being permitted is a technology test using electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography technology was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has been used at other waste sites to track underground contamination plumes. The electrical resistance tomography technology measures soil electrical resistance between two electrodes. If a fluid contaminated with electrolytes is introduced into the soil, the soil resistance is expected to drop. By using an array of measurement electrodes in several boreholes, the areal extent of contamination can be estimated. At the Hanford Site, the purpose of the testing is to determine if the electrical resistance tomography technology can be used in the vicinity of large underground metal tanks without the metal tank interfering with the test. It is anticipated that the electrical resistance tomography technology will provide a method for accurately detecting leaks from the bottom of underground tanks, such as the Hanford Site single-shell tanks.

  17. iMAR: An Interactive Web-Based Application for Mapping Herbicide Resistant Weeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Panozzo

    Full Text Available Herbicides are the major weed control tool in most cropping systems worldwide. However, the high reliance on herbicides has led to environmental issues as well as to the evolution of herbicide-resistant biotypes. Resistance is a major concern in modern agriculture and early detection of resistant biotypes is therefore crucial for its management and prevention. In this context, a timely update of resistance biotypes distribution is fundamental to devise and implement efficient resistance management strategies. Here we present an innovative web-based application called iMAR (interactive MApping of Resistance for the mapping of herbicide resistant biotypes. It is based on open source software tools and translates into maps the data reported in the GIRE (Italian herbicide resistance working group database of herbicide resistance at national level. iMAR allows an automatic, easy and cost-effective updating of the maps a nd provides two different systems, "static" and "dynamic". In the first one, the user choices are guided by a hierarchical tree menu, whereas the latter is more flexible and includes a multiple choice criteria (type of resistance, weed species, region, cropping systems that permits customized maps to be created. The generated information can be useful to various stakeholders who are involved in weed resistance management: farmers, advisors, national and local decision makers as well as the agrochemical industry. iMAR is freely available, and the system has the potential to handle large datasets and to be used for other purposes with geographical implications, such as the mapping of invasive plants or pests.

  18. iMAR: An Interactive Web-Based Application for Mapping Herbicide Resistant Weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panozzo, Silvia; Colauzzi, Michele; Scarabel, Laura; Collavo, Alberto; Rosan, Valentina; Sattin, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Herbicides are the major weed control tool in most cropping systems worldwide. However, the high reliance on herbicides has led to environmental issues as well as to the evolution of herbicide-resistant biotypes. Resistance is a major concern in modern agriculture and early detection of resistant biotypes is therefore crucial for its management and prevention. In this context, a timely update of resistance biotypes distribution is fundamental to devise and implement efficient resistance management strategies. Here we present an innovative web-based application called iMAR (interactive MApping of Resistance) for the mapping of herbicide resistant biotypes. It is based on open source software tools and translates into maps the data reported in the GIRE (Italian herbicide resistance working group) database of herbicide resistance at national level. iMAR allows an automatic, easy and cost-effective updating of the maps a nd provides two different systems, "static" and "dynamic". In the first one, the user choices are guided by a hierarchical tree menu, whereas the latter is more flexible and includes a multiple choice criteria (type of resistance, weed species, region, cropping systems) that permits customized maps to be created. The generated information can be useful to various stakeholders who are involved in weed resistance management: farmers, advisors, national and local decision makers as well as the agrochemical industry. iMAR is freely available, and the system has the potential to handle large datasets and to be used for other purposes with geographical implications, such as the mapping of invasive plants or pests.

  19. Fate and transport of antibiotic resistant bacteria and resistance genes in artificially drained agricultural fields receiving swine manure application

    Science.gov (United States)

    While previous studies have examined the occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistant genes around confined swine feeding operations, little information is known about their release and transport from artificially drained fields receiving swine manure application. Much of the...

  20. The resistivity imaging application in groundwater exploration: resistivity value and soil type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khardzir Husain

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia is rich in water resources. Water development has fueled socio-economic development of the country during the past decades. Dams and thousands of kilometers of pipes and canals divert water from the rivers to sustain domestic, industrial and agricultural needs. Lately, the water situation for the country has changed from one of relative abundance to one of relative scarcity. The population growth and the expansion in urbanization, industrialization and irrigated agriculture are imposing rapidly growing demands and pressure on the water resources, besides contributing to the rising water pollution. Surface water resource, the traditional source of water supply in the past, has become inadequate in some areas. The problem becomes more acute in areas where surface water is affected by the increasing pollution from industrial and agricultural waste and where changes in land have adversely affected the quantity and quality of surface water supply. The development of groundwater as a source of water supply or as an alternative source is therefore a timely outlook. Lack in groundwater development will becoming disasters to country. Electrical resistivity had been used in groundwater exploration to get an accuracy result in a short time. This method measures the apparent resistivity of the subsurface, including effects of any or all of the following: soil type, bedrock fractures, contaminants and ground water. Variations in electrical resistivity may indicate changes in composition, layer thickness or contaminant levels. The resistivity values obtained from various groundwater exploration and experimental sites shows that the value differs also in related to the soil type. (Author)

  1. Necessity of resist model in source mask optimization for negative tone development process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijun; Dong, Lisong; Chen, Wenhui; Wei, Yayi; Ye, Tianchun; Yue, Liwan; Jiang, Yuntao; Wu, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    As the semiconductor technology node comes to 14 nm and below, using bright-field exposure with negative tone development (NTD) has been a dominant lithographic solution for metal and contact layers, which has benefits of larger process windows and higher image contrasts than positive tone development (PTD). For PTD, a resist model is usually optional in source mask optimization (SMO) because optical models with aerial image blur can predict resist behaviors in most cases. However, NTD has much stronger resist effects, such as resist shrinkage and two-dimensional-effect-induced local stress. It has been suggested that the calibrated resist model is strongly required in the SMO of NTD process. We clarify this issue-the necessity of resist model in SMO for NTD process. First, we analyze the mismatch between simulation and experimental data when the aerial image blur is only used to simulate resist effects. Second, we present the calibration flow of resist model. Finally, we use the calibrated resist model to check the test pattern and run the SMO. The result demonstrates that the simulation data have the same tendency with experimental data, and the model has a good prediction on NTD resist behaviors under different conditions.

  2. The Prevalence of Antibiotic and Biocide Resistance Among Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni from Different Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mavri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing levels of antimicrobial resistance among foodborne bacteria are recognised as an important emerging public health problem. Reduced susceptibility to biocides also appears to be increasing. A potential concern is the possibility that the widespread use of biocides is responsible for the selection and maintenance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Here, we examine the prevalence of erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate, cetylpyridinium chloride, trisodium phosphate and sodium dodecyl sulphate resistance among 27 isolates of Campylobacter coli and 15 isolates of Campylobacter jejuni from food, animal, human and environmental water sources. These antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by the broth microdilution method. In the 42 Campylobacter strains studied, different antibiotic resistance levels were seen. The resistance to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin was observed in 14.3 % of Campylobacter strains. A higher rate of erythromycin resistance and multi-resistance was observed among isolated C. coli than among C. jejuni strains. Similar situations were seen for triclosan. Conversely, the level of benzalkonium chloride resistance was higher in C. jejuni than in C. coli. No correlation between biocide and antibiotic resistance was observed. This study does not provide evidence to confirm that tolerance to biocides is connected to antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter.

  3. The Technology and Applications of Large Fission Product Beta Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, Joseph

    1960-01-01

    Beta emitters have not received consideration as large sources of radiation power because in the past, the radiation processes of interest have been based on particles with high penetration power; hence the great emphasis on gammas and artificially accelerated electrons. About four years ago, it became apparent that a broad field of potential applications involving surface radiation treatment was developing, e. g. surface modification of formed plastics by graft copolymerization and surface pasteurization of food. For these applications, penetration in depth is wasteful and potentially harmful. Also there are two other areas for which machine electrons were not well suited: radiation-induced chemical syntheses in pressure vessels, and certain types of free radical chain reactions for which the production rate per kilowatt decreases with the square root of the dose rate. Broad area beta sources showed obvious potential advantages in all these categories and, since they are available in good yield from the fission process, merited a careful re-appraisal. On the basics of these considerations an AEC sponsored study of the applications and technology of fission product beta sources was performed. The results indicate the following: 1. There are promising areas for commercial application of fission product beta emitters in the radiation processing field, particularly in the graft copolymerization modification of formed plastic surfaces and textiles. 2. Massive, rugged, inert, safe, inexpensive beta sources may be fabricated by suitable extensions of existing techniques. Source-bearing glass formulations show particular promise. 3. Beta absorption calculations indicate that extended sources can be designed with power utilization efficiencies as high as 20 per cent. Equations and curves describing dosage and beta utilization efficiency as a function of the geometry and composition of various source-target systems were developed. An experimental program is in progress to

  4. Performance analyses of Z-source and quasi Z-source inverter for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himabind, S.; Priya, T. Hari; Manjeera, Ch.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the comparative analysis of Z-source and Quasi Z-source converter for renewable energy applications. Due to the dependency of renewable energy sources on external weather conditions the output voltage, current changes accordingly which effects the performance of traditional voltage source and current source inverters connected across it. To overcome the drawbacks of VSI and CSI, Z-source and Quasi Z-source inverter (QZSI) are used, which can perform multiple tasks like ac-to-dc, dc-to-ac, ac-to-ac, dc-to-dc conversion. They can be used for both buck and boost operations, by utilizing the shoot-through zero state. The QZSI is derived from the ZSI topology, with a slight change in the impedance network and it overcomes the drawbacks of ZSI. The QZSI draws a constant current from the source when compared to ZSI. A comparative analysis is performed between Z-source and Quasi Z-source inverter, simulation is performed in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  5. Applications of laser wakefield accelerator-based light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Felicie; Thomas, Alec G. R.

    2016-01-01

    Laser-wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) were proposed more than three decades ago, and while they promise to deliver compact, high energy particle accelerators, they will also provide the scientific community with novel light sources. In a LWFA, where an intense laser pulse focused onto a plasma forms an electromagnetic wave in its wake, electrons can be trapped and are now routinely accelerated to GeV energies. From terahertz radiation to gamma-rays, this article reviews light sources from relativistic electrons produced by LWFAs, and discusses their potential applications. Betatron motion, Compton scattering and undulators respectively produce x-rays or gamma-rays by oscillating relativistic electrons in the wakefield behind the laser pulse, a counter-propagating laser field, or a magnetic undulator. Other LWFA-based light sources include bremsstrahlung and terahertz radiation. Here, we first evaluate the performance of each of these light sources, and compare them with more conventional approaches, including radio frequency accelerators or other laser-driven sources. We have then identified applications, which we discuss in details, in a broad range of fields: medical and biological applications, military, defense and industrial applications, and condensed matter and high energy density science.

  6. Seed lipases: sources, applications and properties - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barros

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview regarding the main aspects of seed lipases, such as the reactions catalyzed, physiological functions, specificities, sources and applications. Lipases are ubiquitous in nature and are produced by several plants, animals and microorganisms. These enzymes exhibit several very interesting features, such as low cost and easy purification, which make their commercial exploitation as industrial enzymes a potentially attractive alternative. The applications of lipases in food, detergents, oils and fats, medicines and fine chemistry, effluent treatment, biodiesel production and in the cellulose pulp industry, as well as the main sources of oilseed and cereal seed lipases, are reviewed.

  7. Development of Creep-Resistant and Oxidation-Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steels for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Philip J.

    2018-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are cost-effective materials for high-temperature applications if they have the oxidation and creep resistance to withstand prolonged exposure at such conditions. Since 1990, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed advanced austenitic stainless steels with creep resistance comparable to Ni-based superalloy 617 at 800-900°C based on specially designed "engineered microstructures" utilizing a microstructure/composition database derived from about 20 years of radiation effect data on steels. The wrought high temperature-ultrafine precipitate strengthened (HT-UPS) steels with outstanding creep resistance at 700-800°C were developed for supercritical boiler and superheater tubing for fossil power plants in the early 1990s, the cast CF8C-Plus steels were developed in 1999-2001 for land-based gas turbine casing and diesel engine exhaust manifold and turbocharger applications at 700-900°C, and, in 2015-2017, new Al-modified cast stainless steels with oxidation and creep resistance capabilities up to 950-1000°C were developed for automotive exhaust manifold and turbocharger applications. This article reviews and summarizes their development and their properties and applications.

  8. Ultrashort pulse laser technology laser sources and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schrempel, Frank; Dausinger, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Ultrashort laser pulses with durations in the femtosecond range up to a few picoseconds provide a unique method for precise materials processing or medical applications. Paired with the recent developments in ultrashort pulse lasers, this technology is finding its way into various application fields. The book gives a comprehensive overview of the principles and applications of ultrashort pulse lasers, especially applied to medicine and production technology. Recent advances in laser technology are discussed in detail. This covers the development of reliable and cheap low power laser sources as well as high average power ultrashort pulse lasers for large scale manufacturing. The fundamentals of laser-matter-interaction as well as processing strategies and the required system technology are discussed for these laser sources with respect to precise materials processing. Finally, different applications within medicine, measurement technology or materials processing are highlighted.

  9. A Source-level Energy Optimization Framework for Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xueliang; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency can have a significant influence on user experience of mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Although energy is consumed by hardware, software optimization plays an important role in saving energy, and thus software developers have to participate in the optimization...... process. The source code is the interface between the developer and hardware resources. In this paper, we propose an energy optimization framework guided by a source code energy model that allows developers to be aware of energy usage induced by the code and to apply very targeted source-level refactoring.......2% of the CPU energy consumption in various application scenarios....

  10. Contamination of Canadian private drinking water sources with antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Brenda L; Louie, Marie; Salvadori, Marina I; McEwen, Scott A; Neumann, Norman; Sibley, Kristen; Irwin, Rebecca J; Jamieson, Frances B; Daignault, Danielle; Majury, Anna; Braithwaite, Shannon; Crago, Bryanne; McGeer, Allison J

    2013-06-01

    Surface and ground water across the world, including North America, is contaminated with bacteria resistant to antibiotics. The consumption of water contaminated with antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been associated with the carriage of resistant E. coli in people who drink it. To describe the proportion of drinking water samples submitted from private sources for bacteriological testing that were contaminated with E. coli resistant to antibiotics and to determine risk factors for the contamination of these water sources with resistant and multi-class resistant E. coli. Water samples submitted for bacteriological testing in Ontario and Alberta Canada were tested for E. coli contamination, with a portion of the positive isolates tested for antimicrobial resistance. Households were invited to complete questionnaires to determine putative risk factors for well contamination. Using multinomial logistic regression, the risk of contamination with E. coli resistant to one or two classes of antibiotics compared to susceptible E. coli was higher for shore wells than drilled wells (odds ratio [OR] 2.8) and higher for farms housing chickens or turkeys (OR 3.0) than properties without poultry. The risk of contamination with multi-class resistant E. coli (3 or more classes) was higher if the properties housed swine (OR 5.5) or cattle (OR 2.2) than properties without these livestock and higher if the wells were located in gravel (OR 2.4) or clay (OR 2.1) than in loam. Housing livestock on the property, using a shore well, and having a well located in gravel or clay soil increases the risk of having antimicrobial resistant E. coli in E. coli contaminated wells. To reduce the incidence of water borne disease and the transmission of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, owners of private wells need to take measures to prevent contamination of their drinking water, routinely test their wells for contamination, and use treatments that eliminate bacteria. Copyright

  11. Impact of Monoenergetic Photon Sources on Nonproliferation Applications Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geddes, Cameron [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ludewigt, Bernhard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Valentine, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Quiter, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Descalle, Marie-Anne [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Warren, Glen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kinlaw, Matt [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, Scott [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chichester, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Miller, Cameron [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Pozzi, Sara [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Near-monoenergetic photon sources (MPSs) have the potential to improve sensitivity at greatly reduced dose in existing applications and enable new capabilities in other applications, particularly where passive signatures do not penetrate or are insufficiently accurate. MPS advantages include the ability to select energy, energy spread, flux, and pulse structures to deliver only the photons needed for the application, while suppressing extraneous dose and background. Some MPSs also offer narrow angular divergence photon beams which can target dose and/or mitigate scattering contributions to image contrast degradation. Current bremsstrahlung photon sources (e.g., linacs and betatrons) produce photons over a broad range of energies, thus delivering unnecessary dose that in some cases also interferes with the signature to be detected and/or restricts operations. Current sources must be collimated (reducing flux) to generate narrow divergence beams. While MPSs can in principle resolve these issues, they remain at relatively low TRL status. Candidate MPS technologies for nonproliferation applications are now being developed, each of which has different properties (e.g. broad vs. narrow angular divergence). Within each technology, source parameters trade off against one another (e.g. flux vs. energy spread), representing a large operation space. This report describes a broad survey of potential applications, identification of high priority applications, and detailed simulations addressing those priority applications. Requirements were derived for each application, and analysis and simulations were conducted to define MPS parameters that deliver benefit. The results can inform targeting of MPS development to deliver strong impact relative to current systems.

  12. Resistive evaporation of superconducting Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films from a single source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, J.; Goldschmidt, D.

    1989-06-12

    A new evaporation method of high-temperature superconducting films, the /ital resistive vaporation/ /ital from/ /ital single/ /ital source/, isreported here for the first time. The source material, inserted into a tungstenboat in a conventional vacuum system, consisted of a pulverized mixture of Cu,YF/sub 3/, and BaF/sub 2/. The handling of the source material required only grindingand mixing of the raw materials. Its deposition onto SrTiO/sub 3/ substratesyielding superconducting films with properties very similar to those obtained ina layer-by-layer resistive evaporation of these materials. In particular, aresistive transition onset at 75 K and zero resistance at /similar to/40 K, and criticalcurrents of 2000 A/cm/sup 2/ at approx.10 K have been measured. The broad transition maybe attributed to a copper concentration gradient, as measured by Auger depthprofiling, or to a residual fluorine-rich phase.

  13. Novel applications of locally sourced montmorillonite (MMT) clay as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work explores the application of a locally sourced raw material, montmorillonite (MMT) clay, as a disintegrant in the formulation of an analgesic pharmaceutical product - paracetamol. The raw MMT was refined and treated with 0.IM NaCl to yield sodium montmorillonite (NaMMT) and the powder properties established in ...

  14. Fulas: high energy laser source for future lidar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, S.; Weimer, P.; Wuehrer, Christian; Klein, J.; Luttmann, J.; Plum, H. D.

    2017-11-01

    For atmospheric LIDAR instruments in space, a manifold of scientific applications exists. But due to the lack of high energy laser sources providing the performance, reliability and lifetime necessary to operate such instruments in space, realization is currently seen as still very critical in the community.

  15. Production, distribution and applications of californium-252 neutron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R C; Knauer, J B; Balo, P A

    2000-01-01

    The radioisotope 252Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-yr half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10(11) neutrons s(-1). Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, land mines and unexploded military ordinance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 yr of experience and by US Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the US government and to universities for educational, research and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations.

  16. Soybean rust resistance sources and inheritance in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, T L P O; Dessaune, S N; Moreira, M A; Barros, E G

    2014-07-25

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, has been reported in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars and elite lines that were infected under controlled and natural field conditions in South Africa, the United States, Argentina, and Brazil. Although SBR is currently not a top priority problem for the common bean crop, many bean breeders are concerned about this disease because of the high severity and virulence diversity of P. pachyrhizi and its broad host range. In this study, a set of 44 P. vulgaris genotypes were tested for resistance to P. pachyrhizi; these genotypes included resistance sources to several fungal common bean diseases, carioca-, black- and red-seeded Brazilian cultivars, and elite lines that were developed by the main common bean breeding programs in Brazil. Twenty-four SBR resistance sources were identified. They presented the reddish-brown (RB) lesion type, characterizing resistance reactions. In addition to the RB lesion type, the PI181996 line presented the lowest disease severity mean score, considering its associated standard error value. For this reason, it was crossed with susceptible lines to study the inheritance of resistance. The results support the hypothesis that resistance to SBR in PI181996 is monogenic and dominant. We propose that this SBR resistance gene, the first to be identified and characterized in common bean, might be designated as Pkp-1.

  17. Lack of evidence that DNA in antibiotic preparations is a source of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria from animal or human sources

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, KY; Lau, SKP; Woo, PCY; Lau, ATK; To, APC

    2004-01-01

    Although DNA encoding antibiotic resistance has been discovered in antibiotic preparations, its significance for the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is unknown. No phylogenetic evidence was obtained for recent horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from antibiotic-producing organisms to bacteria from human or animal sources.

  18. Regulation for radiation protection in applications of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonawane, Avinash U.

    2016-01-01

    Applications of ionising radiation in multifarious field are increasing in the country for the societal benefits. The national regulatory body ensures safety and security of radiation sources by enforcing provisions in the national law and other relevant rules issued under the principle law. In addition, the enforcement of detailed requirements contained in practice specific safety codes and standard and issuance of safety directives brings effectiveness in ensuring safe handling and secure management of radiation sources. The regulatory requirements for control over radiation sources throughout their life-cycle have evolved over the years from experience gained. Nevertheless, some of the regulatory activities which require special attention have been identified such as the development of regulation to deal with advance emerging radiation technology in applications of radiation in medicine and industry; sustaining continuity in ensuring human resource development programme; inspections of category 3 and 4 disused sources and their safe disposal; measures for controlling transboundary movement of radiation sources. The regulatory measures have been contemplated and are being enforced to deal with the above issues in an effective manner. The complete involvement of the management of radiation facilities, radiation workers and their commitment in establishing and maintaining safety and security culture is essential to handle the radiation sources safely and efficiently at all times

  19. Development of an application simulating radioactive sources; Conception d'une application de simulation de sources radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riffault, V.; Locoge, N. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Dept. Chimie et Environnement, 59 - Douai (France); Leblanc, E.; Vermeulen, M. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, 59 (France)

    2011-05-15

    This paper presents an application simulating radioactive gamma sources developed in the 'Ecole des Mines' of Douai (France). It generates raw counting data as an XML file which can then be statistically exploited to illustrate the various concepts of radioactivity (exponential decay law, isotropy of the radiation, attenuation of radiation in matter). The application, with a spread sheet for data analysis and lab procedures, has been released under free license. (authors)

  20. Evaluation and Application of Resist for Alkaline Wet Etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tomokazu; Makihata, Mitsutoshi; Esashi, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Shuji

    ProTEK PSB and ProTEK B3 (Brewer Science, Inc.) are negative type photosensitive resist and non-photosensitive resist for alkaline wet etching, respectively. This paper mainly reports the patterning characteristics, etch resistance and removal characteristics of ProTEK PSB under practical conditions for a real application. Our study found two problems of ProTEK PSB: unacceptably-large side-etching and difficulty in removing the primer by organic solvents or O2 ashing. For the fabrication of a LSI-integrated tactile sensor, we used ProTEK PSB with a low temperature oxide underlayer. This combination solves both side etching problem for ProTEK PSB and pinhole problem for low temperature oxide, providing the practical alkaline etching mask which can be prepared at low temperature.

  1. Application of californium-252 neutron sources for analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Daido

    1976-01-01

    The researches made for the application of Cf-252 neutron sources to analytical chemistry during the period from 1970 to 1974 including partly 1975 are reviewed. The first part is the introduction to the above. The second part deals with general review of symposia, publications and the like. Attention is directed to ERDA publishing the periodical ''Californium-252 Progress'' and to a study group of Cf-252 utilization held by Japanese Radioisotope Association in 1974. The third part deals with its application for radio activation analysis. The automated absolute activation analysis (AAAA) of Savannha River is briefly explained. The joint experiment of Savannha River operation office with New Brunswick laboratory is mentioned. Cf-252 radiation source was used for the non-destructive analysis of elements in river water. East neutrons of Cf-252 were used for the quantitative analysis of lead in paints. Many applications for industrial control processes have been reported. Attention is drawn to the application of Cf-252 neutron sources for the field search of neutral resources. For example, a logging sonde for searching uranium resources was developed. the fourth part deals with the application of the analysis with gamma ray by capturing neutrons. For example, a bore hole sonde and the process control analysis of sulfur in fuel utilized capture gamma ray. The prompt gamma ray by capturing neutrons may be used for the nondestructive analysis of enrivonment. (Iwakiri, K.)

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance and Multilocus Sequence Types of Finnish Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Multiple Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkola, S; Nykäsenoja, S; Raulo, S; Llarena, A-K; Kovanen, S; Kivistö, R; Myllyniemi, A-L; Hänninen, M-L

    2016-02-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined for 805 domestic Campylobacter jejuni isolates obtained from broilers (n = 459), bovines (n = 120), human patients (n = 95), natural waters (n = 80), wild birds (n = 35) and zoo animals/enclosures (n = 16) with known multilocus sequence types (MLST) for 450 isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for erythromycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, gentamicin and the quinolones ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid were determined with the VetMIC method. MICs were compared with MLST types to find possible associations between sequence type and resistance. The proportions of resistant isolates were 5% (broilers), 6.3% (natural waters), 11.4% (wild birds), 11.6% (human patients), 16.7% (bovines) and 31.3% (zoo). The most common resistance among the human and bovine isolates was quinolone resistance alone while resistance to streptomycin alone was most often detected among the broiler isolates and tetracycline resistance was most commonly observed in the wild bird, water and zoo isolates. No or negligible resistance to erythromycin or gentamicin was detected. In all data, 12/26 of the tetracycline-resistant isolates were also resistant to streptomycin (P resistant isolates, most originating from the zoo and broilers with closely associated MLST types from these sources. No association between quinolone resistance and MLST type was seen. The low percentage of resistant isolates among the domestic Campylobacter infections is most probably due to the long-term controlled use of antimicrobials. However, the higher percentage of tetracycline resistance observed among the zoo isolates could present a risk for zoo visitors of acquisition of resistant C. jejuni. The resistance pattern of tetracycline and streptomycin most often found in ST-1034 CC could indicate a common resistance acquisition mechanism commonly present in this CC. Overall, MLST typing was found to be a useful method in recognition of potential

  3. Sources of resistance to yellow rust and stem rust in wheat-alien introgressions

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmatov, Mahbubjon

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is the staple food and the main source of caloric intake in most developing countries, and thereby an important source in order to maintain food security for the growing populations in those countries. Stem rust Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, and yellow rust P. striiformis f. sp. tritici of wheat continues to cause severe damage locally and globally, thereby contributing to food insecurity. In this paper biology and taxonomy of stem rust and yellow rust, breeding for resistance, util...

  4. Corrosion resistant coatings suitable for elevated temperature application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwai S [San Antonio, TX; Cheruvu, Narayana Sastry [San Antonio, TX; Liang, Wuwei [Austin, TX

    2012-07-31

    The present invention relates to corrosion resistance coatings suitable for elevated temperature applications, which employ compositions of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and/or aluminum (Al). The compositions may be configured to regulate the diffusion of metals between a coating and a substrate, which may then influence coating performance, via the formation of an inter-diffusion barrier layer. The inter-diffusion barrier layer may comprise a face-centered cubic phase.

  5. Hydraulic resistance and convective heat transfer within independent power generation micro sources (IPM) channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarev A V; Sudarev B V; Suryaninov A A

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of new structural materials and technologies contributes to the efficiency increase for the compact IPMs used in various branches of engineering. Use of a driving high-temperature (TIT600K), regenerative (the regeneration ratio is E>85%) micro gas turbine engine μGTE, major components which are made of structural ceramics, allows not only to maintain the effective efficiency at η e =26-30%, but, also, sharply reduce the material consumption rate for the micro source as a whole. Application of the laser prototyping technique to manufacture the air heater, which is a part of μGTE, increases the IPM compactness. Miniaturization of the air heater, manufactured by the structural ceramics laser fusion, can significantly reduce the hydraulic diameter (d h ≤1.0 mm) of the channels, designed to transport the working media inside it. Reducing d h leads to a significant increase in the hydraulic resistance of the micro channels. The associated increase in the energy consumption for μGTE's own needs is compensated by increasing the TIT, E, and heat transfer coefficients in micro channels, and by eliminating the need in cooling for high temperature IPM components.

  6. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-10-03

    reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed {sup 252}Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the U.S. government and to universities for educational, research, and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of {sup 252}Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments, and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations.

  7. Persistence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky from poultry and poultry sources in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raufu, Ibrahim A.; Fashae, Kayode; Ameh, James A.

    2014-01-01

    and poultry sources (litter, water, rodent and lizard fecal samples) were collected from fourteen (14) poultry farms in 2007, 2010 and 2011 and were analyzed for S. Kentucky. Results and conclusions: Six percent of the samples were positive for S. Kentucky - all resistant to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin...

  8. Sources of stem rust resistance in wheat-alien introgression lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat and the novel highly virulent race of TTKSK and its lineage are threatening wheat production worldwide. The objective of the study was to identify new sources of resistance in wheat-alien introgre...

  9. [Antibiotic resistance of important infection sources in 1996 in Weser-Ems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarmann, D

    1997-08-01

    An overview of the antibiotic resistance of important bacteria of infectious disease in 1996 in the district of Weser-Ems in Lower Sexonie among farm animals, dogs and cats is given. The bacteria isolated from different materials as animal body, organ, droppings, milk, swabs from nose, cervix or other source and their resistance pattern were listed belonging to species and localisation of their isolation. By means of different counts of isolation one can see the importance of the isolated bacteria at the ITT, Institut für Tierzucht, Tierhaitung und Tiergesundheit, of the Landwirtschaftskammer Weser-Ems in Oldenburg. The development of resistance of bacteria obtained from dairy cows with mastitis and in general some important antibiotics like cefoperazon, ceftiofur and enrofloxacine is shown. Furthermore more detailed instructions to the method of microbiological resistance testing, the broth microdilution method, are given.

  10. Fabrication of intense neutron sources for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulogne, A.R.; Walker, V.W.

    1975-01-01

    Simulated sources containing 252 Cf equivalents of 0.1 to 1.0 milligrams were prepared. Samarium was used as the simulant in a modified chemical plating technique similar to that used to prepare palladium-californium oxide cermet for industrial applications. The length of the platinum-10 percent iridium doubly encapsulated source with its protective sheath is 0.545 in. (14.1 mm). Outside dia of the source, including its sheath, is 0.109 in. (2.8 mm). Existing ''Brachytrons'' can accommodate this source form. This capsule system will withstand internal gas pressures from helium due to alpha decay and fission gases from a 1 mg 252 Cf source after ten years if the source is subjected to a maximum temperature of 800 0 C, the theoretical temperature of an accidental fire. Under these conditions the safety factor is 3. The capsule system is being tested with tracer amounts of 252 Cf to ensure that it will withstand adverse service conditions as well as tests specified for Special Form Materials. (auth)

  11. Hydroxynitrile Lyases: Biological Sources and Application as Biocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herfried Griengl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the state of the art regarding the application of hydroxynitrile lyases to obtain, enantioselectively, (R- and (S-cyanohydrins of aldehydes and ketones. Special emphasis is given to recent preparative applications and to research for extending the number of plants serving as sources for the enzyme. Depending on the plant family, the mechanism of the enzyme-catalysed reaction can be different. A novel area of research is the consideration of evolutionary aspects on the basis of structure comparisons.

  12. Design, testing, and fabrication of heat sources for underwater application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthy, D.F.; Anderson, C.G.

    1975-01-01

    The sequence of events in the design, testing and fabrication of a radioisotopic heat source using available 238 PuO 2 fuel that would be amenable to a Navy 0.5-W (electrical) Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator for undersea application is discussed. Various designs were considered as a function of heat leak in order to adopt the most desirable capsule for a volume-constrained application. Testing considerations are discussed for capsule compliance with IAEA/ENEA Safety Series 6 and 33 and 10 CFR 71

  13. Operation and Applications of the Boron Cathodic Arc Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J. M.; Freeman, J. H.; Klepper, C. C.; Chivers, D. J.; Hazelton, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    The boron cathodic arc ion source has been developed with a view to several applications, particularly the problem of shallow junction doping in semiconductors. Research has included not only development and operation of the boron cathode, but other cathode materials as well. Applications have included a large deposition directed toward development of a neutron detector and another deposition for an orthopedic coating, as well as the shallow ion implantation function. Operational experience is described and information pertinent to commercial operation, extracted from these experiments, is presented.

  14. Blind source separation advances in theory, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenwu

    2014-01-01

    Blind Source Separation intends to report the new results of the efforts on the study of Blind Source Separation (BSS). The book collects novel research ideas and some training in BSS, independent component analysis (ICA), artificial intelligence and signal processing applications. Furthermore, the research results previously scattered in many journals and conferences worldwide are methodically edited and presented in a unified form. The book is likely to be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in computer science and electronics who wish to learn the core principles, methods, algorithms, and applications of BSS. Dr. Ganesh R. Naik works at University of Technology, Sydney, Australia; Dr. Wenwu Wang works at University of Surrey, UK.

  15. Vulnerability of Barley to African Pathotypes of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici and Sources of Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenson, B J; Case, A J; Pretorius, Z A; Coetzee, V; Kloppers, F J; Zhou, H; Chai, Y; Wanyera, R; Macharia, G; Bhavani, S; Grando, S

    2017-08-01

    The emergence of widely virulent pathotypes (e.g., TTKSK in the Ug99 race group) of the stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Africa threatens wheat production on a global scale. Although intensive research efforts have been advanced to address this threat in wheat, few studies have been conducted on barley, even though pathotypes such as TTKSK are known to attack the crop. The main objectives of this study were to assess the vulnerability of barley to pathotype TTKSK and identify possible sources of resistance. From seedling evaluations of more than 1,924 diverse cultivated barley accessions to pathotype TTKSK, more than 95% (1,844) were found susceptible. A similar high frequency (910 of 934 = 97.4%) of susceptibility was found for the wild progenitor (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) of cultivated barley. Additionally, 55 barley lines with characterized or putative introgressions from various wild Hordeum spp. were also tested against pathotype TTKSK but none was found resistant. In total, more than 96% of the 2,913 Hordeum accessions tested were susceptible as seedlings, indicating the extreme vulnerability of the crop to the African pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici. In total, 32 (1.7% of accessions evaluated) and 13 (1.4%) cultivated and wild barley accessions, respectively, exhibited consistently highly resistant to moderately resistant reactions across all experiments. Molecular assays were conducted on these resistant accessions to determine whether they carried rpg4/Rpg5, the only gene complex known to be highly effective against pathotype TTKSK in barley. Twelve of the 32 (37.5%) resistant cultivated accessions and 11 of the 13 (84.6%) resistant wild barley accessions tested positive for a functional Rpg5 gene, highlighting the narrow genetic base of resistance in Hordeum spp. Other resistant accessions lacking the rpg4/Rpg5 complex were discovered in the evaluated germplasm and may possess useful resistance genes. Combining

  16. Applications of pulsed energy sources and hydrodynamic response to materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, F.; Nelson, W.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamic response of materials to pulsed, relativistic electron beams was studied for materials science applications over two decades ago. Presently, intense light ion beams are being explored for materials science applications. These include the Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST) of materials for producing stronger and more corrosion-resistant materials and the evaporative deposition of polycrystalline thin films. Laser sources are also being extensively utilized as pulsed energy sources in medical science and in clinical applications. In particular, laser-tissue interactions are being investigated for laser angioplasty and surgery as well as cancer therapy. The understanding of the energy deposition and hydrodynamic response of a wide range of materials is essential to the success of these applications. In order to address these materials science applications, the authors are utilizing and developing high quality, energy deposition-hydrodynamic code techniques which can aid in the design and interpretation of experiments. Consequently, the authors strongly encourage the development of 3-dimensional, species-selective diagnostic techniques, e.g. Resonant Holographic Interferometry Spectroscopy (RHIS), to be used in analyzing the ablation plume in the thin film deposition experiments. In this presentation they show the results and discuss the limitations of calculations for these materials applications. They also discuss the status of the RHIS diagnostic

  17. Contamination sources, biofilm-forming ability and biocide resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in tilapia-processing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Galvão, Juliana A; Oetterer, Marília

    2017-01-01

    The major contamination sources, biofilm-forming ability and biocide resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in tilapia-processing plants were evaluated. Twenty-five processing control points were analysed twice in two factories, including whole tilapias, frozen fillets, water and food-contact surfaces. No final product was contaminated with S. aureus. However, high concentrations of S. aureus carrying enterotoxin ( se) genes were found in several processing points of both factories due to the application of inadequate hygienic and handling procedures, which generate a high risk of cross-contamination of the tilapia fillets with staphylococcal enterotoxins. Nine S. aureus strains were characterized by RAPD-PCR using primers AP-7, ERIC-2 and S. A wide diversity of se gene profiles was detected, most strains being multi- se-carriers. All S. aureus strains showed high biofilm-forming ability on stainless steel and polystyrene. Biofilm-forming ability was correlated with the presence of fliC H7 and the type of origin surface (metallic or plastic). A marked resistance of S. aureus to peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite was also observed, required doses being higher than those recommended by manufacturers to be eradicated. Case-by-case approaches are thus recommended to determine the sources and degree of contamination present in each factory, which would allow applying precise responses that avoid, or at least reduce, the presence of bacterial pathogens and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.

  18. Application of blind source separation to nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuzillard, D.; Bourg, St.; Nuzillard, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Blind source separation is intended to decompose signal mixtures into statistically independent components. Application of this technique to the analysis of organic molecules by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are presented. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the simplification of spectral analysis in three cases: the analysis of mixtures of compounds, the analysis of a single mixture and the splitting of the spectrum of a pure compound into simpler sub-spectra. (authors)

  19. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The radioisotope 252 Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 11 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252 Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252 Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the U.S. government and to universities for educational, research, and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252 Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments, and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations

  20. Edible films and coatings: Sources, properties and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend product shelf life while preserving the quality scientific attention focused to biopolymers research that are base for edible films and coatings production. Another major advantage of this kind of food packaging is their eco-friendly status because biopolymers do not cause environmental problems as packaging materials derived from non-renewable energy sources do. Objective of this work was to review recently studied edible films and coatings - their sources, properties and possible application. As sources for edible biopolymers were highlighted polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. The most characteristic subgroups from each large group of compounds were selected and described regarding possible physical and mechanical protection; migration, permeation, and barrier functions. The most important biopolymers characteristic is possibility to act as active substance carriers and to provide controlled release. In order to achieve active packaging functions emulsifiers, antioxidants and antimicrobial agents can also be incorporated into film-forming solutions in order to protect food products from oxidation and microbial spoilage, resulting in quality improvement and enhanced safety. The specific application where edible films and coatings have potential to replace some traditional polymer packaging are explained. It can be concluded that edible films and coatings must be chosen for food packaging purpose according to specific applications, the types of food products, and the major mechanisms of quality deterioration.

  1. Magneto-resistive and spin valve heads fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mallinson, John C

    2002-01-01

    This book is aims to be a comprehensive source on the physics and engineering of magneto-resistive heads. Most of the material is presented in a nonmathematical manner to make it more digestible for researchers, students, developers, and engineers.In addition to revising and updating material available in the first edition, Mallinson has added nine new chapters dealing with various aspects concerning spin valves, the electron spin tunneling effect, the electrostatic discharge effects, read amplifiers, and signal-to-noise ratios, making this a completely up-to-date reference.Th

  2. Irrigation waters and pipe-based biofilms as sources for antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Ryan A; Shelton, Daniel R; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S; Karns, Jeffrey S; Stocker, Matthew D; Pachepsky, Yakov A

    2016-01-01

    The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in environmental surface waters has gained recent attention. Wastewater and drinking water distribution systems are known to disseminate antibiotic-resistant bacteria, with the biofilms that form on the inner-surfaces of the pipeline as a hot spot for proliferation and gene exchange. Pipe-based irrigation systems that utilize surface waters may contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a similar manner. We conducted irrigation events at a perennial stream on a weekly basis for 1 month, and the concentrations of total heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms, as well as the concentrations of these bacterial groups that were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, were monitored at the intake water. Prior to each of the latter three events, residual pipe water was sampled and 6-in. sections of pipeline (coupons) were detached from the system, and biofilm from the inner-wall was removed and analyzed for total protein content and the above bacteria. Isolates of biofilm-associated bacteria were screened for resistance to a panel of seven antibiotics, representing five antibiotic classes. All of the monitored bacteria grew substantially in the residual water between irrigation events, and the biomass of the biofilm steadily increased from week to week. The percentages of biofilm-associated isolates that were resistant to antibiotics on the panel sometimes increased between events. Multiple-drug resistance was observed for all bacterial groups, most often for fecal coliforms, and the distributions of the numbers of antibiotics that the total coliforms and fecal coliforms were resistant to were subject to change from week to week. Results from this study highlight irrigation waters as a potential source for antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can subsequently become incorporated into and proliferate within irrigation pipe-based biofilms.

  3. Workshop on scientific applications of short wavelength coherent light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, W.; Arthur, J.; Winick, H.

    1993-02-01

    This report contains paper on the following topics: A 2 to 4nm High Power FEL On the SLAC Linac; Atomic Physics with an X-ray Laser; High Resolution, Three Dimensional Soft X-ray Imaging; The Role of X-ray Induced Damage in Biological Micro-imaging; Prospects for X-ray Microscopy in Biology; Femtosecond Optical Pulses?; Research in Chemical Physics Surface Science, and Materials Science, with a Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source; Application of 10 GeV Electron Driven X-ray Laser in Gamma-ray Laser Research; Non-Linear Optics, Fluorescence, Spectromicroscopy, Stimulated Desorption: We Need LCLS' Brightness and Time Scale; Application of High Intensity X-rays to Materials Synthesis and Processing; LCLS Optics: Selected Technological Issues and Scientific Opportunities; Possible Applications of an FEL for Materials Studies in the 60 eV to 200 eV Spectral Region

  4. Potential Sources and Transmission of Salmonella and Antimicrobial Resistance in Kampala, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine A Afema

    Full Text Available In sub‒Saharan Africa, non‒typhoidal Salmonellae (NTS cause invasive disease particularly in children and HIV infected adults, but the disease epidemiology is poorly understood. Between 2012 and 2013, we investigated NTS sources and transmission in Kampala. We detected Salmonella in 60% of the influent and 60% of the effluent samples from a wastewater treatment plant and 53.3% of the influent and 10% of the effluent samples from waste stabilization ponds that serve the human population; 40.9% of flush‒water samples from ruminant slaughterhouses, 6.6% of the poultry fecal samples from live bird markets and 4% of the fecal samples from swine at slaughter; and in 54.2% of the water samples from a channel that drains storm-water and effluents from the city. We obtained 775 Salmonella isolates, identified 32 serovars, and determined resistance to 15 antimicrobials. We genotyped common serovars using multiple‒locus variable number tandem repeats analysis or pulsed‒field gel electrophoresis. In addition, we analyzed 49 archived NTS isolates from asymptomatic livestock and human clinical cases. Salmonella from ruminant and swine sources were mostly pan‒susceptible (95% while poultry isolates were generally more resistant. Salmonella Kentucky isolated from poultry exhibited extensive drug resistance characterized by resistance to 10 antimicrobials. Interestingly, similar genotypes of S. Kentucky but with less antimicrobial resistance (AMR were found in poultry, human and environmental sources. The observed AMR patterns could be attributed to host or management factors associated with production. Alternatively, S. Kentucky may be prone to acquiring AMR. The factors driving AMR remain poorly understood and should be elucidated. Overall, shared genotypes and AMR phenotypes were found in NTS from human, livestock and environmental sources, suggesting zoonotic and environmental transmissions most likely occur. Information from this study could be

  5. Evaluation of potential new sources of melon host plant resistance to the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) genotypes that support fewer numbers of whitefly could reduce the frequency or the amount of insecticide applications required to keep the insects in check, as was the case with cotton where measurable resistance to whitefly in some genotypes reduced the number of sprays, thu...

  6. Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Antimicrobial resistance in the European Union in 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte

    EFSA's Community Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Antimicrobial resistance in the European Union in 2004 was published in December 2005. The zoonoses, meaning infectious diseases transmissible from animals to humans, affected over 380,000 EU citizens in 2004...... of 11 zoonoses, antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic agents as well as foodborne outbreaks. The national zoonoses country reports which have been used as a basis for this Summary report are below. The utmost effort was made to keep the information in the Summary Report and the national reports identical...

  7. Tunable resistive pulse sensing: potential applications in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Muttuswamy; Platt, Mark

    2016-08-01

    An accurate characterization of nanomaterials used in clinical diagnosis and therapeutics is of paramount importance to realize the full potential of nanotechnology in medicine and to avoid unexpected and potentially harmful toxic effects due to these materials. A number of technical modalities are currently in use to study the physical, chemical and biological properties of nanomaterials but they all have advantages and disadvantages. In this review, we discuss the potential of a relative newcomer, tunable resistive pulse sensing, for the characterization of nanomaterials and its applications in nanodiagnostics.

  8. Open Source Platform Application to Groundwater Characterization and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntarlagiannis, D.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Falzone, S.; Lane, J. W., Jr.; Slater, L. D.; Robinson, J.; Hammett, S.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater characterization and monitoring commonly rely on the use of multiple point sensors and human labor. Due to the number of sensors, labor, and other resources needed, establishing and maintaining an adequate groundwater monitoring network can be both labor intensive and expensive. To improve and optimize the monitoring network design, open source software and hardware components could potentially provide the platform to control robust and efficient sensors thereby reducing costs and labor. This work presents early attempts to create a groundwater monitoring system incorporating open-source software and hardware that will control the remote operation of multiple sensors along with data management and file transfer functions. The system is built around a Raspberry PI 3, that controls multiple sensors in order to perform on-demand, continuous or `smart decision' measurements while providing flexibility to incorporate additional sensors to meet the demands of different projects. The current objective of our technology is to monitor exchange of ionic tracers between mobile and immobile porosity using a combination of fluid and bulk electrical-conductivity measurements. To meet this objective, our configuration uses four sensors (pH, specific conductance, pressure, temperature) that can monitor the fluid electrical properties of interest and guide the bulk electrical measurement. This system highlights the potential of using open source software and hardware components for earth sciences applications. The versatility of the system makes it ideal for use in a large number of applications, and the low cost allows for high resolution (spatially and temporally) monitoring.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance dashboard application for mapping environmental occurrence and resistant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedtfeld, Robert D; Williams, Maggie R; Fakher, Umama; Johnson, Timothy A; Stedtfeld, Tiffany M; Wang, Fang; Khalife, Walid T; Hughes, Mary; Etchebarne, Brett E; Tiedje, James M; Hashsham, Syed A

    2016-03-01

    An antibiotic resistance (AR) Dashboard application is being developed regarding the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) and bacteria (ARB) in environmental and clinical settings. The application gathers and geospatially maps AR studies, reported occurrence and antibiograms, which can be downloaded for offline analysis. With the integration of multiple data sets, the database can be used on a regional or global scale to identify hot spots for ARGs and ARB; track and link spread and transmission, quantify environmental or human factors influencing presence and persistence of ARG harboring organisms; differentiate natural ARGs from those distributed via human or animal activity; cluster and compare ARGs connections in different environments and hosts; and identify genes that can be used as proxies to routinely monitor anthropogenic pollution. To initially populate and develop the AR Dashboard, a qPCR ARG array was tested with 30 surface waters, primary influent from three waste water treatment facilities, ten clinical isolates from a regional hospital and data from previously published studies including river, park soil and swine farm samples. Interested users are invited to download a beta version (available on iOS or Android), submit AR information using the application, and provide feedback on current and prospective functionalities. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Endosulfan Resistance Profile of Soil Bacteria and Potential Application of Resistant Strains in Bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandini P.K.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, bacterial strains were isolated from the soils of Wayanad District, Kerala, India and the isolates were tested for their tolerance to endosulfan and potential in bioremediation technology. Pesticide contamination in the soils, soil physico-chemical characteristics and socio-economic impacts of pesticide application were also analyzed. 28 pesticide compounds in the soil samples were analyzed and the results revealed that there was no pesticide residues in the soils. As per the survey conducted the pesticide application is very high in the study area and the level of awareness among the farmers was very poor regarding the method of application and its socio-economic and ecological impacts. A total of 9 bacterial strains were isolated with 50μg/ml of endosulfan in the isolating media and the results showed that most of the bacterial strains were highly resistance to endosulfan. Out of the 9 strains isolated 6 were highly resistant to endosulfan (500- 700μg/ml and the other 3 isolates showed the resistance of 250-500μg/ml. From the studied isolate, isolate 9 demonstrating prolific growth and high resistance was selected to check their capability to degrade endosulfan over time. Identification of the selected strain reveals that it belongs to the genus Bacillus. Results of endosulfan removal studies showed that with increase in time, the biomass of the bacterial strains increased. The complete disappearance of endosulfan from the spiked and inoculated broth during the first day of incubation (24 hour interval was observed. While the control flask showed the presence of endosulfan during the experimental period. Pesticide resistant bacteria are widely distributed in the soils of selected study area and the tolerance varied between bacteria even though they were isolated from the soils of the same area. The selected Bacillus species carry the ability to degrade endosulfan at accelerated rates and it could be useful in framing a

  11. Design and application of an electromagnetic vibrator seismic source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    Vibrational seismic sources frequently provide a higher-frequency seismic wavelet (and therefore better resolution) than other sources, and can provide a superior signal-to-noise ratio in many settings. However, they are often prohibitively expensive for lower-budget shallow surveys. In order to address this problem, I designed and built a simple but effective vibrator source for about one thousand dollars. The "EMvibe" is an inexpensive electromagnetic vibrator that can be built with easy-to-machine parts and off-the-shelf electronics. It can repeatably produce pulse and frequency-sweep signals in the range of 5 to 650 Hz, and provides sufficient energy for recording at offsets up to 20 m. Analysis of frequency spectra show that the EMvibe provides a broader frequency range than the sledgehammer at offsets up to ??? 10 m in data collected at a site with soft sediments in the upper several meters. The EMvibe offers a high-resolution alternative to the sledgehammer for shallow surveys. It is well-suited to teaching applications, and to surveys requiring a precisely-repeatable source signature.

  12. Realistic minimum accident source terms - Evaluation, application, and risk acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, P. L.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation, application, and risk acceptance for realistic minimum accident source terms can represent a complex and arduous undertaking. This effort poses a very high impact to design, construction cost, operations and maintenance, and integrated safety over the expected facility lifetime. At the 2005 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD) Meeting in Knoxville Tenn., two papers were presented mat summarized the Y-12 effort that reduced the number of criticality accident alarm system (CAAS) detectors originally designed for the new Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility (HEUMF) from 258 to an eventual as-built number of 60. Part of that effort relied on determining a realistic minimum accident source term specific to the facility. Since that time, the rationale for an alternate minimum accident has been strengthened by an evaluation process that incorporates realism. A recent update to the HEUMF CAAS technical basis highlights the concepts presented here. (authors)

  13. MicMac GIS application: free open source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, L.; Moutinho, O.; Teodoro, A.

    2016-10-01

    The use of Remotely Piloted Aerial System (RPAS) for remote sensing applications is becoming more frequent as the technologies on on-board cameras and the platform itself are becoming a serious contender to satellite and airplane imagery. MicMac is a photogrammetric tool for image matching that can be used in different contexts. It is an open source software and it can be used as a command line or with a graphic interface (for each command). The main objective of this work was the integration of MicMac with QGIS, which is also an open source software, in order to create a new open source tool applied to photogrammetry/remote sensing. Python language was used to develop the application. This tool would be very useful in the manipulation and 3D modelling of a set of images. The main objective was to create a toolbar in QGIS with the basic functionalities with intuitive graphic interfaces. The toolbar is composed by three buttons: produce the points cloud, create the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and produce the orthophoto of the study area. The application was tested considering 35 photos, a subset of images acquired by a RPAS in the Aguda beach area, Porto, Portugal. They were used in order to create a 3D terrain model and from this model obtain an orthophoto and the corresponding DEM. The code is open and can be modified according to the user requirements. This integration would be very useful in photogrammetry and remote sensing community combined with GIS capabilities.

  14. Contamination sources, serogroups, biofilm-forming ability and biocide resistance ofListeria monocytogenespersistent in tilapia-processing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Galvão, Juliana Antunes; Oetterer, Marília

    2017-11-01

    The major contamination sources, serogroups, biofilm-forming ability and biocide resistance of Listeria monocytogenes persistent in tilapia-processing facilities were assessed. Twenty-five processing-control points were examined twice in two factories, including whole tilapias, frozen fillets, water and food-contact surfaces. L. monocytogenes were detected in 4 and 20% of points of Factory A and B respectively, but at low concentrations. Contamination was due to inadequate handling of tilapias in the slaughter room of Factory A and to the application of ineffective sanitizing procedures in Factory B. Seven strains were characterized by RAPD-PCR using primers HLWL85, OPM-01 and DAF4. Genotypic similarity allowed tracing the contamination source of tilapia fillets in Factory B and detecting a prevalent strain in Brazilian tilapia-processing facilities. The serogroup II (including the serotype 1/2c) was the most frequently found, followed by serogroup I (1/2a) and III (1/2b), whereas the serotype 4b was not detected. All strains showed high biofilm-forming ability on stainless steel and polystyrene, but biofilm formation was positively correlated with the type of origin surface. Biofilms were highly resistant to peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite, being required doses higher than those recommended by manufacturers to be eradicated. Peracetic acid was more effective than sodium hypochlorite, but the use of disinfectants with similar mechanisms of action increases the risk of cross-resistance. Case-by-case approaches are thus recommended to determine the sources and degree of contamination present in each factory, which would allow applying precise responses to control the persistence of bacterial pathogens such as L. monocytogenes .

