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Sample records for resistance remy chait1

  1. Reservoir Model Information System: REMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yun; Lee, Kwang-Wu; Rhee, Taehyun; Neumann, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel data visualization framework named Reservoir Model Information System (REMIS) for the display of complex and multi-dimensional data sets in oil reservoirs. It is aimed at facilitating visual exploration and analysis of data sets as well as user collaboration in an easier way. Our framework consists of two main modules: the data access point module and the data visualization module. For the data access point module, the Phrase-Driven Grammar System (PDGS) is adopted for helping users facilitate the visualization of data. It integrates data source applications and external visualization tools and allows users to formulate data query and visualization descriptions by selecting graphical icons in a menu or on a map with step-by-step visual guidance. For the data visualization module, we implemented our first prototype of an interactive volume viewer named REMVR to classify and to visualize geo-spatial specific data sets. By combining PDGS and REMVR, REMIS assists users better in describing visualizations and exploring data so that they can easily find desired data and explore interesting or meaningful relationships including trends and exceptions in oil reservoir model data.

  2. Testing the spatial neutrality of the REMI net migration equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, C.F.; Perrigo, T.A.; Daneshvary, N.; Rickman, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office (YMPO) is conducting socioeconomic studies in the State of Nevada in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended. The main purpose of the socioeconomic program is to avoid or minimize adverse socioeconomic impacts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) on local communities, counties, and the state of Nevada. This objective is being met by collecting data that can be used by the DOE and affected units of local government to monitor economic and demographic variables and forecast changes that may occur as a direct result of the YMP. One of the tools being used to develop population and employment forecasts in Clark, Lincoln, and Nye counties in Nevada is Regional Economic Modeling Inc.'s (REMI) Economic-Demographic Forecasting and Simulation (EDFS) model. The REMI model is widely used in applied economics for: forecasting and planning; economic development; transportation; energy and natural resources; taxation, budget, and welfare; United States policies; and environmental policies. This model was chosen by the DOE because it is a dynamic econometric model based on accepted economic theory and principles, and because of its favorable rating compared to other available models. The dynamic nature of the model offers improvements in forecasting capabilities over input-output models. Because the DOE is making extensive use of the REMI model, it is necessary to evaluate the model's forecasting performance. This study is an empirical test of the restrictions in the REMI model's net migration equation. The REMI model pools the data across regions to estimate net migration into each region. For this study we will examine Clark County net migration. We hypothesize that due to the differences among regions (such as distance, and geographic and cultural features specific to each region), pooling the data across regions may not be appropriate

  3. Factional realities in Remi Raji's Gather My Blood Rivers of Song ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the materialist frame of reference presented in some of the poems in this collection, Raji is able to enact plausible narrations that have identifiable referentiality through which he guides his poetic presentation of actual human existence. Keywords: factional realism, imagination, Nigerian poetry, Remi Raji, ...

  4. Remy Presas Remembered: A Perspective on Life in the Martial Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hobart

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Professor Remy Presas was the founder of a style of martial arts called Modern Arnis. The Professor brought this knowledge and his own innovations to the U.S.A. and the rest of the world beginning in the mid-1970s, and was one of four headmasters who formed an alliance, sharing ideas and students throughout the decades that followed. Professor Presas died before being interviewed for this series, so this retrospective is comprised of the stories and memories of many of those who knew and loved him.

  5. Assessing Defense Structure in School-Age Children Using the Response Evaluation Measure-71-Youth Version (REM-Y-71)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Katy B.; Medic, Sanja; Yasnovsky, Jessica; Steiner, Hans

    2006-01-01

    This study used the Response Evaluation Measure-Youth (REM-Y-71), a self-report measure of 21 defense reactions, among school-age children. Participants were elementary and middle school students (n=290; grades 3-8; age range: 8-15; mean=11.73). Factor analysis revealed a 2-factor defense structure consistent with structure among high school and…

  6. Deep ReMi Imaging - Mapping Shear-Wave Velocities to 1 km Depth and Greater Using Refraction Microtremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, J. N.; Pancha, A.; Munger, D.; Law, C.; Adams, D.; Mick, T. M.; Pullammanappallil, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    The Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) surface-wave technique, in use since 2002, has become a standard tool for assessing urban shear-wave velocities for engineering applications. ReMi is effective for site-class studies as well as assessing ground conditions, including 1D and 2D velocity-depth profiling to shallow depths of approximately 100 m. Over the last few years, we have successfully extended the application of the method to depths greater than 1 km. The use of deep ReMi, which relies primarily on ambient noise, for estimation of shear-wave velocities to kilometer depths, allows for mapping the thickness and velocity of deep urban basins. Accurate 3D modeling and calibration of recorded earthquake ground motions in urban areas is one use of deep ReMi results. Such models have the potential to be an essential part of seismic hazard evaluation. We present results from several deep ReMi studies conducted in the Reno-area and Tahoe basins of Nevada and California. Wireless instruments coupled with low-frequency geophones deployed in 3-km-long arrays across the densely populated urban environment acquired data in 2012, 2014, and 2015. In addition to mapping basement as deep as 900 m, the lateral velocity variations reveal deep-seated fault structure in the initial studies. A study of the Reno-area basin in 2016 employed arrays of 90 IRIS-PASSCAL Texans, 15 and 22 km long. This data set appears to constrain a sub-basin interface between Tertiary volcanics and Mesozoic basement at 1-2 km depth. Characterization of shear velocity at greater than 100 m depth, to basement, along with previously unknown faults, is vital towards quantifying earthquake ground motion and seismic hazard potential in geologically complex urban basins. Our measurements will allow Nevada communities to become more resilient against natural hazards.

  7. In-vehicle evaluation of the Globe EV 2300 lead-acid, Delco Remy 150 nickel-zinc, and Eagle-Picher NIF 270 nickel-iron battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, A. A.; Bryant, J. A.

    1984-08-01

    Developmental versions of the Delco-Remy nickel-zinc,the Globe lead-acid, and the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron battery systems designed for electric-vehicle application were evaluated. The systems were tested with the Jet Industries Jet 750 pickup truck and the General Electric/Chrysler ETV 1-2 vehicle on a a chassis dynamometer. Performance of the batteries were determined under: (1) constant-speed; (2) cyclic drive profiles; and (3) continuous and segmented driving conditions. Data are presented on capacity, specific energy, discharge, internal resistance, and temperature characteristics. Maintenance features, such as the single-point watering and venting subsystems, and charging schemes, are addressed and results are discussed.

  8. Antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea of labdane-type diterpenoids isolated from the resinous exudate of Haplopappus velutinus Remy (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Javier; González-Teuber, Marcia; Urzúa, Alejandro

    2018-02-25

    Two labdane diterpenoids were isolated, from the resinous exudate of Haplopappus velutinus Remy (Asteraceae); the main compound was identified as 7,13-(E)-labdadien-15,18-dioic-acid-18-methyl ester (1) and the minor compound identified as 7-labden-15,18-dioic-acid-18-methyl ester (2). Their structures were obtained using FTIR, MS, HRMS and NMR data: 1D NMR ( 1 H, 13 C and DEPT-135), 2D homonuclear NMR (COSY and NOESY) and heteronuclear NMR (HSQC and HMBC). The trans stereochemistry of the decalin moiety of compounds 1 and 2 was established through NOESY experiments of the reduction product of 1; 7-labden-15,18-diol (1a). Diterpenoids 1 and 1a are described for the first time and showed antifungal activity, inhibiting approximately 40% mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea.

  9. Local Site Characterization Using HVSR, ReMi, and SPAC, Study Case: Soccer Field At Autonomous University of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upegui Botero, F. M.; Rojas Mercedes, N.; Huerta-Lopez, C.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.; Suárez, L.; Lopez, A. M.; Huerfano Moreno, V.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake effects are frequently quantified by the energy liberated at the source, and the degree of damage produced in urban areas. The damage of historic events such as the Mw=8.3, September 19, 1985 Mexico City Earthquake was dominated by the amplification of seismic waves due to local site conditions. The assessment of local site effects can be carried out with site response analyses in order to determine the properties of the subsoil such as the dominant period, and the Vs30. The evaluation of the aforementioned properties is through the analysis of ground motion. However, in locations with low seismicity, the most convenient method to assess the site effect is the analysis of ambient vibration measurements. The Spatial Auto Correlation method (SPAC) can be used to determine a Vs30 model from ambient vibration measurements using a triangular array of sensors. Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) considers the phase velocity of the Rayleigh waves can be separated of apparent velocities; the aim of the ReMI method is to obtain the Vs30 model. The HVSR technique or Nakamura's method has been adopted to obtain the resonant frequency of the site from the calculation of ratio between the Fourier amplitude spectra or PSD spectrum of the horizontal and vertical components of ambient vibration. The aim of this work is to compare the results using different techniques to assess local site conditions in the urban area of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. The data used was collected during the Pan-American Advance Studies Institute (PASI), Workshop held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic from July 14 to 25, 2013. The PASI was sponsored by IRIS Consortium, NSF and DOE. Results obtained using SPAC, and ReMi, show a comparable model of surface waves velocities. In addition to the above, the HVSR method is combined with the stiffness matrices method for layered soils to calculate a model of velocities and the predominant period on the site. As part of this work a comparison with

  10. Soil classification for seismic site effect using MASW and ReMi methods: A case study from western Anatolia (Dikili -İzmir)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Savaş

    2018-03-01

    The study area is located in the northern part of Izmir, Western Turkey, prone to an active tectonic extensional regime and includes typical features of sedimentary basins, horst-grabens surrounded by a series of normal and strike-slip faults. In September 1939 the Dikili (Kabakum) earthquake with a magnitude of Mw: 6.6 occurred and after this phenomenon, residents moved from the west of Dikili to the east (i.d. soft sediments to relative to rock area). A proper estimate of the earthquake-related hazard for the area is the main objective of this study. The site effect and soil engineering problems for estimating hazard parameters at the soil surface need to be carefully analyzed for seismic site classification and geo-engineering problems like soil liquefaction, soil settlement, soil bearing capacity and soil amplification. To solve the soil static and dynamic problems, shear-wave velocities have been used in a joint interpretation process; Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) and Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) analyses were conducted on 121 sites with 300 × 300 m grid size in an area of 60 km2. It has been proposed that the probability of an earthquake with a magnitude of Mw: 6 occurring within 10 years is 64%, when considering the Gutenberg-Richter model. This puts the region under an important earthquake risk. The estimated Vs30 values are ≤180 m/s in the central and the northernmost part of the study area are showing an E type soil after the classification of NEHRP, where alluvial deposits are dominant. Vs30 values in the north and central part are between 180 ≤ Vs ≤ 360 m/s suggesting a D type soil. In the southernmost part of the study area where volcanic rocks are widely distributed, Vs30 values range between 360 and 908 m/s, corresponding to a C type and B type soil. The results show that soil liquefaction induced settlement and soil amplification are the most important problems in the south and the northernmost part of the study area, which

  11. 1564-IJBCS-Article-Assoumou Remy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Andres, 2002; Dimara, and Skuras, 2003) sur l'adoption des innovations et la réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre en zones forestières. Ce résultat est confirmé quand nous observons que le taux moyen de déforestation causée par tous les traités est supérieur à celui causé par les non-traités ; car la différence.

  12. 1564-IJBCS-Article-Assoumou Remy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    l'Effet Moyen du Traitement a été utilisée dans une modélisation Probit. Les résultats montrent que le taux de ... relation étroite avec l'aptitude à posséder les facteurs de production (terre, capital et travail) qui deviennent plus rares lorsque le producteur est jeune, c'est-à-dire moins de 30 ans. Dans les ménages des ...

  13. Resistance-resistant antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-12-01

    New antibiotics are needed because drug resistance is increasing while the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. We discuss here six possible approaches to develop 'resistance-resistant' antibiotics. First, multitarget inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy owing to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, repurposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multitarget therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and, in some cases, suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored in otherwise drug-resistant organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... least 10 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom ... plan Global report on surveillance Country situation analysis Policy to combat antimicrobial resistance More on antimicrobial resistance ...

  15. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected with a drug-resistant strain of HIV. Drug-resistance testing results are used to decide which HIV medicines to include in a person’s first HIV regimen. After treatment is started, drug-resistance testing is repeated if ...

  16. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian

    of antimicrobial resistance: (1) adaptive mutations and (2) horizontal acquisition of resistance genes from antibiotic gene reservoirs. By studying the geno- and phenotypic changes of E. coli in response to single and drug-pair exposures, I uncover the evolutionary trajectories leading to adaptive resistance. I......Bacteria can avoid extinction during antimicrobial exposure by becoming resistant. They achieve this either via adaptive mutations or horizontally acquired resistance genes. If resistance emerges in clinical relevant species, it can lead to treatment failure and ultimately result in increasing...... morbidity and mortality as well as an increase in the cost of treatment. Understanding how bacteria respond to antibiotic exposure gives the foundations for a rational approach to counteract antimicrobial resistance. In the work presented in this thesis, I explore the two fundamental sources...

  17. Camptothecin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brangi, M; Litman, Thomas; Ciotti, M

    1999-01-01

    The mitoxantrone resistance (MXR) gene encodes a recently characterized ATP-binding cassette half-transporter that confers multidrug resistance. We studied resistance to the camptothecins in two sublines expressing high levels of MXR: S1-M1-80 cells derived from parental S1 colon cancer cells...... and MCF-7 AdVp3,000 isolated from parental MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Both cell lines were 400- to 1,000-fold more resistant to topotecan, 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin, and the active metabolite of irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), than their parental cell lines. The cell lines...... demonstrated much less resistance to camptothecin and to several camptothecin analogues. Reduced accumulation and energy-dependent efflux of topotecan was demonstrated by confocal microscopy. A significant reduction in cleavable complexes in the resistant cells could be observed after SN-38 treatment...

  18. Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszko, Adrian; Janus, Agnieszka; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a severe medical condition which is estimated to appear in 9-18% of hypertensive patients. Due to higher cardiovascular risk, this disorder requires special diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous etiology, risk factors and comorbidities of resistant hypertension stand in need of sophisticated evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and select the best therapeutic options, which should consider lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological and interventional treatment. After having excluded pseudohypertension, inappropriate blood pressure measurement and control as well as the white coat effect, suspicion of resistant hypertension requires an analysis of drugs which the hypertensive patient is treated with. According to one definition - ineffective treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs including diuretics makes it possible to diagnose resistant hypertension. A multidrug therapy including angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, long-acting calcium channel blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be effective in resistant hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, optional, innovative therapies, e.g. a renal denervation or baroreflex activation, may create a novel pathway of blood pressure lowering procedures. The right diagnosis of this disease needs to eliminate the secondary causes of resistant hypertension e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, atherosclerosis and renal or hormonal disorders. This paper briefly summarizes the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension and therapeutic strategies, which may contribute to the proper diagnosis and an improvement of the long term management of resistant hypertension.

  19. Managing Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, John W.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents some considerations and ideas for managing students' resistance. They are organized around four topics: the impact of context on behavior, the importance of being comprehensive and nonrestrictive in behavior, the adaptive function of resistant behavior, and the benefit of joining children in their frame of reference.…

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life-threatening infections – to a last resort treatment (carbapenem antibiotics) has spread to all regions of the ... unit patients. In some countries, because of resistance, carbapenem antibiotics do not work in more than half ...

  1. Resident resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J L; Cleary, B

    1999-01-01

    Clearly, faculty must work hard with residents to explore the nature of their resistance to a program's learning and growth opportunities. Initial steps to a deeper, more effective, and longer-lasting change process must be pursued. If resident resistance is mishandled or misunderstood, then learning and professional growth may be sidetracked and the purposes of residency training defeated. Listening to the whole person of the resident and avoiding the trap of getting caught up in merely responding to select resident behaviors that irritate us is critical. Every faculty member in the family practice residency program must recognize resistance as a form of defense that cannot immediately be torn down or taken away. Resident defenses have important purposes to play in stress reduction even if they are not always healthy. Residents, especially interns, use resistance to avoid a deeper and more truthful look at themselves as physicians. A family practice residency program that sees whole persons in their residents and that respects resident defenses will effectively manage the stress and disharmony inherent to the resistant resident.

  2. Anticoagulant Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte

    Although sewer rat control is carried out in more than 80 % of all Danish municipalities, with usage of large amounts of anticoagulant rodenticides, knowledge on anticoagulant resistance among rats living in the sewers is limited. As rat problems in urban areas are believed to be related to sewer...... problems (70-90 % in UK and DK) unawareness of resistance amongst these populations of Brown rats may constitute a future control problem and knowledge on this issue has become crucial. Rats were captured in sewers from seven different locations in the suburban area of Copenhagen. Locations was chosen...... to represent different sewer rat management strategies i) no anticoagulants for approx. 20 years ii) no anticoagulants for the last 5 years and iii) continuous control for many years. Animals were tested for resistance to bromadiolone by Blood-Clotting Response test, as bromadiolone is the most frequently used...

  3. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  4. R.E.M.i loomingut saadab abivajajate hääl / Anniki Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leppik, Anniki

    2008-01-01

    11. sept. Tallinnas Saku Suurhallis esinevast ameerika rockansamblist R.E.M., kes toob kaasa heategevusorganisatsioonid Amnesty International ja Oxfam International. Eestis tutvustab ansambel oma 14. stuudioalbumit "Accelerate", erikülaliseks on tantsulise indie-roki bänd We Are Scientists

  5. Reede, 22. november 2002 / Jerome Remy ; tõlk. Kalju Kruusa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remy, Jerome

    2002-01-01

    Eesti osalemisest 22. XI avataval XI Põhjamaade kultuurifestivalil Prantsusmaal Caenis. Festivali plakatil Peeter Toominga foto. Liina Siibi näitus "Le Carceri" uurib eesti ühiskonnas toimunud arhitektuuriruumide ja -identiteetide muundumisi

  6. Resistance welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi; Rasmussen, Mogens H.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance welding comprises not only the well known spot welding process but also more complex projection welding operations, where excessive plastic deformation of the weld point may occur. This enables the production of complex geometries and material combinations, which are often not possible...

  7. Drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, J.A.; Potschka, H.; Noebels, J.L.; Avoli, M.; Rogawski, M.A.; Olsen, R.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance remains to be one of the major challenges in epilepsy therapy. Identification of factors that contribute to therapeutic failure is crucial for future development of novel therapeutic strategies for difficult-to-treat epilepsies. Several clinical studies have shown that high seizure

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video) Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation of ...

  9. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Hoffmann, Tammy C; McCullough, Amanda R

    2015-01-01

    Numerous opportunities are available in primary care for alleviating the crisis of increasing antibiotic resistance. Preventing patients from developing an acute respiratory infection (ARI) will obviate any need for antibiotic use downstream. Hygiene measures such as physical barriers and hand...... will greatly improve the use of antibiotics for ARIs. However, used in concert, combinations are likely to enable clinicians and health care systems to implement the strategies that will reduce antimicrobial resistance in the future....... antibiotic prescribing are a major factor in the prescribing for ARIs. Professional interventions with educational components are effective, although they have modest effects, and are expensive. GPs' perceptions - that mistakenly assume as a default that patients want antibiotics for their ARIs - are often...

  10. Antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge, which has accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics worldwide. Increased antimicrobial resistance is the cause of severe infections, complications, longer hospital stays and increased mortality. Overprescribing of antibiotics......-the-counter sale of antibiotics, the use of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, the active participation of clinicians in audits, the utilization of valid rapid point-of-care tests, the promotion of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies, the enhancement of communication skills with patients with the aid...... is associated with an increased risk of adverse effects, more frequent re-attendance and increased medicalization of self-limiting conditions. Antibiotic overprescribing is a particular problem in primary care, where viruses cause most infections. About 90% of all antibiotic prescriptions are issued by general...

  11. Resisting dehumanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger Marie

    2018-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in the influx of asylum-seekers in Scandinavia, and in Denmark this has led to ever-tighter immigration control. This article discusses emerging practices of refugee solidarity and resistance to hegemonic migration policy in Danish civil society in the wake of w...... 2015) and appraisal analysis of the incident in focus. Keywords: immigration, discursive discrimination, populism, solidarity, governmentality, topoi, appraisal...

  12. Antibiotics and Resistance: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Work Contact Us ABOUT THE ISSUE What is Antibiotic Resistance? General Background Science of Resistance Glossary References ... for Adaptation Genetics and Drug Resistance Reservoirs of Antibiotic Resistance Project (ROAR) INTERNATIONAL CHAPTERS APUA Chapter Network ...

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  15. Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the normal range. What happens with insulin resistance? In insulin resistance, muscle, fat, and liver cells do not ... they do not usually test specifically for insulin resistance. Insulin resistance can be assessed by measuring the level ...

  16. Insulin Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech

    Insulin resistance (IR) is escalating with alarming pace and is no longer restricted to westernized countries. As a forerunner for some of the most serious threats to human health including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2-diabetes, the need for new treatment modalities...... interventions. We further show that improving the inflammatory toning, using fish oil as fat source, protects mice against diet induced obesity and -inflammation while preserving insulin sensitivity, even in the absence of free fatty acid receptor 4. Conversely, HFD-induced intestinal dysbiosis is associated...

  17. Resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, P; Oliveras, A; de la Sierra, A

    2013-11-01

    A 53 year old woman with hypercholesterolemia treated with statins, with no history of cardiovascular disease, was referred to the Hypertension and Vascular Risk Unit for management of hypertension resistant to 4 antihypertensive agents at full doses. The patient had obesity, with a body mass index of 36.3kg/m(2) and office blood pressure 162/102mm Hg. Physical examination showed no data of interest. glucose 120mg/dl, glycated Hb: 6.4%, albuminuria 68mg/g, kidney function and study of the renin angiotensin system and other biochemical parameters were normal. Echocardiography: left ventricular mass, 131g/m(2) (normal, <110g/m(2)). True resistant hypertension was confirmed by ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure during 24h (153/89mm Hg). Spironolactone treatment (25mg/day) was added and was well tolerated, with no change in renal function and kaliemia within normal (4.1mmol/l) following the treatment. After 8 weeks, blood pressure was well controlled: office blood pressure 132/86mm Hg and 24h-ambulatory blood pressure: 128/79mm Hg. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Resisting dehumanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger Marie

    2018-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in the influx of asylum-seekers in Scandinavia, and in Denmark this has led to ever-tighter immigration control. This article discusses emerging practices of refugee solidarity and resistance to hegemonic migration policy in Danish civil society in the wake...... of an incident from September 2015, when a member of a Danish City Council offered private shelter to immigrants who were on their way to Norway. The incident led to legal proceedings in August 2016 for what the defendant referred to as ‘the offense of helping fellow human beings in need’. The study is informed...... 2015) and appraisal analysis of the incident in focus. Keywords: immigration, discursive discrimination, populism, solidarity, governmentality, topoi, appraisal...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  20. HIV Resistance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 14, 2016 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 126 HIV Resistance Testing WHAT IS RESISTANCE? HOW DOES RESISTANCE ... ARVs. If you miss doses of your medications, HIV will multiply more easily. More mutations will occur. ...

  1. Combating Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Farm Animals FDA: Cutting-Edge Technology Sheds Light on Antibiotic Resistance For More Information Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial Resistance Information for Consumers and Health Professionals CDC: Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work More in Consumer Updates ...

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (video) Animation of Antimicrobial ...

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated Report Data Meetings and Publications Resources Judicious Use of Antimicrobials Page Last Updated: ...

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  5. Induced resistance: an enhancement of basal resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M. de; Robben, C.; Pelt, J.A. van; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Upon primary pathogen attack, plants activate resistance mechanisms at the site of infection. Besides this so-called basal resistance, plants have also the ability to enhance their defensive capacity against future pathogen attack. There are at least two types of biologically induced resistance.

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated Report Data Meetings and Publications Resources Judicious Use of ...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System ... If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  8. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, H F

    1988-01-01

    Strains of staphylococci resistant to methicillin were identified immediately after introduction of this drug. Methicillin-resistant strains have unusual properties, the most notable of which is extreme variability in expression of the resistance trait. The conditions associated with this heterogeneous expression of resistance are described. Methicillin resistance is associated with production of a unique penicillin-binding protein (PBP), 2a, which is bound and inactivated only at high concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics. PBP2a appears to be encoded by the mec determinant, which also is unique to methicillin-resistant strains. The relationships between PBP2a and expression of resistance and implications for the mechanism of resistance are discussed. The heterogeneous expression of methicillin resistance by staphylococci poses problems in the detection of resistant strains. Experience with several susceptibility test methods is reviewed and guidelines for performance of these tests are given. Treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci is discussed. Vancomycin is the treatment of choice. Alternatives have been few because methicillin-resistant strains often are resistant to multiple antibiotics in addition to beta-lactam antibiotics. New agents which are active against methicillin-resistant staphylococci are becoming available, and their potential role in treatment is discussed. Images PMID:3069195

  9. Resistance to Powdery Mildews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwoszek, Agnieszka Izabela

    in majority of them. Resistance to barley powdery mildew in the field is controlled by use of resistant varieties in a combination with fungicides. Early disease management is crucial for effective control. Yet, the pathogen commonly develops fungicide resistance due to simple point mutations. Several studies...... investigated reduced fitness of plants as a cost of resistance to pathogens. In case of barley powdery mildew, most common resistance (mlo) is linked to a higher susceptibility to other pathogens and spontaneous necrosis that leads to yield reduction. Thus, there is a clear need for alternative methods of crop...... protection. In the present study, I provide an overview of the current knowledge about plant pathogens and plant disease resistance. I use Arabidopsis as a model to investigate the mechanism of non-host resistance, presumed to be the most durable and broad-spectrum form of resistance. I attempt to determine...

  10. Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Buying & Using Medicine Safely Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotics ... Antibiotic Resistance and Protect Public Health The White House Blog FDA’s Take on the Executive Order and ...

  11. Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Threat Gonorrhea has progressively developed resistance to the antibiotic drugs prescribed to treat it. Following the spread ...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial ...

  13. Resistance seam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueler, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the resistance seam welding process are presented. Types of seam welds, types of seam welding machines, seam welding power supplies, resistance seam welding parameters and seam welding characteristics of various metals

  14. Electrical Methods: Resistivity Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface electrical resistivity surveying is based on the principle that the distribution of electrical potential in the ground around a current-carrying electrode depends on the electrical resistivities and distribution of the surrounding soils and rocks.

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation ... FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. ... concept more understandable to non-scientists by showing how bacterial antimicrobial resistance can develop and spread. All ...

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share ...

  18. MDRO - Multidrug-Resistant Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staphylococcus aureus VRE - Vancomycin-resistant enterococci ESBLs - Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (which are resistant to cephalosporins and monobactams) PRSP - Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Multi- ...

  19. Resisting Organizational Change

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    We are continuously reminded of how change induces controversy and resistance, regardless of support. We repeatedly experience resistance in difficulties of implementation, little progress, and poor results, rather than increased productivity as anticipated. In a detailed account of how change plays out, a mosaic of what resistance looks like emerges. The picture is both familiar and absolutely concrete, and challenges the structural assumptions and dichotomies on support and resistance in an...

  20. Resistive Threshold Logic

    OpenAIRE

    James, A. P.; Francis, L. R. V. J.; Kumar, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report a resistance based threshold logic family useful for mimicking brain like large variable logic functions in VLSI. A universal Boolean logic cell based on an analog resistive divider and threshold logic circuit is presented. The resistive divider is implemented using memristors and provides output voltage as a summation of weighted product of input voltages. The output of resistive divider is converted into a binary value by a threshold operation implemented by CMOS inverter and/or O...

  1. Antibiotic resistance reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    One of the major threats to human health in the 21st century is the emergence of pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics, thereby limiting treatment options. An important route through which pathogens become resistant is via acquisition of resistance genes from environmental

  2. Antibiotic resistance reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    One of the major threats to human health in the 21st century is the emergence of pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics, thereby limiting treatment options. An important route through which pathogens become resistant is via acquisition of resistance genes from

  3. Resistance in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and, when it is, resistance is most often considered counter-productive. Simple evaluations of resistance as positive or negative are avoided in this volume; instead it is conceptualised as a vital process for human development and well-being. While resistance is usually treated as an extraordinary...... occurrence, the focus here is on everyday resistance as an intentional process where new meaning constructions emerge in thinking, feeling, acting or simply living with others. Resistance is thus conceived as a meaning-making activity that operates at the intersection of personal and collective systems...

  4. [Remy Willemet (1735-1807), naturalist, professor of natural history and chairman of the botanical garden of Nancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrude, Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Rémy Willemet is above all a local botanist whose first work was selected by the academy of Nancy in 1766. His notoriety began when another work with Jean-François Coste was chosen by the academy of Lyon ten years later. He published then in many papers and was elected in numerous academies and scientific societies. During the Revolution, he was a professor of the Ecole centrale de la Meurthe and of the Société de santé, and he became the chairman of the botanical garden. Willemet wrote some botanical books. Today, what is the memory of his researchs and papers? Fairly few things because he never undertook botanical travels in order to discover and compare pharmaceutical plants. However, Willemetia was the name used to denominate some species and honour his family. His name was also engraved on the wall of some university buidings and it was chosen some years ago to entitle a botanical paper in Lorraine.

  5. Challenges to Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng

    This report originates from the compulsory defense during my Ph.D. study at the Technical University of Denmark. Resistance welding is an old and well-proven technology. Yet the emergence of more and more new materials, new designs, invention off new joining techniques, and more stringent...... requirement in quality have imposed challenges to the resistance welding. More some research and development have to be done to adapt the old technology to the manufacturing industry of the 21st century. In the 1st part of the report, the challenging factors to the resistance welding are reviewed. Numerical...... simulation of resistance welding has been under development for many years. Yet it is no easy to make simulation results reliable and accurate because of the complexity of resistance welding process. In the 2nd part of the report numerical modeling of resistance welding is reviewed, some critical factors...

  6. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Rob; Agid, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. METHOD: A systematic review of randomized...... antipsychotic clinical trials in treatment-resistant schizophrenia was performed, and definitions of treatment resistance were extracted. Subsequently, consensus operationalized criteria were developed through 1) a multiphase, mixed methods approach, 2) identification of key criteria via an online survey, and 3...... responsive from treatment-resistant patients. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable variation in current approaches to defining treatment resistance in schizophrenia. The authors present consensus guidelines that operationalize criteria for determining and reporting treatment resistance, adequate treatment...

  7. Antipastorialism : Resistant Georgic Mode

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... Abolitionists, women, Afro-British slaves, and those who protested land enclosure developed a multivalent, resistant mode of writing, which I name 'antipastoralism', that countered orthodox, poetical...

  8. Resistance/reactance level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Larry E; Harwood, T Mark; Michelson, Aaron; Song, Xiaoxia; Holman, John

    2011-02-01

    Psychotherapists from all professions and perspectives periodically struggle to effectively manage a patient's resistance to change. This article provides definitions and examples of patient-treatment matching applied to patient resistance or reactance. We report the results from an original meta-analysis of 12 select studies (N = 1,102) on matching therapist directiveness to patient reactance. Our findings support the hypothesis that patients exhibiting low levels of trait-like resistance respond better to directive types of treatment, while patients with high levels of resistance respond best to nondirective treatments (d = .82). Limitations of the research reviewed are noted, and practice recommendations are advanced. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munita, Jose M.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    Emergence of resistance among the most important bacterial pathogens is recognized as a major public health threat affecting humans worldwide. Multidrug-resistant organisms have emerged not only in the hospital environment but are now often identified in community settings, suggesting that reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are present outside the hospital. The bacterial response to the antibiotic “attack” is the prime example of bacterial adaptation and the pinnacle of evolution. “Survival of the fittest” is a consequence of an immense genetic plasticity of bacterial pathogens that trigger specific responses that result in mutational adaptations, acquisition of genetic material or alteration of gene expression producing resistance to virtually all antibiotics currently available in clinical practice. Therefore, understanding the biochemical and genetic basis of resistance is of paramount importance to design strategies to curtail the emergence and spread of resistance and devise innovative therapeutic approaches against multidrug-resistant organisms. In this chapter, we will describe in detail the major mechanisms of antibiotic resistance encountered in clinical practice providing specific examples in relevant bacterial pathogens. PMID:27227291

  10. How Many Equivalent Resistances?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is straightforward to construct the set of equiv- alent resistance for circuits constructed from a bunch of four or five equal resistors. But as the bunch size increases it becomes difficult to find the order of the set of equivalent resistances. Even the computer programs runs out of mem- ory. Here we present an analytical result ...

  11. Drug-resistant tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis. (DR-TB) is a public health emergency that threatens to destabilise global TB control. Although TB incidence and mortality are decreasing in several parts of the world, the overall prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is increasing in many high-burden countries, ...

  12. Containing Unusual Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the health department to stop spread of unusual resistance. Review and support infection control in the facility. Clinical labs: Know what isolates to send for testing. Establish protocols that immediately ... of unusual resistance. Validate new tests to identify the latest threats. ...

  13. Drug resistance in malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Parija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimalarial chemotherapy is an important component of all malaria control programmes throughout the world. This is especially so in light of the fact that there are no antimalarial vaccines which are available for clinical use at present. Emergence and spread of malaria parasites which are resistant to many of the available antimalarials today is, therefore, a major cause for concern. Till date, resistance to all groups of antimalarials excluding artemisinin has been reported. In recent years, in vitro resistance to even artemisinin has been described. While resistance to antibacterial agents has come to prominence as a clinical problem in recent years, antiparasitic resistance in general and antimalarial resistance in particular has not received much attention, especially in the Indian scenario. The present review deals with commonly used antimalarial drugs and the mechanisms of resistance to them. Various methods of detecting antimalarial resistance and avoiding the same have also been dealt with. Newer parasite targets which can be used in developing newer antimalarial agents and antimalarials obtained from plants have also been mentioned.

  14. Antibiotic resistance in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Mary D; Pratt, Rachael; Hart, Wendy S

    2003-01-01

    There is currently no systematic surveillance or monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Australian animals. Registration of antibiotics for use in animals is tightly controlled and has been very conservative. Fluoroquinolones have not been registered for use in food producing animals and other products have been removed from the market because of human health concerns. In the late 1970s, the Animal Health Committee coordinated a survey of resistance in Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs and poultry and in bovine Staphylococcus aureus. Some additional information is available from published case reports. In samples collected prior to the withdrawal of avoparcin from the market, no vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis were detected in samples collected from pigs, whereas some vanA enterococci, including E. faecium and E. faecalis, were found in chickens. No vanB enterococci were detected in either species. Virginiamycin resistance was common in both pig and poultry isolates. Multiple resistance was common in E. coli and salmonellae isolates. No fluoroquinolone resistance was found in salmonellae, E. coli or Campylobacter. Beta-lactamase production is common in isolates from bovine mastitis, but no methicillin resistance has been detected. However, methicillin resistance has been reported in canine isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius and extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli has been found in dogs.

  15. Resistance to change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dow, J.; Perotti, E.

    2009-01-01

    Established firms often fail to maintain leadership following disruptive market shifts. We argue that such firms are more prone to internal resistance. A radical adjustment of assets affects the distribution of employee rents, creating winners and losers. Losers resist large changes when strong

  16. Resistance to change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dow, J.; Perotti, E.

    2013-01-01

    Established firms often fail to maintain leadership following disrup tive market shifts. We argue that such firms are more prone to internal resistance. A radical adjustment of assets affects the distribution of employee rents, creating winners and losers. Losers resist large changes when strong

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ol Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share ...

  18. Resistance to Linezolid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Birte; Ntokou, Eleni

    2017-01-01

    Linezolid is an antimicrobial agent that binds to the bacterial ribosome and thereby inhibits protein synthesis. Soon after its release as a clinical drug, it became clear that bacteria could become resistant to linezolid. The resistance mechanisms are mainly causing alteration of the drug target...

  19. Resistent tuberkulose i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, V O; Johansen, I S; Bauer, J O

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Increased rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) has been reported from countries close to Denmark. We evaluated the incidence of drug resistance in Denmark in order to determine the magnitude of the problem. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Susceptibility testing was performed ...

  20. Engineered plant virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, Leny C; Banerjee, Joydeep; Pinar, Hasan; Mitra, Amitava

    2014-11-01

    Virus diseases are among the key limiting factors that cause significant yield loss and continuously threaten crop production. Resistant cultivars coupled with pesticide application are commonly used to circumvent these threats. One of the limitations of the reliance on resistant cultivars is the inevitable breakdown of resistance due to the multitude of variable virus populations. Similarly, chemical applications to control virus transmitting insect vectors are costly to the farmers, cause adverse health and environmental consequences, and often result in the emergence of resistant vector strains. Thus, exploiting strategies that provide durable and broad-spectrum resistance over diverse environments are of paramount importance. The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Genetic engineering offers various options for introducing transgenic virus resistance into crop plants to provide a wide range of resistance to viral pathogens. This review examines the current strategies of developing virus resistant transgenic plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  2. Resistance and conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumter, S.R.; Bokhorst, C.L.; Westenberg, P.M.; Levesque, R.J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to peer influence, or the ability to resist making choices or adopting views under the implicit or explicit influence of your peers, is expected to undergo changes during adolescence. Two developmental trajectories have emerged from the field. On the one hand, adolescents show a temporary

  3. Resistance and Conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumter, S.R.; Bokhorst, C.L.; Westenberg, P.M.; Levesque, R.J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to peer influence, or the ability to resist making choices or adopting views under the implicit or explicit influence of your peers, is expected to undergo changes during adolescence. Two opposing developmental trajectories have emerged from the field. On the one hand, adolescents show a

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... topics menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System ... If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  5. Glycosphingolipids and insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, Mirjam; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk for insulin resistance, a state characterized by impaired responsiveness of liver, muscle and adipose tissue to insulin. One class of lipids involved in the development of insulin resistance are the (glyco)sphingolipids. Ceramide, the most simple

  6. Resistance, Reactance, and Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Falk, Robert S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a review of techniques for dealing with consultee resistance. Suggests the social psychological theory of reactance is a useful conceptual framework for considering resistance in consultation. Discusses examples of its application, variables that predict the likely effectiveness of a reactance utilization intervention, and ethical issues.…

  7. Mechanisms of Drug Resistance: Daptomycin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Truc T.; Munita, Jose M.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2016-01-01

    Daptomycin (DAP) is a cyclic lipopeptide with in vitro activity against a variety of Gram-positive pathogens, including multidrug-resistant organisms. Since its introduction in clinical practice in 2003, DAP has become an important key front-line antibiotic for severe or deep-seated infections caused by Gram-positive organisms. Unfortunately, DAP-resistance (R) has been extensively documented in clinically important organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp, and Streptococcus spp. Studies on the mechanisms of DAP-R in Bacillus subtilis and other Gram-positive bacteria indicate that the genetic pathways of DAP resistance are diverse and complex. However, a common phenomenon emerging from these mechanistic studies is that DAP-R is associated with important adaptive changes in cell wall and cell membrane homeostasis with critical changes in cell physiology. Findings related to these adaptive changes have offered novel insights into the genetics and molecular mechanisms of bacterial cell envelope stress response and the manner in which Gram-positive bacteria cope with the antimicrobial peptide attack and protect vital structures of the cell envelope such as the cell membrane. In this review, we will examine the most recent findings related to the molecular mechanisms of resistance to DAP in relevant Gram-positive pathogens and discuss the clinical implications for therapy against these important bacteria. PMID:26495887

  8. [Hypertension and insulin resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiculescu, A; Kutkuhn, B; Rösen, P; Grabensee, B

    1997-10-17

    Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and obesity are defined as classical insulin resistant states. Essential hypertension is now also considered to be an insulin resistant state, even in absence of NIDDM or obesity, as shown in epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies. Neither the underlying mechanism nor a direct causality between the two phenomena has been detected as yet, but different hypotheses have been postulated where, on the one hand, insulin resistance and hypertension are considered to be causally related and, on the other hand, they are considered to be parallel phenomena due to genetic and acquired factors. The clarification of the connection between hypertension and insulin resistance seems to be of great clinical importance, since they are both independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease and mortality from cardiovascular complications. This paper gives an overview of the results of recent research on the possible underlying pathogenetic mechanisms linking hypertension and insulin resistance.

  9. HIV resistance testing and detected drug resistance in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultze, Anna; Phillips, Andrew N.; Paredes, Roger; Battegay, Manuel; Rockstroh, Jürgen K.; Machala, Ladislav; Tomazic, Janez; Girard, Pierre M.; Januskevica, Inga; Gronborg-Laut, Kamilla; Lundgren, Jens D.; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Losso, M.; Kundro, M.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V. M.; Paduto, D.; Clumeck, N.; de Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Florence, E.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Begovac, J.; Machala, L.; Jilich, D.; Sedlacek, D.; Nielsen, J.; Kronborg, G.; Benfield, T.; Larsen, M.; Gerstoft, J.; Katzenstein, T.; Pedersen, C.; Møller, N. F.; Ostergaard, L.; Dragsted, U. B.; Nielsen, L. N.; Zilmer, K.; Smidt, Jelena; Ristola, M.; Katlama, C.; Pradier, C.; Dabis, F.; Neau, D.; Duvivier, C.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R.; van Lunzen, J.; Degen, O.; Stefan, C.; Bogner, J.; Fatkenheuer, G.; Chkhartishvili, N.; Kosmidis, J.; Gargalianos, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Perdios, J.; Sambatakou, H.; Banhegyi, D.; Gottfredsson, M.; Mulcahy, F.; Yust, I.; Turner, D.; Burke, M.; Shahar, E.; Hassoun, G.; Elinav, H.; Haouzi, M.; Sthoeger, Z. M.; d'Arminio, A.; Esposito, R.; Mazeu, I.; Mussini, C.; Pristera, R.; Mazzotta, F.; Gabbuti, A.; Vullo, V.; Lichtner, M.; Zaccarelli, M.; Reiss, P.; Ormaasen, V.; Maeland, A.; Bruun, J.; Knysz, B.; Gasiorowski, J.; Inglot, M.; Horban, A.; Bakowska, E.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Flisiak, R.; Parczewski, M.; Pynka, M.; Maciejewska, K.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Smiatacz, T.; Jablonowska, E.; Malolepsza, E.; Wojcik, K.; Mozer-Lisewska, I.; Doroana, M.; Caldeira, L.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Radoi, R.; Oprea, C.; Babes, Victor; Rakhmanova, A.; Trofimora, T.; Khromova, I.; Kuzovatova, E.; Jevtovic, D.; Shunnar, A.; Stanekova, D.; Tomazic, J.; Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Clotet, B.; Jou, A.; Paredes, R.; Tural, C.; Puig, J.; Bravo, I.; Gatell, J. M.; Miro, J. M.; Domingo, P.; Gutierrez, M.; Mateo, G.; Sambeat, M. A.; Laporte, J. M.; Blaxhult, A.; Flamholc, L.; Thalme, A.; Sonnerborg, A.; Ledergerber, B.; Weber, R.; Cavassini, M.; Calmy, A.; Furrer, H.; Battegay, M.; Elzi, L.; Schmid, P.; Kravchenko, E.; Chentsova, N.; Frolov, V.; Kutsyna, G.; Baskakov, I.; Kuznetsova, A.; Kyselyova, G.; Gazzard, B.; Johnson, A. M.; Simons, E.; Edwards, S.; Phillips, A.; Johnson, M. A.; Mocroft, A.; Orkin, C.; Weber, J.; Scullard, G.; Fisher, M.; Leen, C.; Gatell, J.; Monforte, A. d'Arminio; Lundgren, J.; DeWit, S.; Kirk, O.; Grarup, J.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Thiebaut, R.; Burger, D.; Peters, L.; Podlekareva, D.; Nielsen, J. E.; Matthews, C.; Fischer, A. H.; Bojesen, A.; Raben, D.; Kristensen, D.; Laut, K. Grønborg; Larsen, J. F.; Grint, D.; Shepherd, L.; Schultze, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe regional differences and trends in resistance testing among individuals experiencing virological failure and the prevalence of detected resistance among those individuals who had a genotypic resistance test done following virological failure. Design: Multinational cohort

  10. [Resistance mechanisms and cross-resistance of phoxim-resistant Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Yin; Zhou, Xian-Hong; Zhang, An-Sheng; Li, Li-Li; Men, Xing-Yuan; Zhang, Si-Cong; Liu, Yong-Jie; Yu, Yi

    2012-07-01

    To understand the resistance risks of Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande against phoxim, this paper studied the resistance mechanisms of phoxim-resistant F. occidentalis population against phoxim and the cross-resistance of the population against other insecticides. The phoxim-resistant population had medium level cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, and methomyl, low level cross-resistance to chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, emamectin-benzoate, and spinosad, but no cross-resistance to acetamiprid and abamectin. The synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO), s, s, s-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) had significant synergism (P occidentalis could play an important role in the resistance of the plant against phoxim.

  11. AC resistance measuring instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  12. Linezolid Resistance in Staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Stefani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Linezolid, the first oxazolidinone to be used clinically, is effective in the treatment of infections caused by various Gram-positive pathogens, including multidrug resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus. It has been used successfully for the treatment of patients with endocarditis and bacteraemia, osteomyelitis, joint infections and tuberculosis and it is often used for treatment of complicated infections when other therapies have failed. Linezolid resistance in Gram-positive cocci has been encountered clinically as well as in vitro, but it is still a rare phenomenon. The resistance to this antibiotic has been, until now, entirely associated with distinct nucleotide substitutions in domain V of the 23S rRNA genes. The number of mutated rRNA genes depends on the dose and duration of linezolid exposure and has been shown to influence the level of linezolid resistance. Mutations in associated ribosomal proteins also affect linezolid activity. A new phenicol and clindamycin resistance phenotype has recently been found to be caused by an RNA methyltransferase designated Cfr. This gene confers resistance to lincosamides, oxazolidinones, streptogramin A, phenicols and pleuromutilins, decrease the susceptibility of S. aureus to tylosin, to josamycin and spiramycin and thus differs from erm rRNA methylase genes. Research into new oxazolidinones with improved characteristics is ongoing. Data reported in patent applications demonstrated that some oxazolidinone derivatives, also with improved characteristics with respect to linezolid, are presently under study: at least three of them are in an advanced phase of development.

  13. Insulin and Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    As obesity and diabetes reach epidemic proportions in the developed world, the role of insulin resistance and its consequences are gaining prominence. Understanding the role of insulin in wide-ranging physiological processes and the influences on its synthesis and secretion, alongside its actions from the molecular to the whole body level, has significant implications for much chronic disease seen in Westernised populations today. This review provides an overview of insulin, its history, structure, synthesis, secretion, actions and interactions followed by a discussion of insulin resistance and its associated clinical manifestations. Specific areas of focus include the actions of insulin and manifestations of insulin resistance in specific organs and tissues, physiological, environmental and pharmacological influences on insulin action and insulin resistance as well as clinical syndromes associated with insulin resistance. Clinical and functional measures of insulin resistance are also covered. Despite our incomplete understanding of the complex biological mechanisms of insulin action and insulin resistance, we need to consider the dramatic social changes of the past century with respect to physical activity, diet, work, socialisation and sleep patterns. Rapid globalisation, urbanisation and industrialisation have spawned epidemics of obesity, diabetes and their attendant co-morbidities, as physical inactivity and dietary imbalance unmask latent predisposing genetic traits. PMID:16278749

  14. Genetics Home Reference: clopidogrel resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Clopidogrel resistance Clopidogrel resistance Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Clopidogrel resistance is a condition in which the drug clopidogrel ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: warfarin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Warfarin resistance Warfarin resistance Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Warfarin resistance is a condition in which individuals have a ...

  16. Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea (ARG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea Basic Information Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea: An Overview Antibiotic resistance is the ...

  17. Antibiotic Resistance in Foodborne Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Ciara; Duffy, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Wide-spread antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens is now a serious public health issue and multi-antibiotic resistance has been reported in many foodborne pathogens including Salmonella and E. coli. A study to determine antibiotic resistance profiles of a range of Salmonella and Verocytotoxigenic E.coli (VTEC) isolated from Irish foods revealed significant levels of antibiotic resistance in the strains. S. typhimurium DT104 were multiantibiotic resistant with 97% resistant to 7 anti...

  18. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNerney Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With almost 9 million new cases each year, tuberculosis remains one of the most feared diseases on the planet. Led by the STOP-TB Partnership and WHO, recent efforts to combat the disease have made considerable progress in a number of countries. However, the emergence of mutated strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to the major anti-tuberculosis drugs poses a deadly threat to control efforts. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB has been reported in all regions of the world. More recently, extensively drug resistant-tuberculosis (XDR-TB that is also resistant to second line drugs has emerged in a number of countries. To ensure that adequate resources are allocated to prevent the emergence and spread of drug resistance it is important to understand the scale of the problem. In this article we propose that current methods of describing the epidemiology of drug resistant tuberculosis are not adequate for this purpose and argue for the inclusion of population based statistics in global surveillance data. Discussion Whereas the prevalence of tuberculosis is presented as the proportion of individuals within a defined population having disease, the prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis is usually presented as the proportion of tuberculosis cases exhibiting resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Global surveillance activities have identified countries in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union and regions of China as having a high proportion of MDR-TB cases and international commentary has focused primarily on the urgent need to improve control in these settings. Other regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa have been observed as having a low proportion of drug resistant cases. However, if one considers the incidence of new tuberculosis cases with drug resistant disease in terms of the population then countries of sub-Saharan Africa have amongst the highest rates of transmitted MDR-TB in the world. We propose

  19. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms may interfere with membrane performance in at least three ways: (i) increase of the transmembrane pressure drop, (ii) increase of feed channel (feed-concentrate) pressure drop, and (iii) increase of transmembrane passage. Given the relevance of biofouling, it is surprising how few data exist about the hydraulic resistance of biofilms that may affect the transmembrane pressure drop and membrane passage. In this study, biofilms were generated in a lab scale cross flow microfiltration system at two fluxes (20 and 100Lm-2h-1) and constant cross flow (0.1ms-1). As a nutrient source, acetate was added (1.0mgL-1 acetate C) besides a control without nutrient supply. A microfiltration (MF) membrane was chosen because the MF membrane resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were determined, it was demonstrated that no internal membrane fouling occurred and that the fouling layer actually consisted of a grown biofilm and was not a filter cake of accumulated bacterial cells. At 20Lm-2h-1 flux with a nutrient dosage of 1mgL-1 acetate C, the resistance after 4 days reached a value of 6×1012m-1. At 100Lm-2h-1 flux under the same conditions, the resistance was 5×1013m-1. No correlation of biofilm resistance to biofilm thickness was found; Biofilms with similar thickness could have different resistance depending on the applied flux. The cell number in biofilms was between 4×107 and 5×108 cellscm-2. At this number, bacterial cells make up less than a half percent of the overall biofilm volume and therefore did not hamper the water flow through the biofilm significantly. A flux of 100Lm-2h-1 with nutrient supply caused higher cell numbers, more biomass, and higher biofilm resistance than a flux of 20Lm-2h-1. However, the biofilm thickness

  20. [Insulin resistance in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stąpor, Natalia; Beń-Skowronek, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is the state of reduced tissue sensitivity to insulin. The frequency of this occurrence is increasing dramatically in developed countries. Both, environmental and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Sedentary lifestyle and the excessive calorie intake cause the substantial increase of the fat issue, leading to overweight and obesity. Insulin resistance occurs physiologically during puberty, but it is also a pathological condition predisposing children to develop abnormal glucose tolerance, diabetes, hypertension and polycystic ovary syndrome among girls. More frequent occurrence of metabolic syndrome can be observed among children born small for gestational age (SGA). The article presents the current views on risk factors, etiology, diagnosis and consequences insulin resistance and disorders of glucose tolerance. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  1. Treatment-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It's designed for treatment-resistant conditions. Interpersonal psychotherapy. Interpersonal psychotherapy focuses on resolving relationship issues that may contribute to your depression. Family or marital therapy. This type of therapy involves family members or ...

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (video) Animation ... Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials ...

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  4. Piggyback resistive Micromegas

    CERN Document Server

    Attié, D; Durand, D; Desforge, D; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; Giomataris, Y; Gongadze, A; Iguaz, F J; Jeanneau, F; de Oliveira, R; Papaevangelou, T; Peyaud, A; Teixeira, A

    2013-01-01

    Piggyback Micromegas consists in a novel readout architecture where the anode element is made of a resistive layer on a ceramic substrate. The resistive layer is deposited on the thin ceramic substrate by an industrial process which provides large dynamic range of resistivity (10$^6$ to 10$^{10}$\\,M$\\Omega$/square). The particularity of this new structure is that the active part is entirely dissociated from the read-out element. This gives a large flexibility on the design of the anode structure and the readout scheme. Without significant loss, signals are transmitted by capacitive coupling to the read-out pads. The detector provides high gas gain, good energy resolution and the resistive layer assures spark protection for the electronics. This assembly could be combined with modern pixel array electronic ASICs. First tests with different Piggyback detectors and configurations will be presented. This structure is adequate for cost effective fabrication and low outgassing detectors. It was designed to perform ...

  5. Regicide and Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role of resistance in Michel Foucault’s political thought. The article recovers this otherwise obscured aspect of Foucault’s thought through a systematic analysis of his theoretical regicide and consequent reconceptualization of power, agency and resistance. It is argued...... that Foucault developed a highly original account of resistance, which was, and should continue to be considered, central to his thought and its critical potential. It is shown how Foucault’s concept of resistance overcomes the limitation of voluntarism and determinism, which continue to mare contemporary...... political theory, providing a passage from the critique of contemporary configurations of power to the irrepressible possibility that they may be contested and changed....

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated Report Data Meetings and Publications Resources Judicious Use of ... back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases ...

  7. Tetracycline Antibiotics and Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Trudy H

    2016-04-01

    Tetracyclines possess many properties considered ideal for antibiotic drugs, including activity against Gram-positive and -negative pathogens, proven clinical safety, acceptable tolerability, and the availability of intravenous (IV) and oral formulations for most members of the class. As with all antibiotic classes, the antimicrobial activities of tetracyclines are subject to both class-specific and intrinsic antibiotic-resistance mechanisms. Since the discovery of the first tetracyclines more than 60 years ago, ongoing optimization of the core scaffold has produced tetracyclines in clinical use and development that are capable of thwarting many of these resistance mechanisms. New chemistry approaches have enabled the creation of synthetic derivatives with improved in vitro potency and in vivo efficacy, ensuring that the full potential of the class can be explored for use against current and emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, MDR Acinetobacter species, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to make the concept of antimicrobial resistance more real and understandable to veterinarians, livestock producers, lawmakers, consumer ... FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  9. Skid Resistance Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Skidding causes many traffic accidents. Streets and highways with skid-resisting surfaces reduce the incidence of such accidents. In fact, resurfacing roads to improve skid resistance is now required by federal law. Skid resistance is measured by road testing with specially equipped skid trailers. A project underway at NASA-Langley may considerably reduce the cost of skid trailers, thus making them more widely available to highway departments. For testing the skid resistance of aircraft runways, Langley engineers developed a relatively inexpensive test vehicle and a "pulsed braking" technique that is now being applied experimentally to road testing. The vehicle is a standard automobile modified to incorporate instrumentation, special test tires and valves, and a trailing fifth wheel for monitoring distance and velocity. The instrumentation includes a low-cost meter, a set of accelerometers that sense motion changes, and a chart recorder.

  10. Retroviral superinfection resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nethe, Micha; Berkhout, Ben; van der Kuyl, Antoinette C.

    2005-01-01

    The retroviral phenomenon of superinfection resistance (SIR) defines an interference mechanism that is established after primary infection, preventing the infected cell from being superinfected by a similar type of virus. This review describes our present understanding of the underlying mechanisms

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... complex. This video was designed to make the concept of antimicrobial resistance more real and understandable to ... audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists by showing how ...

  12. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes of resistance. Learn more about research and investigations currently underway . Clinical Research Clinical research projects related ... Interest for NIAID’s Small Business Program Division of AIDS High-Priority Areas of Interest Division of Allergy, ...

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... issue of antimicrobial resistance is that the subject material appears abstract and is complex. This video was ... can develop and spread. All FDA CVM produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long ...

  15. Correlation of molecular resistance mechanisms and phenotypic resistance levels in streptomycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, A; Sander, P; Schaper, K J; Scholz, M; Böttger, E C

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of streptomycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis demonstrated that there is a close correlation between the molecular resistance mechanism and the in vitro activity of streptomycin: mutations in rpsL were mainly associated with high-level resistance, mutations in rrs were associated with an intermediate level of resistance, and streptomycin-resistant isolates with wild-type rpsL and rrs exhibited a low-level resistance phenotype. In...

  16. Resistance Versus Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Jane E.; Kenny, Glen P.; Perkins, Bruce A.; Riddell, Michael C.; Balaa, Nadia; Malcolm, Janine; Boulay, Pierre; Khandwala, Farah; Sigal, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In type 1 diabetes, small studies have found that resistance exercise (weight lifting) reduces HbA1c. In the current study, we examined the acute impacts of resistance exercise on glycemia during exercise and in the subsequent 24 h compared with aerobic exercise and no exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve physically active individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.1 ± 1.0%) performed 45 min of resistance exercise (three sets of seven exercises at eight repetitions maximum), 45 min of aerobic exercise (running at 60% of Vo2max), or no exercise on separate days. Plasma glucose was measured during and for 60 min after exercise. Interstitial glucose was measured by continuous glucose monitoring 24 h before, during, and 24 h after exercise. RESULTS Treatment-by-time interactions (P exercise. Plasma glucose decreased from 8.4 ± 2.7 to 6.8 ± 2.3 mmol/L (P = 0.008) during resistance exercise and from 9.2 ± 3.4 to 5.8 ± 2.0 mmol/L (P = 0.001) during aerobic exercise. No significant changes were seen during the no-exercise control session. During recovery, glucose levels did not change significantly after resistance exercise but increased by 2.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L (P = 0.023) after aerobic exercise. Mean interstitial glucose from 4.5 to 6.0 h postexercise was significantly lower after resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise. CONCLUSIONS Resistance exercise causes less initial decline in blood glucose during the activity but is associated with more prolonged reductions in postexercise glycemia than aerobic exercise. This might account for HbA1c reductions found in studies of resistance exercise but not aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes. PMID:23172972

  17. Radiation resistant modified polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojarski, J.; Zimek, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation technology for production of radiation resistant polypropylene for medical use has been presented. The method consists in radiation induced copolymerization of polypropylene with ethylene and addition of small amount of copolymer of polyethylene and vinyl acetate. The material of proposed composition has a very good mechanical properties and elevated radiation resistivity decided on possibility of radiosterilization of products made of this material and designed for medical use. 3 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Stab resistant body armour

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfall, I

    2000-01-01

    There is now a widely accepted need for stab resistant body armour for the police in the UK. However, very little research has been done on knife resistant systems and the penetration mechanics of sharp projectiles are poorly understood. This thesis explores the general background to knife attack and defence with a particular emphasis on the penetration mechanics of edged weapons. The energy and velocity that can be achieved in stabbing actions has been determined for a numb...

  19. [Resistance profile of rilpivirine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaz, Arkaitz; García, Federico; di Yacovo, Silvana; Llibre, Josep M

    2013-06-01

    Rilpivirine (RPV) is a new second-generation nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) approved for use in combination with two nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) as initial therapy in treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected patients with a baseline viral load ≤100,000 copies/mL. RPV is a diarylpyrimidine derivative with potent in vitro activity against multiple HIV-1 variants with resistance mutations to first-generation NNRTI such as K103N. In vitro studies and phase III clinical trials have allowed the identification of 16 mutations associated with resistance to RPV K101E/P, E138A/G/K/Q/R, V179L, Y181C/I/V, Y188L, H221Y, F227C and M230I/L. The risk of virologic failure in patients receiving RPV plus 2 NRTI with plasma viral load ≤ 100,000 copies/mL is low, but a high percentage of patients failing RPV develop resistance mutations to both RPV and NRTI. The most common resistance mutation that emerges in this setting is E138K. This mutation is usually associated with M184I due to a double compensatory effect of this combination, which confers resistance to RPV, as well as to lamivudine and emtricitabine. The emergence of RPV resistance confers cross-resistance to all NNRTI and, importantly, high percentages of cross-resistance to etravirine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Sand resistance of sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Michael; Wood, Caryl; Martinez, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Like water resistance in sunscreens, sand resistance in sunscreens is the ability of the sunscreen to retain its effectiveness while undergoing sand treatment. The influence of the type of sand on the sand resistance of sunscreens has not been described. The sand resistance of a control standard sunscreen, P2, and data on three grades of Quickrete commercial grade sand, #1961, #1962, and #1152, are described. These sands represent a fine sand, a medium sand, and an all-purpose sand. Using the methodology described in the 2007 proposed amendment of the Final Monograph (1) with one exception, we obtained an SPF of 16.5 (1.6) for the control standard, compared to the expected SPF of 16.3 (3.4). After a five-minute treatment of sand #1961, #1962, or #1151, the SPF of the control standard was 18.3 (1.6), 18.4 (2.0), and 17.5 (2.2), respectively. Thus, all three sands exhibited a similar sand-resistance response. Thus, there was no significant difference in the average SPF with and without sand. The medium grade sand, Quickrete commercial grade #1962, was preferred for sand-resistance testing because the fine sand was difficult to remove from the subject's backs and the coarse sand was unpleasant to the subjects.

  1. Resistance in psychotherapy with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graafsma, T; Anbeek, M

    1984-03-01

    Resistances are of considerable significance in psychoterapy with adolescents. In this article, that significance is investigated further, because the way in which resistances are valued is very important in treatment. The forms in which it appears and, the source and intention of resistances are discussed. It is proposed that the investigation of resistances should not be aimed primarily at their removal.

  2. Drug resistance in cancer cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mehta, Kapil, Dr; Siddik, Zahid H

    2009-01-01

    ... from disappointment with the drug resistance reversal strategies that were carried out in the 1990s using pump inhibitors to block drug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein, product of the MDR-1 gene. However, if one takes the larger definition - multidrug resistance as simultaneous resistance to multiple structurally unrelated anticancer therapies - its...

  3. Desiccation resistance in Arcobacter butzleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otth Laura

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The desiccation resistance of A. butzleri was studied. Two, 3 and 4 of the strains did not resist desiccation for more than 2, 12 and 36 h, respectively. Two strains resisted desiccation for > 48 h. A. butzleri seems to be more resistant to desiccation than the classical enteropathogenic Campylobacter species.

  4. Resistance to technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isensee, J.

    1983-01-01

    This article deals with the tolerance test the constitutional system (Basic Law) of the Federal Republic of Germany is currently put to as a consequence of the resistance to the power structure of this country, which is expressed in the name of protection and defense for the environment and world peace. This biopacifistic resistance movment, the author says, has nothing to do with the legal right to resist, as laid down in art. 20 (4) of the Basic Law. According to the author, this attitude is an offspring of fear of the hazards of technological progress, primarily of nuclear hazards. Practical resistance, the author states, is preceded by theoretical resistance in speech: De-legitimation of the democratic legality, of the parliamentary functions, of the supreme power of the government, and denial of the citizens duty of obedience. The author raises the question as to whether this attitude of disobedience on ecological grounds marks the onset of a fourth stage of development of the modern state, after we have passed through stages characterised by fear of civil war, of tyranny, and of social privation and suffering. There are no new ideas brought forward by the ecologically minded movement, the author says, for re-shaping our institutions or constitutional system. (HP) [de

  5. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes.

  6. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes

  7. Fast Resistive Bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, C.; Fehl, D.L.; Hanson, D.L.; Keltner, N.R.; McGurn, J.S.; McKenney, J.L.; Spielman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Resistive bolometry is an accurate, robust, spectrally broadband technique for measuring absolute x-ray fluence and flux. Bolometry is an independent technique for x-ray measurements that is based on a different set of physical properties than other diagnostics such as x-ray diodes, photoconducting detectors, and P-I-N diodes. Bolometers use the temperature-driven change in element resistivity to determine the total deposited energy. The calibration of such a device is based on fundamental material properties and its physical dimensions. We describe the use of nickel and gold bolometers to measure x rays generated by high-power z pinches on Sandia's Saturn and Z accelerators. The Sandia bolometer design described herein has a pulse response of ∼1 ns. We describe in detail the fabrication, fielding, and data analysis issues leading to highly accurate x-ray measurements. The fundamental accuracy of resistive bolometry will be discussed

  8. Heat-resistant materials

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    This handbook covers the complete spectrum of technology dealing with heat-resistant materials, including high-temperature characteristics, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, materials selection guidelines for industrial applications, and life-assessment methods. Also included is information on comparative properties that allows the ranking of alloy performance, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, high-temperature oxidation and corrosion-resistant coatings for superalloys, and design guidelines for applications involving creep and/or oxidation. Contents: General introduction (high-temperature materials characteristics, and mechanical and corrosion properties, and industrial applications); Properties of Ferrous Heat-Resistant Alloys (carbon, alloy, and stainless steels; alloy cast irons; and high alloy cast steels); Properties of superalloys (metallurgy and processing, mechanical and corrosion properties, degradation, and protective coa...

  9. Fast Resistive Bolometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeney, C.; Fehl, D.L.; Hanson, D.L.; Keltner, N.R.; McGurn, J.S.; McKenney, J.L.; Spielman, R.B.

    1999-02-01

    Resistive bolometry is an accurate, robust, spectrally broadband technique for measuring absolute x-ray fluence and flux. Bolometry is an independent technique for x-ray measurements that is based on a different set of physical properties than other diagnostics such as x-ray diodes, photoconducting detectors, and P-I-N diodes. Bolometers use the temperature-driven change in element resistivity to determine the total deposited energy. The calibration of such a device is based on fundamental material properties and its physical dimensions. We describe the use of nickel and gold bolometers to measure x rays generated by high-power z pinches on Sandia's Saturn and Z accelerators. The Sandia bolometer design described herein has a pulse response of {approximately}1 ns. We describe in detail the fabrication, fielding, and data analysis issues leading to highly accurate x-ray measurements. The fundamental accuracy of resistive bolometry will be discussed.

  10. Fast resistive bolometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielman, R.B.; Deeney, C.; Fehl, D.L.; Hanson, D.L.; Keltner, N.R.; McGurn, J.S.; McKenney, J.L.

    1998-06-01

    Resistive bolometry is an accurate, robust, spectrally broadband technique for measuring absolute x-ray fluence and flux. Bolometry is an independent technique for x-ray measurements that is based on a different set of physical properties than other diagnostics such as x-ray diodes, photoconducting detectors, and P-I-N diodes. Bolometers use the temperature-driven change in element resistivity to determine the total deposited energy. The calibration of such a device is based on fundamental material properties and its physical dimensions. The authors describe the use of nickel and gold bolometers to measure x rays generated by high power Z pinches on Sandia`s Saturn and Z accelerators. The Sandia bolometer design described herein has a pulse response of {approximately}1 ns. They describe in detail the fabrication, fielding, and data analysis issues leading to highly accurate x-ray measurements. The fundamental accuracy of resistive bolometry will be discussed.

  11. Depression and Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Sue; Schmidt, Mike; Patton, George; Dwyer, Terry; Blizzard, Leigh; Otahal, Petr; Venn, Alison

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between depressive disorder and insulin resistance in a sample of young adults using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to ascertain depression status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,732 participants aged between 26 and 36 years. Insulin resistance was derived from blood chemistry measures of fasting insulin and glucose using the homeostasis model assessment method. Those identified with mild, moderate, or severe depression were classified as having depressive disorder. RESULTS The 12-month prevalence of depressive disorder was 5.4% among men and 11.7% among women. In unadjusted models mean insulin resistance was 17.2% (95% CI 0.7–36.0%, P = 0.04) higher in men and 11.4% (1.5–22.0%, P = 0.02) higher in women with depressive disorder. After adjustment for behavioral and dietary factors, the increased level of insulin resistance associated with depressive disorder was 13.2% (−3.1 to 32.3%, P = 0.12) in men and 6.1% (−4.1 to 17.4%, P = 0.25) in women. Waist circumference was identified as a mediator in the relationship between depression and insulin resistance, reducing the β coefficient in the fully adjusted models in men by 38% and in women by 42%. CONCLUSIONS A positive association was found between depressive disorder and insulin resistance in this population-based sample of young adult men and women. The association seemed to be mediated partially by waist circumference. PMID:20185745

  12. Kinetically Controlled Drug Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xin E.; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Hedstrom, Lizbeth

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium brevicompactum produces the immunosuppressive drug mycophenolic acid (MPA), which is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases (IMPDHs). IMPDH catalyzes the conversion of IMP to XMP via a covalent enzyme intermediate, E-XMP*; MPA inhibits by trapping E...... of resistance is not apparent. Here, we show that, unlike MPA-sensitive IMPDHs, formation of E-XMP* is rate-limiting for both PbIMPDH-A and PbIMPDH-B. Therefore, MPA resistance derives from the failure to accumulate the drug-sensitive intermediate....

  13. Measurement of Dynamic Resistance in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    Through years, the dynamic resistance across the electrodes has been used for weld quality estimation and contact resistance measurement. However, the previous methods of determining the dynamic resistance were mostly based on measuring the voltage and current on the secondary side...... of the transformer in resistance welding machines, implying defects from induction noise and interference with the leads connected to the electrodes for measuring the voltage. In this study, the dynamic resistance is determined by measuring the voltage on the primary side and the current on the secondary side......, as another application, the proposed method is used to measure the faying surface contact resistance....

  14. Toward a Psychology of Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jeanette A; Dodds, Agnes E

    2018-03-01

    Resistance is all around us in contemporary life. It is an everyday phenomenon of personal and cultural life, as the Chaudhary et al. (2017) volume establishes with theoretical analyses and empirical examples from diverse cultural contexts. Resistance functions in the dynamics of person-by-culture encounters when one party takes an opposing position. With the purpose of working towards a unified approach to resistance, the authors in this volume lay down the foundations for a psychology of resistance as an everyday phenomenon. As a basis for analyzing the role of resistance in the dialectical processes of change, the volume presents resistance as: personal and social, oppositional, intentional and future-oriented, transformational and developmental. We see different positions opening up a debate about whether resistance is a particular, intentional and oppositional phenomenon, or is the basic process of all dialectical transformational change. Further resistance to either position is consistent with moving forward in the development of a psychology of resistance.

  15. Shatter resistance in sesame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langham, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    The majority of the world's sesame (probably over 99%) is shattering, and most of the harvest is manual. In a non-mechanized environment the last thing that farmers want is seed retention (''hold''). They want the seed to fall out as easily as possible. The amount of shattering desired is dependent on the method of harvest. By 1944 the first stage of mechanization was initiated. The indehiscent mutant found in 1943 showed in succeeding generations that it was controlled monogenically, and the homozygous recessive (id/id) gave indehiscence. Unfortunately, the id allele had pleiotropic effects including cupped leaves, twisted stems, short seed pods, semi-sterility, and low yield. Improvements in shatter resistance are relative within a specific program. For example, Sesaco has improved its shatter resistance each year, and still for the USA methods of harvest, further improvements are necessary to allow for better retention in adverse weather. This paper presents a methodology for quantifying shatter resistance so researchers can compare levels of shatter resistance between programs. (author)

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial for treatment. Accordingly, efforts are underway in both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. ...

  17. Corrosion resistant steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubchenko, A.S.; Borisov, V.P.; Latyshev, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion resistant steel for production of sheets and tubes containing C, Mn, Cr, Si, Fe is suggested. It is alloyed with vanadium and cerium for improving tensile properties and ductility. The steel can be melted by a conventional method in electric-arc or induction furnaces. The mentioned steel is intended to be used as a substitute for nickel-bearing austenitic steels

  18. Infinite resistive lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, D; van Steenwijk, F.J.

    The resistance between two arbitrary nodes in an infinite square lattice of:identical resistors is calculated, The method is generalized to infinite triangular and hexagonal lattices in two dimensions, and also to infinite cubic and hypercubic lattices in three and more dimensions. (C) 1999 American

  19. How Many Equivalent Resistances?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.prenhall.com/boylestad/. [3]. Antoni Amengual, The intriguing properties of the equivalent resistances of n equal resistors combined in series and in parallel, American Journal of Physics, Vol.68, No.2, pp.175–179, 2000. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/. 10.1119/1.19396. [4]. Neil J A Sloane (Ed.), The On-Line Encyclopedia ...

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit ... non-scientists by showing how bacterial antimicrobial resistance can develop and spread. All FDA CVM produced material ...

  1. Overcoming Faculty Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaff, Jerry G.

    1978-01-01

    Teaching improvement and institutional renewal efforts often face pessimism about change, if not suspicion and resistance, but faculty teams can overcome these problems through an action-oriented but low-profile "organic" approach. The need for personal invitations by colleagues is shown. (Author/LBH)

  2. Overcoming Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Ted H.; Balka, Don S.; Miles, Ruth Harbin

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to change is a major obstacle in developing and implementing effective instructional programs, yet it is rarely considered, discussed, or addressed. The school leaders who are responsible for improvement frequently feel that their efforts are being blocked or thwarted. For the most part, they are correct, but they may not realize that…

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts ... 語 | فارسی | English FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR Act Site Map ...

  5. Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Nevin E.; Oppenheimer, Dan

    1982-01-01

    A study conducted by high school advanced bacteriology students appears to confirm the hypothesis that the incremental administration of antibiotics on several species of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Bacillus sublitus, Bacillus megaterium) will allow for the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. (PEB)

  6. Individual Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    Giddens , 1979). It is based on this perception that the model presents the factors of resistance to change. The model’s elements are expressed as... Giddens , Anthony, (1979). Central Problems in Social Theory: Action, Structure and Contradiction in Social Analysis. Berkeley, CA: University of

  7. Oseltamivir-Resistant Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-13

    Dr. Aaron Storms, an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officer at CDC, discusses his paper about oseltamivir-resistant H1N1flu.  Created: 4/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/17/2012.

  8. CONFERENCE REPORT ANTIRETROVIRAL RESISTANCE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-02

    Aug 2, 2004 ... had achieved full virological suppression (viral load. < 50 copies/ml). Thirty-two per cent of women had nevirapine-resistant virus. A novel strategy to avoid maternal exposure to nevirapine might be administering the drug to the newborn as post- exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Researchers from South Africa3.

  9. PRESSURE-RESISTANT VESSEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, A.; De Jong, T.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of WO 9717570 (A1) The invention is directed to a wheel-shaped pressure-resistant vessel for gaseous, liquid or liquefied material having a substantially rigid shape, said vessel comprising a substantially continuous shell of a fiber-reinforced resin having a central opening, an inner

  10. Antibiotic Resistance and Fungus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-28

    Dr. David Denning, President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections and an infectious diseases clinician, discusses antimicrobial resistance and fungus.  Created: 2/28/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/28/2017.