  15. Algorithms for Source Separation - with Cocktail Party Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Rasmus Kongsgaard

    2007-01-01

    of speech in a time-frequency representation. My own contributions are based on learning dictionaries for each speaker separately and subsequently applying a concatenation of these dictionaries to separate a mixture. Sparse decompositions required for the decomposition are computed using nonnegative matrix......In this thesis, a number of possible solutions to source separation are suggested. Although they differ significantly in shape and intent, they share a heavy reliance on prior domain knowledge. Most of the developed algorithms are intended for speech applications, and hence, structural features...

  16. Marine cyanobacteria as sources of new biotechnological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Vasconcelos

    2014-06-01

    Bioactive compounds from cyanobacteria may also have allelopathic activity with potential use to control algal blooms or as antifouling in the marine environment (Leão et al., 2012, Antunes et al., 2013. We have isolated and characterized for the first time allelopathic compounds named Portoamides that act synergistically to prevent the growth of some microalgae (Leão et al., 2010. Cyanobacteria extracts can also prevent the development of some invertebrates such as sea urchins and mussels (Martins et al., 2007 and so they can be candidates to develop antifouling agents that are environmentally friendly. The potential of cyanobacteria as source of new bioactive compounds is enormous, with the advantage of being applicable in many different areas of biotechnology, with many industrial applications.

  17. Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power sources (NPS) for use in outer space have been developed and used in space applications where unique mission requirements and constraints on electrical power and thermal management precluded the use of non-nuclear power sources. Such missions have included interplanetary missions to the outer limits of the Solar System, for which solar panels were not suitable as a source of electrical power because of the long duration of these missions at great distances from the Sun. According to current knowledge and capabilities, space NPS are the only viable energy option to power some space missions and significantly enhance others. Several ongoing and foreseeable missions would not be possible without the use of space NPS. Past, present and foreseeable space NPS applications include radioisotope power systems (for example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators and radioisotope heater units) and nuclear reactor systems for power and propulsion. The presence of radioactive materials or nuclear fuels in space NPS and their consequent potential for harm to people and the environment in Earth's biosphere due to an accident require that safety should always be an inherent part of the design and application of space NPS. NPS applications in outer space have unique safety considerations compared with terrestrial applications. Unlike many terrestrial nuclear applications, space applications tend to be used infrequently and their requirements can vary significantly depending upon the specific mission. Mission launch and outer space operational requirements impose size, mass and other space environment limitations not present for many terrestrial nuclear facilities. For some applications, space NPS must operate autonomously at great distances from Earth in harsh environments. Potential accident conditions resulting from launch failures and inadvertent re-entry could expose NPS to extreme physical conditions. These and other unique safety considerations for the use of

  18. New quantum cascade laser sources for sensing applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troccoli, Mariano

    2017-05-01

    In this presentation we will review our most recent results on development of Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) for analytical and industrial applications. QCLs have demonstrated the capability to cover the entire range of Mid-IR, Far-IR, and THz wavelengths by skillful tuning of the material design and composition and by use of intrinsic material properties via a set of techniques collectively called "bandgap engineering". The use of MOCVD, pioneered on industrial scale by AdTech Optics, has enabled the deployment of QCL devices into a diverse range of environments and applications. QCLs can be tailored to the specific application requirements due to their unprecedented flexibility in design and thanks to the leveraging of well-known III-V fabrication technologies inherited from the NIR domain. Nevertheless, several applications and new frontiers in R and D need the constant support of new developments in device features, capabilities, and performances. We have developed a wide range of devices, from high power, high efficiency multi-mode sources, to narrow-band, single mode devices with low-power consumption, and from non-linear, multi-wavelength generating devices to broadband sources and multi-emitter arrays. All our devices are grown and processed using MOCVD technology and allow us to attain competitive performances across the whole mid-IR spectral range. This talk will present an overview of our current achievements. References 1. M. Troccoli, "High power emission and single mode operation of quantum cascade lasers for industrial applications", J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron., 21 (6), 1-7 (2015). Invited Review. 2. Seungyong Jung, Aiting Jiang, Yifan Jiang, Karun Vijayraghavan, Xiaojun Wang, Mariano Troccoli, and Mikhail A. Belkin, "Broadly Tunable Monolithic Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources", Nature Comm. 5, 4267 (2014).. 3. Mariano Troccoli, Arkadiy Lyakh, Jenyu Fan, Xiaojun Wang, Richard Maulini, Alexei G Tsekoun, Rowel Go, C Kumar N Patel, "Long

  19. The Rising Tide of Antimicrobial Resistance in Aquaculture: Sources, Sinks and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joy E M; Schreier, Harold J; Lanska, Lauma; Hale, Michelle S

    2017-06-01

    As the human population increases there is an increasing reliance on aquaculture to supply a safe, reliable, and economic supply of food. Although food production is essential for a healthy population, an increasing threat to global human health is antimicrobial resistance. Extensive antibiotic resistant strains are now being detected; the spread of these strains could greatly reduce medical treatment options available and increase deaths from previously curable infections. Antibiotic resistance is widespread due in part to clinical overuse and misuse; however, the natural processes of horizontal gene transfer and mutation events that allow genetic exchange within microbial populations have been ongoing since ancient times. By their nature, aquaculture systems contain high numbers of diverse bacteria, which exist in combination with the current and past use of antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, and other treatment regimens-singularly or in combination. These systems have been designated as "genetic hotspots" for gene transfer. As our reliance on aquaculture grows, it is essential that we identify the sources and sinks of antimicrobial resistance, and monitor and analyse the transfer of antimicrobial resistance between the microbial community, the environment, and the farmed product, in order to better understand the implications to human and environmental health.

  20. The Rising Tide of Antimicrobial Resistance in Aquaculture: Sources, Sinks and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joy E. M.; Schreier, Harold J.; Lanska, Lauma; Hale, Michelle S.

    2017-01-01

    As the human population increases there is an increasing reliance on aquaculture to supply a safe, reliable, and economic supply of food. Although food production is essential for a healthy population, an increasing threat to global human health is antimicrobial resistance. Extensive antibiotic resistant strains are now being detected; the spread of these strains could greatly reduce medical treatment options available and increase deaths from previously curable infections. Antibiotic resistance is widespread due in part to clinical overuse and misuse; however, the natural processes of horizontal gene transfer and mutation events that allow genetic exchange within microbial populations have been ongoing since ancient times. By their nature, aquaculture systems contain high numbers of diverse bacteria, which exist in combination with the current and past use of antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, and other treatment regimens—singularly or in combination. These systems have been designated as “genetic hotspots” for gene transfer. As our reliance on aquaculture grows, it is essential that we identify the sources and sinks of antimicrobial resistance, and monitor and analyse the transfer of antimicrobial resistance between the microbial community, the environment, and the farmed product, in order to better understand the implications to human and environmental health. PMID:28587172

  1. Ion source development and radiobiology applications within the LIBRA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesi, M.; Kar, S.; Prasad, R.; Kakolee, F. K.; Quinn, K.; Ahmed, H.; Sarri, G.; Ramakrishna, B.; Qiao, B.; Geissler, M.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Zepf, M.; Schettino, G.; Stevens, B.; Tolley, M.; Ward, A.; Green, J.; Foster, P. S.; Spindloe, C.; Gallegos, P.; Robinson, A.. L.; Neely, D.; Carroll, D. C.; Tresca, O.; Yuan, X.; Quinn, M.; McKenna, P.; Dover, N.; Palmer, C.; Schreiber, J.; Najmudin, Z.; Sari, I.; Kraft, M.; Merchant, M.; Jeynes, J. C.; Kirkby, K.; Fiorini, F.; Kirby, D.; Green, S.

    2011-05-01

    In view of their properties, laser-driven ion beams have the potential to be employed in innovative applications in the scientific, technological and medical areas. Among these, a particularly high-profile application is particle therapy for cancer treatment, which however requires significant improvements from current performances of laser-driven accelerators. The focus of current research in this field is on developing suitable strategies enabling laser-accelerated ions to match these requirements, while exploiting some of the unique features of a laser-driven process. LIBRA is a UK-wide consortium, aiming to address these issues, and develop laser-driven ion sources suitable for applicative purposes, with a particular focus on biomedical applications. We will report on the activities of the consortium aimed to optimizing the properties of the beams, by developing and employing advanced targetry and by exploring novel acceleration regimes enabling production of beams with reduced energy spread. Employing the TARANIS Terawatt laser at Queen's University, we have initiated a campaign investigating the effects of proton irradiation of biological samples at extreme dose rates (> 109 Gy/s).

  2. Can antibiotic resistance analysis be a useful tool for tracking population sources of contamination in Yucatan groundwater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, J. E.; Lenczewski, M.; Leal-Bautista, R. M.

    2013-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance patterns have been widely used in scientific studies conducted to identify sources of water contamination. However, the methods of resistance determination have not been standardized; therefore, the data on antibiotic resistance in the environment come from studies that have used a range of media types, antibiotic concentrations, and incubation periods, making it difficult to compare results between environments. Over two years, we assessed antibiotic sensitivity of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from Yucatan water sources, to identify unique resistance patterns and assess the potential for antibiotic resistance analysis as a tool to discriminate between fecal pollution from two population sources (tourist and local). Though resistance to erythromycin, streptomycin, and ciprofloxacin showed some differences between populations, natural bacterial resistance (in isolates from pristine sources) was very high and confounded the research findings. This study highlights the need among the research community involved in tracking of environmental antibiotic resistance to develop a standardized and rigorously validated suite of methods that address background resistance and that can be used across environments, to accurately inform source tracking studies.

  3. Application of radioactive sources in analytical instruments for planetary exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economou, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In the past 50 years or so, many types of radioactive sources have been used in space exploration. 238 Pu is often used in space missions in Radioactive Heater Units (RHU) and Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) for heat and power generation, respectively. In 1960's, 2 ' 42 Cm alpha radioactive sources have been used for the first time in space applications on 3 Surveyor spacecrafts to obtain the chemical composition of the lunar surface with an instrument based on the Rutherford backscatterring of the alpha particles from nuclei in the analyzed sample. 242 Cm is an alpha emitter of 6.1 MeV alpha particles. Its half-life time, 163 days, is short enough to allow sources to be prepared with the necessary high intensity per unit area ( up to 470 mCi and FWHM of about 1.5% in the lunar instruments) that results in narrow energy distribution, yet long enough that the sources have adequate lifetimes for short duration missions. 242 Cm is readily prepared in curie quantities by irradiation of 241 Am by neutrons in nuclear reactors, followed by chemical separation of the curium from the americium and fission products. For long duration missions, like for example missions to Mars, comets, and asteroids, the isotope 244 Cm (T 1/2 =18.1 y, E α =5.8 MeV) is a better source because of its much longer half-life time. Both of these isotopes are also excellent x-ray excitation sources and have been used for that purpose on several planetary missions. For the light elements the excitation is caused mainly by the alpha particles, while for the heavier elements (> Ca) the excitation is mainly due to the x-rays from the Pu L-lines (E x =14-18 keV). 244 Cm has been used in several variations of the Alpha Proton Xray Spectrometer (APXS): PHOBOS 1 and 2 Pathfinder, Russian Mars-96 mission, Mars Exploration Rover (MER) and Rosetta. Other sources used in X-ray fluorescence instruments in space are 55 Fe and 109 Cd (Viking1,2, Beagle 2) and 57 Co is used in Moessbauer

  4. Characterization of DBD plasma source for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchenbecker, M; Vioel, W [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Goettingen (Germany); Bibinov, N; Awakowicz, P [Institute for Electrical Engineering and Plasma Technology, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Kaemlimg, A; Wandke, D, E-mail: m.kuchenbecker@web.d, E-mail: Nikita.Bibinov@rub.d, E-mail: awakowicz@aept-ruhr-uni-bochum.d, E-mail: vioel@hawk-hhg.d [CINOGY GmbH, Max-Naeder-Str. 15, 37114 Duderstadt (Germany)

    2009-02-21

    The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma source for biomedical application is characterized using optical emission spectroscopy, plasma-chemical simulation and voltage-current measurements. This plasma source possesses only one electrode covered by ceramic. Human body or some other object with enough high electric capacitance or connected to ground can serve as the opposite electrode. DBD consists of a number of microdischarge channels distributed in the gas gap between the electrodes and on the surface of the dielectric. To characterize the plasma conditions in the DBD source, an aluminium plate is used as an opposite electrode. Electric parameters, the diameter of microdischarge channel and plasma parameters (electron distribution function and electron density) are determined. The gas temperature is measured in the microdischarge channel and calculated in afterglow phase. The heating of the opposite electrode is studied using probe measurement. The gas and plasma parameters in the microdischarge channel are studied at varied distances between electrodes. According to an energy balance study, the input microdischarge electric energy dissipates mainly in heating of electrodes (about 90%) and partially (about 10%) in the production of chemical active species (atoms and metastable molecules).

  5. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis: Multiple Sources and Global Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grezio, Anita; Babeyko, Andrey; Baptista, Maria Ana; Behrens, Jörn; Costa, Antonio; Davies, Gareth; Geist, Eric L.; Glimsdal, Sylfest; González, Frank I.; Griffin, Jonathan; Harbitz, Carl B.; LeVeque, Randall J.; Lorito, Stefano; Løvholt, Finn; Omira, Rachid; Mueller, Christof; Paris, Raphaël.; Parsons, Tom; Polet, Jascha; Power, William; Selva, Jacopo; Sørensen, Mathilde B.; Thio, Hong Kie

    2017-12-01

    Applying probabilistic methods to infrequent but devastating natural events is intrinsically challenging. For tsunami analyses, a suite of geophysical assessments should be in principle evaluated because of the different causes generating tsunamis (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity, meteorological events, and asteroid impacts) with varying mean recurrence rates. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analyses (PTHAs) are conducted in different areas of the world at global, regional, and local scales with the aim of understanding tsunami hazard to inform tsunami risk reduction activities. PTHAs enhance knowledge of the potential tsunamigenic threat by estimating the probability of exceeding specific levels of tsunami intensity metrics (e.g., run-up or maximum inundation heights) within a certain period of time (exposure time) at given locations (target sites); these estimates can be summarized in hazard maps or hazard curves. This discussion presents a broad overview of PTHA, including (i) sources and mechanisms of tsunami generation, emphasizing the variety and complexity of the tsunami sources and their generation mechanisms, (ii) developments in modeling the propagation and impact of tsunami waves, and (iii) statistical procedures for tsunami hazard estimates that include the associated epistemic and aleatoric uncertainties. Key elements in understanding the potential tsunami hazard are discussed, in light of the rapid development of PTHA methods during the last decade and the globally distributed applications, including the importance of considering multiple sources, their relative intensities, probabilities of occurrence, and uncertainties in an integrated and consistent probabilistic framework.

  6. Effective source mismatch uncertainty evaluation using resistive power splitter up to 18 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CSIR-National Physical Laboratory (NPL India is a National Metrology Institute (NMI, which disseminate traceability of the physical parameters in the country. In the field of microwave, it is one of the apex laboratories to provide traceability. In this paper, the method for precession measurement of effective source reflection coefficient using resistive power splitter and mismatch uncertainty evaluation are reported and discussed. Juroshek method is implemented in conjunction with Vector Network Analyzer (VNA for mismatch uncertainty evaluation by measuring source reflection coefficient from measured S parameters. The measurement results and their associated uncertainty are presented and discussed from 1 MHz to 18 GHz of the resistive power splitter. The complex reflection coefficient of the effective source is determined using indigenously developed automation software. The method adopted is the most convenient way of measuring effective source reflection coefficient whose values are smaller than the manufacturer specs. The mismatch uncertainty has been improved, which is beneficial during the calibration of power sensors along with power meters.

  7. Application of the Normalized Full Gradient (NFG) Method to Resistivity Data

    OpenAIRE

    AYDIN, ALİ

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the application of the normalized full gradient (NFG) method to resistivity studies and illustrates that the method can greatly reduce the time and work load needed in detecting buried bodies using resistivity measurement. The NFG method calculates resistivity values at desired electrode offsets by extrapolation of a function of resistivity measurements (i.e. the gradient) to other depth levels using resistivity measurements done at one electrode offset only. The performan...

  8. Noise modeling in a signal conditioning circuit for low power audio application using resistive sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meillère Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoresistive sensors convert a physical value into a resistance variation. Often four resistive elements are connected together in a Wheatstone bridge to provide electrical variations of sensors. When this structure is biased with a fixed voltage source or a current source the topology provides a differential output voltage. To exploit information a conditioning circuit is associated to the bridge. In most cases it consists of an instrumentation amplifier followed by a data converter to obtain very quickly a digital representation of information. Due to the high input impedance of the instrumentation amplifier, bridge sensitivity is preserved. A filter may be added to avoid aliasing or a continuous time sigma-delta modulator that includes filtering feature. This study is concerning the conditioning structure for piezoresistive sensors bridge especially fully integrated microphones for biomedical application. The bridge signal to noise ratio is set by biasing the amplifier stage by current. The noise performance becomes the limiting factor of the read-out circuit. Current mode topologies drive amplifiers design where inputs are the main noise contributor. Modeling noise contribution is a key point in the design of the conditioning circuit. The current consumption leads noise performances too. A proposed architecture was implemented in a 65nm CMOS standard technology for performance measurement and evaluation with nanowire based microphone dedicated to hearing aids application.

  9. Applications of Open Source 3-D Printing on Small Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Pearce

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that low-cost open-source 3-D printers can reduce costs by enabling distributed manufacturing of substitutes for both specialty equipment and conventional mass-manufactured products. The rate of 3-D printable designs under open licenses is growing exponentially and there arealready hundreds of designs applicable to small-scale organic farming. It has also been hypothesized that this technology could assist sustainable development in rural communities that rely on small-scale organic agriculture. To gauge the present utility of open-source 3-D printers in this organic farm context both in the developed and developing world, this paper reviews the current open-source designs available and evaluates the ability of low-cost 3-D printers to be effective at reducing the economic costs of farming.This study limits the evaluation of open-source 3-D printers to only the most-developed fused filament fabrication of the bioplastic polylactic acid (PLA. PLA is a strong biodegradable and recyclable thermoplastic appropriate for a range of representative products, which are grouped into five categories of prints: handtools, food processing, animal management, water management and hydroponics. The advantages and shortcomings of applying 3-D printing to each technology are evaluated. The results show a general izabletechnical viability and economic benefit to adopting open-source 3-D printing for any of the technologies, although the individual economic impact is highly dependent on needs and frequency of use on a specific farm. Capital costs of a 3-D printer may be saved from on-farm printing of a single advanced analytical instrument in a day or replacing hundreds of inexpensive products over a year. In order for the full potential of open-source 3-D printing to be realized to assist organic farm economic resiliency and self-sufficiency, future work is outlined in five core areas: designs of 3-D printable objects, 3-D printing

  10. ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG RESISTANCE IN STRAINS OF Escherichia coli ISOLATED FROM FOOD SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Uddin Rasheed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A variety of foods and environmental sources harbor bacteria that are resistant to one or more antimicrobial drugs used in medicine and agriculture. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli is of particular concern because it is the most common Gram-negative pathogen in humans. Hence this study was conducted to determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of E. coli isolated from different types of food items collected randomly from twelve localities of Hyderabad, India. A total of 150 samples comprising; vegetable salad, raw egg-surface, raw chicken, unpasteurized milk, and raw meat were processed microbiologically to isolate E. coli and to study their antibiotic susceptibility pattern by the Kirby-Bauer method. The highest percentages of drug resistance in isolates of E. coli were detected from raw chicken (23.3% followed by vegetable salad (20%, raw meat (13.3%, raw egg-surface (10% and unpasteurized milk (6.7%. The overall incidence of drug resistant E. coli was 14.7%. A total of six (4% Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL producers were detected, two each from vegetable salads and raw chicken, and one each from raw egg-surface and raw meat. Multidrug resistant strains of E. coli are a matter of concern as resistance genes are easily transferable to other strains. Pathogen cycling through food is very common and might pose a potential health risk to the consumer. Therefore, in order to avoid this, good hygienic practices are necessary in the abattoirs to prevent contamination of cattle and poultry products with intestinal content as well as forbidding the use of untreated sewage in irrigating vegetables.

  11. Cockroaches as a Source of High Bacterial Pathogens with Multidrug Resistant Strains in Gondar Town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Feleke; Eshetie, Setegn; Endris, Mengistu; Huruy, Kahsay; Muluye, Dagnachew; Feleke, Tigist; G/Silassie, Fisha; Ayalew, Getenet; Nagappan, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cockroaches are source of bacterial infections and this study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial profiles from cockroaches in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods. A total of 60 cockroaches were collected from March 1 to May 30, 2014, in Gondar town. Bacterial species were isolated from external and internal parts of cockroaches. Disk diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20; P values cockroaches, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae 32 (17.7%), Escherichia coli 29 (16%), and Citrobacter spp. 27 (15%) were the predominant isolates. High resistance rate was observed to cotrimoxazole, 60 (33.1%), and least resistance rate was noted to ciprofloxacin, 2 (1.1%). Additionally, 116 (64.1%) of the isolates were MDR strains; Salmonella spp. were the leading MDR isolates (100%) followed by Enterobacter (90.5%) and Shigella spp. (76.9%). Conclusion. Cockroaches are the potential source of bacteria pathogens with multidrug resistant strains and hence effective preventive and control measures are required to minimize cockroach related infections.

  12. The effect of different treatment technologies on the fate of antibiotic resistance genes and class 1 integrons after the application of residual municipal wastewater solids to soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-application of residual wastewater solids is an important environmental source of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Treatment technologies exist that can reduce ARG levels in residual solids prior to land-application, but the effect of these technologies on ARG levels in soil following land-a...

  13. Sources of Dissatisfaction: Mobile Interaction with the Real World and Other Mobile Internet Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Salo, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Current consumer-level mobile Internet applications involve many potential sources of dissatisfaction. Studying these sources is necessary, especially for newer application areas such as mobile interaction with the real world. This study combined previous studies to form a categorization framework of dissatisfaction sources and gathered qualitative data using critical incident technique and overall evaluation questionnaire to describe the sources in detail. This art...

  14. PFLOTRAN-E4D: A parallel open source PFLOTRAN module for simulating time-lapse electrical resistivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy C.; Hammond, Glenn E.; Chen, Xingyuan

    2017-02-01

    Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is finding increased application for remotely monitoring processes occurring in the near subsurface in three-dimensions (i.e. 4D monitoring). However, there are few codes capable of simulating the evolution of subsurface resistivity and corresponding tomographic measurements arising from a particular process, particularly in parallel and with an open source license. Herein we describe and demonstrate an electrical resistivity tomography module for the PFLOTRAN subsurface flow and reactive transport simulation code, named PFLOTRAN-E4D. The PFLOTRAN-E4D module operates in parallel using a dedicated set of compute cores in a master-slave configuration. At each time step, the master processes receives subsurface states from PFLOTRAN, converts those states to bulk electrical conductivity, and instructs the slave processes to simulate a tomographic data set. The resulting multi-physics simulation capability enables accurate feasibility studies for ERT imaging, the identification of the ERT signatures that are unique to a given process, and facilitates the joint inversion of ERT data with hydrogeological data for subsurface characterization. PFLOTRAN-E4D is demonstrated herein using a field study of stage-driven groundwater/river water interaction ERT monitoring along the Columbia River, Washington, USA. Results demonstrate the complex nature of subsurface electrical conductivity changes, in both the saturated and unsaturated zones, arising from river stage fluctuations and associated river water intrusion into the aquifer. The results also demonstrate the sensitivity of surface based ERT measurements to those changes over time. PFLOTRAN-E4D is available with the PFLOTRAN development version with an open-source license at https://bitbucket.org/pflotran/pflotran-dev.

  15. PFLOTRAN-E4D: A parallel open source PFLOTRAN module for simulating time-lapse electrical resistivity data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Timothy C.; Hammond, Glenn E.; Chen, Xingyuan

    2017-02-01

    Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is finding increased application for remotely monitoring processes occurring in the near subsurface in three-dimensions (i.e. 4D monitoring). However, there are few codes capable of simulating the evolution of subsurface resistivity and corresponding tomographic measurements arising from a particular process, particularly in parallel and with an open source license. Herein we describe and demonstrate an electrical resistivity tomography module for the PFLOTRAN subsurface simulation code, named PFLOTRAN-E4D. The PFLOTRAN-E4D module operates in parallel using a dedicated set of compute cores in a master-slave configuration. At each time step, the master processes receives subsurface states from PFLOTRAN, converts those states to bulk electrical conductivity, and instructs the slave processes to simulate a tomographic data set. The resulting multi-physics simulation capability enables accurate feasibility studies for ERT imaging, the identification of the ERT signatures that are unique to a given process, and facilitates the joint inversion of ERT data with hydrogeological data for subsurface characterization. PFLOTRAN-E4D is demonstrated herein using a field study of stage-driven groundwater/river water interaction ERT monitoring along the Columbia River, Washington, USA. Results demonstrate the complex nature of changes subsurface electrical conductivity, in both the saturated and unsaturated zones, arising from water table changes and from river water intrusion into the aquifer. The results also demonstrate the sensitivity of surface based ERT measurements to those changes over time. PFLOTRAN-E4D is available with the PFLOTRAN development version with an open-source license at https://bitbucket.org/pflotran/pflotran-dev .

  16. Ionizing radiation sources used in medical applications in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.M.C.; Carlos, M.T.; Cruz, L.R.F.; Domingues, C.; Farias, J.T.; Ferreira, R.; Figueiredo, L.; Peixoto, J.E.; Oliveira, S.M.V.; Drexler, G.

    1991-02-01

    Preliminary data about ionizing radiation sources used in medical applications and obtained through a national programme by IRD/CNEN together with Brazilian health authorities are presented. The data presentation follows, as close as possible, recommendations given by the United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). This programme has two main aims: First: to contribute for research in the field of ionizing radiation effects and risks including information about equipment quality control and procedures adopted by professionals working in Radiation Medicine. Second: to investigate the radiation protection status in Brazil, in order to give assistance to Brazilian health authorities for planning regional radiation programmes and training programmes for medical staffs. (F.E.). 13 refs, 19 figs, 34 tabs

  17. Radio- Isotopic Neutron Sources for Industrial Applications and Basic Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, G.Y.; Hassan, M.F.; Ali, M.A.; Abd-EI-Wahab, M.

    2009-01-01

    A new irradiation facility has been designed, constructed and located at the Experimental Nuclear Physics Department, NRC, AEA, Cairo. The facility is based on an Am-Be Ca, n) source with activity of about 175 GBq results in a neutron yield of about 2.5* 106 nls. The geometrical arrangements of the facility consider the safety aspects and protection rules. This new irradiation facility uses fast and epi-thermal neutrons that can be used in basic research and industrial applications. The aim of the present work is to develop methods able to use fast and epi-thermal neutron activation analysis to estimate the hydrogen content in bulk samples through neutron reflection and transmission processes

  18. Smartphone Applications - Idea sourcing, and app development: Implications for firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Vigar-Ellis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the dramatic increase in smartphone usage and the consequent increase in applications (apps for these smartphones, organisations are constantly looking for new apps to offer customers as well as employees.  Information Systems (IS departments of organisations have traditionally been tasked with the acquisition and/or development of such information technologies within organisations.  This research aimed to determine from IS managers, the smartphone app usage in firms, the sources of app ideas and the locations for app development.  It also investigated various aspects of the success or otherwise of the development process.  Results indicate that while most ideas for apps currently come from IS and marketing departments within the organisation, and development of apps is also done mainly within the organisation , these development strategies are not necessarily the most effective.  Managerial implications are discussed.

  19. Reaction of sources of resistance to white mold to microsatellite haplotypes of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller da Silva Lehner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT White mold caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is the most yield-limiting disease of common bean in Brazil. To date, there has been no commercial cultivar resistant to this disease. In a greenhouse we evaluated white mold resistance sources (Cornell 605, A195 and G122 against eight isolates of S. sclerotiorum from five Brazilian states. A Brazilian cultivar (BRSMG Madrepérola and a susceptible check (Beryl were used as control. Treatments were arranged in factorial combinations (5 × 8 in a completely random design with four replicates. Disease severity was assessed on a rating scale of 1-to-9 together with lesion length, which was used to determine an area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC. Polymorphisms detected in ten microsatellite loci were used to assess variability between the isolates. Each isolate was a distinct haplotype; they formed a genetic tree with two clusters. One cluster was formed by three isolates collected from the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo (southeastern; the others, by isolates from Paraná, Santa Catarina (southern, Goiás (Mid-western, and again, Minas Gerais. Genotype × isolate interaction was significant. In general, Beryl was more susceptible than BRSMG Madrepérola. Considering the AUDPC and/or the white mold reaction score, Cornell 605 exhibited more physiological resistance than BRSMG Madrepérola to seven isolates, A195 to five isolates, and G122 to two isolates. Our results suggest that Cornell 605 is the best source of resistance to white mold for the southern region, whereas Cornell 605 and A195 are somewhat superior to G122 for the southeastern and mid-western regions.

  20. Flat-beam Rf photocathode sources for linear collider applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Laser driven rf photocathodes represent a recent advance in high-brightness electron beam sources. The authors investigate here a variation on these devices, that obtained by using a ribbon laser pulse to illuminate the cathode, yielding a flat beam (σ x much-gt σ y ) which has asymmetric emittances at the cathode proportional to the beam size each transverse dimension. The flat-beam geometry mitigates space charge forces which lead to intensity dependent transverse and longitudinal emittance growth, thus limiting the beam brightness. The fundamental limit on achievable emittance and brightness is set by the transverse momentum distribution and peak current density of the photoelectrons (photon energy and cathode material dependent effects) and appears to allow, taking into account space charge and rf effects, normalized emittances ε x -5 m-rad and ε -6 m-rad, with Q = 5 nC and σ z = 1 mm. These source emittances are adequate for superconducting linear collider applications, and could preclude the use of a damping ring for the electrons in these schemes

  1. Polyhydroxybutyrate production from marine source and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Ganapathy; Rengasamy, Ramasamy; Inbakandan, Dhinakarasamy

    2018-05-01

    The increasing significance of non-degradable plastic wastes is an emerging concern. As a substitute, researches are being endeavoured from existing reserve to yield bioplastics based on their properties of biodegradability. Owing to their cost, now the experts are quest for a substitute source like bacteria, microalgae, actinomycetes, cyanobacteria and plants. PHB is biodegradable, environmental friendly and biocompatible thermoplastics. Varying in toughness and flexibility, depending on their formulation, they are used in various ways similar to many non-biodegradable petrochemical plastics currently in use. Promising strategies contain genetic engineering of microorganisms to introduce production pathways examined for the past two decades. Such kind of researches focusing on the use of unconventional substrates, novel extraction methods, and genetically enhanced species with assessment to make PHB from marine microbes are commercially attractive field. Hence, this biopolymer synthesis may displayed as one of the survival mechanisms of endosymbiotic, macroalgae, or sponge-associated bacteria, which exist in a highly competitive and stressful marine microenvironment. This review throws light on the promising and growing awareness of using marine microbes as PHB source, along with their applications in different fields of aquaculture, medicine, antifouling and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High-power laser sources for industry and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Friedrich

    2007-06-01

    Despite the invention and availability of a wide variety of laser sources, only very few types have made their way into the industrial use, which very often requires reliable three shift running, high uptime and low running costs. Over a long time the CO II gas laser has dominated the high power material processing area and still holds with 41.1 % the biggest market share in that field. The most modern, most reliable and most cost efficient type of CO II laser is the diffusion cooled slab configuration, which provides almost diffraction limited beam quality and is nowadays available in a power range up to 8 kW. The advantage of solid state lasers is that their radiation can be guided through optical fibers, but they suffered from high cost and low efficiency. The appearance of diode lasers as a very efficient and reliable pumping source, however, has boosted solid state laser technology. Not only the beam quality and efficiency of the classical rod design could be improved by replacing broadband lamps by monochromatic diode lasers but furthermore, because of the high brilliance of the diode lasers, new concepts as the thin disc and the fiber laser could be realized. Especially the higher efficiency, reducing the running cost in conjunction with improved beam quality makes the solid state lasers the tool of the future, whenever 3D applications are under consideration.

  3. Source-Coupled, N-Channel, JFET-Based Digital Logic Gate Structure Using Resistive Level Shifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowski, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    A circuit topography is used to create usable, digital logic gates using N (negatively doped) channel junction field effect transistors (JFETs), load resistors, level shifting resistors, and supply rails whose values are based on the DC parametric distributions of these JFETs. This method has direct application to the current state-of-the-art in high-temperature (300 to 500 C and higher) silicon carbide (SiC) device production, and defines an adaptation to the logic gate described in U.S. Patent 7,688,117 in that, by removing the level shifter from the output of the gate structure described in the patent (and applying it to the input of the same gate), a source-coupled gate topography is created. This structure allows for the construction AND/OR (sum of products) arrays that use far fewer transistors and resistors than the same array as constructed from the gates described in the aforementioned patent. This plays a central role when large multiplexer constructs are necessary; for example, as in the construction of memory. This innovation moves the resistive level shifter from the output of the basic gate structure to the front as if the input is now configured as what would be the output of the preceding gate, wherein the output is the two level shifting resistors. The output of this innovation can now be realized as the lone follower transistor with its source node as the gate output. Additionally, one may leave intact the resistive level shifter on the new gate topography. A source-coupled to direct-coupled logic translator will be the result.

  4. 3-D DC resistivity modelling with arbitrary long electrode sources using finite element method on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Liu, Yuanying; Wu, Xiaoping

    2017-11-01

    We present a 3-D electrical resistivity modelling with long electrode sources using finite element method on unstructured tetrahedral grids. The radius and resistivity of the electrode is neglected and the electrode can be regarded as a line source with finite length in our modelling. An approximated equation for determining the current density along the electrode is derived for current density correction in heterogeneous media. Electrical fields excited by arbitrary long electrode sources in heterogeneous conductive media can be simulated. Both total- and secondary-potential methods are implemented in the simulation. The analytic electrical potentials of an arbitrary long electrode source in a conductive half-space is derived and used for accuracy analysis in the numerical simulations. The apparent resistivities for survey arrays with long electrode sources are proposed based on the analytic solution of the half-space model. The responses of electrical fields excited by point electrode and long electrode sources to resistivity anomalies are compared with ground and borehole simulations, which shows that the arrays with long electrode sources are more sensitive to the anomalies than those with point electrode sources. A time-lapsed monitoring for hydraulic fracturing in oil field using the production wells as long electrode sources is also simulated, which indicates that the borehole potential data of the long electrode source array can help assess the location of the fracture zone.

  5. Open-source software platform for medical image segmentation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namías, R.; D'Amato, J. P.; del Fresno, M.

    2017-11-01

    Segmenting 2D and 3D images is a crucial and challenging problem in medical image analysis. Although several image segmentation algorithms have been proposed for different applications, no universal method currently exists. Moreover, their use is usually limited when detection of complex and multiple adjacent objects of interest is needed. In addition, the continually increasing volumes of medical imaging scans require more efficient segmentation software design and highly usable applications. In this context, we present an extension of our previous segmentation framework which allows the combination of existing explicit deformable models in an efficient and transparent way, handling simultaneously different segmentation strategies and interacting with a graphic user interface (GUI). We present the object-oriented design and the general architecture which consist of two layers: the GUI at the top layer, and the processing core filters at the bottom layer. We apply the framework for segmenting different real-case medical image scenarios on public available datasets including bladder and prostate segmentation from 2D MRI, and heart segmentation in 3D CT. Our experiments on these concrete problems show that this framework facilitates complex and multi-object segmentation goals while providing a fast prototyping open-source segmentation tool.

  6. Development and characterization of electron sources for diffraction applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casandruc, Albert

    2015-12-01

    The dream to control chemical reactions that are essential to life is now closer than ever to gratify. Recent scientific progress has made it possible to investigate phenomena and processes which deploy at the angstroms scale and at rates on the order femtoseconds. Techniques such as Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) are currently able to reveal the spatial atomic configuration of systems with unit cell sizes on the order of a few nanometers with about 100 femtosecond temporal resolution. Still, major advances are needed for structural interrogation of biological systems like protein crystals, which have unit cell sizes of 10 nanometers or larger, and sample sizes of less than one micrometer. For such samples, the performance of these electron-based techniques is now limited by the quality, in particular the brightness, of the electron source. The current Ph.D. work represents a contribution towards the development and the characterization of electron sources which are essential to static and time-resolved electron diffraction techniques. The focus was on electron source fabrication and electron beam characterization measurements, using the solenoid and the aperture scan techniques, but also on the development and maintenance of the relevant experimental setups. As a result, new experimental facilities are now available in the group and, at the same time, novel concepts for generating electron beams for electron diffraction applications have been developed. In terms of existing electron sources, the capability to trigger and detect field emission from single double-gated field emitter Mo tips was successfully proven. These sharp emitter tips promise high brightness electron beams, but for investigating individual such structures, new engineering was needed. Secondly, the influence of the surface electric field on electron beam properties has been systematically performed for flat Mo photocathodes. This study is very valuable especially for state

  7. Extended gamma sources modelling using multipole expansion: Application to the Tunisian gamma source load planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loussaief, Abdelkader

    2007-01-01

    In this work we extend the use of multipole moments expansion to the case of inner radiation fields. A series expansion of the photon flux was established. The main advantage of this approach is that it offers the opportunity to treat both inner and external radiation field cases. We determined the expression of the inner multipole moments in both spherical harmonics and in cartesian coordinates. As an application we applied the analytical model to a radiation facility used for small target irradiation. Theoretical, experimental and simulation studies were performed, in air and in a product, and good agreement was reached.Conventional dose distribution study for gamma irradiation facility involves the use of isodose maps. The establishment of these maps requires the measurement of the absorbed dose in many points, which makes the task expensive experimentally and very long by simulation. However, a lack of points of measurement can distort the dose distribution cartography. To overcome these problems, we present in this paper a mathematical method to describe the dose distribution in air. This method is based on the multipole expansion in spherical harmonics of the photon flux emitted by the gamma source. The determination of the multipole coefficients of this development allows the modeling of the radiation field around the gamma source. (Author)

  8. Air source absorption heat pump in district heating: Applicability analysis and improvement options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wei; Shi, Wenxing; Li, Xianting; Wang, Baolong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Applicability of air source absorption heat pump (ASAHP) district heating is studied. • Return temperature and energy saving rate (ESR) in various conditions are optimized. • ASAHP is more suitable for shorter distance or lower temperature district heating. • Two options can reduce the primary return temperature and improve the applicability. • The maximum ESR is improved from 13.6% to 20.4–25.6% by compression-assisted ASAHP. - Abstract: The low-temperature district heating system based on the air source absorption heat pump (ASAHP) was assessed to have great energy saving potential. However, this system may require smaller temperature drop leading to higher pump consumption for long-distance distribution. Therefore, the applicability of ASAHP-based district heating system is analyzed for different primary return temperatures, pipeline distances, pipeline resistances, supplied water temperatures, application regions, and working fluids. The energy saving rate (ESR) under different conditions are calculated, considering both the ASAHP efficiency and the distribution consumption. Results show that ASAHP system is more suitable for short-distance district heating, while for longer-distance heating, lower supplied hot water temperature is preferred. In addition, the advantages of NH 3 /H 2 O are inferior to those of NH 3 /LiNO 3 , and the advantages for warmer regions and lower pipeline resistance are more obvious. The primary return temperatures are optimized to obtain maximum ESRs, after which the suitable distances under different acceptable ESRs are summarized. To improve the applicability of ASAHP, the integration of cascaded heat exchanger (CHX) and compression-assisted ASAHP (CASAHP) are proposed, which can reduce the primary return temperature. The integration of CHX can effectively improve the applicability of ASAHP under higher supplied water temperatures. As for the utilization of CASAHP, higher compression ratio (CR) is better in

  9. Discussion on application of water source heat pump technology to uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Application of water source heat pump units in recovering waste heat from uranium mines is discussed, and several forms of waste heat recovery are introduced. The problems in the application of water source heat pump technology are analyzed. Analysis results show that the water source heat pump technology has broad application prospects in uranium mines, and it is a way to exchange existing structure of heat and cold sources in uranium mines. (authors)

  10. Effect of voltage source internal resistance on the SQUID bootstrap circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hui; Zhang, Guofeng; Wang, Yongliang; Zhang, Yi; Xie, Xiaoming; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Braginski, Alex I.; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The voltage-biased SQUID bootstrap circuit (SBC) is suitable for achieving simple and low-noise direct readout of dc SQUIDs. In practice, an ideal voltage bias is difficult to realize because of non-zero internal resistance Rin of the bias voltage source. In order to clearly observe the influence of Rin on the SBC parameters (namely the flux-to-current transfer coefficient (∂I/∂Φ)SBC and the dynamic resistance Rd(SBC)) and the noise performance, we introduced an additional adjustable resistor Rad at room temperature to simulate a variable Rin between the SQUID and the preamplifier. We found that the measured SQUID flux noise does not rise, even though Rad increases significantly. This result demonstrates that a highly resistive connection can be inserted between the liquid-helium-cooled SQUID and the room-temperature readout electronics in the SBC scheme, thus reducing the conductive heat loss of the system. This work will be significant for developing multichannel SBC readout systems, e.g. for biomagnetism, and systems using SQUIDs as amplifiers, for example, in TES-array readout.

  11. Resistance to radiation and concretes thermal cycles for conditioning of spent radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez N, M.; Monroy G, F.; Gonzalez D, R. C.; Corona P, I. J.; Ortiz A, G.

    2014-10-01

    In order to know the concrete type most suitable for use as a matrix of conditioning of spent radioactive sources, concrete test tubes using 4 different types of cement were prepared: CPC 30-Rs Extra, CPC 30-R Impercem, CPC 30-R Rs and CPC 30-R with two gravel sizes >30 mm and <10 mm. The concrete test tubes were subjected to testing compressive strength after 28 days of hardening and after being irradiated and subjected to thermal cycles. Subsequently they were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, in order to evaluate whether these concretes accredited the tests set by the NOM-019-Nucl-1995. The results show that the compressive strength of the hardened concretes to 28 days presents values between 36 and 25 MPa; applying irradiation the resistance may decrease to 30% of its original strength; and if subjected to high and low temperatures the ettringite formation also causes a decrease in resistance. The results show that concretes made from cement Impercem, Cruz Azul with gravel <10 mm comply with the provisions of standard and they can be used for conditioning of spent radioactive sources. (Author)

  12. Collagen: A review on its sources and potential cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Rodríguez, María Isabela; Rodríguez Barroso, Laura G; Sánchez, Mirna Lorena

    2018-02-01

    Collagen is a fibrillar protein that conforms the conjunctive and connective tissues in the human body, essentially skin, joints, and bones. This molecule is one of the most abundant in many of the living organisms due to its connective role in biological structures. Due to its abundance, strength and its directly proportional relation with skin aging, collagen has gained great interest in the cosmetic industry. It has been established that the collagen fibers are damaged with the pass of time, losing thickness and strength which has been strongly related with skin aging phenomena [Colágeno para todo. 60 y más. 2016. http://www.revista60ymas.es/InterPresent1/groups/revistas/documents/binario/ses330informe.pdf.]. As a solution, the cosmetic industry incorporated collagen as an ingredient of different treatments to enhance the user youth and well-being, and some common presentations are creams, nutritional supplement for bone and cartilage regeneration, vascular and cardiac reconstruction, skin replacement, and augmentation of soft skin among others [J App Pharm Sci. 2015;5:123-127]. Nowadays, the biomolecule can be obtained by extraction from natural sources such as plants and animals or by recombinant protein production systems including yeast, bacteria, mammalian cells, insects or plants, or artificial fibrils that mimic collagen characteristics like the artificial polymer commercially named as KOD. Because of its increased use, its market size is valued over USD 6.63 billion by 2025 [Collagen Market By Source (Bovine, Porcine, Poultry, Marine), Product (Gelatin, Hydrolyzed Collagen), Application (Food & Beverages, Healthcare, Cosmetics), By Region, And Segment Forecasts, 2014 - 2025. Grand View Research. http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/collagen-market. Published 2017.]. Nevertheless, there has been little effort on identifying which collagen types are the most suitable for cosmetic purposes, for which the present review will try to enlighten

  13. Improving the accuracy of the transient plane source method by correcting probe heat capacity and resistance influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanning; Shi, Chunfeng; Liu, Jian; Liu, Errui; Shao, Jian; Chen, Zhi; Dorantes-Gonzalez, Dante J; Hu, Xiaotang

    2014-01-01

    The transient plane source (TPS) method is a relatively newly developed transient approach for thermal conductivity measurement. Compared with the steady-state method, it is fast, and applicable to either solid, liquid or gas state materials; therefore, it has gained much popularity in recent years. However, during measurement, the measured power is influenced by the heat capacity of the electrical isolation films as well as the electrical resistance change of the metallic thin wire of the TPS probes. This further influences the measurement precision. Meanwhile, these two factors have been ignored in the traditional model of TPS developed by Gustafsson. In this paper, the influence of both the heat capacity and the resistance change of the TPS probe on the measured power is studied, and mathematical formulas relating the two factors and their respective corrections are deduced. Thereafter an improved model is suggested based on the traditional TPS model and the above theoretical models. Experiments on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) standard materials have been conducted using a home-made system, including TPS probes, data acquisition module and analysis software. The results show that the improved model can effectively improve the measurement precision of the TPS method by about 1.8–2.3% as evaluated by relative standard deviation. (paper)

  14. Effect of protein source and resistance training on body composition and sex hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krieger Diane R

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests an inverse relationship between soy protein intake and serum concentrations of male sex hormones. Anecdotal evidence indicates that these alterations in serum sex hormones may attenuate changes in lean body mass following resistance training. However, little empirical data exists regarding the effects of soy and milk-based proteins on circulating androgens and exercise induced body composition changes. Methods For 12 weeks 20 subjects were supplemented with 50 g per day of one of four different protein sources (Soy concentrate; Soy isolate; Soy isolate and whey blend, and Whey blend only in combination with a resistance-training program. Body composition, testosterone, estradiol and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG were measured at baseline and week 12. Results Protein supplementation resulted in a significant increase in lean body mass independent of protein source (0.5 ± 1.1 and 0.9 ± 1.4 kg, p = 0.006, p = 0.007. No significant differences were observed between groups for total and free testosterone, SHBG, percentage body fat, BMI or body weight. The Testosterone/Estradiol ratio increased across all groups (+13.4, p = 0.005 and estradiol decreased (p = 0.002. Within group analysis showed significant increases in the Testosterone/Estradiol ratio in soy isolate + whey blend group (+16.3, p = 0.030. Estradiol was significantly lower in the whey blend group (-9.1 ± 8.7 pg/ml, p = 0.033. Conclusion This investigation shows that 12 week supplementation with soy protein does not decrease serum testosterone or inhibit lean body mass changes in subjects engaged in a resistance exercise program.

  15. Low-frequency, high-density, inductively coupled plasma sources: Operation and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S.; Ostrikov, K. N.; Li, Y.; Tsakadze, E. L.; Jones, I. R.

    2001-05-01

    Operation regimes, plasma parameters, and applications of the low-frequency (˜500 kHz) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources with a planar external coil are investigated. It is shown that highly uniform, high-density (ne˜9×1012 cm-3) plasmas can be produced in low-pressure argon discharges with moderate rf powers. The low-frequency ICP sources operate in either electrostatic (E) or electromagnetic (H) regimes in a wide pressure range without any Faraday shield or an external multipolar magnetic confinement, and exhibit high power transfer efficiency, and low circuit loss. In the H mode, the ICP features high level of uniformity over large processing areas and volumes, low electron temperatures, and plasma potentials. The low-density, highly uniform over the cross-section, plasmas with high electron temperatures and plasma and sheath potentials are characteristic to the electrostatic regime. Both operation regimes offer great potential for various plasma processing applications. As examples, the efficiency of the low-frequency ICP for steel nitriding and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, is demonstrated. It appears possible to achieve very high nitriding rates and dramatically increase micro-hardness and wear resistance of the AISI 304 stainless steel. It is also shown that the deposition rates and mechanical properties of the DLC films can be efficiently controlled by selecting the discharge operating regime.

  16. Persistence and resistance to extinction in the domestic dog: Basic research and applications to canine training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nathaniel J

    2017-08-01

    This review summarizes the research investigating behavioral persistence and resistance to extinction in the dog. The first part of this paper reviews Behavioral Momentum Theory and its applications to Applied Behavior Analysis and training of pet dogs with persistent behavioral problems. I also highlight how research on Behavioral Momentum Theory can be applied to the training of detection dogs in an attempt to enhance detection performance in the presence of behavioral disruptors common in operational settings. In the second part of this review, I highlight more basic research on behavioral persistence with dogs, and how breed differences and experiences with humans as alternative sources of reinforcement can influence dogs' resistance to extinction of a target behavior. Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Momentum Theory have important applications for behavioral treatments to reduce the persistence of problem behavior in dogs and for the development of enhanced training methods that enhance the persistence of working dogs. Dogs can also be leveraged as natural models of stereotypic behavior and for exploring individual differences in behavioral persistence by evaluating breed and environmental variables associated with differences in canine persistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tunable light source for fiber optic lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Nadarajah; Bierman, Andrew; Finney, Mark J.; Edwards, Ian K.

    1997-09-01

    This paper examines the possibility of tuning the lamp spectrum to compensate for color distortions in fiber optic lighting systems. Because most optical fibers have strong absorption in the blue and red wavelength regions, white light entering and propagating down an optical fiber suffers varied amounts of attenuation as a function of wavelength. As a result, the light exiting the optical fiber has a greenish tint that the lighting design community considers undesirable in interior lighting applications. HID lamps are commonly used for the light source in this industry. Certain classes of HID lamps tend to shift in color when their operating position or the input voltage to the lamp is changed. An experimental study is being conducted to characterize the color shift properties of a small HID lamp as a function of tilt and input voltage. The study also examines the possibility of exploiting this color shift to compensate for the color distortions caused by optical fibers. The details of the experiment and the results are presented in this manuscript.

  18. Liquid Li based neutron source for BNCT and science application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiike, H; Murata, I; Iida, T; Yoshihashi, S; Hoashi, E; Kato, I; Hashimoto, N; Kuri, S; Oshiro, S

    2015-12-01

    Liquid lithium (Li) is a candidate material for a target of intense neutron source, heat transfer medium in space engines and charges stripper. For a medical application of BNCT, epithermal neutrons with least energetic neutrons and γ-ray are required so as to avoid unnecessary doses to a patient. This is enabled by lithium target irradiated by protons at 2.5 MeV range, with utilizing the threshold reaction of (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be at 1.88 MeV. In the system, protons at 2.5 MeV penetrate into Li layer by 0.25 mm with dissipating heat load near the surface. To handle it, thin film flow of high velocity is important for stable operation. For the proton accelerator, electrostatic type of the Schnkel or the tandem is planned to be employed. Neutrons generated at 0.6 MeV are gently moderated to epithermal energy while suppressing accompanying γ-ray minimum by the dedicated moderator assembly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pediocins: The bacteriocins of Pediococci. Sources, production, properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiadou Sofia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Class IIa bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria are small, cationic proteins with antilisterial activity. Within this class, the pediocins are those bacteriocins that share a highly conserved hydrophilic and charged N-terminal part harboring the consensus sequence -YGNGV- and a more variable hydrophobic and/or amphiphilic C-terminal part. Several pediocins have been isolated and characterized. Despite the structural similarities, their molecular weight varies, as well as their spectrum of antimicrobial activity. They exhibit important technological properties, e.g. thermostability and retaining of activity at a wide pH range, which along with the bactericidal action against Gram-positive food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, make them an important class of biopreservatives. Much new information regarding the pediocins has emerged during the last years. In this review, we summarize and discuss all the available information regarding the sources of pediocins, the characteristics of their biosynthesis and production in fermentation systems, the characteristics of the known pediocin molecules, and their antibacterial action. The advances made by genetic engineering in improving the features of pediocins are also discussed, as well as their perspectives for future applications.

  20. Potential of Zanthoxylum leprieurii as a source of active compounds against drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunalema, Lydia; Fotso, Ghislain Wabo; Waako, Paul; Tabuti, John; Yeboah, Samuel O

    2017-02-02

    μg/ml and 3.5 μg/ml respectively. The results of this study suggest that Z. leprieurii is active on resistant strains of M. tuberculosis and could be a potential source of new leads against resistant tuberculosis. It also verifies the local use of the plant in treatment of tuberculosis.