  11. Return to Resistance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This book is addressed mainly to readers who are concerned about the world food supply, and the pollution of our environment with chemical pesticides, but who lack detailed scientific ...... And, like the chain, the super-cultivar would be ruined with the failure of only one weak link, one short-lived vertical resistance.

  12. The resistance brand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm; Uldam, Julie

    aspects of CSR (Hoff-Clausen and Ihlen, 2015; Morsing, 2006) and the ways in which they are used by corporations for self- presentations as political actors beyond CSR programmes (Palazzo and Scherer, 2006). We will conclude that there is not one resistance brand, but a series of ways in which...

  13. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are common in animals because of the use of fluoroquinolones as therapeutic agents in animal husbandry, particularly in chickens and other poultry. Campylobacter is a commensal in poultry, and therefore, poultry and poultry products are the...

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains ... human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One of the major obstacles to understanding the ... Page Last Updated: 02/23/2018 ...

  15. [Resistance to integrase inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Carolina; de Mendoza, Carmen; Soriano, Vicente

    2008-11-01

    Integrase inhibitors are the most recently approved family of antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV infection. As with other antiretroviral agents, under pharmacological pressure, the virus selects resistance mutations if viral suppression is incomplete. Mutations are selected in the integrase gene, specifically in positions proximal to the catalytic center. Because clinical experience with these drugs is scarce, information on resistance is limited. Virologic failure with raltegravir is associated with selection of primary mutations such as N155H (40%) and distinct changes in position Q148 (28%). Less frequently, Y143R (6.6%) and E92Q are selected. The most frequently observed mutations in failure with elvitegravir are E92Q, E138K, Q148R/K/H and N155H, and less frequently S147G and T66A/I/K. The most common resistance pattern seems to be E138K + E147G + Q148R. There is a high grade of cross resistance between raltegravir and elvitegravir, making sequencing between these two drugs impossible.

  16. Insulin Resistance and Hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahana Shermin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Backgound: The number of hypogonads is increasing day by day. It may be due to sedentary life style with increased obesity, increased tension or stressed lifestyle among all groups of populations. Visceral obesity is associated with insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and also with hypogonadism.Objective: This study was carried out to determine the proportion of insulin resistance among male subjects with hypogonadism in different age groups along with status of erectile quality among diabetics and non diabetics.Materials and method: This cross sectional study among 161 adult male subjects aged ≥ 20 to ≤ 60 years were purposively selected from Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM, Dhaka, Bangladesh between May 2009 to September 2010. Glycemic status and insulin resistance (by HOMA-R were done and relevant history were documented.Results: The highest proportion (38.9% of hypogonadism was in ≥ 50 years age group whereas highest proportion (39.6% of the eugonads was in the age group of 40 to 49 years. More than half of the hypogonad subjects had weak erectile quality (54.0% which were followed by absent erectile quality in 32.7% and 13.3% subjects had normal erectile quality. Among the eugonad subjects 41.7% had normal erectile quality, 41.6% subjects had weak erectile quality and 16.7% subjects had no erectile quality. More than ninety percent of the hypogonad subjects and about 60% of the eugonad subjects had insulin resistance. The average HOMA-R was more in the subjects with hypogonadism with diabetes which was highly significant (p-value < 0.001.Conclusion: Hypogonadism is associated with insulin resistance.

  17. Are Sewage Treatment Plants Promoting Antibiotic Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction 1.1. How bacteria exhibit resistance 1.1.1. Resistance to -lactams 1.1.2. Resistance to sulphonamides and trimethoprim 1.1.3. Resistance to macrolides 1.1.4. Resistance to fluoroquinolones 1.1.5. Resistance to tetracyclines 1.1.6. Resistance to nitroimidaz...

  18. Resistant plasmid profile analysis of multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli has become a major threat and cause of many urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the resistant plasmids of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from (Urinary tract infections)UTIs in Abeokuta.

  19. Multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection with ceftriaxone resistance and intermediate resistance to azithromycin, Denmark, 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, David; Tolstrup, Jacob; Johnsen, Camilla Hundahl

    2017-01-01

    We describe a multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection with ceftriaxone resistance and azithromycin intermediate resistance in a heterosexual man in Denmark, 2017. Whole genome sequencing of the strain GK124 identified MSLT ST1903, NG-MAST ST1614 and all relevant resistance determinants...... including similar penA resistance mutations previously described in ceftriaxone-resistant gonococcal strains. Although treatment with ceftriaxone 0.5 g plus azithromycin 2 g was successful, increased awareness of spread of gonococcal strains threatening the recommended dual therapy is crucial....

  20. Galileo's Trajectory with Mild Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groetsch, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of Galileo's classical trajectory that persists in a simple resistance model is noted. The resistive model provides a case study for the classroom analysis of limiting behaviour of an implicitly defined function. (Contains 1 note.)

  1. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  2. Retroviral superinfection resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Kuyl Antoinette C

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The retroviral phenomenon of superinfection resistance (SIR defines an interference mechanism that is established after primary infection, preventing the infected cell from being superinfected by a similar type of virus. This review describes our present understanding of the underlying mechanisms of SIR established by three characteristic retroviruses: Murine Leukaemia Virus (MuLV, Foamy Virus (FV, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. In addition, SIR is discussed with respect to HIV superinfection of humans. MuLV resistant mice exhibit two genetic resistance traits related to SIR. The cellular Fv4 gene expresses an Env related protein that establishes resistance against MuLV infection. Another mouse gene (Fv1 mediates MuLV resistance by expression of a sequence that is distantly related to Gag and that blocks the viral infection after the reverse transcription step. FVs induce two distinct mechanisms of superinfection resistance. First, expression of the Env protein results in SIR, probably by occupancy of the cellular receptors for FV entry. Second, an increase in the concentration of the viral Bet (Between-env-and-LTR-1-and-2 protein reduces proviral FV gene expression by inhibition of the transcriptional activator protein Tas (Transactivator of spumaviruses. In contrast to SIR in FV and MuLV infection, the underlying mechanism of SIR in HIV-infected cells is poorly understood. CD4 receptor down-modulation, a major characteristic of HIV-infected cells, has been proposed to be the main mechanism of SIR against HIV, but data have been contradictory. Several recent studies report the occurrence of HIV superinfection in humans; an event associated with the generation of recombinant HIV strains and possibly with increased disease progression. The role of SIR in protecting patients from HIV superinfection has not been studied so far. The phenomenon of SIR may also be important in the protection of primates that are vaccinated with live

  3. Copper resistance determinants in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N L; Rouch, D A; Lee, B T

    1992-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element that is utilized in a number of oxygenases and electron transport proteins, but it is also a highly toxic heavy metal, against which all organisms must protect themselves. Known bacterial determinants of copper resistance are plasmid-encoded. The mechanisms which confer resistance must be integrated with the normal metabolism of copper. Different bacteria have adopted diverse strategies for copper resistance, and this review outlines what is known about bacterial copper resistance mechanisms and their genetic regulation.

  4. Insulin Resistance in Liver Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Irshad, M

    2011-01-01

    Present report gives a brief and consolidated review of insulin resistance developed in chronic liver diseases. Insulin resistance remains an important feature of chronic liver diseases and progresses disease towards fibrogenesis. Of hepatitis viral infections, hepatitis C virus (HCV) was reported to have a significant role in inducing insulin resistance. Both viral particles as such, as well its structural components induce insulin resistance. Hepatitis C virus core protein, specially, cause...

  5. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi [Wading River, NY

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  6. Antibacterial resistance: an emerging 'zoonosis'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labro, Marie-Thérèse; Bryskier, Jean-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Antibacterial resistance is a worldwide threat, and concerns have arisen about the involvement of animal commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance and spread of resistance genes. However, beyond the facts related to the occurrence of resistant microorganisms in food, food-producing animals and companion animals and their transmission to humans, it is important to consider the vast environmental 'resistome', the selective pathways underlying the emergence of antibacterial resistance and how we can prepare answers for tomorrow.

  7. Flow resistance in rod assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsun, A.S.; Sokolova, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    The general form of relation between the resistance force and the velocity vector, resistance tensor structure and possible types of anisotropy in the flow thorough such structures as rod or tube assemblies are under discussion. Some questions of experimental determination of volumetric resistance force tensor are also under consideration. (author)

  8. Studying Resistance: Some Cautionary Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2011-01-01

    The question of "resistance" has oriented the field of critical ethnography for several generations now. Indeed, the reproduction-resistance binary has animated much of the most important, critical work in educational studies over the last 30 years. Yet, this reproduction-resistance binary has perhaps calcified in recent years. Such work…

  9. Electromigration early resistance increase measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, J.; Flinn, P.A.; Maloney, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    An early resistance change measurement set-up, using an AC bridge technique, has been developed, and measurements have been performed. Large sample-to-sample variations occur. The characteristic time for the resistance change curve is shorter for resistance increase (under current stress) than for

  10. Biotechnology: herbicide-resistant crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are planted on about 80% of the land covered by transgenic crops. More than 90% of HR crios are glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, the others being resistant to glufosinate. The wide-scale adoption of HR crops, largely for economic reasons, has been the mos...

  11. Tubing with high corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioffe, A. V.; Tetyueva, T. V.; Vyboyshchik, M. A.; Trifonova, E. A.; Lutsenko, E. S.

    2010-07-01

    The optimum chemical composition and the regime for heat treatment of heat-resistant steel 15Kh5M are determined for the production of tubing with strength of group L80 (API 5CT) and high cold resistance and resistance to carbon dioxide and sulfurated hydrogen corrosion at low alloying additives of chromium and molybdenum.

  12. Interventions for Dealing with Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Dorinda J.

    Basic intervention strategies for dealing with client resistance include psychoanalytic, learning/behavioral, and hypnotic/paradoxical. Psychoanalytic theory views resistance as a way to avoid the anxiety aroused by increasing awareness of unconscious materials and vulnerable areas in the person's life. Resistance is dealt with after it has…

  13. Electrical resistivity probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  14. Progesterone resistance in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Bansari G; Rudnicki, Martin; Yu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain and affects up to 10% of women of reproductive age. Aberrant progesterone signaling in the endometrium plays a significant role in impaired decidualization and establishment of ectopic endometrial implants. Eutopic endometrial cells from women...... with endometriosis fail to downregulate genes needed for decidualization, such as those involved in cell cycle regulation, leading to unbridled proliferation. Several causes of progesterone resistance in the endometrium have been postulated, including congenital "preconditioning", whereby the in utero environment...... renders infants susceptible to neonatal uterine bleeding and endometriosis. Progesterone action is crucial to decreasing inflammation in the endometrium, and deviant progesterone signaling results in a proinflammatory phenotype. Conversely, chronic inflammation can induce a progesterone resistant state...

  15. Viscous, Resistive Magnetorotational Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan

    2008-01-01

    We carry out a comprehensive analysis of the behavior of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in viscous, resistive plasmas. We find exact, non-linear solutions of the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations describing the local dynamics of an incompressible, differentially rotating...... background threaded by a vertical magnetic field when disturbances with wavenumbers perpendicular to the shear are considered. We provide a geometrical description of these viscous, resistive MRI modes and show how their physical structure is modified as a function of the Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds...... momentum transport is always directed outwards. We also find that, for any combination of the Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds numbers, magnetic disturbances dominate both the energetics and the transport of angular momentum and that the total mean energy density is an upper bound for the total mean stress...

  16. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-28

    In this podcast, Dr. Oeltmann discusses multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. An outbreak occurred in Thailand, which led to 45 cases in the U.S. This serious illness can take up to 2 years to treat. MDR TB is a real threat and a serious condition.  Created: 10/28/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 10/28/2008.

  17. Shock resistance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouard, M.

    1984-03-01

    In the framework of mechanical tests and to answer the different requests for tests, the T.C.R (Transport Conditionnement et Retraitement) laboratory got test facilities. These installations allow to carry out tests of resistance to shocks, mainly at the safety level of components of nuclear power plants, mockups of transport casks for fuel elements and transport containers for radioactive materials. They include a tower and a catapult. This paper give a decription of the facilities and explain their operation way [fr

  18. Insecticide Resistance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    thuringiensis var. membranes israeknsis A2 Bacillus sphaencus Inhibitocs of chitin biosynthesis type 0 15 Benzaylureas Diflubenzuron, triflnmuron...resources/ pdf /fsp/ir_manual/ir_cdc_bioassay_en.pdf 22 STEP 5: INTERPRETING RESULTS The time required for all susceptible mosquitoes to die in the...purchase by contacting: Dr Zairi Jaal, Tel: 604-6574776; zairi@usm.my http://www.who.int/whopes/resistance/en/WHO_CDS_CPE_PV C_2001.2. pdf 27

  19. Metal Resistance and Its Association With Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Chandan; Asiani, Karishma; Arya, Sankalp; Rensing, Christopher; Stekel, Dov J; Larsson, D G Joakim; Hobman, Jon L

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is recognised as a major global threat to public health by the World Health Organization. Currently, several hundred thousand deaths yearly can be attributed to infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The major driver for the development of antibiotic resistance is considered to be the use, misuse and overuse of antibiotics in humans and animals. Nonantibiotic compounds, such as antibacterial biocides and metals, may also contribute to the promotion of antibiotic resistance through co-selection. This may occur when resistance genes to both antibiotics and metals/biocides are co-located together in the same cell (co-resistance), or a single resistance mechanism (e.g. an efflux pump) confers resistance to both antibiotics and biocides/metals (cross-resistance), leading to co-selection of bacterial strains, or mobile genetic elements that they carry. Here, we review antimicrobial metal resistance in the context of the antibiotic resistance problem, discuss co-selection, and highlight critical knowledge gaps in our understanding. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. HIV resistance testing and detected drug resistance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultze, Anna; Phillips, Andrew N; Paredes, Roger

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe regional differences and trends in resistance testing among individuals experiencing virological failure and the prevalence of detected resistance among those individuals who had a genotypic resistance test done following virological failure. DESIGN: Multinational cohort...... study. METHODS: Individuals in EuroSIDA with virological failure (>1 RNA measurement >500 on ART after >6 months on ART) after 1997 were included. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for resistance testing following virological failure and aORs for the detection of resistance among those who had a test were...... calculated using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Compared to 74.2% of ART-experienced individuals in 1997, only 5.1% showed evidence of virological failure in 2012. The odds of resistance testing declined after 2004 (global P Resistance was detected in 77...

  1. Assessing resistance of stabilized corrosion resistant steels to intergranular corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas, A.; Cihal, V. Jr.; Vanek, V.; Herzan, J.; Protiva, K.; Cihal, V.

    1987-01-01

    Resistance to intergranular corrosion was determined for four types of titanium-stabilized steels from the coefficients of stabilization efficiency according to the degree the chemical composition was known. The ATA SUPER steel showed the highest resistance parameter value. The resistance of this type of steel of a specific composition, showing a relatively low value of mean nitrogen content was compared with steel of an optimized chemical composition and with low-carbon niobium stabilized, molybdenum modified steels. The comparison showed guarantees of a sufficient resistance of the steel to intergranular corrosion. The method of assessing the resistance to intergranular corrosion using the calculation of the minimum content of Cr', i.e., the effective chromium content, and the maximum effective carbon content C' giving the resistance parameter k seems to be prospective for practical use in the production of corrosion resistant steels. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 15 refs

  2. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance involves the collection and analysis of data for the detection and monitoring of threats to public health. Surveillance should also inform as to the epidemiology of the threat and its burden in the population. A further key component of surveillance is the timely feedback of data to stakeholders with a view to generating action aimed at reducing or preventing the public health threat being monitored. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation. Correlation of these data with demographic and clinical data for the patient populations from whom the pathogens were isolated gives insight into the underlying epidemiology and facilitates the formulation of rational interventions aimed at reducing the burden of resistance. This article describes a range of surveillance activities that have been undertaken in the UK over a number of years, together with current interventions being implemented. These activities are not only of national importance but form part of the international response to the global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. PMID:25918439

  3. Mechanisms of ouabain resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.T. III.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were designed to investigate the mechanism of ouabain resistance in two distinct types of transfected cells derived from ouabain-sensitive CV-1 cell parents. The first type of transfectant is the recipient of a gene encoding the alpha subunit of the rodent renal Na,K-ATPase (R-alphal gene); the second type of transfectant is the recipient of the mouse ouabain resistance gene. Measurements of 86 Rb + uptake and Na,K=ATPase activity in R-alphal gene transfectant cells and CV-1 parent cells indicate that the ouabain-resistant phenotype of the transfectants is due to expression of a relatively ouabain-insensitive Na,K=ATPase. CV-1 parent cells express one component of ouabain sensitive 86 Rb + uptake and one component of ouabain-sensitive Na, K-ATPase activity. R-alpha 1 gene transfectants express the parental forms of ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake and Na,K-ATPase activity, but in addition express new,relatively ouabain-insensitive forms of 86 Rb + uptake activity and Na,K-ATPase activity

  4. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  5. Strategies to combat antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchil, Rajesh R; Kohli, Gurdeep Singh; Katekhaye, Vijay M; Swami, Onkar C

    2014-07-01

    The global burden of antimicrobial resistance is rising and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in clinical and community setting. Spread of antibiotic resistance to different environmental niches and development of superbugs have further complicated the effective control strategies. International, national and local approaches have been advised for control and prevention of antimicrobial resistance. Rational use of antimicrobials, regulation on over-the-counter availability of antibiotics, improving hand hygiene and improving infection prevention and control are the major recommended approaches. Thorough understanding of resistance mechanism and innovation in new drugs and vaccines is the need. A multidisciplinary, collaborative, regulatory approach is demanded for combating antimicrobial resistance.

  6. Rhythms of Resistance and Existence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Nandita; Hviid, Pernille; Marsico, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    and, when it is, resistance is most often considered counter-productive. Simple evaluations of resistance as positive or negative are avoided in this volume; instead it is conceptualised as a vital process for human development and well-being. While resistance is usually treated as an extraordinary...... occurrence, the focus here is on everyday resistance as an intentional process where new meaning constructions emerge in thinking, feeling, acting or simply living with others. Resistance is thus conceived as a meaning-making activity that operates at the intersection of personal and collective systems...

  7. Molecular Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluit, Ad C.; Visser, Maarten R.; Schmitz, Franz-Josef

    2001-01-01

    The determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate, especially with increasing resistance, is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients. Nucleic acid-based assays for the detection of resistance may offer advantages over phenotypic assays. Examples are the detection of the methicillin resistance-encoding mecA gene in staphylococci, rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the spread of resistance determinants across the globe. However, molecular assays for the detection of resistance have a number of limitations. New resistance mechanisms may be missed, and in some cases the number of different genes makes generating an assay too costly to compete with phenotypic assays. In addition, proper quality control for molecular assays poses a problem for many laboratories, and this results in questionable results at best. The development of new molecular techniques, e.g., PCR using molecular beacons and DNA chips, expands the possibilities for monitoring resistance. Although molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance clearly are winning a place in routine diagnostics, phenotypic assays are still the method of choice for most resistance determinations. In this review, we describe the applications of molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance and the current state of the art. PMID:11585788

  8. Happy Festivus! Parody as playful consumer resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkonen, Ilona; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon literary theory, play and consumer resistance literature, we conceptualize consumer parodic resistance – a resistant form of play that critically refunctions dominant consumption discourses and marketplace ideologies. We explore parodic resistance empirically by analyzing Festivus, a...

  9. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by acquired resistance...... genes, has not become widespread so far. However, resistance genes originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species have been found, showing the potential for acquired resistance to emerge in Campylobacter....

  10. Tunable resistance coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Mane, Anil U.

    2015-08-11

    A method and article of manufacture of intermixed tunable resistance composite materials containing at least one of W:Al.sub.2O.sub.3, Mo:Al.sub.2O.sub.3 or M:Al.sub.2O.sub.3 where M is a conducting compound containing either W or Mo. A conducting material and an insulating material are deposited by such methods as ALD or CVD to construct composites with intermixed materials which do not have structure or properties like their bulk counterparts.

  11. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, Jr., Victor M.; Pullen, William C.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Bell, Richard T.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  12. Organic ice resists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiddi, William; Elsukova, Anna; Le, Hoa Thanh

    2017-01-01

    that simple organic molecules, e.g. alcohols, condensed to form thin-films at low temperature demonstrate resist-like capabilities for EBL applications and beyond. The entire lithographic process takes place in a single instrument, and avoids exposing chemicals to the user and the need of cleanrooms. Unlike...... EBL that requires large samples with optically flat surfaces, we patterned on fragile membranes only 5-nm-thin, and 2 x 2 mm2 diamond samples. We created patterns on the nm to sub-mm scale, as well as three-dimensional structures by stacking layers of frozen organic molecules. Finally, using plasma...

  13. Outwitting the series resistance in scanning spreading resistance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, A.; Cao, R.; Eyben, P.; Hantschel, T.; Vandervorst, W.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of nanoelectronics devices critically depends on the distribution of active dopants inside these structures. For this reason, dopant profiling has been defined as one of the major metrology challenges by the international technology roadmap of semiconductors. Scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) has evolved as one of the most viable approaches over the last decade due to its excellent spatial resolution, sensitivity and quantification accuracy. However, in case of advanced device architectures like fins and nanowires a proper measurement of the spreading resistance is often hampered by the increasing impact of parasitic series resistances (e.g. bulk series resistance) arising from the confined nature of the aforementioned structures. In order to overcome this limitation we report in this paper the development and implementation of a novel SSRM mode (fast Fourier transform-SSRM: FFT-SSRM) which essentially decouples the spreading resistance from parasitic series resistance components. We show that this can be achieved by a force modulation (leading to a modulated spreading resistance signal) in combination with a lock-in deconvolution concept. In this paper we first introduce the principle of operation of the technique. We discuss in detail the underlying physical mechanisms as well as the technical implementation on a state-of-the-art atomic force microscope (AFM). We demonstrate the performance of FFT-SSRM and its ability to remove substantial series resistance components in practice. Eventually, the possibility of decoupling the spreading resistance from the intrinsic probe resistance will be demonstrated and discussed. - Highlights: • A novel electrical AFM mode for carrier profiling in confined volumes is presented. • Thereby the force and hence the contact area between AFM probe and sample is modulated. • Information on the spreading resistance is derived using a lock-in approach. • Bulk series resistance components are

  14. First resistance mechanisms characterization in glyphosate-resistant Leptochloa virgata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptochloa virgata (L. P. Beauv. is an annual weed common in citrus groves in the states of Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico limiting their production. Since 2010, several L. virgata populations were identified as being resistant to glyphosate, but studies of their resistance mechanisms developed by this species have been conducted. In this work, three glyphosate-resistant populations (R8, R14 and R15 collected in citrus orchards from Mexico, were used to study their resistance mechanisms comparing them to one susceptible population (S. Dose-response and shikimic acid accumulation assays confirmed the glyphosate resistance of the three resistant populations. Higher doses of up to 720 g ae ha-1 (field dose were needed to control by 50% plants of resistant populations. The S population absorbed between 7 and 13% more 14C-glyphosate than resistant ones, and translocated up to 32.2% of 14C-glyphosate to the roots at 96 h after treatment (HAT. The R8, R14 and R15 populations translocated only 24.5, 26.5 and 21.9%, respectively. The enzyme activity of 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS was not different in the S, R8 and R14 populations. The R15 Population exhibited 165.9 times greater EPSPS activity. Additionally, this population showed a higher EPSPS basal activity and a substitution in the codon 106 from Proline to Serine in the EPSPS protein sequence. EPSPS gene expression in the R15 population was similar to that of S population. In conclusion, the three resistant L. virgata populations show reduced absorption and translocation of 14C-glyphosate. Moreover, a mutation and an enhanced EPSPS basal activity at target-site level confers higher resistance to glyphosate. These results describe for the first time the glyphosate resistance mechanisms developed by resistant L. virgata populations of citrus orchards from Mexico.

  15. A resistência olha a resistência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ponciano Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Resistência é um processo humano que acontece quando a pessoa se encontra sob algum tipo de ameaça. Não é essencialmente um acontecimento psicoterapêutico. Ocorre na terapia não como uma oposição a si mesmo ou ao terapeuta, mas como uma forma de se ajustar a uma nova situação. A resistência, é por natureza, a atualização do instinto de auto-preservação. E o organismo inteligentemente segue a lei da preferência. Resistência é uma forma de contato que não pode ser destruída, mas administrada, porque ela surge como uma defesa da totalidade vivenciada pela pessoa. A Resistência é, às vezes, resistência e awareness mais que ao contato. Ela revela mais o caminho seguido do que oculta a caminhada feita. A resistência é um processo natural, porque o corpo que não resiste, morre, mas falamos em processos de auto-regulação organísmica. Valorizamos mais o que mantêm a resistência funcionando do que à própria resistência. O terapeuta também resiste, ou seja, ele se auto-regula na sua relação com o cliente. Não questionamos a resistência, mas o processo que a mantêm. Trabalhamos com nove mecanismos de defesa, também tradicionalmente, chamados de resistência.

  16. Relaxation resistance of heat resisting alloys with cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzdyka, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Relaxation resistance of refractory nickel-chromium alloys containing 5 to 14 % cobalt is under study. The tests involve the use of circular samples at 800 deg to 850 deg C. It is shown that an alloy containing 14% cobalt possesses the best relaxation resistance exceeding that of nickel-chromium alloys without any cobalt by a factor of 1.5 to 2. The relaxation resistance of an alloy with 5% cobalt can be increased by hardening at repeated loading

  17. Resistive Memory Devices for Radiation Resistant Non-Volatile Memory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ionizing radiation in space can damage electronic equipment, corrupting data and even disabling computers. Radiation resistant (rad hard) strategies must be employed...

  18. Resistance diagnosis and the changing epidemiology of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, David

    2017-01-01

    Widespread adoption of point-of-care resistance diagnostics (POCRD) reduces ineffective antibiotic use but could increase overall antibiotic use. Indeed, in the context of a standard susceptible-infected epidemiological model with a single antibiotic, POCRD accelerates the rise of resistance in the disease-causing bacterial population. When multiple antibiotics are available, however, POCRD may slow the rise of resistance even as more patients receive antibiotic treatment, belying the conventional wisdom that antibiotics are "exhaustible resources" whose increased use necessarily promotes the rise of resistance. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. CMS Resistive plate Champers

    CERN Document Server

    Zainab, Karam

    2013-01-01

    There are many types of gas detectors which are used in CERN in LHC project, There is a main parts for the gas detectors which must be in all gas detectors types like Multiwire proportional chambers, such as the micromesh gaseous structure chamber (the MicroMegas), Gas-electron multiplier (GEM) detector, Resistive Plate Champers... Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment detecting muons which are powerful tool for recognizing signatures of interesting physics processes. The CMS detector uses: drift tube (DT), cathode strip chamber (CSC) and resistive plate chamber (RPC). Building RPC’s was my project in summer student program (hardware). RPC’s have advantages which are triggering detector and Excellent time resolution which reinforce the measurement of the correct beam crossing time. RPC’s Organized in stations :  RPC barrel (RB) there are 4 stations, namely RB1, RB2, RB3, and RB4  While in the RPC endcap (RE) the 3 stations are RE1, RE2, and RE3. In the endcaps a new starion will be added and this...

  20. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  1. Primary multidrug resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Supriya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year old man presented at our institution with back pain, low-grade fever and weight-loss. X-ray of chest (postero-anterior view showed multiple opacities with erosion of right 2nd and left 6th ribs. CT-scan of thorax and CT-guided FNAC con-firmed the diagnosis of tuberculosis of ribs. Even after 5-months of treatment with four first line drugs, the patient developed a cold abscess at the back. Mycobacterial culture and drug sensitivity of material aspirated by Radiometric method from the cold abscess showed growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and those bacilli were resistant to both isoniazide and rifampicin. The patient did not have anti-tubercu-lar medication in the past, and that established the diagnosis of primary multidrug resistant tuberculosis of ribs. Patient was treated successfully with 2nd line drugs at the cost of moderate degree of hearing loss. After one and half years of treatment X-ray of chest (PA view showed complete healing of rib erosions with new bone formation.

  2. [Resistant hypertension: An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, N F

    2018-01-31

    An estimated 10% to 20% of hypertensive patients could be considered resistant to treatment (RH). These are patients who are not controlled using three drugs, at the maximum tolerated doses, including a diuretic, as well as those with high blood pressure controlled using four or more drugs. The term is used to identify patients that might benefit from special diagnostic and/or therapeutic consideration. The term 'refractory hypertension' has recently been proposed as a novel phenotype of antihypertensive failure. It refers to patients whose blood pressure cannot be controlled with maximum treatment. The first studies of this phenotype indicate that it is rare and affects less than 5% of patients with RH. Adherence to or compliance with medical treatment is key to defining resistant hypertension. Closer attention has been paid to clinical and experimental research since the first scientific statement for the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of RH from the American Heart Association, and in the European guidelines, was published in 2008. This review will set out the concepts relating to prevalence, prognosis and compliance and cover the latest developments on this subject. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Clopidogrel resistance: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, Thomas; Cayla, Guillaume; Silvain, Johanne

    2010-01-01

    The concept of clopidogrel resistance emerged several years ago. Since then, many studies have been performed to elucidate the mechanisms and potential clinical impact of this biological finding. These studies identified complex mechanisms, including drug-drug interactions, genetic polymorphisms and clinical factors, and showed consistently the clinical relevance of the variability of clopidogrel response, with higher ischaemic risk in low-responders or non-responders, and higher bleeding risk in hyper-responders. Several strategies for overcoming clopidogrel resistance have been evaluated in small clinical studies, but the benefit of tailored antiplatelet therapy has yet to be validated in large randomized trials, which are currently ongoing. Upcoming antiplatelet drugs that are more potent will change the field of antiplatelet therapy in acute coronary syndromes. The future of antiplatelet therapy sounds more complex, with different drugs, and tailored therapy based on platelet tests and/or genetic testing, but it will lead us to propose a more individualized therapy, which hopefully will improve patient outcome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. How to fight antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Cédric; Brouqui, Philippe

    2007-03-01

    Antimicrobial misuse results in the development of resistance and superbugs. Over recent decades, resistance has been increasing despite continuing efforts to control it, resulting in increased mortality and cost. Many authorities have proposed local, regional and national guidelines to fight against this phenomenon, and the usefulness of these programmes has been evaluated. Multifaceted intervention seems to be the most efficient method to control antimicrobial resistance. Monitoring of bacterial resistance and antibiotic use is essential, and the methodology has now been homogenized. The implementation of guidelines and infection control measures does not control antimicrobial resistance and needs to be reinforced by associated measures. Educational programmes and rotation policies have not been evaluated sufficiently in the literature. Combination antimicrobial therapy is inefficient in controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  5. The Prehistory of Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Julie; Waglechner, Nicholas; Wright, Gerard

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global problem that is reaching crisis levels. The global collection of resistance genes in clinical and environmental samples is the antibiotic "resistome," and is subject to the selective pressure of human activity. The origin of many modern resistance genes in pathogens is likely environmental bacteria, including antibiotic producing organisms that have existed for millennia. Recent work has uncovered resistance in ancient permafrost, isolated caves, and in human specimens preserved for hundreds of years. Together with bioinformatic analyses on modern-day sequences, these studies predict an ancient origin of resistance that long precedes the use of antibiotics in the clinic. Understanding the history of antibiotic resistance is important in predicting its future evolution. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  6. Observations on resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, R.A.; Finn, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Several results on resistive wall modes and their application to tokamaks are presented. First, it is observed that in the presence of collisional parallel dynamics there is an exact cancellation to lowest order of the dissipative and sound wave effects for an ideal Ohm's law. This is easily traced to the fact that the parallel dynamics occurs along the perturbed magnetic field lines for such electromagnetic modes. Such a cancellation does not occur in the resistive layer of a tearing-like mode. The relevance to models for resistive wall modes using an electrostatic Hammett-Perkins type operator to model Landau damping will be discussed. Second, we observe that with an ideal Ohm's law, resistive wall modes can be destabilized by rotation in that part of parameter space in which the ideal MHD modes are stable with the wall at infinity. This effect can easily be explained by interpreting the resistive wall instability in terms of mode coupling between the backward stable MHD mode and a stable mode locked into the wall. Such an effect can occur for very small rotation for tearing-resistive wall modes in which inertia dominates viscosity in the layer, but the mode is stabilized by further rotation. For modes for which viscosity dominates in the layer, rotation is purely stabilizing. For both tearing models, a somewhat higher rotation frequency gives stability essentially whenever the tearing mode is stable with a perfectly conducting wall. These tearing/resistive wall results axe also simply explained in terms of mode coupling. It has been shown that resonant external ideal modes can be stabilized in the presence of resistive wall and resistive plasma with rotation of order the nominal tearing mode growth rate. We show that these modes behave as resistive wall tearing modes in the sense above. This strengthens the suggestion that rotational stabilization of the external kink with a resistive wall is due to the presence of resistive layers, even for ideal modes

  7. Resistance governance in IT projects

    OpenAIRE

    Vrhovec, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The failure rate of projects introducing major changes is worrying. Resistance to change is recognized as an important factor in project failure. Resistance is a natural part of the change process and is therefore present in all changes. IS changes are mostly evolutionary. Organizations infrequently implement more important strategic changes with a broader scope. Resistance often remains overlooked and usually does not constitute a serious threat to the change as it is proportional to the cha...

  8. Resistive Switching Assisted by Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, G. A.; Fierens, P. I.; Grosz, D. F.

    2013-01-01

    We extend results by Stotland and Di Ventra on the phenomenon of resistive switching aided by noise. We further the analysis of the mechanism underlying the beneficial role of noise and study the EPIR (Electrical Pulse Induced Resistance) ratio dependence with noise power. In the case of internal noise we find an optimal range where the EPIR ratio is both maximized and independent of the preceding resistive state. However, when external noise is considered no beneficial effect is observed.

  9. Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron A. Wade; Natasha Kyprianou

    2018-01-01

    The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival ...

  10. Overcoming resistance to organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, P K

    1997-10-01

    Resistance to assertive organization change is inevitable because people are asked to reexamine and modify their behavior, which breeds resistance. Resistance serves to maintain equilibrium until the reasons for change are both conscious and compelling. Instead of accepting people's feelings as excuses, persistently push for what you know needs to happen in the face of today's harsh realities. Provide clarity, time, support, and the stability of a persistent message.

  11. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    in well adapted Northwest European spring cultivars. Virulence matching two hitherto not overcome resistances was demonstrated. Differences in apparent race nonspecific or partial resistance were also present, changing the percentage of infected plants of susceptible genotypes from about 20 to 44 per cent.......Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring...

  12. Resistance to rifampicin: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Beth P

    2014-09-01

    Resistance to rifampicin (RIF) is a broad subject covering not just the mechanism of clinical resistance, nearly always due to a genetic change in the β subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP), but also how studies of resistant polymerases have helped us understand the structure of the enzyme, the intricacies of the transcription process and its role in complex physiological pathways. This review can only scratch the surface of these phenomena. The identification, in strains of Escherichia coli, of the positions within β of the mutations determining resistance is discussed in some detail, as are mutations in organisms that are therapeutic targets of RIF, in particular Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Interestingly, changes in the same three codons of the consensus sequence occur repeatedly in unrelated RIF-resistant (RIF(r)) clinical isolates of several different bacterial species, and a single mutation predominates in mycobacteria. The utilization of our knowledge of these mutations to develop rapid screening tests for detecting resistance is briefly discussed. Cross-resistance among rifamycins has been a topic of controversy; current thinking is that there is no difference in the susceptibility of RNAP mutants to RIF, rifapentine and rifabutin. Also summarized are intrinsic RIF resistance and other resistance mechanisms.

  13. HIV resistance testing: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, Jaber

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, resistance testing has become an important tool in optimizing the combination therapy for treating HIV infected individuals. The identification of resistance mutations has allowed physicians to select the antiviral agents with maximum therapeutic benefic and minimum toxic side effects. The current therapeutic agents approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), their mechanisms of actions, and the mutations of the HIV viral genome that lead to resistance to antiviral agents are discussed. In addition, methods of resistance testing, both genotypic and phenotypic, are evaluated with consideration of their inherent advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Persistence, resistance, resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsadka, Maayan

    Sound cannot travel in a vacuum, physically or socially. The ways in which sound operates are a result of acoustic properties, and the ways by which it is considered to be music are a result of social constructions. Therefore, music is always political, regardless of its content: the way it is performed and composed; the choice of instrumentation, notation, tuning; the medium of its distribution; its inherent hierarchy and power dynamics, and more. My compositional praxis makes me less interested in defining a relationship between music and politics than I am in erasing---or at least blurring---the borders between them. In this paper I discuss the aesthetics of resonance and echo in their metaphorical, physical, social, and musical manifestations. Also discussed is a political aesthetic of resonance, manifested through protest chants. I transcribe and analyze common protest chants from around the world, categorizing and unifying them as universal crowd-mobilizing rhythms. These ideas are explored musically in three pieces. Sumud: Rhetoric of Resistance in Three Movements, for two pianos and two percussion players, is a musical interpretation of the political/social concept of sumud, an Arabic word that literally means "steadfastness" and represents Palestinian non-violent resistance. The piece is based on common protest rhythms and uses the acoustic properties inherent to the instruments. The second piece, Three Piano Studies, extends some of the musical ideas and techniques used in Sumud, and explores the acoustic properties and resonance of the piano. The final set of pieces is part of my Critical Mess Music Project. These are site-specific musical works that attempt to blur the boundaries between audience, performers and composer, in part by including people without traditional musical training in the process of music making. These pieces use the natural structure and resonance of an environment, in this case, locations on the UCSC campus, and offer an active

  15. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of methicillin-resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk and soft cheese (wara) sold in Abeokuta, Nigeria. ... (100%), ampicillin 16 (94.1%), doxycycline 11 (64.7%), tetracycline 17 (100%), oxacillin 15 (88.2%), augmentin 17 (100%), gentamycin 15 (88.2%), colistin 15 (88.2%), ...