  1. Identification of Novel Source of Resistance and Differential Response of Allium Genotypes to Purple Blotch Pathogen, Alternaria porri (Ellis Ciferri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyabrata Nanda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purple blotch, caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis Cifferi, is a serious disease incurring heavy yield losses in the bulb and seed crop of onion and garlic worldwide. There is an immediate need for identification of effective resistance sources for use in host resistance breeding. A total of 43 Allium genotypes were screened for purple blotch resistance under field conditions. Allium cepa accession ‘CBT-Ac77’ and cultivar ‘Arka Kalyan’ were observed to be highly resistant. In vitro inoculation of a selected set of genotypes with A. porri, revealed that 7 days after inoculation was suitable to observe the disease severity. In vitro screening of 43 genotypes for resistance to A. porri revealed two resistant lines. An additional 14 genotypes showed consistent moderate resistance in the field as well as in vitro evaluations. Among the related Allium species, A. schoenoprasum and A. roylei showed the least disease index and can be used for interspecific hybridization with cultivated onion. Differential reaction analysis of three A. porri isolates (Apo-Chiplima, Apn-Nasik, Apg-Guntur in 43 genotypes revealed significant variation among the evaluated Allium species (P = 0.001. All together, the present study suggest that, the newly identified resistance sources can be used as potential donors for ongoing purple blotch resistance breeding program in India.

  2. Fabrication of high rate chromium getter sources for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbard, W.A.; Simpkins, J.E.; Mioduszewski, P.; Edmonds, P.H.

    1983-01-01

    Design and fabrication techniques are described for the manufacture of large-capacity chromium getter sources, analogous to the commercially available titanium getter source known as Ti-Ball, manufactured by Varian Associates

  3. Application of source biasing technique for energy efficient DECODER circuit design: memory array application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neha; Parihar, Priyanka; Neema, Vaibhav

    2018-04-01

    Researchers have proposed many circuit techniques to reduce leakage power dissipation in memory cells. If we want to reduce the overall power in the memory system, we have to work on the input circuitry of memory architecture i.e. row and column decoder. In this research work, low leakage power with a high speed row and column decoder for memory array application is designed and four new techniques are proposed. In this work, the comparison of cluster DECODER, body bias DECODER, source bias DECODER, and source coupling DECODER are designed and analyzed for memory array application. Simulation is performed for the comparative analysis of different DECODER design parameters at 180 nm GPDK technology file using the CADENCE tool. Simulation results show that the proposed source bias DECODER circuit technique decreases the leakage current by 99.92% and static energy by 99.92% at a supply voltage of 1.2 V. The proposed circuit also improves dynamic power dissipation by 5.69%, dynamic PDP/EDP 65.03% and delay 57.25% at 1.2 V supply voltage.

  4. Source, pattern and antibiotic resistance of blood stream infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mahallawy, H.; Samir, I.; Kadry, D.; Abdel Fattah, R.; El-Kholy, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucositis developing as a result of myelo-ablative high dose therapy administered prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with the risk of bacteremia. The aim of the present study was to detect the pattern of bacteremia coinciding with the present practice of HSCT, to study the contribution of health-care associated infection (HAI) to the pattern of infection, in the context of the problem of antibiotic resistance in HSCT recipients. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective, single center study including patients who developed febrile neutropenia (FN) among HSCT recipients in one year duration. Results: Ninety FN episodes were recorded in 50 patients. Out of 39 positive blood cultures, Gram negative rods (GNR) were the predominant pathogens, constituting 67% (n =26) of isolated organisms, while 33% of infections were caused by gram positive cocci (GPC) (n= 13). Bacteremia was significantly associated with central venous line (CVL) infections and gastroenteritis (diarrhea and vomiting) with a p-value 0.024, 0.20 and 0.0001, respectively. Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) were identified in 27 (69%) of the 39 positive blood cultures. Conclusion: In one year duration, gram negative pathogens were the predominant causes of infection in HSCT recipients with high rates of MDROs in our institution. Gastroenteritis and central venous line infections are the main sources of bacteremia

  5. Solvent and Thermally Resistant Polymeric Membranes for Different Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Taghreeed, Jalal

    2016-11-01

    In this work polymeric materials were developed to be used as a solvent and heat resistance membrane for different applications. In ultrafiltration, poly (ether imide sulfone) membranes were manufactured by combining phase inversion and functionalization reaction between epoxy groups and amine modified polyether oligomers (Jeffamine®). Polysilsesquioxanes or oligo silsesquioxanes containing epoxy functionalities were in-situ grown in the casting solution and made available for further reaction with amines in the coagulation/annealing baths. Water permeances up to 1500 l m-2 h-1 bar-1 were obtained with sharp pore size distribution and a pore diameter peak at 66 nm, confirmed by porosimetry, allowing 99.2 % rejection of γ-globulin. The membranes were stable in 50:50 dimethylformamide/water, 50:50 N-methyl pyrrolidone/water and 100 % tetrahydrofuran. In pervaporation, Novel hydrophobic Hyflon®/Extem® and Hyflon®/PVDF were developed and investigated for ethylene glycol dehydration and n-butanol dehydration respectively. For ethylene glycol different Extem® concentrations were evaluated with regard to both flux and amount of water in the permeate side. Eighteen (18) wt% gave more than 90 wt% water in the permeate. Increasing feed temperature from 25 to 85°C increased the water flux from 31 to 91 g m-2 h-1 when using 5 wt% water in ethylene glycol as feed. The water flux of 40 wt% water:ethylene glycol at 45°C was found to be 350 g m-2 h-1. And for n-butanol dehydration the coating protocols for thin defect-free Hyflon® selective layer on the PVDF support was optimized. Water and n-butanol transport was measured, analyzing the effect of operating conditions. The water flux through the newly developed membranes was higher than 150 g m-2 h-1 with selectivity for water higher than 99 wt%. The membrane application can be extended to other solvents, supporting an effective and simple method for dehydration with hydrophobic membranes. In membrane distillation, PVDF

  6. Application of Monte Carlo Method for Evaluation of Uncertainties of ITS-90 by Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenčár, Rudolf; Sopkuliak, Peter; Palenčár, Jakub; Ďuriš, Stanislav; Suroviak, Emil; Halaj, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Evaluation of uncertainties of the temperature measurement by standard platinum resistance thermometer calibrated at the defining fixed points according to ITS-90 is a problem that can be solved in different ways. The paper presents a procedure based on the propagation of distributions using the Monte Carlo method. The procedure employs generation of pseudo-random numbers for the input variables of resistances at the defining fixed points, supposing the multivariate Gaussian distribution for input quantities. This allows taking into account the correlations among resistances at the defining fixed points. Assumption of Gaussian probability density function is acceptable, with respect to the several sources of uncertainties of resistances. In the case of uncorrelated resistances at the defining fixed points, the method is applicable to any probability density function. Validation of the law of propagation of uncertainty using the Monte Carlo method is presented on the example of specific data for 25 Ω standard platinum resistance thermometer in the temperature range from 0 to 660 °C. Using this example, we demonstrate suitability of the method by validation of its results.

  7. Intakes of Carbohydrates and Resistant Starch Food Sources Among Regular Exercisers in Blacksburg, VA and San Jose, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Dengo, Ana Laura

    2005-01-01

    Carbohydrates and fats are the main fuel sources for energy production during exercise. Consumption of low glycemic index foods slows digestion and absorption in the small intestine. The slow digestibility of resistant starch containing foods contributes to the slow and sustained release of glucose into the bloodstream, minimizing occurrence of hyperinsulinemia-induced suppression of lipolysis. The objectives of this study were to determine the consumption of resistant starch (RS) by regular...

  8. HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations: Potential Applications for Point-of-Care Genotypic Resistance Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhee, Soo-Yon; Jordan, Michael R.; Raizes, Elliot; Chua, Arlene; Parkin, Neil; Kantor, Rami; van Zyl, Gert U.; Mukui, Irene; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Frenkel, Lisa M.; Ndembi, Nicaise; Hamers, Raph L.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Wallis, Carole L.; Gupta, Ravindra K.; Fokam, Joseph; Zeh, Clement; Schapiro, Jonathan M.; Carmona, Sergio; Katzenstein, David; Tang, Michele; Aghokeng, Avelin F.; de Oliveira, Tulio; Wensing, Annemarie M. J.; Gallant, Joel E.; Wainberg, Mark A.; Richman, Douglas D.; Fitzgibbon, Joseph E.; Schito, Marco; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Yang, Chunfu; Shafer, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of acquired and transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance is an obstacle to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV-1 pandemic. Genotypic drug resistance testing could facilitate the choice of initial ART in

  9. HIV-1 drug resistance mutations : Potential applications for point-of-care Genotypic resistance testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhee, Soo Yon; Jordan, Michael R.; Raizes, Elliot; Chua, Arlene; Parkin, Neil; Kantor, Rami; Van Zy, Gert U.; Mukui, Irene; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Frenkel, Lisa M.; Ndembi, Nicaise; Hamers, Raph L.; De Wit, Tobias F Rinke; Wallis, Carole L.; Gupta, Ravindra K.; Fokam, Joseph; Zeh, Clement; Schapiro, Jonathan M.; Carmona, Sergio; Katzenstein, David; Tang, Michele; Aghokeng, Avelin F.; De Oliveira, Tulio; Wensing, Annemarie M J; Gallant, Joel E.; Wainberg, Mark A.; Richman, Douglas D.; Fitzgibbon, Joseph E.; Schito, Marco; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Yang, Chunfu; Shafer, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of acquired and transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance is an obstacle to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV-1 pandemic. Genotypic drug resistance testing could facilitate the choice of initial ART in

  10. The attribution of human infections with antimicrobial resistant Salmonella bacteria in Denmark to sources of animal origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M. A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2007-01-01

    Based on the Danish Salmonella surveillance in 2000-2001, we developed a mathematical model for quantifying the contribution of each major animal-food sources to human salmonellosis caused by antimicrobial resistant bacteria. Domestic food products accounted for 53.1% of all cases, mainly caused......, but infections with multidrug- and quinolone-resistant isolates were more commonly caused by imported food products and travelling, emphasizing the need for a global perspective on food safety and antimicrobial usage....... by table eggs (37.6%). A large proportion (19%) of cases were travel related, while 18% could not be associated with any source. Imported food products accounted for 9.5% of all cases; the most important source being imported chicken. Multidrug and quinolone resistance was rarely found in cases acquired...

  11. Development of hollow anode penning ion source for laboratory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B. K.; Shyam, A.; Das, R.; Rao, A. D. P.

    2012-03-01

    The research work presented here focuses for the development of miniature penning type ion source. One hollow anode penning type ion source was developed in our laboratory. The size of the ion source is 38 mm diameter and 55 mm length. The ion source consists of two cathodes, a hollow anode and one piece of rare earth permanent magnet. The plasma was created in the plasma region between cathodes and the hollow anode. The J × B force in the region helps for efficient ionization of the gas even in the high vacuum region˜1×10 -5 Torr. The ions were extracted in the axial direction with help of the potential difference between the electrodes and the geometry of the extraction angle. The effect of the extraction electrode geometry for efficient extraction of the ions from the plasma region was examined. This ion source is a self extracted ion source. The self extracted phenomena reduce the cost and the size of the ion source. The extracted ion current was measured by a graphite probe. An ion current of more than 200 μA was observed at the probe placed 70 mm apart from the extraction electrode. In this paper, the structure of the ion source, effect of operating pressure, potential difference and the magnetic field on the extracted ion current is reported.

  12. Production and delivery of sealed radioactive sources for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuturici, Ioan Liviu; Gentea, Cristian

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results obtained at the hot cell facility (LEPI) of the RAAN-SCN Pitesti in the activity of production and delivery of sealed radioactive sources ( 192 Ir). The sealed sources are produced by encapsulation using tungsten gas welding of iridium pellets in stainless steel capsules. The iridium pellets are produced at the materials department of the SCN and are irradiated in the TRIGA-SSR. At the end of the irradiation time the pellets are transferred to the hot cell facility for processing. The sealed sources are delivered to different customers from the Romanian industry, to be used for nondestructive testing of the welded joints, moulds and reinforced concrete. Particularly, the paper contains details about: - low sheet for sealed source production and delivery; - types of sealed sources produced and delivered; - results of the production activity between 1993-2000. (authors)

  13. Genetic diversity/impurity estimation in sources of natural resistance against cotton leaf curl disease in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, G.

    2007-01-01

    Cotton accounts for more than 60% of Pakistan's export earnings through the export of both raw cotton and cotton products. An epidemic of cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) in Pakistan during the 1990s led to the withdrawal of high yielding cotton cultivars. Due of their susceptibility to the disease. The identification of natural resistance in some genotypes provided a means to manage reduce losses due to the disease. But it has been an adversity that almost all these resistant varieties have ultimately 'lost' their resistance. There are also reports that the original sources of resistance, as well as the varieties developed from them, are now susceptible to the disease when grafted with infected scion. For the present studies. Seed of two resistant varieties (LRA-5166 and (CP-152) was obtained from six different research organizations. Plants raised from these seed were grafted with symptomatic scion and used for morphological comparisons. Our results indicated that the genetic pool of these cultivars is not well maintained and that an unacceptable diversity impurity is present within and among the genetic stock of both these lines. There is thus a requirement for screening of these elite lines at the molecular level to ensure the purity of these varieties for future development. The virus causing CLCuD showed change by recombination making the search for new sources of resistance, as well as the maintenance of established sources, indispensable for the sustainable cotton production in Pakistan. (author)

  14. Molecular markers associated with a new source of resistance to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, molecular markers associated with resistance to CMD in a resistant landrace were identified, using F1 progenies derived from a cross between the CMD resistant landrace TME7 and the susceptible line TMS30555, as a first step in marker assisted breeding for CMD resistance. Bulk segregant analysis (BSA) on ...

  15. Comparison of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli obtained from drinking water sources in northern Tanzania: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, Beatus; Buza, Joram; Subbiah, Murugan; Smith, Woutrina; Call, Douglas R

    2016-11-03

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing and significant threat to public health on a global scale. Escherichia coli comprises Gram-negative, fecal-borne pathogenic and commensal bacteria that are frequently associated with antibiotic resistance. AMR E. coli can be ingested via food, water and direct contact with fecal contamination. We estimated the prevalence of AMR Escherichia coli from select drinking water sources in northern Tanzania. Water samples (n = 155) were collected and plated onto Hi-Crome E. coli and MacConkey agar. Presumptive E. coli were confirmed by using a uidA PCR assay. Antibiotic susceptibility breakpoint assays were used to determine the resistance patterns of each isolate for 10 antibiotics. Isolates were also characterized by select PCR genotyping and macro-restriction digest assays. E. coli was isolated from 71 % of the water samples, and of the 1819 E. coli tested, 46.9 % were resistant to one or more antibiotics. Resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and trimethoprim was significantly higher (15-30 %) compared to other tested antibiotics (0-6 %; P E. coli isolates obtained from these water sources were genetically diverse with few matching macro-restriction digest patterns. Water supplies in northern Tanzania may be a source of AMR E. coli for people and animals. Further studies are needed to identify the source of these contaminants and devise effective intervention strategies.

  16. Effect of Different Carbon Sources on Bacterial Nanocellulose Production and Structure Using the Low pH Resistant Strain Komagataeibacter Medellinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Molina-Ramírez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose (BC is a polymer obtained by fermentation with microorganism of different genera. Recently, new producer species have been discovered, which require identification of the most important variables affecting cellulose production. In this work, the influence of different carbon sources in BC production by a novel low pH-resistant strain Komagataeibacter medellinensis was established. The Hestrin-Schramm culture medium was used as a reference and was compared to other media comprising glucose, fructose, and sucrose, used as carbon sources at three concentrations (1, 2, and 3% w/v. The BC yield and dynamics of carbon consumption were determined at given fermentation times during cellulose production. While the carbon source did not influence the BC structural characteristics, different production levels were determined: glucose > sucrose > fructose. These results highlight considerations to improve BC industrial production and to establish the BC property space for applications in different fields.

  17. 75 FR 78268 - Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... of Justice Programs Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for... of Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement... the general public the draft ``NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor...

  18. Irradiation tests of radiation resistance optical fibers for fusion diagnostic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi; Shikama, Tatsuo; Nishitani, Takeo; Yamamoto, Shin; Nagata, Shinji; Tsuchiya, Bun; Toh, Kentaro; Hori, Junichi

    2002-11-01

    To promote development of radiation-resistant core optical fibers, the ITER-EDA (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-Engineering Design Activity) recommended carrying out international round-robin irradiation tests of optical fibers to establish a reliable database for their applications in the ITER plasma diagnostics. Ten developed optical fibers were irradiation-tested in a Co-60 gamma cell, a Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). Also, some of them were irradiation tested in a fast neutron irradiation facility of FNS (Fast Neutron Source), especially to study temperature dependence of neutron-associated irradiation effects. Included were several Japanese fluorine doped fibers and one Japanese standard fiber (purified and undoped silica core), as well as seven Russian fibers. Some of Russian fibers were drawn by Japanese manufactures from Russian made pre-form rods to study effects of manufacturing processes to radiation resistant properties. The present paper will describe behaviors of growth of radiation-induced optical transmission loss in the wavelength range of 350-1750nm. Results indicate that role of displacement damages by fast neutrons are very important in introducing permanent optical transmission loss. Spectra of optical transmission loss in visible range will depend on irradiation temperatures and material parameters of optical fibers.

  19. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics and morphology in high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance: focus on dietary fat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba ePutti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that skeletal muscle mitochondria play a key role in high fat diet induced insulin resistance. Two opposite views are debated on mechanisms by which mitochondrial function could be involved in skeletal muscle insulin resistance. In one theory, mitochondrial dysfunction is suggested to cause intramyocellular lipid accumulation leading to insulin resistance. In the second theory, excess fuel within mitochondria in the absence of increased energy demand stimulates mitochondrial oxidant production and emission, ultimately leading to the development of insulin resistance. Noteworthy, mitochondrial bioenergetics is strictly associated with the maintenance of normal mitochondrial morphology by maintaining the balance between the fusion and fission processes. A shift towards mitochondrial fission with reduction of fusion protein, mainly mitofusin 2, has been associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and inflammation in obesity and insulin resistance development. However, dietary fat source during chronic overfeeding differently affects mitochondrial morphology. Saturated fatty acids induce skeletal muscle insulin resistance and inflammation associated with fission phenotype, whereas ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improve skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and inflammation, associated with a shift toward mitochondrial fusion phenotype. The present minireview focuses on mitochondrial bioenergetics and morphology in skeletal muscle insulin resistance, with particular attention to the effect of different dietary fat sources on skeletal muscle mitochondria morphology and fusion/fission balance.

  20. Development and production of cobalt-60 sources for metallurgical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Paulo Fernando; Valente, Eduardo Sarmento; Maretti Junior, Fausto

    2002-01-01

    The CDTN has developed and produced 60 Co sources to be used in level controllers on continuous ingot casting. The sources used in these systems are sealed with a stainless steel revetment and have an useful life equivalent to one half life of the 60 Co (5.272 years). Each system of continuous ingot casting uses a source with one specified activity and different activation section. The sources have been imported with a very high cost due the special shields used to keep and transport them safety. One of its sources, with initial activity of 148 MBq, after being used for more than 5 years in one factory, was given to CDTN to carry out an activation section studies. After these studies be concluded CDTN/CNEN began the procedures to produce a new source in the IPR-R1 TRIGA Reactor, with an irradiation of one cobalt wire in the maximum flux region of the core. The same metallic cobalt wire was irradiated (10% of total activity), to determinate the necessary irradiation time to obtain the final activation. The CDTN developed too a stainless steel recipient with a aluminum nucleus, to seal and to guarantee the integrity of the source. (author)

  1. Research applications of the Livermore RTNS-II neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has completed construction of the Rotating Target Neutron Source-II (RTNS-II) Facility. These sources, built and operated for the Office of Fusion Energy of the Department of Energy, will be operated by LLL as a national facility for the study of materials damage processes induced by 14-MeV neutrons. Design strength of the sources is 4 x 10 13 n/s with a maximum flux of 1 X 10 13 n/cm 2 s. The 400 keV, 150 mA D + accelerators and 5000 rpm titanium--tritide target assemblies were built using experience gained with LLL's RTNS-I neutron source. The RTNS-I source, producing 6 x 10 12 n/s, is currently the most intense 14-MeV source available. RTNS-I has been used for fusion reactor materials studies for the past six years. The experimental program for the new sources will be oriented toward fundamental measurements of high energy neutron-induced effects. The data produced will be used to develop models of damage processes to help guide materials selection for future fusion reactors

  2. Development of a multicusp H- ion source for accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, R.L.; Stevens, R.R. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a multicusp surface-production H - ion source (Berkeley concept) designed specifically for accelerator use is described. The goal of this development effort has been to provide a suitable H - ion source for the Proton Storage Ring now being constructed at LAMPF. The ion source that has been developed is now capable of long-term operation at 20 mA of H - current at 10% duty factor and with normalized beam emittance of 0.13 cm-mrad (95% beam fraction). The development program will be described with particular emphasis on beam emittance measurements

  3. Postulation of rust resistance genes in Nordic spring wheat genotypes and identification of widely effective sources of resistance against the Australian rust flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Mandeep; Bansal, Urmil; Lillemo, Morten; Miah, Hanif; Bariana, Harbans

    2016-11-01

    Wild relatives, landraces and cultivars from different geographical regions have been demonstrated as the sources of genetic variation for resistance to rust diseases. This study involved assessment of diversity for resistance to three rust diseases among a set of Nordic spring wheat cultivars. These cultivars were tested at the seedling stage against several pathotypes of three rust pathogens in the greenhouse. All stage stem rust resistance genes Sr7b, Sr8a, Sr12, Sr15, Sr17, Sr23 and Sr30, and leaf rust resistance genes Lr1, Lr3a, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16 and Lr20 were postulated either singly or in different combinations among these cultivars. A high proportion of cultivars were identified to carry linked rust resistance genes Sr15 and Lr20. Although 51 cultivars showed variation against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) pathotypes used in this study, results were not clearly contrasting to enable postulation of stripe rust resistance genes in these genotypes. Stripe rust resistance gene Yr27 was postulated in four cultivars and Yr1 was present in cultivar Zebra. Cultivar Tjalve produced low stripe rust response against all Pst pathotypes indicating the presence either of a widely effective resistance gene or combination of genes with compensating pathogenic specificities. Several cultivars carried moderate to high level of APR to leaf rust and stripe rust. Seedling stem rust susceptible cultivar Aston exhibited moderately resistant to moderately susceptible response, whereas other cultivars belonging to this class were rated moderately susceptible or higher. Molecular markers linked with APR genes Yr48, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57, Lr68 and Sr2 detected the presence of these genes in some genotypes.

  4. Miniature, Rugged, Pulsed Laser Source for LIDAR Application Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Princeton Optronics proposes to develop a high energy pulsed laser source based on a novel approach. The approach consists of a technique to combine a large number...

  5. Design of Special Light Source for Biological Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Steinbauer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents information about design of special light sources, which is intended for photosynthesis process research, especially for photoinhibition effect. Required properties were continuous spectral characteristic with respect to photosynthetically active wavelength area, possibility of luminous flux regulation and practically zero thermal effect to illuminated object. Owing to new high-performance LED this type of light source was selected. Design of light source consisting of high efficient white LED’s, as well as experimental results, are presented. The special light source was designed and constructed for the research activity on the lichen structure in the Antarctica. This research is made by the Institute of Experimental Biology, Masaryk University, Faculty of Science.

  6. Vacuum nanoelectronic devices novel electron sources and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Evtukh, Anatoliy; Yilmazoglu, Oktay; Mimura, Hidenori; Pavlidis, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Introducing up-to-date coverage of research in electron field emission from nanostructures, Vacuum Nanoelectronic Devices outlines the physics of quantum nanostructures, basic principles of electron field emission, and vacuum nanoelectronic devices operation, and offers as insight state-of-the-art and future researches and developments.  This book also evaluates the results of research and development of novel quantum electron sources that will determine the future development of vacuum nanoelectronics. Further to this, the influence of quantum mechanical effects on high frequency vacuum nanoelectronic devices is also assessed. Key features: In-depth description and analysis of the fundamentals of Quantum Electron effects in novel electron sources. Comprehensive and up-to-date summary of the physics and technologies for THz sources for students of physical and engineering specialties and electronics engineers. Unique coverage of quantum physical results for electron-field emission and novel electron sourc...

  7. The Source Signature Estimator - System Improvements and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabel, Per; Brink, Mundy; Eidsvig, Seija; Jensen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    This presentation relates briefly to the first part of the joint project on post-survey analysis of shot-by-shot based source signature estimation. The improvements of a Source Signature Estimator system are analysed. The notional source method can give suboptimal results when not inputting the real array geometry, i.e. actual separations between the sub-arrays of an air gun array, to the notional source algorithm. This constraint has been addressed herein and was implemented for the first time in the field in summer 1997. The second part of this study will show the potential advantages for interpretation when the signature estimates are then to be applied in the data processing. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Application-driven development of plasma source technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, J.; Mantei, T. D.

    2003-09-01

    This article reviews major developments in etch- and deposition-driven plasma source technology over the past decades. We first review the radio-frequency parallel plate diode, summarizing its great impact but also its inherent problems. Ensuing sections then treat microwave plasma generation, electron cyclotron resonance power transfer enhancement, inductively coupled plasma sources, and (very briefly) the radio-frequency helicon source. We then introduce the important and relatively new issues of control of the ion energy distribution function and the tailoring of plasma chemistry, including the decoupling of chemistry from pressure and power. The emerging areas of ambient pressure plasma sources and miniature ``plasmas on a chip'' are summarized, and we conclude with a brief view to the future.

  9. Design and Applications of a 252Cf Cold Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elijah Johnson; Larry Robinson; Li Zhao

    2000-01-01

    The goal was to design a source of cold neutrons from such sources as 252 Cf, 241 Am-Be, 244 Cm-Be, or 124 Sb-Be and to find the limitations when such a source is applied to neutron activation analysis. Here, cold neutrons are neutrons with a kinetic energy 252 Cf nucleus lies in the range from 0.5 to 10 MeV, so moderation is necessary to produce a significant quantity of cold neutrons from these initial neutrons. The same is true for the other three neutron sources. The general design that was selected for the cold neutron source has two moderation regions, and the geometry was restricted to cylindrical symmetry with the sample region along the cylindrical axis. The moderation regions may have different temperatures and may contain different moderating materials. The design tasks are then to find the optimum geometry, moderating materials, and moderating temperatures. A cold neutron flux in the sample region of 2.7 x 10 -3 cold neutrons per source neutron is obtainable in a 252 Cf cold neutron source that has polyethylene as the cold and thermal moderator or with trimethylbenzene as the cold moderator and polyethylene as the thermal moderator. The neutron fluxes obtained are probably within 10% of the fluxes that would be obtained in an actual cold neutron source that is based on the model used. This flux of cold neutrons is adequate for sensitive prompt and delayed neutron activation analysis measurements. The results show that a useful flux of cold neutrons can be obtained from small amounts of 252 Cf, 241 Am, 244 Cm, or 124 Sb

  10. An inverse source location algorithm for radiation portal monitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Karen A.; Charlton, William S.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation portal monitors are being deployed at border crossings throughout the world to prevent the smuggling of nuclear and radiological materials; however, a tension exists between security and the free-flow of commerce. Delays at ports-of-entry have major economic implications, so it is imperative to minimize portal monitor screening time. We have developed an algorithm to locate a radioactive source using a distributed array of detectors, specifically for use at border crossings. To locate the source, we formulated an optimization problem where the objective function describes the least-squares difference between the actual and predicted detector measurements. The predicted measurements are calculated by solving the 3-D deterministic neutron transport equation given an estimated source position. The source position is updated using the steepest descent method, where the gradient of the objective function with respect to the source position is calculated using adjoint transport calculations. If the objective function is smaller than the convergence criterion, then the source position has been identified. This paper presents the derivation of the underlying equations in the algorithm as well as several computational test cases used to characterize its accuracy.

  11. On the applicability of nearly free electron model for resistivity calculations in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorecki, J.; Popielawski, J.

    1982-09-01

    The calculations of resistivity based on the nearly free electron model are presented for many noble and transition liquid metals. The triple ion correlation is included in resistivity formula according to SCQCA approximation. Two different methods for describing the conduction band are used. The problem of applicability of the nearly free electron model for different metals is discussed. (author)

  12. Molecular detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus harbouring β- lactamase resistance genes isolated from different sources of infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hani Raziq

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The detection and investigation of methicillin resistance staphylococci specifically S. aureus in clinical microbiology setting is very helpful both for informing the appropriate treatment of individual patients and also for the surveillance of these organisms. This study aimed at the rapid molecular detection of methicillin resistant staphylococci harbouring β-lactamase gene and determination of the efficiency of m-PCR through comparison with uniplex PCR. Methods: Standard microbiological techniques were applied for the determination of the presence of methicillin resistant S. aureus in samples recovered from different body sites of patients who attended Al-Kadhumyhia Teaching and Baghdad Teaching Hospitals. The resulting methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA isolates were subjected to uni and multiplex PCR amplifications for detecting the existence of mec A gene and β-lactamase (TEM resistance gene. Results: Half of the cases involved were found to be caused by MRSA. All the tested isolates showed positive amplification bands for the presence of mec A gene and only 48.8% of these harbored TEM gene. The obtained results revealed high sensitivity of universal bacterial and TEM primers expressed as 97.6% and 100% respectively, while the sensitivity of mec A primer was limited to 60%. Conclusion: The phenotypic identification of MRSA revealed a higher incidence rate and that different molecular techniques can yield conflicting results and it can also be concluded that resistant due to beta- lactamase production can be a crucial factor added to the previously settled methicillin resistant due to mec A gene.

  13. Rapid estimate of earthquake source duration: application to tsunami warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymond, Dominique; Jamelot, Anthony; Hyvernaud, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    We present a method for estimating the source duration of the fault rupture, based on the high-frequency envelop of teleseismic P-Waves, inspired from the original work of (Ni et al., 2005). The main interest of the knowledge of this seismic parameter is to detect abnormal low velocity ruptures that are the characteristic of the so called 'tsunami-earthquake' (Kanamori, 1972). The validation of the results of source duration estimated by this method are compared with two other independent methods : the estimated duration obtained by the Wphase inversion (Kanamori and Rivera, 2008, Duputel et al., 2012) and the duration calculated by the SCARDEC process that determines the source time function (M. Vallée et al., 2011). The estimated source duration is also confronted to the slowness discriminant defined by Newman and Okal, 1998), that is calculated routinely for all earthquakes detected by our tsunami warning process (named PDFM2, Preliminary Determination of Focal Mechanism, (Clément and Reymond, 2014)). Concerning the point of view of operational tsunami warning, the numerical simulations of tsunami are deeply dependent on the source estimation: better is the source estimation, better will be the tsunami forecast. The source duration is not directly injected in the numerical simulations of tsunami, because the cinematic of the source is presently totally ignored (Jamelot and Reymond, 2015). But in the case of a tsunami-earthquake that occurs in the shallower part of the subduction zone, we have to consider a source in a medium of low rigidity modulus; consequently, for a given seismic moment, the source dimensions will be decreased while the slip distribution increased, like a 'compact' source (Okal, Hébert, 2007). Inversely, a rapid 'snappy' earthquake that has a poor tsunami excitation power, will be characterized by higher rigidity modulus, and will produce weaker displacement and lesser source dimensions than 'normal' earthquake. References: CLément, J

  14. Modeling a Hypothetical 170Tm Source for Brachytherapy Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enger, Shirin A.; D'Amours, Michel; Beaulieu, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To perform absorbed dose calculations based on Monte Carlo simulations for a hypothetical 170 Tm source and to investigate the influence of encapsulating material on the energy spectrum of the emitted electrons and photons. Methods: GEANT4 Monte Carlo code version 9.2 patch 2 was used to simulate the decay process of 170 Tm and to calculate the absorbed dose distribution using the GEANT4 Penelope physics models. A hypothetical 170 Tm source based on the Flexisource brachytherapy design with the active core set as a pure thulium cylinder (length 3.5 mm and diameter 0.6 mm) and different cylindrical source encapsulations (length 5 mm and thickness 0.125 mm) constructed of titanium, stainless-steel, gold, or platinum were simulated. The radial dose function for the line source approximation was calculated following the TG-43U1 formalism for the stainless-steel encapsulation. Results: For the titanium and stainless-steel encapsulation, 94% of the total bremsstrahlung is produced inside the core, 4.8 and 5.5% in titanium and stainless-steel capsules, respectively, and less than 1% in water. For the gold capsule, 85% is produced inside the core, 14.2% inside the gold capsule, and a negligible amount ( 170 Tm source is primarily a bremsstrahlung source, with the majority of bremsstrahlung photons being generated in the source core and experiencing little attenuation in the source encapsulation. Electrons are efficiently absorbed by the gold and platinum encapsulations. However, for the stainless-steel capsule (or other lower Z encapsulations) electrons will escape. The dose from these electrons is dominant over the photon dose in the first few millimeter but is not taken into account by current standard treatment planning systems. The total energy spectrum of photons emerging from the source depends on the encapsulation composition and results in mean photon energies well above 100 keV. This is higher than the main gamma-ray energy peak at 84 keV. Based on our

  15. Application of source-receptor models to determine source areas of biological components (pollen and butterflies)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Alarcón; M. Àvila; J. Belmonte; C. Stefanescu; R. Izquierdo

    2010-01-01

    The source-receptor models allow the establishment of relationships between a receptor point (sampling point) and the probable source areas (regions of emission) through the association of concentration values at the receptor point with the corresponding atmospheric back-trajectories, and, together with other techniques, to interpret transport phenomena on a synoptic scale. These models are generally used in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds measured...

  16. The Development and Application of Simulative Insulation Resistance Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Chai, Ziqi; Wang, Bo; Ma, Hao

    2018-02-01

    The insulation state determines the performance and insulation life of electrical equipment, so it has to be judged in a timely and accurate manner. Insulation resistance test, as the simplest and most basic test of high voltage electric tests, can measure the insulation resistance and absorption ratio which are effective criterion of part or whole damp or dirty, breakdown, severe overheating aging and other insulation defects. It means that the electrical test personnel need to be familiar with the principle of insulation resistance test, and able to operate the insulation resistance tester correctly. At present, like the insulation resistance test, most of electrical tests are trained by physical devices with the real high voltage. Although this allows the students to truly experience the test process and notes on security, it also has certain limitations in terms of safety and test efficiency, especially for a large number of new staves needing induction training every year. This paper presents a new kind of electrical test training system based on the simulative device of dielectric loss measurement and simulative electrical testing devices. It can not only overcome the defects of current training methods, but also provide other advantages in economical efficiency and scalability. That makes it possible for the system to be allied in widespread.

  17. Antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns of Enterococcus faecalis and faecium bacteria isolated from the human and the livestock sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Sharifi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococci have emerged as a major cause of nosocomial infections and within this group, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium cause the majority of human and livestock enterococcal infections. In this article, we tried to determine antibiotics and metals resistance patterns of E. faecalis and E. faecium strains. Methods: One hundred sixty different strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium were collected from livestock sewage and the human fecal waste during 15 months. Then bacterial antibiotics sensitivity tests were carried out using the Agar disc diffusion method. Results: Generally, 100% of E. faecalis strains separated from human and livestock sources (i.e. sheep showed penicillin (P/ kanamycin (K/ nitrofurantoin (N/ loracarbef (L/ Ciprofloxacin (Cc/ ampicillin (AN/ nalidixic acid (NA/ sulfamethoxazole (S antibiotics resistance patterns. In addition, 55% of isolated E. faecium showed P/S/AN/NA antibiotics resistance patterns. Each strain showed a resistance to at least two aminoglycoside antibiotics. However, E. faecalis strains from human and the livestock sources showed 94% and 100% of resistance to nitrofurantoin, respectively. The effects of different metal concentrations was evaluated in both strains. The agar dilution method was applied in this stage. Hg at 0.05 mmol/L of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC showed toxicity to both the human and livestock Enterococcus strains. Cadmium at 1 mmol/L and 0.5 mmol/L concentrations had the most toxicity to E. faecalis and E. faecium strains, respectively. Obviously, toxicity to bacteria is less than other metals. As a result, Zn/Ni/Cu/Co resistance pattern is suggested for both strains. Finally, antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns were monitored simultaneously. Conclusion: Almost all E. faecalis strains isolated from humans and livestock showed antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns of P/K/L/Cc/S/AN/NA/Zn/Cu/Co simultaneously. Moreover, 55% of E

  18. Carbon nanotube based X-ray sources: Applications in pre-clinical and medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yueh Z.; Burk, Laurel; Wang, Ko-han; Cao, Guohua; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2011-01-01

    Field emission offers an alternate method of electron production for Bremsstrahlung based X-ray tubes. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) serve as very effective field emitters, allowing them to serve as electron sources for X-ray sources, with specific advantages over traditional thermionic tubes. CNT derived X-ray sources can create X-ray pulses of any duration and frequency, gate the X-ray pulse to any source and allow the placement of many sources in close proximity. We have constructed a number of micro-CT systems based on CNT X-ray sources for applications in small animal imaging, specifically focused on the imaging of the heart and lungs. This paper offers a review of the pre-clinical applications of the CNT based micro-CT that we have developed. We also discuss some of the current and potential clinical applications of the CNT X-ray sources.

  19. Liquid metal field-emission ion sources and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prewett, P.D.; Jefferies, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    The study of ion emission from liquid metal surfaces under the action of high electric fields has led to the development of ion sources of exceptionally high brightness. The design and operating characteristics of commercially manufactured sources of gallium and gold ions are described. Preliminary focusing and scanning experiments have produced spots estimated to be approximately 0.5 μm diameter at currents approximately 0.2 nA using an electrostatic ion optical system. A focused Ga + beam has been used as an ion microprobe for imaging and for elemental mapping of surfaces by SIMS. (author)

  20. Diode laser based light sources for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Marschall, Sebastian; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2013-01-01

    Diode lasers are by far the most efficient lasers currently available. With the ever-continuing improvement in diode laser technology, this type of laser has become increasingly attractive for a wide range of biomedical applications. Compared to the characteristics of competing laser systems, diode...... imaging. This review provides an overview of the latest development of diode laser technology and systems and their use within selected biomedical applications....

  1. Determination and Application of Comprehensive Specific Frictional Resistance in Heating Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze the deficiencies of specific frictional resistance in heating engineering. Based on economic specific frictional resistance, we put forward the concept of comprehensive specific frictional resistance, which considers the multiple factors of technology, economy, regulation modes, pipe segment differences, and medium pressure. Then, we establish a mathematical model of a heating network across its lifespan in order to develop a method for determining the comprehensive specific frictional resistance. Relevant conclusions can be drawn from the results. As an application, we have planned the heating engineering for Yangyuan County in China, which demonstrates the feasibility and superiority of the method.

  2. HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations: Potential Applications for Point-of-Care Genotypic Resistance Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Yon Rhee

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of acquired and transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance is an obstacle to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs hardest hit by the HIV-1 pandemic. Genotypic drug resistance testing could facilitate the choice of initial ART in areas with rising transmitted drug resistance (TDR and enable care-providers to determine which individuals with virological failure (VF on a first- or second-line ART regimen require a change in treatment. An inexpensive near point-of-care (POC genotypic resistance test would be useful in settings where the resources, capacity, and infrastructure to perform standard genotypic drug resistance testing are limited. Such a test would be particularly useful in conjunction with the POC HIV-1 viral load tests that are currently being introduced in LMICs. A POC genotypic resistance test is likely to involve the use of allele-specific point mutation assays for detecting drug-resistance mutations (DRMs. This study proposes that two major nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI-associated DRMs (M184V and K65R and four major NNRTI-associated DRMs (K103N, Y181C, G190A, and V106M would be the most useful for POC genotypic resistance testing in LMIC settings. One or more of these six DRMs was present in 61.2% of analyzed virus sequences from ART-naïve individuals with intermediate or high-level TDR and 98.8% of analyzed virus sequences from individuals on a first-line NRTI/NNRTI-containing regimen with intermediate or high-level acquired drug resistance. The detection of one or more of these DRMs in an ART-naïve individual or in a individual with VF on a first-line NRTI/NNRTI-containing regimen may be considered an indication for a protease inhibitor (PI-containing regimen or closer virological monitoring based on cost-effectiveness or country policy.

  3. Whitebark Pine Germination, Rust Resistance, and Cold Hardiness Among Seed Sources in the Inland Northwest: Planting Strategies for Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary F. Mahalovich; Karen E. Burr; David L. Foushee

    2006-01-01

    A synthesis of several studies highlights above-average performing seed sources (n = 108) of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), which practitioners can utilize for restoration, wildlife habitat improvement, and operational planting programs. It is the first report of this magnitude of blister rust resistance for this species. Whitebark pine does have...

  4. In vitro corrosion resistance of plasma source ion nitrided austenitic stainless steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, M K; Zhu, X M

    2001-04-01

    Plasma source ion nitriding has emerged as a low-temperature, low-pressure nitriding approach for low-energy implanting nitrogen ions and then diffusing them into steel and alloy. In this work, a single high nitrogen face-centered-cubic (f.c.c.) phase (gammaN) formed on the 1Cr18Ni9Ti and AISI 316L austenitic stainless steels with a high nitrogen concentration of about 32 at % was characterized using Auger electron spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, glancing angle X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The corrosion resistance of the gammaN-phase layer was studied by the electrochemical cyclic polarization measurement in Ringer's solutions buffered to pH from 3.5 to 7.2 at a temperature of 37 degrees C. No pitting corrosion in the Ringer's solutions with pH = 7.2 and 5.5 was detected for the gammaN-phase layers on the two stainless steels. The high pitting potential for the gammaN-phase layers is higher, about 500 and 600 mV, above that of the two original stainless steels, respectively, in the Ringer's solution with pH = 3.5. The corroded surface morphologies of the gammaN-phase layers observed by scanning electron microscopy are consistent with the results of the electrochemical polarization measurement.

  5. 40 CFR 61.110 - Applicability and designation of sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operate in benzene service: pumps, compressors, pressure relief devices, sampling connection systems, open-ended valves or lines, valves, connectors, surge control vessels, bottoms receivers, and control devices or systems required by this subpart. (b) The provisions of this subpart do not apply to sources...

  6. Application of Electron Accelerators in Conjunction with Microwave Sources in Medical Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.; Craciun, G.; Manaila, E.; Ighigeanu, D.; Margaritescu, I.; Chirita, D.; Neagu, M.

    2009-01-01

    Electron beams (EB) are presently used, in addition to the routine conventional radiotherapy techniques, for cancer specialized therapies (intensity modulated radiation therapy [1] and total body electron irradiation [2]), the irradiation of blood and blood components, vaccine preparation, and other. Microwaves (MW) are presently used for therapeutic applications in cardiology, urology, surgery, ophthalmology, cancer therapy, and others, and for diagnostic applications such as cancer detection, organ imaging, and more [3]. The reported data show that low dose-all body irradiation with ionizing as well as with nonionizing irradiation may enhance the tumoricidal effects of radiation or chemotherapy, overcome acquired drug resistance and can stimulate certain components of the immune system that may aid in destroying cancer cells. These data suggested that application of low-dose total body EB + MW irradiation in conjunction with chemotherapy could contribute by novel effects to the cancer therapies. In view of this argument two specifically designed radiation exposure devices (REDs) were carried out for separate, successive and simultaneous irradiation with EB of 6.23 MeV and MW of 2.45 GHz in vivo (RED-vivo) and in vitro (RED-vitro) for the following medical studies: 1) The effects of low-dose EB + MW total body irradiation without/with drugs administration on the C57 BL/6 mice bearing malignant melanoma (MM); 2) The effects of separate and simultaneous MW and EB irradiation on MM cells culture without/with drugs incubation and on human blood components (proteins and cells) irradiated in samples of integral blood from healthy donors and from donors with MM. Both REDs consist of the following units: 1) An accelerated EB source: ALIN-10 electron linear accelerator of 6.23 MeV and adjustable absorbed dose rate from 0.002 Gy s-1 up to 70 Gy s-1 (built in the NILPRP, Bucharest, Romania); 2) A special designed exposure chamber that permits inside separate, successive or

  7. Foliar application of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) inducers for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nbuensanteai

    2013-08-14

    Aug 14, 2013 ... plants compared to the non-treated controls, with significant enhancement of these defense compounds being more pronounced in chitosan after pathogen challenging. These results further support the conclusion that chitosan and BTH prime for resistance instead of directly activating it (Aziz et al., 2006; ...

  8. Application Of Electrical Resistivity Method In Coastal Hydro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... borehole data to provide information on the freshwater-saltwater interfaces, and the depths to freshwater bearing units in the coastal areas. The results indicated that re-sistivity contrasts can be adopted for economic evaluation of groundwater development in coastal areas. Journal of Applied Science and Technology Vol.

  9. Application of Three Electrical Resistivity Arrays to Evaluate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study further revealed that the Wenner array is less susceptible to edge effect at shallow depth while Dipole-dipole is more susceptible to edge effect at deeper depth followed by the Pole-dipole array. 2D electrical resistivity field measurements were carried out to confirm the results of the numerical simulation in the ...

  10. Impact of source position on high-dose-rate skin surface applicator dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jeho; Barker, Christopher A; Zaider, Marco; Cohen, Gil'ad N

    2016-01-01

    Skin surface dosimetric discrepancies between measured and treatment planning system predicted values were traced to source position sag inside the applicator and to source transit time. We quantified their dosimetric impact and propose corrections for clinical use. We measured the dose profiles from the Varian Leipzig-style high-dose-rate (HDR) skin applicator, using EBT3 film, photon diode, and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter for three different GammaMedplus HDR afterloaders. The measured dose profiles at several depths were compared with BrachyVision Acuros calculated profiles. To assess the impact of the source sag, two different applicator orientations were considered. The dose contribution during source transit was assessed by comparing diode measurements using an HDR timer and an electrometer timer. Depth doses measured using the three dosimeters were in good agreement, but were consistently higher than the Acuros dose calculations. Measurements with the applicator face up were significantly (exceeding 10%) lower than those in the face down position, due to source sag inside the applicator. Based on the inverse square law, the effective source sag was evaluated to be about 0.5 mm from the planned position. The additional dose during source transit was evaluated to be about 2.8% for 30 seconds of treatment with a 40700 U (10 Ci) source. With a very short source-to-surface distance, the small source sag inside the applicator has a significant dosimetric impact. This effect is unaccounted for in the vendor's treatment planning template and should be considered before the clinical use of the applicator. Further investigation of other applicators with large source lumen diameter may be warranted. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the uniformity of wide circular reference source and application of correction factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, I.A.; Xavier, M.; Siqueira, P.T.D.; Sordi, G.A.A.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work the uniformity of wide circular reference sources is evaluated. This kind of reference source is still widely used in Brazil. In previous works wide rectangular reference sources were analyzed and it was shown the importance of the application of correction factors in calibration procedures of radiation monitors. Now a transposition of the methods used formerly is performed, evaluating the uniformities of circular reference sources and calculating the associated correction factors. (author)

  12. Investigation of real field application issues for resistive type SFCLs for distribution electric power networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, S.B. [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon-shi, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B.W., E-mail: bangwook@hanyang.ac.k [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Hanyang University, Ansan-shi, Gyeonggi-do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-01

    Conventional electric power networks were designed and operated not considering fault current limiting devices. Therefore, the performance and characteristics of resistive superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) should be reviewed considering the coordination with other electric circuit protecting devices. In this paper, real field application issues of resistive SFCL were investigated considering utilities' demands and coordination with other protection devices. Pure resistive SFCL and hybrid resistive SFCL were compared in order to determine suitable solutions for electric power systems. SFCLs were modeled and analyzed using electro-magnetic transients program (EMTP) and their performances were compared to identify the adaptability to the conventional power networks. Consequently, Simulation results showed that hybrid resistive SFCL have more advantages than pure resistive SFCL considering the requirements and specification for the distribution networks.

  13. Investigation of real field application issues for resistive type SFCLs for distribution electric power networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, S. B.; Lee, B. W.

    2010-11-01

    Conventional electric power networks were designed and operated not considering fault current limiting devices. Therefore, the performance and characteristics of resistive superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) should be reviewed considering the coordination with other electric circuit protecting devices. In this paper, real field application issues of resistive SFCL were investigated considering utilities' demands and coordination with other protection devices. Pure resistive SFCL and hybrid resistive SFCL were compared in order to determine suitable solutions for electric power systems. SFCLs were modeled and analyzed using electro-magnetic transients program (EMTP) and their performances were compared to identify the adaptability to the conventional power networks. Consequently, Simulation results showed that hybrid resistive SFCL have more advantages than pure resistive SFCL considering the requirements and specification for the distribution networks.

  14. A beamline matching application based on open source software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-21

    An interactive Beamline Matching application has been developed using beamline and automatic differentiation class libraries. Various freely available components were used; in particular, the user interface is based on FLTK, a C++ toolkit distributed under the terms of the GNU Public License (GPL). The result is an application that compiles without modifications under both X-Windows and Win32 and offers the same look and feel under both operating environments. In this paper, we discuss some of the practical issues that were confronted and the choices that were made. In particular, we discuss object-based event propagation mechanisms, multithreading, language mixing and persistence.

  15. A compact neutron source for research and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.; Chidley, B.G.; Delong, M.S.; Kushneriuk, S.A.; Lone, M.A.; Selander, W.N.

    1983-01-01

    The use of neutrons as a diagnostic tool has become more extensive in radiography, non-destructive analysis, bio-medical investigations and other general research studies. Although most diagnostic neutron work has been conducted at large nuclear research reactors, there is a need for compact and semi-portable neutron sources. Such a neutron source can be based on a low energy proton linac and suitable target. Design of a compact, 100% duty cycle, 2.5 MeV proton linac that delivers 10 mA to a thick 7 Li target is described. Calculated thermal neutron peak flux with an H 2 O moderator is 2 x 10 11 n/cm 2 Xs. The associated low gamma ray yield results in the availability of good neutron beam quality for radiography and other purposes

  16. Bayesian Inference for Source Reconstruction: A Real-World Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-25

    for the reconstruction of the location and emission rate from an actual contaminant source (emission from the Chalk River Laboratories medical isotope...consists of a comprehensive network of seismic, hydroacoustic , 6 International Scholarly Research Notices Figure 1: Locations of the three sampling stations...was at Chalk River Laboratories . infrasound, and radionuclide sensors as part of the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test- Ban Treaty

  17. Application research of tune measurement system in Hefei light source

    CERN Document Server

    Sun Bao Gen; Xu Hong Liang; Lu Ping; Wang Jun; Gao Yun Feng; Wang Li; LiuJinYing

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the measurement and research of some beam parameters using tune measurement system for Hefei Light Source (HLS), which include the betatron tune, beta function, natural chromaticity, corrected chromaticity, and central frequency. Additionally, it also describes the measurement of the influence of DC clearing electrodes on the betatron tune shift and gives some measurement results. The measurement results are compared with the theoretical values and they are in good agreement

  18. The national synchrotron light source and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    We describe the National Synchrotron Light Source facility including its beamlines and operational characteristics. Research results on selected beamlines on the VUV ring which highlight new experimental capabilities are described since they are more relevant to the program at HESYRL. Examples chosen are spin-polarized photoemission, infra-red surface science, high resolution core level spectroscopy, X- Ray lithography, photoelectron/Auger coincidence spectroscopy and high electron momentum resolution surface studies. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Potential application of microalga Spirulina platensis as a protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupatini, Anne Luize; Colla, Luciane Maria; Canan, Cristiane; Colla, Eliane

    2017-02-01

    The high protein level of various microalgal species is one of the main reasons to consider them an unconventional source of this compound. Spirulina platensis stands out for being one of the richest protein sources of microbial origin (460-630 g kg -1 , dry matter basis), having similar protein levels when compared to meat and soybeans. The use of S. platensis in food can bring benefits to human health owing to its chemical composition, since it has high levels of vitamins, minerals, phenolics, essential fatty acids, amino acids and pigments. Furthermore, the development of new protein sources to supply the shortage of this nutrient is an urgent need, and protein from S. platensis plays an important role in this scenario. In this sense, extraction processes that allow maximum protein yield and total utilization of biomass is an urgent need, and ultrasonic waves have proven to be an effective extraction technique. The number of scientific papers related to protein fraction from S. platensis is still limited; thus further studies on its functional and technological properties are needed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Application of the backward extrapolation method to pulsed neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2018-01-01

    Particle detectors operated in pulse mode are subjected to the dead-time effect. When the average of the detector counts is constant over time, correcting for the dead-time effect is simple and can be accomplished by analytical formulas. However, when the average of the detector counts changes over time it is more difficult to take into account the dead-time effect. When a subcritical nuclear assembly is driven by a pulsed neutron source, simple analytical formulas cannot be applied to the measured detector counts to correct for the dead-time effect because of the sharp change of the detector counts over time. This work addresses this issue by using the backward extrapolation method. The latter can be applied not only to a continuous (e.g. californium) external neutron source but also to a pulsed external neutron source (e.g. by a particle accelerator) driving a subcritical nuclear assembly. The backward extrapolation method allows to obtain from the measured detector counts both the dead-time value and the real detector counts.