  16. plasmid mediated resistance in multidrug resistant bacteria isolated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    PLASMID MEDIATED RESISTANCE IN MULTIDRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA. ISOLATED FROM CHILDREN WITH SUSPECTED SEPTICAEMIA IN ZARIA,. NIGERIA. AbdulAziz, Z. A.,1* Ehinmidu, J. O.,1 Adeshina, G. O.,1 Pala, Y. Y2., Yusuf, S. S2. and. Bugaje, M. A.3. 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical ...

  17. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The prediction of Los Angeles (LA) abrasion loss from some indirect tests is useful for practical applications. For this purpose, LA abrasion, electrical resistivity, density and porosity tests were carried out on 27 different rock types. LA abrasion loss values were correlated with electrical resistivity and a good correlation ...

  18. Mechanisms of polymyxin resistance: acquired and intrinsic resistance in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Olumuyiwa Olaitan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Polymyxins are polycationic antimicrobial peptides that are currently the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug-resistant, Gram-negative bacterial infections. The reintroduction of polymyxins for antimicrobial therapy has been followed by an increase in reports of resistance among Gram-negative bacteria. Some bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, develop resistance to polymyxins in a process referred to as acquired resistance, whereas other bacteria, such as Proteus spp., Serratia spp. and Burkholderia spp., are naturally resistant to these drugs. Reports of polymyxin resistance in clinical isolates have recently increased, including acquired and intrinsically resistant pathogens. This increase is considered a serious issue, prompting concern due to the low number of currently available effective antibiotics. This review summarizes current knowledge concerning the different strategies bacteria employ to resist the activities of polymyxins.Gram-negative bacteria employ several strategies to protect themselves from polymyxin antibiotics (polymyxin B and colistin, including a variety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS modifications, such as modifications of lipid A with phosphoethanolamine and 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose, in addition to the use of efflux pumps, the formation of capsules and overexpression of the outer membrane protein OprH, which are all effectively regulated at the molecular level. The increased understanding of these mechanisms is extremely vital and timely to facilitate studies of antimicrobial peptides and find new potential drugs targeting clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria.

  19. Measurement of Dynamic Resistance in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Lu, J.; Zhang, Wenqi

    2007-01-01

    The conventional methods of determining the dynamic resistance were mostly done by measuring the voltage and current at secondary side of transformer in resistance welding machines, in which the measuring set-up normally interferes with the movement of electrode, and the measuring precision is in...

  20. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    39⋅0. 2⋅29. 4⋅04. Figure 1. Resistivity measurement system. pore fluid salinity, pore fluid saturation, temperature and pressure were kept the same. Resistivity measurements were performed on cylindri- cal samples of 54⋅4 mm diameter and ~ 50 mm length. Axial end surfaces of the samples were ground flat and parallel.

  1. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. The prediction of Los Angeles (LA) abrasion loss from some indirect tests is useful for practical applications. For this purpose, LA abrasion, electrical resistivity, density and porosity tests were carried out on 27 different rock types. LA abrasion loss values were correlated with electrical resistivity and a good corre-.

  2. Powdery Mildew Disease Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, Shauna C.

    2010-08-31

    The overall goal of this project was to characterize the PMR5 protein, a member of the DUF231/TBR family, and to determine its role in plant cell wall biogenesis. Since the pmr5 mutants are also resistant to the fungal powdery mildew pathogen, we wished to determine what specific cell wall changes are associated with disease resistance and why. The graduate student working on this project made mutations in the putative active site of PMR5, assuming it is a member of the SGNH/GDSL esterase superfamily (Anantharaman and Aravind, 2010, Biology Direct 5, 1). These mutants were inactive in planta suggesting that PMR5 is a functional enzyme and not a binding protein or chaperone. In addition, she determined that cell wall preparations from the pmr5 mutant exhibited a modest reduction (13%) in total acetyl groups. To pursue characterization further, the graduate student expressed the PMR5 protein in a heterologous E. coli system. She could purify PMR5 using a two step protocol based on tags added to the N and C terminus of the protein. She was able to show the PMR5 protein bound to pectins, including homogalacturonan, but not to other cell wall components (e.g., xyloglucans, arabinans). Based on these observations, a postdoctoral fellow is currently developing an enzyme assay for PMR5 based on the idea that it may be acetylating the homogalacturonic acid pectin fraction. Our initial experiments to localize PMR5 subcellularly suggested that it occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, since the various pectins are believed to be synthesized in the Golgi apparatus, we felt it necessary to repeat our results using a native promoter expression system. Within the past year, we have demonstrated conclusively that PMR5 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, a location that sets it apart from most cell wall biogenesis and modification enzymes. The graduate student contributed to the characterization of two suppressor mutants, which were selected as restoring powdery

  3. Scratch-Resistant Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Lewis Research Center developed a process for achieving diamond- hard coatings for aerospace systems. The technique involves coating the material with a film of diamond-like carbon (DLC) using direct ion deposition. An ion generator creates a stream of ions from a hydrocarbon gas source; the carbon ions impinge directly on the target substrate and 'grow' into a thin DLC film. In 1988, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. received a license to the NASA patent. Diamonex, an Air Products spinoff company, further developed the NASA process to create the DiamondHard technology used on the Bausch & Lomb Ray- Ban Survivors sunglasses. The sunglasses are scratch-resistant and shed water more easily, thus reducing spotting.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter: susceptibility testing methods and resistance trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Beilei; Wang, Fei; Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; McDermott, Patrick F

    2013-10-01

    Most Campylobacter infections are self-limiting but antimicrobial treatment (e.g., macrolides, fluoroquinolones) is necessary in severe or prolonged cases. Susceptibility testing continues to play a critical role in guiding therapy and epidemiological monitoring of resistance. The methods of choice for Campylobacter recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) are agar dilution and broth microdilution, while a disk diffusion method was recently standardized by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Macrolides, quinolones, and tetracyclines are among the common antimicrobials recommended for testing. Molecular determination of Campylobacter resistance via DNA sequencing or PCR-based methods has been performed. High levels of resistance to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin are frequently reported by many national surveillance programs, but resistance to erythromycin and gentamicin in Campylobacter jejuni remains low. Nonetheless, variations in susceptibility observed over time underscore the need for continued public health monitoring of Campylobacter resistance from humans, animals, and food. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Vancomycin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus


    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Will A.; Malachowa, Natalia; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of Staphylococcus aureus during the modern antibiotic era has been delineated by distinct strain emergence events, many of which include acquisition of antibiotic resistance. The relative high burden of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in healthcare and community settings is a major concern worldwide. Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic that inhibits cell wall biosynthesis, remains a drug of choice for treatment of severe MRSA infections. S. aureus strains exhibiting increased resistance to vancomycin, known as vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) (MIC = 4-8 µg/mL), were discovered in the 1990s. The molecular basis of resistance in VISA is polygenic and involves stepwise mutations in genes encoding molecules predominantly involved in cell envelope biosynthesis. S. aureus isolates with complete resistance to vancomycin (MIC ≥ 16 µg/mL) are termed vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA)—they were first reported in the U.S. in 2002. Resistance in VRSA is conferred by the vanA gene and operon, which is present on a plasmid. Although treatment of VRSA infections is challenging, the total number of human VRSA infections to date is limited (14 in the U.S.). By comparison, the burden of VISA is relatively high and the molecular mechanisms of resistance are less well-defined. VISA are associated with persistent infections, vancomycin treatment failure, and poor clinical outcomes. Here, we review in brief progress made toward understanding the acquisition of antibiotic resistance in S. aureus, with an emphasis on the molecular mechanisms underlying vancomycin resistance. PMID:28656013

  6. Reconceptualizing resistance: sociology and the affective dimension of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Maria

    2013-12-01

    This paper re-examines the sociological study of resistance in light of growing interest in the concept of affect. Recent claims that we are witness to an 'affective turn' and calls for a 'new sociological empiricism' sensitive to affect indicate an emerging paradigm shift in sociology. Yet, mainstream sociological study of resistance tends to have been largely unaffected by this shift. To this end, this paper presents a case for the significance of affect as a lens by which to approach the study of resistance. My claim is not simply that the forms of actions we would normally recognize as resistance have an affective dimension. Rather, it is that the theory of affect broadens 'resistance' beyond the purview of the two dominant modes of analysis in sociology; namely, the study of macropolitical forms, on the one hand, and the micropolitics of everyday resistance on the other. This broadened perspective challenges the persistent assumption that ideological forms of power and resistance are the most pertinent to the contemporary world, suggesting that much power and resistance today is of a more affective nature. In making this argument, it is a Deleuzian reading of affect that is pursued, which opens up to a level of analysis beyond the common understanding of affect as emotion. I argue that an affective approach to resistance would pay attention to those barely perceptible transitions in power and mobilizations of bodily potential that operate below the conscious perceptions and subjective emotions of social actors. These affective transitions constitute a new site at which both power and resistance operate. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  7. METHICILLIN RESISTANCE IN STAPHYLOCOCCAL ISOLATES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the importance of Staphylococcus aureus as a urinary pathogen and the incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A total of 86 staphylococcal isolates made up of 50 clinical isolates from urine samples submitted to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory ...

  8. PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9 mars 2015 ... strategy to prevent the spread of this resistance. Keywords: Staphylococci; Staphylococcus aureus; Oxacillin; Antibiotic resistance; Disc diffusion. Author Correspondence, e-mail: mn.boukhatem@yahoo.fr. ICID: 1142924. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. ISSN 1112-9867. Available online at.

  9. Wear resistance of cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pietrowski; G. Gumienny

    2008-01-01

    In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron – the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

  10. Dealing with Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ronald; Blackburn, Barbara R.

    2010-01-01

    One of the biggest roadblocks to addressing instructional rigor in schools is the resistance to change that is displayed by teachers, students, parents, and other building and district leaders. Every person deals differently with change. Some are more accepting, others more resistant. No change is successful if the people being asked to change…

  11. Engineering disease resistance in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custers, J.H.H.V.

    2007-01-01

    The genetic engineering of plants for increased pathogen resistance has engaged researchers and companies for decades. Until now, thenumberof crops with genetically engineered disease resistance traits which have entered the market are limited to products displaying virus

  12. Skid resistance study : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    This is a report of a research project involving, in Phase I, the skid resistance of asphaltic concrete overlays. Phase II is a report of a pilot study set up in order to determine the best way to perform a skid resistance inventory of the highway ne...

  13. Multidrug resistance in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Hendrik

    1996-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) was initially recongnized as the major cause of the failure of the drug-based treatment of human cancers. It has become increasingly clear that MDR occurs in mammalian cells but also in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. The appearance of multiple antibiotic resistant

  14. The (Street) Art of Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.; Wagoner, Brady; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the interrelation between resistance, novelty and social change We will consider resistance as both a social and individual phenomenon, a constructive process that articulates continuity and change and as an act oriented towards an imagined future of different communities....

  15. The (Street) Art of Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.; Wagoner, Brady; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the interrelation between resistance, novelty and social change We will consider resistance as both a social and individual phenomenon, a constructive process that articulates continuity and change and as an act oriented towards an imagined future of different communities....... In this account, resistance is thus a creative act having its own dynamic and, most of all, aesthetic dimension. In fact, it is one such visibly artistic form of resistance that will be considered here, the case of street art as a tool of social protest and revolution in Egypt. Street art is commonly defined...... in sharp contrast with high or fine art because of its collective nature and anonymity, its different kind of aesthetics, and most of all its disruptive, ‘anti-social’ outcomes. With the use of illustrations, we will argue here that street art is prototypical of a creative form of resistance, situated...

  16. Resistance as Organizational Change Dynamic:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2017-01-01

    processes (Vangen & Winchester, 2013; Purdy, 2012; Plotnikof, 2016). Therefore, issues such as diversity management, process design and power are being investigated; however, central matters of e.g. resistance are surprisingly overseen – although resistance to political changes and welfare reform processes...... is not novel. As such, resistance is not given much attention in the governance literature, if so merely as a destructive obstacle or as lacking individual adaptability to change amongst stakeholders (Kumar et al., 2007). Contrary to this, resistance is a central theme to a stream of research on organizational...... change processes (Thomas & Davies, 2005; Ford, Ford & D’amelio, 2008; Hernes & Maitlis, 2010; Plotnikof, 2015). These studies take a discursive perspective to approach resistance and power as intertwined in change dynamics, thus offering theorizing valuable to governance studies concerning political...

  17. Adriamycin resistance and radiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, J.A.; Harris, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Mammalian cells (V79) in culture developed resistance to Adriamycin during continuous exposure to low levels of drug. This resistance was accompanied by change in x-ray survival properties which, in turn, depended upon the isolation of subpopulations from resistant sub lines. These changes in x-ray survival properties were characterized by reduced D/sub Q/ values and a decrease in the D/sub O/. However, these changes were not observed together in the same cell sub line. Adriamycin-resistant cells did not appear to be radiation damage repair deficient. Other phenotypic changes (cell morphology, DNA content and chromosome number) suggested mutational events coincident with the development of Adriamycin resistance

  18. The Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Andrew G.; Waglechner, Nicholas; Nizam, Fazmin; Yan, Austin; Azad, Marisa A.; Baylay, Alison J.; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Canova, Marc J.; De Pascale, Gianfranco; Ejim, Linda; Kalan, Lindsay; King, Andrew M.; Koteva, Kalinka; Morar, Mariya; Mulvey, Michael R.; O'Brien, Jonathan S.; Pawlowski, Andrew C.; Piddock, Laura J. V.; Spanogiannopoulos, Peter; Sutherland, Arlene D.; Tang, Irene; Taylor, Patricia L.; Thaker, Maulik; Wang, Wenliang; Yan, Marie; Yu, Tennison

    2013-01-01

    The field of antibiotic drug discovery and the monitoring of new antibiotic resistance elements have yet to fully exploit the power of the genome revolution. Despite the fact that the first genomes sequenced of free living organisms were those of bacteria, there have been few specialized bioinformatic tools developed to mine the growing amount of genomic data associated with pathogens. In particular, there are few tools to study the genetics and genomics of antibiotic resistance and how it impacts bacterial populations, ecology, and the clinic. We have initiated development of such tools in the form of the Comprehensive Antibiotic Research Database (CARD; http://arpcard.mcmaster.ca). The CARD integrates disparate molecular and sequence data, provides a unique organizing principle in the form of the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology (ARO), and can quickly identify putative antibiotic resistance genes in new unannotated genome sequences. This unique platform provides an informatic tool that bridges antibiotic resistance concerns in health care, agriculture, and the environment. PMID:23650175

  19. Measurement of Dynamic Resistance in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Lu, J.; Zhang, Wenqi

    2007-01-01

    The conventional methods of determining the dynamic resistance were mostly done by measuring the voltage and current at secondary side of transformer in resistance welding machines, in which the measuring set-up normally interferes with the movement of electrode, and the measuring precision...... is influenced by inductive noise caused by the high welding current. In this study, the dynamic resistance is determined by measuring the voltage at primary side and current at secondary side. This increases the accuracy of measurement because of higher signal-noise ratio, and allows to apply to in...

  20. Resistance patterns, prevalence, and predictors of fluoroquinolones resistance in multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafees Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The high degree of drug resistance observed, particularly to fluoroquinolones, is alarming. We recommend the adoption of more restrictive policies to control non-prescription sale of fluoroquinolones, its rational use by physicians, and training doctors in both private and public–private mix sectors to prevent further increase in fluoroquinolones resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

  1. Cascade orificial resistive device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsakis, Nicholas; Cassidy, James

    1994-07-01

    A cascade orificial resistive device for throttling fluid flow which minimizes acoustic noise and internal vibrations is described herein. The device has a hollow body defining a fluid passageway, a plurality of perforated plates mounted within the passageway, a fixed end ring adjacent one end of the perforated plates, and a threadable end ring adjacent an opposite end of the perforated plates to place the plates in compression. Each of the perforated plates is a single piece molded plate having an integral outer ring and an integrally formed center keying mechanism as well as a plurality of orifices. The keying mechanism formed on each plate is designed so that adjacent ones of the plates have their orifices misaligned. In this manner, a pressure drop across each plate is created and the fluid flow through the device is throttled. The device of the present invention has utility in a number of onboard marine vessel systems wherein reduced acoustic noise and internal vibrations are particularly desirable.

  2. Antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel eGueimonde

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The main probiotic bacteria are strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although other representatives, such as Bacillus or Escherichia coli strains, have also been used. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are two common inhabitants of the human intestinal microbiota. Also, some species are used in food fermentation processes as starters, or as adjunct cultures in the food industry. With some exceptions, antibiotic resistance in these beneficial microbes does not constitute a safety concern in itself, when mutations or intrinsic resistance mechanisms are responsible for the resistance phenotype. In fact, some probiotic strains with intrinsic antibiotic resistance could be useful for restoring the gut microbiota after antibiotic treatment. However, specific antibiotic resistance determinants carried on mobile genetic elements, such as tetracycline resistance genes, are often detected in the typical probiotic genera, and constitute a reservoir of resistance for potential food or gut pathogens, thus representing a serious safety issue.

  3. Cephalosporin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Bala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonorrhea, a disease of public health importance, not only leads to high incidence of acute infections and complications but also plays a major role in facilitating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV acquisition and transmission. One of the major public health needs for gonorrhea control is appropriate, effective treatment. However, treatment options for gonorrhea are diminishing as Neisseria gonorrhoeae have developed resistance to several antimicrobial drugs such as sulfonamides, penicillin, tetracyclines and quinolones. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR surveillance of N. gonorrhoeae helps establish and maintain the efficacy of standard treatment regimens. AMR surveillance should be continuous to reveal the emergence of new resistant strains, monitor the changing patterns of resistance, and be able to update treatment recommendations so as to assist in disease control. Current treatment guidelines recommend the use of single dose injectable or oral cephalosporins. The emergence and spread of cephalosporin resistant and multi drug resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains, represents a worrying trend that requires monitoring and investigation. Routine clinical laboratories need to be vigilant for the detection of such strains such that strategies for control and prevention could be reviewed and revised from time to time. It will be important to elucidate the genetic mechanisms responsible for decreased susceptibility and future resistance. There is also an urgent need for research of safe, alternative anti-gonococcal compounds that can be administered orally and have effective potency, allowing high therapeutic efficacy (greater than 95.0% cure rate.

  4. Glyphosate resistance: state of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Robert Douglas; Gaines, Todd A

    2014-01-01

    Studies of mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate have increased current understanding of herbicide resistance mechanisms. Thus far, single-codon non-synonymous mutations of EPSPS (5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) have been rare and, relative to other herbicide mode of action target-site mutations, unconventionally weak in magnitude for resistance to glyphosate. However, it is possible that weeds will emerge with non-synonymous mutations of two codons of EPSPS to produce an enzyme endowing greater resistance to glyphosate. Today, target-gene duplication is a common glyphosate resistance mechanism and could become a fundamental process for developing any resistance trait. Based on competition and substrate selectivity studies in several species, rapid vacuole sequestration of glyphosate occurs via a transporter mechanism. Conversely, as the chloroplast requires transporters for uptake of important metabolites, transporters associated with the two plastid membranes may separately, or together, successfully block glyphosate delivery. A model based on finite glyphosate dose and limiting time required for chloroplast loading sets the stage for understanding how uniquely different mechanisms can contribute to overall glyphosate resistance. PMID:25180399

  5. Electrical resistivities of rocks from Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsube, T.J.; Hume, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Bulk rock resistivity and bulk surface resistivity measurements have been obtained for 40 gneissic rock samples from Chalk River, Ontario. Though bulk rock resistivity is a function of pore structure, pore-fluid resistivity and pore-surface resistivity, the amount of data documented for pore-surface resistivity is small compared to that for pore structure and pore-fluid resistivity. This study indicates that pore-surface resistivity has a significant effect on bulk rock resistivity. It is important that this fact be considered when interpreting resistivity data obtained by geophysical methods. In addition, a group of mafic gneiss samples had pore-surface resistivity values that were much lower than those reported for clays, glass beads or petroleum reservoir rocks. This is thought to be due to metallic minerals lining the pore walls. Other rock samples collected from the same area showed pore-surface resistivity value similar to those reported in the literature

  6. Systemic resistance induced by rhizosphere bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van; Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Nonpathogenic rhizobacteria can induce a systemic resistance in plants that is phenotypically similar to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) has been demonstrated against fungi, bacteria, and viruses in Arabidopsis, bean,

  7. The evolutionary benefit of insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeters, Maarten R.; Soeters, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance is perceived as deleterious, associated with conditions as the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and critical illness. However, insulin resistance is evolutionarily well preserved and its persistence suggests that it benefits survival. Insulin resistance is important in

  8. Understanding The Resistance to Health Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    David Ackah; Angelito E Alvarado; Heru Santoso Wahito Nugroho; Sanglar Polnok; Wiwin Martiningsih

    2017-01-01

    User resistance is users’ opposition to system implementation. Resistance often occurs as a result of a mismatch between management goals and employee preferences. There are two types of resistance to health iformation system namely active resistance and passive resistance. The manifestation of active resistance are being critical,  blaming/accusing, blocking, fault finding, sabotaging, undermining, ridiculing, intimidating/threatening, starting rumors, appealing to fear, manipulating arguing...

  9. Deciphering MCR-2 Colistin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Xu, Yongchang; Gao, Rongsui; Lin, Jingxia; Wei, Wenhui; Srinivas, Swaminath; Li, Defeng; Yang, Run-Shi; Li, Xing-Ping; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Ya-Hong; Feng, Youjun

    2017-05-09

    Antibiotic resistance is a prevalent problem in public health worldwide. In general, the carbapenem β-lactam antibiotics are considered a final resort against lethal infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Colistin is a cationic polypeptide antibiotic and acts as the last line of defense for treatment of carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Very recently, a new plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene, mcr-2 , was revealed soon after the discovery of the paradigm gene mcr-1 , which has disseminated globally. However, the molecular mechanisms for MCR-2 colistin resistance are poorly understood. Here we show a unique transposon unit that facilitates the acquisition and transfer of mcr-2 Evolutionary analyses suggested that both MCR-2 and MCR-1 might be traced to their cousin phosphoethanolamine (PEA) lipid A transferase from a known polymyxin producer, Paenibacillus Transcriptional analyses showed that the level of mcr-2 transcripts is relatively higher than that of mcr-1 Genetic deletions revealed that the transmembrane regions (TM1 and TM2) of both MCR-1 and MCR-2 are critical for their location and function in bacterial periplasm, and domain swapping indicated that the TM2 is more efficient than TM1. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) confirmed that all four MCR proteins (MCR-1, MCR-2, and two chimeric versions [TM1-MCR-2 and TM2-MCR-1]) can catalyze chemical modification of lipid A moiety anchored on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with the addition of phosphoethanolamine to the phosphate group at the 4' position of the sugar. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis defined an essential 6-residue-requiring zinc-binding/catalytic motif for MCR-2 colistin resistance. The results further our mechanistic understanding of transferable colistin resistance, providing clues to improve clinical therapeutics targeting severe infections by MCR-2-containing pathogens. IMPORTANCE Carbapenem and colistin are the last line of

  10. Interstrand resistance of SSC magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovachev, V.T.; Neal, M.J.; Capone, D.W. II; Carr, W.J. Jr.; Swenson, C.

    1994-01-01

    In situ interstrand resistance measurements were conducted on selected section of the inner coil of a full size (15 m) and a short (1 m) model SSC magnets. A model for evaluating single contacts resistance between two strands was developed. Using this model analyses of adjacent and non-adjacent strand contacts were performed. The interstrand resistance distribution throughout the coil was found to correlate with the quench location data as well as with the multipoles decay characteristics of the magnet. An anisotropic continuum based model for evaluation of cable eddy current losses was developed and results were compared with the experimental data

  11. Antibiotics and the resistant microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Morten; Dantas, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    Since the discovery and clinical application of antibiotics, pathogens and the human microbiota have faced a near continuous exposure to these selective agents. A well-established consequence of this exposure is the evolution of multidrug-resistant pathogens, which can become virtually untreatable....... Less appreciated are the concomitant changes in the human microbiome in response to these assaults and their contribution to clinical resistance problems. Studies have shown that pervasive changes to the human microbiota result from antibiotic treatment and that resistant strains can persist for years...... expand our understanding of the interplay between antibiotics and the microbiome....

  12. Azole-Resistant Invasive Aspergillosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensvold, Christen Rune; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2012-01-01

    and classes available is impressive compared to the armamentarium in human medicine, azoles will remain the most important group in agriculture due to superior field performance and significant resistance in fungal pathogens to other compounds. Hence, further spread of environmental resistant Aspergillus...... to the considerable use of azole fungicides in agriculture and for material preservation. Three specific resistance genotypes have been found in azole naïve patients. Two of these have also been found in the environment and are characterized by a tandem repeat in the promoter region of the target gene coupled...

  13. Antibiotic Resistance in Nephrological Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Taran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of antibiotic resistance is a serious threat to the global public health and requires action by both the state and the public. The World Health Organization identified 15 most dangerous and prevalent superbugs, which it ranked based on three levels of threat they present to the public health. At the heart of the fight against antibiotic resistance lies the increased awareness of the health professionals and general public that incorrect and excessive use of antibiotics amid poor practices in infection prevention and control contributes to the acceleration of antibiotic resistance.

  14. Fire Resistant, Moisture Barrier Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A waterproof and breathable, fire-resistant laminate is provided for use in tents, garments, shoes, and covers, especially in industrial, military and emergency situations. The laminate permits water vapor evaporation while simultaneously preventing liquid water penetration. Further, the laminate is fire-resistant and significantly reduces the danger of toxic compound production when exposed to flame or other high heat source. The laminate may be applied to a variety of substrates and is comprised of a silicone rubber and plurality of fire-resistant, inherently thermally-stable polyimide particles.

  15. Interstrand resistance of SSC magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovachev, V.T.; Neal, M.J.; Capone, D.W. II [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Carr, W.J. Jr.; Swenson, C. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center

    1994-01-01

    In situ interstrand resistance measurements were conducted on selected section of the inner coil of a full size (15 m) and a short (1 m) model SSC magnets. A model for evaluating single contacts resistance between two strands was developed. Using this model analyses of adjacent and non-adjacent strand contacts were performed. The interstrand resistance distribution throughout the coil was found to correlate with the quench location data as well as with the multipoles decay characteristics of the magnet. An anisotropic continuum based model for evaluation of cable eddy current losses was developed and results were compared with the experimental data.

  16. Evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards increasing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strommenger, Birgit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Kurt, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300.......To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300....

  17. Resistant and Refractory Hypertension: Antihypertensive Treatment Resistance vs Treatment Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohammed; Dudenbostel, Tanja; Calhoun, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Resistant or difficult to treat hypertension is defined as high blood pressure that remains uncontrolled with 3 or more different antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic. Recent definitions also include controlled blood pressure with use of 4 or more medications as also being resistant to treatment. Recently, refractory hypertension, an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure has been defined as hypertension uncontrolled with use of 5 or more antihypertensive agents, including a long-acting thiazide diuretic and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Patients with resistant vs refractory hypertension share similar characteristics and comorbidities, including obesity, African American race, female sex, diabetes, coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. Patients with refractory vs resistant hypertension tend to be younger and are more likely to have been diagnosed with congestive heart failure. Refractory hypertension might also differ from resistant hypertension in terms of underlying cause. Preliminary evidence suggests that refractory hypertension is more likely to be neurogenic in etiology (ie, heightened sympathetic tone), vs a volume-dependent hypertension that is more characteristic of resistant hypertension in general. PMID:26514749

  18. New principle of chemotherapy resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory study has revealed an entirely unexpected process for acquiring drug resistance that bypasses the need to re-establish DNA damage repair in breast cancers that have mutant BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.

  19. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeballos, E. Cerron [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Crotty, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hatzifotiadou, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Valverde, J. Lamas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Neupane, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Williams, M. C. S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zichichi, A. [Univ. of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  20. "Feeling" Series and Parallel Resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    Equipped with drinking straws and stirring straws, a teacher can help students understand how resistances in electric circuits combine in series and in parallel. Follow-up suggestions are provided. (ZWH)

  1. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hee Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST, clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care, the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing. The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics.

  2. Thermomechanical Modelling of Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes a generic programme for analysis, optimization and development of resistance spot and projection welding. The programme includes an electrical model determining electric current and voltage distribution as well as heat generation, a thermal model calculating heat...

  3. Bacterial cheating limits antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao Chao, Hui; Yurtsev, Eugene; Datta, Manoshi; Artemova, Tanya; Gore, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics has led to the evolution of resistance in bacteria. Bacteria can gain resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin by acquiring a plasmid carrying the gene beta-lactamase, which inactivates the antibiotic. This inactivation may represent a cooperative behavior, as the entire bacterial population benefits from removing the antibiotic. The cooperative nature of this growth suggests that a cheater strain---which does not contribute to breaking down the antibiotic---may be able to take advantage of cells cooperatively inactivating the antibiotic. Here we find experimentally that a ``sensitive'' bacterial strain lacking the plasmid conferring resistance can invade a population of resistant bacteria, even in antibiotic concentrations that should kill the sensitive strain. We observe stable coexistence between the two strains and find that a simple model successfully explains the behavior as a function of antibiotic concentration and cell density. We anticipate that our results will provide insight into the evolutionary origin of phenotypic diversity and cooperative behaviors.

  4. From resistance to relational inertia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    Empirical evidence have built up that shows that the concept of “resistance to change” does not fully explain the varied types of reactions found among recipients of organizational change initiatives. Instead of being only negative some change recipients reactions have been found to be positive...... or potentially positive and constructive. The traditional idea that managers manage change which is implemented top-down and which employees resist is questioned by other researchers and are being replaced by more processual views that view such processes as sense-making, translation or local organizing...... processes and thus as social and relational rather than psychological phenomena. This have led some researchers to suggest that the definition of resistance to change have to be reformulated and others to suggest that the term “resistance to change” should either be reformulated in terms of sensemaking...

  5. Molecular mechanism of insulin resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    independent phosphorylation of PKCε causes this reduction in insulin receptor gene expression. One of the pathways through which fatty acid can induce insulin resistance in insulin target cells is suggested by these studies. We provide an overview of ...

  6. Targeting Therapy Resistant Tumor Vessels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2007-01-01

    .... To achieve this, we have developed tumor models for vascular normalization and are using in vivo phage display and isolation of peptides that specifically home to normalized tumor vessels resistant...

  7. Targeting Therapy Resistant Tumor Vessels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2008-01-01

    .... To achieve this, we have developed tumor models for vascular normalization and are using in vivo phage display and isolation of peptides that specifically home to normalized tumor vessels resistant...

  8. Heavy resistance training and lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Karlsmark, Tonny; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2014-01-01

    , and identify associations between progressive resistance training with heavy loads, and the development of BCRL. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a descriptive study. POPULATION: Women treated for breast cancer (n = 149), who had participated in the 'Body and Cancer' exercise intervention between 1 January 2010......BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge regarding progressive resistance training during adjuvant chemotherapy and the risk of developing breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Furthermore, no studies have investigated the safety of resistance training with heavy loads (> 80% 1 repetition maximum......) in this population. 'Body and Cancer' is a six-week, nine-hour weekly, supervised, multimodal exercise intervention utilizing progressive resistance training with heavy loads for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of BCRL in former participants...

  9. Antimicrobial resistance in the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keen, Patricia L; Montforts, M. H. M. M

    2012-01-01

    ... or antibiotic resistance genes as environmental contaminants. It also considers alternate uses and functions for antimicrobial compounds other than those intended for medicinal purposes in humans, animals, and fish...

  10. [Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancak, Banu

    2011-07-01

    After the report of first case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 1961, MRSA become a major problem worldwide. Over the last decade MRSA strains have emerged as serious pathogens in nosocomial and community settings. Glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) are still the current mainstay of therapy for infections caused by MRSA. In the last decade dramatic changes have occurred in the epidemiology of MRSA infections. The isolates with reduced susceptibility and in vitro resistance to vancomycin have emerged. Recently, therapeutic alternatives such as quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin have been introduced into clinical practice for treating MRSA infections. Nevertheless, these drugs are only approved for certain indication and resistance has already been reported. In this review, the new information on novel drugs for treating MRSA infections and the resistance mechanisms of these drugs were discussed.

  11. Insulin resistance and chronic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Matulewicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is a condition of reduced biological response to insulin. Growing evidence indicates the role of the chronic low-grade inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Adipose tissue in obesity is characterized by increased lipolysis with the excessive release of free fatty acids, and is also a source of proinflammatory cytokines. Both these factors may inhibit insulin action. Proinflammatory cytokines exert their effect by stimulating major inflammatory NFκB and JNK pathways within the cells. Inflammatory processes in other insulin responsive tissues may also play a role in inducing insulin resistance. This paper is an overview of the chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver and endothelial cells during the development of insulin resistance.

  12. Erosion-resistant composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C.B.; Tennery, V.J.; Curlee, R.M.

    A highly erosion-resistant composite material is formed of chemical vapor-deposited titanium diboride on a sintered titanium diboride-nickel substrate. This material may be suitable for use in cutting tools, coal liquefaction systems, etc.

  13. Castable hot corrosion resistant alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Charles A. (Inventor); Holt, William H. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Some 10 wt percent nickel is added to an Fe-base alloy which has a ferrite microstructure to improve the high temperature castability and crack resistance while about 0.2 wt percent zirconium is added for improved high temperatur cyclic oxidation and corrosion resistance. The basic material is a high temperature FeCrAl heater alloy, and the addition provides a material suitable for burner rig nozzles.

  14. Resistance to change: Four interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Bringselius, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Although the phenomenon of resistance to change has gained considerable attention in organization theory over the years, the meaning of the concept is rarely discussed. In this paper, a conceptual framework is suggested that distinguishes between four interpretations of resistance and builds upon the two variables of changeability and emotionality. Each interpretation is based on various assumptions and theoretical influences, as well as connected to different change management strategies. Th...

  15. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  16. Bioassays for Monitoring Insecticide Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Audra L.E.; Tindall, Kelly; Leonard, B. Rogers

    2010-01-01

    Pest resistance to pesticides is an increasing problem because pesticides are an integral part of high-yielding production agriculture. When few products are labeled for an individual pest within a particular crop system, chemical control options are limited. Therefore, the same product(s) are used repeatedly and continual selection pressure is placed on the target pest. There are both financial and environmental costs associated with the development of resistant populations. The cost of pest...

  17. Resensitizing Resistant Bacteria to Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Next, we added the phage displaying #39 or a randomized version of #39 to growing staphylococci and showed that #39, but not the randomized...synergy with oxacillin against methicillin-resistant staphylococci as well as synergy with vancomycin against vancomycin-resistant staphylococci . We...below in Task 3).   2 Task 3. Test top binding display phage against whole staphylococci . (months 7-9) Despite being covalently attached to a

  18. Resistance to trimethoprim and sulfonamides

    OpenAIRE

    Sköld, Ola

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Sulfonamides and trimethoprim have been used for many decades as efficient and inexpensive antibacterial agents for animals and man. Resistance to both has, however, spread extensively and rapidly. This is mainly due to the horizontal spread of resistance genes, expressing drug-insensitive variants of the target enzymes dihydropteroate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase, for sulfonamide and trimethoprim, respectively. Two genes, sul1 and sul2, mediated by transposons...

  19. ASPIRIN RESISTANCE IN NEUROVASCULAR DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Vališ; Dagmar Krajíčková; Jaroslav Malý; Radovan Malý; Ilona Fátorová; Oldřich Vyšata; Roman Herzig

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The issue of resistance to antiplatelet therapy has raised many questions in the area of neurovascular diseases. The first objective of this work was to determine the prevalence of aspirin resistance in neurovascular patients with clinical non-responsiveness to aspirin treatment and a high-risk of atherothrombotic complications using two interpretable and independent methods (aggregation and PFA 100). The second objective was to find the correlation between both assays and to ev...

  20. Candida Species Biofilms’ Antifungal Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Rodrigues, Célia F.; Araújo, Daniela; Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Henriques, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Candida infections (candidiasis) are the most prevalent opportunistic fungal infection on humans and, as such, a major public health problem. In recent decades, candidiasis has been associated to Candida species other than Candida albicans. Moreover, biofilms have been considered the most prevalent growth form of Candida cells and a strong causative agent of the intensification of antifungal resistance. As yet, no specific resistance factor has been identified as the sole responsible for the increased recalcitrance to antifungal agents exhibited by biofilms. Instead, biofilm antifungal resistance is a complex multifactorial phenomenon, which still remains to be fully elucidated and understood. The different mechanisms, which may be responsible for the intrinsic resistance of Candida species biofilms, include the high density of cells within the biofilm, the growth and nutrient limitation, the effects of the biofilm matrix, the presence of persister cells, the antifungal resistance gene expression and the increase of sterols on the membrane of biofilm cells. Thus, this review intends to provide information on the recent advances about Candida species biofilm antifungal resistance and its implication on intensification of the candidiasis. PMID:29371527

  1. Filtration resistances of nickel carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rafael Gutiérrez-Olmos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the filtration of nickel carbonate was studied experimentally to laboratory scale, to evaluate the effects of suspension pH, chemical composition and fineness of the salt over of specific cake resistance and the medium resistance. The filtration was realized to a temperature of 80 ºC, 16 % in weight of solids and constant pressure drop of 3,758.104 N/m, applying as membrane the Kraft paper. It was obtained that by increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide on salt (1, 9 to 4, 4 %, it diminishes the content of sulphur (3, 09 to 1, 84 % and the specific cake resistance. It was showed the pH’s range for the minimum of specific resistance and cake humidity; when the pH increases from 7, 40 to 8, 76, increment the concentration of solids in the filtrate from 38 to 105 mg/l. To smallest pH than 7, 82, the inferior values of average particle diameter (dp was obtained; and the specific cake resistance incremented due to the combined effect between the variables: Concentration of carbon dioxide in salt, the pH of the suspension and dp. A model to estimate the specific cake resistance were proposed.