  1. Currents trends in the application of IBA techniques to air pollution source fingerprinting and source apportionment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, David; Stelcer, Ed.; Atanacio, Armand; Crawford, Jagoda

    2013-01-01

    Full text: IBA techniques have been used for many years to characterise fine particle air pollution. This is not new the techniques are well established. Typically 2-3 MeV protons are used to bombard thin filter papers and up to four simultaneous techniques like PIXE, PIGE, RBS and ERDA will be applied to obtain (μg/g) concentrations for elements from hydrogen to lead. Generally low volume samplers are used to sample between 20-30 m 3 of air over a 24 hour period, this together with IBA's sensitivity means that concentrations down to 1 ng/m 3 of air sampled can be readily achieved with only a few minutes of proton irradiation. With these short irradiation times and low sensitivities for a broad range of elements in the periodic table, large numbers of samples can be obtained and analysed very quickly and easily. At ANSTO we have used IBA methods to acquire a database of over 50,000 filters from 85 different sites through Australia and Asia, each filter has been analysed for more than 21 different chemical species. Large databases extending over many years means that modern statistical techniques like positive matrix factorisation (PMF) can be used to define well characterised source fingerprints and source contributions for a range of different fine particle air pollutants. In this paper we will discuss these PMF techniques and show how they identify both natural sources like sea spray and windblown soils as well as anthropogenic sources like automobiles, biomass burning, coal-fired power stations and industrial emissions. These data are particularly useful for Governments, EPA's and managers of pollution to better understanding pollution sources and their relative contributions and hence to better manage air pollution. Current trends are to take these IBA and PMF techniques a step further and to combine them with wind speed and back trajectory data to better pin point and identify emission sources. We show how this is now being applied on both a local

  2. 40 CFR 63.100 - Applicability and designation of source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... farm (including a marine tank farm), the applicability of this subpart F and subpart G of this part... F, G, or H of this part. (2) Petroleum refining process units, regardless of whether the units... the provisions of subparts F, G, and H of part 63 plans to implement pollution prevention measures to...

  3. Peptides, Peptidomimetics, and Polypeptides from Marine Sources: A Wealth of Natural Sources for Pharmaceutical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, Rushikesh; Parajuli, Pravin; Jois, Seetharama

    2017-04-22

    Nature provides a variety of peptides that are expressed in most living species. Evolutionary pressure and natural selection have created and optimized these peptides to bind to receptors with high affinity. Hence, natural resources provide an abundant chemical space to be explored in peptide-based drug discovery. Marine peptides can be extracted by simple solvent extraction techniques. The advancement of analytical techniques has made it possible to obtain pure peptides from natural resources. Extracted peptides have been evaluated as possible therapeutic agents for a wide range of diseases, including antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic and anticancer activity as well as cardiovascular and neurotoxin activity. Although marine resources provide thousands of possible peptides, only a few peptides derived from marine sources have reached the pharmaceutical market. This review focuses on some of the peptides derived from marine sources in the past ten years and gives a brief review of those that are currently in clinical trials or on the market.

  4. Range of applications of modern superconducting synchrotron radiation sources using the source planned at Karlsruhe (KSSQ) as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.O.

    1989-06-01

    The performance of the Karlsruhe synchrotron radiation source which was designed originally for X-ray deep-etch lithography comes close to that of first and second generation synchrotron radiation sources. The range of applications spanned by KSSQ is therefore quite similar to that of those machines. The present report displays a first collection of topics from the fields of surface analysis, solid state and materials research, and biology which could be investigated using KSSQ by interested groups coming from KfK and its surroundings. (orig.) [de

  5. Café Icatu como fonte de resistência a colletotrichum coffeanum Icatu coffee cultivar as source of resistance to the agent of coffe berry disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available Linhagens e progênies do cultivar icatu, selecionadas em Campinas, foram testadas na Coffee Research Station, Ruiru, Quênia, a fim de avaliar o grau de resistência ao ataque de Colletotrichum coffeanum, agente responsável pela moléstia mais conhecida por CBD. Os dados de infecção obtidos para 11 linhagens e sete progênies foram comparados com os dos cultivares testemunhas Rume Sudan, resistente, e SL 28, suscetível. Considerando apenas a freqüência de resistentes, com grau 1 de infecção, destacaram-se a progênie H 4782-10 M e a linhagem LCH 3851-4 T. As populações com graus de 1 a 4 de resistência ocorreram em menor escala do que no Rume Sudan, porém salientou-se a progênie H 4782-10 M, com elevada resistência. As maiores porcentagens de plantas suscetíveis foram verificadas nas linhagens LCH 3849-7 M e LCH 4782-13 T, as quais se aproximam da linhagem suscetível SL 28. Os dados preliminares indicam que o germoplasma icatu, como o híbrido de timor, oferece perspectivas de constituir razoável fonte de resistência genética ao agente da CBD.Several samples of the coffee cultivar Icatu were evaluated for resistance to the agent of the CBD (Colletotrichum coffeanum. All tests were performed at the Ruiru Coffee Experiment Station, Kenya. Resistant cultivars Rume Sudan and the susceptible SL 28 were used for comparison. Tests were performed using young seedlings innoculation. It was found that seedlings with grade 1 of the resistance scale occurred in several Icatu progenies. Seedlings of the grades 1 to 4, were noticed more frequently in the progenies H 4782-10 M and LCH 3851-4 M. Susceptible plants, in the class with 10-12 grades, occurred in higher proportion in the progenies LCH 3849-7 M and LCH 4782-10 T. All resistant seedlings were transplanted to the field for further tests of resistance. These preliminary data indicated that the Icatu coffee can be considered as a good source of genetic resistance to the agent of the

  6. Development of application technology of radiation-resistant microorganism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Ho; Lim, Sang Yong; Joe, Min Ho; Jung, Jin Woo; Jung, Sun Wook; Song, Du Sup; Choi, Young Ji [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    The scope of the project is divided into of three parts; (i) to define the survival strategy of radiation-resistant microbes, especially Deinococcus (ii) acquisition of gene resources encoding the novel protein and related with the production of functional materials (iii) development of control technology against radiation-resistant microbes. To this aim, first, the whole transcriptional response of the D. radiodurans strain haboring pprI mutation, which plays an important role in radiation resistance, was analyzed by cDNA microarray. The anti-oxidant activity of the major carotenoid of D. radiodurans, deinoxanthin, was analyzed and the strain was constructed, in which the gene necessary for bio- synthesis of deinoxanthin is deleted. The response to cadmium of D. radiodurans was also investigated through cDNA microarray analysis. Radiogenic therapy, one of the cancer treatments, is designed to use radiation-inducible gene for the treatment. To develop the gene-transfer vehicle for radiogenic therapy, we have investigated the virulence mechanism of Salmonella, which is tumor-targeting bacteria and studied the synergistic effect of some anti-cancer agents on radiation treatment for cancer. Finally, we confirmed that irradiation could decompose a fungus toxin, patulin, into various harmless by-products.

  7. Number of sources uncertainty in blind source separation. Application to EMG signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoussi, Hichem; Khanna, Saurabh; Hewson, David; Duchene, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    This contribution deals with the number of components uncertainty in blind source separation. The number of components is estimated by maximizing its marginal a posteriori probability which favors the simplest explanation of the observed data. Marginalizing (integrating over all the parameters) is implemented through the Laplace approximation based on an efficient wavelet spectral matching separating algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown on EMG data processing.

  8. Development of ion sources: Towards high brightness for proton beam writing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Nannan; Santhana Raman, P.; Xu, Xinxin; Tan, Huei Ming; Khursheed, Anjam; Kan, Jeroen A. van

    2015-01-01

    An Ion Source Test Bench (ISTB) has been designed and commissioned to facilitate the measurement of ion beam reduced brightness (B r ) obtained from different ion sources. Preliminary B r measurements were carried out, with RF ion source, in the ISTB for He ions. Meanwhile we have also fabricated and tested a novel ion source called electron impact gas ion source, whose reduced brightness is expected to reach up to 10 7 pA/μm 2 mrad 2 MeV. Initial ion-current measurements from such electron impact gas ion source (tested inside an environmental SEM) has yielded about 300 pA of Ar ions. The areal ion current density from this electron impact gas ion source is found to be at least 380 times higher than the existing RF ion source. This novel ion source is promising for application in proton beam writing lithography with feature sizes smaller than 10 nm

  9. Transition Frequencies and Negative Resistance of Inductively Terminated CMOS Buffer Cell and Application in MMW LC VCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Rezaul Hasan

    2010-01-01

    looking into the source of the buffer cell changes sign. Possible limiting frequencies of oscillation are determined based on resonators formed by a grounded gate inductor and a parasitic capacitance at the gate of the negative resistance buffer cell. The range of frequencies of oscillation of this negative resistance buffer cell for variations in the different circuit parameters/elements is explored. Following this, a millimeter wave (MMW oscillator is simulated using the IBM 130 nm CMOS process technology which can operate at 70 GHz. High-frequency MOSFET model was used for these simulations. The cell had an extremely low power dissipation of under 3 mW. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations were carried out for manufacturability analysis considering up to 50% variation in process and geometrical parameters, supply voltage, and ambient temperature. Noise analysis and a simulated estimate of the phase noise in an MMW LC VCO application is also reported.

  10. Nondiffractive applications of neutrons at the spallation source SINQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, E.

    1996-01-01

    The paper delivers an overview about experiments with neutrons from the spallation source SINQ which are not especially devoted to neutron scattering. A total of six experimental facilities are under construction using thermal as well as cold neutrons. Starting with some general considerations about the interaction of neutrons with matter, the principles, boundary conditions and the experimental set up of these experiments are described briefly. Some more details are given for the neutron radiography facility NEUTRA as the author's special interest and research field. (author) 7 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs

  11. Parallel operation of voltage-source converters: issues and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, F.C.B.; Silva, D.S. [Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil)], Emails: felipe.brum@engenharia.ufjf.br, salomaoime@yahoo.com.br; Ribeiro, P.F. [Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil)], E-mail: pfribeiro@ieee.org

    2009-07-01

    Technological advancements in power electronics have prompted the development of advanced AC/DC conversion systems with high efficiency and flexible performance. Among these devices, the Voltage-Source Converter (VSC) has become an essential building block. This paper considers the parallel operation of VSCs under different system conditions and how they can assist the operation of highly complex power networks. A multi-terminal VSC-based High Voltage Direct Current (M-VSC-HVDC) system is chosen to be modeled, simulated and then analyzed as an example of VSCs operating in parallel. (author)

  12. Nondiffractive applications of neutrons at the spallation source SINQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The paper delivers an overview about experiments with neutrons from the spallation source SINQ which are not especially devoted to neutron scattering. A total of six experimental facilities are under construction using thermal as well as cold neutrons. Starting with some general considerations about the interaction of neutrons with matter, the principles, boundary conditions and the experimental set up of these experiments are described briefly. Some more details are given for the neutron radiography facility NEUTRA as the author`s special interest and research field. (author) 7 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  13. Polysaccharides enriched in rare sugars: bacterial sources, production and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eRoca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, produced by a wide range of bacteria, are high molecular weight biopolymers, presenting an extreme diversity in terms of chemical structure and composition. They may be used in many applications, depending on their chemical and physical properties. A rather unexplored aspect is the presence of rare sugars in the composition of some EPS. Rare sugars, such as rhamnose or fucose, may provide EPS with additional biological properties compared to those composed of more common sugar monomers.This review gives a brief overview of these specific EPS and their producing bacteria. Cultivation conditions are summarized, demonstrating their impact on the EPS composition, together with downstream processing. Finally, their use in different areas, including cosmetics, food products, pharmaceuticals and biomedical applications, are discussed.

  14. The application of secondary metabolites in the study of sorghum insect resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunming, Bai; Yifei, Liu; Xiaochun, Lu

    2018-03-01

    Insect attack is one of the main factors for limiting the production of rice and sorghum. To improve resistance to pests of rice and sorghum will be of great significance for meliorating their production and quality. However, the source and material of anti-pest was scarce. In this study, we will study on the expression patterns of hydrocyanic acid biosynthesis relative genes in sorghum firstly. And we will also genetically transform them into rice and sorghum by specific and constitutive promoters and verify their pest-resistant ability. Finally, high pest-resistant genetically modified new sorghum cultivars will be bred with favorable comprehensive agronomic traits.

  15. Agriculture and food animals as a source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou V

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vangelis Economou,1 Panagiota Gousia2 1Department of Hygiene and Technology of Food of Animal Origin, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Food-Water Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece Abstract: One of the major breakthroughs in the history of medicine is undoubtedly the discovery of antibiotics. Their use in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine has resulted in healthier and more productive farm animals, ensuring the welfare and health of both animals and humans. Unfortunately, from the first use of penicillin, the resistance countdown started to tick. Nowadays, the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing, and resistance to antibiotics is probably the major public health problem. Antibiotic use in farm animals has been criticized for contributing to the emergence of resistance. The use and misuse of antibiotics in farm animal settings as growth promoters or as nonspecific means of infection prevention and treatment has boosted antibiotic consumption and resistance among bacteria in the animal habitat. This reservoir of resistance can be transmitted directly or indirectly to humans through food consumption and direct or indirect contact. Resistant bacteria can cause serious health effects directly or via the transmission of the antibiotic resistance traits to pathogens, causing illnesses that are difficult to treat and that therefore have higher morbidity and mortality rates. In addition, the selection and proliferation of antibiotic-resistant strains can be disseminated to the environment via animal waste, enhancing the resistance reservoir that exists in the environmental microbiome. In this review, an effort is made to highlight the various factors that contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in farm animals and to

  16. A Whole-Genome Sequencing Approach To Study Cefoxitin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Isolates from Various Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirmanasinghe, Romaine; Finley, Rita; Parmley, E Jane; Avery, Brent P; Carson, Carolee; Bekal, Sadjia; Golding, George; Mulvey, Michael R

    2017-04-01

    This study characterized cefoxitin-resistant and -susceptible Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg strains from humans, abattoir poultry, and retail poultry to assess the molecular relationships of isolates from these sources in Québec in 2012. Isolates were collected as part of the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS). All isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR for CMY-2, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). A total of 113 S Heidelberg isolates from humans ( n = 51), abattoir poultry ( n = 18), and retail poultry ( n = 44) were studied. All cefoxitin-resistant isolates ( n = 65) were also resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, ceftiofur, and ceftriaxone, and all contained the CMY-2 gene. PFGE analysis showed that 111/113 (98.2%) isolates clustered together with ≥90% similarity. Core genome analysis using WGS identified 13 small clusters of isolates with 0 to 4 single nucleotide variations (SNVs), consisting of cefoxitin-resistant and -susceptible human, abattoir poultry, and retail poultry isolates. CMY-2 plasmids from cefoxitin-resistant isolates all belonged to incompatibility group I1. Analysis of IncI1 plasmid sequences revealed high identity (95 to 99%) to a previously described plasmid (pCVM29188_101) found in Salmonella Kentucky. When compared to pCVM29188_101, all sequenced cefoxitin-resistant isolates were found to carry 1 of 10 possible variant plasmids. Transmission of S Heidelberg may be occurring between human, abattoir poultry, and retail poultry sources, and transmission of a common CMY-2 plasmid may be occurring among S Heidelberg strains with variable genetic backgrounds. © Crown copyright 2017.

  17. Home Environment as a Source of Life-Threatening Azole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus in Immunocompromised Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, Rose-Anne; Chouaki, Taieb; Hagen, Ferry; Toublanc, Bénédicte; Dupont, Hervé; Jounieaux, Vincent; Meis, Jacques F; Morio, Florent; Le Pape, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    A case of fatal aspergillosis due to a TR 46 /Y121F/T289A azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is reported. Environmental investigations at the patient's residence led to the recovery of TR 46 /Y121F/T289A isolates, genotypically indistinguishable from the clinical isolate, supporting for the first time the direct role of household as potential source of azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION WORKING GROUP: METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari R. A.; Whitlock, J.; Therios, I.U.; Peterson, P.F.

    2012-11-14

    We summarize the technical progress and accomplishments on the evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) of Generation IV nuclear energy systems. We intend the results of the evaluations performed with the methodology for three types of users: system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders. The PR and PP Working Group developed the methodology through a series of demonstration and case studies. Over the past few years various national and international groups have applied the methodology to nuclear energy system designs as well as to developing approaches to advanced safeguards.

  19. Management of the quality in medical applications with sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano F, A.K.; Araiza M, E.

    2003-01-01

    In this work a model of Quality management based on the ISO 9001:2000 that it includes the application of some established approaches by the IAEA 50-C/SG-Q standard is proposed, so that the different focuses from both standards are joined and achieved: the client satisfaction and certification of the quality system, and structure behavior, components and systems at secure form with a minimum of accidents. This model incorporates a program of radiological protection that emphasizes the installation of a safety culture, (Author)

  20. Solar radiation data sources, applications, and network design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    A prerequisite to considering solar energy projects is to determine the requirements for information about solar radiation to apply to possible projects. This report offers techniques to help the reader specify requirements in terms of solar radiation data and information currently available, describes the past and present programs to record and present information to be used for most requirements, presents courses of action to help the user meet his needs for information, lists sources of solar radiation data and presents the problems, costs, benefits and responsibilities of programs to acquire additional solar radiation data. Extensive background information is provided about solar radiation data and its use. Specialized information about recording, collecting, processing, storing and disseminating solar radiation data is given. Several Appendices are included which provide reference material for special situations.

  1. Temporal succession of soil antibiotic resistance genes following application of swine, cattle and poultry manures spiked with or without antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jing; Hu, Hang-Wei; Gou, Min; Wang, Jun-Tao; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Land application of animal manure is a common agricultural practice potentially leading to dispersal and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environmental settings. However, the fate of resistome in agro-ecosystems over time following application of different manure sources has never been compared systematically. Here, soil microcosm incubation was conducted to compare effects of poultry, cattle and swine manures spiked with or without the antibiotic tylosin on the temporal changes of soil ARGs. The high-throughput quantitative PCR detected a total of 185 unique ARGs, with Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B resistance as the most frequently encountered ARG type. The diversity and abundance of ARGs significantly increased following application of manure and manure spiked with tylosin, with more pronounced effects observed in the swine and poultry manure treatments than in the cattle manure treatment. The level of antibiotic resistance gradually decreased over time in all manured soils but was still significantly higher in the soils treated with swine and poultry manures than in the untreated soils after 130 days' incubation. Tylosin-amended soils consistently showed higher abundances of ARGs than soils treated with manure only, suggesting a strong selection pressure of antibiotic-spiked manure on soil ARGs. The relative abundance of ARGs had significantly positive correlations with integrase and transposase genes, indicative of horizontal transfer potential of ARGs in manure and tylosin treated soils. Our findings provide evidence that application of swine and poultry manures might enrich more soil ARGs than cattle manure, which necessitates the appropriate treatment of raw animal manures prior to land application to minimise the spread of environmental ARGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Laccase: Microbial Sources, Production, Purification, and Potential Biotechnological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laccase belongs to the blue multicopper oxidases and participates in cross-linking of monomers, degradation of polymers, and ring cleavage of aromatic compounds. It is widely distributed in higher plants and fungi. It is present in Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes and Basidiomycetes and abundant in lignin-degrading white-rot fungi. It is also used in the synthesis of organic substance, where typical substrates are amines and phenols, the reaction products are dimers and oligomers derived from the coupling of reactive radical intermediates. In the recent years, these enzymes have gained application in the field of textile, pulp and paper, and food industry. Recently, it is also used in the design of biosensors, biofuel cells, as a medical diagnostics tool and bioremediation agent to clean up herbicides, pesticides and certain explosives in soil. Laccases have received attention of researchers in the last few decades due to their ability to oxidize both phenolic and nonphenolic lignin-related compounds as well as highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants. It has been identified as the principal enzyme associated with cuticular hardening in insects. Two main forms have been found: laccase-1 and laccase-2. This paper reviews the occurrence, mode of action, general properties, production, applications, and immobilization of laccases within different industrial fields.

  3. Marine extremophiles: a source of hydrolases for biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmaso, Gabriel Zamith Leal; Ferreira, Davis; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

    2015-04-03

    The marine environment covers almost three quarters of the planet and is where evolution took its first steps. Extremophile microorganisms are found in several extreme marine environments, such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, salty lakes and deep-sea floors. The ability of these microorganisms to support extremes of temperature, salinity and pressure demonstrates their great potential for biotechnological processes. Hydrolases including amylases, cellulases, peptidases and lipases from hyperthermophiles, psychrophiles, halophiles and piezophiles have been investigated for these reasons. Extremozymes are adapted to work in harsh physical-chemical conditions and their use in various industrial applications such as the biofuel, pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and food industries has increased. The understanding of the specific factors that confer the ability to withstand extreme habitats on such enzymes has become a priority for their biotechnological use. The most studied marine extremophiles are prokaryotes and in this review, we present the most studied archaea and bacteria extremophiles and their hydrolases, and discuss their use for industrial applications.

  4. Marine Extremophiles: A Source of Hydrolases for Biotechnological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Zamith Leal Dalmaso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment covers almost three quarters of the planet and is where evolution took its first steps. Extremophile microorganisms are found in several extreme marine environments, such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, salty lakes and deep-sea floors. The ability of these microorganisms to support extremes of temperature, salinity and pressure demonstrates their great potential for biotechnological processes. Hydrolases including amylases, cellulases, peptidases and lipases from hyperthermophiles, psychrophiles, halophiles and piezophiles have been investigated for these reasons. Extremozymes are adapted to work in harsh physical-chemical conditions and their use in various industrial applications such as the biofuel, pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and food industries has increased. The understanding of the specific factors that confer the ability to withstand extreme habitats on such enzymes has become a priority for their biotechnological use. The most studied marine extremophiles are prokaryotes and in this review, we present the most studied archaea and bacteria extremophiles and their hydrolases, and discuss their use for industrial applications.

  5. Policy analysis and recommendations for the open source application development portal (OSADP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This white paper addresses the policy and institutional issues that are associated with the development of an open source applications development portal (OSADP), part of a larger research effort being conducted under the ITS Programs Dynamic Mobi...

  6. L. peruvianum as a source for resistance to C michiganensis ssp. michiganensis in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusden, van S.; Vrielink, R.; Lindhout, P.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty three accessions of L. peruvianum were screened for resistance to Clavibater michiganensis ssp. michiganensis (bacterial canker). Resistance was detected in five accessions. One of these, L. peruvianum LA2157 was crossed with a susceptible accession of L. peruvainum and with the cultivated

  7. Irrigation waters and pipe-based biofilms as sources for antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in environmental surface waters has gained recent attention. Wastewater- and drinking water distribution systems are known to disseminate antibiotic-resistant bacteria, with the biofilms that form on the inner-surfaces of the pipeline as a hotspot for pr...

  8. Wastewater as a Source of Carbapenem-Resistant E. coli (Webinar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical studies have reported that the occurrence of carbapenem-resistant E. coli is on the rise. This is of concern because carbapenem antibiotics are typically reserved for treating infections caused by bacteria resistant to other classes of antibiotics. Current literature st...

  9. Identification of unique genetic sources of soybean rust resistance from the USDA germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust (SBR) is caused by the fungal pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Thus far, six rust resistance loci (Rpp1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) have been reported. On the basis of field and greenhouse phenotyping assays between 2006 and 2011, we identified 75 SBR-resistant plant introductions (PIs). Crosses...

  10. Tunable, continuous-wave Terahertz photomixer sources and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preu, S.; Döhler, G. H.; Malzer, S.; Wang, L. J.; Gossard, A. C.

    2011-03-01

    This review is focused on the latest developments in continuous-wave (CW) photomixing for Terahertz (THz) generation. The first part of the paper explains the limiting factors for operation at high frequencies ˜ 1 THz, namely transit time or lifetime roll-off, antenna (R)-device (C) RC roll-off, current screening and blocking, and heat dissipation. We will present various realizations of both photoconductive and p-i-n diode-based photomixers to overcome these limitations, including perspectives on novel materials for high-power photomixers operating at telecom wavelengths (1550 nm). In addition to the classical approach of feeding current originating from a small semiconductor photomixer device to an antenna (antenna-based emitter, AE), an antennaless approach in which the active area itself radiates (large area emitter, LAE) is discussed in detail. Although we focus on CW photomixing, we briefly discuss recent results for LAEs under pulsed conditions. Record power levels of 1.5 mW average power and conversion efficiencies as high as 2 × 10-3 have been reached, about 2 orders of magnitude higher than those obtained with CW antenna-based emitters. The second part of the paper is devoted to applications for CW photomixers. We begin with a discussion of the development of novel THz optics. Special attention is paid to experiments exploiting the long coherence length of CW photomixers for coherent emission and detection of THz arrays. The long coherence length comes with an unprecedented narrow linewidth. This is of particular interest for spectroscopic applications, the field in which THz research has perhaps the highest impact. We point out that CW spectroscopy systems may potentially be more compact, cheaper, and more accurate than conventional pulsed systems. These features are attributed to telecom-wavelength compatibility, to excellent frequency resolution, and to their huge spectral density. The paper concludes with prototype experiments of THz wireless LAN

  11. Independent assessment of source position for gynecological applicator in high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Satoshi; Nishioka, Shie; Iijima, Kotaro; Wakita, Akihisa; Abe, Yukinao; Tohyama, Naoki; Kawamura, Shinji; Minemura, Toshiyuki; Itami, Jun

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to describe a phantom designed for independent examination of a source position in brachytherapy that is suitable for inclusion in an external auditing program. We developed a phantom that has a special design and a simple mechanism, capable of firmly fixing a radiochromic film and tandem-ovoid applicators to assess discrepancies in source positions between the measurements and treatment planning system (TPS). Three tests were conducted: 1) reproducibility of the source positions ( n = 5); 2) source movements inside the applicator tube; 3) changing source position by changing curvature of the transfer tubes. In addition, as a trial study, the phantom was mailed to 12 institutions, and 23 trial data sets were examined. The source displacement ΔX and ΔY (reference = TPS) were expressed according to the coordinates, in which the positive direction on the X-axis corresponds to the external side of the applicator perpendicular to source transfer direction Y-axis. Test 1: The 1σ fell within 1 mm irrespective of the dwell positions. Test 2: ΔX were greater around the tip of the applicator owing to the source cable. Test 3: All of the source position changes fell within 1 mm. For postal audit, the mean and 1.96σ in ΔX were 0.8 and 0.8 mm, respectively. Almost all data were located within a positive region along the X-axis due to the source cable. The mean and 1.96σ in ΔY were 0.3 and 1.6 mm, respectively. The variance in ΔY was greater than that in ΔX, and large uncertainties exist in the determination of the first dwell position. The 95% confidence limit was 2.1 mm. In HDR brachytherapy, an effectiveness of independent source position assessment could be demonstrated. The 95% confidence limit was 2.1 mm for a tandem-ovoids applicator.

  12. An Open Source Platform for Earth Science Research and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, S. H.; Ganguly, S.; Melton, F. S.; Michaelis, A.; Milesi, C.; Nemani, R. R.; Votava, P.; Wang, W.; Zhang, G.; Nasa Ecological Forecasting Lab

    2010-12-01

    The Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) at NASA-ARC's Ecological Forecasting Lab produces a suite of gridded data products in near real-time that are designed to enhance management decisions related to various environmental phenomenon, as well as to advance scientific understanding of these ecosystem processes. While these data hold tremendous potential value for a wide range of disciplines, the large nature of these datasets presents challenges in their analysis and distribution. Additionally, remote sensing data and their derivative ecological models rely on quality ground-based observations for evaluating and validating model outputs. The Ecological Forecasting Lab addresses these challenges by developing a web-based data gateway, leveraging a completely open source software stack. TOPS data is organized and made accessible via an OPeNDAP server. Toolkits such as GDAL and Matplotlib are used within a Python web server to generate dynamic views of TOPS data that can be incorporated into web applictions, providing a simple interface for visualizing spatial and/or temporal trends. In order to facilitate collection of ground observations for validating and enhancing ecological models, we have implemented a web portal that allows volunteers to visualize current ecological conditions and to submit their observations. Initially we use this system to assist research related to plant phenology, but we plan to extend the system to support other areas of research as well.

  13. Review of Canadian Light Source facilities for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochulski, Pawel; Fodje, Michel; Labiuk, Shaun; Wysokinski, Tomasz W.; Belev, George; Korbas, Malgorzata; Rosendahl, Scott M.

    2017-11-01

    The newly-created Biological and Life Sciences Department at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) encompasses four sets of beamlines devoted to biological studies ranging in scope from the atomic scale to cells, tissues and whole organisms. The Canadian Macromolecular Crystallography Facility (CMCF) consists of two beamlines devoted primarily to crystallographic studies of proteins and other macromolecules. The Mid-Infrared Spectromicroscopy (Mid-IR) beamline focusses on using infrared energy to obtain biochemical, structural and dynamical information about biological systems. The Bio-Medical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility consists of two beamlines devoted to advanced imaging and X-ray therapy techniques. The Biological X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (BioXAS) facility is being commissioned and houses three beamlines devoted to X-ray absorption spectroscopy and multi-mode X-ray fluorescence imaging. Together, these beamlines provide CLS Users with a powerful array of techniques to study today's most pressing biological questions. We describe these beamlines along with their current powerful features and envisioned future capabilities.

  14. Application of Open Source Technologies for Oceanographic Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Gangl, M.; Quach, N. T.; Wilson, B. D.; Chang, G.; Armstrong, E. M.; Chin, T. M.; Greguska, F.

    2015-12-01

    NEXUS is a data-intensive analysis solution developed with a new approach for handling science data that enables large-scale data analysis by leveraging open source technologies such as Apache Cassandra, Apache Spark, Apache Solr, and Webification. NEXUS has been selected to provide on-the-fly time-series and histogram generation for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission for Level 2 and Level 3 Active, Passive, and Active Passive products. It also provides an on-the-fly data subsetting capability. NEXUS is designed to scale horizontally, enabling it to handle massive amounts of data in parallel. It takes a new approach on managing time and geo-referenced array data by dividing data artifacts into chunks and stores them in an industry-standard, horizontally scaled NoSQL database. This approach enables the development of scalable data analysis services that can infuse and leverage the elastic computing infrastructure of the Cloud. It is equipped with a high-performance geospatial and indexed data search solution, coupled with a high-performance data Webification solution free from file I/O bottlenecks, as well as a high-performance, in-memory data analysis engine. In this talk, we will focus on the recently funded AIST 2014 project by using NEXUS as the core for oceanographic anomaly detection service and web portal. We call it, OceanXtremes

  15. Radiotracer and Sealed Source Applications in Sediment Transport Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of sediment transport in seas and rivers is crucial for civil engineering and littoral protection and management. Coastlines and seabeds are dynamic regions, with sediments undergoing periods of erosion, transport, sedimentation and consolidation. The main causes for erosion in beaches include storms and human actions such as the construction of seawalls, jetties and the dredging of stream mouths. Each of these human actions disrupts the natural flow of sand. Current policies and practices are accelerating the beach erosion process. However, there are viable options available to mitigate this damage and to provide for sustainable coastlines. Radioactive methods can help in investigating sediment dynamics, providing important parameters for better designing, maintaining and optimizing civil engineering structures. Radioisotopes as tracers and sealed sources have been useful and often irreplaceable tools for sediment transport studies. The training course material is based on lecture notes and practical works delivered by many experts in IAEA supported activities. Lectures and case studies were reviewed by a number of specialists in this field

  16. Bayesian Inference for Source Term Estimation: Application to the International Monitoring System Radionuclide Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Laboratories (CRL) medical isotope production facility. The sampling of the resulting posterior distribution of the source parameters is un- dertaken...International Monitoring System radionuclide network used for Case 2. The location of the Xe-133 tracer source (red marker) was at Chalk River Laboratories ...space. 5 Applications The International Monitoring System (IMS) consists of a comprehensive network of seismic, hydroacoustic , infrasound, and

  17. Developing Topological Insulator Fiber Based Photon Pairs Source for Ultrafast Optoelectronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    DEVELOPING TOPOLOGICAL INSULATOR FIBER BASED PHOTON PAIRS SOURCE FOR ULTRAFAST OPTOELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY...REPORT TYPE FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) APRIL 2015 – DEC 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DEVELOPING TOPOLOGICAL INSULATOR FIBER BASED...in developing a new source for the production of correlated/entangled photon pairs based on the unique nanolayer properties of topological insulator

  18. Effect of source, time and method of nitrogen application on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of different sources of Nitrogen (N), time and method of application on growth and development of potato was investigated over two seasons using the cultivar Dutch Robjyn. The three sources of nitrogen (Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN, 26% N); Urea (46% N) and Ammonium Sulphate Nitrate (ASN, 27%N)] ...

  19. The importance of governmental control of radioactive sources used in industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anna Firpo Fuerth, Q.F.; Beatriz Souto Ameigenda, Q.F.

    1998-01-01

    Industrial applications of radioactive sources require good management practices dealing with control and registration. In the following case, a special event occurred between two routine inspections: trading. Then a new human factor came into scene: workers with no specific training and knowledge related to radioactive sources. The up going situation triggered emergency procedures. Finally, there were no negative consequences. (author)

  20. 76 FR 71082 - Strata Energy, Inc., Ross Uranium Recovery Project; New Source Material License Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 40-9091; NRC-2011-0148] Strata Energy, Inc., Ross...) submitted an application for a new source material license for the Ross Uranium Recovery Project to be... Leach Uranium Milling Facilities (ISR GEIS) for a new source material license for the Ross Uranium...

  1. Report from the NSLS workshop: Sources and applications of high intensity uv-vuv light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.; Hastings, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    A workshop was held to evaluate sources and applications of high intensity, ultra violet (UV) radiation for biological, chemical, and materials sciences. The proposed sources are a UV free electron laser (FEL) driven by a high brightness linac and undulators in long, straight sections of a specially designed low energy (400 MeV) storage ring. These two distinct types of sources will provide a broad range of scientific opportunities that were discussed in detail during the workshop

  2. Report from the NSLS workshop: Sources and applications of high intensity uv-vuv light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.D.; Hastings, J.B. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    A workshop was held to evaluate sources and applications of high intensity, ultra violet (UV) radiation for biological, chemical, and materials sciences. The proposed sources are a UV free electron laser (FEL) driven by a high brightness linac and undulators in long, straight sections of a specially designed low energy (400 MeV) storage ring. These two distinct types of sources will provide a broad range of scientific opportunities that were discussed in detail during the workshop.

  3. Report from the NSLS workshop: Sources and applications of high intensity uv-vuv light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.D.; Hastings, J.B. [eds.

    1990-12-31

    A workshop was held to evaluate sources and applications of high intensity, ultra violet (UV) radiation for biological, chemical, and materials sciences. The proposed sources are a UV free electron laser (FEL) driven by a high brightness linac and undulators in long, straight sections of a specially designed low energy (400 MeV) storage ring. These two distinct types of sources will provide a broad range of scientific opportunities that were discussed in detail during the workshop.

  4. Positron sources for electron-positron colliders application to the ILC and CLIC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    The increased demanding qualities for positron sources dedicated to e+e- colliders pushed on investigations oriented on new kinds of e+ sources. The different kinds of positron sources polarized and no polarized are considered. Their main features (intensity, emittance) are described and analysed. Comparison between the different sources is worked out. The characteristics of the positron beam available in the collision point are greatly depending on the capture device and on the positron accelerator. Different kinds of capture systems are considered and their qualities, compared. Intense positron sources which are necessary for the colliders require intense incident beams (electrons or photons). The large number of pairs created in the targets leads to important energy deposition and so, thermal heating, which associated to temperature gradients provoke mechanical stresses often destructive. Moreover, the important Coulomb collisions, can affect the atomic structure in crystal targets and the radiation resist...

  5. Application of electrical resistivity imaging on Divaška jama cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Mihevc

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI is a widely used tool in geophysical survey of various subsurface structures. To establish its applicability for karst subsurface, ERI was conducted in Divača karst above caves of Trhlovca and Divaška jama and in its continuation as denuded cave on slopes of Radvanj collapse doline. Empty cave passages were not detected with ERI as electrical resistivity difference between voids and highly resistive carbonate bedrock is too small. On the other hand, denuded caves and cave sections, filled with loamy material, can be clearly distinguished.

  6. Design, conception, and metrology of Extreme Ultraviolet multilayers mirrors resistant environments of space and EUV sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecquet, Ch.

    2009-03-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum (EUV) wavelengths, which range between 13 nm and 40 nm, have many applications in science and technology. These have been developed for example in plasma physics (high order harmonics sources, X ray lasers). The work presented is about the design, the fabrication and the metrology of periodic multilayer mirrors. The main motivation of this study is to establish a cycle of development taking into account both the optical properties of reflective coatings (reflectivity, spectral selectivity, attenuation) and their behaviour under various environments. To improve the spectral selectivity, new multilayer periodic structures have been developed. They are characterized by a bimodal reflectance profile with adjustable attenuation. The effect of environment on the stability of performance is especially critical for the optical collection. The addition of material barriers has stabilized the performance of the peak reflectivity for over 200 h at 400 C deg. and it reduces the influence of other factors of instability on the reflectance. In addition, all structures have been fabricated successfully and evaluated in severe environments. (author)

  7. Multistate Resistive Switching Memory for Synaptic Memory Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti

    2016-07-12

    Reproducible low bias bipolar resistive switching memory in HfZnOx based memristors is reported. The modification of the concentration of oxygen vacancies in the ternary oxide film, which is facilitated by adding ZnO into HfO2, results in improved memory operation by the ternary oxide compared to the single binary oxides. A controlled multistate memory operation is achieved by controlling current compliance and RESET stop voltages. A high DC cyclic stability up to 400 cycles in the multistate memory performance is observed. Conventional synaptic operation in terms of potentiation, depression plasticity, and Ebbinghaus forgetting process are also studied. The memory mechanism is shown to originate from the migration of the oxygen vacancies and modulation of the interfacial layers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  8. Radiation resistance of solar cells for space application, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Sunaga, Hiromi

    1989-07-01

    A 50-μm thick ultrathin silicon solar cell and a 280-μm thick high performance AlGaAs/GaAs solar cell with high radiation resistance have been recently developed by National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). In order to study the radiation resistance of these cells, a joint research was carried out between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and NASDA from 1984 through 1987. In this research, the irradiation method of electron beams, the effects of the irradiation conditions on the deterioration of solar cells by electron beams, and the annealing effects of the radiation damage in solar cells were investigated. This paper is the first one of a series of reports of the joint research. In this paper, the space radiation environment which artificial satellites will encounter, the solar cells used, and the experimental methods are described. In addition to these, the results of the study on the irradiation procedure of electron beams are reported. In the study of the irradiation method of electron beams, three methods, that is, the fixed irradiation method, the moving irradiation method, and the spot irradiation method were examined. In the fixed irradiation method and moving one, stationary solar cells and solar cells moving by conveyer were irradiated by scanning electron beams, respectively. On the other hand, in the spot irradiation method, stationary solar cells were irradiated by non-scanning steady electron beams. It was concluded that the fixed irradiation method was the most proper method. In addition to this, in this study, some pieces of information were obtained with respect to the changes in the electrical characteristics of solar cells caused by the irradiation of electron beams. (author) 52 refs

  9. Mitomycin C application in resistant caustic esophageal stricture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    radiologically by contrast esophagogram and endoscopically to ... a new barium swallow study was conducted before application of .... In contrast, in the regular dilatation group, we needed an average of 11.5 dilatation sessions (ranging from nine to 15 sessions) to obtain only two out of eight patients who were completely.

  10. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-Based Flexible Resistive Strain Sensors for Wearable Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is growing attention and rapid development on flexible electronic devices with electronic materials and sensing technology innovations. In particular, strain sensors with high elasticity and stretchability are needed for several potential applications including human entertainment technology, human–machine interface, personal healthcare, and sports performance monitoring, etc. This article presents recent advancements in the development of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-based flexible resistive strain sensors for wearable applications. First of all, the article shows that PDMS-based stretchable resistive strain sensors are successfully fabricated by different methods, such as the filtration method, printing technology, micromolding method, coating techniques, and liquid phase mixing. Next, strain sensing performances including stretchability, gauge factor, linearity, and durability are comprehensively demonstrated and compared. Finally, potential applications of PDMS-based flexible resistive strain sensors are also discussed. This review indicates that the era of wearable intelligent electronic systems has arrived.

  11. Source attribution of human Campylobacter isolates by MLST and fla-typing and association of genotypes with quinolone resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittl, Sonja; Heckel, Gerald; Korczak, Bożena M; Kuhnert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent zoonosis in developed countries and various domestic animals can function as reservoir for the main pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. In the present study we compared population structures of 730 C. jejuni and C. coli from human cases, 610 chicken, 159 dog, 360 pig and 23 cattle isolates collected between 2001 and 2012 in Switzerland. All isolates had been typed with multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB-typing and their genotypic resistance to quinolones was determined. We used complementary approaches by testing for differences between isolates from different hosts with the proportion similarity as well as the fixation index and by attributing the source of the human isolates with Bayesian assignment using the software STRUCTURE. Analyses were done with MLST and flaB data in parallel and both typing methods were tested for associations of genotypes with quinolone resistance. Results obtained with MLST and flaB data corresponded remarkably well, both indicating chickens as the main source for human infection for both Campylobacter species. Based on MLST, 70.9% of the human cases were attributed to chickens, 19.3% to cattle, 8.6% to dogs and 1.2% to pigs. Furthermore we found a host independent association between sequence type (ST) and quinolone resistance. The most notable were ST-45, all isolates of which were susceptible, while for ST-464 all were resistant.

  12. Identification of sources of resistance to anthracnose stalk rot in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Nicoli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Adoption of resistant cultivars is the primary measure used to control anthracnose stalk rot. The goal of this study was to identify maize-resistant genotypes to anthracnose stalk rot, which are similar to the hybrid 2B710. Experiments were performed at Embrapa Maize and Sorghum experimental fields in Brazil. The first experimental trial evaluated 234 maize lines as well as two commercials hybrids, BRS1010 (susceptible and 2B710 (resistant. Artificial inoculations were performed with a strain at the blister (R2 phase, and evaluation of disease severity was performed after 30 days. The second experimental trial evaluated 48 maize lines and hybrids, inoculated with two Colletotrichum graminicola strains. In the first trial, eight resistance groups were formed, and the last lines were more resistant, as was the hybrid 2B710, with values between 11.50% and 23.0% of severity. In the second trial, there was an interaction between the two factors, lines and isolates, and the lines often showed the same reaction features as those obtained in the first trial. However, the disease severity was higher for most lines, even when using other isolates. These lines with effective levels of resistance could be used in future studies of inheritance, in programs to develop hybrids, and to identify molecular markers associated with resistance to anthracnose stalk rot in maize.

  13. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  14. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence profile of enterococci isolated from poultry and cattle sources in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngbede, Emmanuel Ochefije; Raji, Mashood Abiola; Kwanashie, Clara Nna; Kwaga, Jacob Kwada Paghi

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the occurrence, antimicrobial resistance and virulence of Enterococcus from poultry and cattle farms. Three hundred and ninety samples: cloacal/rectal swabs (n = 260) and manure (n = 130] were processed for recovery of Enterococcus species. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate, identify and characterize Enterococcus species for antimicrobial susceptibility and expression of virulence traits. Detection of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes was carried out by polymerase chain reaction. Enterococcus was recovered from 167 (42.8%) of the 390 samples tested with a predominance of Enterococcus faecium (27.7%). Other species detected were Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus raffinosus, Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus mundtii and Enterococcus durans. All the isolates tested were susceptible to vancomycin, but resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin and gentamicin was also observed among 61.0, 61.0, 45.1 and 32.7% of the isolates, respectively. Sixty (53.1%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant presenting as 24 different resistance patterns with resistance to gentamicin-erythromycin-streptomycin-tetracycline (CN-ERY-STR-TET) being the most common (n = 11) pattern. In addition to expression of virulence traits (haemolysin, gelatinase, biofilm production), antibiotic resistance (tetK, tetL, tetM, tetO and ermB) and virulence (asa1, gelE, cylA) genes were detected among the isolates. Also, in vitro transfer of resistance determinants was observed among 75% of the isolates tested. Our data revealed poultry, cattle and manure in this area are hosts to varying Enterococcus species harbouring virulence and resistance determinants that can be transferred to other organisms and also are important for causing nosocomial infection.

  15. Functionalization of the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles surface: source of new applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Sanchez, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    The surface of the nano-calcium hydroxyapatite, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 is reacted with stearic acid, succinic anhydride, succinimide and 2 a minoetil dihydrogenphosphate. Introduction of different functional groups is given onto the surface. An ionic interaction is identified by infrared spectroscopy and Raman between the carboxylate groups of the resulting organic molecules and calcium of the hydroxyapatite. The formation of a P-O-P pyrophosphate type bond has been for 2-aminoethyl dihydrogen phosphate with hydroxyapatite groups. Hydroxyapatite phase was remained in all cases after the reaction as demonstrated by diffraction of x-ray in powder. The amount of spiked molecules is quantified by analysis of thermal degradation which together with the determination of the surface area by BET isotherms of nitrogen adsorption. A degree of surface coverage is estimated by the organic molecules. A maximum percentage of 71% is obtained for the functionalization with succinic anhydride, followed by 57% for the reaction with stearic acid. Dilute suspensions of different materials were prepared for which in phosphate buffer solution have presented two populations around 2 and 5 μm in diameter for the modified particles. The ζ-Potential of various materials was determined occurring a variation in the potential of the unmodified hydroxyapatite. The particles with physicochemical properties different of the starting hydroxyapatite were obtained, this has expanded the range of application of the material. (author) [es

  16. Effect of high volume of fly ash from 5 sources on compressive strength and acid resistance of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivatanachang, N.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of high volume of fly ash from various sources on compressive strength and acid resistance of concrete. Fly ashes from 5 sources were collected and classified by an air classifier into 3 groups of different degree of fineness; low, medium, and high fineness. Portland cement type I was replaced by fly ash at the rate of 50% by weight of cementitious materials (Portland cement type I and fly ash to cast concrete cylinders of 10 cm in diameter and 20 cm in height. After fly ash concreteswere cured in water for 28 days, they were tested to determine the compressive strength. In addition, the specimens were immersed in 3% of sulfuric acid solution and the weight losses of concretes were measured from 3 to 90 days. It was found that the compressive strengths of fly ash concretes were more than 77% of the control concrete when the high fineness fly ashes were used. Each source of the fly ash had different effect on the compressive strength as well as on the sulfuric acid resistance of concrete. The compressive strength of fly ash concrete was improved with the use of high fineness fly ash; however, the sulfuric acid resistance of the concrete tended to decrease as the fineness of fly ash increased.

  17. The Application of Crowd Sourcing in Educational Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skaržauskaitė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—This paper analyses the role of crowdsourcing use in educational activities. In recent decades, the rapid growth of innovative Internet-based information and communication technologies created a new field of opportunities for educational organizations to reach their goals. Crowdsourcing, as defined by Jeff Howe (2006, is the act of taking a job traditionally performed by a designated employee and outsourcing it to an undefined, generally large group of people in the form of an open call. The newness of the term indicates that there is not significant literature on the subject of how this operating method is utilized in educational activities. The objective of this paper therefore is to take an exploratory look at how educational organizations are using crowdsourcing as part of their activities at the present time, and to suggest how the practice of crowdsourcing may spread to other educational activities as time goes on. Design/methodology/approach—The paper presents a conceptual model of crowdsourcing application in educational activities. The model is supported by analysis and synthesis of scientific literature and case studies. Findings—Analysis of literature and case studies allowed the creation of a conceptual model which shows the use of crowdsourcing in educational and supporting tasks of organizations. This tool will be helpful for future research on the subject, since it provides a framework of the analysis. Research limitations/implications—The model presented here is a conceptual model and needs to be validated empirically. Practical implications—For practical purposes, the variables proposed in the model would provide a more comprehensive framework for the assessment of crowdsourcing use in education activities and work as a guide for crowdsourcing strategies. Originality/Value—Although the relevant literature consists of many partial and indirect insights and indications in the direction as conceived by the model

  18. The Application of Crowd Sourcing in Educational Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skaržauskaitė

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—This paper analyses the role of crowdsourcing use in educational activities. In recent decades, the rapid growth of innovative Internet-based information and communication technologies created a new field of opportunities for educational organizations to reach their goals. Crowdsourcing, as defined by Jeff Howe (2006, is the act of taking a job traditionally performed by a designated employee and outsourcing it to an undefined, generally large group of people in the form of an open call. The newness of the term indicates that there is not significant literature on the subject of how this operating method is utilized in educational activities. The objective of this paper therefore is to take an exploratory look at how educational organizations are using crowdsourcing as part of their activities at the present time, and to suggest how the practice of crowdsourcing may spread to other educational activities as time goes on.Design/methodology/approach—The paper presents a conceptual model of crowdsourcing application in educational activities. The model is supported by analysis and synthesis of scientific literature and case studies.Findings—Analysis of literature and case studies allowed the creation of a conceptual model which shows the use of crowdsourcing in educational and supporting tasks of organizations. This tool will be helpful for future research on the subject, since it provides a framework of the analysis.Research limitations/implications—The model presented here is a conceptual model and needs to be validated empirically.Practical implications—For practical purposes, the variables proposed in the model would provide a more comprehensive framework for the assessment of crowdsourcing use in education activities and work as a guide for crowdsourcing strategies.Originality/Value—Although the relevant literature consists of many partial and indirect insights and indications in the direction as conceived by the model, the

  19. Aggregation Effects and Population-Based Dynamics as a Source of Therapy Resistance in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joel S; Cunningham, Jessica J; Gatenby, Robert A

    2017-03-01

    Evolution of resistance allows cancer cells to adapt and continue proliferating even when therapy is initially very effective. Most investigations of treatment resistance focus on the adaptive phenotypic properties of individual cells. We propose that the resistance of a single cell to therapy may extend beyond its own phenotypic and molecular properties and be influenced by the phenotypic properties of surrounding cells and variations in cell density. Similar variation exists in population densities of animals living in groups and can significantly affect the outcome of an external threat. We investigate aggregation effects in cancer therapy using Darwinian models that integrate phenotypic properties of individual cells and common population effects found in nature to simulate the dynamics of resistance and sensitivity in the diverse cellular environments within cancers. We demonstrate that the density of cancer cell populations can profoundly influence response to chemotherapy independent of the properties of individual cells. Most commonly, these aggregation effects benefit the tumor allowing cells to survive even with phenotypic properties that would render them highly vulnerable to therapy in the absence of population effects. We demonstrate aggregation effects likely play a significant role in conferring resistance to therapy on tumor cells that would otherwise be sensitive to treatment. The potential role of aggregation in outcomes from cancer therapy has not been previously investigated. Our results demonstrate these dynamics may play a key role in resistance to therapy and could be used to design evolutionarily-enlightened therapies that exploit aggregation effects to improve treatment outcomes.

  20. A wear-resistant zirconia ceramic for low friction application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnubst, A.J.A.; Ran, S.; Wiratha, K.W.; Blank, D.H.A.; Pasaribu, H.R.; Sloetjes, J.W.; Schipper, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    A high wear-resistant ceramic/ceramic couple is described associated with low friction. By adding a small amount CuO to yttria-doped tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) the (dry) coefficient of friction against alumina is only 0.2 during a sliding distance of 3-5 km after which the coefficient drastically increases and a transition from mild to sever wear occurs. Pure Y-TZP exhibits a coefficient of friction of 0.7 under the same experimental conditions but wear remains mild during the test (upto 10 km of sliding distance). These small amounts of CuO also strongly influence the densification behaviour. Sintering of this system occurs in several steps where among other things dissolution of CuO in the Y-TZP matrix as well as liquid phase sintering takes place. Non-uniform shrinkage of the CuO-doped system resulting in relative large microcracks in the ceramic can explain its sudden drastic increase in coefficient of friction and wear rate after 3-5 km of operation. (orig.)

  1. Applications of electrical resistance tomography to subsurface environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Daily, W.D.

    1994-11-15

    We are developing a new imaging technique, Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT), to map subsurface liquids as flow occurs during natural or clean-up processes and to map geologic structure. Natural processes (such as surface water infiltrating the vadose zone) and man-induced processes (such as tank leaks and clean-up processes such as steam injection), can create changes in a soil`s electrical properties that are readily measured. We have conducted laboratory and a variety of field experiments to investigate the capabilities and limitations of ERT for imaging underground structures and processes. In the last four years we have used ERT to successfully monitor several field processes including: a subsurface steam injection process (for VOC removal), an air injection process (below the water table) for VOC removal, water infiltration through the vadose zone, radio-frequency heating, ohmic heating, and tank and pond leaks. The information derived from ERT can be used by remediation projects to: detect and locate leaks, determine the effectiveness of clean-up processes, select appropriate clean-up alternatives, and to verify the installation and performance of subsurface barriers.

  2. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed. - Highlights: • The hazards associated to the use of radioactive sources must be taken into account. • Security issues are of paramount importance in the use of radioactive sources. • Radiation sources can be used to perpetrate terrorist acts (RDDs, INDs, REDs). • DSRS and orphan sources trigger radiological protection, safety and security concerns. • Regulatory control, from cradle to grave, of radioactive sources is mandatory.