  2. Atomic crystals resistive switching memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunsen; Zhang David Wei; Zhou Peng

    2017-01-01

    Facing the growing data storage and computing demands, a high accessing speed memory with low power and non-volatile character is urgently needed. Resistive access random memory with 4F 2 cell size, switching in sub-nanosecond, cycling endurances of over 10 12 cycles, and information retention exceeding 10 years, is considered as promising next-generation non-volatile memory. However, the energy per bit is still too high to compete against static random access memory and dynamic random access memory. The sneak leakage path and metal film sheet resistance issues hinder the further scaling down. The variation of resistance between different devices and even various cycles in the same device, hold resistive access random memory back from commercialization. The emerging of atomic crystals, possessing fine interface without dangling bonds in low dimension, can provide atomic level solutions for the obsessional issues. Moreover, the unique properties of atomic crystals also enable new type resistive switching memories, which provide a brand-new direction for the resistive access random memory. (topical reviews)

  3. Resistant starch in cassava products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Letícia Buzati Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to analyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were analyzed. The method used for determination of resistant starch consisted of an enzymatic process to calculate the final content of resistant starch considering the concentration of glucose released and analyzed. The results showed significant differences between the products. Among the flours and seasoned flours analyzed, the highest levels of resistant starch were observed in the flour from Bahia state (2.21% and the seasoned flour from Paraná state (1.93%. Starch, tapioca, and sago showed levels of resistant starch ranging from 0.56 to 1.1%. The cassava products analyzed can be considered good sources of resistant starch; which make them beneficial products to the gastrointestinal tract.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed.

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms among Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed. PMID:23865047

  6. Turcotte Paul André, Remy Jean, Médiations et compromis. Institutions religieuses et symboliques sociales. Contributions à une relecture des classiques de la sociologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Dassetto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage écrit en collaboration est une relecture exemplaire des classiques de la sociologie, et notamment de leurs textes relatifs au religieux, sous l’angle d’un fil con­ducteur : celui d’une sociologie des médiations, des compromis, des transactions. Autant de termes spontanément assez compréhensibles, mais qui nécessitent que l’on en définisse plus clairement le sens. À signaler ainsi les lectures de Durkheim par J. Pradès, de Weber par J. Séguy et J. M. Ouédraogo, de Simmel par J. Rem...

  7. Review of resistance factor for steel: resistance distributions and resistance factor calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, B.J.; Bartlett, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the Canadian steel industry warrant a review of the steel resistance factor in CSA Standard S16 (formerly S16.1) 'Limit states design of steel structures', originally calibrated in the landmark study by Kennedy and Gad Aly in 1980. This paper presents statistical parameters for the bending, compression, and tension resistances of W, WWF, and HSS components produced since 1999 that have been derived from geometric and material properties presented in a companion paper. The resistance factor for steel was recalibrated for the live and dead load combination in the 1995 National Building Code of Canada. A resistance factor of 0.95 is suitable for laterally supported beams, stocky columns, and tension members failing by yield of the gross section, whereas the current value of 0.90 is appropriate for intermediate columns and tension members failing by fracture of the net section. (author)

  8. Pneumococcal resistance in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, C E; Moore, J E; Murphy, P G

    1997-12-01

    The first case reports of infection with penicillin-resistant pneumococci (PRP, MIC > 0.1 mg/L) and multidrug-resistant pneumococci were made in Australia in 1967 and South Africa in 1977, respectively. Since this time these organisms have spread to become a worldwide problem. In Europe PRP prevalence rates of up to 40% have been reported from Spain and 58% from Hungary, although there has been considerable national, regional and local variation in these figures. Until recently the UK was considered to have low prevalence of PRP. As recently as 1990, 100% of 7255 strains of pneumococci from 61 centres across the UK were found to be penicillin sensitive. However, there have now been several reports of significant and rising levels of resistance nationwide. Erythromycin resistance has also risen from 2.8% to 8.6% between 1990 and 1995 in England and Wales. At the Northern Ireland Public Health Laboratory (NIPHL) 3171 strains of pneumococci were examined using the oxacillin screening test between 1988 and 1995, during which time the annual rate of penicillin resistance was found to increase from 1 mg/L) increased from 0% to 36% and levels of PRP cross-resistance to cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin were 89% and 78%, respectively, which are amongst the highest in the UK. Similar rates of penicillin resistance have now been reported from several geographically disparate regions in the UK including Liverpool, Manchester and London. The number of laboratories in England and Wales reporting the isolation of PRPs to the Central Public Health Laboratory increased from 23 (3%) in 1987 to 72 (21%) in 1991 and a recent study from this reference laboratory showed that the prevalence of pneumococcal resistance to penicillin had increased 2.5-fold between 1990 and 1995. Clearly both PRP and multidrug-resistant pneumococci are increasing in prevalence in the UK, and this increase is likely to continue. A recent model of the evolution of national PRP prevalence rates describes a slow

  9. Multidrug Resistant and Extensively Drug Resistant Bacteria: A Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silpi Basak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Antimicrobial resistance is now a major challenge to clinicians for treating patients. Hence, this short term study was undertaken to detect the incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR, extensively drug-resistant (XDR, and pandrug-resistant (PDR bacterial isolates in a tertiary care hospital. Material and Methods. The clinical samples were cultured and bacterial strains were identified in the department of microbiology. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of different bacterial isolates was studied to detect MDR, XDR, and PDR bacteria. Results. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of 1060 bacterial strains was studied. 393 (37.1% bacterial strains were MDR, 146 (13.8% strains were XDR, and no PDR was isolated. All (100% Gram negative bacterial strains were sensitive to colistin whereas all (100% Gram positive bacterial strains were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion. Close monitoring of MDR, XDR, or even PDR must be done by all clinical microbiology laboratories to implement effective measures to reduce the menace of antimicrobial resistance.

  10. Deciphering MCR-2 Colistin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is a prevalent problem in public health worldwide. In general, the carbapenem β-lactam antibiotics are considered a final resort against lethal infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Colistin is a cationic polypeptide antibiotic and acts as the last line of defense for treatment of carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Very recently, a new plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene, mcr-2, was revealed soon after the discovery of the paradigm gene mcr-1, which has disseminated globally. However, the molecular mechanisms for MCR-2 colistin resistance are poorly understood. Here we show a unique transposon unit that facilitates the acquisition and transfer of mcr-2. Evolutionary analyses suggested that both MCR-2 and MCR-1 might be traced to their cousin phosphoethanolamine (PEA lipid A transferase from a known polymyxin producer, Paenibacillus. Transcriptional analyses showed that the level of mcr-2 transcripts is relatively higher than that of mcr-1. Genetic deletions revealed that the transmembrane regions (TM1 and TM2 of both MCR-1 and MCR-2 are critical for their location and function in bacterial periplasm, and domain swapping indicated that the TM2 is more efficient than TM1. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS confirmed that all four MCR proteins (MCR-1, MCR-2, and two chimeric versions [TM1-MCR-2 and TM2-MCR-1] can catalyze chemical modification of lipid A moiety anchored on lipopolysaccharide (LPS with the addition of phosphoethanolamine to the phosphate group at the 4′ position of the sugar. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis defined an essential 6-residue-requiring zinc-binding/catalytic motif for MCR-2 colistin resistance. The results further our mechanistic understanding of transferable colistin resistance, providing clues to improve clinical therapeutics targeting severe infections by MCR-2-containing pathogens.

  11. Deciphering MCR-2 Colistin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Xu, Yongchang; Gao, Rongsui; Lin, Jingxia; Wei, Wenhui; Srinivas, Swaminath; Li, Defeng; Yang, Run-Shi; Li, Xing-Ping; Liao, Xiao-Ping

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antibiotic resistance is a prevalent problem in public health worldwide. In general, the carbapenem β-lactam antibiotics are considered a final resort against lethal infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Colistin is a cationic polypeptide antibiotic and acts as the last line of defense for treatment of carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Very recently, a new plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene, mcr-2, was revealed soon after the discovery of the paradigm gene mcr-1, which has disseminated globally. However, the molecular mechanisms for MCR-2 colistin resistance are poorly understood. Here we show a unique transposon unit that facilitates the acquisition and transfer of mcr-2. Evolutionary analyses suggested that both MCR-2 and MCR-1 might be traced to their cousin phosphoethanolamine (PEA) lipid A transferase from a known polymyxin producer, Paenibacillus. Transcriptional analyses showed that the level of mcr-2 transcripts is relatively higher than that of mcr-1. Genetic deletions revealed that the transmembrane regions (TM1 and TM2) of both MCR-1 and MCR-2 are critical for their location and function in bacterial periplasm, and domain swapping indicated that the TM2 is more efficient than TM1. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) confirmed that all four MCR proteins (MCR-1, MCR-2, and two chimeric versions [TM1-MCR-2 and TM2-MCR-1]) can catalyze chemical modification of lipid A moiety anchored on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with the addition of phosphoethanolamine to the phosphate group at the 4′ position of the sugar. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis defined an essential 6-residue-requiring zinc-binding/catalytic motif for MCR-2 colistin resistance. The results further our mechanistic understanding of transferable colistin resistance, providing clues to improve clinical therapeutics targeting severe infections by MCR-2-containing pathogens. PMID:28487432

  12. Rolling Resistance Measurement and Model Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Grinderslev; Larsen, Jesper; Fraser, Elsje Sophia

    2015-01-01

    There is an increased focus worldwide on understanding and modeling rolling resistance because reducing the rolling resistance by just a few percent will lead to substantial energy savings. This paper reviews the state of the art of rolling resistance research, focusing on measuring techniques......, surface and texture modeling, contact models, tire models, and macro-modeling of rolling resistance...

  13. Drug-resistant Escherichia coli, Rural Idaho

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah, Elizabeth L.; Angulo, Frederick J.; Johnson, James R.; Haddadin, Bassam; Williamson, Jacquelyn; Samore, Matthew H.

    2005-01-01

    Stool carriage of drug-resistant Escherichia coli in home-living residents of a rural community was examined. Carriage of nalidixic acid–resistant E. coli was associated with recent use of antimicrobial agents in the household. Household clustering of drug-resistant E. coli was observed. Most carriers of drug-resistant E. coli lacked conventional risk factors.

  14. Emergence of Quinolone Resistance amongst Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and seventy three isolates of Escherichia coli obtained from 7 hospitals in Lagos were screened for Fluoroquinolone resistance (FQR). Rate of resistance was 22.3% showing an increase in quinolone resistance when compared with resistant rates between 1994 and 1999 which ranged from 0 – 2% then.

  15. Mechanism of ciprofloxacin resistance in Shigella dysenteriae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial resistance to quinolones has emerged rapidly and such resistance has traditionally been attributed to the chromosomally mediated mechanisms that alter the quinolone targets and/or overproduce multidrug resistance efflux pumps. In the present investigation possible mechanism of ciprofloxacin (Cp) resistance in ...

  16. Laboratory selection for spirodiclofen resistance and cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selection for spirodiclofen resistance was done in the laboratory with a susceptible strain of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor). Successive selections for spirodiclofen resistance through 42 generations resulted in a high level of resistance and the resistance ratio at LC50 was 103 compared with that of the ...

  17. Durable resistance to wheat stem rust needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayliffe, Michael; Singh, Ravi; Lagudah, Evans

    2008-04-01

    The recent outbreak of a new wheat stem rust race capable of parasitizing many commercial wheat cultivars highlights the need for durable disease resistance in crop plants. More advanced breeding approaches using quantitative disease resistance genes and resistance gene pyramids are being used to combat wheat stem rust and other diseases, though widespread adoption of these breeding methodologies is needed to maintain resistance efficacy. Advances in understanding the molecular basis of plant disease resistance at both host and nonhost levels offers further possibilities for stem rust resistance using biotechnological approaches. However, truly durable resistance to wheat stem rust and other phytopathogens seems an unlikely prospect in the face of continually evolving pathogen populations.

  18. Local lesions and induced resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, G

    2009-01-01

    The local lesion phenomenon is one of the most notable resistance mechanisms where virus after multiplying in several hundred cells around the point of entry, does not continue to spread and remains in a local infection. Several types of local lesions are known, inter alia, necrotic, chlorotic, and starch lesions. Cells inside the lesion generally contain much less virus than cells in a systemic infection. Cytopathic changes accompany the local lesion development. Proteases that may have properties similar to caspases, which promote programmed cell death (PCD) in animals, seem to participate in PCD during the hypersensitive response. Salicylic acid seems to be associated with the HR and may play a role in localizing the virus. The functions and properties of the N gene of Nicotiana, which was the first plant virus resistance gene to be isolated by transposon tagging, are discussed and compared with other plant genes for disease resistance. The Inhibitor of Virus Replication (IVR) associated with the local lesion response is mainly a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) protein. TPR motifs are also present in inducible interferons found in animal cells. Transformation of N. tabacum cv. Samsun nn, in which Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) spreads systemically, with the NC330 gene sequence, encoding an IVR-like protein, resulted in a number of transgenic plant lines, expressing variable resistance to TMV and the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Transformation of tomato plants with the IVR gene became also partially resistant to B. cinerea (Loebenstein et al., in press). IVR-like compounds were found in the interspecific hybrid of N. glutinosa x N. debneyi that is highly resistant to TMV, and in the "green island" tissue of tobacco, cv. Xanthi-nc, infected with Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Infection in one part of the plant often induces resistance in other non-invaded tissues. Local (LAR) or systemic (SAR) acquired resistance can be activated by viruses, bacterial, and fungal

  19. Seeing Imagination as Resistance and Resistance as Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2017-01-01

    with the objects of experience that can then resist our actions and thus become Gegenstand. Directionality and resistance are fundamental parts of any developmental process and characterize such relationships with the phenomenon of Gegenstand. Finally, I argue that imaginative processes are the distinctive...... features that enable humans to deal with uncertainty and change. Imagination is related to the creation of Gegenstand from non-existing objects. Imagination is also the faculty to go beyond problems in order to solve them. That is the reason why imagination is so dangerous for every dictatorship....

  20. Antibiotic resistance: the Iowa experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nancy

    2002-11-01

    In the past 10 years, the number of strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other common respiratory pathogens that are resistant to penicillin has increased. The Iowa Department of Public Health convened a multidisciplinary task force in January 1998 to develop strategies to combat antibiotic resistance in the state because they were alarmed by these reports. Within 18 months, the task force implemented statewide surveillance of resistant organisms and posted information about the surveillance on the Internet, distributed a public health guide on judicious antibiotic use and infection control measures to 7500 healthcare providers, and held a press conference to inform the public about antibiotic resistance. The task force collaborated with several major insurers in the state to profile the top prescribers of antibiotic agents in their plan. The profiling and educational interventions led to a substantial decrease in both overall antibiotic prescribing and drug costs. Other states may want to undertake similar programs to help protect their citizens from infections caused by resistant pathogens.

  1. Drug-resistant spinal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Jain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant spinal tuberculosis (TB is an emerging health problem in both developing and developed countries. In this review article, we aim to define management protocols for suspicion, diagnosis, and treatment of such patients. Spinal TB is a deep-seated paucibacillary lesion, and the demonstration of acid-fast bacilli on Ziehl-Neelsen staining is possible only in 10%–30% of cases. Drug resistance is suspected in patients showing the failure of clinicoradiological improvement or appearance of a fresh lesion of osteoarticular TB while on anti tubercular therapy (ATT for a minimum period of 5 months. The conventional culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the gold standard for both bacteriological diagnosis and drug sensitivity testing (DST; however, the high turn around time of 2–6 weeks for detection with added 3 weeks for DST is a major limitation. To overcome this problem, rapid culture methods and molecular methods have been introduced. From a public health perspective, reducing the period between diagnosis and treatment initiation has direct benefits for both the patient and the community. For all patients of drug-resistant spinal TB, a complete Drug-O-Gram should be prepared which includes details of all drugs, their doses, and duration. Patients with confirmed multidrug-resistant TB strains should receive a regimen with at least five effective drugs, including pyrazinamide and one injectable. Patients with resistance to additional antitubercular drugs should receive individualized ATT as per their DST results.

  2. An innovation resistance factor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Salwa Mohd Ishak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The process and implementation strategy of information technology in construction is generally considered through the limiting prism of theoretical contexts generated from innovation diffusion and acceptance. This research argues that more attention should be given to understanding the positive effects of resistance. The study develops a theoretical framing for the Integrated Resistance Factor Model (IRFM. The framing uses a combination of diffusion of innovation theory, technology acceptance model and social network perspective. The model is tested to identify the most significant resistance factors using Partial Least Square (PLS technique. All constructs proposed in the model are found to be significant, valid and consistent with the theoretical framework. IRFM is shown to be an effective and appropriate model of user resistance factors. The most critical factors to influence technology resistance in the online project information management system (OPIMS context are: support from leaders and peers, complexity of the technology, compatibility with key work practices; and pre-trial of the technology before it is actually deployed. The study provides a new model for further research in technology innovation specific to the construction industry.

  3. Drug-resistant Spinal Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Jaggi, Karan Raj; Bhayana, Himanshu; Saha, Rumpa

    2018-01-01

    Drug-resistant spinal tuberculosis (TB) is an emerging health problem in both developing and developed countries. In this review article, we aim to define management protocols for suspicion, diagnosis, and treatment of such patients. Spinal TB is a deep-seated paucibacillary lesion, and the demonstration of acid-fast bacilli on Ziehl-Neelsen staining is possible only in 10%-30% of cases. Drug resistance is suspected in patients showing the failure of clinicoradiological improvement or appearance of a fresh lesion of osteoarticular TB while on anti tubercular therapy (ATT) for a minimum period of 5 months. The conventional culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the gold standard for both bacteriological diagnosis and drug sensitivity testing (DST); however, the high turn around time of 2-6 weeks for detection with added 3 weeks for DST is a major limitation. To overcome this problem, rapid culture methods and molecular methods have been introduced. From a public health perspective, reducing the period between diagnosis and treatment initiation has direct benefits for both the patient and the community. For all patients of drug-resistant spinal TB, a complete Drug-O-Gram should be prepared which includes details of all drugs, their doses, and duration. Patients with confirmed multidrug-resistant TB strains should receive a regimen with at least five effective drugs, including pyrazinamide and one injectable. Patients with resistance to additional antitubercular drugs should receive individualized ATT as per their DST results.

  4. Resistant Hypertension and Cardiorenovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prkacin Ingrid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies have documented independent contribution of sympathetic activation to the cardiovascular disease continuum. Hypertension is one of the leading modifiable factors. Most if not all the benefit of antihypertensive treatment depends on blood pressure lowering, regardless how it is obtained. Resistant hypertension is defined as blood pressure that remains uncontrolled in spite of the concurrent use of three antihypertensive drugs of different classes. Ideally, one of the three drugs should be a diuretic, and all drugs should be prescribed at optimal dose amounts. Poor adherence to antihypertensive therapy, undiscovered secondary causes (e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, primary aldosteronism, renal artery stenosis, and lifestyle factors (e.g. obesity, excessive sodium intake, heavy alcohol intake, various drug interactions are the most common causes of resistant hypertension. Cardio(renovascular morbidity and mortality are significantly higher in resistant hypertensive than in general hypertensive population, as such patients are typically presented with a long-standing history of poorly controlled hypertension. Early diagnosis and treatment is needed to avoid further end-organ damage to prevent cardiorenovascular remodeling. Treatment strategy includes lifestyle changes, adding a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, treatment adherence in cardiovascular prevention and, in case of failure to control blood pressure, renal sympathetic denervation or baroreceptor activation therapy. The comparative outcomes in resistant hypertension deserve better understanding. In this review, the most current approaches to resistant hypertension and cardiovascular risk based on the available literature evidence will be discussed.

  5. Insulin Resistance in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineley, Kelly T; Jahrling, Jordan B; Denner, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is a key hormone regulating metabolism. Insulin binding to cell surface insulin receptors engages many signaling intermediates operating in parallel and in series to control glucose, energy, and lipids while also regulating mitogenesis and development. Perturbations in the function of any of these intermediates, which occur in a variety of diseases, cause reduced sensitivity to insulin and insulin resistance with consequent metabolic dysfunction. Chronic inflammation ensues which exacerbates compromised metabolic homeostasis. Since insulin has a key role in learning and memory as well as directly regulating ERK, a kinase required for the type of learning and memory compromised in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), insulin resistance has been identified as a major risk factor for the onset of AD. Animal models of AD or insulin resistance or both demonstrate that AD pathology and impaired insulin signaling form a reciprocal relationship. Of note are human and animal model studies geared toward improving insulin resistance that have led to the identification of the nuclear receptor and transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) as an intervention tool for early AD. Strategic targeting of alternate nodes within the insulin signaling network has revealed disease-stage therapeutic windows in animal models that coalesce with previous and ongoing clinical trial approaches. Thus, exploiting the connection between insulin resistance and AD provides powerful opportunities to delineate therapeutic interventions that slow or block the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:25237037

  6. Insulin Resistance and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance precedes and predicts the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in susceptible humans, underscoring its important role in the complex pathogenesis of this disease. Insulin resistance contributes to multiple tissue defects characteristic of T2D, including reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive tissues, increased hepatic glucose production, increased lipolysis in adipose tissue, and altered insulin secretion. Studies of individuals with insulin resistance, both with established T2D and high-risk individuals, have consistently demonstrated a diverse array of defects in mitochondrial function (i.e., bioenergetics, biogenesis and dynamics). However, it remains uncertain whether mitochondrial dysfunction is primary (critical initiating defect) or secondary to the subtle derangements in glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and defective insulin secretion present early in the course of disease development. In this chapter, we will present the evidence linking mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and review the potential for mitochondrial targets as a therapeutic approach for T2D.

  7. Selective Insulin Resistance in Adipocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shi-Xiong; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H.; Fazakerley, Daniel J.; Ng, Yvonne; Pant, Himani; Li, Jia; Meoli, Christopher C.; Coster, Adelle C. F.; Stöckli, Jacqueline; James, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Aside from glucose metabolism, insulin regulates a variety of pathways in peripheral tissues. Under insulin-resistant conditions, it is well known that insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is impaired, and many studies attribute this to a defect in Akt signaling. Here we make use of several insulin resistance models, including insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes and fat explants prepared from high fat-fed C57BL/6J and ob/ob mice, to comprehensively distinguish defective from unaffected aspects of insulin signaling and its downstream consequences in adipocytes. Defective regulation of glucose uptake was observed in all models of insulin resistance, whereas other major actions of insulin such as protein synthesis and anti-lipolysis were normal. This defect corresponded to a reduction in the maximum response to insulin. The pattern of change observed for phosphorylation in the Akt pathway was inconsistent with a simple defect at the level of Akt. The only Akt substrate that showed consistently reduced phosphorylation was the RabGAP AS160 that regulates GLUT4 translocation. We conclude that insulin resistance in adipose tissue is highly selective for glucose metabolism and likely involves a defect in one of the components regulating GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface in response to insulin. PMID:25720492

  8. Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bulajić Snežana; Mijačević Zora; Savić-Radovanović Radoslava

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria is still limited, possibly because of the large numbers of genera and species encountered in this group, as well as variances in their resistance spectra. The EFSA considers antibiotic resistances, especially transferable resistances, an important decision criterion for determining a strain's QPS status. There are no approved standards for the phenotypic or genotypic evaluation of antibiotic resistances in food isolat...

  9. Intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in enterococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, Brian L.; Rice, Louis B.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococci have the potential for resistance to virtually all clinically useful antibiotics. Their emergence as important nosocomial pathogens has coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial resistance by members of the genus. The mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance in enterococci may be intrinsic to the species or acquired through mutation of intrinsic genes or horizontal exchange of genetic material encoding resistance determinants. This paper reviews the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and discusses treatment options. PMID:23076243

  10. Rapid report acetamiprid resistance and cross-resistance in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninsin, Kodwo D

    2004-09-01

    A 110-fold acetamiprid-resistant Plutella xylostella (L) strain was established after four selection experiments (in five generations) on a 9.5-fold resistant colony in the laboratory. The resistant strain did not show cross-resistance to chlorfluazuron or Bacillus thuringiensis subsp kurstaki Berliner, but displayed low resistance to cartap and phenthoate.

  11. Overview perspective of bacterial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Guilherme H; Nicolau, David P

    2010-10-01

    The rapidly escalating prevalence of antimicrobial resistance is a global concern. This reduced susceptibility to currently available antimicrobial agents coupled with the progressive shortage of newly approved compounds is a worrisome situation. Major problems are encountered for a growing number of Gram-positive (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus spp.) and Gram-negative pathogens (i.e., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae). We provide an overview of bacterial resistance focusing on the most common pathogens responsible for infection in both the community and healthcare settings. In addition, several strategies to curb antimicrobial resistance are also discussed. It is increasingly evident that without the introduction of novel antimicrobial agents, a return to the clinical outcomes associated with the pre-antibiotic era are inevitable.

  12. DRUG RESISTANCE IN HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Silveira VIANNA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Helicobacter pylori has a worldwide distribution and is associated with the pathogenesis of various diseases of the digestive system. Treatment to eradicate this microorganism involves the use of a combination of antimicrobials, such as amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin, combined with proton pump inhibitors. Although the current therapy is effective, a high rate of treatment failure has been observed, mainly because of the acquisition of point mutations, one of the major resistance mechanisms developed by H. pylori. This phenomenon is related to frequent and/or inappropriate use of antibiotics. Conclusion This review reported an overview of the resistance to the main drugs used in the treatment of H. pylori, confirming the hypothesis that antibacterial resistance is a highly local phenomenon and genetic characteristics of a given population can influence which therapy is the most appropriate.

  13. Resistance mechanisms in Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovine, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. While mortality is low, morbidity imparted by post-infectious sequelae such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, Reiter syndrome/reactive arthritis and irritable bowel syndrome is significant. In addition, the economic cost is high due to lost productivity. Food animals, particularly poultry, are the main reservoirs of C. jejuni. The over-use of antibiotics in the human population and in animal husbandry has led to an increase in antibiotic-resistant infections, particularly with fluoroquinolones. This is problematic because C. jejuni gastroenteritis is clinically indistinguishable from that caused by other bacterial pathogens, and such illnesses are usually treated empirically with fluoroquinolones. Since C. jejuni is naturally transformable, acquisition of additional genes imparting antibiotic resistance is likely. Therefore, an understanding of the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in C. jejuni is needed to provide proper therapy both to the veterinary and human populations. PMID:23406779

  14. Renal denervation for resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Manuel de Sousa; Gonçalves, Pedro de Araújo; Oliveira, Eduardo Infante de; Carvalho, Henrique Cyrne de

    2015-02-01

    There is a marked contrast between the high prevalence of hypertension and the low rates of adequate control. A subset of patients with suboptimal blood pressure control have drug-resistant hypertension, in the pathophysiology of which chronic sympathetic hyperactivation is significantly involved. Sympathetic renal denervation has recently emerged as a device-based treatment for resistant hypertension. In this review, the pathophysiological mechanisms linking the sympathetic nervous system and cardiovascular disease are reviewed, focusing on resistant hypertension and the role of sympathetic renal denervation. An update on experimental and clinical results is provided, along with potential future indications for this device-based technique in other cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Giant magneto-resistance devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hirota, Eiichi; Inomata, Koichiro

    2002-01-01

    This book deals with the application of giant magneto-resistance (GMR) effects to electronic devices. It will appeal to engineers and graduate students in the fields of electronic devices and materials. The main subjects are magnetic sensors with high resolution and magnetic read heads with high sensitivity, required for hard-disk drives with recording densities of several gigabytes. Another important subject is novel magnetic random-access memories (MRAM) with non-volatile non-destructive and radiation-resistant characteristics. Other topics include future GMR devices based on bipolar spin transistors, spin field-effect transistors (FETs) and double-tunnel junctions.

  16. Radiation-resistant camera tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Takao; Manabe, Sohei; Makishima, Yasuhiro

    1982-01-01

    It was a long time ago that Toshiba launched on manufacturing black-and-white radiation-resistant camera tubes employing nonbrowning face-plate glass for ITV cameras used in nuclear power plants. Now in compliance with the increasing demand in nuclear power field, the Company is at grips with the development of radiation-resistant single color-camera tubes incorporating a color-stripe filter for color ITV cameras used under radiation environment. Herein represented are the results of experiments on characteristics of materials for single color-camera tubes and prospects for commercialization of the tubes. (author)

  17. Reflections on researching rape resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-03-01

    This article provides a retrospective account of my experience embarking on research about women's resistance to rape, including reflections on personal and professional experiences related to studying this topic. I discuss factors inspiring my interest, including pioneering feminist rape researchers, my experience as a woman living with the reality and fear of rape, and influential mentors who facilitated my career development as a scholar in graduate school and beyond. I weave this narrative together with my thoughts about how the study of resistance relates to other important issues in the field of sexual assault including alcohol, recovery, and prevention.

  18. Multidrug resistant to extensively drug resistant tuberculosis: What is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    major anti tuberculosis drugs; Isoniazid and Rifampicin with or without resistance to other anti-TB drugs has been termed. MDR-TB. MDR-TB is more difficult to treat than drug- susceptible TB, requiring the use of less effective second line anti tubercular drugs (SLDs) which are often associated with major side effects. 2.

  19. Plasmid mediated resistance in multidrug resistant bacteria isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibiotic susceptibility testing of isolated bacteria associated with septicaemia in children were carried out using standard microbiological protocol. The MAR index for the test bacterial isolates was determined and the bacterial isolates that displayed multiple antibiotic resistance were investigated for the presence of ...

  20. Multidrug resistant to extensively drug resistant tuberculosis: What is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    reported figure, because the annual risk of tuberculosis and prevalence of acquired multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and tuberculosis with HIV is increasing in India (Narain and Lo 2004). One case of XDR- TB is recently reported from Tuberculosis Research Center, Chennai (Thomas et al. 2007). 7. XDR-TB with HIV/AIDS.

  1. Molecular mechanism of insulin resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Free fatty acids are known to play a key role in promoting loss of insulin sensitivity, thereby causing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism involved is still unclear. In searching for the cause of the mechanism, it has been found that palmitate inhibits insulin receptor (IR) gene expression, ...

  2. Resistive flex sensors: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saggio, Giovanni; Riillo, Francesco; Sbernini, Laura; Quitadamo, Lucia Rita

    2016-01-01

    Resistive flex sensors can be used to measure bending or flexing with relatively little effort and a relatively low budget. Their lightness, compactness, robustness, measurement effectiveness and low power consumption make these sensors useful for manifold applications in diverse fields. Here, we provide a comprehensive survey of resistive flex sensors, taking into account their working principles, manufacturing aspects, electrical characteristics and equivalent models, useful front-end conditioning circuitry, and physic-bio-chemical aspects. Particular effort is devoted to reporting on and analyzing several applications of resistive flex sensors, related to the measurement of body position and motion, and to the implementation of artificial devices. In relation to the human body, we consider the utilization of resistive flex sensors for the measurement of physical activity and for the development of interaction/interface devices driven by human gestures. Concerning artificial devices, we deal with applications related to the automotive field, robots, orthosis and prosthesis, musical instruments and measuring tools. The presented literature is collected from different sources, including bibliographic databases, company press releases, patents, master’s theses and PhD theses. (topical review)

  3. The Internal Resistance of Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G. G. G.; Pietronero, R. C.; Catunda, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the transient behaviour of RC circuits with supercapacitors, varying R between 1 and 100 [omega]. We demonstrate that supercapacitors behave as ideal capacitors in series with an internal resistance (r [similar to] 8 [omega] for C = 0.2 F, 5.5 V). This result is important to optimize the demonstration of RC circuits using a…

  4. resistance in the common bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... Two studies, one on performance of six common bean parental genotypes and another on inheritance of resistance to Phaeosariopsis griseola (Pg) in the common bean were carried out in Malawi. Common bean entries namely; Chimbamba, Nasaka, RC 15, CAL 143 and Mexico 54 were evaluated on ...

  5. Nutritional Modulation of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin O. Weickert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance has been proposed as the strongest single predictor for the development of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM. Chronic oversupply of energy from food, together with inadequate physical activity, have been recognized as the most relevant factors leading to overweight, abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and finally T2DM. Conversely, energy reduced diets almost invariably to facilitate weight loss and reduce abdominal fat mass and insulin resistance. However, sustained weight loss is generally difficult to achieve, and distinct metabolic characteristics in patients with T2DM further compromise success. Therefore, investigating the effects of modulating the macronutrient composition of isoenergetic diets is an interesting concept that may lead to additional important insights. Metabolic effects of various different dietary concepts and strategies have been claimed, but results from randomized controlled studies and particularly from longer-term-controlled interventions in humans are often lacking. However, some of these concepts are supported by recent research, at least in animal models and short-term studies in humans. This paper provides an update of the current literature regarding the role of nutrition in the modulation of insulin resistance, which includes the discussion of weight-loss-independent metabolic effects of commonly used dietary concepts.

  6. Compact, Controlled Resistance Exercise Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, David C.; DeWitt, John K.; Reich, Alton J.; Shaw, James E.; Deaconu, Stelu S.

    2011-01-01

    Spaceflight leads to muscle and bone atrophy. Isoinertial (free-weight) exercises provide a sufficient stimulus to elicit increases in both muscle strength and bone mineral density in Earth-based studies. While exercise equipment is in use on the International Space Station for crewmember health maintenance, current devices are too large to place in a transport vehicle or small spacecraft. Therefore, a portable computer controlled resistance exercise device is being developed that is able to simulate the inertial loading experienced when lifting a mass on Earth. This portable device weighs less than 50 lb and can simulate the resistance of lifting and lowering up to 600 lb of free-weights. The objective is to allow crewmembers to perform resistance exercise with loads capable of maintaining muscle and bone health. The device is reconfigurable and allows for the performance of typical Earth-based free-weight exercises. Forces exerted, volume of work, range of motion, time-under-tension, and speed/ acceleration of movement are recorded and can be remotely monitored to track progress and modify individual protocols based on exercise session data. A performance evaluation will be completed and data will be presented that include ground-reaction force comparisons between the device and free-weight dead-lifts over a spectrum of resistance levels. Movement biomechanics will also be presented.

  7. Fire Resistance of Geopolymer Concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-21

    and general appearance to Portland cement concrete. Geopolymer concrete has been proposed as an alternative to Portland cement concrete in...1 Project report – Grant FA23860814096, "Fire resistance of geopolymer concretes" – J. Provis, University of Melbourne 1. Background and...experimental program This project provided funding for us to carry out fire testing of geopolymer concrete specimens and associated laboratory

  8. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance and Gonorrhea

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-12-26

    Dr. Robert Kirkcaldy, a medical officer at CDC, discusses his article on antimicrobial resistance and gonorrhea.  Created: 12/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/26/2017.

  9. Molecular mechanism of insulin resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    Free fatty acids are known to play a key role in promoting loss of insulin sensitivity, thereby causing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However ... PDK1-independent phosphorylation of PKCε causes this reduction in insulin receptor gene ... i.e. muscle, liver and fat, is extremely high (Brunetti et al 2001). However, there ...

  10. Management of treatment resistant schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    symptoms, cognitive deficits, excitement or aggression, co- morbidity such as depressive and anxiety symptoms, .... another domain of treatment resistance, cognitive deficits, risperidone and olanzapine may be more .... support, teaching the recognition of early warning signs and addressing issues of medication adherence ...

  11. Resistance to group clinical supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Delgado, Cynthia; Traynor, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This present study is a report of an interview study exploring personal views on participating in group clinical supervision among mental health nursing staff members who do not participate in supervision. There is a paucity of empirical research on resistance to supervision, which has traditiona...

  12. Resistive flex sensors: a survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggio, Giovanni; Riillo, Francesco; Sbernini, Laura; Quitadamo, Lucia Rita

    2016-01-01

    Resistive flex sensors can be used to measure bending or flexing with relatively little effort and a relatively low budget. Their lightness, compactness, robustness, measurement effectiveness and low power consumption make these sensors useful for manifold applications in diverse fields. Here, we provide a comprehensive survey of resistive flex sensors, taking into account their working principles, manufacturing aspects, electrical characteristics and equivalent models, useful front-end conditioning circuitry, and physic-bio-chemical aspects. Particular effort is devoted to reporting on and analyzing several applications of resistive flex sensors, related to the measurement of body position and motion, and to the implementation of artificial devices. In relation to the human body, we consider the utilization of resistive flex sensors for the measurement of physical activity and for the development of interaction/interface devices driven by human gestures. Concerning artificial devices, we deal with applications related to the automotive field, robots, orthosis and prosthesis, musical instruments and measuring tools. The presented literature is collected from different sources, including bibliographic databases, company press releases, patents, master’s theses and PhD theses.