  3. Source Data Applicability Impacts on Epistemic Uncertainty for Launch Vehicle Fault Tree Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hassan, Mohammad; Novack, Steven D.; Ring, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Launch vehicle systems are designed and developed using both heritage and new hardware. Design modifications to the heritage hardware to fit new functional system requirements can impact the applicability of heritage reliability data. Risk estimates for newly designed systems must be developed from generic data sources such as commercially available reliability databases using reliability prediction methodologies, such as those addressed in MIL-HDBK-217F. Failure estimates must be converted from the generic environment to the specific operating environment of the system where it is used. In addition, some qualification of applicability for the data source to the current system should be made. Characterizing data applicability under these circumstances is crucial to developing model estimations that support confident decisions on design changes and trade studies. This paper will demonstrate a data-source applicability classification method for assigning uncertainty to a target vehicle based on the source and operating environment of the originating data. The source applicability is determined using heuristic guidelines while translation of operating environments is accomplished by applying statistical methods to MIL-HDK-217F tables. The paper will provide a case study example by translating Ground Benign (GB) and Ground Mobile (GM) to the Airborne Uninhabited Fighter (AUF) environment for three electronic components often found in space launch vehicle control systems. The classification method will be followed by uncertainty-importance routines to assess the need to for more applicable data to reduce uncertainty.

  4. Using recruitment source timing and diagnosticity to enhance applicants' occupation-specific human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Michael C; Ployhart, Robert E; Campion, Michael A

    2017-05-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 102(5) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2017-14296-001). In the article, the following headings were inadvertently set at the wrong level: Method, Participants and Procedure, Measures, Occupation specific human capital, Symbolic jobs, Relevant majors, Occupation-specific capital hotspots, Source timing, Source diagnosticity, Results, and Discussion. All versions of this article have been corrected.] This study proposes that reaching applicants through more diagnostic recruitment sources earlier in their educational development (e.g., in high school) can lead them to invest more in their occupation-specific human capital (OSHC), thereby making them higher quality candidates. Using a sample of 78,157 applicants applying for jobs within a desirable professional occupation in the public sector, results indicate that applicants who report hearing about the occupation earlier, and applicants who report hearing about the occupation through more diagnostic sources, have higher levels of OSHC upon application. Additionally, source timing and diagnosticity affect the likelihood of candidates applying for jobs symbolic of the occupation, selecting relevant majors, and attending educational institutions with top programs related to the occupation. These findings suggest a firm's recruiting efforts may influence applicants' OSHC investment strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Endosulfan Resistance Profile of Soil Bacteria and Potential Application of Resistant Strains in Bioremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Chandini P.K.; Jaysooryan K.K; Varghese Rinoy; Sreedharan K.; Smitha K. P.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, bacterial strains were isolated from the soils of Wayanad District, Kerala, India and the isolates were tested for their tolerance to endosulfan and potential in bioremediation technology. Pesticide contamination in the soils, soil physico-chemical characteristics and socio-economic impacts of pesticide application were also analyzed. 28 pesticide compounds in the soil samples were analyzed and the results revealed that there was no pesticide residues in the soils. As pe...

  6. Detection of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Source and Drinking Water Samples from a First Nations Community in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Dinesh M.; Tun, Hein Min; Poole, Jenna; Patidar, Rakesh; Li, Ru; Mi, Ruidong; Amarawansha, Geethani E. A.; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha; Khafipour, Ehsan; Farenhorst, Annemieke

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Access to safe drinking water is now recognized as a human right by the United Nations. In developed countries like Canada, access to clean water is generally not a matter of concern. However, one in every five First Nations reserves is under a drinking water advisory, often due to unacceptable microbiological quality. In this study, we analyzed source and potable water from a First Nations community for the presence of coliform bacteria as well as various antibiotic resistance genes. Samples, including those from drinking water sources, were found to be positive for various antibiotic resistance genes, namely, ampC, tet(A), mecA, β-lactamase genes (SHV-type, TEM-type, CTX-M-type, OXA-1, and CMY-2-type), and carbapenemase genes (KPC, IMP, VIM, NDM, GES, and OXA-48 genes). Not surprisingly, substantial numbers of total coliforms, including Escherichia coli, were recovered from these samples, and this result was also confirmed using Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. These findings deserve further attention, as the presence of coliforms and antibiotic resistance genes potentially puts the health of the community members at risk. IMPORTANCE In this study, we highlight the poor microbiological quality of drinking water in a First Nations community in Canada. We examined the coliform load as well as the presence of antibiotic resistance genes in these samples. This study examined the presence of antibiotic-resistant genes in drinking water samples from a First Nations Community in Canada. We believe that our findings are of considerable significance, since the issue of poor water quality in First Nations communities in Canada is often ignored, and our findings will help shed some light on this important issue. PMID:27235436

  7. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  8. Opportunity of spinel ferrite materials in nonvolatile memory device applications based on their resistive switching performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Qin, Ni; Wu, Guangheng; Lin, Yanting; Li, Shuwei; Bao, Dinghua

    2012-09-12

    The opportunity of spinel ferrites in nonvolatile memory device applications has been demonstrated by the resistive switching performance characteristics of a Pt/NiFe(2)O(4)/Pt structure, such as low operating voltage, high device yield, long retention time (up to 10(5) s), and good endurance (up to 2.2 × 10(4) cycles). The dominant conduction mechanisms are Ohmic conduction in the low-resistance state and in the lower-voltage region of the high-resistance state and Schottky emission in the higher-voltage region of the high-resistance state. On the basis of measurements of the temperature dependence of the resistances and magnetic properties in different resistance states, we explain the physical mechanism of resistive switching of Pt/NiFe(2)O(4)/Pt devices using the model of formation and rupture of conducting filaments by considering the thermal effect of oxygen vacancies and changes in the valences of cations due to the redox effect.

  9. Effect of protein source on resistive-training-induced changes in body composition and muscle size in older men123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, Mark D; Wells, Amanda M; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2008-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with reductions in muscle mass and strength, but nutrition and exercise interventions can delay this progression and enhance the quality of life. Objective We examined whether the predominant source of protein consumed by older men influenced measures of muscle size and strength, body composition, resting energy expenditure, and skeletal muscle creatine concentrations in response to 12 wk of resistive training. Design After consuming a lactoovovegetarian (LOV) diet for 2 wk, 21 men aged 65 ± 5 y were randomly assigned to either consume a beef-containing (BC) diet (n = 10) or to continue the LOV diet (n = 11) throughout resistive training. The BC diet included 0.6 g protein · kg−1 · d−1 from beef and the LOV diet included 0.6 g protein · kg−1 · d−1 from textured vegetable protein (soy) sources. The remaining protein in the diets came from self-selected LOV sources. Results The mean total protein intake for both groups ranged from 1.03 to 1.17 g · kg−1 · d−1 during the intervention. Men in both groups had improvements (14–38%) in maximal dynamic strength of all the muscle groups trained with no significant difference between groups. With resistive training, cross-sectional muscle area of the vastus lateralis increased in both groups (4.2 ± 3.0% and 6.0 ± 2.6% for the LOV and BC groups, respectively) with no significant difference between groups. Body composition, resting energy expenditure, and concentrations of muscle creatine, phosphocreatine, and total creatine did not differ significantly between groups or change over time. Conclusions These data suggest that increases in muscle strength and size were not influenced by the predominant source of protein consumed by older men with adequate total protein intake. PMID:12197993

  10. Application of spinosad increases the susceptibility of insecticide-resistant Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambkin, Trevor A; Furlong, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    The effect of spinosad exposure on the susceptibility of pyrethroid- and organophosphate-resistant populations of lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to insecticides was investigated in broiler house farm and laboratory studies. A field pyrethroid- and organophosphate-resistant population showed a 3.6-fold increase in susceptibility to gamma-cyhalothrin following spinosad treatment. Overall, cyfluthrin- and fenitrothion-resistant field populations were more susceptible to these insecticides following spinosad treatments, but populations that were not resistant showed no change in susceptibility following spinosad treatment. In a related study, three broiler farm beetle populations with very similar levels of cyfluthrin and gamma-cyhalothrin resistance and similar susceptibilities to spinosad were used to investigate temporal effects of spinosad field treatments on the susceptibility to pyrethroids. Farm insecticide regimes applied at the start of each flock differed: the control broiler house received no insecticide applications, another house was systematically treated with cyfluthrin at the start of each study flock, and the third house was systematically treated with spinosad at the start of five flocks. Afterwards, treatments reverted to cyfluthrin on all farms. At the end of flocks, beetles were tested with cyfluthrin, gamma-cyhalothrin, and spinosad. The control and cyfluthrin house beetles did not change susceptibility to pyrethroids over the period of the study. In the spinosad house, spinosad had no effect on spinosad susceptibility but dramatically increased cyfluthrin and gamma-cyhalothrin susceptibilities. These new susceptibilities were maintained while spinosad applications continued, but pyrethroid susceptibility declined once spinosad applications ceased. This study provides evidence of a synergistic interaction between spinosad and pyrethroids in pyrethroid-resistant beetles. This evidence has significant

  11. Nutrient Losses from Non-Point Sources or from Unidentified Point Sources? Application Examples of the Smartphone Based Nitrate App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Ekkelenkamp, R.; van der Zaan, B.

    2017-12-01

    In 2016 Deltares launched the free to use Nitrate App which accurately reads and interprets nitrate test strips. The app directly displays the measured concentration and gives the option to share the result. Shared results are visualised in map functionality within the app and online. Since its introduction we've been seeing an increasing number of nitrate app applications. In this presentation we show some unanticipated types of application. The Nitrate App was originally intended to enable farmers to measure nitrate concentrations on their own farms. This may encourage farmers to talk to specialists about the right nutrient best management practices (BMP's) for their farm. Several groups of farmers have recently started to apply the Nitrate App and to discuss their results with each other and with the authorities. Nitrate concentration routings in catchments have proven to be another useful application. Within a day a person can generate a catchment scale nitrate concentration map identifying nitrate loss hotspots. In several routings in agricultural catchments clear point sources were found, for example at small scale manure processing plants. These routings proved that the Nitrate App can help water managers to target conservation practices more accurately to areas with the highest nitrate concentrations and loads. Other current applications are the screening of domestic water wells in California, the collection of extra measurements (also pH and NH4) in the National Monitoring Network for the Evaluation of the Manure Policy in the Netherlands, and several educational initiatives in cooperation with schools and universities.

  12. Development of Magneto-Resistive Angular Position Sensors for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert; Langendorf, Sven; Seifart, Klaus; Slatter, Rolf; Olberts, Bastian; Romera, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic microsystems in the form of magneto- resistive (MR) sensors are firmly established in automobiles and industrial applications. They measure path, angle, electrical current, or magnetic fields. MR technology opens up new sensor possibilities in space applications and can be an enabling technology for optimal performance, high robustness and long lifetime at reasonable costs. In a recent assessment study performed by HTS GmbH and Sensitec GmbH under ESA Contract a market survey has confirmed that space industry has a very high interest in novel, contactless position sensors based on MR technology. Now, a detailed development stage is pursued, to advance the sensor design up to Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) level and to perform qualification testing for a representative pilot space application.The paper briefly reviews the basics of magneto- resistive effects and possible sensor applications and describes the key benefits of MR angular sensors with reference to currently operational industrial and space applications. The results of the assessment study are presented and potential applications and uses of contactless magneto-resistive angular sensors for spacecraft are identified. The baseline mechanical and electrical sensor design will be discussed. An outlook on the EQM development and qualification tests is provided.

  13. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  14. The development of data acquisition and processing application system for RF ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Wang, Xiaoying; Hu, Chundong; Jiang, Caichao; Xie, Yahong; Zhao, Yuanzhe

    2017-07-01

    As the key ion source component of nuclear fusion auxiliary heating devices, the radio frequency (RF) ion source is developed and applied gradually to offer a source plasma with the advantages of ease of control and high reliability. In addition, it easily achieves long-pulse steady-state operation. During the process of the development and testing of the RF ion source, a lot of original experimental data will be generated. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a stable and reliable computer data acquisition and processing application system for realizing the functions of data acquisition, storage, access, and real-time monitoring. In this paper, the development of a data acquisition and processing application system for the RF ion source is presented. The hardware platform is based on the PXI system and the software is programmed on the LabVIEW development environment. The key technologies that are used for the implementation of this software programming mainly include the long-pulse data acquisition technology, multi-threading processing technology, transmission control communication protocol, and the Lempel-Ziv-Oberhumer data compression algorithm. Now, this design has been tested and applied on the RF ion source. The test results show that it can work reliably and steadily. With the help of this design, the stable plasma discharge data of the RF ion source are collected, stored, accessed, and monitored in real-time. It is shown that it has a very practical application significance for the RF experiments.

  15. Effect of manure application rate and timing on the leaching potential of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are used in swine production for therapeutic and growth promotion purposes. Because land application is the most common method of disposing of swine lagoon effluent, there exists the potential threat of contaminating the underlying groundwater with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) ...

  16. Data Visualization with Flash Builder Designing RIA and AIR Applications with Remote Data Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Rocchi, Cesare

    2011-01-01

    Design and create functional applications that interact with remote data sources. You get a thorough introduction to the latest Flash Builder tools learning how you can use the built-in wizards, MXML or pure ActionScript 3 to build information-rich applications for the browser or AIR applications. Hand's on tutorials guide you through each iteration including building user interaction, charting, incorporating audio and video, customizing the UI; and a code repository provides re-usable code that you can modify and deploy in your own applications. *Hand's o

  17. Prevalence of angular leaf spot disease and sources of resistance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening of a set of 37 released common bean varieties in DRC using virulent Andean and Mesoamerican isolates identified four resistant bean varieties; ARA 4, COD MLV 059, MLV 224/94B, LSA 144 and Mexico 54. Some of these varieties possess useful traits, in addition to acceptable seed market class, and are hence ...

  18. Potential of popcorn germplasm as a source of resistance to ear rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Railan do Nascimento Ferreira Kurosawa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Because of its multi-purpose nature, popcorn has sparked the interest of the World Trade Organization as regards fungal contamination by mycotoxins. However, no investigations have been conducted on popcorn for resistance of genotypes to ear rot. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of popcorn genotypes as to resistance to ear rot and rotten kernels, as an initial step for the implementation of a breeding program with the popcorn crop in Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Thirty-seven accessions from different ecogeographic regions of Latin America were evaluated in 2 cultivation periods, in a randomized block design with 4 replications. We evaluated the incidence of rotten ears, incidence of rotten ears caused by Fusarium spp., severity of ears with Fusarium spp. rot, and incidence of rotten kernels. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, and means were compared by the Scott-Knott clustering test (p < 0.05. A significant effect was observed for all evaluated variables, characterizing them as efficient in the discrimination of genotypic variability for reaction to fungal injuries in popcorn. The gene pool of the tropical and temperate Germplasm Collection evaluated here has the potential to generate superior segregants and provide hybrid combinations with alleles of resistance to diseases affecting ears and stored kernels. Based on the different variables and times, the experiment was conducted, and genotypes L65, L80, and IAC 125 showed the highest levels of resistance.

  19. Screening almond rootstocks for sources of resistance to Armillaria root diesease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunus is one of the most susceptible horticultural crops to Armillaria root disease. Resistance to the geographically isolated causal fungi Armillaria mellea and A. tabescens has been evaluated in separate field trials of almond and other Prunus rootstocks, but not in one comprehensive study. We ev...

  20. New Sources of Resistance in Cowpea to the Cowpea Aphid (Aphis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-two advanced breeding genotypes of cowpea were evaluated for their responses to infes-tation by the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. The aim of the study was to identify geno-type(s) of cowpea resistant to A. craccivora to be used as breeding line(s). Seedling screening technique and aphid growth and ...

  1. Sources of wild germplasm to improve whitefly resistance in commercial watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance is a fundamental component of crop sustainability. The Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) whitefly complex is well known as a key pest of many crops around the world. It is adaptive to its environment and feeds on an impressive number of plant species (over 1,000). Yet, th...

  2. Sequencing identification and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry and other animal sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna eMarinou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Campylobacter spp. are together with Salmonella spp. the leading causes of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The most commonly isolated species in humans are Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli The isolation, identification and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. from poultry and raw meat from slaughterhouses, has been investigated for the first time in Greece. During the period from August 2005 to November 2008 a total of 1080 samples were collected: a 830 fecal samples from five poultry farms, b 150 cecal samples from chicken carcasses in a slaughterhouse and c 100 fecal samples from one pig farm near the region of Attica. The identification of the isolates was performed with conventional, as well as with and molecular methods.Results: Sixteen Campylobacter strains were isolated, all from the poultry farms. None of the strains was identified as C. jejuni. Antimicrobial susceptibility to six antimicrobials was performed and all the strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and gentamicin. Thirteen out of 14 C.coli were resistant to erythromycin and all C.coli strains were resistant to ampicillin. Conclusions:Our results emphasize the need for a surveillance and monitoring system with respect to the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in poultry, as well as for the use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine in Greece.

  3. NEW SOURCES OF GRAIN MOLD RESISTANCE AMONG SORGHUM ACCESSIONS FROM SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Kajac Prom

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available   Fifty-nine sorghum accessions from Sudan were evaluated in replicated plots at Isabela, Puerto Rico, for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum, one of the causal agents of grain mold.  The environmental conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall during this study, especially at and after physiological maturity were optimal for grain mold development.  Highly significant negative correlations between grain mold severity ratings in the field and on threshed grains with germination rate and seed weight were recorded, indicating that germination and seed weight were adversely affected when challenged with F. thapsinum.  Temperature showed a significant negative correlation with grain mold severity and a significant positive correlation with germination rate.  However, no significant correlation was observed between rainfall and grain mold severity or germination rate.  Accessions PI570011, PI570027, PI569992, PI569882, PI571312, PI570759, and PI267548 exhibited the lowest grain mold severities and among the highest germination rates, indicating that these accessions may possess genetic resistance to grain mold and might be useful in sorghum enhancement programs.  Four of these accessions had significantly higher germination rates than the resistant control genotypes with PI267548 having the highest germination rate.  PI267548 was the only white seeded accessions showing significantly better grain mold resistance than the control genotypes.

  4. A Simple Model of Tetracycline Antibiotic Resistance in the Aquatic Environment (with Application to the Poudre River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sanchez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is a major concern, yet it is unclear what causes the relatively high densities of resistant bacteria in the anthropogenically impacted environment. There are various possible scenarios (hypotheses: (A Input of resistant bacteria from wastewater and agricultural sources is significant, but they do not grow in the environment; (B Input of resistant bacteria is negligible, but the resistant bacteria (exogenous or endogenous grow due to the selection pressure of the antibiotic; (C Exogenous bacteria transfer the resistance to the endogenous bacteria and those grow. This paper presents a simple mechanistic model of tetracycline resistance in the aquatic environment. It includes state variables for tetracyclines, susceptible and resistant bacteria, and particulate and dissolved organic matter in the water column and sediment bed. The antibiotic partitions between freely dissolved, dissolved organic matter (DOM-bound and solids-bound phases, and decays. Bacteria growth is limited by DOM, inhibited by the antibiotic (susceptible bacteria only and lower due to the metabolic cost of carrying the resistance (resistant bacteria only. Resistant bacteria can transfer resistance to the susceptible bacteria (conjugation and lose the resistance (segregation. The model is applied to the Poudre River and can reproduce the major observed (literature data patterns of antibiotic concentration and resistance. The model suggests observed densities of resistant bacteria in the sediment bed cannot be explained by input (scenario A, but require growth (scenarios B or C.

  5. Integrating open-source software applications to build molecular dynamics systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bruce M; Predecki, Paul K; Kumosa, Maciej

    2014-04-05

    Three open-source applications, NanoEngineer-1, packmol, and mis2lmp are integrated using an open-source file format to quickly create molecular dynamics (MD) cells for simulation. The three software applications collectively make up the open-source software (OSS) suite known as MD Studio (MDS). The software is validated through software engineering practices and is verified through simulation of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-a and isophorone diamine (DGEBA/IPD) system. Multiple simulations are run using the MDS software to create MD cells, and the data generated are used to calculate density, bulk modulus, and glass transition temperature of the DGEBA/IPD system. Simulation results compare well with published experimental and numerical results. The MDS software prototype confirms that OSS applications can be analyzed against real-world research requirements and integrated to create a new capability. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Orthodontic brackets removal under shear and tensile bond strength resistance tests – a comparative test between light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P C G; Porto-Neto, S T; Lizarelli, R F Z; Bagnato, V S

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated if a new LEDs system has enough efficient energy to promote efficient shear and tensile bonding strength resistance under standardized tests. LEDs 470 ± 10 nm can be used to photocure composite during bracket fixation. Advantages considering resistance to tensile and shear bonding strength when these systems were used are necessary to justify their clinical use. Forty eight human extracted premolars teeth and two light sources were selected, one halogen lamp and a LEDs system. Brackets for premolar were bonded through composite resin. Samples were submitted to standardized tests. A comparison between used sources under shear bonding strength test, obtained similar results; however, tensile bonding test showed distinct results: a statistical difference at a level of 1% between exposure times (40 and 60 seconds) and even to an interaction between light source and exposure time. The best result was obtained with halogen lamp use by 60 seconds, even during re-bonding; however LEDs system can be used for bonding and re-bonding brackets if power density could be increased

  7. A compressed sensing based 3D resistivity inversion algorithm for hydrogeological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Shashi; Kambhammettu, B. V. N. P.; Peddinti, Srinivasa Rao; Adinarayana, J.

    2018-04-01

    Image reconstruction from discrete electrical responses pose a number of computational and mathematical challenges. Application of smoothness constrained regularized inversion from limited measurements may fail to detect resistivity anomalies and sharp interfaces separated by hydro stratigraphic units. Under favourable conditions, compressed sensing (CS) can be thought of an alternative to reconstruct the image features by finding sparse solutions to highly underdetermined linear systems. This paper deals with the development of a CS assisted, 3-D resistivity inversion algorithm for use with hydrogeologists and groundwater scientists. CS based l1-regularized least square algorithm was applied to solve the resistivity inversion problem. Sparseness in the model update vector is introduced through block oriented discrete cosine transformation, with recovery of the signal achieved through convex optimization. The equivalent quadratic program was solved using primal-dual interior point method. Applicability of the proposed algorithm was demonstrated using synthetic and field examples drawn from hydrogeology. The proposed algorithm has outperformed the conventional (smoothness constrained) least square method in recovering the model parameters with much fewer data, yet preserving the sharp resistivity fronts separated by geologic layers. Resistivity anomalies represented by discrete homogeneous blocks embedded in contrasting geologic layers were better imaged using the proposed algorithm. In comparison to conventional algorithm, CS has resulted in an efficient (an increase in R2 from 0.62 to 0.78; a decrease in RMSE from 125.14 Ω-m to 72.46 Ω-m), reliable, and fast converging (run time decreased by about 25%) solution.

  8. Using pre-existing microarray datasets to increase experimental power: application to insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie J Daigle

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although they have become a widely used experimental technique for identifying differentially expressed (DE genes, DNA microarrays are notorious for generating noisy data. A common strategy for mitigating the effects of noise is to perform many experimental replicates. This approach is often costly and sometimes impossible given limited resources; thus, analytical methods are needed which increase accuracy at no additional cost. One inexpensive source of microarray replicates comes from prior work: to date, data from hundreds of thousands of microarray experiments are in the public domain. Although these data assay a wide range of conditions, they cannot be used directly to inform any particular experiment and are thus ignored by most DE gene methods. We present the SVD Augmented Gene expression Analysis Tool (SAGAT, a mathematically principled, data-driven approach for identifying DE genes. SAGAT increases the power of a microarray experiment by using observed coexpression relationships from publicly available microarray datasets to reduce uncertainty in individual genes' expression measurements. We tested the method on three well-replicated human microarray datasets and demonstrate that use of SAGAT increased effective sample sizes by as many as 2.72 arrays. We applied SAGAT to unpublished data from a microarray study investigating transcriptional responses to insulin resistance, resulting in a 50% increase in the number of significant genes detected. We evaluated 11 (58% of these genes experimentally using qPCR, confirming the directions of expression change for all 11 and statistical significance for three. Use of SAGAT revealed coherent biological changes in three pathways: inflammation, differentiation, and fatty acid synthesis, furthering our molecular understanding of a type 2 diabetes risk factor. We envision SAGAT as a means to maximize the potential for biological discovery from subtle transcriptional responses, and we provide it as a

  9. Winter Annual Weed Response to Nitrogen Sources and Application Timings prior to a Burndown Corn Herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autumn and early preplant N applications, sources, and placement may affect winter annual weed growth. Field research evaluated (1 the effect of different nitrogen sources in autumn and early preplant on total winter annual weed growth (2006–2010, and (2 strip-till and broadcast no-till N applied in autumn and early preplant on henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L. growth (2008–2010 prior to a burndown herbicide application. Total winter annual weed biomass was greater than the nontreated control when applying certain N sources in autumn or early preplant for no-till corn. Anhydrous ammonia had the lowest average weed density (95 weeds m−2, though results were inconsistent over the years. Winter annual weed biomass was lowest (43 g m−2 when applying 32% urea ammonium nitrate in autumn and was similar to applying anhydrous ammonia in autumn or early preplant and the nontreated control. Henbit biomass was 28% greater when applying N in the autumn compared to an early preplant application timing. Nitrogen placement along with associated tillage with strip-till placement was important in reducing henbit biomass. Nitrogen source selection, application timing, and placement affected the impact of N on winter annual weed growth and should be considered when recommending a burndown herbicide application timing.

  10. High intensity compact Compton X-ray sources: Challenges and potential of applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, M., E-mail: mjacquet@lal.in2p3.fr

    2014-07-15

    Thanks to the exceptional development of high power femtosecond lasers in the last 15 years, Compton based X-ray sources are in full development over the world in the recent years. Compact Compton sources are able to combine the compactness of the instrument with a beam of high intensity, high quality, tunable in energy. In various fields of applications such as biomedical science, cultural heritage preservation and material science researches, these sources should provide an easy working environment and the methods currently used at synchrotrons could be largely developed in a lab-size environment as hospitals, labs, or museums.

  11. Marine Pseudomonas putida: a potential source of antimicrobial substances against antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palloma Rodrigues Marinho

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria isolated from marine sponges found off the coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were screened for the production of antimicrobial substances. We report a new Pseudomonas putida strain (designated P. putida Mm3 isolated from the sponge Mycale microsigmatosa that produces a powerful antimicrobial substance active against multidrug-resistant bacteria. P. putida Mm3 was identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic tests. Molecular typing for Mm3 was performed by RAPD-PCR and comparison of the results to other Pseudomonas strains. Our results contribute to the search for new antimicrobial agents, an important strategy for developing alternative therapies to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

  12. Assessment of corrosion resistance of Nd–Fe–B magnets by silanization for orthodontic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabiano, F., E-mail: ffabiano@unime.it [Department of Electronic Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Engineering, University of Messina, Contrada di Dio, 98166 Messina (Italy); Department of Experimental, Specialized Medical-Surgical and Odontostomatological Sciences, Messina (Italy); Celegato, F. [INRIM Electromagnetism Division, Torino (Italy); Giordano, A. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Engineering, University of Messina, Contrada di Dio, 98166 Messina (Italy); Borsellino, C. [Department of Civil Engineering, Computing, Construction, Environmental and Applied Mathematics, Messina (Italy); Bonaccorsi, L.; Calabrese, L. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Engineering, University of Messina, Contrada di Dio, 98166 Messina (Italy); Tiberto, P. [INRIM Electromagnetism Division, Torino (Italy); Cordasco, G.; Matarese, G. [Department of Experimental, Specialized Medical-Surgical and Odontostomatological Sciences, Messina (Italy); Fabiano, V. [Department of Civil Engineering, Computing, Construction, Environmental and Applied Mathematics, Messina (Italy); Department of Experimental, Specialized Medical-Surgical and Odontostomatological Sciences, Messina (Italy); Azzerboni, B. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Engineering, University of Messina, Contrada di Dio, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Nd–Fe–B permanent magnets are characterised by excellent magnetic properties. However, being extremely vulnerable to the attack of both climate and corrosive environments, their applications are limited. This paper describes how, at different thicknesses of N-propyl-trimetoxy-silane, the coating affects the magnetic force of nickel plated magnets. We also investigate if the corrosion resistance of silanized Nd–Fe–B magnets increases in mildly corrosive environments by immersing them in a synthetic saliva solution. It was found that the silanization treatment does not affect the strength of the magnetic force and provide an enhancement of the corrosion resistance of the substrate.

  13. Involvement of polyhydroxyalkanoates in stress resistance of microbial cells: Biotechnological consequences and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obruca, Stanislav; Sedlacek, Petr; Koller, Martin; Kucera, Dan; Pernicova, Iva

    2017-12-14

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are polyesters accumulated by numerous prokaryotes as storage materials; they attract attention as "green" alternatives to petrochemical plastics. Recent research has demonstrated that their biological role goes beyong their storage function, since they presence in cytoplasm enhances stress resistance of microorganisms. To address these complex functions, this review summarizes the protective effects of PHA for microrganisms; the involvement of PHA in stress resistance is discussed also from a praxis-oriented perspective. The review discourses the controlled application of stress to improve PHA productivity. Also the manifold advantages of using stress adapted microbes - extremophiles as PHA producers are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. NEW SOURCES OF GRAIN MOLD RESISTANCE AMONG SORGHUM ACCESSIONS FROM SUDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Louis Kajac Prom; John Erpelding

    2009-01-01

      Fifty-nine sorghum accessions from Sudan were evaluated in replicated plots at Isabela, Puerto Rico, for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum, one of the causal agents of grain mold.  The environmental conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall during this study, especially at and after physiological maturity were optimal for grain mold development.  Highly significant negative correlations between grain mold severity ratings in the field and on threshed grains ...

  15. Common characteristics of open source software development and applicability for drug discovery: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Røttingen John-Arne

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Innovation through an open source model has proven to be successful for software development. This success has led many to speculate if open source can be applied to other industries with similar success. We attempt to provide an understanding of open source software development characteristics for researchers, business leaders and government officials who may be interested in utilizing open source innovation in other contexts and with an emphasis on drug discovery. Methods A systematic review was performed by searching relevant, multidisciplinary databases to extract empirical research regarding the common characteristics and barriers of initiating and maintaining an open source software development project. Results Common characteristics to open source software development pertinent to open source drug discovery were extracted. The characteristics were then grouped into the areas of participant attraction, management of volunteers, control mechanisms, legal framework and physical constraints. Lastly, their applicability to drug discovery was examined. Conclusions We believe that the open source model is viable for drug discovery, although it is unlikely that it will exactly follow the form used in software development. Hybrids will likely develop that suit the unique characteristics of drug discovery. We suggest potential motivations for organizations to join an open source drug discovery project. We also examine specific differences between software and medicines, specifically how the need for laboratories and physical goods will impact the model as well as the effect of patents.

  16. Common characteristics of open source software development and applicability for drug discovery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardal, Christine; Alstadsæter, Annette; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2011-09-28

    Innovation through an open source model has proven to be successful for software development. This success has led many to speculate if open source can be applied to other industries with similar success. We attempt to provide an understanding of open source software development characteristics for researchers, business leaders and government officials who may be interested in utilizing open source innovation in other contexts and with an emphasis on drug discovery. A systematic review was performed by searching relevant, multidisciplinary databases to extract empirical research regarding the common characteristics and barriers of initiating and maintaining an open source software development project. Common characteristics to open source software development pertinent to open source drug discovery were extracted. The characteristics were then grouped into the areas of participant attraction, management of volunteers, control mechanisms, legal framework and physical constraints. Lastly, their applicability to drug discovery was examined. We believe that the open source model is viable for drug discovery, although it is unlikely that it will exactly follow the form used in software development. Hybrids will likely develop that suit the unique characteristics of drug discovery. We suggest potential motivations for organizations to join an open source drug discovery project. We also examine specific differences between software and medicines, specifically how the need for laboratories and physical goods will impact the model as well as the effect of patents.

  17. Seabirds (Laridae) as a source of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp. and antimicrobial resistance in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Elisabet; Ayats, Teresa; Ryan, Peter G; Naicker, Preneshni R; Keddy, Karen H; Gaglio, Davide; Witteveen, Minke; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta

    2017-10-01

    Zoonotic thermophilic Campylobacter and nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica are a major cause of foodborne human gastroenteritis worldwide. There is little information about reservoirs of these zoonotic agents in Africa. Thus, chicks of kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus, n = 129) and greater crested terns (Thalasseus bergii, n = 100) were studied at five colonies on the Western Cape coast (South Africa) during summer 2013/2014. Campylobacter spp. occurrence was 14.0% (CI 95% : 9.9-19.3), with C. jejuni the most frequently isolated species, whilst that of Salmonella was 27.5% (CI 95% : 21.9-33.9) overall, with a higher prevalence in gulls (43.0%, CI 95% : 34.8-52.4) than terns (7.0%, CI 95% : 3.1-14.4). Among the 16 different S. enterica serovars found, Anatum, Enteritidis and Hadar were the most frequent. The same or highly similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotype was found in some Salmonella isolates from seabirds and humans presenting with salmonellosis in Cape Town hospitals. Both Campylobacter and Salmonella isolates exhibited antimicrobial resistance to several agents, including critically important antimicrobials (quinolones, tetracyclines and β-lactams) and multidrug resistance in Salmonella serovars from kelp gulls. Our results highlight the importance of seabirds as reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella resistant strains and their role in the maintenance and transmission of these bacteria in the environment, with implications for public health. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. RNA Interference: A Novel Source of Resistance to Combat Plant Parasitic Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Banerjee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant parasitic nematodes cause severe damage and yield loss in major crops all over the world. Available control strategies include use of insecticides/nematicides but these have proved detrimental to the environment, while other strategies like crop rotation and resistant cultivars have serious limitations. This scenario provides an opportunity for the utilization of technological advances like RNA interference (RNAi to engineer resistance against these devastating parasites. First demonstrated in the model free living nematode, Caenorhabtidis elegans; the phenomenon of RNAi has been successfully used to suppress essential genes of plant parasitic nematodes involved in parasitism, nematode development and mRNA metabolism. Synthetic neurotransmitants mixed with dsRNA solutions are used for in vitro RNAi in plant parasitic nematodes with significant success. However, host delivered in planta RNAi has proved to be a pioneering phenomenon to deliver dsRNAs to feeding nematodes and silence the target genes to achieve resistance. Highly enriched genomic databases are exploited to limit off target effects and ensure sequence specific silencing. Technological advances like gene stacking and use of nematode inducible and tissue specific promoters can further enhance the utility of RNAi based transgenics against plant parasitic nematodes.

  19. Establishment and application of a large calibration device of artificial radionuclide plane source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Mingkao; Zhang Jiyun; Wang Xinxing; Zhang Sheng

    2010-01-01

    With the expansion of the application fields of nuclear techniques and the development of economy, more and more airborne/vehicle and other large γ spectrometers are applied in the environment radiation monitoring of artificial radioactive nuclides. In order to ensure the reliability of the monitoring results, a large calibration device of artificial radionuclide plane source is established. The paper introduces the device's built history and the results of application. (authors)

  20. A method for estimating the orientation of a directional sound source from source directivity and multi-microphone recordings: principles and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guarato, Francesco; Jakobsen, Lasse; Vanderelst, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    the ultrasonic range, in this application) that is recorded by microphones whose position with respect to source is known. An analytical method to process the recorded signals and estimate source orientation is developed in this paper. Experiments testing method performance in estimating source orientation were......Taking into account directivity of real sound sources makes it possible to try solving an interesting and biologically relevant problem: estimating the orientation in three-dimensional space of a directional sound source. The source, of known directivity, produces a broadband signal (in...... performed both in a laboratory environment with a Polaroid transducer as source and in a flight room with a Myotis daubentonii bat. In the first case, results showed the estimation method to be accurate and pointed out its limitations. The latter case is significant as an example biological application...

  1. A method for estimating the orientation of a directional sound source from source directivity and multi-microphone recordings: principles and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarato, Francesco; Jakobsen, Lasse; Vanderelst, Dieter; Surlykke, Annemarie; Hallam, John

    2011-02-01

    Taking into account directivity of real sound sources makes it possible to try solving an interesting and biologically relevant problem: estimating the orientation in three-dimensional space of a directional sound source. The source, of known directivity, produces a broadband signal (in the ultrasonic range, in this application) that is recorded by microphones whose position with respect to source is known. An analytical method to process the recorded signals and estimate source orientation is developed in this paper. Experiments testing method performance in estimating source orientation were performed both in a laboratory environment with a Polaroid transducer as source and in a flight room with a Myotis daubentonii bat. In the first case, results showed the estimation method to be accurate and pointed out its limitations. The latter case is significant as an example biological application of the method for extracting behavioral features from bats; results are compared with alternative calculations based on microphone root-mean-square (rms)-pressure values.

  2. Defect engineering of SrTiO3 thin films for resistive switching applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicklein, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    As a matter of fact, the importance of (transition) metal oxides for modern applications in the field of energy and information technology (IT) for e.g. novel energy storage systems and solid state electronic devices is increasing. Previous studies discovered the importance of defects in an oxide for their functionality and emphasized the impact of stoichiometry on the oxide performance. A new field of interest of the memory technology sector is the so-called resistive switching phenomena where a voltage stimulus causes a thin oxide (≤10 nm) to change its resistance state from a high resistance state to a low resistance state and back. So called resistive RAM (ReRAM or RRAM) are deemed to be the future replacement (2015) for contemporary FLASH memory technology due to its extremely low energy consumption, its very fast read/write time (ns) and its possible node size 3 was used as an oxide model material and was deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) onto doped and undoped SrTiO 3 single crystals to investigate the formation of defects as a function of the process parameters. By combining structural and chemical thin film analysis with detailed PLD plume diagnostics and modeling of the laser plume dynamics, it was possible to elucidate the different physical mechanisms determining the stoichiometry of SrTiO 3 during PLD. Deviations between thin film and target stoichiometry are basically a result of two effects, namely, incongruent ablation and preferential scattering of lighter ablated species during their motion towards the substrate in the O 2 background gas. It is shown that the SrTiO 3 system reacts to a non-stoichiometry with the systematic incorporation of titanium and strontium vacancies which could be detected by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The role of extrinsic dopands such as Fe is shown to have more complicated effects on the SrTiO 3 system than portrayed by theoretical considerations. The effect of defects on the resistive

  3. Low-Power, Low-Voltage Resistance-to-Digital Converter for Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Y. YURISH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available IC (ASIP of Universal Sensors and Transducers Interface (USTI-MOB with low power consumption, working in the resistive measurement mode (one of 26 possible measuring modes is described in the article. The proposed IC has 20 W to 4.5 M W range of measurement, relative error< ±0.04 %, 0.85 mA supply current and 1.2 V supply voltage. The worst-case error of about< ±1.54 % is observed. IC has three popular serial interfaces: I2C, SPI and RS232/USB. Due to high metrological performance and technical characteristics the USTI- MOB is well suitable for such application as: sensor systems for IoT, wearable and mobile devices, and digital multimeters. The ICs can also work with any quasi-digital resistive converters, in which the resistance is converted to frequency, period, duty-cycle or pulse width.

  4. Recent status on cobalt-60 gamma ray radiation sources production and its application in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Zhijian; Song Yunjiang; Zhang Chunhua; Li Maoling

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the status of Co-60 γ ray radiation sources and their application in China. At present, the production capacity of Co-60 γ ray radiation sources in China is about 11.1 PBq (0.3 MCi) per year. 5 years later, it is increased to 37 PBq (1 MCi) per year. The radioactivity of each source is 370 TBq - 740 TBq (1000-2000 Ci). There are over 150 Co-60 γ ray radiation facilities with total design capacity of over 370 PBq (10 MCi) and practical capacity of about 92.5 PBq (2.5 MCi) in operation. The number of Co-60 γ ray radiation facilities with practical capacity of over 3.7 PBq (0.1 MCi) is 14. The main applications of the Co-60 γ ray sources are radiation crosslinking, radiation sterilization of disposable medical supplies and food irradiation. The prospects for Co-60 γ ray radiation source application in China are good. (author)

  5. Sources of diversity of carbapenem resistance levels in Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying blaVIM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loli, A; Tzouvelekis, L S; Tzelepi, E; Carattoli, A; Vatopoulos, A C; Tassios, P T; Miriagou, V

    2006-09-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the diversity of beta-lactam resistance phenotypes among isolates of a VIM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (VPKP) strain that is endemic in Greek hospitals. Five VPKP clinical isolates were studied. MICs of beta-lactams were determined by agar dilution. PFGE of XbaI-digested genomic DNA was used for typing. Profiles of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) were determined by SDS-PAGE. Selected isolates were transformed with a plasmid encoding the Omp36K porin. beta-Lactamase activities were analysed by IEF and imipenem hydrolysis was assessed by spectrophotometry. VIM-1-encoding, self-transmissible plasmids were characterized by replicon typing, RFLP and hybridization with bla(VIM)- and IS26-specific probes. Characterization of integrons was performed by PCR, cloning and sequencing. Isolates exhibited highly similar PFGE patterns. Imipenem MICs were 2, 4, 16, 32 and 64 mg/L. The isolate with the highest imipenem MIC (Vipm-64) lacked a 36 kDa OMP. Expression of a cloned OmpK36 in this isolate reduced the imipenem MIC to susceptibility levels. Imipenem-hydrolysing activity was significantly higher in Vipm-16 as compared with the other isolates that expressed similar amounts of VIM-1. All isolates transferred beta-lactam resistance to Escherichia coli through conjugative, IncN plasmids that exhibited differences in the RFLP and hybridization patterns with bla(VIM)- and IS26-specific probes. The Vipm-16 plasmid, mediating the higher imipenem MICs among transconjugants, carried two copies of bla(VIM-1). Cloning and sequencing showed In-e541-like integrons truncated at the 5'CS by insertion of IS26 elements at two different positions. A VIM-1-producing strain of K. pneumoniae has evolved through OMP alterations and rearrangements in the bla(VIM-1)-carrying plasmid probably mediated by IS26, generating isolates with imipenem MICs ranging from susceptibility to resistance.

  6. UAV using the open-source flight-control-system in the application of aerial survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ji-chen; Ru, Chen

    2015-12-01

    The aerial survey as one of the branches of the Space Information Technology system, has an important application in data acquisition of the earth's surface. In recent years, the trend of UVA (unmanned aerial vehicle) to replace traditional survey aircraft has become increasingly obvious with the progress of science and technology. At present, the price of the commercial UAV Flight Control System is higher, limiting the application of UVA. This paper mainly discusses the possibility that the open-source's flight-control-system take the place of the commercial one. Result is that the costs of UVA are reduced, and make the application more widely.

  7. The application of controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric method to prospecting for uranium and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Taiping

    1992-01-01

    The controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric method is a new geophysical method which is rapid, effective and economical and can be used for studying the structural pattern of underground strata (rock bodies). This method provides the basis for the determination of the deeper part and structures within the unconformity-related uranium deposit in North China Platform and the result of application is optimal

  8. Comparison of the Impedance-Source Networks for Two and Multilevel Buck-Boost Inverter Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husev, Oleksandr; Blaabjerg, Frede; Roncero-Clemente, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Impedance-source networks are an increasingly popular solution in power converter applications, especially in single-stage buck–boost power conversion to avoid additional front-end dc–dc power converters. In the survey papers published, no analytical comparisons of different topologies have been...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1310 - Applicability and designation of affected sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of PET that is associated with a new affected source. (v) Each process contact cooling tower used in the manufacture of PET using a continuous terephthalic acid high viscosity multiple end finisher... notification to the Administrator of the pending change in applicability. (g) Storage vessel ownership...

  10. A Source Book of Mathematical Applications. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Yearbook 17 [1942].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Edwin G., Comp; And Others

    This yearbook is a reference source of direct applications of mathematics for use in grades 7-12. Topics are listed alphabetically in each of four sections: arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry. An explanation is given as to the plan of the book, making the location of desired material easier, and an index is included. In many cases the…

  11. Applicability of a desiccant dew-point cooling system independent of external water sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of a technical solution for making desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources is investigated. Water is produced by condensing the desorbed water vapour in a closed regeneration circuit. Desorbed water recovery is applied to a desiccant dew-point cooling...

  12. Effect of source, rate and method of nitrogen fertilizer application on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted for three years to determine the effects of source, rate and method of application of nitrogen fertilizer on maize yield at Ilora in the derived savanna zone and Ogbomoso in the southern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria. The nitrogen fertilizers (Granulated urea, Regular urea and Calcium ...

  13. Discrete-Time Domain Modelling of Voltage Source Inverters in Standalone Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The decoupling of the capacitor voltage and inductor current has been shown to improve significantly the dynamic performance of voltage source inverters in standalone applications. However, the computation and PWM delays still limit the achievable bandwidth. In this paper a discrete-time domain...

  14. Shirley Basin Uranium Mill. Environmental report to accompany source material license application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    This document summarizes all of the environmental monitoring conducted by Utah. This Environmental Report consequently supplements and updates the information presented in the Source Material License application of August 18, 1970 and the Final Environmental Statement (FES) of December 1974. Water and air quality, liquid waste management, soil/vegetation monitoring, and reclamation are covered

  15. Broadband light source for fiber-optic measurement system in spaceborne applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rößner, Max R.; Müller, Mathias S.; Buck, Thorbjörn C.; Koch, Alexander W.

    2012-01-01

    Measuring temperatures, mechanical loads and derived quantities precisely and reliably play an important role in spaceflight. With spacecraft becoming increasingly complex, upscaling of present telemetry techniques can become cumbersome. Additionally, there are entirely new sensory requirements, resulting from emerging technologies such as smart structures, active vibration damping and composite material health monitoring. It has been demonstrated in preceding studies that these measurements can be advantageously and efficiently carried out by means of fiber-optic systems. The most prominent fiber-optic strain and temperature sensor is the fiber Bragg grating. Typically, multiple fiber Bragg gratings are used to translate entire temperature and strain fields into an optical wavelength information. For the interrogation of these sensors, a broadband or scanning light source is required. Additional requirements with respect to the light source are high intensity and unpolarized illumination of the gratings. These constraints can be met by a light source that is based on amplified spontaneous emission in a rare-earth-doped fiber. In the presented work, a compact light source, adapted for measurement applications and targeted towards space applications, has been developed. The design of this light source is presented, as well as its implementation. The light source has been designed and tested for selected core aspects of space robustness and the results of these tests are summarized.

  16. Quinoa from Valley (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): Valuable source of genetic resistance to powdery mildew(Peronospora farinosa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Julio; Luna Nayra; Vargas Amalia; Magne Jury; Angulo Ada; La Torre Jaime; Bonifacio Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify quinoa resistant cultivars to powdery mildew (Peronospora farinosa) of high yield and large grain size, 36 cultivars were evaluated under two different fungicide applications and a control in the Valle Bajo from Cochabamba. We determined the realtive Area under Develop Progress Curve of Peronosporafarinosa (AUDPCPF relative), the yield and another eleven quantitative variables. The results showed that cultivars 01Tardía, 08Tardía, 12Tardía, 04Tardía, 11Tardía 10Tardía, ...

  17. Plasma Sources for Medical Applications - A Comparison of Spot Like Plasmas and Large Area Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-09-01

    Plasma applications in life science are currently emerging worldwide. Whereas today's commercially available plasma surgical technologies such as argon plasma coagulation (APC) or ablation are mainly based on lethal plasma effects on living systems, the newly emerging therapeutic applications will be based on selective, at least partially non-lethal, possibly stimulating plasma effects on living cells and tissue. Promising results could be obtained by different research groups worldwide revealing a huge potential for the application of low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma in fields such as tissue engineering, healing of chronic wounds, treatment of skin diseases, tumor treatment based on specific induction of apoptotic processes, inhibition of biofilm formation and direct action on biofilms or treatment of dental diseases. The development of suitable and reliable plasma sources for the different therapies requires an in-depth knowledge of their physics, chemistry and parameters. Therefore much basic research still needs to be conducted to minimize risk and to provide a scientific fundament for new plasma-based medical therapies. It is essential to perform a comprehensive assessment of physical and biological experiments to clarify minimum standards for plasma sources for applications in life science and for comparison of different sources. One result is the DIN-SPEC 91315, which is now open for further improvements. This contribution intends to give an overview on the status of commercial cold plasma sources as well as cold plasma sources still under development for medical use. It will discuss needs, prospects and approaches for the characterization of plasmas from different points of view. Regarding the manageability in everyday medical life, atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) and dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) are of special interest. A comprehensive risk-benefit assessment including the state of the art of commercial sources for medical use

  18. The urgent need for risk assessment on the antibiotic resistance spread via sewage sludge land application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarczuk, Kinga; Markowicz, Anna; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-02-01

    Sewage sludge is an ever-increasing by-product of the wastewater treatment process frequently used as a soil fertiliser. To control its quality and prevent any possible hazardous impact of fertilisation, some mandatory limits of heavy metal content have been established by the European Commission (Sewage Sludge Directive). However, since the implementation of the limits, new emerging contaminants have been reported worldwide. Regardless of the wastewater treatment process, sewage sludge contains antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes, which can be released into the environment through its land application. Such a practice may even boost the dissemination and further development of antibiotic resistance phenomenon - already a global problem challenging modern medicine. Due to the growing pharmaceutical pollution in the environment, the time is ripe to assess the risk for the human and environmental health of sewage sludge land application in the context of antibiotic resistance spread. In this review we present the current knowledge in the field and we emphasise the necessity for more studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of corrosion resistant surfaces via friction stir processing for bio implant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal Singh Sodhi, Gurvinder; Singh, Harpreet

    2018-01-01

    Current investigation presents the use of Friction Stir Processing (FSP) to improve the corrosion resistance of pure magnesium for biomedical applications. FSP has been used to incorporate hydroxyapetite (HAP) into Mg-surface so as to modify the chemical composition. FSP was done within a matrix of different parameters and conditions. Influence of various parameters on microstructure was also clearly observed. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of HAP, whereas SEM images revealed a uniform distribution of the imbedded phase. Microhardness and in-vitro corrosion studies were also performed. Influence of grain size on hardness was validated by Hall-Petch relationship. Corrosion behavior was explained on the basis of texture, which indicated better corrosion resistance in comparison to the pure Mg. Therefore, the study reveals that the proposed FSP methodology can be useful tool to improve mechanical and corrosion properties of pure Mg for biomedical applications.

  20. Comparative virulence of Pyrenophora teres f. teres from Syria and Tunisia and screening for resistance sources in barley: implications for breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouajila, A; Zoghlami, N; Al Ahmed, M; Baum, M; Ghorbel, A; Nazari, K

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the pathogenic diversity and virulence groups among Pyrenophora teres f. teres isolates, sampled from Syria and Tunisia, and to identify the most effective source of resistance in barley that could be used in breeding programmes to control net blotch in both countries. One hundred and four isolates of P. teres f. teres were collected from barley in different agroecological zones of Tunisia and Syria. Their virulence was evaluated using 14 barley genotypes as differential hosts. The UPGMA clustering identified high pathogenic variability; the isolates were clustered onto 20 pathotypes that were sheltered under three virulence groups, with high, intermediate and low disease scores. According to susceptibility/resistance frequencies and mean disease ratings, CI05401 cultivar ranked as the best differential when inoculated with the Syrian isolates. However, CI09214 cultivar was classified as the best effective source of resistance in Tunisia. All P. teres f. teres isolates were differentially pathogenic. CI09214 and CI05401 cultivars were released as the most effective sources of resistance in Syria and Tunisia. National and international barley breeding programmes that seek to develop resistance against P. teres f. teres in barley should strongly benefit from this study. This resistance cannot be achieved without the proper knowledge of the pathogen virulence spectrum and the sources of host resistance. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Analysis of earth resistivity frequency dependence: Test method and its practical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Vojin I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first step in planning and designing of the proper grounding system, is the earth resistivity measurement. Measurements are carried out before the construction of the power facility. However, it is not an uncommon situation that during construction, subsequent leveling and raising of the ground level is performed. For this purpose, it is customary to use the land from the locations far away. Delivered soil has largely different electromagnetic characteristics (electric conductivity, permittivity and dielectric constant in relation to the soil on which the previous measurement of the earth resistivity was conducted. Since the value of the earth resistivity directly affects the grounding system electrical parameters - grounding system impedance, touch and step voltages - additional measurements are required and according to this appropriate corrections of the grounding system In this paper, we propose a practical method for earth resistivity measurement. The method is applicable in the design phase, and also for the revision of the installed grounding system. A practical example of a power facility (RP 400 kV Mladost, Elektromreža Srbije, based on laboratory measurements of the soil samples earth resistivity and grounding system impedance measurement, clearly shows what consequences might occur by leveling and raising of the ground level using ash coal dump.

  2. Synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers accelerator physics, instrumentation and science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shaukat; Schneider, Jochen; Hastings, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Hardly any other discovery of the nineteenth century did have such an impact on science and technology as Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen’s seminal find of the X-rays. X-ray tubes soon made their way as excellent instruments for numerous applications in medicine, biology, materials science and testing, chemistry and public security. Developing new radiation sources with higher brilliance and much extended spectral range resulted in stunning developments like the electron synchrotron and electron storage ring and the freeelectron laser. This handbook highlights these developments in fifty chapters. The reader is given not only an inside view of exciting science areas but also of design concepts for the most advanced light sources. The theory of synchrotron radiation and of the freeelectron laser, design examples and the technology basis are presented. The handbook presents advanced concepts like seeding and harmonic generation, the booming field of Terahertz radiation sources and upcoming brilliant light sources dri...