  13. Transgenic Crops for Herbicide Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since their introduction in 1995, crops made resistant to the broad-spectrum herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate with transgenes are widely available and used in much of the world. As of 2008, over 80% of the transgenic crops grown world-wide have this transgenic trait. This technology has had m...

  14. Fluoride resistance in Streptococcus mutans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Fluoride has been used as the most effective anti-caries agent for over five decades. It functions not only on the dental hard tissues, but also as an antimicrobial agent. It is known that oral bacteria are able to develop resistance to fluoride, which may affect the effectiveness of fluoride in

  15. Nanoscale organic ferroelectric resistive switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khikhlovskyi, V.; Wang, R.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Gelinck, G.H.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Kemerink, M.

    2014-01-01

    Organic ferroelectric resistive switches function by grace of nanoscale phase separation in a blend of a semiconducting and a ferroelectric polymer that is sandwiched between metallic electrodes. In this work, various scanning probe techniques are combined with numerical modeling to unravel their

  16. (Neovossia indica ) resistance in wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Screening and multiplication of different wheat varieties under laboratory conditions using in vitro culture techniques may speed up the resistance breeding programmes. Hence, the present investigations were planned to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects of inhibition zone formed by the wheat embryos, callus-.

  17. Consumption expressions of ideological resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, C.A.; Russell, D.W.; Neijens, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - The paper focuses on resistance driven by animosity toward a country due to cultural, political, military and economic reasons. Previous research has linked animosity toward a given country to explicit judgments and purchases of products from that country, thus ignoring the possibility

  18. Fire resistant nuclear fuel cask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Richard C.; Moss, Marvin

    1979-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a fire resistant nuclear fuel cask employing reversibly thermally expansible bands between adjacent cooling fins such that normal outward flow of heat is not interfered with, but abnormal inward flow of heat is impeded or blocked.

  19. BALLISTIC RESISTANT ARTICLES COMPRISING TAPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VAN DER EEM, JORIS; HARINGS, JULES; JANSE, GERARDUS; TJADEN, HENDRIK

    2015-01-01

    The invention pertains to a ballistic-resistant moulded article comprising a compressed stack of sheets comprising reinforcing tapes having a tensile strength of at least 1.0 GPa, a tensile modulus of at least 40 GPa, and a tensile energy-to-break of at least 15 J/g, the direction of the tapes

  20. Bioassays for monitoring insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Audra L E; Tindall, Kelly; Leonard, B Rogers

    2010-12-30

    Pest resistance to pesticides is an increasing problem because pesticides are an integral part of high-yielding production agriculture. When few products are labeled for an individual pest within a particular crop system, chemical control options are limited. Therefore, the same product(s) are used repeatedly and continual selection pressure is placed on the target pest. There are both financial and environmental costs associated with the development of resistant populations. The cost of pesticide resistance has been estimated at approximately $ 1.5 billion annually in the United States. This paper will describe protocols, currently used to monitor arthropod (specifically insects) populations for the development of resistance. The adult vial test is used to measure the toxicity to contact insecticides and a modification of this test is used for plant-systemic insecticides. In these bioassays, insects are exposed to technical grade insecticide and responses (mortality) recorded at a specific post-exposure interval. The mortality data are subjected to Log Dose probit analysis to generate estimates of a lethal concentration that provides mortality to 50% (LC(50) of the target populations and a series of confidence limits (CL's) as estimates of data variability. When these data are collected for a range of insecticide-susceptible populations, the LC(50) can be used as baseline data for future monitoring purposes. After populations have been exposed to products, the results can be compared to a previously determined LC(50) using the same methodology.

  1. Obesity genes and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, Anna C; Denis, Gerald V

    2010-10-01

    The exploding prevalence of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) linked to obesity has become an alarming public health concern. Worldwide, approximately 171 million people suffer from obesity-induced diabetes and public health authorities expect this situation to deteriorate rapidly. An interesting clinical population of 'metabolically healthy but obese' (MHO) cases is relatively protected from T2D and its associated cardiovascular risk. The molecular basis for this protection is not well understood but is likely to involve reduced inflammatory responses. The inflammatory cells and pathways that respond to overnutrition are the primary subject matter for this review. The chance discovery of a genetic mutation in the Brd2 gene, which is located in the class II major histocompatibility complex and makes mice enormously fat but protects them from diabetes, offers revolutionary new insights into the cellular mechanisms that link obesity to insulin resistance and T2D. These Brd2-hypomorphic mice have reduced inflammation in fat that is normally associated with insulin resistance, and resemble MHO patients, suggesting novel therapeutic pathways for obese patients at risk for T2D. Deeper understanding of the functional links between genes that control inflammatory responses to diet-induced obesity is crucial to the development of therapies for obese, insulin-resistant patients.

  2. Extensively Drug-Resistant TB

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-12-16

    Dr. Charlotte Kvasnovsky, a surgery resident and Ph.D. candidate in biostatistics, discusses various types of drug resistance in TB patients in South Africa.  Created: 12/16/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/16/2016.

  3. The Psychic Life of Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester

    2013-01-01

    to power. This article is a first step to remedy that oversight. Inspired by Butler’s reading of Foucault’s notion of power at work in subjection and resistance, the article uses Goffman to substantiate such an account. Based on a 20-month ethnographic study of a traditional immigrant suburb north...

  4. Biocontrol agents in signalling resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms by which biological control agents suppress disease comprise competition for nutrients, notably iron, production of antibiotics, and secretion of lytic enzymes, as well as inducing resistance in the plant. The former three mechanisms act primarily on the pathogen by decreasing its

  5. Pathophysiological mechanisms of insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we studied pathophysiological mechanisms of insulin resistance in different conditions in humans, i.e. in obesity, during lipid infusions, after hypercaloric feeding, and glucocorticoid treatment. We focused on 3 important hypotheses that are suggested to be implicated in the

  6. Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review discusses recent advances in understanding of the structure and function of the insulin receptor and insulin action, and how these relate to the clinical aspects of insulin resistance associated with non-insulin-dependent diabetes and other disorders. Improved understanding of the molecular basis of insulin ...

  7. Initial drug resistance in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Initial drug resistance in India. There is gradual increase in primary MDR all over India : Pondi= Pondicherry 1985; Bangalore =1986; Jaipur = 1991; Jaipur =2000. Overall the MDR is less than 3% (TRC studies).

  8. Drug Resistance in Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena C. Maltezou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis remains a public health problem worldwide. This illness was included by the World Health Organization in the list of neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination by 2015. The widespread emergence of resistance to pentavalent antimonials in India where half cases occur globally and the unavailability of a vaccine in clinical use constitute major obstacles in achieving this goal. The last decade new antileishmanials became available, including the oral agent miltefosine. However, in poor endemic countries their wide use was curtailed because of the high costs, and also due to concerns of toxicity and emergence of resistance. Various mechanisms of antileishmanial resistance were identified recently in field isolates. Their elucidation will boost the design of new drugs and the molecular surveillance of resistance. Combination regimens should be evaluated in large trials. Overall, the development of antileishmanials has been generally slow; new drugs are needed. In order to control visceral leishmaniasis worldwide, treatment advances should become affordable in the poorest countries, where they are needed most.

  9. Mutant ribosomes can generate dominant kirromycin resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    Tubulekas, I; Buckingham, R H; Hughes, D

    1991-01-01

    Mutations in the two genes for EF-Tu in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, tufA and tufB, can confer resistance to the antibiotic kirromycin. Kirromycin resistance is a recessive phenotype expressed when both tuf genes are mutant. We describe a new kirromycin-resistant phenotype dominant to the effect of wild-type EF-Tu. Strains carrying a single kirromycin-resistant tuf mutation and an error-restrictive, streptomycin-resistant rpsL mutation are resistant to high levels of kirromyci...

  10. Resistance remains a problem in treatment failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Martin; Ehret, Robert; Wienbreyer, Andreas; Walter, Hauke; Berg, Thomas; Baumgarten, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Proven resistance against HIV drugs, either by phenotyping or genotyping is a rare event in clinical trials. The overall assumption of drug resistance disappearing is additionally driven by the recommendations to screen for transmitted drug resistance, leading to large numbers of examinations with relatively low rates of resistance. Goal of our analysis was to assess if drug resistance in treatment failure is also decreasing outside of clinical trials. The MIB database at timepoint of analysis consists of data from 2876 HIV infected patients. Besides various laboratory parameters, clinical data and treatment history is included. HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase sequences were analyzed using the HIV-GRADE drug resistance algorithm. As in only a small number of patients genotypic resistance testing for integrase inhibitors was performed, mainly due to reimbursement reasons, it was assumed that failing treatment on a previous integrase inhibitor containing regimen is equate to resistance. Of the 2876 patients in the database, 220 had a treatment change due to treatment failure between 2009 and 2012, a genotypic resistance testing at an appropriate timepoint of maximum four weeks before treatment change and a treatment duration of at least six months before treatment failure. In 2009, 61% of patients showed no drug resistance while 39% showed resistance against one or more drug classes (two or more drug classes: 19.5%; three or more drug classes: 2.4%, four drug classes 2.4%). In 2012, no resistance was found in 52% of patients while resistance against three or more drug classes was found in nearly 14% of patients (one or more: 48%; two or more 23%; four classes: 4.5%). Treatment failure with viral load sufficiently high for drug resistance testing was not frequently observed in our database. Nevertheless, treatment failure was often associated with drug resistance against at least one drug class. With more use of the newer drug classes, resistance against

  11. New resists for proton beam writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.A. van; Bettiol, A.A.; Chiam, S.Y.; Saifullah, M.S.M.; Subramanian, K.R.V.; Welland, M.E.; Watt, F.

    2007-01-01

    To explore the full capabilities of proton beam writing (PBW) as a lithographic tool it is important to investigate potential new resist materials. In PBW the interactions of the protons with the resist are comparable to the electron interactions with the resist in electron beam writing. In both techniques the induced secondary electrons will modify the molecular structure of the resist, therefore electron beam resists are potential candidates for PBW. Here we discuss resist properties such as contrast and sensitivity of two new negative resists for PBW. The first resist is a spin-coatable TiO 2 resist for which sub 10 nm resolution has been reported using electron beam writing. In PBW smooth side walls have been observed for this resist. Despite a relative low sensitivity of this resist for PBW (8000 nC/mm 2 ) it has potential applications in the area of integrated optical components such as waveguides and gratings because of its high refractive index. WL-7154 is a UV-sensitive negative resist and shows high sensitivity for PBW (4 nC/mm 2 ). This resist could function as a mold for Ni electroplating to fabricate Ni stamps for nanoimprint- and soft-lithography

  12. The determinants of the antibiotic resistance process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Beatriz Espinosa; Altagracia Martínez, Marina; Sánchez Rodríguez, Martha A; Wertheimer, Albert I

    2009-01-01

    The use of antibiotic drugs triggers a complex interaction involving many biological, sociological, and psychological determinants. Resistance to antibiotics is a serious worldwide problem which is increasing and has implications for morbidity, mortality, and health care both in hospitals and in the community. To analyze current research on the determinants of antibiotic resistance and comprehensively review the main factors in the process of resistance in order to aid our understanding and assessment of this problem. We conducted a MedLine search using the key words "determinants", "antibiotic", and "antibiotic resistance" to identify publications between 1995 and 2007 on the determinants of antibiotic resistance. Publications that did not address the determinants of antibiotic resistance were excluded. The process and determinants of antibiotic resistance are described, beginning with the development of antibiotics, resistance and the mechanisms of resistance, sociocultural determinants of resistance, the consequences of antibiotic resistance, and alternative measures proposed to combat antibiotic resistance. Analysis of the published literature identified the main determinants of antibiotic resistance as irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animal species, insufficient patient education when antibiotics are prescribed, lack of guidelines for treatment and control of infections, lack of scientific information for physicians on the rational use of antibiotics, and lack of official government policy on the rational use of antibiotics in public and private hospitals.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance of mastitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E

    2012-07-01

    Antibiotics are used extensively in the dairy industry to combat disease and to improve animal performance. Antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporin, streptomycin, and tetracycline are used for the treatment and prevention of diseases affecting dairy cows caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotics are often administrated routinely to entire herds to prevent mastitis during the dry period. An increase in the incidence of disease in a herd generally results in increased use of antimicrobials, which in turn increases the potential for antibiotic residues in milk and the potential for increased bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Continued use of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of diseases of dairy cows will continue to be scrutinized. It is clear that strategies employing the prudent use of antimicrobials are needed. This clearly illustrates the importance of effective herd disease prevention and control programs. Based on studies published to date, scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among mastitis pathogens to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in dairy cows can contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance. While antimicrobial resistance does occur, we are of the opinion that the advantages of using antibiotics for the treatment of mastitis far outweigh the disadvantages. The clinical consequences of antimicrobial resistance of dairy pathogens affecting humans appear small. Antimicrobial resistance among dairy pathogens, particularly those found in milk, is likely not a human health concern as long as the milk is pasteurized. However, there are an increasing number of people who choose to consume raw milk. Transmission of an antimicrobial-resistant mastitis pathogen and/or foodborne pathogen to humans could occur

  14. Bacterial evolution: Resistance is a numbers game

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, J.P.J.; Harrison, E.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmids are well known for spreading antibiotic-resistance genes between bacterial strains. Recent experiments show that they can also act as catalysts for evolutionary innovation, promoting rapid evolution of novel antibiotic resistance.

  15. Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Role What CDC is Doing: AR Solutions Initiative Investing in States: Map Antibiotic Resistance Lab Network Antibiotic ... CDC and Partners Tackle Drug-Resistant TB in India Newly Reported Gene, mcr -1, Threatens Last-Resort ...

  16. Leading Antimicrobial Drug-Resistant Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supporting research on several organisms that have developed resistance to antimicrobial drug treatment. The institute manages a research portfolio of grants aimed at the problem of antimicrobial resistance and hospital-acquired infections. Here is a list ...

  17. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA); Staph - MRSA; Staphylococcal - MRSA ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). www.cdc.gov/mrsa/index.html . Updated ...

  18. Antimicrobial resistant coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Isolates of coagulase positive S. aureus resistance to 10 antimicrobials was determined by disc diffusion method. Staphylococcus .... Table 1: Antimicrobial resistance of coagulase positive Staphylococcus. aureus isolates from chickens in Maiduguri,. Nigeria. Antimicrobials .... on Danish poultry and pig farms. Preventive.

  19. Multilocus sequence typing of carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important nosocomial pathogen that exhibits multiple drug resistance with increasing frequency, especially to carbapenems making patient treatment difficult. Carbapenem-resistance may be caused by porin gene mutations, active drug efflux, and carbapenemase production.

  20. Multidrug Resistance in Infants and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections may cause disease and death. Infants and children are often subject to bacterial infections. Antimicrobials kill bacteria protecting the infected patients andreducing the risk of morbidity and mortality caused by bacteria. The antibiotics may lose their antibacterial activity when they become resistant to a bacteria. The resistance to different antibiotics in a bacteria is named multidrug-resistance. Gram-negative bacilli, especially Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b, may become resistant. Amikacin ampicillin, amoxicillin, amoxiclav, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin may cause bacterial-resistance. Resistance to bacteria for several pathogens makes complications in the treatment of infections caused by them. Salmonella strains may become resistant to ampicillin, cephalotin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Shigella strains may become resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. Multidrug-resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae may be due to β-lactams, macrolides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Multidrug-resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may become resistant to β-lactams, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. The antibacterial activity against Haemophilus strains may occur with ampicillin, sulbactam-ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. Multidrug-resistance of the Klebsiella species may be due with ampicillin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, co-amxilav, mezlocillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and ceftazidime. Multidrug-resistance of Escherichia coli may be caused by ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime. Vibrio

  1. Sunflower breeding for resistance to abiotic stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Škorić D.

    2009-01-01

    Due to a specific structure of its main organs (root, stem, leaves, head), sunflower can be successfully grown on marginal soils and in semi-arid conditions and it is more resistant to abiotic stresses than other field crops. In sunflower breeding for resistance to abiotic stresses, the greatest progress has been made in selection for drought resistance. Breeders use over 30 different parameters in sunflower screening for drought resistance, with physiological ones being the predominant type....

  2. Emergence of resistant pathogens against colistin

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Kumar; Baljit Jassal; Bhupinder Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Emergence of resistant strain to antimicrobials is a growing problem worldwide. Here, we report a case of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinectobacter baumannii, Gram-negative bacilli, which was only intermediate sensitive to colistin; a polymyxin E. Colistin has attracted more interest recently because of its significant activity against multi-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae, and the low resistance rates to it. The decrease in sensitivity of c...

  3. Estimation method of the fracture resistance curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Keun; Lee, Kwang Hyeon; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Sil [Samsung Electric Company, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Fracture resistance curves for concerned materials are required in order to perform elastic-plastic fracture mechanical analysis. Fracture resistance curve is built with J-integral values and crack extension values. The objective of this paper is to propose the estimation method of the fracture resistance curve. The estimation method of the fracture resistance curve for the pipe specimen was proposed by the load ratio method from load - displacement data for the standard specimen.

  4. User resistance in IT: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mahmood; Zhou, Li; Miller, Lloyd; Ieromonachou, Petros

    2016-01-01

    User resistance is a complex phenomenon long viewed as a major constraint in successful information technology implementation. User resistance, which can vary between passive and active, could be a source of guidance towards reducing problems associated with organisational change. However, rather than embracing user resistance and seeing it as a learning opportunity and a tool for managing current and future difficulties around user resistance, organisations fear it. There exist a wide litera...

  5. Staphylococcus aureus: resistance pattern and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized and once when they were discharged. Almost 48 h after admission, when patients were discharged, social and medical histories were acquired. Acquired samples were examined. Results: During the present study of 475 patients, 108 patients (22.8% had S. aureus. About frequency of antibiotic resistance among collected S. aureus colonies, erythromycin resistance, was the most frequent antibiotic resistance, also resistance to vancomycin was 0.4% that was the least. Only hospitalization duration had statistically significant correlation with antibiotic resistance, also resistance to erythromycin had statistically significant relation with history of surgery and alcohol consumption. Of all 34 MRSA species, 22 (64.7% samples were resistant to erythromycin, 17 (50.0% resistant to cefoxitin, 5 (14.7% resistant to mupirocin, 1 (2.9% resistant to vancomycin and 1 (2.9% resistant to linezolid. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that among hospitalized patients, there is resistance against methicillin. Since based on results of the study there is resistance against oxacillin and erythromycin in most cases, administering appropriate antibiotics have an important role in minimizing the resistance burden among bacterial species.

  6. Strategies for improving rust resistance in oats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, D.E.; McKenzie, R.I.H.; Martens, J.W.; Brown, P.D.

    1977-01-01

    During the history of breeding oats for rust resistance in Canada the known sources of resistance proved inadequate to counter the virulence potential of both stem rust (Puccinia graminis avenae) and crown rust (P. coronata avenae). A major programme to overcome the rust problem was undertaken at Winnipeg, involving four alternate approaches: (1) A search for new resistance in wild oat species, particularly Avena sterilis, has provided a wealth of good resistance to crown rust, but less to stem rust. Much of the A. sterilis-derived crown rust resistance is now being used world-wide; (2) Efforts at synthesizing new resistance by mutation breeding methods have not been successful. Of about seven million plants examined, only one showed significant new resistance, but this was associated with poor plant type; (3) Resistance with low levels of expression but which appears broadly effective has been observed against both stem and crown rusts. It appears that numbers of these low-level genes exist, and that they can be accumulated to provide increasingly effective resistance. Problems in using this type of resistance in a practical way are discussed; (4) Excellent rust resistance has been found in lower ploidy species such as A. barbata, but it was not previously possible to stabilize this resistance in hexaploid species. By using mutagenic treatments attempts have been made to translocate smaller portions of the A. barbata chromosome carrying the resistance to the hexaploid cultivar Rodney. In conclusion, mutation breeding methods at present appear to have limited application in synthesizing new rust-resistant genotypes in oats. The search for already existing genetic resistance and its synthesis into multi-genic resistant lines appears to be the most effective way at present of resolving the rust problem in oats. (author)

  7. [Genotyping and drug resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ming; Guan, Lifeng; Jia, Wei; Wang, Linlin; Li, Gang; Wu, Xuejun; Sun, Tao

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the genotype of staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from burn wards and its current status of drug resistance. One hundred and seventy-nine strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from wound excretion, blood, and sputum samples of patients that were admitted to ICU or public wards of our Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery from September 2012 to September 2013. Among them, 68 strains were from ICU and 111 strains from public wards. The MRSA phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus was detected with cefoxitin K-B disk diffusion method, and the isolation rates of MRSA in ICU and public wards were compared. Genotyping of SCCmec was performed by PCR in strains of MRSA. In the meantime, the identification result of MRSA by K-B method was verified through detecting methicillin-resistant determinant mecA. The antimicrobial resistance of MRSA and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) to 23 kinds of commonly used antibiotics in clinic were detected by K-B disk diffusion method. Except for the antibiotics to which the resistant rates of MRSA were 100.0% or 0, the resistant rates of SCCmecIII MRSA and non-SCCmec III MRSA to the rest of antibiotics were compared. Data were processed with Pearson chi-square test or corrected chi-square test. One hundred and forty-eight strains out of the 179 Staphylococcus aureus were identified as MRSA (accounting for 82.7%), among which 62 were originated from ICU and 86 from public wards. The rest 31 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were MSSA, accounting for 17.3%. The percentage of MRSA in the isolated Staphylococcus aureus was 91.2% (62/68) in ICU, which was significantly higher than that in the public wards [77.5% (86/111), χ2 = 5.526, P = 0.019]. PCR detection showed that the 148 strains of MRSA harbored the mecA gene, out of which 106 strains were SCCmec III positive, accounting for 71.6%. The percentages of SCCmec III type MRSA

  8. 30 CFR 14.20 - Flame resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flame resistance. 14.20 Section 14.20 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... § 14.20 Flame resistance. Conveyor belts for use in underground coal mines must be flame-resistant and...

  9. Triazole resistance surveillance in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendiz Sharpe, Agustin; Lagrou, Katrien; Meis, Jacques F; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Lockhart, Shawn R; Verweij, Paul E

    2018-04-01

    Triazole resistance is an increasing concern in the opportunistic mold Aspergillus fumigatus. Resistance can develop through exposure to azole compounds during azole therapy or in the environment. Resistance mutations are commonly found in the Cyp51A-gene, although other known and unknown resistance mechanisms may be present. Surveillance studies show triazole resistance in six continents, although the presence of resistance remains unknown in many countries. In most countries, resistance mutations associated with the environment dominate, but it remains unclear if these resistance traits predominately migrate or arise locally. Patients with triazole-resistant aspergillus disease may fail to antifungal therapy, but only a limited number of cohort studies have been performed that show conflicting results. Treatment failure might be due to diagnostic delay or due to the limited number of alternative treatment options. The ISHAM/ECMM Aspergillus Resistance Surveillance working group was set up to facilitate surveillance studies and stimulate international collaborations. Important aims are to determine the resistance epidemiology in countries where this information is currently lacking, to gain more insight in the clinical implications of triazole resistance through a registry and to unify nomenclature through consensus definitions.

  10. Malaria resistance | Iyabo | Nigerian Medical Practitioner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age and puberty have been found to contribute to malaria resistance. It is expected that knowledge of natural resistance to malaria may aid in developing Vaccines against this deadly disease. Keywords: malaria resistance, puberty, malaria economy, malaria vaccine. Nigerian Medical Practitioner Vol. 49(5) 2006: 133-142 ...

  11. Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter Infection and Their Antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The high rate of antibiotic resistance shown by Acintobacter isolates in this study demonstrates the need for antibiotic stewardship protocols to be set up in health facilities to prevent outbreaks of multi-resistant bacterial infections. Key words: Acinotebacter infection, Multidrug resistant, Intensive care unit.

  12. Molecular Characterization of the Resistance of Mycobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To characterize the resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to second line drugs using a line probe assay. Methods: Multi-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated between December 2008 and December 2009 were tested for resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs ...

  13. Embodied resistance to persuasion in advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewinski, P.; Fransen, M.L.; Tan, E.S.

    From the literature on resistance to persuasion in advertising, much is known about how people can resist advertising by adopting resistance strategies, such as avoidance, counter-arguing, and selective attention (e.g., Fransen et al., 2015b). However, the role of emotion regulation and bodily

  14. Identification of Rotylenchulus reniformis resistant Glycine lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is the first step in developing resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars that will benefit growers in the Mid South. This study was conducted to identify soybean (G. max and G. soja) lines with resistance to this pathogen....

  15. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: Resistance to the Max

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is intrinsically resistant to a variety of antimicrobials and can develop resistance during anti-pseudomonal chemotherapy both of which compromise treatment of infections caused by this organism. Resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobials (multidrug resistance) in particular is increasingly common in P. aeruginosa, with a number of reports of pan-resistant isolates treatable with a single agent, colistin. Acquired resistance in this organism is multifactorial and attributable to chromosomal mutations and the acquisition of resistance genes via horizontal gene transfer. Mutational changes impacting resistance include upregulation of multidrug efflux systems to promote antimicrobial expulsion, derepression of ampC, AmpC alterations that expand the enzyme's substrate specificity (i.e., extended-spectrum AmpC), alterations to outer membrane permeability to limit antimicrobial entry and alterations to antimicrobial targets. Acquired mechanisms contributing to resistance in P. aeruginosa include β-lactamases, notably the extended-spectrum β-lactamases and the carbapenemases that hydrolyze most β-lactams, aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, and 16S rRNA methylases that provide high-level pan-aminoglycoside resistance. The organism's propensity to grow in vivo as antimicrobial-tolerant biofilms and the occurrence of hypermutator strains that yield antimicrobial resistant mutants at higher frequency also compromise anti-pseudomonal chemotherapy. With limited therapeutic options and increasing resistance will the untreatable P. aeruginosa infection soon be upon us? PMID:21747788

  16. Organizational change and resistance: An identity perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, S.B.; Thomas, R; Hardy, C.; Courpasson, D.; Vallas, S.

    2016-01-01

    A classic term in popular and scholarly literature on change management is ‘resistance to change’. It understands resistance in terms of opposition to managerial strategies for organizational change. Since change is generally viewed as reasonable and desirable within this literature, resistance to

  17. Transgenic strategies for improving rice disease resistance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... proteins of both plant origin and non-plant origin that positively regulates the signaling of systemic acquired resistance, which provides broad-spectrum resistance against viruses, bacteria, and fungi, will be useful sources for genetic engineering of broad-spectrum resistance in rice against multiple types of ...

  18. Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegaert, T.C.W.

    2010-01-01

    Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk
    Mastitis or udder inflammation is one of the most important health problems of dairy cattle. Resistance against mastitis and many other diseases is partly based on the naturally present disease resistance capacity: innate immunity. This research

  19. Antibiotic and disinfectant resistance of Salmonella serovars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Salmonella isolates tested displayed multiple antibiotic resistance to a number of antibiotics used to treat both humans and animals. No resistance was seen to disinfectants used at the manufacturer\\'s recommended rate of dilution. The bacteria were resistant, though, at lower dilutions, highlighting the necessity of ...

  20. Insulin Resistance: From Theory To Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Kakkilaya Bevinje

    2006-01-01

    Insulin resistance is at the core of the well recognised metabolic syndrome and possibly many other ailments commonly seen in the modern society. While the quantification of insulin resistance remains a difficult task, the problems associated with it are increasing in epidemic proportions. Need of the hour therefore is to develop concise dietary and pharmacotherapeutic guidelines for prevention and management of insulin resistance

  1. Preventing and managing antiretroviral drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuritzkes, Daniel R

    2004-05-01

    Development of resistance to antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) is a major impediment to optimum treatment of HIV-1 infection. Although resistance testing can help to select subsequent regimens when virologic failure occurs, cross-resistance, which affects all classes of ARVs, may make it more difficult to achieve optimum control of HIV. We have known for some time that our first choice of antiretroviral therapy offers the best chance to control HIV replication and that initial therapy should be selected with an eye on future options. Potency is the first line of defense against the development of resistance. Other factors that affect resistance development include: tolerability, potential for optimum adherence, and genetic and pharmacologic barriers to development of resistance. If resistance emerges, only a single drug may be affected initially, and a rapid change in ARVs may preserve the efficacy of other components. One cautionary note is that we can no longer assume that a patient's HIV is fully susceptible to all ARVs even in the initial regimen. Transmission of drug-resistant HIV means that the genetic composition may be that of an "experienced" virus with reduced susceptibility to ARVs. Resistance testing at the time of transmission is most likely to reveal this resistance, but over time the dominant genetic pattern may revert to wild-type, and be missed by resistance testing. Because "archived" resistant HIV may emerge quickly once treatment is initiated, we need to keep this in mind when selecting initial therapy.

  2. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus is the leading overall cause otf nosocomial infections with increasing resistance to β lactam antibiotics. This study was carried out to study the current resistant/susceptibility pattern of S. aureus to β lactam antibiotics and prevalence of Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the studied population.

  3. Achieving durable resistance against plant diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lof, Marjolein Elisabeth; Vallavieille-Pope, de Claude; Werf, van der Wopke

    2017-01-01

    Genetic resistance in crops is a cornerstone of disease management in agriculture. Such genetic resistance is often rapidly broken due to selection for virulence in the pathogen population. Here, we ask whether there are strategies that can prolong the useful life of plant resistance genes. In a

  4. Altered membrane permeability in multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... involvement during the transport of β - lactams in multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from extra-intestinal infections. Also, the ... lactam resistance in multidrug resistant E. coli in ESBL and non-ESBL isolates. .... and decreased susceptibility to carbapenems, particularly ertapenem (Perez et al.,.

  5. Molecular Identification of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial resistance has become a great public health problem worldwide and multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been widely reported. Methods: The presence or absence of methicillin resistance gene (mecA) in 48 clinical wound isolates of S. aureus was examined by the polymerase chain reaction ...

  6. Electrical resistivity measurement to predict uniaxial compressive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Electrical resistivity values of 12 different igneous rocks were measured on core samples using a resistivity meter in the laboratory. The resistivity tests were conducted on the samples fully saturated with brine (NaCl solution) and the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Brazilian tensile strength, density and.

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance: A Global Public Health Threat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 60 years of the antibiotic era has been marked by cycles of discovery of new antibiotics and the subsequent emergence of drug resistance. Imprudent use of antibiotics has lead to the development of resistance which has reached a grave situation. The factors which increase bacterial resistance to antibiotics are the ...

  8. Determining the specific electric resistance of rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad' ko, V.Ia.

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented on perfecting the method of laboratory determination of the specific electric resistance of a rock formation. The average error in determining the specific electric resistance of the core at various locations is no more than two percent with low resistance values (2-5 ohms).

  9. Resistance mechanisms to plant viruses: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldbach, R.W.; Bucher, E.C.; Prins, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    To obtain virus-resistant host plants, a range of operational strategies can be followed nowadays. While for decades plant breeders have been able to introduce natural resistance genes in susceptible genotypes without knowing precisely what these resistance traits were, currently a growing number of

  10. Telephone Operators' Resistance to British Colonial Administration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to write the history of yet another form of resistance to colonial rule in British Africa with a focus on telephone operators in the erstwhile Cameroons Province. The pith and kernel of the paper therefore is to show how telephone operators resisted the colonial administration. This typology of resistance is yet to ...

  11. Noise Considerations in Resistance Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Joseph M.

    1963-01-01

    A signal-to-noise analysis is made of the Wheatstone bridge, where the unknown and standard resistors may be at different temperatures, a situation which occurs in resistance thermometry. The limiting condition is assumed to be dissipation in the unknown resistor. It is shown that the ratio arms...... should be low in resistance compared with the unknown resistor, while the standard resistor should be high. This is true to an extreme degree when the unknown resistor is at liquid helium temperatures, and the standard resistor at room temperature. This factor is much less important in high temperature...... thermometry, where the noise in the unknown resistor will predominate strongly. An impedance step-up device (transformer or tuned circuit) is valuable in raising the bridge signal and noise level above the noise of the first amplifier tube. However, as the step-up ratio is increased, two counterfactors appear...

  12. Computational Studies of Drug Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Martins, João Miguel

    Drug resistance has been an increasing problem in patient treatment and drug development. Starting in the last century and becoming a major worry in the medical and scienti c communities in the early part of the current millennium, major research must be performed to address the issues of viral...... is of the utmost importance in developing better and less resistance-inducing drugs. A drug's in uence can be characterized in many diff erent ways, however, and the approaches I take in this work re ect those same different in uences. This is what I try to achieve in this work, through seemingly unrelated...... approaches that come together in the study of drug's and their in uence on proteins and vice-versa. In part I, I aim to understand through combined theoretical ensemble analysis and free energy calculations the e ects mutations have over the binding anity and function of the M2 proton channel. This research...

  13. Bacterial biofilms and antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Caldas-Arias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms give to bacteria micro-environmental benefits; confers protection against antimicrobials. Bacteria have antibiotic resistance by conventional and unusual mechanisms leading to delayed wound healing, to increase recurrent chronic infections and nosocomial contamination of medical devices. Objective: This narrative review aims to introduce the characteristics of Bacteria-biofilms, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms and potential alternatives for prevention and control of its formation. Methods: Search strategy was performed on records: PubMed / Medline, Lilacs, Redalyc; with suppliers such as EBSCO and thesaurus MeSH and DeCS. Conclusions: Knowledge and research performance of biofilm bacteria are relevant in the search of technology for detection and measuring sensitivity to antibiotics. The identification of Bacterial-biofilms needs no-traditional microbiological diagnosis.

  14. Antibiotic resistance pattern in uropathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta V

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic strains from inpatient and outpatient departments were studied from April 1997 to March 1999 for their susceptibility profiles. The various isolates were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumanii and Enterococcus faecalis. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of these isolates revealed that for outpatients, first generation cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin/ciprofloxacin were effective for treatment of urinary tract infection but for inpatients, parenteral therapy with newer aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporins need to be advocated as the organisms for nosocomial UTI exhibit a high degree of drug resistance. Trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole combination was not found to be effective for the treatment of urinary tract infections as all the uropathogens from inpatients and outpatients showed high degree of resistance to co-trimoxazole. Culture and sensitivity of the isolates from urine samples should be done as a routine before advocating the therapy.

  15. Pilling Resistance of Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita BUSILIENĖ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Knitted fabrics with different quantity of elastane, conspicuous by high viscosity and elasticity, having one of the most important performance properties - resistance to pilling are often used in the production of high quality sportswear. During technological process imitating operating conditions, the behaviour of knitted fabrics may be changed by different industrial softeners from 12 % to 20 % of active substance, for example fatty acid condensate (Tubingal 5051 or silicone micro emulsion (Tubingal SMF. The aim of this investigation is to define the influence of fibrous composition and chemical softeners to the propensity of fuzzing and pilling of plain and plated jersey pattern knitted fabrics. The results of investigations showed that fibrous composition and thickness of materials (up to 6 % and washing as well as softening (from 33 % to 67 % change the resistance of knitted fabrics to pilling.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.3.597

  16. Radiation resistant ceramic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Steiner, D.; Heinisch, H.L.; Newsome, G.A.; Kerch, H.M.

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are of interest for nuclear applications because of their high-temperature properties, corrosion resistance, fracture toughness relative to monolithic ceramics, and low neutron activation and after heat. Evaluations of the radiation resistance of commercially available SiC/SiC composites have revealed their promise for this application, but also the need for further development to achieve the desired performance. This paper summarizes the results of a workshop cosponsored by the Offices of Fusion Energy and Basic Energy Sciences of the US Department of Energy and Lockheed-Martin Corporation with forty attendees from national laboratories, universities and industry. A number of promising routes for optimizing the radiation stability of ceramic matrix composites were identified at this workshop. These routes included the newer, more stoichiometric fibers and alternate fiber/matrix interfaces and matrix processing routes. (orig.)

  17. Antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoiby, N.; Bjarnsholt, T.; Givskov, M.

    2010-01-01

    A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and DNA. Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and disinfectant chemicals as well as resisting phagocytosis...... to antibiotics. Biofilm growth is associated with an increased level of mutations as well as with quorum-sensing-regulated mechanisms. Conventional resistance mechanisms such as chromosomal beta-lactamase, upregulated efflux pumps and mutations in antibiotic target molecules in bacteria also contribute...... to the survival of biofilms. Biofilms can be prevented by early aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis or therapy and they can be treated by chronic suppressive therapy. A promising strategy may be the use of enzymes that can dissolve the biofilm matrix (e.g. DNase and alginate lyase) as well as quorum...

  18. Anisotropy of domain wall resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viret; Samson; Warin; Marty; Ott; Sondergard; Klein; Fermon

    2000-10-30

    The resistive effect of domain walls in FePd films with perpendicular anisotropy was studied experimentally as a function of field and temperature. The films were grown directly on MgO substrates, which induces an unusual virgin magnetic configuration composed of 60 nm wide parallel stripe domains. This allowed us to carry out the first measurements of the anisotropy of domain wall resistivity in the two configurations of current perpendicular and parallel to the walls. At 18 K, we find 8.2% and 1.3% for the domain wall magnetoresistance normalized to the wall width (8 nm) in these two respective configurations. These values are consistent with the predictions of Levy and Zhang.

  19. Impact resistant battery enclosure systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo; Feng, Yuezhong; Chen, Weinong Wayne; Siegmund, Thomas Heinrich

    2017-10-31

    Battery enclosure arrangements for a vehicular battery system. The arrangements, capable of impact resistance include plurality of battery cells and a plurality of kinetic energy absorbing elements. The arrangements further include a frame configured to encase the plurality of the kinetic energy absorbing elements and the battery cells. In some arrangements the frame and/or the kinetic energy absorbing elements can be made of topologically interlocked materials.