  3. Simple and versatile long range swept source for optical coherence tomography applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bräuer, Bastian; Lippok, Norman; Murdoch, Stuart G; Vanholsbeeck, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    We present a versatile long coherence length swept-source laser design for optical coherence tomography applications. This design consists of a polygonal spinning mirror and an optical gain chip in a modified Littman–Metcalf cavity. A narrowband intra-cavity filter is implemented through multiple passes off a diffraction grating set at grazing incidence. The key advantage of this design is that it can be readily adapted to any wavelength regions for which broadband gain chips are available. We demonstrate this by implementing sources at 1650 nm, 1550 nm, 1310 nm and 1050 nm. In particular, we present a 1310 nm swept source laser with 24 mm coherence length, 95 nm optical bandwidth, 2 kHz maximum sweep frequency and 7.5 mW average output power. These parameters make it a suitable source for the imaging of biological samples. (paper)

  4. Novel methods for improvement of a Penning ion source for neutron generator applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, A; Ji, Q; Persaud, A; Waldmann, O; Schenkel, T

    2012-02-01

    Penning ion source performance for neutron generator applications is characterized by the atomic ion fraction and beam current density, providing two paths by which source performance can be improved for increased neutron yields. We have fabricated a Penning ion source to investigate novel methods for improving source performance, including optimization of wall materials and electrode geometry, advanced magnetic confinement, and integration of field emitter arrays for electron injection. Effects of several electrode geometries on discharge characteristics and extracted ion current were studied. Additional magnetic confinement resulted in a factor of two increase in beam current density. First results indicate unchanged proton fraction and increased beam current density due to electron injection from carbon nanofiber arrays.

  5. Demonstration of Corrosion-Resistant Hybrid Composite Bridge Beams for Structural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    severity. Although the steel coupon testing resulted in a C2 classification , the results were on the upper limit of the category. The potential for...suggest the Fort Knox Bridge #4 site is a Category 3 classification of atmospheric corrosion severity. Although the steel coupon testing re- sulted in a...result of corrosion of the steel support structures or the reinforcing bar in the concrete. The application of corrosion-resistant technology can

  6. Combining Low-Energy Electrical Resistance Heating with Biotic and Abiotic Reactions for Treatment of Chlorinated Solvent DNAPL Source Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Richard Wilson (now with the Corps, Seattle District) and James Gillie are due many thanks. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The applicability of in situ... packers installed to target selected intervals for amendment delivery.  Ability to treat large source mass. Both ZVI and ISB would have a limited...system SlurryPro In-line turbine flow meter In-line mixer 1.5 m 2.4 m Inflatable packer 4” well Sample port 56 9 Surfactant feed ZVI solids

  7. Quinoa from Valley (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.: Valuable source of genetic resistance to powdery mildew(Peronospora farinosa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Julio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify quinoa resistant cultivars to powdery mildew (Peronospora farinosa of high yield and large grain size, 36 cultivars were evaluated under two different fungicide applications and a control in the Valle Bajo from Cochabamba. We determined the realtive Area under Develop Progress Curve of Peronosporafarinosa (AUDPCPF relative, the yield and another eleven quantitative variables. The results showed that cultivars 01Tardía, 08Tardía, 12Tardía, 04Tardía, 11Tardía 10Tardía, 19Tardía y 18Tardía were susceptible and the cultivars H172, A26, A03, A16, A22, A14 and H171 were resistant. The cultivars A40, H177, A26, H172, A25, A1 y H176 showed yields from 3.4 to 6.34 t ha-1. The cultivars 15 Tardía, 03 Tardía, 14 Tardía, H173, H171, A25, H176 and H172 with chemical control strategy and the tricobalreacted favorably against powdery mildew, which was associated with levels of resistance in each cultivar. Finally, there was a high significant negative correlation between the variables AUDPCPF relative and physiological maturity, plant length, panicle length, stem diameter, panicle diameter and weight of 100 seeds. This showed that when the attack of mildewis severe, also affects the grains yield.

  8. Assessment of thermal spray coatings for wear and abrasion resistance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karode, Ishaan Nitin

    Thermal spray cermet and metallic coatings are extensively used for wear, abrasion and corrosion control in a variety of industries. The first part of the thesis focuses mainly on testing of sand erosion resistance of thermal spray coatings on carbon composites used in the manufacture of helicopter rotor blades. The test set-up employed is a sand blasting machine and is an effort to duplicate the in-flight conditions especially those encountered in hot arid conditions. The technique adopted follows the Department of Defence test method standard. Carbon Composites have excellent stiffness, strength and low weight/density. The strength to weight ratio is high. Hence, these are used in aerospace applications to a large extent. However, the biggest problem encountered with carbon composites is its low abrasion resistance as its surface is very weak. Hence, thermal spray coatings are used to improve the surface properties of CFRP. Zinc bond coats and WC-Co coatings were tested. However, high amount of thermal stresses were developed between the substrate and the coating due to large differences in the CTE's of the both, leading to high mass losses within two minutes and just 130 grams of sand sprayed on to the coatings with the sand blasting machine built; and hence the coatings with CC as a substrate could not qualify for the application. The second part of the thesis focuses on the assessment of different thermal spray coatings used for manufacture of mechanical seals in pumps and analyze the best coating material for the wear resistance application through detail quantification of material loss by block-on-ring test set-up. A machine based on Block-on-ring test set-up following ASTM G77 (Measurement of Adhesive wear resistance of thermal spray coatings) standards was built to duplicate the pump conditions. Thermally sprayed coated materials were tested in different conditions (Load, time, abrasive). WC-Co had the highest wear resistance (lower volume losses) and

  9. Evaluation of 19,460 Wheat Accessions Conserved in the Indian National Genebank to Identify New Sources of Resistance to Rust and Spot Blotch Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sherry R.; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Radhamani, J.; Parimalan, R.; Sivaswamy, M.; Tyagi, Sandhya; Yadav, Mamata; Kumari, Jyotisna; Deepali; Sharma, Sandeep; Bhagat, Indoo; Meeta, Madhu; Bains, N. S.; Chowdhury, A. K.; Saha, B. C.; Bhattacharya, P. M.; Kumari, Jyoti; Singh, M. C.; Gangwar, O. P.; Prasad, P.; Bharadwaj, S. C.; Gogoi, Robin; Sharma, J. B.; GM, Sandeep Kumar; Saharan, M. S.; Bag, Manas; Roy, Anirban; Prasad, T. V.; Sharma, R. K.; Dutta, M.; Sharma, Indu; Bansal, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive germplasm evaluation study of wheat accessions conserved in the Indian National Genebank was conducted to identify sources of rust and spot blotch resistance. Genebank accessions comprising three species of wheat–Triticum aestivum, T. durum and T. dicoccum were screened sequentially at multiple disease hotspots, during the 2011–14 crop seasons, carrying only resistant accessions to the next step of evaluation. Wheat accessions which were found to be resistant in the field were then assayed for seedling resistance and profiled using molecular markers. In the primary evaluation, 19,460 accessions were screened at Wellington (Tamil Nadu), a hotspot for wheat rusts. We identified 4925 accessions to be resistant and these were further evaluated at Gurdaspur (Punjab), a hotspot for stripe rust and at Cooch Behar (West Bengal), a hotspot for spot blotch. The second round evaluation identified 498 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts and 868 accessions potentially resistant to spot blotch. Evaluation of rust resistant accessions for seedling resistance against seven virulent pathotypes of three rusts under artificial epiphytotic conditions identified 137 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts. Molecular analysis to identify different combinations of genetic loci imparting resistance to leaf rust, stem rust, stripe rust and spot blotch using linked molecular markers, identified 45 wheat accessions containing known resistance genes against all three rusts as well as a QTL for spot blotch resistance. The resistant germplasm accessions, particularly against stripe rust, identified in this study can be excellent potential candidates to be employed for breeding resistance into the background of high yielding wheat cultivars through conventional or molecular breeding approaches, and are expected to contribute toward food security at national and global levels. PMID:27942031

  10. Evaluation of 19,460 Wheat Accessions Conserved in the Indian National Genebank to Identify New Sources of Resistance to Rust and Spot Blotch Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundeep Kumar

    Full Text Available A comprehensive germplasm evaluation study of wheat accessions conserved in the Indian National Genebank was conducted to identify sources of rust and spot blotch resistance. Genebank accessions comprising three species of wheat-Triticum aestivum, T. durum and T. dicoccum were screened sequentially at multiple disease hotspots, during the 2011-14 crop seasons, carrying only resistant accessions to the next step of evaluation. Wheat accessions which were found to be resistant in the field were then assayed for seedling resistance and profiled using molecular markers. In the primary evaluation, 19,460 accessions were screened at Wellington (Tamil Nadu, a hotspot for wheat rusts. We identified 4925 accessions to be resistant and these were further evaluated at Gurdaspur (Punjab, a hotspot for stripe rust and at Cooch Behar (West Bengal, a hotspot for spot blotch. The second round evaluation identified 498 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts and 868 accessions potentially resistant to spot blotch. Evaluation of rust resistant accessions for seedling resistance against seven virulent pathotypes of three rusts under artificial epiphytotic conditions identified 137 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts. Molecular analysis to identify different combinations of genetic loci imparting resistance to leaf rust, stem rust, stripe rust and spot blotch using linked molecular markers, identified 45 wheat accessions containing known resistance genes against all three rusts as well as a QTL for spot blotch resistance. The resistant germplasm accessions, particularly against stripe rust, identified in this study can be excellent potential candidates to be employed for breeding resistance into the background of high yielding wheat cultivars through conventional or molecular breeding approaches, and are expected to contribute toward food security at national and global levels.

  11. Evaluation of 19,460 Wheat Accessions Conserved in the Indian National Genebank to Identify New Sources of Resistance to Rust and Spot Blotch Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sundeep; Archak, Sunil; Tyagi, R K; Kumar, Jagdish; Vk, Vikas; Jacob, Sherry R; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Radhamani, J; Parimalan, R; Sivaswamy, M; Tyagi, Sandhya; Yadav, Mamata; Kumari, Jyotisna; Deepali; Sharma, Sandeep; Bhagat, Indoo; Meeta, Madhu; Bains, N S; Chowdhury, A K; Saha, B C; Bhattacharya, P M; Kumari, Jyoti; Singh, M C; Gangwar, O P; Prasad, P; Bharadwaj, S C; Gogoi, Robin; Sharma, J B; Gm, Sandeep Kumar; Saharan, M S; Bag, Manas; Roy, Anirban; Prasad, T V; Sharma, R K; Dutta, M; Sharma, Indu; Bansal, K C

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive germplasm evaluation study of wheat accessions conserved in the Indian National Genebank was conducted to identify sources of rust and spot blotch resistance. Genebank accessions comprising three species of wheat-Triticum aestivum, T. durum and T. dicoccum were screened sequentially at multiple disease hotspots, during the 2011-14 crop seasons, carrying only resistant accessions to the next step of evaluation. Wheat accessions which were found to be resistant in the field were then assayed for seedling resistance and profiled using molecular markers. In the primary evaluation, 19,460 accessions were screened at Wellington (Tamil Nadu), a hotspot for wheat rusts. We identified 4925 accessions to be resistant and these were further evaluated at Gurdaspur (Punjab), a hotspot for stripe rust and at Cooch Behar (West Bengal), a hotspot for spot blotch. The second round evaluation identified 498 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts and 868 accessions potentially resistant to spot blotch. Evaluation of rust resistant accessions for seedling resistance against seven virulent pathotypes of three rusts under artificial epiphytotic conditions identified 137 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts. Molecular analysis to identify different combinations of genetic loci imparting resistance to leaf rust, stem rust, stripe rust and spot blotch using linked molecular markers, identified 45 wheat accessions containing known resistance genes against all three rusts as well as a QTL for spot blotch resistance. The resistant germplasm accessions, particularly against stripe rust, identified in this study can be excellent potential candidates to be employed for breeding resistance into the background of high yielding wheat cultivars through conventional or molecular breeding approaches, and are expected to contribute toward food security at national and global levels.

  12. Effect of swine manure application timing on the persistence and transport of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus and resistance genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine manure applied to agricultural fields may lead to the transport of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes to freshwater systems. Enterococci were studied because they are fecal indicator bacteria associated with manure. Resistance genes include genes from live cells, dea...

  13. An open source Bayesian Monte Carlo isotope mixing model with applications in Earth surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Carli A.; Aciego, Sarah M.; Hetland, Eric A.

    2015-05-01

    The implementation of isotopic tracers as constraints on source contributions has become increasingly relevant to understanding Earth surface processes. Interpretation of these isotopic tracers has become more accessible with the development of Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) mixing models, which allow uncertainty in mixing end-members and provide methodology for systems with multicomponent mixing. This study presents an open source multiple isotope BMC mixing model that is applicable to Earth surface environments with sources exhibiting distinct end-member isotopic signatures. Our model is first applied to new δ18O and δD measurements from the Athabasca Glacier, which showed expected seasonal melt evolution trends and vigorously assessed the statistical relevance of the resulting fraction estimations. To highlight the broad applicability of our model to a variety of Earth surface environments and relevant isotopic systems, we expand our model to two additional case studies: deriving melt sources from δ18O, δD, and 222Rn measurements of Greenland Ice Sheet bulk water samples and assessing nutrient sources from ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr measurements of Hawaiian soil cores. The model produces results for the Greenland Ice Sheet and Hawaiian soil data sets that are consistent with the originally published fractional contribution estimates. The advantage of this method is that it quantifies the error induced by variability in the end-member compositions, unrealized by the models previously applied to the above case studies. Results from all three case studies demonstrate the broad applicability of this statistical BMC isotopic mixing model for estimating source contribution fractions in a variety of Earth surface systems.

  14. Sources of resistance to races R0 and R1 of Pseudomonas syringae PV. tomato - agent of bacterial speck on tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganeva Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato breeding lines with fruit colour different from the traditional red colour were studied in order to search for sources of resistance to races R0 and R1 of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. As a result of selection of healthy plants with hypersensitive response (HR, the resistance was stabilized and perspective lines gene-carriers of resistance to bacterial speck were chosen. Lines L1078 and L1083 with brown-red (black coloured fruits and line L1130 with purple-red fruits possess a complex resistance to races R0 and R1. It was established that two of the lines with rose-coloured tomato fruits (L1088 and L584 were resistant to race 1 of P. syringae pv. tomato. These lines possessed valuable economic and morphological characters and they could be used in combinative and heterosis breeding for development of resistance to bacterial speck varieties.

  15. A reliable extraction method for source and drain series resistances in silicon nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) based on radio-frequency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Jae Hwa; Yoon, Young Jun; Lee, Hwan Gi; Yoo, Gwan Min; Cho, Eou-Sik; Cho, Seongjae; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kang, In Man

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a new extraction method for source and drain (S/D) series resistances of silicon nanowire (SNW) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) based on small-signal radio-frequency (RF) analysis. The proposed method can be applied to the extraction of S/D series resistances for SNW MOSFETs with finite off-state channel resistance as well as gate bias-dependent on-state resistive components realized by 3-dimensional (3-D) device simulation. The series resistances as a function of frequency and gate voltage are presented and compared with the results obtained by an existing method with infinite off-state channel resistance model. The accuracy of the newly proposed parameter extraction method has been successfully verified by Z22- and Y-parameters up to 100 GHz operation frequency.

  16. Applications of the Advanced Light Source to problems in the earth, soil, and environmental sciences report of the workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: ALS status and research opportunities; advanced light source applications to geological materials; applications in the soil and environmental sciences; x-ray microprobe analysis; potential applications of the ALS in soil and environmental sciences; and x-ray spectroscopy using soft x-rays: applications to earth materials

  17. MARVIN: a medical research application framework based on open source software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Tobias; Puls, Marc; Anderegg, Christoph; Ebert, Lars; Broehan, Martina; Rudin, Adrian; Kowal, Jens

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the open source framework MARVIN for rapid application development in the field of biomedical and clinical research. MARVIN applications consist of modules that can be plugged together in order to provide the functionality required for a specific experimental scenario. Application modules work on a common patient database that is used to store and organize medical data as well as derived data. MARVIN provides a flexible input/output system with support for many file formats including DICOM, various 2D image formats and surface mesh data. Furthermore, it implements an advanced visualization system and interfaces to a wide range of 3D tracking hardware. Since it uses only highly portable libraries, MARVIN applications run on Unix/Linux, Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows.

  18. A versatile, pulsed anion source utilizing plasma-entrainment: characterization and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu-Ju; Lehman, Julia H; Lineberger, W Carl

    2015-01-28

    A novel pulsed anion source has been developed, using plasma entrainment into a supersonic expansion. A pulsed discharge source perpendicular to the main gas expansion greatly reduces unwanted "heating" of the main expansion, a major setback in many pulsed anion sources in use today. The design principles and construction information are described and several examples demonstrate the range of applicability of this anion source. Large OH(-)(Ar)n clusters can be generated, with over 40 Ar solvating OH(-). The solvation energy of OH(-)(Ar)n, where n = 1-3, 7, 12, and 18, is derived from photoelectron spectroscopy and shows that by n = 12-18, each Ar is bound by about 10 meV. In addition, cis- and trans- HOCO(-) are generated through rational anion synthesis (OH(-) + CO + M → HOCO(-) + M) and the photoelectron spectra compared with previous results. These results, along with several further proof-of-principle experiments on solvation and transient anion synthesis, demonstrate the ability of this source to efficiently produce cold anions. With modifications to two standard General Valve assemblies and very little maintenance, this anion source provides a versatile and straightforward addition to a wide array of experiments.

  19. The regulatory control over radiation sources: the Brazilian experience and some lessons learned from industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, E.L.C.; Gomes, J.D.R.L.; Gomes, R.S.; Costa, M.L.L.; Thomé, Z.D., E-mail: evaldo@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jlopes@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rogeriog@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: mara@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: zielithome@gmail.com [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioproteção e Segurança Nuclear; Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Seção de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    This study gives an overview of the activities of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), as the Brazilian nuclear regulatory authority. These activities are described, especially those related to management of orphan sources and radioactive material in scrap metal considering the actions already put into place by CNEN during the licensing and controlling of radioactive sources in the industry and other facilities. In Brazil, there is not yet an effective system for controlling the scrap metal and recycling industry, thus a coordinated approach to achieve a harmonized and effective response with the involvement of third parties is needed, especially the metal industries and ores facilities. These practices call for stringent regulatory control, in order to reduce the occurrence of orphan sources, and consequently, radioactive material appearing in scrap metal. Some challenges of managing the national radiation sources register systems will be discussed, in order to cover effectively all the radiation source history (in a 'from the cradle to the grave' basis), and the dynamic maintenance and update of these data. The main industrial applications considered in this work are those dealing with constant movement of sources all over the country, with geographical issues to be considered in the managing and controlling actions, such as gammagraphy and well-logging. This study aims to identify and promote good practices to prevent inadvertent diversion of radioactive material, taking into account existing international recommendations and some lessons learned in national level. (author)

  20. The regulatory control over radiation sources: the Brazilian experience and some lessons learned from industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, E.L.C.; Gomes, J.D.R.L.; Gomes, R.S.; Costa, M.L.L.; Thomé, Z.D.; Instituto Militar de Engenharia

    2017-01-01

    This study gives an overview of the activities of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), as the Brazilian nuclear regulatory authority. These activities are described, especially those related to management of orphan sources and radioactive material in scrap metal considering the actions already put into place by CNEN during the licensing and controlling of radioactive sources in the industry and other facilities. In Brazil, there is not yet an effective system for controlling the scrap metal and recycling industry, thus a coordinated approach to achieve a harmonized and effective response with the involvement of third parties is needed, especially the metal industries and ores facilities. These practices call for stringent regulatory control, in order to reduce the occurrence of orphan sources, and consequently, radioactive material appearing in scrap metal. Some challenges of managing the national radiation sources register systems will be discussed, in order to cover effectively all the radiation source history (in a 'from the cradle to the grave' basis), and the dynamic maintenance and update of these data. The main industrial applications considered in this work are those dealing with constant movement of sources all over the country, with geographical issues to be considered in the managing and controlling actions, such as gammagraphy and well-logging. This study aims to identify and promote good practices to prevent inadvertent diversion of radioactive material, taking into account existing international recommendations and some lessons learned in national level. (author)

  1. Development of a web application for water resources based on open source software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delipetrev, Blagoj; Jonoski, Andreja; Solomatine, Dimitri P.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents research and development of a prototype web application for water resources using latest advancements in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), open source software and web GIS. The web application has three web services for: (1) managing, presenting and storing of geospatial data, (2) support of water resources modeling and (3) water resources optimization. The web application is developed using several programming languages (PhP, Ajax, JavaScript, Java), libraries (OpenLayers, JQuery) and open source software components (GeoServer, PostgreSQL, PostGIS). The presented web application has several main advantages: it is available all the time, it is accessible from everywhere, it creates a real time multi-user collaboration platform, the programing languages code and components are interoperable and designed to work in a distributed computer environment, it is flexible for adding additional components and services and, it is scalable depending on the workload. The application was successfully tested on a case study with concurrent multi-users access.

  2. Assessment of Impact of Monoenergetic Photon Sources on Prioritized Nonproliferation Applications: Simulation Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geddes, Cameron [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ludewigt, Bernhard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Valentine, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Quiter, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Descalle, Marie-Anne [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Warren, Glen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kinlaw, Matt [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, Scott [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chichester, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Miller, Cameron [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Pozzi, Sara [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-12-30

    Near-monoenergetic photon sources (MPSs) have the potential to improve sensitivity at greatly reduced dose in existing applications and enable new capabilities in other applications. MPS advantages include the ability to select energy, energy spread, flux, and pulse structures to deliver only the photons needed for the application, while suppressing extraneous dose and background. Some MPSs also offer narrow divergence photon beams which can target dose and/or mitigate scattering contributions to image contrast degradation. Current broad-band, bremsstrahlung photon sources (e.g., linacs and betatrons) deliver unnecessary dose that in some cases also interferes with the signature to be detected and/or restricts operations, and must be collimated (reducing flux) to generate narrow divergence beams. While MPSs can in principle resolve these issues, they are technically challenging to produce. Candidate MPS technologies for nonproliferation applications are now being developed, each of which have different properties (e.g. broad divergence vs. narrow). Within each technology, source parameters trade off against one another (e.g. flux vs. energy spread), representing a large operation space. To guide development, requirements for each application of interest must be defined and simulations conducted to define MPS parameters that deliver benefit relative to current systems. The present project conducted a broad assessment of potential nonproliferation applications where MPSs may provide new capabilities or significant performance enhancement (reported separately), which led to prioritization of several applications for detailed analysis. The applications prioritized were: cargo screening and interdiction of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), detection of hidden SNM, treaty/dismantlement verification, and spent fuel dry storage cask content verification. High resolution imaging for stockpile stewardship was considered as a sub-area of the treaty topic, as it is also of

  3. A review of microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging: Excitation source, data acquisition system and biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Cui

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging (TAI is a noninvasive modality based on the differences in microwave absorption of various biological tissues. TAI has been extensively researched in recent years, and several studies have revealed that TAI possesses advantages such as high resolution, high contrast, high imaging depth and fast imaging speed. In this paper, we reviewed the development of the TAI technique, its excitation source, data acquisition system and biomedical applications. It is believed that TAI has great potential applications in biomedical research and clinical study.

  4. Solvent resistance pumps of Pseudomonas putida S12: Applications in 1-naphthol production and biocatalyst engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhan Garikipati, S V B; Peeples, Tonya L

    2015-09-20

    The solvent resistance capacity of Pseudomonas putida S12 was applied by using the organism as a host for biocatalysis and through cloning and expressing solvent resistant pump genes into Escherichia coli. P. putida S12 expressing toluene ortho mononooxygenase (TOM-Green) was used for 1-naphthol production in a water-organic solvent biphasic system. Application of P. putida S12 improved 1-naphthol production per gram cell dry weight by approximately 42% compared to E. coli. Moreover, P. putida S12 enabled the use of a less expensive solvent, decanol, for 1-naphthol production. The solvent resistant pump (srpABC) genes of P. putida S12 were cloned into a solvent sensitive E. coli strain to transfer solvent tolerance. Recombinant strains bearing srpABC genes in either a low-copy number or a high-copy number plasmid grew in the presence of saturated concentration of toluene. Both of the recombinant strains were more tolerant to 1% v/v of toxic solvents, decanol and hexane, reaching similar cell density as the no-solvent control. Reverse-transcriptase analysis revealed that the srpABC genes were transcribed in engineered strains. The results demonstrate successful transfer of the proton-dependent solvent resistance mechanism and suggest that the engineered strain could serve as more robust biocatalysts in media with organic solvents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fate and transport of tylosin and macrolide-resistance genes following manure applications in tile-drained landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of antibiotics in swine production leads to antibiotic-resistance in gastrointestinal bacteria. Application of swine manure to drained agricultural fields introduces elevated levels of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and residual antibiotics. The persistence and transport of these agents are g...

  6. Effect of manure application rate and rainfall timing on the leaching of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we investigate the effect of application rate and timing of liquid swine slurry on leaching of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and their antibiotic-resistance genes (ARG) through soil columns. Swine slurry was added to laboratory soil columns at rates of 5,000 or 30,000 gallons acr...

  7. Study of the fire resistant behavior of unfilled and carbon nanofibers reinforced polybenzimidazole coating for structural applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, H.M.S.; Stec, A.A.; Patel, P.; Bhowmik, S.; Benedictus, R.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing interest in epoxy-based carbon fiber composites for structural applications, it is important to improve the fire resistant properties of these materials. The fire resistant performance of these materials can be improved either by using high performance epoxy resin for manufacturing

  8. Preliminary evaluation of cavitation-erosion resistance of Ti-alloys in mercury for the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawel, S.J.; Mansur, L.K.

    2010-01-01

    A number of Ti-based alloys in both the mill-annealed and 20% cold-worked conditions were subjected to sonication conditions in Hg using a vibratory horn to assess relative cavitation-erosion resistance. Weight loss as a function of exposure time decreased monotonically with increasing hardness for all alloys/conditions examined, with Ti-6Al-4V (Grade 5) and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo yielding the best resistance to cavitation-erosion as evidenced by low weight losses and little or no tendency to form pits on the exposed surface. Unalloyed Ti (Grade 4) and Ti-0.12Pd (Grade 7) exhibited greater weight losses by a factor of about two and about five, respectively, with Ti-0.12Pd particularly prone to pitting development. The mean erosion rates of the best two Ti-alloys examined were about a factor of three higher than identically tested 316LN stainless steel following a low temperature carburizing treatment, but this difference is considered minor given that the rate for both materials is very low/manageable and represents a through-thickness property for the Ti-alloys. A nitriding surface treatment was also evaluated as a potential method to further increase the cavitation-erosion resistance of these alloys in Hg, but the selected treatment proved largely ineffective as measured by rapid weight loss. Recommendations for further work to evaluate the efficacy of Ti-based alloys for use in high-powered targets for the Spallation Neutron Source are given.

  9. Comparison of VSC and Z-Source Converter: Power System Application Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Jokar Kouhanjani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of equipment with power electronic converter interface such as distributed generation, FACTS and HVDC, is growing up intensively. On the other hand, various types of topologies have been proposed and each of them has some advantages. Therefore, appropriateness of each converter regarding to the application is a main question for designers and engineers. In this paper, a part of this challenge is responded by comparing a typical Voltage-Source Converter (VSC and Z-Source Converter (ZSC, through high power electronic-based equipment used in power systems. Dynamic response, stability margin, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD of grid current and fault tolerant are considered as assessment criteria. In order to meet this evaluation, dynamic models of two converters are presented, a proper control system is designed, a small signal stability method is applied and responses of converters to small and large perturbations are obtained and analysed by PSCAD/EMTDC.

  10. Application of large radiation sources in Asia and the Pacific - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iya, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    The current status of the applications of large radiation sources on industrial scale in the countries of Asia and the Pacific Region has been reviewed. The present R and D programmes and the major centres engaged in these programmes are described. So far as commercialization is considered, radiation processing industry is now well established in Japan, Australia, India and Israel. The major industrial uses of large radiation sources have been for : (1) sterilization of medical products, (2) food preservation, (3) cross-linking of polyethylene and (4) production of composite materials from polymer and wood or bamboo or bagasse. A table is given which indicates the current status of clearance of irradiated food in the countries under consideration. Finally, technological requirements in these countries for development and application of radiation processing are spelled out and discussed. (M.G.B.)

  11. Noise study of all-normal dispersion supercontinuum sources for potential application in optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo Gonzalo, Ivan; Engelsholm, Rasmus Dybbro; Bang, Ole

    2017-01-01

    bandwidths, such sources are characterized by large intensity fluctuations, limiting their performance for applications in imaging such as optical coherence tomography (OCT). An approach to eliminate the influence of noise sensitive effects is to use a so-called all-normal dispersion (ANDi) fiber, in which...... the dispersion is normal for all the wavelengths of interest. Pumping these types of fibers with short enough femtosecond pulses allows to suppress stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), which is known to be as noisy process as modulation instability (MI), and coherent SC is generated through self-phase modulation...... (SPM) and optical wave breaking (OWB). In this study, we show the importance of the pump laser and fiber parameters in the design of low-noise ANDi based SC sources, for application in OCT. We numerically investigate the pulse-to-pulse fluctuations of the SC, calculating the relative intensity noise...

  12. Standard review plan for applications for sealed source and device evaluations and registrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the reviewer of a request for a sealed source or device safety evaluation with the information and materials necessary to make a determination that the product is acceptable for licensing purposes. It provides the reviewer with a listing of the applicable regulations and industry standards, policies affecting evaluation and registration, certain administrative procedures to be followed, and information on how to perform the evaluation and write the registration certificate. Standard review plans are prepared for the guidance of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards staff responsible for the review of a sealed source or device application. This document is made available to the public as part of the Commission`s policy to inform the nuclear industry and the general public of regulatory procedures and policies. Standard review plans are not substitutes for regulatory guides or the Commission`s regulations and compliance with them is not required.

  13. Standard review plan for applications for sealed source and device evaluations and registrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the reviewer of a request for a sealed source or device safety evaluation with the information and materials necessary to make a determination that the product is acceptable for licensing purposes. It provides the reviewer with a listing of the applicable regulations and industry standards, policies affecting evaluation and registration, certain administrative procedures to be followed, and information on how to perform the evaluation and write the registration certificate. Standard review plans are prepared for the guidance of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards staff responsible for the review of a sealed source or device application. This document is made available to the public as part of the Commission's policy to inform the nuclear industry and the general public of regulatory procedures and policies. Standard review plans are not substitutes for regulatory guides or the Commission's regulations and compliance with them is not required

  14. Resistance (R) Genes: Applications and Prospects for Plant Biotechnology and Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Valesca; Neto, Jose Ribamar Costa Ferreira; da Silva, Manasses Daniel; Amorim, Lidiane Lindinalva Barbosa; Wanderley-Nogueira, Ana Carolina; de Oliveira Silva, Roberta Lane; Kido, Ederson Akio; Crovella, Sergio; Iseppon, Ana Maria Benko

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of novel plant resistance (R) genes (including their homologs and analogs) opened interesting possibilities for controlling plant diseases caused by several pathogens. However, due to environmental pressure and high selection operated by pathogens, several crop plants have lost specificity, broad-spectrum or durability of resistance. On the other hand, the advances in plant genome sequencing and biotechnological approaches, combined with the increasing knowledge on Rgenes have provided new insights on their applications for plant genetic breeding, allowing the identification and implementation of novel and efficient strategies that enhance or optimize their use for efficiently controlling plant diseases. The present review focuses on main perspectives of application of R-genes and its co-players for the acquisition of resistance to pathogens in cultivated plants, with emphasis on biotechnological inferences, including transgenesis, cisgenesis, directed mutagenesis and gene editing, with examples of success and challenges to be faced. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Serogroups, K1 antigen, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Aeromonas spp. strains isolated from different sources in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón I Arteaga Garibay

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 221 strains of Aeromonas species isolated in Mexico from clinical (161, environmental (40, and food (20 samples were identified using the automated system bioMérieux-Vitek®. Antisera for serogroups O1 to 044 were tested using the Shimada and Sakazaki scheme. The K1 antigen was examined using as antiserum the O7:K1C of Escherichia coli. Besides, we studied the antimicrobial patterns according to Vitek AutoMicrobic system. Among the 161 clinical strains 60% were identified as A. hydrophila, 20.4% as A. caviae, and 19.25% as A. veronii biovar sobria. Only A. hydrophila and A. veronii biovar sobria were found in food (55 and 90% respectively and environmental sources (45 and 10% respectively. Using "O" antisera, only 42.5% (94/221 of the strains were serologically identified, 55% (121/221 were non-typable, and 2.5% (6/221 were rough strains. Twenty-two different serogroups were found, O14, O16, O19, O22, and O34 represented 60% of the serotyped strains. More than 50% of Aeromonas strain examined (112/221 expressed K1 encapsulating antigen; this characteristic was predominant among Aeromonas strains of clinical origin. Resistance to ampicillin/sulbactam and cephazolin was detected in 100 and 67% of Aeromonas strain tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics. In conclusion, antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas species that possess the K1 encapsulating antigen and represent serogroups associated with clinical syndrome in man are not uncommon among Aeromonas strains isolated from clinical, food and environmental sources in Mexico.

  16. Determination of the sources and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolated from the poultry industry in Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Reta Duguma; Mengstie, Fisseha; Beyi, Ashenafi Feyisa; Beyene, Takele; Waktole, Hika; Mammo, Bedasso; Ayana, Dinka; Abunna, Fufa

    2017-05-18

    Ethiopia set an ambitious masterplan to increase chicken meat and egg production from 2015 to 2020. Poultry breeding, multiplication and distribution centers in the country have received executive order to import, amplify and distribute commercial chickens to end users. The biosecurity and the pathogen fauna of the centers have not been evaluated as to whether the centers could implement the mission effectively without any risk. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the biosecurity practices and the pathogen prevalence, risk factors and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) using Salmonella as case study. Routine farm workers of the centers were interviewed about the different management (biosecurity) practices using a checklist. Samples (n = 270) from different sources consisting of chicken's cloacal swab (n = 244), personnel hand swab (n = 9) and bedding (n = 17) were collected from three chicken multiplication centers. Standard bacteriological methods were used for the isolation of Salmonella. Disk diffusion method was used for drug sensitivity testing. Antimicrobials were often over prescribed without confirming the cause of ill health and without susceptibility testing. The general biosecurity and flock management practices were substandard. Salmonella was isolated from 45 (16.7%) of the 270 samples. Its prevalence was significantly (pSalmonella isolation from (i) bedding, (ii) personnel hand swabs (iii) chickens, (iv) presence of more MDR isolates, (v) coupled with poor biosecurity practices in the centers could pose a risk for spreading of pathogens and drug resistant genes to the smallholder chicken producers and the public. We conclude that the poultry breeding, multiplication and distribution centers in Ethiopia, as they stand currently, seem to be a source of pathogens and AMR isolates at least for Salmonella. Therefore, strict biosecurity, personnel safety, prudent drug use, regular monitoring and traceability of Salmonella serotypes or genotypes

  17. A breakthrough in enzyme technology to fight penicillin resistance-industrial application of penicillin amidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    Enzymatic penicillin hydrolysis by penicillin amidase (also penicillin acylase, PA) represents a Landmark: the first industrially and economically highly important process using an immobilized biocatalyst. Resistance of infective bacteria to antibiotics had become a major topic of research and industrial activities. Solutions to this problem, the antibiotics resistance of infective microorganisms, required the search for new antibiotics, but also the development of derivatives, notably penicillin derivatives, that overcame resistance. An obvious route was to hydrolyse penicillin to 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), as a first step, for the introduction via chemical synthesis of various different side chains. Hydrolysis via chemical reaction sequences was tedious requiring large amounts of toxic chemicals, and they were cost intensive. Enzymatic hydrolysis using penicillin amidase represented a much more elegant route. The basis for such a solution was the development of techniques for enzyme immobilization, a highly difficult task with respect to industrial application. Two pioneer groups started to develop solutions to this problem in the late 1960s and 1970s: that of Günter Schmidt-Kastner at Bayer AG (Germany) and that of Malcolm Lilly of Imperial College London. Here, one example of this development, that at Bayer, will be presented in more detail since it illustrates well the achievement of a solution to the problems of industrial application of enzymatic processes, notably development of an immobilization method for penicillin amidase suitable for scale up to application in industrial reactors under economic conditions. A range of bottlenecks and technical problems of large-scale application had to be overcome. Data giving an inside view of this pioneer achievement in the early phase of the new field of biocatalysis are presented. The development finally resulted in a highly innovative and commercially important enzymatic process to produce 6-APA that

  18. IQM: an extensible and portable open source application for image and signal analysis in Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, Philipp; Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Image and signal analysis applications are substantial in scientific research. Both open source and commercial packages provide a wide range of functions for image and signal analysis, which are sometimes supported very well by the communities in the corresponding fields. Commercial software packages have the major drawback of being expensive and having undisclosed source code, which hampers extending the functionality if there is no plugin interface or similar option available. However, both variants cannot cover all possible use cases and sometimes custom developments are unavoidable, requiring open source applications. In this paper we describe IQM, a completely free, portable and open source (GNU GPLv3) image and signal analysis application written in pure Java. IQM does not depend on any natively installed libraries and is therefore runnable out-of-the-box. Currently, a continuously growing repertoire of 50 image and 16 signal analysis algorithms is provided. The modular functional architecture based on the three-tier model is described along the most important functionality. Extensibility is achieved using operator plugins, and the development of more complex workflows is provided by a Groovy script interface to the JVM. We demonstrate IQM's image and signal processing capabilities in a proof-of-principle analysis and provide example implementations to illustrate the plugin framework and the scripting interface. IQM integrates with the popular ImageJ image processing software and is aiming at complementing functionality rather than competing with existing open source software. Machine learning can be integrated into more complex algorithms via the WEKA software package as well, enabling the development of transparent and robust methods for image and signal analysis.

  19. Hybridation de fibres optiques et de nanoparticules semiconductrices : application aux sources lumineuses

    OpenAIRE

    Hreibi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The fiber lasers are currently in the process of replacing their counterparts because of their high performance linked to a guided architecture, having direct impact for a multitude of applications in various fields ranging from telecommunications, to medical via security through sensors. However, the rare earth ions technology has a major drawback that can not meet the growing need for new optical sources with unconventional wavelengths, due to the limitation of the emission to a few predefi...

  20. Sponges in Qatari waters A new source of marine natural products for biological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kornprobst, Jean-Michel

    1999-01-01

    Sponges are the most primitive multicellular organisms belonging to Animalia kingdom. They lack symetry and do not have differentiated tissues or organs. However, as a consequence of this primitive organization it is very likely that sponges are the richest source of marine organisms for biological properties and pharmaceutical applications. Attached for life on their substrate and devoid of mecanical protection against predators sponges have elaborated a lot of sophisticated means of chemica...

  1. Guava: phytochemical composition of a potential source of antioxidants for cosmetic and/or dermatological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Galdorfini Chiari-Andréo; Eliane Trovatti; Joana Marto; Maria Gabriela José de Almeida-Cincotto; Ana Melero; Marcos Antonio Corrêa; Leila Aparecida Chiavacci; Helena Ribeiro; Teresa Garrigues; Vera Lucia Borges Isaac

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a native fruit of the American tropics with commercial applications for its taste, flavor and aroma. Numerous pharmacological uses have been described for it, such as the antiseptic effect of its leaves, the use of the fresh fruit and tea from its leaves for the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, diabetes mellitus, and others. However, considering its rich composition, the guava also is a potential source of antioxidants to be used in the development of n...

  2. New applications of laser-driven neutron sources in the car industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakeno, Mitsutaka

    2015-01-01

    New applications of LDNS (Laser-Driven Neutron Sources) are described. One of them is ib-DATA (in-beam Double Activation Tracer Analysis) with which we can measure mean drift velocity and mass flow rate in a variety of fluid. In ib-DATA, LDNS with very light and compact beam-head will be constructed to shoot pulsed neutrons into the fluid in pinpoint. (author)

  3. Performance of the modified DREAMS ion source for {sup 36}Cl applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavetich, Stefan; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Ziegenruecker, Rene [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    First analyses of real {sup 36}Cl-AMS samples were performed with the newly developed low memory-effect ion source at the DREsden Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (DREAMS) facility. Considerable improvements have been reached with respect to the overall ion source performance. Especially, parameters like current output, ion source fractionation effects, normalization factors, blank values and sulphur suppression factors have been investigated to enhance accuracy of {sup 36}Cl-data. Applications cover a wide spectrum, which implies also highly variable {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35+37}Cl-ratios ranging from nearly background level of ∝10{sup -15} up to 10{sup -10}. Samples from aquifers in arid regions for groundwater dating and modelling were analysed. Meteorite samples were measured to investigate the constancy of the galactic cosmic radiation, production rates from sulphur, and reconstruction of exposure histories of individual meteorites.

  4. An analysis on international trends of radiation application and security of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, J. S.; Yang, M. H.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation technologies are being utilized in a wide range of daily modern life and provide the public with valuable benefits through applications in fields of medical, industrial, agricultural, and science and engineering research. On the other hand, there is a high possibility that radioactive materials could be used for potentially malevolent purposes such as dirty bombs. International community, therefore, has made efforts to improve security of radioactive sources for protecting the public from radiological terrorism. This study investigated current status of radiation technologies and radioactive sources which could be used by radiological dispersal devices. This paper also reviewed the possibility of radiological weapon attacks, international trends and our methods to enhance security of radioactive sources

  5. Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS): Application source/release control for EPICS R3.11.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieman, B.; Kraimer, M.

    1994-01-01

    This manual describes a set of tools that can be used to develop software for EPICS based control systems. It provides the following features: Multiple applications; the entire system is composed of an arbitrary number of applications: Source/Release Control; all files created or modified by the applications developers can be put under sccs (a UNIX Source/Release control utility): Multiple Developers; it allows a number of applications developers to work separately during the development phase but combine their applications for system testing and for a production system; Makefiles: makefiles are provided to automatically rebuild various application components. For C and state notation programs, Imagefiles are provided

  6. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 2 Table 2 of Subpart PPP of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources Reference Applies to subpart PPP Explanation Applicable...

  7. Selection and application of microbial source tracking tools for water-quality investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Donald M.

    2005-01-01

    Microbial source tracking (MST) is a complex process that includes many decision-making steps. Once a contamination problem has been defined, the potential user of MST tools must thoroughly consider study objectives before deciding upon a source identifier, a detection method, and an analytical approach to apply to the problem. Regardless of which MST protocol is chosen, underlying assumptions can affect the results and interpretation. It is crucial to incorporate tests of those assumptions in the study quality-control plan to help validate results and facilitate interpretation. Detailed descriptions of MST objectives, protocols, and assumptions are provided in this report to assist in selection and application of MST tools for water-quality investigations. Several case studies illustrate real-world applications of MST protocols over a range of settings, spatial scales, and types of contamination. Technical details of many available source identifiers and detection methods are included as appendixes. By use of this information, researchers should be able to formulate realistic expectations for the information that MST tools can provide and, where possible, successfully execute investigations to characterize sources of fecal contamination to resource waters.

  8. DNA Source Selection for Downstream Applications Based on DNA Quality Indicators Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena-Aguilar, Gema; Sánchez-López, Ana María; Barberán-Aceituno, Cristina; Carrillo-Ávila, José Antonio; López-Guerrero, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    High-quality human DNA samples and associated information of individuals are necessary for biomedical research. Biobanks act as a support infrastructure for the scientific community by providing a large number of high-quality biological samples for specific downstream applications. For this purpose, biobank methods for sample preparation must ensure the usefulness and long-term functionality of the products obtained. Quality indicators are the tool to measure these parameters, the purity and integrity determination being those specifically used for DNA. This study analyzes the quality indicators in DNA samples derived from 118 frozen human tissues in optimal cutting temperature (OCT) reactive, 68 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, 119 frozen blood samples, and 26 saliva samples. The results obtained for DNA quality are discussed in association with the usefulness for downstream applications and availability of the DNA source in the target study. In brief, if any material is valid, blood is the most approachable option of prospective collection of samples providing high-quality DNA. However, if diseased tissue is a requisite or samples are available, the recommended source of DNA would be frozen tissue. These conclusions will determine the best source of DNA, according to the planned downstream application. Furthermore our results support the conclusion that a complete procedure of DNA quantification and qualification is necessary to guarantee the appropriate management of the samples, avoiding low confidence results, high costs, and a waste of samples. PMID:27158753

  9. DNA Source Selection for Downstream Applications Based on DNA Quality Indicators Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena-Aguilar, Gema; Sánchez-López, Ana María; Barberán-Aceituno, Cristina; Carrillo-Ávila, José Antonio; López-Guerrero, José Antonio; Aguilar-Quesada, Rocío

    2016-08-01

    High-quality human DNA samples and associated information of individuals are necessary for biomedical research. Biobanks act as a support infrastructure for the scientific community by providing a large number of high-quality biological samples for specific downstream applications. For this purpose, biobank methods for sample preparation must ensure the usefulness and long-term functionality of the products obtained. Quality indicators are the tool to measure these parameters, the purity and integrity determination being those specifically used for DNA. This study analyzes the quality indicators in DNA samples derived from 118 frozen human tissues in optimal cutting temperature (OCT) reactive, 68 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, 119 frozen blood samples, and 26 saliva samples. The results obtained for DNA quality are discussed in association with the usefulness for downstream applications and availability of the DNA source in the target study. In brief, if any material is valid, blood is the most approachable option of prospective collection of samples providing high-quality DNA. However, if diseased tissue is a requisite or samples are available, the recommended source of DNA would be frozen tissue. These conclusions will determine the best source of DNA, according to the planned downstream application. Furthermore our results support the conclusion that a complete procedure of DNA quantification and qualification is necessary to guarantee the appropriate management of the samples, avoiding low confidence results, high costs, and a waste of samples.

  10. Spatiotemporal Land Use Change Analysis Using Open-source GIS and Web Based Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yusryzal Wan Ibrahim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal changes are very important information to reveal the characteristics of the urbanization process. Sharing the information is beneficial for public awareness which then improves their participation in adaptive management for spatial planning process. Open-source software and web application are freely available tools that can be the best medium used by any individual or agencies to share this important information. The objective of the paper is to discuss on the spatiotemporal land use change in Iskandar Malaysia by using open-source GIS (Quantum GIS and publish them through web application (Mash-up. Land use in 1994 to 2011 were developed and analyzed to show the landscape change of the region. Subsequently, web application was setup to distribute the findings of the study. The result show there is significant changes of land use in the study area especially on the decline of agricultural and natural land which were converted to urban land uses. Residential and industrial areas largely replaced the agriculture and natural areas particularly along the coastal zone of the region. This information is published through interactive GIS web in order to share it with the public and stakeholders. There are some limitations of web application but still not hindering the advantages of using it. The integration of open-source GIS and web application is very helpful in sharing planning information particularly in the study area that experiences rapid land use and land cover change. Basic information from this study is vital for conducting further study such as projecting future land use change and other related studies in the area.

  11. The application of DCPD method to evaluating dynamic J-R fracture resistance characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ji Hyun; Hong, Jun Hwa; Lee, Bong Sang; Chi, Se Whan; Kim, Joo Hag; Oh, Yong Jun; Kwun, Sun Chil; Oh, Jong Myung

    1999-06-01

    The reliable DCPD (Direct Current Potential Drop) test and data acquisition system were developed on the basis of analysis of various technical problems to accompanied with the application of DCPD method to J-R fracture resistance test. The test system contains electric insulation rod and high performance data acquisition system. The test and analysis method was applied to J-R fracture resistance test for SA516-Gr.70 steel for nuclear primary coolant system elbow. The reliabilities of test and analysis method were confirmed through the load-ratio method in case of dynamic loading test, and through the standard unloading compliance test in case of static loading test. (author). 17 refs., 1 tab., 18 figs

  12. Bipolar one diode-one resistor integration for high-density resistive memory applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingtao; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Wang, Ming; Xie, Hongwei; Zhang, Kangwei; Huo, Zongliang; Liu, Ming

    2013-06-07

    Different from conventional unipolar-type 1D-1R RRAM devices, a bipolar-type 1D-1R memory device concept is proposed and successfully demonstrated by the integration of Ni/TiOx/Ti diode and Pt/HfO2/Cu bipolar RRAM cell to suppress the undesired sneak current in a cross-point array. The bipolar 1D-1R memory device not only achieves self-compliance resistive switching characteristics by the reverse bias current of the Ni/TiOx/Ti diode, but also exhibits excellent bipolar resistive switching characteristics such as uniform switching, satisfactory data retention, and excellent scalability, which give it high potentiality for high-density integrated nonvolatile memory applications.

  13. Application of infrared and Raman spectroscopy for the identification of disease resistant trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna O. Conrad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New approaches for identifying disease resistant trees are needed, as the incidence of diseases caused by non-native and invasive pathogens increases. These approaches must be rapid, reliable, cost-effective, and should have the potential to be adapted for high-throughput screening or phenotyping. Within the context of trees and tree diseases, we summarize vibrational spectroscopic and chemometric methods that have been used to distinguish between groups of trees which vary in disease susceptibility or other important characteristics based on chemical fingerprint data. We also provide specific examples from the literature of where these approaches have been used successfully. Finally, we discuss future application of these approaches for wide-scale screening and phenotyping efforts aimed at identifying disease resistant trees and managing forest diseases.

  14. Induction of virus resistance by exogenous application of double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Neena; Worrall, Elizabeth A; Robinson, Karl E; Xu, Zhi Ping; Carroll, Bernard J

    2017-10-01

    Exogenous application of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for virus resistance in plants represents a very attractive alternative to virus resistant transgenic crops or pesticides targeting virus vectors. However, the instability of dsRNA sprayed onto plants is a major challenge as spraying naked dsRNA onto plants provides protection against homologous viruses for only 5 days. Innovative approaches, such as the use of nanoparticles as carriers of dsRNA for improved stability and sustained release, are emerging as key disruptive technologies. Knowledge is still limited about the mechanism of entry, transport and processing of exogenously applied dsRNA in plants. Cost of dsRNA and regulatory framework will be key influencers towards practical adoption of this technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of corrosion resistance of AISI 444 ferritic stainless steel for application as a biomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Rogerio Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    Ferritic stainless steels are ferromagnetic materials. This property does not allow their use in orthopedic prosthesis. Nevertheless, in some specific applications, this characteristic is very useful, such as, for fixing dental and facial prostheses by using magnetic attachments. In this study, the corrosion resistance and cytotoxicity of the AISI 444 ferritic stainless steel, with low nickel content, extra-low interstitial levels (C and N) and Ti and Nb stabilizers, were investigated for magnetic dental attachments application. The ISO 5832-1 (ASTM F-139) austenitic stainless steel and a commercial universal keeper for dental attachment (Neo-magnet System) were evaluated for comparison reasons. The first stainless steel is the most used metallic material for prostheses, and the second one, is a ferromagnetic keeper for dental prostheses (NeoM). In vitro cytotoxicity analysis was performed by the red neutral incorporation method. The results showed that the AISI 444 stainless steel is non cytotoxic. The corrosion resistance was studied by anodic polarization methods and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in a saline phosphate buffered solution (PBS) at 37 °C. The electronic properties of the passive film formed on AISI 444 SS were evaluated by the Mott-Schottky approach. All tested materials showed passivity in the PBS medium and the passive oxide film presented a duplex nature. The highest susceptibility to pitting corrosion was associated to the NeoM SS. This steel was also associated to the highest dopant concentration. The comparatively low levels of chromium (nearly 12.5%) and molybdenum (0.3%) of NeoM relatively to the other studied stainless steels are the probable cause of its lower corrosion resistance. The NeoM chemical composition does not match that of the SUS444 standards. The AISI 444 SS pitting resistance was equivalent to the ISO 5832-1 pointing out that it is a potential candidate for replacement of commercial ferromagnetic alloys used

  16. Single-mode interband cascade laser sources for mid-infrared spectroscopic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, J.; von Edlinger, M.; Weih, R.; Becker, S.; Nähle, L.; Fischer, M.; Koeth, J.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.

    2016-05-01

    Compared to the near infrared, many technologically and industrially relevant gas species have more than an order of magnitude higher absorption features in the mid-infrared (MIR) wavelength range. These species include for example important hydrocarbons (methane, acetylene), nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. Tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TLAS) has proven to be a versatile tool for gas sensing applications with significant advantages compared to other techniques. These advantages include real time measurement, standoff detection and ruggedness of the sensor. We present interband cascade lasers (ICLs), which have evolved into important laser sources for the MIR spectral range from 3 to 7 μm. ICLs achieve high efficiency by cascading optically active zones whilst using interband transitions, so they combine common diode laser as well as quantum cascade laser based technologies. Our application grade singlemode distributed feedback devices operate continuous wave at room temperature and are offering several features especially useful for high performance TLAS applications like: side mode suppression ratio of > 30 dB, continuous tuning ranges up to 30 nm, low threshold power densities and low overall power consumption. The devices are typically integrated in a thermoelectrically cooled TO-style package, hermetically sealed using a cap with anti-reflection coated window. This low power consumption as well as the compact size and ruggedness of the fabricated laser sources makes them perfectly suited for battery powered portable solutions for in field spectroscopy applications.