  20. The resistance councils in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand, Per

    in the capitals. In my dissertation I propose to change that focus. Partly by paying particular attention to rural politics, partly through a discussion of democracy in a longer-term perspective using a broader definition of democracy and finally through a discussion of democracy as effective political...... participation rather than only form al rights. I shall do so by analysing the Resistance Councils (RCs) in Uganda....

  1. Vitamins for enhancing plant resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubakri, Hatem; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Mliki, Ahmed; Brini, Faiçal; Chong, Julie; Jbara, Moez

    2016-09-01

    This paper provides an overview on vitamins with inducing activities in plants, the molecular and cellular mechanisms implicated, and the hormonal signalling-network regulating this process. Moreover, it reports how vitamins might be part of the molecular events linked to induced resistance by the conventional elicitors. Induced resistance (IR), exploiting the plant innate-defense system is a sustainable strategy for plant disease control. In the last decade, vitamins have been proven to act as inducers of disease resistance, and these findings have received an important attention owing to their safety and cost effectiveness. Vitamins, including thiamine (TH, vitamin B1), riboflavin (RF, vitamin B2), menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB, vitamin K3), Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, vitamin Bx), and folic acid (FA, vitamin B9) provided an efficient protection against a wide range of pathogens through the modulation of specific host-defense facets. However, other vitamins, such as ascorbic acid (AA, vitamin C) and tocopherols (vitamin E), have been shown to be a part of the molecular mechanisms associated to IR. The present review is the first to summarize what vitamins are acting as inducers of disease resistance in plants and how could they be modulated by the conventional elicitors. Thus, this report provides an overview on the protective abilities of vitamins and the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying their activities. Moreover, it describes the hormonal-signalling network regulating vitamin-signal transduction during IR. Finally, a biochemical model describing how vitamins are involved in the establishment of IR process is discussed.

  2. Earthquake resistant design of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Geun; Kim, Gyu Seok; Lee, Dong Geun

    1990-02-01

    This book tells of occurrence of earthquake and damage analysis of earthquake, equivalent static analysis method, application of equivalent static analysis method, dynamic analysis method like time history analysis by mode superposition method and direct integration method, design spectrum analysis considering an earthquake-resistant design in Korea. Such as analysis model and vibration mode, calculation of base shear, calculation of story seismic load and combine of analysis results.

  3. Effects of ultraviolet disinfection on antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli from wastewater: inactivation, antibiotic resistance profiles and antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong-Miao; Xu, Li-Mei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Zhuang, Kai; Liu, Qiang-Qiang

    2017-04-29

    To evaluate the effect of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection on antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli). Antibiotic-resistant E. coli strains were isolated from a wastewater treatment plant and subjected to UV disinfection. The effect of UV disinfection on the antibiotic resistance profiles and the antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) of antibiotic-resistant E. coli was evaluated by a combination of antibiotic susceptibility analysis and molecular methods. Results indicated that multiple-antibiotic-resistant (MAR) E. coli were more resistant at low UV doses and required a higher UV dose (20 mJ cm -2 ) to enter the tailing phase compared with those of antibiotic-sensitive E. coli (8 mJ cm -2 ). UV disinfection caused a selective change in the inhibition zone diameters of surviving antibiotic-resistant E. coli and a slight damage to ARGs. The inhibition zone diameters of the strains resistant to antibiotics were more difficult to alter than those susceptible to antibiotics because of the existence and persistence of corresponding ARGs. The resistance of MAR bacteria to UV disinfection at low UV doses and the changes in inhibition zone diameters could potentially contribute to the selection of ARB in wastewater treatment after UV disinfection. The risk of spread of antibiotic resistance still exists owing to the persistence of ARGs. Our study highlights the acquisition of other methods to control the spread of ARGs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel resistance functions uncovered using functional metagenomic investigations of resistance reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica C. Pehrsson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rates of infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria have increased precipitously over the past several decades, with far-reaching healthcare and societal costs. Recent evidence has established a link between antibiotic resistance genes in human pathogens and those found in non-pathogenic, commensal, and environmental organisms, prompting deeper investigation of natural and human-associated reservoirs of antibiotic resistance. Functional metagenomic selections, in which shotgun-cloned DNA fragments are selected for their ability to confer survival to an indicator host, have been increasingly applied to the characterization of many antibiotic resistance reservoirs. These experiments have demonstrated that antibiotic resistance genes are highly diverse and widely distributed, many times bearing little to no similarity to known sequences. Through unbiased selections for survival to antibiotic exposure, functional metagenomics can improve annotations by reducing the discovery of false-positive resistance and by allowing for the identification of previously unrecognizable resistance genes. In this review, we summarize the novel resistance functions uncovered using functional metagenomic investigations of natural and human-impacted resistance reservoirs. Examples of novel antibiotic resistance genes include those highly divergent from known sequences, those for which sequence is entirely unable to predict resistance function, bifunctional resistance genes, and those with unconventional, atypical resistance mechanisms. Overcoming antibiotic resistance in the clinic will require a better understanding of existing resistance reservoirs and the dissemination networks that govern horizontal gene exchange, informing best practices to limit the spread of resistance-conferring genes to human pathogens.

  5. Novel resistance functions uncovered using functional metagenomic investigations of resistance reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrsson, Erica C; Forsberg, Kevin J; Gibson, Molly K; Ahmadi, Sara; Dantas, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    Rates of infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria have increased precipitously over the past several decades, with far-reaching healthcare and societal costs. Recent evidence has established a link between antibiotic resistance genes in human pathogens and those found in non-pathogenic, commensal, and environmental organisms, prompting deeper investigation of natural and human-associated reservoirs of antibiotic resistance. Functional metagenomic selections, in which shotgun-cloned DNA fragments are selected for their ability to confer survival to an indicator host, have been increasingly applied to the characterization of many antibiotic resistance reservoirs. These experiments have demonstrated that antibiotic resistance genes are highly diverse and widely distributed, many times bearing little to no similarity to known sequences. Through unbiased selections for survival to antibiotic exposure, functional metagenomics can improve annotations by reducing the discovery of false-positive resistance and by allowing for the identification of previously unrecognizable resistance genes. In this review, we summarize the novel resistance functions uncovered using functional metagenomic investigations of natural and human-impacted resistance reservoirs. Examples of novel antibiotic resistance genes include those highly divergent from known sequences, those for which sequence is entirely unable to predict resistance function, bifunctional resistance genes, and those with unconventional, atypical resistance mechanisms. Overcoming antibiotic resistance in the clinic will require a better understanding of existing resistance reservoirs and the dissemination networks that govern horizontal gene exchange, informing best practices to limit the spread of resistance-conferring genes to human pathogens.

  6. Comparing pulmonary resistance measured with an esophageal balloon to resistance measurements with an airflow perturbation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursey, D C; Johnson, A T; Scharf, S M

    2010-01-01

    The airflow perturbation device (APD) perturbs flow and mouth pressure during regular breathing. Ratios of mouth pressure perturbation magnitudes to flow perturbation magnitudes were used to calculate inspiratory, expiratory and average respiratory resistances. Resistance measurements with the APD were compared to pulmonary resistances directly measured with an esophageal balloon. Six healthy subjects were tested during tidal breathing when known external resistances were added during inspiration, during expiration and during both inspiration and expiration. When the baseline averaged balloon measured pulmonary resistance was subtracted from the baseline averaged APD measured resistance, the difference between them was 0.92 ± 1.25 (mean ± SD) cmH 2 O L –1 s –1 . Compared to the magnitude of the known increase in the added resistance, the APD measured resistance increased by 79%, whereas directly measured pulmonary resistance increased only by 56%. During addition of external resistances to both inspiration and expiration, the changes in inspiratory and expiratory pulmonary resistance were only 36% and 62% of the added resistance, respectively. On the other hand, the APD inhalation and exhalation resistance measured between 82% and 76% of the added resistance. We conclude that the APD detects changes in external resistance at least as well as, and probably better than, classical measurements of pulmonary resistance

  7. Role of beta-lactamase in expression of resistance by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Boyce, J M; Medeiros, A A

    1987-01-01

    Of 27 unique clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, only 4 were homogeneously resistant, and all 4 produced little or no beta-lactamase. Among heterogeneously resistant strains, those most resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics produced the most beta-lactamase. Similar genes may regulate production of the low-affinity penicillin-binding protein and beta-lactamase.

  8. Youth, Social Networking, and Resistance: A Case Study on a Multidimensional Approach to Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzaro, David

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory case study focused on youth and resistance that was aided by the use of technology. The combination of resistance and technology expanded a multidimensional framework and leads to new insight into transformative resistance. This study examined the framework of transformative resistance based on Solorzano and Delgado Bernal's…

  9. Resistance of a water spark.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2005-11-01

    The later time phase of electrical breakdown in water is investigated for the purpose of improving understanding of the discharge characteristics. One dimensional simulations in addition to a zero dimensional lumped model are used to study the spark discharge. The goal is to provide better electrical models for water switches used in the pulse compression section of pulsed power systems. It is found that temperatures in the discharge channel under representative drive conditions, and assuming small initial radii from earlier phases of development, reach levels that are as much as an order of magnitude larger than those used to model discharges in atmospheric gases. This increased temperature coupled with a more rapidly rising conductivity with temperature than in air result in a decreased resistance characteristic compared to preceding models. A simple modification is proposed for the existing model to enable the approximate calculation of channel temperature and incorporate the resulting conductivity increase into the electrical circuit for the discharge channel. Comparisons are made between the theoretical predictions and recent experiments at Sandia. Although present and past experiments indicated that preceding late time channel models overestimated channel resistance, the calculations in this report seem to underestimate the resistance relative to recent experiments. Some possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  10. Desiccation resistance of Chironomid larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Frouz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to desiccation in larvae of eight species of aquatic, semiaquatic and terrestrial chironomids (Pseudodiamesa branickii, Macropelopia sp., Prodiamesa olivacea, Micropsectra sp., Chironomus riparius, Chironomus dorsalis, Metriocnemus martini and Camptocladius stercorarius was studied. The larvae were desiccated in exicator at constant conditions (15 °C, 80% RH and changes in moisture and body water content was recorded. The LD-50 for loss of body water was calculated. The lowest resistance to loss of body water was found in larvae from subfamilies Tanypodinae and Diamesinae Macropelopia sp. and P. branickii. They survived loss of 49.7 and 56.6% of original water content (presented values are LD-50. On the other hand the highest resistance to water loss was found in C. dorsalis. M. martini and C. stercorarius. The larvae of these species may survive loss of 67.4, 76.6 and 84.2% of original water content. Nevertheless the survival time under experimental conditions depends more closely on larval size than on lethal level of water loss. The smaller larvae desiccated faster and perished sooner than large ones despite they tolerate higher loss of body water.

  11. [Antibiotic resistance: A global crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alós, Juan-Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    The introduction of antibiotics into clinical practice represented one of the most important interventions for the control of infectious diseases. Antibiotics have saved millions of lives and have also brought a revolution in medicine. However, an increasing threat has deteriorated the effectiveness of these drugs, that of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, which is defined here as the ability of bacteria to survive in antibiotic concentrations that inhibit/kill others of the same species. In this review some recent and important examples of resistance in pathogens of concern for mankind are mentioned. It is explained, according to present knowledge, the process that led to the current situation in a short time, evolutionarily speaking. It begins with the resistance genes, continues with clones and genetic elements involved in the maintenance and dissemination, and ends with other factors that contribute to its spread. Possible responses to the problem are also reviewed, with special reference to the development of new antibiotics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. Intrinsic nanofilamentation in resistive switching

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing

    2013-03-15

    Resistive switching materials are promising candidates for nonvolatile data storage and reconfiguration of electronic applications. Intensive studies have been carried out on sandwiched metal-insulator-metal structures to achieve high density on-chip circuitry and non-volatile memory storage. Here, we provide insight into the mechanisms that govern highly reproducible controlled resistive switching via a nanofilament by using an asymmetric metal-insulator-semiconductor structure. In-situ transmission electron microscopy is used to study in real-time the physical structure and analyze the chemical composition of the nanofilament dynamically during resistive switching. Electrical stressing using an external voltage was applied by a tungsten tip to the nanosized devices having hafnium oxide (HfO2) as the insulator layer. The formation and rupture of the nanofilaments result in up to three orders of magnitude change in the current flowing through the dielectric during the switching event. Oxygen vacancies and metal atoms from the anode constitute the chemistry of the nanofilament.

  13. Wear resistance of hydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, MA; Abenojar, J.; Pantoja, M.; López de Armentia, S.

    2017-05-01

    Nature has been an inspiration source to develop artificial hydrophobic surfaces. During the latest years the development of hydrophobic surfaces has been widely researched due to their numerous ranges of industrial applications. Industrially the use of hydrophobic surfaces is being highly demanded. This is why many companies develop hydrophobic products to repel water, in order to be used as coatings. Moreover, these coating should have the appropriated mechanical properties and wear resistance. In this work wear study of a hydrophobic coating on glass is carried out. Hydrophobic product used was Sika Crystal Dry by Sika S.A.U. (Alcobendas, Spain). This product is currently used on car windshield. To calculate wear resistance, pin-on-disk tests were carried out in dry and water conditions. The test parameters were rate, load and sliding distance, which were fixed to 60 rpm, 5 N and 1000 m respectively. A chamois was used as pin. It allows to simulate a real use. The friction coefficient and loss weight were compared to determinate coating resistance

  14. Mechanisms of buffer therapy resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kate M; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; Cornnell, Heather H; Ribeiro, Maria C; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Hashim, Arig Ibrahim; Gillies, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    Many studies have shown that the acidity of solid tumors contributes to local invasion and metastasis. Oral pH buffers can specifically neutralize the acidic pH of tumors and reduce the incidence of local invasion and metastatic formation in multiple murine models. However, this effect is not universal as we have previously observed that metastasis is not inhibited by buffers in some tumor models, regardless of buffer used. B16-F10 (murine melanoma), LL/2 (murine lung) and HCT116 (human colon) tumors are resistant to treatment with lysine buffer therapy, whereas metastasis is potently inhibited by lysine buffers in MDA-MB-231 (human breast) and PC3M (human prostate) tumors. In the current work, we confirmed that sensitive cells utilized a pH-dependent mechanism for successful metastasis supported by a highly glycolytic phenotype that acidifies the local tumor microenvironment resulting in morphological changes. In contrast, buffer-resistant cell lines exhibited a pH-independent metastatic mechanism involving constitutive secretion of matrix degrading proteases without elevated glycolysis. These results have identified two distinct mechanisms of experimental metastasis, one of which is pH-dependent (buffer therapy sensitive cells) and one which is pH-independent (buffer therapy resistant cells). Further characterization of these models has potential for therapeutic benefit. Copyright © 2014 Neoplasia Press, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diversity in fosfomycin resistance proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K. Thompson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Certain strains of the soil microorganism Streptomyces produce an antibiotic, fosfomycin [(1 R,2 S-epoxypropylphosphonic acid], which is effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens by inhibiting the first committed step in cell-wall biosynthesis. Fosfomycin resistance proteins are metallo-enzymes that are known to inactivate the antibiotic by the addition of nucleophiles such as water, glutathione (GSH, l-cysteine and bacillithiol (BSH to the oxirane ring of the molecule. Progress in the characterisation of FosB-type fosfomycin resistance proteins found in many Gram-positive organisms has been slow. This paper provides a brief description of the diversity of fosfomycin resistance proteins in general and, more specifically, new data characterising the substrate selectivity, structure, mechanism and metal-ion dependence of FosB enzymes from pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus and Bacillus. These new findings include the high-resolution X-ray diffraction structures of FosB enzymes from Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus in various liganded states and kinetic data that suggest that Mn(II and BSH are the preferred divalent cation and thiol substrate for the reaction, respectively. The discovery of the inhibition of the enzyme by Zn(II led to the determination of a ternary structure of the FosB·Zn(II·fosfomycin·l-Cys complex which reveals both substrates present in a pose prior to reaction.

  16. Chloroquine resistant malaria in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khichi, Qasim Khan; Channar, Mohammad Saleem; Wairraich, Mohammad Ihsan; Butt, Ahsan

    2005-01-01

    To analyze the clinical presentation, treatment given, and outcome of patients suffering from congenital and acquired malaria in neonatal period. Analytical study. Paediatrics Ward-2, QAMC/BVH, Bahawalpur for 02 years from October 2001 to October 2003. The study included 45 cases of neonatal malaria. Thirty cases of malaria, admitted during first ten days of life, diagnosed as congenital malaria, were kept in group A, while 15 cases admitted in the ward from the age of 11 to 28 days, labeled as acquired malaria, were named group B. The clinical features at the time of presentation were noted in each group from the charts having positive malarial parasite (M.P.) on thick and thin slides. The diagnosed cases were treated with the standard dose of chloroquine sulphate. Those patients who improved clinically as well as revealed no parasite on follow-up were labeled as chloroquine sensitive. On the other hand, patients showing poor clinical response with persistence of the parasites in the blood or initially disappearing but later again having a clinical disease with positive M.P. on follow-up, were labeled as chloroquine resistant. They were treated with quinine sulphate. Outcome was compared in both the groups regarding the pattern of chloroquine resistance and death/ survival. Data was collected on which Fischer's exact test of significance was performed to know the level of significance. P-value of important clinical features. Pattern of chloroquine resistance and mortality in both the groups was not statistically different.

  17. Analysis and modeling of resistive switching mechanisms oriented to resistive random-access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Da; Wu Jun-Jie; Tang Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    With the progress of the semiconductor industry, the resistive random-access memory (RAM) has drawn increasing attention. The discovery of the memristor has brought much attention to this study. Research has focused on the resistive switching characteristics of different materials and the analysis of resistive switching mechanisms. We discuss the resistive switching mechanisms of different materials in this paper and analyze the differences of those mechanisms from the view point of circuitry to establish their respective circuit models. Finally, simulations are presented. We give the prospect of using different materials in resistive RAM on account of their resistive switching mechanisms, which are applied to explain their resistive switchings

  18. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almani, S.A.; Memon, N.M.; Qureshi, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of primary and secondary drug resistance amongst the clinical isolates of M.tuberculosis, to identify risk factors and how to overcome this problem. Design: A case series of 50 indoor patients with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Place and duration of Study: Department of Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro, Sindh, (Pakistan) from January 1999 to December 2000. Patients and methods: Four first line anti-tuberculous drugs rifampicine, ethambutol and streptomycin were tested for sensitivity pattern. Results: Twelve (26.66%) were sensitive to all four drugs, 12(26.66%) were resistant to one drug, 14 (31.11%) were resistant to two drugs, 2 (4.44%) were resistant to three drugs, and 5(11.11%) were resistant to all four drugs. Resistance to isoniazid was the most common in 27 cases (60%) with primary resistance in 6(13.33%) and secondary resistance in 21(46.66%), followed by resistance to streptomycin in 17 cases (37.77%) with primary resistance in 5(11.11%) and secondary resistance in 12 (26.66%). Resistance to ethambutol in 10 cases (22.22%) and rifampicine in 11 (24.44%) and all cases were secondary. Similarly multi-drugs resistance (MRD) TB was found in 11(24.44%) isolates. Conclusion: This study showed high prevalence of drug resistance among clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. Their is a need to establish centers at number of places with adequate facilities for susceptibility testing so that the resistant pattern could be ascertained and treatment regimens tailored accordingly. (author)

  19. Perplexities of treatment resistance in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmi, Katherine A

    2013-11-07

    Treatment resistance is an omnipresent frustration in eating disorders. Attempts to identify the features of this resistance and subsequently develop novel treatments have had modest effects. This selective review examines treatment resistant features expressed in core eating disorder psychopathology, comorbidities and biological features. Novel treatments addressing resistance are discussed. The core eating disorder psychopathology of anorexia nervosa becomes a coping mechanism likely via vulnerable neurobiological features and conditioned learning to deal with life events. Thus it is reinforcing and ego syntonic resulting in resistance to treatment. The severity of core features such as preoccupations with body image, weight, eating and exercising predicts greater resistance to treatment. Bulimia nervosa patients are less resistant to treatment with treatment failure related to greater body image concerns, impulsivity, depression, severe diet restriction and poor social adjustment. For those with binge eating disorder overweight in childhood and high emotional eating predicts treatment resistance. There is suggestive data that a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder and severe perfectionism may confer treatment resistance in anorexia nervosa and substance use disorders or personality disorders with impulse control problems may produce resistance to treatment in bulimia nervosa. Traits such as perfectionism, cognitive inflexibility and negative affect with likely genetic influences may also affect treatment resistance. Pharmacotherapy and novel therapies have been developed to address treatment resistance. Atypical antipsychotic drugs have shown some effect in treatment resistant anorexia nervosa and topiramate and high doses of SSRIs are helpful for treatment of resistant binge eating disorder patients. There are insufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the novel psychotherapies which are primarily based on the core psychopathological features of the

  20. Adriamycin resistance, heat resistance and radiation response in Chinese hamster fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, K.; Li, G.

    1985-01-01

    Previous investigators have demonstrated synergistic interaction between hyperthermia and radiation or Adriamycin (ADR), using cell lines that are sensitive to heat or ADR alone. The authors investigated the effect of heat, radiation or ADR on Chinese hamster fibroblasts (HA-1), their heat resistant variants and their ADR resistant variants. Heat for ADR resistance did not confer cross resistance to radiation. Cells resistant to heat did show cross resistance to ADR. While cells selected for ADR resistance were not cross resistant to heat, they did not exhibit drug potentiation by hyperthermia, characteristic of ADR sensitive cells. Cytofluorometric measurement showed decreased ADR uptake in both heat and ADR resistant cells. The possibility of cross resistance between heat and ADR should be considered when designing combined modality trials

  1. Selective conditions for a multidrug resistance plasmid depend on the sociality of antibiotic resistance"

    OpenAIRE

    Bottery, Michael; Wood, A. Jamie; Brockhurst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids frequently carry antibiotic resistance genes conferring qualitatively different mechanisms of resistance. We show here that the antibiotic concentrations selecting for the RK2 plasmid in Escherichia coli depend upon the sociality of the drug resistance: the selection for selfish drug resistance (efflux pump) occurred at very low drug concentrations, just 1.3% of the MIC of the plasmid-free antibiotic-sensitive strain, whereas selection for cooperative drug ...

  2. Mutant ribosomes can generate dominant kirromycin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubulekas, I; Buckingham, R H; Hughes, D

    1991-01-01

    Mutations in the two genes for EF-Tu in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, tufA and tufB, can confer resistance to the antibiotic kirromycin. Kirromycin resistance is a recessive phenotype expressed when both tuf genes are mutant. We describe a new kirromycin-resistant phenotype dominant to the effect of wild-type EF-Tu. Strains carrying a single kirromycin-resistant tuf mutation and an error-restrictive, streptomycin-resistant rpsL mutation are resistant to high levels of kirromycin, even when the other tuf gene is wild type. This phenotype is dependent on error-restrictive mutations and is not expressed with nonrestrictive streptomycin-resistant mutations. Kirromycin resistance is also expressed at a low level in the absence of any mutant EF-Tu. These novel phenotypes exist as a result of differences in the interactions of mutant and wild-type EF-Tu with the mutant ribosomes. The restrictive ribosomes have a relatively poor interaction with wild-type EF-Tu and are thus more easily saturated with mutant kirromycin-resistant EF-Tu. In addition, the mutant ribosomes are inherently kirromycin resistant and support a significantly faster EF-Tu cycle time in the presence of the antibiotic than do wild-type ribosomes. A second phenotype associated with combinations of rpsL and error-prone tuf mutations is a reduction in the level of resistance to streptomycin. PMID:2050625

  3. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Shukla

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. METHODS: Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. RESULTS: Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1 expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy.

  4. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Swati; Srivastava, Arpna; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Usha; Goswami, Sandeep; Chawla, Bhavna; Bajaj, Mandeep Singh; Kashyap, Seema; Kaur, Jasbir

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC) were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin) were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1) expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp) was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy.

  5. Antibiotic resistance: are we all doomed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, P

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing and worrying problem associated with increased deaths and suffering for people. Overall, there are only two factors that drive antimicrobial resistance, and both can be controlled. These factors are the volumes of antimicrobials used and the spread of resistant micro-organisms and/or the genes encoding for resistance. The One Health concept is important if we want to understand better and control antimicrobial resistance. There are many things we can do to better control antimicrobial resistance. We need to prevent infections. We need to have better surveillance with good data on usage patterns and resistance patterns available across all sectors, both human and agriculture, locally and internationally. We need to act on these results when we see either inappropriate usage or resistance levels rising in bacteria that are of concern for people. We need to ensure that food and water sources do not spread multi-resistant micro-organisms or resistance genes. We need better approaches to restrict successfully what and how antibiotics are used in people. We need to restrict the use of 'critically important' antibiotics in food animals and the entry of these drugs into the environment. We need to ensure that 'One Health' concept is not just a buzz word but implemented. We need to look at all sectors and control not only antibiotic use but also the spread and development of antibiotic resistant bacteria - both locally and internationally. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  6. Overview of glyphosate-resistant weeds worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Ian; Duke, Stephen O

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used and successful herbicide discovered to date, but its utility is now threatened by the occurrence of several glyphosate-resistant weed species. Glyphosate resistance first appeared in Lolium rigidum in an apple orchard in Australia in 1996, ironically the year that the first glyphosate-resistant crop (soybean) was introduced in the USA. Thirty-eight weed species have now evolved resistance to glyphosate, distributed across 37 countries and in 34 different crops and six non-crop situations. Although glyphosate-resistant weeds have been identified in orchards, vineyards, plantations, cereals, fallow and non-crop situations, it is the glyphosate-resistant weeds in glyphosate-resistant crop systems that dominate the area infested and growing economic impact. Glyphosate-resistant weeds present the greatest threat to sustained weed control in major agronomic crops because this herbicide is used to control weeds with resistance to herbicides with other sites of action, and no new herbicide sites of action have been introduced for over 30 years. Industry has responded by developing herbicide resistance traits in major crops that allow existing herbicides to be used in a new way. However, over reliance on these traits will result in multiple-resistance in weeds. Weed control in major crops is at a precarious point, where we must maintain the utility of the herbicides we have until we can transition to new weed management technologies. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. CHARACTERISTICS OF METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, R.; Rolinson, G. N.

    1964-01-01

    Sutherland, R. (Beecham Research Laboratories Ltd., Betchworth, Surrey, England), and G. N. Rolinson. Characteristics of methicillin-resistant staphylococci. J. Bacteriol. 87:887–899. 1964.—Cultures of naturally occurring methicillin-resistant staphylococci obtained from a number of hospitals were examined for the nature and degree of resistance to methicillin and other antibiotics. All the cultures tested were similar in that they consisted of mixed populations in which the majority of cells were of normal sensitivity to methicillin with a minority showing methicillin resistance. The resistant members also differed from the rest of the population in that they grew more slowly even in the absence of methicillin. Pure cultures of the resistant minority were obtained readily but, on repeated transfer in the absence of methicillin, resistance was lost and the cultures reverted to mixed populations similar to the original naturally occurring strains. When methicillin-sensitive staphylococci were repeatedly subcultured in the presence of methicillin, a mixed population was obtained in which only a minority of cells were resistant to the antibiotic; in this respect, the cultures of methicillin-resistant staphylococci selected in vitro resembled the naturally occurring strains. The original cultures of methicillin-resistant staphylococci comprised populations of cells with uniform sensitivity or insensitivity to other antibiotics. The resistance of these staphylococci to methicillin was not due to increased ability to inactivate the drug but to intrinsic insensitivity to methicillin. PMID:14137628

  8. Genetics Home Reference: type A insulin resistance syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Type A insulin resistance syndrome Type A insulin resistance syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... as energy. In people with type A insulin resistance syndrome , insulin resistance impairs blood sugar regulation and ultimately leads ...

  9. Understanding The Resistance to Health Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ackah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available User resistance is users’ opposition to system implementation. Resistance often occurs as a result of a mismatch between management goals and employee preferences. There are two types of resistance to health iformation system namely active resistance and passive resistance. The manifestation of active resistance are being critical,  blaming/accusing, blocking, fault finding, sabotaging, undermining, ridiculing, intimidating/threatening, starting rumors, appealing to fear, manipulating arguing, using facts selectively, distorting facts and  raising objections. The manifestation of passive resistance are agreeing verbally but not following through, failing to implement change, procrastinating/dragging feet, feigning ignorance, withholding information, suggestions, help or support, and standing by and allowing the change to fail.

  10. Antiretroviral Resistance in HIV/AIDS Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosuthi, W.; MD

    2018-03-01

    The higher prevalence of HIV drug resistance was observed in areas with greater ART coverage. The HIV resistance-associated mutations occur when people have inadequate levels of antiretroviral drugs as well as inadequate potency, inadequate adherence, and preexisting resistance. The degree to drug cross-resistance is observed depends on the specific mutations and number of mutation accumulation. In the Southeast Asia region, the challenging of people with treatment failure is the availability and accessibility to subsequent new antiretroviral drugs to construct he second and salvage regimen. Genotypic resistance testing is a useful tool because it can identify the existing drug resistance-associated mutations under the selective drug pressure. Thus, understanding the basic interpretation of HIV drug resistance- associated mutation is useful in guiding clinical decisions for treatment-experienced people living with HIV.

  11. Drug Resistance in Cancer: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housman, Genevieve; Byler, Shannon; Heerboth, Sarah; Lapinska, Karolina; Longacre, Mckenna; Snyder, Nicole; Sarkar, Sibaji

    2014-01-01

    Cancers have the ability to develop resistance to traditional therapies, and the increasing prevalence of these drug resistant cancers necessitates further research and treatment development. This paper outlines the current knowledge of mechanisms that promote or enable drug resistance, such as drug inactivation, drug target alteration, drug efflux, DNA damage repair, cell death inhibition, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, as well as how inherent tumor cell heterogeneity plays a role in drug resistance. It also describes the epigenetic modifications that can induce drug resistance and considers how such epigenetic factors may contribute to the development of cancer progenitor cells, which are not killed by conventional cancer therapies. Lastly, this review concludes with a discussion on the best treatment options for existing drug resistant cancers, ways to prevent the formation of drug resistant cancers and cancer progenitor cells, and future directions of study. PMID:25198391

  12. Quorum sensing and microbial drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-fan; Liu, Shi-yin; Liang, Zhi-bin; Lv, Ming-fa; Zhou, Jia-nuan; Zhang, Lian-hui

    2016-10-20

    Microbial drug resistance has become a serious problem of global concern, and the evolution and regulatory mechanisms of microbial drug resistance has become a hotspot of research in recent years. Recent studies showed that certain microbial resistance mechanisms are regulated by quorum sensing system. Quorum sensing is a ubiquitous cell-cell communication system in the microbial world, which associates with cell density. High-density microbial cells produce sufficient amount of small signal molecules, activating a range of downstream cellular processes including virulence and drug resistance mechanisms, which increases bacterial drug tolerance and causes infections on host organisms. In this review, the general mechanisms of microbial drug resistance and quorum-sensing systems are summarized with a focus on the association of quorum sensing and chemical signaling systems with microbial drug resistance mechanisms, including biofilm formation and drug efflux pump. The potential use of quorum quenching as a new strategy to control microbial resistance is also discussed.

  13. [Establishment of 5 resistant ovarian cancer cell strains and expression of resistance-related genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Ying-zi; Li, Li; Li, Dang-rong; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Bu-jian

    2004-06-01

    To investigate expression difference of several drug resistance related genes between sensitive and resistant ovarian carcinoma cells. Cell lines resistant to cisplatin, carboplatin and taxol were established from ovarian carcinoma cell lines of SKOV3 and A2780, and their biological features were detected. The expressions of several genes related to drug resistance were measured by RT-PCR method. (1) The values of resistance index (RI) of resistant cells to relevant drugs were elevated 3 times or more, with different degrees of cross-resistance to several other drugs (RI 2 approximately 20). They grew more slowly than primary cells (Td elongated 1.4 approximately 2.4 times, P 0.05). Intracellular concentrations of relevant drugs were reduced 2.0 approximately 8.5 times in resistant cells (P p53, lung resistance protein-1 (LRP-1), multiple drug resistance related protein-1 (MRP-1) genes were expressed at lower levels in resistant cells than in sensitive cells; while protein kinase C (PKC), topoisomerase (topo) I, and topo II beta were expressed higher, no obvious alterations were found concerning glutathione S transferase-pi (GST-pi), and topo II alpha. Expression of multiple drug resistance-1 (MDR-1) gene was either elevated or reduced in different cells. The expressions of resistance related genes were widely different in different kinds of resistant cells, suggesting more than one pathway leading to resistance transformation. This adds more difficulties for clinical management.

  14. Equivalent network for resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance versus temperature and composition of thick resistive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusy, A.

    1987-01-01

    Two types of elementary resistances in thick resistive films have been considered: (i) constriction resistance R/sub C/ determined by the bulk properties of conducting material and by the geometry of constriction, and (ii) barrier resistance R/sub B/ determined by the parameters of a thermally activated type of tunneling process and by the geometry of the metal-insulator-metal unit. On this basis a resistance network composed of a large number of the two types of resistances has been defined. The network has been considered as being equivalent to thick resistive film (TRF) from the point of view of the resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). The parameters of this network have been evaluated by the computer-aided approximation of the experimental data found for RuO 2 -based TRFs. On the basis of the equations derived for the network as well as the results of the approximation process, it can be concluded that the small values of the network TCR result from the superposition of the TCR of the conducting component β/sub C/ and of the temperature coefficient of barrier resistance α/sub B/. In this superposition β/sub C/ is attenuated (by 1--2 orders of magnitude), while α/sub B/ is attenuated by only few percentages. The network has been found to be strongly barrier dominated

  15. Resistance profiles and risk factors of resistant microorganisms in bacteraemia of abdominal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Jaramago, J; Armero Ibáñez, R; Camarena Miñana, J J; Morales Suárez-Varela, M

    2017-11-01

    The presence of resistant microorganisms is a major cause of failure in initial empirical antimicrobial therapy. The objectives of this study are to determine the resistance profile of microorganisms that cause bacteraemia of abdominal origin and to identify whether the previous use of antibiotics and the place of acquisition of bacteraemia are risk factors associated with the presence of resistant organisms. A clinical, observational, epidemiological, retrospective cohort study was conducted with all the adult patients admitted to a university hospital from 2011-2013. Antimicrobial resistance profiles were described and a 95% confidence interval chi-square test was used to determine whether the variables studied were risk factors in the isolation of resistant microorganisms. Of the 1245 patients with bacteraemia, 212 (17%) presented bacteraemia of abdominal origin. The resistance profile highlights the incidence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (50%), coagulase-negative staphylococci resistant to linezolid (20.58%), enterococci resistant to vancomycin (3.12%), Escherichia coli resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (9.9%) and fluoroquinolones (35.64%), Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (8.33%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to fluoroquinolones and carbapenem (25% and 25% respectively) and Acinetobacter baumanii resistant to fluoroquinolones and carbapenem (100% and 100% respectively), Candida albicans resistant to fluconazole (11.11%), single Candida krusei isolate resistant to fluconazole and Candida parapsilosis resistant to echinocandins (12.5%). In our study, previous use of antibiotics had a statistically significant association with the isolation of resistant microorganisms (P=.013) but not the place of acquisition of bacteraemia (P=.239). Establishing the incidence of resistant organisms can improve empirical antimicrobial therapy in patients with bacteraemia of abdominal origin. Previous use of

  16. Shhhhhh, The Dragon Is Asleep, and Its Name Is Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janas, Monica

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the effect of resistance on educational change, offering three steps for managing resistance (being aware of resistance, identifying sources and types of resistance, and developing and applying proactive strategies for managing resistance). Two sidebars describe 10 techniques to turn resistance into productive effort and discuss how to…

  17. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved

  18. Electrical resistivity study of insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liesegang, J.; Senn, B.C.; Holcombe, S.R.; Pigram, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Conventional methods of electrical resistivity measurement of dielectric materials involve the application of electrodes to a sample whereby a potential is applied and a current through the material is measured. Although great care and ingenuity has often been applied to this technique, the recorded values of electrical resistivity (p), especially for insulator materials, show great disparity. In earlier work by the authors, a method for determining surface charge decay [Q(t)], using a coaxial cylindrical capacitor arrangement interfaced to a personal computer, was adapted to allow the relatively straightforward measurement of electrical resistivity in the surface region of charged insulator materials. This method was used to develop an ionic charge transport theory, based on Mott-Gurney diffusion to allow a greater understanding into charge transport behaviour. This theory was extended using numerical analysis to produce a two dimensional (2-D) computational model to allow the direct comparison between experimental and theoretical charge decay data. The work also provided a means for the accurate determination of the diffusion coefficient (D) and the layer of thickness of surface charge (Δz) on the sample. The work outlined here involves an extension of the theoretical approach previously taken, using a computational model based more closely on the 3-D experimental set-up, to reinforce the level of confidence in the results achieved for the simpler 2-D treatment. Initially, a 3-D rectangular box arrangement similar to the experimental set-up was modelled and a theoretical and experimental comparison of voltage decay results made. This model was then transferred into cylindrical coordinates to allow it to be almost identical to the experiment and again a comparison made. In addition, theoretical analysis of the coupled non-linear partial differential equations governing the charge dissipation process has led to a simplification involving directly, the

  19. Influence resistance on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Harits, M.; Bahtiar, Yusuf; Achdan, M. Syahdani; Sunarno, .