  17. Free and open-source software application for the evaluation of coronary computed tomography angiography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlich, Marcelo Souza; Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes; Feijóo, Raúl A; Azevedo, Clerio F; Tura, Bernardo Rangel; Ziemer, Paulo Gustavo Portela; Blanco, Pablo Javier; Pina, Gustavo; Meira, Márcio; Souza e Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de

    2012-10-01

    The standardization of images used in Medicine in 1993 was performed using the DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) standard. Several tests use this standard and it is increasingly necessary to design software applications capable of handling this type of image; however, these software applications are not usually free and open-source, and this fact hinders their adjustment to most diverse interests. To develop and validate a free and open-source software application capable of handling DICOM coronary computed tomography angiography images. We developed and tested the ImageLab software in the evaluation of 100 tests randomly selected from a database. We carried out 600 tests divided between two observers using ImageLab and another software sold with Philips Brilliance computed tomography appliances in the evaluation of coronary lesions and plaques around the left main coronary artery (LMCA) and the anterior descending artery (ADA). To evaluate intraobserver, interobserver and intersoftware agreements, we used simple and kappa statistics agreements. The agreements observed between software applications were generally classified as substantial or almost perfect in most comparisons. The ImageLab software agreed with the Philips software in the evaluation of coronary computed tomography angiography tests, especially in patients without lesions, with lesions 70% in the ADA was lower, but this is also observed when the anatomical reference standard is used.

  18. Application of nanomaterials in two-terminal resistive-switching memory devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Ouyang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanometer materials have been attracting strong attention due to their interesting structure and properties. Many important practical applications have been demonstrated for nanometer materials based on their unique properties. This article provides a review on the fabrication, electrical characterization, and memory application of two-terminal resistive-switching devices using nanomaterials as the active components, including metal and semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs, nanotubes, nanowires, and graphenes. There are mainly two types of device architectures for the two-terminal devices with NPs. One has a triple-layer structure with a metal film sandwiched between two organic semiconductor layers, and the other has a single polymer film blended with NPs. These devices can be electrically switched between two states with significant different resistances, i.e. the ‘ON’ and ‘OFF’ states. These render the devices important application as two-terminal non-volatile memory devices. The electrical behavior of these devices can be affected by the materials in the active layer and the electrodes. Though the mechanism for the electrical switches has been in argument, it is generally believed that the resistive switches are related to charge storage on the NPs. Resistive switches were also observed on crossbars formed by nanotubes, nanowires, and graphene ribbons. The resistive switches are due to nanoelectromechanical behavior of the materials. The Coulombic interaction of transient charges on the nanomaterials affects the configurable gap of the crossbars, which results into significant change in current through the crossbars. These nanoelectromechanical devices can be used as fast-response and high-density memory devices as well. Dr. Jianyong Ouyang received his bachelor degree from the Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, and MSc from the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science. He received his PhD from the Institute for Molecular

  19. PROCEEDINGS ON SYNCHROTRON RADIATION: China Spallation Neutron Source - an overview of application prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Fu, Shi-Nian; Tang, Jing-Yu; Tao, Ju-Zhou; Wang, Ding-Sheng; Wang, Fang-Wei; Wang, Sheng

    2009-11-01

    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is an accelerator-based multidisciplinary user facility to be constructed in Dongguan, Guangdong, China. The CSNS complex consists of an H- linear accelerator, a rapid cycling synchrotron accelerating the beam to 1.6 GeV, a solid-tungsten target station, and instruments for spallation neutron applications. The facility operates at 25 Hz repetition rate with an initial design beam power of 120 kW and is upgradeable to 500 kW. Construction of the CSNS project will lay the foundation of a leading national research center based on advanced proton-accelerator technology, pulsed neutron-scattering technology, and related programs including muon, fast neutron, and proton applications as well as medical therapy and accelerator-driven subcritical reactor (ADS) applications to serve China's strategic needs in scientific research and technological innovation for the next 30 plus years.

  20. Using next-generation sequencing to detect mutations endowing resistance to pesticides: application to acetolactate-synthase (ALS)-based resistance in barnyard grass, a polyploid grass weed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Délye, Christophe; Causse, Romain; Gautier, Véronique; Poncet, Charles; Michel, Séverine

    2015-05-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies offer tremendous possibilities for accurate detection of mutations endowing pesticide resistance, yet their use for this purpose has not emerged in crop protection. This study aims at promoting NGS use for pesticide resistance diagnosis. It describes a simple procedure accessible to virtually any scientist and implementing freely accessible programs for the analysis of NGS data. Three PCR amplicons encompassing seven codons of the acetolactate-synthase gene crucial for herbicide resistance were sequenced using non-quantified pools of crude DNA extracts from 40 plants in each of 28 field populations of barnyard grass, a polyploid weed. A total of 63,959 quality NGS sequence runs were obtained using the 454 technology. Three herbicide-resistance-endowing mutations (Pro-197-Ser, Pro-197-Leu and/or Trp-574-Leu) were identified in seven populations. The NGS results were confirmed by individual plant Sanger sequencing. This work demonstrated the feasibility of NGS-based detection of pesticide resistance, and the advantages of NGS compared with other molecular biology techniques for analysing large numbers of individuals. NGS-based resistance diagnosis has the potential to play a substantial role in monitoring resistance, maintaining pesticide efficacy and optimising pesticide applications. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effects of potassium application on the accumulated nitrogen source and yield of peanut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuefu; Kang Yujie; Wang Minglun; Zhao Changxing

    2013-01-01

    Pot experiments and were carried out respectively to study the effects of different potassium application on soil nitrogen uptake, fertilizer nitrogen uptake, nodule nitrogen fixation and their proportion and yield of peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) by 15 N tracer technique, and explore the reasons, which may provide a theoretical basis and technical guidance for peanut production in the scientific fertilizer application. Results showed that nitrogen in peanut all mainly accumulated in the kernel for different treatments of potassium fertilizer application. However, with increasing of potassium application, the increasing extent of nitrogen content of stems was the biggest during all the peanut organs, with nut shells the smallest. Properly increasing the amount of potassium can improve nitrogen content, 15 N abundance, nitrogen and 15 N accumulation of every organ, and promote absorption and utilization three nitrogen-source especially with the most effect for the kernel biomass (economic output). The ratio of fertilizer nitrogen, soil nitrogen and atmospheric nitrogen absorbed by peanut was respectively between 12.37%-13.10%, 38.29%-45.10%, and 42.53%-48.31% respectively. Properly increasing potassium fertilizer application improved the absorption ratio of fertilizer nitrogen and nodule nitrogen fixation, reduced the proportion of soil uptake and enhanced fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency. However, the influences of excessive application of potassium fertilizer decreased. (authors)

  2. Defect engineering of SrTiO{sub 3} thin films for resistive switching applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicklein, Sebastian

    2013-11-19

    As a matter of fact, the importance of (transition) metal oxides for modern applications in the field of energy and information technology (IT) for e.g. novel energy storage systems and solid state electronic devices is increasing. Previous studies discovered the importance of defects in an oxide for their functionality and emphasized the impact of stoichiometry on the oxide performance. A new field of interest of the memory technology sector is the so-called resistive switching phenomena where a voltage stimulus causes a thin oxide (≤10 nm) to change its resistance state from a high resistance state to a low resistance state and back. So called resistive RAM (ReRAM or RRAM) are deemed to be the future replacement (2015) for contemporary FLASH memory technology due to its extremely low energy consumption, its very fast read/write time (ns) and its possible node size <10 nm. A key challenge for the investigation of oxides and their electronic properties is the management and controlled incorporation of defects in the thin film oxide. Within this work, SrTiO{sub 3} was used as an oxide model material and was deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) onto doped and undoped SrTiO{sub 3} single crystals to investigate the formation of defects as a function of the process parameters. By combining structural and chemical thin film analysis with detailed PLD plume diagnostics and modeling of the laser plume dynamics, it was possible to elucidate the different physical mechanisms determining the stoichiometry of SrTiO{sub 3} during PLD. Deviations between thin film and target stoichiometry are basically a result of two effects, namely, incongruent ablation and preferential scattering of lighter ablated species during their motion towards the substrate in the O{sub 2} background gas. It is shown that the SrTiO{sub 3} system reacts to a non-stoichiometry with the systematic incorporation of titanium and strontium vacancies which could be detected by positron annihilation

  3. Normalized resistance interpretation, the NRI method: Review of NRI disc test applications and guide to calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronvall, Göran; Smith, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The normalized resistance interpretation (NRI) method was developed in response to a call for a method to calibrate disc diffusion test results making inter-laboratory comparisons possible. The main use of NRI so far has been in individual laboratories, in medical and veterinary medicine and in the field of marine microbiology. The applications of NRI for disc diffusion tests are reviewed and, in addition, a detailed description of the calculation procedure is presented. NRI provides a fully objective method for ECOFF calculations of disc diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test results. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The application of additional respiration resistance on exhale for increasing special endurance of highly qualified rowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grechuha S.V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of experimental training programs with the application of additional respiration resistance of exhale on the efficiency of covering competitive distances in rowing and canoeing was considered. Thirteen highly qualified rowers participated in the research. The investigation was held in preparatory period and before contest mesocycle. The improvement of the uniform course of the boat was found in the preparatory period. The period of super-restoration of functional state of respiration muscles was found at the end of the effect. The improvement of the results was determined at the distances of 500 and 1000 m in the competitive period

  5. Application of Functionalized SWCNTs for Increase of Degradation Resistance of Acrylic Paint for Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osiel Lucas Flores

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical properties of automotive acrylic paint are improved by incorporation of three different types of carbon nanotubes: single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, OH-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (OH-SWCNTs, and aniline-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (aniline-SWCNTs. The formed composites are studied by electron miscroscopy methods and Raman spectrometry. It is found that the acrylic paints with addition of OH-SWCNTs and aniline-SWCNTs show better quality for their applications. In particular, the resistance against degradation by electron beam increased in ~500%.

  6. Noise study of all-normal dispersion supercontinuum sources for potential application in optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, I. B.; Engelsholm, R. D.; Bang, O.

    2018-03-01

    Commercially available silica-fiber-based and ultra-broadband supercontinuum (SC) sources are typically generated by pumping close to the zero-dispersion wavelength (ZDW) of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF), using high-power picosecond or nanosecond laser pulses. Despite the extremely broad bandwidths, such sources are characterized by large intensity fluctuations, limiting their performance for applications in imaging such as optical coherence tomography (OCT). An approach to eliminate the influence of noise sensitive effects is to use a so-called all-normal dispersion (ANDi) fiber, in which the dispersion is normal for all the wavelengths of interest. Pumping these types of fibers with short enough femtosecond pulses allows to suppress stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), which is known to be as noisy process as modulation instability (MI), and coherent SC is generated through self-phase modulation (SPM) and optical wave breaking (OWB). In this study, we show the importance of the pump laser and fiber parameters in the design of low-noise ANDi based SC sources, for application in OCT. We numerically investigate the pulse-to-pulse fluctuations of the SC, calculating the relative intensity noise (RIN) as a function of the pump pulse duration and fiber length. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate the role of the fiber length on the RIN of the ANDi SC, validating the results calculated numerically. In the end, we compare the RIN of a commercial SC source based on MI and the ANDi SC source developed here, which shows better noise performance when it is carefully designed.

  7. Assessing soil erosion risk using RUSLE through a GIS open source desktop and web application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, L; Teodoro, A C; Gonçalves, J A; Soares, D; Cunha, M

    2016-06-01

    Soil erosion is a serious environmental problem. An estimation of the expected soil loss by water-caused erosion can be calculated considering the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Geographical Information Systems (GIS) provide different tools to create categorical maps of soil erosion risk which help to study the risk assessment of soil loss. The objective of this study was to develop a GIS open source application (in QGIS), using the RUSLE methodology for estimating erosion rate at the watershed scale (desktop application) and provide the same application via web access (web application). The applications developed allow one to generate all the maps necessary to evaluate the soil erosion risk. Several libraries and algorithms from SEXTANTE were used to develop these applications. These applications were tested in Montalegre municipality (Portugal). The maps involved in RUSLE method-soil erosivity factor, soil erodibility factor, topographic factor, cover management factor, and support practices-were created. The estimated mean value of the soil loss obtained was 220 ton km(-2) year(-1) ranged from 0.27 to 1283 ton km(-2) year(-1). The results indicated that most of the study area (80 %) is characterized by very low soil erosion level (soil erosion was higher than 962 ton km(-2) year(-1). It was also concluded that areas with high slope values and bare soil are related with high level of erosion and the higher the P and C values, the higher the soil erosion percentage. The RUSLE web and the desktop application are freely available.

  8. Distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in anaerobic digestion and land application of swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Qianwen; Zhang, Junya; Chen, Meixue; Tong, Juan; Wang, Rui; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-06-01

    Swine farm and the adjacent farmland are hot spots of ARGs. However, few studies have investigated the on-site occurrence of ARGs distributed in the process of anaerobic digestion (AD) followed by land application of swine wastewater. Two typical swine farms, in southern and northern China respectively, with AD along with land application were explored on ARG distributions. ARGs were highly abundant in raw swine wastewater, AD effectively reduced the copy number of all detected ARGs (0.21-1.34 logs removal), but the relative abundance with different resistance mechanisms showed distinctive variation trends. The reduction efficiency of ARGs was improved by stable operational temperature and longer solid retention time (SRT) of AD. ARGs in soil characterized the contamination from the irrigation of the digested liquor. The total ARGs quantity in soil fell down by 1.66 logs in idle period of winter compared to application period of summer in the northern region, whereas the total amount was steady with whole-year application in south. Some persistent (sul1 and sul2) and elevated ARGs (tetG and ereA) in AD and land application need more attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of neutral beam source using dc cold cathode discharge and its application processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Katsunori; Hatakeyama, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Fast atom beam (FAB) sources using dc cold cathode discharge, comprising parallel plate electrodes and thick carbon plate cathodes with multiple beam extracting apertures, were developed to generate parallel and straight energetic neutral beams for precise etching of three-dimensional microstructures consisting of insulating materials. Conventional FAB sources and their applications are briefly reviewed, and the advantages of newly developed FAB sources and new applications are introduced. By using SF 6 gas, a precise etching of quartz glass with an etch rate of 30 nm min -1 , a uniformity of within 4% (P-V) in Oe76 mm, vertical etch profile, smooth etch surface and long-term etch rate stability over 250 min were realized. The neutralization coefficient and the beam current density were also measured using a secondary electron method and a pulse-counting method, making it possible to measure the neutralization coefficient without referring to databases for secondary electron yields. A neutralization coefficient of 98% was obtained at maximum, although, under practical etching conditions, the neutralization coefficient is less than 70%. By comparing the results of the simple model calculation with the experimental data, it was determined that the neutralization mechanism was dominated by charge transfer. The importance of neutralization in a process chamber is also discussed

  10. Brightness enhancement of plasma ion source by utilizing anode spot for nano applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon-Jae [Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeonggi 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Man-Jin [Research Institute of Nano Manufacturing System, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae Won [Nanobio Fusion Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Anode spots are known as additional discharges on positively biased electrode immersed in plasmas. The anode spot plasma ion source (ASPIS) has been investigated as a high brightness ion source for nano applications such as focused ion beam (FIB) and nano medium energy ion scattering (nano-MEIS). The generation of anode spot is found to enhance brightness of ion beam since the anode spot increases plasma density near the extraction aperture. Brightness of the ASPIS has been estimated from measurement of emittance for total ion beam extracted through sub-mm aperture. The ASPIS is installed to the FIB system. Currents and diameters of the focused beams with/without anode spot are measured and compared. As the anode spot is turned on, the enhancement of beam current is observed at fixed diameter of the focused ion beam. Consequently, the brightness of the focused ion beam is enhanced as well. For argon ion beam, the maximum normalized brightness of 12 300 A/m{sup 2} SrV is acquired. The ASPIS is applied to nano-MEIS as well. The ASPIS is found to increase the beam current density and the power efficiency of the ion source for nano-MEIS. From the present study, it is shown that the ASPIS can enhance the performance of devices for nano applications.

  11. Brightness enhancement of plasma ion source by utilizing anode spot for nano applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, Yoon-Jae; Park, Man-Jin; Moon, Dae Won

    2012-01-01

    Anode spots are known as additional discharges on positively biased electrode immersed in plasmas. The anode spot plasma ion source (ASPIS) has been investigated as a high brightness ion source for nano applications such as focused ion beam (FIB) and nano medium energy ion scattering (nano-MEIS). The generation of anode spot is found to enhance brightness of ion beam since the anode spot increases plasma density near the extraction aperture. Brightness of the ASPIS has been estimated from measurement of emittance for total ion beam extracted through sub-mm aperture. The ASPIS is installed to the FIB system. Currents and diameters of the focused beams with/without anode spot are measured and compared. As the anode spot is turned on, the enhancement of beam current is observed at fixed diameter of the focused ion beam. Consequently, the brightness of the focused ion beam is enhanced as well. For argon ion beam, the maximum normalized brightness of 12 300 A/m 2 SrV is acquired. The ASPIS is applied to nano-MEIS as well. The ASPIS is found to increase the beam current density and the power efficiency of the ion source for nano-MEIS. From the present study, it is shown that the ASPIS can enhance the performance of devices for nano applications.

  12. Top-coatless 193nm positive-tone development immersion resist for logic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lian Cong; Yeh, Tsung Ju; Lin, Yeh-Sheng; Huang, Yu Chin; Kuo, Chien Wen; Huang, Wen Liang; Lin, Chia Hung; Yu, Chun Chi; Hsu, Ray; Wan, I.-Yuan; Lin, Jeff; Im, Kwang-Hwyi; Lim, Hae Jin; Jeon, Hyun K.; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Xu, Cheng Bai

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we summarize our development efforts for a top-coatless 193nm immersion positive tone development (PTD) contact hole (C/H) resist with improved litho and defect performances for logic application specifically with an advance node. The ultimate performance goal was to improve the depth of focus (DoF) margin, mask error enhancement factor (MEEF), critical dimension uniformity (CDU), contact edge roughness (CER), and defect performance. Also, the through pitch CD difference was supposed to be comparable to the previous control resist. Effects of polymer and PAG properties have been evaluated for this purpose. The material properties focused in the evaluation study were polymer activation energy (Ea), polymer solubility differentiated by polymerization process types, and diffusion length (DL) and acidity (pKa) of photoacid generator (PAG). Additionally, the impact of post exposure bake (PEB) temperature was investigated for process condition optimization. As a result of this study, a new resist formulation to satisfy all litho and defect performance was developed and production yield was further improved.

  13. Antibiotic Application and Emergence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) in Global Catfish Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Li-Oon; Effarizah, M E; Goni, Abatcha Mustapha; Rusul, Gulam

    2016-06-01

    Catfish is one of the most cultivated species worldwide. Antibiotics are usually used in catfish farming as therapeutic and prophylactic agents. In the USA, only oxytetracycline, a combination of sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim, and florfenicol are approved by the Food Drug Administration for specific fish species (e.g., catfish and salmonids) and their specific diseases. Misuse of antibiotics as prophylactic agents in disease prevention, however, is common and contributes in the development of antibiotic resistance. Various studies had reported on antibiotic residues and/or resistance in farmed species, feral fish, water column, sediments, and, in a lesser content, among farm workers. Ninety percent of the world aquaculture production is carried out in developing countries, which lack regulations and enforcement on the use of antibiotics. Hence, efforts are needed to promote the development and enforcement of such a regulatory structure. Alternatives to antibiotics such as antibacterial vaccines, bacteriophages and their lysins, and probiotics have been applied to curtail the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to the imprudent application of antibiotics in aquaculture.

  14. Application of 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging Technique for Engineering Site Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem A. Hassan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Engineering site investigation is crucial to characterize the subsurface soil of proposed construction sites. Application of 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging ERI technique pro- vides useful information about the subsurface geology and the condition along profiles. In this paper, numerical and field studies using 2D ERI technique were adopted for engineer- ing site investigation purposes. The Wenner-Schlumberger array was implemented along three parallel profiles at the construction site of Diyala University, northeast of Baghdad city, to detect buried utilities (pipes left over in the area. A synthetic resistivity model of a buried pipe was designed to discuss and validate the field results. The 2D ERI sections of the model resolve clearly the buried structure, even with 5% noise level. Interpretation of the field data showed that 2D ERI technique was effective in delineating the buried pipes. The vertical and horizontal sensitivity of the Wenner-Schlumberger array for sub- surface resistivity variations made it possible to determine the position and geometry of the buried structures. The current work demonstrates the usefulness of the ERI technique as a complementary tool for engineering site investigation .

  15. Ductile crack growth resistance of PWR components. Application for structural integrity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethmont, M.; Eripret, C.; Le Delliou, P.; Frund, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Structural integrity assessment of PWR components, as pressure vessel and piping, needs to evaluate the ductile crack growth resistance which is generally characterized by J resistance curves (or J-R curves) based on the path-independent J Integral. These curves are more often obtained from laboratory tests with small specimens as CT-specimens and their application to large component safety analysis could be questionable Indeed, it is well known that J-R curves could depend on the specimen size and on the loading mode (i.e. bending stress versus tensile stress) but this dependency could be different from one material to another. This means that it would depend not only on the stress-strain state but also on the actual local fracture mechanisms (i. e. the damage) occurring before the crack initiation or during the crack propagation. The purpose of this paper is to gather some results of crack growth resistance measurement studied at EDF with different materials in order to show how the effect of the parameters, as specimen geometry and mode of loading, is directly related to the local fracture mechanisms or the microstructure of the materials. For that a number of results are analysed by means of the local approach of fracture which is a very useful tool to predict quantitatively the J-R curve dependency, related to fracture mechanisms (authors). 12 refs., 9 figs

  16. Large resistive 2D Micromegas with genetic multiplexing and some imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouteille, S.; Attié, D.; Baron, P.; Calvet, D.; Magnier, P.; Mandjavidze, I.; Procureur, S.; Riallot, M.

    2016-10-01

    The performance of the first large resistive Micromegas detectors with 2D readout and genetic multiplexing is presented. These detectors have a 50 × 50cm2 active area and are equipped with 1024 strips both in X- and Y-directions. The same genetic multiplexing pattern is applied on both coordinates, resulting in the compression of signals on 2 × 61 readout channels. Four such detectors have been built at CERN, and extensively tested with cosmics. The resistive strip film allows for very high gain operation, compensating for the charge spread on the 2 dimensions as well as the S / N loss due to the huge, 1 nF input capacitance. This film also creates a significantly different signal shape in the X- and Y-coordinates due to the charge evacuation along the resistive strips. All in all a detection efficiency above 95% is achieved with a 1 cm drift gap. Though not yet optimal, the measured 300 μm spatial resolution allows for very precise imaging in the field of muon tomography, and some applications of these detectors are presented.

  17. Wet Chemical Synthesis and Screening of Thick Porous Oxide Films for Resistive Gas Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm F. Maier

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A method of wet chemical synthesis suitable for high throughput and combinatorial applications has been developed for the synthesis of porous resistive thick-film gas sensors. This method is based on the robot-controlled application of unstable metal oxide suspensions on an array of 64 inter-digital electrodes positioned on an Al2O3 substrate. SnO2, WO3, ZrO2, TiO2, CeO2, In2O3 and Bi2O3 were chosen as base oxides, and were optimised by doping or mixed oxide formation. The parallel synthesis of mixed oxide sensors is illustrated by representative examples. The electrical characteristics and the sensor performance of the films were measured by high-throughput impedance spectroscopy while supplying various test gases (H2, CO, NO, NO2, propene. Data collection, data mining techniques applied and the best potential sensor materials discovered are presented.

  18. A practical sensitivity analysis method for ranking sources of uncertainty in thermal–hydraulics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourgol-Mohammad, Mohammad; Hoseyni, Seyed Mohsen; Hoseyni, Seyed Mojtaba; Sepanloo, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Existing uncertainty ranking methods prove inconsistent for TH applications. • Introduction of a new method for ranking sources of uncertainty in TH codes. • Modified PIRT qualitatively identifies and ranks uncertainty sources more precisely. • The importance of parameters is calculated by a limited number of TH code executions. • Methodology is applied successfully on LOFT-LB1 test facility. - Abstract: In application to thermal–hydraulic calculations by system codes, sensitivity analysis plays an important role for managing the uncertainties of code output and risk analysis. Sensitivity analysis is also used to confirm the results of qualitative Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT). Several methodologies have been developed to address uncertainty importance assessment. Generally, uncertainty importance measures, mainly devised for the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) applications, are not affordable for computationally demanding calculations of the complex thermal–hydraulics (TH) system codes. In other words, for effective quantification of the degree of the contribution of each phenomenon to the total uncertainty of the output, a practical approach is needed by considering high computational burden of TH calculations. This study aims primarily to show the inefficiency of the existing approaches and then introduces a solution to cope with the challenges in this area by modification of variance-based uncertainty importance method. Important parameters are identified by the modified PIRT approach qualitatively then their uncertainty importance is quantified by a local derivative index. The proposed index is attractive from its practicality point of view on TH applications. It is capable of calculating the importance of parameters by a limited number of TH code executions. Application of the proposed methodology is demonstrated on LOFT-LB1 test facility.

  19. A new source of resistance to 2-furaldehyde from Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis for sustainable lignocellulose-to-biofuel conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Lewis Liu, Z; Zhang, Xiaoping; Ma, Menggen

    2017-06-01

    Aldehyde inhibitory compounds derived from lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment have been identified as a major class of toxic chemicals that interfere with microbial growth and subsequent fermentation for advanced biofuel production. Development of robust next-generation biocatalyst is a key for a low-cost biofuel production industry. Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis is a naturally occurring C-5 sugar utilization yeast; however, little is known about the genetic background underlying its potential tolerance to biomass conversion inhibitors. We investigated and identified five uncharacterized putative aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase genes (SsAADs) from this yeast as a new source of resistance against biomass fermentation inhibitor 2-furaldehyde (furfural) by gene expression, gene cloning, and direct enzyme assay analysis using partially purified proteins. All five proteins from S. stipitis showed furfural reduction using cofactor NADH. An optimum active temperature was observed at 40 °C for SsAad1p; 30 °C for SsAad3p, SsAad4p, and SsAad5p; and 20 °C for SsAad2p. SsAad2p, SsAad3p, and SsAad4p showed tolerance to a wide range of pH from 4.5 to 8, but SsAad1p and SsAad5p were sensitive to pH changes beyond 7. Genes SsAAD2, SsAAD3, and SsAAD4 displayed significantly enhanced higher levels of expression in response to the challenge of furfural. Their encoding proteins also showed higher levels of specific activity toward furfural and were suggested as core functional enzymes contributing aldehyde resistance in S. stipitis.

  20. Label-free screening of single biomolecules through resistive pulse sensing technology for precision medicine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, S.; Kim, S. C.; Schieber, C.; Kannam, S.; Gunn, N.; Moore, S.; Scott, D.; Bathgate, R.; Skafidas, S.; Wagner, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    systems genomics has to be accompanied by an equally strong effort to develop next-generation DNA-sequencing and next-generation drug screening and design platforms. In that context lab-on-a-chip devices utilizing nanopore- and nanochannel based resistive pulse-sensing technology for DNA-sequencing and protein screening applications occupy a key role. This paper describes the status quo of resistive pulse sensing technology for these two application areas with a special focus on current technology trends and challenges ahead.

  1. Guava: phytochemical composition of a potential source of antioxidants for cosmetic and/or dermatological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Galdorfini Chiari-Andréo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Guava (Psidium guajava L. is a native fruit of the American tropics with commercial applications for its taste, flavor and aroma. Numerous pharmacological uses have been described for it, such as the antiseptic effect of its leaves, the use of the fresh fruit and tea from its leaves for the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, diabetes mellitus, and others. However, considering its rich composition, the guava also is a potential source of antioxidants to be used in the development of new formulations for cosmetic and/or dermatological applications, the main focus of this research. Herein, we describe the study of the phytochemical composition and the antioxidant activity of a guava extract prepared with non-toxic solvents aiming its use at biological applications. High performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were employed to identify the major components, while thermoanalytical measurements and hot stage microscopy were used to assess the chemical stability of guava fruit extract. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated assessing the SOD-like activity and ABTS free radical scavenger. The results show that the extract is a rich source of phenolic compounds, such as quercetin, kaempferol, schottenol, among many others. All of the components found in guava extract exhibit biological effects according to the literature data, mainly antioxidant properties.

  2. A neutron booster for spallation sources--application to accelerator driven systems and isotope production

    CERN Document Server

    Galy, J; Van Dam, H; Valko, J

    2002-01-01

    One can design a critical system with fissile material in the form of a thin layer on the inner surface of a cylindrical neutron moderator such as graphite or beryllium. Recently, we have investigated the properties of critical and near critical systems based on the use of thin actinide layers of uranium, plutonium and americium. The thickness of the required fissile layer depends on the type of fissile material, its concentration in the layer and on the geometrical arrangement, but is typically in the mu m-mm range. The resulting total mass of fissile material can be as low as 100 g. Thin fissile layers have a variety of applications in nuclear technology--for example in the design neutron amplifiers for medical applications and 'fast' islands in thermal reactors for waste incineration. In the present paper, we investigate the properties of a neutron booster unit for spallation sources and isotope production. In those applications a layer of fissile material surrounds the spallation source. Such a module cou...

  3. Molecular Approaches to Understanding Transmission and Source Attribution in Nontyphoidal Salmonella and Their Application in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Alison E; Vaughan, Timothy G; French, Nigel P

    2015-11-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a frequent cause of diarrhea around the world, yet in many African countries it is more commonly associated with invasive bacterial disease. Various source attribution models have been developed that utilize microbial subtyping data to assign cases of human NTS infection to different animal populations and foods of animal origin. Advances in molecular microbial subtyping approaches, in particular whole-genome sequencing, provide higher resolution data with which to investigate these sources. In this review, we provide updates on the source attribution models developed for Salmonella, and examine the application of whole-genome sequencing data combined with evolutionary modeling to investigate the putative sources and transmission pathways of NTS, with a focus on the epidemiology of NTS in Africa. This is essential information to decide where, what, and how control strategies might be applied most effectively. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Study of principle error sources in gamma spectrometry. Application to cross sections measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majah, M. Ibn.

    1985-01-01

    The principle error sources in gamma spectrometry have been studied in purpose to measure cross sections with great precision. Three error sources have been studied: dead time and pile up which depend on counting rate, and coincidence effect that depends on the disintegration scheme of the radionuclide in question. A constant frequency pulse generator has been used to correct the counting loss due to dead time and pile up in cases of long and short disintegration periods. The loss due to coincidence effect can reach 25% and over, depending on the disintegration scheme and on the distance source-detector. After establishing the correction formula and verifying its validity for four examples: iron 56, scandium 48, antimony 120 and gold 196 m, an application has been done by measuring cross sections of nuclear reactions that lead to long disintegration periods which need short distance source-detector counting and thus correcting the loss due to dead time effect, pile up and coincidence effect. 16 refs., 45 figs., 25 tabs. (author)

  5. THE ALL-SOURCE GREEN’S FUNCTION AND ITS APPLICATIONS TO TSUNAMI PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHIGANG XU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical Green’s function provides the global linear response to impulse forcing at a particular source location. It is a type of one-source-all-receiver Green’s function. This paper presents a new type of Green’s function, referred to as the all-source-one-receiver, or for short the all-source Green’s function (ASGF, in which the solution at a point of interest (POI can be written in terms of global forcing without requiring the solution at other locations. The ASGF is particularly applicable to tsunami problems. The response to forcing anywhere in the global ocean can be determined within a few seconds on an ordinary personal computer or on a web server. The ASGF also brings in two new types of tsunami charts, one for the arrival time and the second for the gain, without assuming the location of the epicenter or reversibility of the tsunami travel path. Thus it provides a useful tool for tsunami hazard preparedness and to rapidly calculate the real-time responses at selected POIs for a tsunami generated anywhere in the world’s oceans.

  6. Synchrotron applications of pixel and strip detectors at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, J.; Tartoni, N.; Nave, C.

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of position-sensitive X-ray detectors have been commissioned on the synchrotron X-ray beamlines operating at the Diamond Light Source in UK. In addition to mature technologies such as image-plates, CCD-based detectors, multi-wire and micro-strip gas detectors, more recent detectors based on semiconductor pixel or strip sensors coupled to CMOS read-out chips are also in use for routine synchrotron X-ray diffraction and scattering experiments. The performance of several commercial and developmental pixel/strip detectors for synchrotron studies are discussed with emphasis on the image quality achieved with these devices. Examples of pixel or strip detector applications at Diamond Light Source as well as the status of the commissioning of these detectors on the beamlines are presented. Finally, priorities and ideas for future developments are discussed.

  7. Plant Resistance Inducers against Pathogens in Solanaceae Species—From Molecular Mechanisms to Field Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandersson, Erik; Mulugeta, Tewodros; Lankinen, Åsa; Liljeroth, Erland; Andreasson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    This review provides a current summary of plant resistance inducers (PRIs) that have been successfully used in the Solanaceae plant family to protect against pathogens by activating the plant’s own defence. Solanaceous species include many important crops such as potato and tomato. We also present findings regarding the molecular processes after application of PRIs, even if the number of such studies still remains limited in this plant family. In general, there is a lack of patterns regarding the efficiency of induced resistance (IR) both between and within solanaceous species. In many cases, a hypersensitivity-like reaction needs to form in order for the PRI to be efficient. “-Omics” studies have already given insight in the complexity of responses, and can explain some of the differences seen in efficacy of PRIs between and within species as well as towards different pathogens. Finally, examples of field applications of PRIs for solanaceous crops are presented and discussed. We predict that PRIs will play a role in future plant protection strategies in Solanaceae crops if they are combined with other means of disease control in different spatial and temporal combinations. PMID:27706100

  8. Plant Resistance Inducers against Pathogens in Solanaceae Species-From Molecular Mechanisms to Field Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandersson, Erik; Mulugeta, Tewodros; Lankinen, Åsa; Liljeroth, Erland; Andreasson, Erik

    2016-10-02

    This review provides a current summary of plant resistance inducers (PRIs) that have been successfully used in the Solanaceae plant family to protect against pathogens by activating the plant's own defence. Solanaceous species include many important crops such as potato and tomato. We also present findings regarding the molecular processes after application of PRIs, even if the number of such studies still remains limited in this plant family. In general, there is a lack of patterns regarding the efficiency of induced resistance (IR) both between and within solanaceous species. In many cases, a hypersensitivity-like reaction needs to form in order for the PRI to be efficient. "-Omics" studies have already given insight in the complexity of responses, and can explain some of the differences seen in efficacy of PRIs between and within species as well as towards different pathogens. Finally, examples of field applications of PRIs for solanaceous crops are presented and discussed. We predict that PRIs will play a role in future plant protection strategies in Solanaceae crops if they are combined with other means of disease control in different spatial and temporal combinations.

  9. Research and Application of Digital Transmission of Unbonded Elastic Wire Resistance Type Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilin Zheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing different resistance values, this collector of this article collects signal of the Unbonded Elastic Wire Resistance Type Sensor (UEWRTS in brief acquisition embedded in the dams, reservoirs and other hydraulic buildings, and monitors the facilities in real time view. The position of embedded sensors can be distinguished by setting the address and code. The analog signal is one-on- one converted to digital signals through high-precision analog-to-digital conversion and amplification chips by digitized transducers. The digital signals are transported to the central server, and the deformation of the structure is estimated by original data in the server. Meanwhile, it extended the transformer’s effective measuring distance from normal analog 200 meters up to digitalized 1200 meters. In situation of multi UEWRTS installed field, all the output of the transformers can be connected in parallel to eliminate the cables to only one RS485-Bus as a twisted-pair cable and a power line. Applications of the transducer in several reservoir dams’ security monitoring system proof that is of high accuracy, reliable, strong anti-interference solution for all the UEWRTS applications of the relative monitoring and measurement projects. The collector has been applied in dam monitoring, and achieved good results.

  10. Characterization and Application of a Planar Radio - Inductively-Coupled Plasma Source for the Production of Barrier Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Leonard Joseph

    A planar radio-frequency (rf) inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) source is used to produce fluorocarbon discharges (CF_4/Ar) to fluorinate the surface of high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Using this system, concurrent studies of discharge characteristics, permeation properties of treated polymers and polymer surface characteristics are conducted to advance the use of plasma-fluorinated polymer surfaces as a barrier layer for automotive applications. Langmuir probes are used to determine spatial distribution of charged-particle and space-potential characteristics in Ar and CF_4/Ar discharges and to show the influence of the spatial distribution of the heating regions and the reactor boundaries on the discharge uniformity. Langmuir probes are also used to identify rf anisotropic drift motion of electrons in the heating regions of the source and transient high-energy electron features in pulsed discharges. These latter features allow pulsed ICP sources to be operated at low time-averaged powers that are necessary to treat thermally sensitive polymers. Fourier Transform Infrared (FITR) spectroscopy is used to measure the dissociation of fluorocarbon gases and to explore differences between pulsed- and continuous -power operation. Dissociation levels of CF_4 (50-85%) using pulsed-power operation are as high as that for continuous operation, even though the net time -averaged power is far less with pulsed operation. The result suggests that pulsed fluorocarbon discharges possess high concentrations of chemically-active species needed for rapid surface fluorination. A gravimetric permeation cup method is used to measure the permeation rate of test fuels through HDPE membranes, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) studies are performed to determine the stoichiometry and thickness of the barrier layer. From these studies we find that a 50-70 A thick, polar, fluoro-hydrocarbon over layer reduces the permeation of isooctane/toluene/methanol mixtures by a

  11. Impact of pre-application treatment on municipal sludge composition, soil dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes, and abundance of antibiotic-resistance genes on vegetables at harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Calvin Ho-Fung; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Scott, Andrew; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Lapen, David R; Duenk, Peter; Topp, Edward

    2017-06-01

    In many jurisdictions sludge recovered from the sewage treatment process is a valued fertilizer for crop production. Pre-treatment of sewage sludge prior to land application offers the potential to abate enteric microorganisms that carry genes conferring resistance to antibiotics. Pre-treatment practices that accomplish this should have the desirable effect of reducing the risk of contamination of crops or adjacent water with antibiotic resistance genes carried in these materials. In the present study, we obtained municipal sludge that had been subjected to one of five treatments. There were, anaerobic-digestion or aerobic-digestion, in both instances with and without dewatering; and heat-treatment and pelletization. Each of the five types of biosolids was applied to an agricultural field at commercial rates, following which lettuce, carrots and radishes were planted. Based on qPCR, the estimated antibiotic gene loading rates were comparable with each of the five biosolids. However, the gene abundance in soil following application of the pelletized biosolids was anomalously lower than expected. Following application, the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes decreased in a generally coherent fashion, except sul1 which increased in abundance during the growing season in the soil fertilized with pelletized biosolids. Based on qPCR and high throughput sequencing evidence for transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from the biosolids to the vegetables at harvest was weak. Clostridia were more abundant in soils receiving any of the biosolids except the pelletized. Overall, the behavior of antibiotic resistance genes in soils receiving aerobically or anaerobically-digested biosolids was consistent and coherent with previous studies. However, dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes in soils receiving the heat treated pelletized biosolids were very different, and the underlying mechanisms merit investigation. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  12. CLINICAL ISOLATES OF MECA, METHICILLIN, VANCOMYCIN RESISTANCE S. AUREUS; ESBLs PRODUCING K.PNEUMONIA, E.COLI, P. AUREGENOSA FROM VARIOUS CLINICAL SOURCE AND ITS ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mahmud Ali, Amirthalingam R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Antimicrobial resistance has turned into a key medical and public health crisis globally since the injudicious use of magic bullets (drugs. Aim of this study is focused on the clinical isolate and their percentages of resistant to antibiotics in gram positive bacteria such as MRSA, VRSA, and MSSA are common causes of nosocomical, skin structure infections, bacteremia and infection of other systems; ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae (E. coli, Klebsiella spp. is common agent of urinary tract, bloodstream, pulmonary and intra-abdominal infections and carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa with its complete antimicrobial patterns which are currently practiced in this population. Methods: There are one hundred and fourteen (114 various clinical isolates, isolated from various clinical samples like throat swab, urine, pus, sputum, and blood culture, identified as specific isolate with resistance patterns were analyzed by BD phoenix-100 the auto analyzer. Results: Off 114 clinical isolate, 6 mecA-mediated resistance (cefoxitin>8mgc/ml, 11 methicillin resistance, 18 β lactam/βlactamase inhibitor, 12 methicillin sensitive and 3 vancomycin (>16µg/ml resistance S. aureus have been isolated from overall 50 isolate of S.aureus. In addition, there are 27 P.aeruginosa, 15 ESBLs from overall of 25 K. pneumoniae and 7 ESBLs out of 12 Escherichia coli species have been isolated. The resistance and susceptibility pattern percentages have been graphically represented for each isolates. Conclusion: Current study revealed that the drug classes of β lactam/βlactamase inhibitor having high resistance rate with S.aureus, P.aureginosa, K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolate. Also, some of other drug classes such as cepham and tetracycline having higher resistance rate with P.aureginosa and K.pneumoniae. In addition, the vancomycin resistances S. aureus have been isolated and reported as first time in this population.

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from children and environmental sources in urban and suburban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanska, Bernadeta; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Spica, Dorota; Klawe, Jacek J

    2017-04-04

    Campylobacteriosis is a dominant bacterial cause of foodborne infection and is considered the main public health problem in Europe and many other countries worldwide. In the study lasting from 2011 to 2013 we compared the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from children, domestic animals, poultry meat and surface water in Northern Poland. During a 3-years study 1973 samples were analysed. The results proved the presence of Campylobacter spp. in 306 (15.5%) samples. The percentage of Campylobacter-positive samples differed among the sample types, from 0% (freshwater beaches) to 38.6% (poultry meat in 2011). Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in children isolates was 9.6%. It decreased from 13.2% in 2011 to 8.0% in 2013. It should be highlighted with a particular concern that Campylobacter jejuni was detected in 20.0% of fountains. All children and poultry meat isolates were susceptible to azithromycin. Two C. coli (3.7%) and four C. jejuni (3.3%) isolated from poultry meat were resistant to erythromycin. The highest percentage of C. jejuni isolates with resistance to ciprofloxacin were found in samples from 80% dogs and 85% ponds. Among isolates resistant to two antimicrobials 74.7% C. jejuni and 59.2% C. coli isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin as well as to tetracycline. Only one cat C. coli isolate was resistant to both azithromycin and erythromycin. One C. jejuni isolate from a fountain was resistant to four antimicrobial agents (erythromycin, azithromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin). The study proved that surface water, poultry meat and pets constituted potential sources of Campylobacter to children. Fountains can be a direct source of children campylobacteriosis but can also pollute other environments with multidrug-resistant Campylobacter. The high resistance to some antimicrobials among the isolates may lead to increasing numbers of difficult-to-treat campylobacteriosis cases among children.

  14. Theory of the high base resistivity n(+)pp(+) silicon solar cell and its application to radiation damage effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradia, C.; Weinberg, I.

    1985-01-01

    Particulate radiation in space is a principal source of silicon solar cell degradation, and an investigation of cell radiation damage at higher base resistivities appears to have implication toward increasing solar cell and, therefore, useful satellite lifetimes in the space environment. However, contrary to expectations, it has been found that for cells with resistivities of 84 and 1250 ohm cm, the radiation resistance decreases as cell base resistivity increases. An analytical solar-cell computer model was developed with the objective to determine the reasons for this unexpected behavior. The present paper has the aim to describe the analytical model and its use in interpreting the behavior, under irradiation, of high-resistivity solar cells. Attention is given to boundary conditions at the space-charge region edges, cell currents, cell voltages, the generation of the theoretical I-V characteristic, experimental results, and computer calculations.

  15. Prospect for application of compact accelerator-based neutron source to neutron engineering diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yoshimasa; Taketani, Atsushi; Takamura, Masato; Sunaga, Hideyuki; Kumagai, Masayoshi; Oba, Yojiro; Otake, Yoshie; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    A compact accelerator-based neutron source has been lately discussed on engineering applications such as transmission imaging and small angle scattering as well as reflectometry. However, nobody considers using it for neutron diffraction experiment because of its low neutron flux. In this study, therefore, the neutron diffraction experiments are carried out using Riken Accelerator-driven Compact Neutron Source (RANS), to clarify the capability of the compact neutron source for neutron engineering diffraction. The diffraction pattern from a ferritic steel was successfully measured by suitable arrangement of the optical system to reduce the background noise, and it was confirmed that the recognizable diffraction pattern can be measured by a large sampling volume with 10 mm in cubic for an acceptable measurement time, i.e. 10 min. The minimum resolution of the 110 reflection for RANS is approximately 2.5% at 8 μs of the proton pulse width, which is insufficient to perform the strain measurement by neutron diffraction. The moderation time width at the wavelength corresponding to the 110 reflection is estimated to be approximately 30 μs, which is the most dominant factor to determine the resolution. Therefore, refinements of the moderator system to decrease the moderation time by decreasing a thickness of the moderator or by applying the decoupler system or application of the angular dispersive neutron diffraction technique are important to improve the resolution of the diffraction experiment using the compact neutron source. In contrast, the texture evolution due to plastic deformation was successfully observed by measuring a change in the diffraction peak intensity by RANS. Furthermore, the volume fraction of the austenitic phase in the dual phase mock specimen was also successfully evaluated by fitting the diffraction pattern using a Rietveld code. Consequently, RANS has been proved to be capable for neutron engineering diffraction aiming for the easy access

  16. Prospect for application of compact accelerator-based neutron source to neutron engineering diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yoshimasa; Taketani, Atsushi; Takamura, Masato; Sunaga, Hideyuki; Kumagai, Masayoshi; Oba, Yojiro; Otake, Yoshie; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A compact accelerator-based neutron source has been lately discussed on engineering applications such as transmission imaging and small angle scattering as well as reflectometry. However, nobody considers using it for neutron diffraction experiment because of its low neutron flux. In this study, therefore, the neutron diffraction experiments are carried out using Riken Accelerator-driven Compact Neutron Source (RANS), to clarify the capability of the compact neutron source for neutron engineering diffraction. The diffraction pattern from a ferritic steel was successfully measured by suitable arrangement of the optical system to reduce the background noise, and it was confirmed that the recognizable diffraction pattern can be measured by a large sampling volume with 10 mm in cubic for an acceptable measurement time, i.e. 10 min. The minimum resolution of the 110 reflection for RANS is approximately 2.5% at 8 μs of the proton pulse width, which is insufficient to perform the strain measurement by neutron diffraction. The moderation time width at the wavelength corresponding to the 110 reflection is estimated to be approximately 30 μs, which is the most dominant factor to determine the resolution. Therefore, refinements of the moderator system to decrease the moderation time by decreasing a thickness of the moderator or by applying the decoupler system or application of the angular dispersive neutron diffraction technique are important to improve the resolution of the diffraction experiment using the compact neutron source. In contrast, the texture evolution due to plastic deformation was successfully observed by measuring a change in the diffraction peak intensity by RANS. Furthermore, the volume fraction of the austenitic phase in the dual phase mock specimen was also successfully evaluated by fitting the diffraction pattern using a Rietveld code. Consequently, RANS has been proved to be capable for neutron engineering diffraction aiming for the easy access

  17. A geometric approach to joint inversion with applications to contaminant source zone characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghasi, Alireza; Mendoza-Sanchez, Itza; Miller, Eric L; Ramsburg, C Andrew; Abriola, Linda M

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new joint inversion approach to shape-based inverse problems. Given two sets of data from distinct physical models, the main objective is to obtain a unified characterization of inclusions within the spatial domain of the physical properties to be reconstructed. Although our proposed method generally applies to many types of inverse problems, the main motivation here is to characterize subsurface contaminant source zones by processing down-gradient hydrological data and cross-gradient electrical resistance tomography observations. Inspired by Newton's method for multi-objective optimization, we present an iterative inversion scheme in which descent steps are chosen to simultaneously reduce both data-model misfit terms. Such an approach, however, requires solving a non-smooth convex problem at every iteration, which is computationally expensive for a pixel-based inversion over the whole domain. Instead, we employ a parametric level set technique that substantially reduces the number of underlying parameters, making the inversion computationally tractable. The performance of the technique is examined and discussed through the reconstruction of source zone architectures that are representative of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminant release in a statistically homogenous sandy aquifer. In these examples, the geometric configuration of the DNAPL mass is considered along with additional information about its spatial variability within the contaminated zone, such as the identification of low and high saturation regions. Comparison of the reconstructions with the true DNAPL architectures highlights the superior performance of the model-based technique and joint inversion scheme. (paper)

  18. Maximum likelihood approach to “informed” Sound Source Localization for Hearing Aid applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmani, Mojtaba; Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Most state-of-the-art Sound Source Localization (SSL) algorithms have been proposed for applications which are "uninformed'' about the target sound content; however, utilizing a wireless microphone worn by a target talker, enables recent Hearing Aid Systems (HASs) to access to an almost noise......'' SSL algorithms which use binaural microphones for localization, MLSSL performs better using signals of one or more microphones placed on just one ear, thereby reducing the wireless transmission overhead of binaural hearing aids. More specifically, when the target location confined to the front...

  19. The x-ray source application test cassette for radiation exposures at the OMEGA laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, K. B.; Rekow, V.; Emig, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Fisher, J. H.; Newlander, C. D. [Fifth Gait Technologies, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama 35803 (United States); Horton, R. [Gray Research, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama 35806 (United States); Davis, J. [Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, Virginia 22060 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    We have designed a sample cassette that can be used to position up to six samples in the OMEGA laser chamber. The cassette accommodates round samples up to 38.1 mm (1.5{sup Double-Prime }) in diameter and square samples up to 27 mm on a side, any of which can be up to 12.7 mm thick. Smaller specimens are centered with spacers. The test cassette allows each sample to have a unique filter scheme, with multiple filter regions in front of each sample. This paper will present mechanical design considerations and operational aspects of the x-ray source application cassette.

  20. Application of the complex cepstrum to the location of acoustic sources near reflective surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. R.; Tavakkoli, S.; Elliott, K. B.; Hurst, C. J.; Obrien, W. F.

    1987-01-01

    The complex cepstrum is used to correct bearing estimations of acoustic sources in the presence of a reflective surface. An automated liftering procedure is used which zeros out a block portion of the cepstrum including the echo information. The problem of the resulting distortion is alleviated by applying a coherence criterion to the recovered direct signals at each microphone. Thus to a large degree the interactive nature of cepstral processing is overcome for this application. For the test signals and geometries considered the cepstrum is shown to accurately correct for bearing errors in acoustic signals contaminated with reflections from nearby surfaces.

  1. ELATE: an open-source online application for analysis and visualization of elastic tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillac, Romain; Coudert, François-Xavier; Pullumbi, Pluton

    2016-01-01

    We report on the implementation of a tool for the analysis of second-order elastic stiffness tensors, provided with both an open-source Python module and a standalone online application allowing the visualization of anisotropic mechanical properties. After describing the software features, how we compute the conventional elastic constants and how we represent them graphically, we explain our technical choices for the implementation. In particular, we focus on why a Python module is used to generate the HTML web page with embedded Javascript for dynamical plots. (paper)

  2. Evaluation of actuator energy storage and power sources for spacecraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, William E.; Young, Fred M.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this evaluation is to determine an optimum energy storage/power source combination for electrical actuation systems for existing (Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Shuttle) and future (Advanced Launch System (ALS), Shuttle Derivative) vehicles. Characteristic of these applications is the requirement for high power pulses (50-200 kW) for short times (milliseconds to seconds), coupled with longer-term base or 'housekeeping' requirements (5-16 kW). Specific study parameters (e.g., weight, volume, etc.) as stated in the proposal and specified in the Statement of Work (SOW) are included.

  3. Applications of Open Source GMAW-Based Metal 3-D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Yuenyong Nilsiam; Paul G. Sanders; Joshua M. Pearce

    2018-01-01

    The metal 3-D printing market is currently dominated by high-end applications, which make it inaccessible for small and medium enterprises, fab labs, and individual makers who are interested in the ability to prototype and additively manufacture final products in metal. Recent progress led to low-cost open-source metal 3-D printers using a gas metal arc welding (GMAW)-based print head. This reduced the cost of metal 3-D printers into the range of desktop prosumer polymer 3-D printers. Consequ...

  4. 12th International Symposium on Electron Beam Ion Sources and Traps and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Stefan; Baumann, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    The EBIST symposia date back to 1977 and have taken place every 3 to 4 years to specifically discuss progress and exchange ideas in the design, development, applications of electron beam ion sources and traps, and the physics with highly charged ions. The topics to be covered in 2014 are: - Progress and status of EBIS/T facilities, - Atomic spectroscopy of highly charged ions, - Charge-exchange and surface interaction with highly charged ions, - Charge breeding of stable and radioactive isotopes, - Nuclear physics with highly charged ions.

  5. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1992-01-01

    The overriding features of the synchrotron beams which make them applicable to medical research are their extremely high intensity and broadband energy spectrum. Several orders of magnitude separate the smooth, continuous spectrum of the synchrotron from the sharply peaked characteristic emission spectrum of a conventional source. Basically, the high intensity and tunability allow monochromatic beams to be generated at virtually any energy. The standard problem of beam hardening in both medical imaging and therapy is eliminated by the monochromatic beams since the energy spectrum does not change with passage through tissue. The tunable spectrum allows enhancement of images and therapeutic dose by selection of the most effective energy for a given procedure

  6. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) applications in white pine blister rust resistance screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam Hendricks; Wendy Sutton; Jeffrey Stone; Richard Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Anna Schoettle

    2011-01-01

    A goal of breeding programs for resistance to white pine blister rust is the development of multigenic resistance, even if the genetics and mechanisms of resistance may be imperfectly understood. The goal of multigenic resistance has prompted efforts to categorize host resistance reactions at increasingly finer scales, to identify heritable traits that may confer...

  7. Conductive Protection Layers on Oxidation Resistant Alloys for SOFC Interconnect Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhenguo; Xia, Guanguang; Maupin, Gary D.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2006-12-20

    Conductive oxide coatings are used as protection layers on metallic interconnects in SOFCs to improve their surface stability and electrical performance, as well as to mitigate or prevent chromium poisoning to cells. This paper discusses materials requirements for this particular application and summarizes our systematic study on varied conductive oxides as potential candidate materials for protection layers on stainless steel substrates. Overall, it appeared that chromites such as (La,Sr)CrO3 improved surface stability, but might not be good candidates for the protection layer applications due to chromium vaporization, albeit at a lower rate than Cr2O3, from these oxides at high temperatures in air or moist air. The application of non-chromite perovskite (La,Sr)FeO3 protection layers resulted in improved oxidation resistance and electrical performance. It is doubtful, however, that LSF can be an effective barrier to prevent chromium release during long term SOFC stack operation due to chromium diffusion through the LSF coatings. With a high oxygen ion conductivity, the coatings of Sn-doped In2O3 failed to provide protection to the metal substrate and are thus not suitable for the protection layer applications. The best performance was achieved using thermally-grown (Mn,Co)3O4 spinel protection layers that substantially improved the surface stability of the metal substrates, and prevented chromium outward migration.

  8. CERN Web Application Detection. Refactoring and release as open source software

    CERN Document Server

    Lizonczyk, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers my work during my assignment as participant of CERN Summer Students 2015 programme. The project was aimed at refactoring and publication of the Web Application Detection tool, which was developed at CERN and priorly used internally by the Computer Security team. The range of tasks performed include initial refactoring of code, which was developed like a script rather than a Python package, through extracting components that were not specific to CERN usage, the subsequent final release of the source code on GitHub and the integration with third-party software i.e. the w3af tool. Ultimately, Web Application Detection software received positive responses, being downloaded ca. 1500 times at the time of writing this report.

  9. Tracers application method for the quantitative determination of the source of oxygenic inclusions in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewienska-Kosciukowa, B.; Dalecki, W.; Michalik, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The sense and the possibility of radioactive and nonradioactive isotopic tracers application in investigations of the origin of oxygenic nonmetalic inclusions is presented. The discussed methods touch the investigations such as the origin of egzogenic inclusions which passed from external sources (fireproof lining, slag) to the steel or as the endogenic ones formed during the process of steel deoxidisation. The question of the tracers choice for refractory material and the further investigations concerned the determination of the origin of nonmetallic inclusions are discussed. The question of so called isotopic replacement tracers for the main steel deoxidizing agents is considered. The criterion of determination of oxygenic inclusions formed during the process of steel deoxidization is also discussed. Several results of laboratory and industrial investigations and also the examples of application of the discussed methods in the industrial scale are presented. (author)

  10. Classification of Hydrogels Based on Their Source: A Review and Application in Stem Cell Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansari, Maziyar M.; Sorokina, Lioudmila V.; Mukherjee, Prithviraj; Mukhtar, Farrukh; Shirdar, Mostafa Rezazadeh; Shahidi, Mahnaz; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2017-08-01

    Stem cells are recognized by their self-renewal ability and can give rise to specialized progeny. Hydrogels are an established class of biomaterials with the ability to control stem cell fate via mechanotransduction. They can mimic various physiological conditions to influence the fate of stem cells and are an ideal platform to support stem cell regulation. This review article provides a summary of recent advances in the application of different classes of hydrogels based on their source (e.g., natural, synthetic, or hybrid). This classification is important because the chemistry of substrate affects stem cell differentiation and proliferation. Natural and synthetic hydrogels have been widely used in stem cell regulation. Nevertheless, they have limitations that necessitate a new class of material. Hybrid hydrogels obtained by manipulation of the natural and synthetic ones can potentially overcome these limitations and shape the future of research in application of hydrogels in stem cell regulation.

  11. Compact RGBY light sources with high luminance for laser display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Katrin; Blume, Gunnar; Werner, Nils; Müller, André; Sumpf, Bernd; Pohl, Johannes; Feise, David; Ressel, Peter; Sahm, Alexander; Bege, Roland; Hofmann, Julian; Jedrzejczyk, Daniel; Tränkle, Günther

    2018-02-01

    Watt-class visible laser light with a high luminance can be created with high-power GaAs-based lasers either directly in the red spectral region or using single-pass second harmonic generation (SHG) for the colors in the blue-yellow spectral region. The concepts and results of red- and near infrared-emitting distributed Bragg reflector tapered lasers and master oscillator power amplifier systems as well as their application for SHG bench-top experiments and miniaturized modules are presented. Examples of these high-luminance light sources aiming at different applications such as flying spot display or holographic 3D cinema are discussed in more detail. The semiconductor material allows an easy adaptation of the wavelength allowing techniques such as six-primary color 3D projection or color space enhancement by adding a fourth yellow color.

  12. Smartphone applications as a source of motivation for engaging in physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuska, Michalina; Żukowska, Hanna

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this article was to examine whether smartphone applications provide a source of motivation for engaging in physical activity by adult Poles. The study was conducted at the turn of January and February 2017 and included 500 people. The diagnostic survey was used as a research method and questionnaire as a research instrument. For the purpose of the study, only the correctly filled out forms, that is 420, were selected from 500 completed surveys. The study revealed a positive impact of modern technologies on physical activity of respondents. Ensuring greater access to modern technologies and creating application possibilities related to physical activity could contribute to increased interest in and greater motivation for undertaking physical activity.

  13. Calculation of wave resistance by using Kochin function in the Rankine source method; Rankinsosuho ni okeru kochin kansu wo mochiita zoha teiko keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to avoid negative wave resistance (which is physically incomprehensible) generated in calculating wave resistance by using the Rankine source method, a proposal was made on a wave resistance calculation method using the Kochin function which describes behavior of speed potential in regions far apart from a hull. The Baba`s condition was used as a free surface condition for the speed potential which expresses wave motions around a hull. This has allowed a new Kochin function which uses as unknown the speed potential on the hull surface and the free surface near the hull to be defined and combined with the Rankine source method. A comparison was made between the calculated values for wave resistance, hull subsidence and trim change of an ore transporting vessel (SR107 type of ship) in a fully loaded condition and the result of water tank tests. The wave resistance values derived from pressure integration have all become negative when the Froude number is from 0.1 to 0.2, while no negative resistance has appeared in the calculations by using the Kochin function, but the result has agreed with that of the water tank tests. Accuracy of the calculations at low speeds was improved. The trim change in the calculations was slightly smaller than that in the water tank tests. The subsidence showed a good agreement. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Applications of Open Source GMAW-Based Metal 3-D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuenyong Nilsiam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The metal 3-D printing market is currently dominated by high-end applications, which make it inaccessible for small and medium enterprises, fab labs, and individual makers who are interested in the ability to prototype and additively manufacture final products in metal. Recent progress led to low-cost open-source metal 3-D printers using a gas metal arc welding (GMAW-based print head. This reduced the cost of metal 3-D printers into the range of desktop prosumer polymer 3-D printers. Consequent research established good material properties of metal 3-D printed parts with readily-available weld filler wire, reusable substrates, thermal and stress properties, toolpath planning, bead-width control, mechanical properties, and support for overhangs. These previous works showed that GMAW-based metal 3-D printing has a good adhesion between layers and is not porous inside the printed parts, but they did not proceed far enough to demonstrate applications. In this study, the utility of the GMAW approach to 3-D printing is investigated using a low-cost open-source metal 3-D printer and a converted Computer Numerical Control router machine to make useful parts over a range of applications including: fixing an existing part by adding a 3-D metal feature, creating a product using the substrate as part of the component, 3-D printing in high resolution of useful objects, near net objects, and making an integrated product using a combination of steel and polymer 3-D printing. The results show that GMAW-based 3-D printing is capable of distributed manufacturing of useful products for a wide variety of applications for sustainable development.

  15. Radio Astronomy Demonstrator: Assessment of the Appropriate Sites through a GIS Open Source Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Duarte

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of Portuguese radio astronomical capacitation towards participation in the Square Kilometer Array (SKA project, a site was selected for radio astronomical testing purposes and the development of a radio astronomical infrastructure. The site is within Herdade da Contenda (HC, a large national forest perimeter, located in Alentejo (Portugal. In order to minimize the impacts in the ecosystem and landscape, an application based on the Geographic Information System (GIS open source environment was created, the HC Environmental Integrated Management System. This application combines several functionalities and menus with different characterization methods allowing the creation of multiple maps regarding the HC characteristics, such as Digital Elevation Model (DEM, Land Use Land Cover (LULC, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, groundwater vulnerability, erosion risk, flood risk and forest fire risk. Other geographical information can be added if necessary (human heritage visualization and fauna and flora. A decision making support tool was also developed. It incorporates an algorithm running through a series of assigned weights and eliminatory factors to find the locations best suited for the infrastructure with minimal impact to the local ecosystem. In order to test the application and the decision making tool, several maps were used as input in order to decide which sites are more adequate. The application developed can be adopted for other protected or natural areas.

  16. Steep switching devices for low power applications: negative differential capacitance/resistance field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunah; Shin, Jaemin; Shin, Changhwan

    2018-01-01

    Simply including either single ferroelectric oxide layer or threshold selector, we can make conventional field effect transistor to have super steep switching characteristic, i.e., sub-60-mV/decade of subthreshold slope. One of the representative is negative capacitance FET (NCFET), in which a ferroelectric layer is added within its gate stack. The other is phase FET (i.e., negative resistance FET), in which a threshold selector is added to an electrode (e.g., source or drain) of conventional field effect transistor. Although the concept of the aforementioned two devices was presented more or less recently, numerous studies have been published. In this review paper, by reviewing the published studies over the last decade, we shall de-brief and discuss the history and the future perspectives of NCFET/phase FET, respectively. The background, experimental investigation, and future direction for developing the aforementioned two representative steep switching devices (i.e., NCFET and phase FET/negative resistance FET) are to be discussed in detail.

  17. Application of infrared imaging for quality inspection in resistance spot welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Wanchuck; Chin, Charles W.; Feng, Zhili; Wang, Hsin; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Hanbing; Sklad, Philip S.

    2009-05-01

    Infrared thermal imaging method was applied for the development of a non-destructive inspection technique to determine the quality of resistance spot welds. The current work is an initial feasibility study based on post-mortem inspection. First, resistance spot welds were fabricated on dual phase steel sheets (DP 590 steel) with carefullycontrolled welding parameters. It created welds with desirable and undesirable qualities in terms of nugget size, indentation depth, and voids and cracks. Second, five different heating and cooling methods were evaluated. The heating or cooling source was applied on one side of the weld stack while the surface temperature change on the other side of the weld was recorded using an infrared camera. Correlation between the weld quality and the "thermal signature" of each weld was established. Finally, a simplified thermal finite element analysis was developed to simulate the heat flow during inspection. The thermal model provided insight into the effect of the nugget size and indentation depth on the peak temperature and heating rate. The results reported in this work indicate that the IR thermography technique is feasible for weld quality inspection due to the distinguish temperature profiles for different welds and the repeatability and consistency in measurement.

  18. Marine polysaccharide-based nanomaterials as a novel source of nanobiotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Oh, Junghwan

    2016-01-01

    Research on marine polysaccharide-based nanomaterials is emerging in nanobiotechnological fields such as drug delivery, gene delivery, tissue engineering, cancer therapy, wound dressing, biosensors, and water treatment. Important properties of the marine polysaccharides include biocompatibility, biodegradability, nontoxicity, low cost, and abundance. Most of the marine polysaccharides are derived from natural sources such as fucoidan, alginates, carrageenan, agarose, porphyran, ulvan, mauran, chitin, chitosan, and chitooligosaccharide. Marine polysaccharides are very important biological macromolecules that widely exist in marine organisms. Marine polysaccharides exhibit a vast variety of structures and are still under-exploited and thus should be considered as a novel source of natural products for drug discovery. An enormous variety of polysaccharides can be extracted from marine organisms such as algae, crustaceans, and microorganisms. Marine polysaccharides have been shown to have a variety of biological and biomedical properties. Recently, research and development of marine polysaccharide-based nanomaterials have received considerable attention as one of the major resources for nanotechnological applications. This review highlights the recent research on marine polysaccharide-based nanomaterials for biotechnological and biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ionizing radiation sources: very diversified means, multiple applications and a changing regulatory environment. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about ionizing radiation source means, applications and regulatory environment. Twenty eight presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Overview of sources - some quantitative data from the national inventory of ionizing radiation sources (Yann Billarand, IRSN); 2 - Overview of sources (Jerome Fradin, ASN); 3 - Regulatory framework (Sylvie Rodde, ASN); 4 - Alternatives to Iridium radiography - the case of pressure devices at the manufacturing stage (Henri Walaszek, Cetim; Bruno Kowalski, Welding Institute); 5 - Dosimetric stakes of medical scanner examinations (Jean-Louis Greffe, Charleroi hospital of Medical University); 6 - The removal of ionic smoke detectors (Bruno Charpentier, ASN); 7 - Joint-activity and reciprocal liabilities - Organisation of labour risk prevention in case of companies joint-activity (Paulo Pinto, DGT); 8 - Consideration of gamma-graphic testing in the organization of a unit outage activities (Jean-Gabriel Leonard, EDF); 9 - Radiological risk control at a closed and independent work field (Stephane Sartelet, Areva); 10 - Incidents and accidents status and typology (Pascale Scanff, IRSN); 11 - Regional overview of radiation protection significant events (Philippe Menechal, ASN); 12 - Incident leading to a tritium contamination in and urban area - consequences and experience feedback (Laurence Fusil, CEA); 13 - Experience feedback - loss of sealing of a calibration source (Philippe Mougnard, Areva); 14 - Blocking incident of a 60 Co source (Bruno Delille, Salvarem); 15 - Triggering of gantry's alarm: status of findings (Philippe Prat, Syctom); 16 - Non-medical electric devices: regulatory changes (Sophie Dagois, IRSN; Jerome Fradin, ASN); 17 - Evaluation of the dose equivalent rate in pulsed fields: method proposed by the IRSN and implementation test (Laurent Donadille, IRSN

  20. Abstracts of papers to be presented at the fifth symposium on x- and gamma-ray sources and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The program and abstracts of papers are presented. Topics include radiation sources, radiation detectors, mathematical models and data analysis, gamma-ray spectroscopy, instrumentation, applications of x-ray fluorescence, PIXE, and x-ray absorption

  1. Abstracts of papers to be presented at the fifth symposium on x- and gamma-ray sources and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The program and abstracts of papers are presented. Topics include radiation sources, radiation detectors, mathematical models and data analysis, gamma-ray spectroscopy, instrumentation, applications of x-ray fluorescence, PIXE, and x-ray absorption. (ACR)

  2. Beam optics study of a negative ion source for neutral beam injection application at ASIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jiang-Long; Liang, Li-Zhen [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Jiang, Cai-Chao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Graduate school, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Xie, Ya-Hong, E-mail: xieyh@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Hu, Chun-Dong; Li, Jun; Gu, Yu-Ming; Chen, Yu-Qian [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li, Jing-Yong; Wu, Ming-Shan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Graduate school, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2017-04-15

    In order to study the generation and extraction of negative ions for neutral beam injection application, a negative ion source is being designed and constructed at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). Through a four electrode grids system inside the accelerator, a negative ion beam will be extracted and accelerated up to −60 kV on a reduced scale extraction area of 12 × 50 cm{sup 2} (the area of PG apertures is 185 cm{sup 2}). The beam optics is a key issue for the accelerator design, and greatly determine the source experimental performance in term of beam current, heat load on the grid, beam divergence, and so on. In this paper, the trajectories of electrons and negative ions were simulated in the electrode grids of the negative ion source. The filter capability of electron deflection magnet on the co-extracted electrons is evaluated and confirmed. The negative ion beam optics was designed according to the calculated results of beam divergence and beam radius along the beamlet in different acceleration voltages. The deflection effect of the electron deflection magnet on the negative ion beam was investigated in the single beamlet case and multi-beamlets case.

  3. Modelling and simulation of current fed dc to dc converter for PHEV applications using renewable source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milind Metha, Manish; Tutki, Sanjay; Rajan, Aju; Elangovan, D.; Arunkumar, G.

    2017-11-01

    With the current rate of depletion of the fossil fuel the need to switch on to the renewable energy sources is the need of the hour. Thus the need for new and efficient converters arises so as to replace the existing less efficient diesel and petroleum IC engines with renewable energy sources. The PHEVs, which have been launched in the market, and Upcoming PHEVs have converters around 380V to 400V generated with a power range between 2KW to 2.8KW. The fundamental target of this paper is to plan a productive converter keeping in mind cost and size restriction. In this paper, a two-stage dc-dc converter is proposed. The proposed converter is utilized to venture up a voltage from 24V (photovoltaic source) to a yield voltage of 400V to take care of a power demand of 2.4kW for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) application considering the real time scenario of PHEV. This paper talks about in detail why the current fed converter is utilized alongside a voltage doubler thus minimizing the transformer turns thereby reducing the overall size of the final product. Simulation results along with calculation for the duty cycle of the firing sequence for different value of transformer turns are presented for a prototype unit.

  4. Applications of compact laser-driven EUV/XUV plasma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkusky, Frank; Bayer, Armin; Döring, Stefan; Flöter, Bernhard; Großmann, Peter; Peth, Christian; Reese, Michael; Mann, Klaus

    2009-05-01

    In recent years, technological developments in the area of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) have experienced great improvements. So far, intense light sources based on discharge or laser plasmas, beam steering and imaging optics as well as sensitive detectors are available. Currently, applications of EUV radiation apart from microlithography, such as metrology, high-resolution microscopy, or surface analysis come more and more into focus. In this contribution we present an overview on the EUV/XUV activities of the Laser-Laboratorium Göttingen based on table-top laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources. As target materials gaseous or liquid jets of noble gases or solid Gold are employed. Depending on the applications, the very clean but low intense gaseous targets are mainly used for metrology, whereas the targets for high brilliances (liquid, solid) are used for microscopy and direct structuring. For the determination of interaction mechanisms between EUV radiation and matter, currently the solid Gold target is used. In order to obtain a small focal spot resulting in high EUV fluence, a modified Schwarzschild objective consisting of two spherical mirrors with Mo/Si multilayer coatings is adapted to this source. By demagnified (10x) imaging of the Au plasma an EUV spot of 3 μm diameter with a maximum energy density of ~1.3 J/cm2 is generated (pulse duration 8.8 ns). First applications of this integrated source and optics system reveal its potential for high-resolution modification and direct structuring of solid surfaces. For chemical analysis of various samples a NEXAFS setup was developed. It consists of a LPP, using gaseous Krypton as a broadband emitter in the water-window range, as well as a flat field spectrograph. The laboratory system is set to the XUV spectral range around the carbon K-edge (4.4 nm). The table-top setup allows measurements with spectral accuracy comparable to synchrotron experiments. NEXAFS-experiments in transmission and reflection are

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Ppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart PPP Affected Sources 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 1 Table 1 of Subpart PPP of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPP Affected Sources Reference Applies tosubpart PPP Explanation 63.1(a)(1...

  6. Source estimation for propagation processes on complex networks with an application to delays in public transportation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manitz, J. (Juliane); Harbering, J. (Jonas); M.E. Schmidt (Marie); T. Kneib (Thomas); A. Schöbel (Anita)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe correct identification of the source of a propagation process is crucial in many research fields. As a specific application, we consider source estimation of delays in public transportation networks. We propose two approaches: an effective distance median and a backtracking method.

  7. The application of alumino silicate alkali ion sources to the study of ion desorption of surface gas

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, A W; Williams, E M

    1974-01-01

    Investigations are described which illustrate the compatibility of alumino silicate alkali ion sources with an UHV ( approximately 10/sup -11/) vacuum environment. The application of the sources to the determination of ion desorption efficiency of surface gas is demonstrated, as well as their use as a basis of a technique of ion stimulated gas analysis. (12 refs).

  8. Adopting Open-Source Software Applications in U. S. Higher Education: A Cross-Disciplinary Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Shahron Williams

    2009-01-01

    Higher Education institutions in the United States are considering Open Source software applications such as the Moodle and Sakai course management systems and the Kuali financial system to build integrated learning environments that serve both academic and administrative needs. Open Source is presumed to be more flexible and less costly than…

  9. Application and development of ion-source technology for radiation-effects testing of electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvas, T.; Javanainen, A.; Kettunen, H.; Koivisto, H.; Tarvainen, O.; Virtanen, A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies of heavy-ion induced single event effect (SEE) on space electronics are necessary to verify the operation of the components in the harsh radiation environment. These studies are conducted by using high-energy heavy-ion beams to simulate the radiation effects in space. The ion beams are accelerated as so-called ion cocktails, containing several ion beam species with similar mass-to-charge ratio, covering a wide range of linear energy transfer (LET) values also present in space. The use of cocktails enables fast switching between beam species during testing. Production of these high-energy ion cocktails poses challenging requirements to the ion sources because in most laboratories reaching the necessary beam energies requires very high charge state ions. There are two main technologies producing these beams: The electron beam ion source EBIS and the electron cyclotron resonance ion source ECRIS. The EBIS is most suitable for pulsed accelerators, while ECRIS is most suitable for use with cyclotrons, which are the most common accelerators used in these applications. At the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä (JYFL), radiation effects testing is currently performed using a K130 cyclotron and a 14 GHz ECRIS at a beam energy of 9.3 MeV/u. A new 18 GHz ECRIS, pushing the limits of the normal conducting ECR technology is under development at JYFL. The performances of existing 18 GHz ion sources have been compared, and based on this analysis, a 16.2 MeV/u beam cocktail with 1999 MeV 126Xe44+ being the most challenging component to has been chosen for development at JYFL. The properties of the suggested beam cocktail are introduced and discussed.

  10. Laser-plasma SXR/EUV sources: adjustment of radiation parameters for specific applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Fok, T.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, A.; Szczurek, M.; Wachulak, P.; Wegrzyński, Ł.

    2014-12-01

    In this work soft X-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources employing Nd:YAG laser systems of different parameters are presented. First of them is a 10-Hz EUV source, based on a double-stream gaspuff target, irradiated with the 3-ns/0.8J laser pulse. In the second one a 10 ns/10 J/10 Hz laser system is employed and the third one utilizes the laser system with the pulse shorten to approximately 1 ns. Using various gases in the gas puff targets it is possible to obtain intense radiation in different wavelength ranges. This way intense continuous radiation in a wide spectral range as well as quasi-monochromatic radiation was produced. To obtain high EUV or SXR fluence the radiation was focused using three types of grazing incidence collectors and a multilayer Mo/Si collector. First of them is a multfoil gold plated collector consisted of two orthogonal stacks of ellipsoidal mirrors forming a double-focusing device. The second one is the ellipsoidal collector being part of the axisymmetrical ellipsoidal surface. Third of the collectors is composed of two aligned axisymmetrical paraboloidal mirrors optimized for focusing of SXR radiation. The last collector is an off-axis ellipsoidal multilayer Mo/Si mirror allowing for efficient focusing of the radiation in the spectral region centered at λ = 13.5 ± 0.5 nm. In this paper spectra of unaltered EUV or SXR radiation produced in different LPP source configurations together with spectra and fluence values of focused radiation are presented. Specific configurations of the sources were assigned to various applications.

  11. Resistive Random Access Memory from Materials Development fnd Engineering to Novel Encryption and Neuromorphic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Karsten

    Resistive random access memory (ReRAM or RRAM) is a novel form of non-volatile memory that is expected to play a major role in future computing and memory solutions. It has been shown that the resistance state of ReRAM devices can be precisely tuned by modulating switching voltages, by limiting peak current, and by adjusting the switching pulse properties. This enables the realization of novel applications such as memristive neuromorphic computing and neural network computing. I have developed two processes based on 100 and 300mm wafer platforms to demonstrate functional HfO2 based ReRAM devices. The first process is designed for a rapid materials engineering and device characterization, while the second is an advanced hybrid ReRAM/CMOS combination based on the IBM 65nm 10LPe process technology. The 100mm wafer efforts were used to show impacts of etch processes on ReRAM switching performance and the need for a rigorous structural evaluation of ReRAM devices before starting materials development. After an etch development, a bottom electrode comparison between the inert materials Pt, Ru and W was performed where Ru showed superior results with respect to yield and resilience against environmental impacts such as humidity over a 2-month period. A comparison of amorphous and crystalline devices showed no statistical difference in the performance with respect to random telegraph noise. This demonstrates, that the forming process fundamentally alters the crystallographic structure within and around the filament. The 300mm wafer development efforts were aimed towards implementing ReRAM in the FEOL, combined with CMOS, to yield a seamless process flow of 1 transistor 1 ReRAM structures (1T1R). This technology was customized with custom-developed tungsten metal 1 (M1) and dual tungsten/copper via 1 (V1) structures, within which the ReRAM stack is embedded. The ReRAM itself consists of an inert W bottom electrode, HfO2 based active switching layer, a Ti oxygen scavenger

  12. Ab initio study of ceria films for resistive switching memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdos, Mehreen; Hussain, Fayyaz; Imran, Muhammad; Ismail, Muhammad; Rana, A. M.; Arshad Javid, M.; Majid, Abdul; Arif Khalil, R. M.; Ullah, Hafeez

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the charge distribution/relocation activities in relation to resistive switching (RS) memory behavior in the metal/insulator/metal (MIM) structure of Zr/CeO2/Pt hybrid layers. The Zr layer is truly expected to act not only as an oxygen ion extraction layer but also as an ion barrier by forming a ZrO2 interfacial layer. Such behavior of the Zr not only introduces a high concentration of oxygen vacancies to the active CeO2 layer but also enhances the resistance change capability. Such Zr contributions have been explored by determining the work function, charge distribution and electronic properties with the help of density functional theory (DFT) based on the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). In doped CeO2, the dopant (Zr) plays a significant role in the formation of defect states, such as oxygen vacancies, which are necessary for generating conducting filaments. The total density of state (DOS) analyses reveal that the existence of impurity states in the hybrid system considerably upgrade the performance of charge transfer/accumulation, consequently leading to enhanced RS behavior, as noticed in our earlier experimental results on Zr/CeO2/Pt devices. Hence it can be concluded that the present DFT studies can be implemented on CeO2-based RRAM devices, which have skyscraping potential for future nonvolatile memory (NVM) applications.

  13. Managing resistance in cognitive behavioural therapy: the application of motivational interviewing in mixed anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Henny A

    2004-01-01

    While cognitive behavioural therapy is highly effective in the treatment of anxiety and depression, a substantive number of individuals either refuse treatment, fail to respond to treatment or respond only partially. Arguably, ambivalence about change or about engaging in treatment tasks may in part be related to incomplete recovery rates in cognitive behavioural therapy. Motivational interviewing is a client-centred, directive treatment originally developed in the addictions domain whose goal is to enhance motivation for change by understanding and resolving ambivalence. This method has consistently received support for enhancing outcomes in the addictions domain, particularly when used as an adjunct to further treatment. As yet, motivational methods have not been generalized to the treatment of prevalent mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression. The present paper presents the application of a treatment targeting motivation (motivational interviewing adapted for anxiety and depression) to the management of resistance in cognitive behavioural therapy for 3 clients with mixed anxiety and depression. Motivational interviewing is conceived as an adjunct to highly effective traditional cognitive behavioural therapy methods, which is indicated for use with clients resistant to and significantly ambivalent about change-based techniques for managing anxiety or alleviating depression.

  14. Resistive switching characteristics of solution-processed organic-inorganic blended films for flexible memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Il-Jin; Cho, Won-Ju

    2018-02-01

    We developed a hybrid organic-inorganic resistive random access memory (ReRAM) device that uses a solution-process to overcome the disadvantages of organic and inorganic materials for flexible memory applications. The drawbacks of organic and inorganic materials are a poor electrical characteristics and a lack of flexibility, respectively. We fabricated a hybrid organic-inorganic switching layer of ReRAM by blending HfOx or AlOx solution with PMMA solution and investigated the resistive switching behaviour in Ti/PMMA/Pt, Ti/PMMA-HfOx/Pt and Ti/PMMA-AlOx/Pt structures. It is found that PMMA-HfOx or PMMA-AlOx hybrid switching layer has a larger memory window, more stable durability and retention characteristics, and a better set/reset voltage distribution than PMMA layer. Further, it is confirmed that the flexibility of the PMMA-HfOx and PMMA-AlOx blended films was almost similar to that of the organic PMMA film. Thus, the solution-processed organic-inorganic blended films are considered a promising material for a non-volatile memory device on a flexible or wearable electronic system.

  15. Wear Resistance and Mechanical Behaviour of Epoxy/Mollusk Shell Biocomposites developed for Structural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Oladele

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy resin is one of the strongest commercially exploitable thermosetting polymers in the polymer family; however its expensive nature in comparison with other thermosetting polymers such as vinylester and polyester limits its applications as a structural material. Inexpensive fillers on the other hand, especially those derived from agro-industrial wastes are very important in reducing the overall cost of polymer composites and furthermore influential in enhancing some of their engineering properties. In the present study, the wear resistance and mechanical behaviour of epoxy polymer matrix filled with <75 and 75 μm calcined particles of African land snail shells have been comparatively investigated. The wear resistance and the mechanical behaviour of the composites were studied via Taber Abraser and INSTRON universal testing machine. Also, the elemental constituents of the calcined snail shell and the epoxy biocomposites were characterized by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy. From the experimental results, it was observed that, at the highest filler loading, smaller particle size presented a biocomposite with significant enhancement in wear and mechanical properties. However, it was also observed that increase in particle size showed no significant enhancement in the mechanical properties of the biocomposites.

  16. The application of electrical resistance measurements to water transport in lime-masonry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, R. J.; Allen, G. C.; Carter, M. A.; Wilson, M. A.; Ince, C.; El-Turki, A.

    2012-03-01

    The paper describes an experimental determination of impedance spectroscopy derived resistance measurements to record water transport in lime-masonry systems. It strongly supports the use of Sharp Front theory and Boltzmann's distribution law of statistical thermodynamics to corroborate the data obtained. A novel approach is presented for the application of impedance measurements to the water transport between freshly mixed mortars and clay brick substrates. Once placed, fresh mortar is dewatered by brick and during this time the volume fraction water content of the mortar is reduced. An equation is derived relating this change in water content to the bulk resistance of the mortar. Experimental measurements on hydraulic lime mortars placed in contact with brick prisms confirm the theoretical predictions. Further, the results indicate the time at which dewatering of a mortar bed of given depth is completed. The technique has then potential to be applied for in situ monitoring of dewatering as a means of giving insight into the associated changes in mechanical and chemical properties.

  17. Quantification of larval zebrafish motor function in multiwell plates using open-source MATLAB applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yangzhong; Cattley, Richard T; Cario, Clinton L; Bai, Qing; Burton, Edward A

    2014-07-01

    This article describes a method to quantify the movements of larval zebrafish in multiwell plates, using the open-source MATLAB applications LSRtrack and LSRanalyze. The protocol comprises four stages: generation of high-quality, flatly illuminated video recordings with exposure settings that facilitate object recognition; analysis of the resulting recordings using tools provided in LSRtrack to optimize tracking accuracy and motion detection; analysis of tracking data using LSRanalyze or custom MATLAB scripts; and implementation of validation controls. The method is reliable, automated and flexible, requires <1 h of hands-on work for completion once optimized and shows excellent signal:noise characteristics. The resulting data can be analyzed to determine the following: positional preference; displacement, velocity and acceleration; and duration and frequency of movement events and rest periods. This approach is widely applicable to the analysis of spontaneous or stimulus-evoked zebrafish larval neurobehavioral phenotypes resulting from a broad array of genetic and environmental manipulations, in a multiwell plate format suitable for high-throughput applications.

  18. COMBS: open source python library for RVE generation - Application to microscale diffusion simulations in cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, C.; Laucoin, E.; Dridi, W.; Chomat, L.; Bary, B.; Adam, E.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of radioactive waste storage and disposal, the knowledge of the concrete diffusivity is primordial in the numerical simulations of the long term behavior of these materials. COMBS is an open source python library, it is used to define the shapes of the inclusions, to insert them in the box featuring the representative volume element (RVE) of the cementitious medium, and to assess their diffusive properties. The algorithms developed in COMBS target a fast placement of the inclusions and a fast generation of the RVE shape and mesh. Two application cases are considered: the unaltered material diffusivity and the degraded material diffusivity. The first case of application focuses on the description of the capillary porosity. The second application case focuses on the description of the degradation of cementitious material (mineral and porosity) and the diffusive properties associated. The reliability of the analytical effective medium approximations (MT and SC) is confirmed from 3D finite elements (FE) calculations performed on a matrix-inclusions microstructure obtained by RVE generation with Combs. The results also show the need to take into account the percolation behavior

  19. Development of an API 5L X-70 grade steel for sour gas resistance pipeline application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, R.; Huante, J.; Camacho, V.; Alvarez-Fregoso, O.; Juarez-Islas, J. A.

    1999-10-01

    An API 5L X-70 grade steel for large diameter pipeline application with sour gas resistance was developed by electric arc furnace processing, furnace ladle treatment, vacuum degassing, ladle treatment, and continuous casting, followed by three different controlled rolling schedules and air cooling or accelerated cooling. Mechanical properties equivalent to those of an API 5L X-70 grade steel were achieved in slabs with content ranges from 0.25 to 0.37 wt% C, 1.31 to 1.53 wt% Mn, 0.082 to 0.095 wt% Nb, and 0.008 to 0.015 wt% Ti. The slabs were processed by using a controlled rolled and accelerated cooling schedule.

  20. Application of the source term code package to obtain a specific source term for the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto, F.J.

    1991-06-01

    The main objective of the project was to use the Source Term Code Package (STCP) to obtain a specific source term for those accident sequences deemed dominant as a result of probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) for the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (CNLV). The following programme has been carried out to meet this objective: (a) implementation of the STCP, (b) acquisition of specific data for CNLV to execute the STCP, and (c) calculations of specific source terms for accident sequences at CNLV. The STCP has been implemented and validated on CDC 170/815 and CDC 180/860 main frames as well as on a Micro VAX 3800 system. In order to get a plant-specific source term, data on the CNLV including initial core inventory, burn-up, primary containment structures, and materials used for the calculations have been obtained. Because STCP does not explicitly model containment failure, dry well failure in the form of a catastrophic rupture has been assumed. One of the most significant sequences from the point of view of possible off-site risk is the loss of off-site power with failure of the diesel generators and simultaneous loss of high pressure core spray and reactor core isolation cooling systems. The probability for that event is approximately 4.5 x 10 -6 . This sequence has been analysed in detail and the release fractions of radioisotope groups are given in the full report. 18 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Assessment of pit latrines in a peri-urban community in KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) as a source of antibiotic resistant E. coli strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, Lorika S; King, Tracy L B; Schmidt, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the frequent use of antibiotics and recurring illnesses related to multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in South Africa, we determined if MDR Escherichia coli were present in pit latrine fecal sludge samples obtained from a peri-urban community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The abundance of E. coli in pit latrine samples was established using a most probable number (MPN) method with species confirmation done using biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-four randomly selected E. coli pit latrine isolates were further characterized, using the European committee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing (EUCAST) disk diffusion method to establish antibiotic resistance profiles for these E. coli isolates. The resulting MPN values for E. coli ranged from one to 6.2 log 10 MPN per gram of fresh pit latrine fecal sludge. While only 3 out of 44 E. coli pit latrine isolates showed no resistance to any of the 12 tested antibiotics, most isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotics. The majority of isolates showed resistance to at least one of the two tested aminoglycosides, one isolate showed resistance to the carbapenem ertapenem, and although resistance was not detected for tigecycline four pit latrine E. coli isolates showed intermediate resistance to this antibiotic. However, about 14% of the E. coli pit latrine isolates were categorized as MDR, all of which showed resistance to four or more antibiotics. The presence of MDR E. coli strains in pit latrine samples demonstrates that these facilities are potential sources for MDR bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from roof-harvested rainwater tanks and urban pigeon faeces as the likely source of contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidamba, Lizyben; Korsten, Lise

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the risks associated with the use of roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) and the implication of pigeons as the most likely source of contamination by testing for antibiotic resistance profiles of Escherichia coli. A total of 239 E. coli were isolated from thirty fresh pigeon faecal samples (130 isolates), 11 RHRW tanks from three sites in Pretoria (78) and two in Johannesburg (31). E. coli isolates were tested against a panel of 12 antibiotics which included ampicillin, amoxicillin, amikacin, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline. In all samples, resistance to ampicillin (22.7.9%), gentamicin (23.6%), amikacin (24%), tetracycline (17.4) and amoxicillin (16.9%) were the most frequently encountered form of resistance. However, a relatively higher proportion of isolates from pigeon faeces (67.3%) were antibiotic resistant than those from RHRW (53.3%). The highest number of phenotypes was observed for single antibiotics, and no single antibiotic resistance was observed for chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, cefoxitin, cotrimoxazole, although they were detected in multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) phenotypes. The highest multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) phenotypes were observed for a combination of four antibiotics, on isolates from JHB (18.8%), pigeon faeces (15.2%) and Pretoria (5.1%). The most abundant resistance phenotype to four antibiotics, Ak-Gm-Cip-T was dominated by isolates from pigeon faeces (6.8%) with Pretoria and Johannesburg isolates having low proportions of 1.3 and 3.1%, respectively. Future studies should target isolates from various environmental settings in which rainwater harvesting is practiced and the characterisation of the antibiotic resistance determinant genes among the isolates.

  3. Research and application of active hollow core slabs in building systems for utilizing low energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xinhua; Yu, Jinghua; Wang, Shengwei; Wang, Jinbo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A review on the development and modeling of active hollow core slab is presented. • The applications and performance evaluation of the slab in building are reviewed. • Finite element or finite difference method is often used in multidimensional model. • Performance evaluations of building using active slabs for ventilation are limited. • More works on the active hollow core slab are worthwhile. - Abstract: The society and the building professionals have paid much concern in recent years on building energy efficiency and the development and applications of low energy technologies for buildings/green buildings allowing the elimination, or at least reduction of dependence on electricity or fossil fuel while maintaining acceptable indoor environment. Utilizations of favorable diurnal temperature difference and ground thermal source for air conditioning are among these low energy technologies. Utilization of the hollow cores in the prefabricated slab for ventilation and the mass of the slab for thermal storage is widely used in building systems in Europe by exploiting the low energy source of the ambient air. These hollow core slabs aim at enlarging the heat transfer surface between the slab mass and the air in the core, which permits substantial heat flows even for relatively small temperature differences. This, in turn, allows the use of low energy cooling or heating sources, such as the ground, outside air or recovered process heat. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of the research and application of active hollow core slabs in building systems for utilizing low energy sources. The principle and development of active hollow core slabs in building systems for leveling the indoor temperature fluctuation by ventilation air passing the cores are described. Calculation models of the active hollow core concrete slab as well as the practical applications and performance evaluation of the slab applied in building systems for air

  4. Application of glycerol for induced powdery mildew resistance in Triticum aestivum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has demonstrated that glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P and oleic acid (18:1 are two important signal molecules associated with plant resistance to fungi. In this article, we provide evidence that a 3% glycerol spray application 1-2 days before powdery mildew infection and subsequent applications once every 4 days was sufficient to stimulate the plant defense responses without causing any significant damage to wheat leaves. We found that G3P and oleic acid levels were markedly induced by powdery mildew infection. In addition, TaGLI1 (encoding a glycerol kinase and TaSSI2 (encoding a stearoylacyl carrier protein fatty acid desaturase, two genes associated with the glycerol and fatty acid (FA pathways, respectively, were induced by powdery mildew infection, and their promoter regions contain some fungal response elements. Moreover, exogenous application of glycerol increased the G3P level and decreased the level of oleic acid (18:1. Glycerol application induced the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR genes (TaPR-1, TaPR-2, TaPR-3, TaPR-4, and TaPR-5, induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS before powdery mildew infection, and induced salicylic acid (SA accumulation in wheat leaves. Further, we sprayed glycerol in a wheat field and found that it significantly (p value<0.05 reduced the severity of powdery mildew disease and lessened disease-associated kernel weight loss, all without causing any noticeable degradation in wheat seed quality.

  5. Design, conception, and metrology of Extreme Ultraviolet multilayers mirrors resistant environments of space and EUV sources; Conception, realisation et metrologie de miroirs multicouches pour l'extreme ultraviolet resistants aux environnements du spatial et des sources EUV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecquet, Ch.

    2009-03-15

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum (EUV) wavelengths, which range between 13 nm and 40 nm, have many applications in science and technology. These have been developed for example in plasma physics (high order harmonics sources, X ray lasers). The work presented is about the design, the fabrication and the metrology of periodic multilayer mirrors. The main motivation of this study is to establish a cycle of development taking into account both the optical properties of reflective coatings (reflectivity, spectral selectivity, attenuation) and their behaviour under various environments. To improve the spectral selectivity, new multilayer periodic structures have been developed. They are characterized by a bimodal reflectance profile with adjustable attenuation. The effect of environment on the stability of performance is especially critical for the optical collection. The addition of material barriers has stabilized the performance of the peak reflectivity for over 200 h at 400 C deg. and it reduces the influence of other factors of instability on the reflectance. In addition, all structures have been fabricated successfully and evaluated in severe environments. (author)

  6. Design and application of CVD diamond windows for x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaski, Y.; Cookson, D.

    2007-01-01

    Two types of directly cooled, 0.2-mm-thick, 8-mm-diameter clear aperture CVD diamond windows have been designed and successfully fabricated by two different vendors for use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both windows contain a direct braze joint between the diamond and the cooled OFHC copper. These windows can be used to replace the front-end beryllium windows in high-heat-load applications and can be used as white beam windows in the beamlines. This paper presents the detailed design of the diamond windows, the thermal analysis of the diamond window under different thermal load configurations, as well as a complete list of the existing APS front-end beryllium window configurations and replacement scenarios. Small-angle scattering experiments have been conducted on both diamond windows and a polished beryllium window, and the results are presented.

  7. Development of GUS for control applications at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Borland, M.; Kirchman, J.; Decker, G.; Kim, K.

    1994-01-01

    A script-based interpretive shell GUS (General Purpose Data Acquisition for Unix Shell) has been developed for application to the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control. The primary design objective of GUS is to provide a mechanism for efficient data flow among modularized objects called Data Access Modules (DAMs). GUS consists of four major components: user interface, kernel, built-in command module, and DAMS. It also incorporates the Unix shell to make use of the existing utility programs for file manipulation and data analysis. At this time, DAMs have been written for device access through EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), data I/O for SDDS (Self-Describing Data Set) files, matrix manipulation, graphics display, digital signal processing, and beam position feedback system control. The modular and object-oriented construction of GUS will facilitate addition of more DAMs with other functions in the future

  8. Design and Application of CVD Diamond Windows for X-Rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaski, Yifei; Cookson, David

    2007-01-01

    Two types of directly cooled, 0.2-mm-thick, 8-mm-diameter clear aperture CVD diamond windows have been designed and successfully fabricated by two different vendors for use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both windows contain a direct braze joint between the diamond and the cooled OFHC copper. These windows can be used to replace the front-end beryllium windows in high-heat-load applications and can be used as white beam windows in the beamlines. This paper presents the detailed design of the diamond windows, the thermal analysis of the diamond window under different thermal load configurations, as well as a complete list of the existing APS front-end beryllium window configurations and replacement scenarios. Small-angle scattering experiments have been conducted on both diamond windows and a polished beryllium window, and the results are presented

  9. SWISTRACK - AN OPEN SOURCE, SOFTWARE PACKAGE APPLICABLE TO TRACKING OF FISH LOCOMOTION AND BEHAVIOUR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2010-01-01

    effective background subtraction algorithms and filters ensuring smooth tracking of fish • Application of tags of different colour enables the software to track multiple fish without the problem of track exchange between individuals • Low processing requirements enable tracking in real-time • Further...... benefits of the software relate to its open source code. Users competent in C++ can readily modify and create their own tracking protocols suited to their own custom designed experimental setups. These benefits will be demonstrated with the presentation of supplementary visual mtormation....... including swimming speed, acceleration and directionality of movements as well as the examination of locomotory panems during swimming. SWiSlrdL:k, a [n: t; and downloadable software package (available from www.sourceforge.com) is widely used for tracking robots, humans and other animals. Accordingly...

  10. Novel biological sources of electrochemiluminescence and potential applications to metals detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, John G.; Collard, Sneed B.; Kuch, David J.; Cornette, Jimmy C.

    1996-11-01

    Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) is an electrochemical means of generating light from certain organic-metal complexes (e.g., Cr, Os, or Ru with bipyridine) and other types of molecules. Thus, it may be possible to develop an ECL-based metals sensor or biosensor consisting of organic molecules coated onto electrodes which emit light only upon complexation of particular metal ions and application of a small voltage. Toxic metals in water sources are of environmental concern. Some marine invertebrates, such as tunicates (i.e., `sea squirts') and molluscs, are noted for their ability to concentrate toxic metals as much as 100 million-fold over ambient seawater concentrations. In the present work, extracts from a tunicate species, as well as synthetic tunicate blood pigments or `tunichromes', oysters, and other organisms are examined for intrinsic ECL in the presence and absence of various metal ions. Results suggest a promising novel, potentially sensitive, and specific means for metal ion detection based on ECL.

  11. Current regulatory and licensing status for byproduct sources, facilities and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, G.L.; Jensen, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1985-02-01

    Public use of nuclear byproducts, especially radioactive isotopes, will require approval by various regulatory agencies. Use of cesium-137 as an irradiation source for sterilizing medical products will require US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval. Two applications have been filed with NRC, and approval is expected soon. Widespread use of irradiation for food products depends on a favorable ruling by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A ruling is pending that would permit irradiation of fruits and vegetables up to 100 krad. NRC also controls the use of isotopes in remote power generators, but little regulatory action has been required in recent years. Recent development of radioluminescent (RL) lighting for runway lights has led to interest by commercial manufacturers. At the present time, a license has been issued to at least one manufacturer for sale of tritium-powered runway lights. 28 refs., 1 fig

  12. ERP and E-Business Application Deployment in Open Source Distributed Cloud Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George SUCIU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the way in which we combine SlapOS, the fist open source operating system for distributed cloud computing, and Enterprise Resource Modeling (ERP to provide an simple, unified API for E-Business Applications based on Iaas, PaaS and SaaS models. SlapOS is based on a grid computing daemon – called slapgrid – which is capable of installing any software on a PC and instantiate any number of processes of potentially infinite duration of any installed software using a master-slave model. SlapOS Master follows an ERP model to handle at the same time process allocation optimization and billing.

  13. A tunable continuous wave (CW) and short-pulse optical source for THz brain imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakopoulos, P; Karanasiou, I; Zakynthinos, P; Uzunoglu, N; Avramopoulos, H; Pleros, N

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate recent advances toward the development of a novel 2D THz imaging system for brain imaging applications both at the macroscopic and at the bimolecular level. A frequency-synthesized THz source based on difference frequency generation between optical wavelengths is presented, utilizing supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear optical fiber with subsequent spectral carving by means of a fiber Fabry–Perot filter. Experimental results confirm the successful generation of THz radiation in the range of 0.2–2 THz, verifying the enhanced frequency tunability properties of the proposed system. Finally, the roadmap toward capturing functional brain information by exploiting THz imaging technologies is discussed, outlining the unique advantages offered by THz frequencies and their complementarity with existing brain imaging techniques

  14. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nogami, Makiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Noto, Zenko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nikaido, Toshio, E-mail: tnikaido@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAM{alpha} cells and induced to osteogenic status-their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAM{alpha} cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAM{alpha} cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAM{alpha} cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAM{alpha} cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAM{alpha} cells) that have the properties of MSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAM{alpha} was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  15. Fast space-varying convolution using matrix source coding with applications to camera stray light reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianing; Bouman, Charles A; Allebach, Jan P

    2014-05-01

    Many imaging applications require the implementation of space-varying convolution for accurate restoration and reconstruction of images. Here, we use the term space-varying convolution to refer to linear operators whose impulse response has slow spatial variation. In addition, these space-varying convolution operators are often dense, so direct implementation of the convolution operator is typically computationally impractical. One such example is the problem of stray light reduction in digital cameras, which requires the implementation of a dense space-varying deconvolution operator. However, other inverse problems, such as iterative tomographic reconstruction, can also depend on the implementation of dense space-varying convolution. While space-invariant convolution can be efficiently implemented with the fast Fourier transform, this approach does not work for space-varying operators. So direct convolution is often the only option for implementing space-varying convolution. In this paper, we develop a general approach to the efficient implementation of space-varying convolution, and demonstrate its use in the application of stray light reduction. Our approach, which we call matrix source coding, is based on lossy source coding of the dense space-varying convolution matrix. Importantly, by coding the transformation matrix, we not only reduce the memory required to store it; we also dramatically reduce the computation required to implement matrix-vector products. Our algorithm is able to reduce computation by approximately factoring the dense space-varying convolution operator into a product of sparse transforms. Experimental results show that our method can dramatically reduce the computation required for stray light reduction while maintaining high accuracy.

  16. Getting to the Source: a Survey of Quantitative Data Sources Available to the Everyday Librarian: Part II: Data Sources from Specific Library Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Goddard

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a two-part article that provides a survey of data sources which are likely to be immediately available to the typical practitioner who wishes to engage in statistical analysis of collections and services within his or her own library. Part I outlines the data elements which can be extracted from web server logs, and discusses web log analysis tools. Part II looks at logs, reports, and data sources from proxy servers, resource vendors, link resolvers, federated search engines, institutional repositories, electronic reference services, and the integrated library system.

  17. Strengthening of oxidation resistant materials for gas turbine applications. [treatment of silicon ceramics for increased flexural strength and impact resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, H. P.

    1974-01-01

    Silicon nitride and silicon carbide ceramics were treated to form compressive surface layers. On the silicon carbide, quenching and thermal exposure treatments were used, and on the silicon nitride, quenching, carburizing, and a combination of quenching and carburizing were used. In some cases substantial improvements in impact resistance and/or flexural strength were observed. The presence of compressive surface stresses was demonstrated by slotted rod tests.

  18. Real-Time Perceptual Simulation of Moving Sources: Application to the Leslie Cabinet and 3D Sound Immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Voinier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Perception of moving sound sources obeys different brain processes from those mediating the localization of static sound events. In view of these specificities, a preprocessing model was designed, based on the main perceptual cues involved in the auditory perception of moving sound sources, such as the intensity, timbre, reverberation, and frequency shift processes. This model is the first step toward a more general moving sound source system, including a system of spatialization. Two applications of this model are presented: the simulation of a system involving rotating sources, the Leslie Cabinet and a 3D sound immersion installation based on the sonification of cosmic particles, the Cosmophone.

  19. Real-Time Perceptual Simulation of Moving Sources: Application to the Leslie Cabinet and 3D Sound Immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronland-Martinet R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Perception of moving sound sources obeys different brain processes from those mediating the localization of static sound events. In view of these specificities, a preprocessing model was designed, based on the main perceptual cues involved in the auditory perception of moving sound sources, such as the intensity, timbre, reverberation, and frequency shift processes. This model is the first step toward a more general moving sound source system, including a system of spatialization. Two applications of this model are presented: the simulation of a system involving rotating sources, the Leslie Cabinet and a 3D sound immersion installation based on the sonification of cosmic particles, the Cosmophone.

  20. Contact Resistance of Ceramic Interfaces Between Materials Used for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Søren

    The contact resistance can be divided into two main contributions. The small area of contact between ceramic components results in resistance due to current constriction. Resistive phases or potential barriers at the interface result in an interface contribution to the contact resistance, which may...... be smaller or larger than the constriction resistance. The contact resistance between pairs of three different materials were analysed (stron-tium doped lanthanum manganite, yttria stabilised zirconia and strontium and nickel doped lanthanum cobaltite), and the effects of temperature, atmosphere......, polarisation and mechanical load on the contact resistance were investigated. The investigations revealed that the mechanical load of a ceramic contact has a high influence on the contact resistance, and generally power law dependence between the contact resistance and the mechanical load was found...