    2010-05-01

    Health is an important part of human life. Every person in this world want healthy body, in other words free of any disease. When seeing the pattern of human life today is high activity, always eat instant foods and lack of exercise makes a very bad human health from year to year. Therefore, there is need for the health revolution that can keep human health in order to remain in the condition is always healthy. Eat healthy foods four plus five perfect diligent exercise is the real solution to maintain health. In addition also advisable to always check each month to the doctor so that our health can be controlled. Most people underestimate it, especially the routine checks once a month to the doctor, therefore I created a simple research that aims to get people to mengonytrol health at any time without having to check into the doctor. By utilizing the resistance in the human body's health so we can be controlled. By using a simple tool to measure human resistance by using the concept of the bridge. Bridge circuit used to convert impedance variations into voltage variations. One advantage of this circuit is the voltage produced can vary around 0. This means strengthening can be used to raise the voltage level so as sensitivity to variations in impedance also increases. Another application is the impedance measurement accuracy. The bridge is the simplest and most widely used is the Wheatstone bridge circuit. This circuit is used for signal conditioning applications where a sensor can change the resistance value when the process variable is changed.

  20. Frost resistance of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    materials, has been developed.The importance of the pore structure on the development of stresses in the material during freezing is emphasized. To verify the model, experimental investigations are made on various concretes without air-entrainment and brick tiles with different porosities......In this thesis it is shown that the critical degree of saturation is suitable as parameter for the frost resistance of porous building materials. A numerical model for prediction of critical degrees of saturation based on fracture mechanics and phase geometry of two-phase materials, e.g. porous...

  1. Medical intellectuals: resisting medical orientalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aull, Felice; Lewis, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose analogies between medical discourse and Edward Said's "Orientalism." Medical discourse, like Orientalism, tends to favor institutional interests and can be similarly dehumanizing in its reductionism, textual representations, and construction of its subjects. To resist Orientalism, Said recommends that critics--"intellectuals"--adopt the perspective of exile. We apply Said's paradigm of intellectual-as-exile to better understand the work of key physician-authors who cross personal and professional boundaries, who engage with patients in mutually therapeutic relationships, and who take on the public responsibility of representation and advocacy. We call these physician-authors "medical intellectuals" and encourage others to follow in their path.

  2. Control buildings for blast resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.A.

    1982-08-01

    Offers advice on interior design for blast-resistant control buildings. Suggests that for the comfort and safety of occupants, special attention must be paid to internal finishes and color schemes. Considers external treatment (e.g. panels, cladding fixings, thermal insulation), air intakes and exhausts, internal finishes (e.g. stud lining method), and internal walls and partitions. Presents diagrams showing construction method for a control building; elimination of ''cold bridge'' at eaves level; staggering door openings to minimize blast effects; and flexure of concrete walls without affecting the inner lining.

  3. Caring Labours as Decolonizing Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Hall

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article brings feminist theories of social reproduction in conversation with decolonizing feminisms. It takes up Indigenous women's social reproductive labour as enactments of creative expansion. In approaching social reproduction as a site of struggle, it identifies three processes of expansion and resistance at this site: the expansion of care and intimacy into subsistence production; the expansion of the “family” beyond the nuclear through community and kin networks; and the expansion of relations of care to include the land.

  4. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Optimization of resistively hardened latches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, G.; Savaria, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The design of digital circuits tolerant to single-event upsets is considered. The results of a study are presented on which an analytical model was used to predict the behavior of a standard resistively hardened latch. It is shown that a worst case analysis for all possible single-event upset situations (on the latch or in the logic) can be derived from studying the effects of a transient disturbed write cycle. The existence of an intrinsic minimum write period to tolerate a transient of a given duration is also demonstrated

  6. Bedaquiline resistance: Its emergence, mechanism and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Van Anh; Anthony, Richard M; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Vu, Dinh Hoa; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2017-11-08

    Bedaquiline, a new anti-tuberculosis drug, has already been used in more than 50 countries. The emergence of bedaquiline resistance is alarming, as it may result in the rapid loss of this new drug. This paper aims to review currently identified mechanisms of resistance, the emergence of bedaquiline resistance, and discuss strategies to delay the resistance acquisition. In vitro and clinical studies as well as reports from the compassionate use have identified the threat of bedaquiline resistance and cross-resistance with clofazimine, emphasizing the crucial need for the systematic surveillance of resistance. Currently known mechanisms of resistance include mutations within the atpE, Rv0678 and pepQ genes. The development of standardized drug susceptibility testing (DST) for bedaquiline is urgently needed.Understanding any target and non-target based mechanisms is essential to minimize the resistance development and treatment failure, help to develop appropriate DST for bedaquiline and genetic based resistance screening. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A Constant-Force Resistive Exercise Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosky, Paul; Ruttley, Tara

    2010-01-01

    A constant-force resistive exercise unit (CFREU) has been invented for use in both normal gravitational and microgravitational environments. In comparison with a typical conventional exercise machine, this CFREU weighs less and is less bulky: Whereas weight plates and associated bulky supporting structures are used to generate resistive forces in typical conventional exercise machines, they are not used in this CFREU. Instead, resistive forces are generated in this CFREU by relatively compact, lightweight mechanisms based on constant-torque springs wound on drums. Each such mechanism is contained in a module, denoted a resistive pack, that includes a shaft for making a torque connection to a cable drum. During a stroke of resistive exercise, the cable is withdrawn from the cable drum against the torque exerted by the resistance pack. The CFREU includes a housing, within which can be mounted one or more resistive pack(s). The CFREU also includes mechanisms for engaging any combination of (1) one or more resistive pack(s) and (2) one or more spring(s) within each resistive pack to obtain a desired level of resistance.

  8. Review of soybean resistance to pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the research on soybean resistance to pathogens. The review included most harmful agents of soybean diseases in Serbia, as well as those that are potentially harmful. Development and cultivation of resistant cultivars is the most efficient, economical and environmentally acceptable control measure for plant disease. It points to the variability in pathogenicity (physiological races of parasites, especially expressed in Phytophthora sojae, Peronospora manshurica and Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea, which requires continuous breeding for resistance. Resistant, partially resistant and moderately susceptible genotypes, which are used as donors of resistance genes to different pathogens, are listed in this paper. Also, avirulent genes in the parasite and resistance genes in soybean are indicated. Gene mapping significantly contributes to better understanding of the mode of inheritance and consequently, more efficient breeding for disease resistance. Significant improvement is expected by using molecular techniques, especially in dealing with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea and Phomopsis longicolla. For these parasites only partial resistance has been reported but not complete resistance.

  9. Glyphosate-Resistant Goosegrass from Mississippi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Nandula

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A suspected glyphosate-resistant goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn.] population, found in Washington County, Mississippi, was studied to determine the level of resistance and whether the resistance was due to a point mutation, as was previously identified in a Malaysian population. Whole plant dose response assays indicated a two- to four-fold increase in resistance to glyphosate. Leaf disc bioassays based on a glyphosate-dependent increase in shikimate levels indicated a five- to eight-fold increase in resistance. Sequence comparisons of messenger RNA for epsps, the gene encoding the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, from resistant and sensitive goosegrass, revealed a cytosine to thymine nucleotide change at position 319 in the resistant accessions. This single nucleotide polymorphism causes a proline to serine amino acid substitution at position 106 in 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase. A real-time polymerase chain reaction assay using DNA probes specific for the nucleotide change at position 319 was developed to detect this polymorphism. Goosegrass from 42 locations were screened, and the results indicated that glyphosate-resistant goosegrass remained localized to where it was discovered. Pendimethalin, s-metolachlor, clethodim, paraquat and fluazifop controlled resistant goosegrass 93% to 100%, indicating that several control options for glyphosate-resistant goosegrass are available.

  10. Pesticide degrading natural multidrug resistance bacterial flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangasamy, Kirubakaran; Athiappan, Murugan; Devarajan, Natarajan; Samykannu, Gopinath; Parray, Javid A; Aruljothi, K N; Shameem, Nowsheen; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz A; Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, Elsayed Fathi

    2018-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are a growing threat to humans across the world. Antibiotic resistance is a global problem that has developed through continuous antibiotic use, combinatorial antibiotic use, pesticide-antibiotic cross-resistance, and horizontal gene transfer, as well as various other modes. Pesticide-antibiotic cross-resistance and the subsequent expansion of drug-resistant bacteria are critically documented in this review, the primary focus of which is to assess the impact of indiscriminate pesticide use on the development of microbial communities with parallel pesticide and multidrug resistance. The consumption of pesticide-contaminated food products and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics by humans and in livestock animals have favored the development of both antibiotic and pesticide-resistant bacterial flora via natural selection. Pesticide resistance mainly develops through defensive bacterial adaptations such as biofilm formation, induced mutations, and horizontal/vertical gene transfer through plasmids or transposons, as well as through the increased expression of certain hydrolytic enzymes. Pesticide resistance genes are always transferred as gene clusters, and they may also carry genes essential for antibiotic resistance. Moreover, for some induced mutations, the mutated active site of the affected enzyme may allow degradation of both pesticides and antibiotics, resulting in cross-resistance. A few studies have shown that the sub-lethal exposure of wild-type strains to herbicides induces antibiotic resistance. This review concludes that xenobiotic exposure leads to cross-resistance in wild microbial flora, which requires further study to develop therapeutic approaches to overcome the threats of MDR bacteria and superbugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The determinants of the antibiotic resistance process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Espinosa Franco

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Espinosa Franco1, Marina Altagracia Martínez2, Martha A Sánchez Rodríguez1, Albert I Wertheimer31Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza (UNAM, Mexico; 2Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico; 3Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USABackground: The use of antibiotic drugs triggers a complex interaction involving many biological, sociological, and psychological determinants. Resistance to antibiotics is a serious worldwide problem which is increasing and has implications for morbidity, mortality, and health care both in hospitals and in the community.Objectives: To analyze current research on the determinants of antibiotic resistance and comprehensively review the main factors in the process of resistance in order to aid our understanding and assessment of this problem.Methods: We conducted a MedLine search using the key words “determinants”, “antibiotic”, and “antibiotic resistance” to identify publications between 1995 and 2007 on the determinants of antibiotic resistance. Publications that did not address the determinants of antibiotic resistance were excluded.Results: The process and determinants of antibiotic resistance are described, beginning with the development of antibiotics, resistance and the mechanisms of resistance, sociocultural determinants of resistance, the consequences of antibiotic resistance, and alternative measures proposed to combat antibiotic resistance.Conclusions: Analysis of the published literature identified the main determinants of antibiotic resistance as irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animal species, insufficient patient education when antibiotics are prescribed, lack of guidelines for treatment and control of infections, lack of scientific information for physicians on the rational use of antibiotics, and lack of official government policy on the rational use of antibiotics in public and private hospitals.Keywords: antibiotic drug resistance

  12. Embodied Resistance to Persuasion in Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lewinski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available From the literature on resistance to persuasion in advertising, much is known about how people can resist advertising by adopting resistance strategies, such as avoidance, counter-arguing and selective attention (e.g., Fransen, Verlegh, Kirmani, & Smit, 2015a. However, the role of emotion regulation and bodily expression in resisting persuasion is so far underexplored. This is a surprising observation if one considers that at least 40% of advertisements use positive emotions (i.e., happiness to persuade people to like the ad, brand, and product (Weinberger et al., 1995. In this article we present a framework in which we apply previous knowledge and theories on emotion regulation and embodiment to the process of resistance to persuasion. In doing so, we specifically address the role of facial expression in the course of resistance. Based on the literature and findings largely established in our own research, we propose that people can resist persuasion by controlling their facial expression of emotion when exposed to an advertisement. Controlling the expression of emotions elicited by an ad (for example refusing to smile might be a fruitful way to resist the ad’s persuasive potential. Moreover, we argue that co-viewers can affect embodied resistance to persuasion. Showing the viability of embodied resistance to persuasion is relevant in view of the fact that ads trying to persuade us by addressing our positive emotions are ubiquitous. Embodied resistance might help people to cope with these induced positive emotions in order to resist advertisements and might therefore work as a novel and effective strategy to resist persuasion.

  13. ENZYME RESISTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED STARCH POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Mannapova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here in this article the justification of expediency of enzyme resistant starch use in therapeutic food products is presented . Enzyme resistant starch is capable to resist to enzymatic hydrolysis in a small intestine of a person, has a low glycemic index, leads to decrease of postprandial concentration of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides in blood and insulin reaction, to improvement of sensitivity of all organism to insulin, to increase in sense of fulness and to reduction of adjournment of fats. Resistant starch makes bifidogenшс impact on microflora of a intestine of the person, leads to increase of a quantity of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium and to increased production of butyric acid in a large intestine. In this regard the enzyme resistant starch is an important component in food for prevention and curing of human diseases such as diabetes, obesity, colitis, a cancer of large and direct intestine. One method is specified by authors for imitation of starch digestion in a human body. This method is based on the definition of an enzyme resistance of starch in vitro by its hydrolysis to glucose with application of a glucoamylase and digestive enzyme preparation Pancreatin. This method is used in researches of an enzyme resistance of starch, of genetically modified potato, high amylose corn starch Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII (National Starch Food Innovation, USA, amylopectin and amylose. It is shown that the enzyme resistance of the starch emitted from genetically modified potatoes conforms to the enzyme resistance of the high amylose corn starch “Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII starch”, (National Starch Food Innovation, the USA relating to the II type of enzyme resistant starch. It is established that amylopectin doesn't have the enzyme resistant properties. The results of researches are presented. They allow us to make the following conclusion: amylose in comparison with amylopectin possesses higher enzyme resistance and gives to

  14. Embodied Resistance to Persuasion in Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinski, Peter; Fransen, Marieke L.; Tan, Ed S.

    2016-01-01

    From the literature on resistance to persuasion in advertising, much is known about how people can resist advertising by adopting resistance strategies, such as avoidance, counter-arguing, and selective attention (e.g., Fransen et al., 2015b). However, the role of emotion regulation and bodily expression in resisting persuasion is so far underexplored. This is a surprising observation if one considers that at least 40% of advertisements use positive emotions (i.e., happiness) to persuade people to like the ad, brand, and product (Weinberger et al., 1995). In this article we present a framework in which we apply previous knowledge and theories on emotion regulation and embodiment to the process of resistance to persuasion. In doing so, we specifically address the role of facial expression in the course of resistance. The literature and findings from our own research lead us to propose that people can resist persuasion by controlling their facial expression of emotion when exposed to an advertisement. Controlling the expression of emotions elicited by an ad (for example refusing to smile) might be a fruitful way to resist the ad’s persuasive potential. Moreover, we argue that co-viewers can affect embodied resistance to persuasion. Showing the viability of embodied resistance to persuasion is relevant in view of the fact that ads trying to persuade us by addressing our positive emotions are ubiquitous. Embodied resistance might help people to cope with these induced positive emotions in order to resist advertisements and might therefore work as a novel and effective strategy to resist persuasion. PMID:27574512

  15. Heat-resistant inorganic binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider some aspects of production of inorganic heat-resistant composite materials in which new classes of inorganic binders - the basic salts of various metals – are applied. The possibility to use hydroxochlorides and hydroxonitrates of aluminum, zirconium, chromium and a number of other metals as the binder has been shown. The main products of the thermal decomposition of all types of binders discussed in this paper are nano-dispersed highly refractory oxides. Increased pressure in the manufacture of these materials shifts the position of the minimum of the dependence «production strength – production temperature» in the direction of low temperatures. This effect is caused by decreased film thickness of the binder located between filler particles and hence by increased rate of transfer of the matter to the interface and by facilitated sintering process. Materials based on the systems containing chromium and some other elements in transitional oxidation states are colour. For this reason, they have the worst thermal conductivity under the same heat resistance compared to colorless materials.

  16. Organizational Transition and Change Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Nicolescu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the very important atopic of organizational transition and change resistance. It is divided in four parts. The first part deals with transition inevitability and its content in the change process. The second part of the paper refers to the change resistance. After a short presentation of a recent approach of this topic, elaborated by Rick Maurer, the authors present their point of view, identifying 14 main causes refering to the main factors involved in the organizational transition. In the third part, authors have formulated a set of key elements which should be taken into consideration in order to achieve a rapid and succesful organizational changes. These key elements are valable for any type of organization – entreprise, institution, locality, region, country a.s.a. The last part of the study deals with conflicts approach, which appear almost always during organizational transition. The conflicts are separated in three categories and for whom are presented the methodes recommended in order to solve them with good results.

  17. Organizational Transition and Change Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Nicolescu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the very important atopic of organizational transition and change resistance. It is divided in four parts. The first part deals with transition inevitability and its content in the change process. The second part of the paper refers to the change resistance. After a short presentation of a recent approach of this topic, elaborated by Rick Maurer, the authors present their point of view, identifying 14 main causes refering to the main factors involved in the organizational transition. In the third part, authors have formulated a set of key elements which should be taken into consideration in order to achieve a rapid and succesful organizational changes. These key elements are valable for any type of organization – entreprise, institution, locality, region, country a.s.a. The last part of the study deals with conflicts approach, which appear almost always during organizational transition. The conflicts are separated in three categories and for whom are presented the methodes recommended in order to solve them with good results.

  18. Surface electrical resistivity of insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senn, B. C.; Liesegang, J.

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented here for measuring surface charge decay, and theory has been developed so as to produce determinations of resistivity in the surface region of insulator films or wafers. This method incorporates the use of a coaxial cylindrical capacitor arrangement and an electrometer interfaced to a PC. The charge transport theory given here is based on Mott-Gurney diffusion, and allows easy interpretation of the experimental data, especially for the initial phase of surface charge decay. Resistivity measurements are presented for glass, mica, perspex and polyethylene, covering a range of 10 9 to 10 18 Ωm, as an illustration of the useful range of the instrument for static and antistatic materials, particularly in film or sheet form. Values for the surface charge diffusion constants of the materials are also presented. The charge transport theory has also been extended to allow the experimental and computational theoretical comparison of surface charge decay not only over the initial phase of charge decay, but also over longer times. The theoretical predictions show excellent agreement with experiment using the values for the diffusion constants referred to above

  19. Brain orexin promotes obesity resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Catherine; Nixon, Joshua; Butterick, Tammy; Perez-Leighton, Claudio; Teske, Jennifer; Billington, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to obesity is becoming an exception rather than the norm, and understanding mechanisms that lead some to remain lean in spite of an obesigenic environment is critical if we are to find new ways to reverse this trend. Levels of energy intake and physical activity both contribute to body weight management, but it is challenging for most to adopt major long-term changes in either factor. Physical activity outside of formal exercise, also referred to as activity of daily living, and in stricter form, spontaneous physical activity (SPA), may be an attractive modifiable variable for obesity prevention. In this review, we discuss individual variability in SPA and NEAT (nonexercise thermogenesis, or the energy expended by SPA) and its relationship to obesity resistance. The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin (hypocretin) may play a key role in regulating SPA and NEAT. We discuss how elevated orexin signaling capacity, in the context of a brain network modulating SPA, may play a major role in defining individual variability in SPA and NEAT. Greater activation of this SPA network leads to a lower propensity for fat mass gain and therefore may be an attractive target for obesity prevention and therapy. PMID:22803681

  20. Antibiotic Resistance in Modern World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla S. Namazova-Baranova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article brings up the topic not only vital and urgent for further development of modern medical science, but also affecting the interests of mankind as a whole and of every inhabitant of the Earth in particular: that is the irrational use of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance which rate is growing rapidly. We investigate the reasons for the epidemic of antibiotic resistance and discuss in detail all the necessary measures in order to cope with this problem. The shocking data on the almost universal irrational use of antibiotics by both medical workers and parents is provided. We demonstrate the microbiome changes that follow antibacterial drugs application resulting in the development of severe chronic pediatric diseases which cause severe disability or life-threatening conditions in children with long-term results in adult age. In conclusion, we summarize the evidence-based research in phytomedicine that present the phytopreparations as a serious alternative to antibiotics in a number of clinical settings. 

  1. Shunt resistance for deflecting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shigeru

    1981-01-01

    The SOR-RING main magnet system consists of 8 deflecting magnets and 4 sets of three quadrupole magnets, each. The stability of magnet current is about 0.02 percent per day. The currents of magnets are adjustable simultaneously. The current-magnetic field relation for a deflecting magnet was measured. The magnetic field of 11.4 kG was obtained at the current of 470 A. This field corresponds to the electron energy of 376 MeV for the present SOR-RING. For the fine adjustment of the field of deflecting magnets, shunt resistors were equipped parallel to the magnet coils. The magnet current is adjustable by varying the value of resistance. The maximum adjustable range of the current is 1 percent. The field intensity was measured in relation to shunt resistance with a rotating coil flux meter. A slight difference was observed between the designed and the measured values. However this difference did not affect on the practical operation of SOR-RING. (Kato, T.)

  2. Study of multidrug resistance and radioresistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yoon Koo; Yoo, Young Do

    1999-04-01

    We investigated the mechanism of 5-FU, adriamycin, radiation resistance in Korean gastric cancer cells. First we investigated the relation between Rb and multidrug resistance. Rb stable transfectants exhibited 5- to 10- fold more resistance to adriamycin than the control cells. These Rb transfectants showed increased MDR1 expression. We also investigated up-regulation in radiation-resistant tumor tissues. HSP27, MRP-8, GST, and NKEF-B were up-regulated in radiation resistant tumor. Expression of NKEF-B was also increased by radiation exposure in Head and Neck cells. These results demonstrated that NKEF-B is a stress response protein and it may have an important role in radiation resistance.

  3. In vitro selection of resistant Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, C E; Nix, D E; Schentag, J J

    1990-09-01

    Four strains of Helicobacter pylori were subjected to an in vitro serial passage technique to compare the propensity of the organisms to develop resistance to seven classes of antibacterial agents. The passages were made on serially doubling concentrations of antibacterial agents incorporated into agar starting at one-half the base-line MIC. The frequency of spontaneous resistance was also determined for each strain at four and eight times the MIC of each antibacterial agent. Strains resistant to ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, erythromycin, and tobramycin were isolated. The experiments failed to select organisms resistant to bismuth subsalicylate, furazolidone, or amoxicillin, although the MIC of amoxicillin was increased 4- to 16-fold. With the exception of erythromycin, organisms with the selected resistance were stable after at least three passages on antibacterial agent-free medium. Spontaneous resistance rates were generally of a low magnitude and were not predictive of the serial passage results.

  4. Embodied resistance to persuasion in advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewinski, Peter; Fransen, Marieke L.; Tan, Ed

    2016-01-01

    From the literature on resistance to persuasion in advertising, much is known about how people can resist advertising by adopting resistance strategies, such as avoidance, counter-arguing, and selective attention (e.g., Fransen et al., 2015b). However, the role of emotion regulation and bodily...... expression in resisting persuasion is so far underexplored. This is a surprising observation if one considers that at least 40% of advertisements use positive emotions (i.e., happiness) to persuade people to like the ad, brand, and product (Weinberger et al., 1995). In this article we present a framework...... can resist persuasion by controlling their facial expression of emotion when exposed to an advertisement. Controlling the expression of emotions elicited by an ad (for example refusing to smile) might be a fruitful way to resist the ad’s persuasive potential. Moreover, we argue that co-viewers can...

  5. Suppression of Drug Resistance in Dengue Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Roberto; Nagamine, Claude M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue virus is a major human pathogen responsible for 400 million infections yearly. As with other RNA viruses, daunting challenges to antiviral design exist due to the high error rates of RNA-dependent RNA synthesis. Indeed, treatment of dengue virus infection with a nucleoside analog resulted in the expected genetic selection of resistant viruses in tissue culture and in mice. However, when the function of the oligomeric core protein was inhibited, no detectable selection of drug resistance in tissue culture or in mice was detected, despite the presence of drug-resistant variants in the population. Suppressed selection of drug-resistant virus correlated with cooligomerization of the targeted drug-susceptible and drug-resistant core proteins. The concept of “dominant drug targets,” in which inhibition of oligomeric viral assemblages leads to the formation of drug-susceptible chimeras, can therefore be used to prevent the outgrowth of drug resistance during dengue virus infection. PMID:26670386

  6. Induced multiple disease resistance in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borojevic, K.; Worland, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The existence of genes suppressing resistance to leaf rust, stem rust and yellow rust in hexaploid wheat has been suggested. If such genes are deleted or inactivated, a more resistant variety may be obtained. In mutant lines of the wheat variety San Pastore, selected after treatment with 20,000 rad of gamma-rays, resistance to leaf rust, yellow rust, stem rust, and to some extent to Erysiphe graminis was determined. The mutants responded to infection by producing necrotic flecks in the presence of high level of disease inoculum. Similar flecks develop under stress condition. It is likely that the mother variety San Pastore carries genes for resistance which are masked by suppressor genes. Irradiation inactivates suppressors so that resistance genes which were previously masked are expressed. The first results of monosomic analysis indicate that chromosomes of groups 4 and 5 or possibly 7 may be critical for expression of resistance in the mutant lines. (author)

  7. Associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The association between depression and insulin resistance has been investigated in only a few studies, with contradictory results reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between symptoms of depression and insulin resistance varies across glucose...... established type 2 diabetes mellitus. Main outcome measures were insulin resistance defined by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and symptoms of depression using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). RESULTS: In the total sample, we found a weak.......942). The association between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance was similar for men and women. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We found only weak associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance, which did not differ among different glucose metabolism subgroups or between men and women....

  8. Antimicrobial-resistant Shigella infections from Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tajbakhsh, Mercedeh; García Migura, Lourdes; Rahbar, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we wanted to assess the level of antimicrobial resistance, the presence of genes encoding resistance to cephalosporins and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), and genetic relatedness among Shigella isolates obtained from Iranian patients. ; Methods: A total....... ; Results: Of the isolates, 25 (68%) were S. sonnei phase II, with 5 (14%) S. flexneri, 5 (14%) Shigella dysenteriae type 2, and 2 (5%) Shigella boydii type 2. Resistance to at least threeclasses of antimicrobials was detected in all species. The presence of blaCTX-M-15 and the AmpC β-lactamase producer bla...... Shigella flexneri type 1b) were examined for the presence of genes encoding cephalosporin resistance. The presence of PMQR was assessed in one S. flexneri isolate exhibiting low-level resistance to ciprofloxacin and susceptibility to nalidixic acid. PFGE was performed on 25 S. sonnei phase II isolates...

  9. Pyramiding for Resistance Durability: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Chris

    2018-04-12

    Durable disease resistance is a key component of global food security, and combining resistance genes into "pyramids" is an important way to increase durability of resistance. The mechanisms by which pyramids impact durability are not well known. The traditional view of resistance pyramids considers the use of major resistance gene (R-gene) combinations deployed against pathogens that are primarily asexual. Interestingly, published examples of the successful use of pyramids in the traditional sense are rare. In contrast, most published descriptions of durable pyramids in practice are for cereal rusts, and tend to indicate an association between durability and cultivars combining major R-genes with incompletely expressed, adult plant resistance genes. Pyramids have been investigated experimentally for a diversity of pathogens, and many reduce disease levels below that of the single best gene. Resistance gene combinations have been identified through phenotypic reactions, molecular markers, and challenge against effector genes. As resistance genes do not express equally in all genetic backgrounds, however, a combination of genetic information and phenotypic analyses provide the ideal scenario for testing of putative pyramids. Not all resistance genes contribute equally to pyramids, and approaches have been suggested to identify the best genes and combinations of genes for inclusion. Combining multiple resistance genes into a single plant genotype quickly is a challenge that is being addressed through alternative breeding approaches, as well as through genomics tools such as resistance gene cassettes and gene editing. Experimental and modeling tests of pyramid durability are in their infancy, but have promise to help direct future studies of pyramids. Several areas for further work on resistance gene pyramids are suggested.

  10. Study of Remontant Raspberry Frost Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushchina M.Yu.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the second component of remontant raspberry cold hardiness - frost resistance, namely the ability of this raspberry type to tolerate the lowest temperature. Series of artificial freezing was carried out to check the frost-resistance. According to the data obtained the most frost-resistant varieties of remontant raspberries were detected. The critical low temperature for all studied varieties and forms of remontant raspberries was estimated.

  11. Systemic resistance induced by rhizosphere bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, L.C. van; Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Nonpathogenic rhizobacteria can induce a systemic resistance in plants that is phenotypically similar to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) has been demonstrated against fungi, bacteria, and viruses in Arabidopsis, bean, carnation, cucumber, radish, tobacco, and tomato under conditions in which the inducing bacteria and the challenging pathogen remained spatially separated. Bacterial strains differ in their ability to ...

  12. Numerical methods in simulation of resistance welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Zhang, Wenqi

    2015-01-01

    Finite element simulation of resistance welding requires coupling betweenmechanical, thermal and electrical models. This paper presents the numerical models and theircouplings that are utilized in the computer program SORPAS. A mechanical model based onthe irreducible flow formulation is utilized...... a resistance welding point of view, the most essential coupling between the above mentioned models is the heat generation by electrical current due to Joule heating. The interaction between multiple objects is anothercritical feature of the numerical simulation of resistance welding because it influences...

  13. Quadric Resistive Sheet Profile for Wideband Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Raida

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A new type of a nonreflecting resistive dipole antenna with quadric continuous resistivity profile is presented in this paper. The antenna is mathematically described and compared with the antenna originally proposed by Wu and King. The verification of a proposed theory and the comparison between Wu-King and quadric profile are carried out by simulation models that were designed for this purpose. The attention is turned to the proper attenuation of a wave excited on the resistive sheet, especially.

  14. Organizational change and resistance: An identity perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ybema, S.B.; Thomas, R; Hardy, C.; Courpasson, D.; Vallas, S.

    2016-01-01

    A classic term in popular and scholarly literature on change management is ‘resistance to change’. It understands resistance in terms of opposition to managerial strategies for organizational change. Since change is generally viewed as reasonable and desirable within this literature, resistance to change promulgates the image of employees digging in their heels, refusing to offer support, and hindering a natural and necessary course of events (e.g., Kotter & Schlesinger, 1979). More recently,...

  15. Characterization of Monolaurin Resistance in Enterococcus faecalis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, Muriel; Manson, Janet M.; Bremer, Philip J.; Dufour, Jean-Pierre; Cook, Gregory M.; Simmonds, Robin S.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing concern regarding the presence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in domestically farmed animals, which may act as reservoirs and vehicles of transmission for drug-resistant enterococci to humans, resulting in serious infections. In order to assess the potential for the use of monolaurin as a food preservative, it is important to understand both its target and potential mechanisms of resistance. A Tn917 mutant library of Enterococcus faecalis AR01/DGVS was screened for re...

  16. Antibiotic Resistance in Severe Orofacial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Chuang, Sung-Kiang; August, Meredith

    2017-05-01

    This study assessed the antibiotic resistance profile in patients with severe orofacial infections treated at a single institution from 2009 through 2014. Factors contributing to resistance were studied. The resistance profile was compared with that of a cohort of similar patients treated a decade previously to identify changes in antibiotic resistance. In addition, the effect of antibiotic resistance on in-hospital course was studied. This was a 5-year retrospective cohort study. Patients were identified through the oral and maxillofacial surgery data registry. Inclusion criteria were patients treated for orofacial infection requiring hospital admission, surgical drainage, and availability of complete medical, surgical, and microbiological data. Patients with incomplete data or treated as outpatients or nonsurgically were excluded. Sixty patient charts were identified for review. Demographic data; medical, dental, and surgical histories; and hospital course and treatment specifics were obtained for each patient. Linear regression and logistic analyses were used to analyze the data. Men composed 60% of the cohort (mean age, 45 yr). Average hospital stay was 5.5 days. Penicillin resistance was found in 32.5% of aerobic isolates and clindamycin resistance was found in 29.3%. Streptococcus viridans and Staphylococcus species showed increased resistance to clindamycin and erythromycin compared with historic controls. Younger patient age, surgical history, and number of cultured aerobes showed a relevant correlation to antibiotic resistance. The need for changes in antibiotics, repeat surgical drainage, and increased serum urea nitrogen levels correlated with longer hospital stay. A serious increase in clindamycin and erythromycin resistance was found for S viridans and Staphylococcus species. Age, surgical history, and number of cultured aerobes showed a statistically meaningful correlation to antibiotic resistance. Presence of antibiotic resistance failed to show

  17. How Economic Development Affects Antibiotic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    John B. Horowitz; H. Brian Moehring

    2014-01-01

    Initially, economic development increases resistance because migration of people to urban areas in developing countries increases incomes, crowding and the use of antibiotics. Also, developing countries often don't require prescriptions or distribute high quality antibiotics. In developed countries, antibiotic resistance often falls or there is a decline in the rate of growth of resistance because infections decline with improvements in water quality, sanitation, housing and nutrition. Howeve...

  18. Obesity and Insulin Resistance: Management in Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Suhel Ashraff; Muhammad A. Siddiqui; Thomas E. Carline

    2013-01-01

    Obesity today, is a major public health problem across the world. The rapid increase in the incidence of obesity and associated co-morbidities presents a major challenge to health care globally. Insulin resistance is commonly associated with obesity and other life style diseases. However, much uncertainty remains about the mechanism regarding the association between insulin resistance and human disease mainly because of the difficulties of defining insulin resistance in clinical terms and of ...

  19. Insulin Resistance: From Theory To Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kakkilaya Bevinje

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is at the core of the well recognised metabolic syndrome and possibly many other ailments commonly seen in the modern society. While the quantification of insulin resistance remains a difficult task, the problems associated with it are increasing in epidemic proportions. Need of the hour therefore is to develop concise dietary and pharmacological guidelines for for prevention and management of insulin resistance

  20. CARBAPENEM-RESISTANT ACINETOBACTER BAUMANII POSTOPERATIVE MENINGITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Ghibu; Egidia Miftode; Olivia Dorneanu; Carmen Dorobat

    2011-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen of increasing relevance in hospital infections during the last 15 years.This organism causes a wide range of infection .Extensive use of antibiotics within hospitals has contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistent A.baumannii strains that exhibit resistance to a wide range of antibiotics ,including carbapenems.We report the case of an 37 years old man diagnosed with Acinetobacter multidrug-resistant post-neurosurgical meningitis with...

  1. Dielectrophoretic assay of bacterial resistance to antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johari, Juliana; Huebner, Yvonne; Hull, Judith C; Dale, Jeremy W; Hughes, Michael P

    2003-01-01

    The dielectrophoretic collection spectra of antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis have been determined. These indicate that in the absence of antibiotic treatment there is a strong similarity between the dielectric properties of sensitive and resistant strains, and that there is a significant difference between the sensitive strains before and after treatment with the antibiotic streptomycin after 24 h exposure. This method offers possibilities for the assessment of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. (note)

  2. Assessment of insulin sensitivity/resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Gutch, Manish; Kumar, Sukriti; Razi, Syed Mohd; Gupta, Kumar Keshav; Gupta, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is one pretty troublesome entity which very commonly aggravates metabolic syndrome. Many methods and indices are available for the estimation of insulin resistance. It is essential to test and validate their reliability before they can be used as an investigation in patients. At present, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and intravenous glucose tolerance test are the most reliable methods available for estimating insulin resistance and are being used as a reference standard...

  3. Cross-resistance, inheritance and biochemical mechanisms of imidacloprid resistance in B-biotype Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Yao, Mingde; Wu, Yidong

    2009-11-01

    The B-type Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) has become established in many regions in China, and neonicotinoids are extensively used to control this pest. Imidacloprid resistance in a laboratory-selected strain of B-type B. tabaci was characterised in order to provide the basis for recommending resistance management tactics. The NJ-Imi strain of B-type B. tabaci was selected from the NJ strain with imidacloprid for 30 generations. The NJ-Imi strain exhibited 490-fold resistance to imidacloprid, high levels of cross-resistance to three other neonicotinoids, low levels of cross-resistance to monosultap, cartap and spinosad, but no cross-resistance to abamectin and cypermethrin. Imidacloprid resistance in the NJ-Imi strain was autosomal and semi-dominant. It is shown that enhanced detoxification mediated by cytochrome-P450-dependent monooxygenases contributes to imidacloprid resistance to some extent in the NJ-Imi strain. Results from synergist bioassays and cross-resistance patterns indicated that target-site insensitivity may be involved in imidacloprid resistance in the NJ-Imi strain of B. tabaci. Although oxidative detoxification mediated by P450 monooxygenases is involved in imidacloprid resistance in the NJ-Imi strain of B-type B. tabaci, target-site modification as an additional resistance mechanism cannot be ruled out. Considering the high risk of cross-resistance, neonicotinoids should be regarded as a single group when implementing an insecticide rotation scheme in B. tabaci control. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. [Resistance risk and resistance stability of Frankliniella occidentalis to imidacloprid, emamectin benzoate, and phoxim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Yin; Yu, Yi; Liu, Yong-Jie; Ma, Jing-Yu

    2012-12-01

    In order to effectively control the damage of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Phaseolus vuglaris was dipped with imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate, respectively to select the resistance populations of F. occidentalis from its susceptible population, and the resistance inheritance and resistance risk were analyzed with the resistance reality heredity. After 32, 32, and 24 generations' selection, the F. occidentalis populations obtained 13.8-fold, 29.4-fold and 39.0-fold resistance to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate, respectively. The resistance reality heritability to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate was 0.112, 0.166, and 0.259, respectively. The resistance development rate to emamectin benzoate was the fastest, followed by to phoxim, and to imidacloprid. The higher the resistance levels of the selected populations, the lower the differences between the larva and adult susceptibility to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate. Stopping selection for 12 continuous generations, the resistance level of the selected resistance populations to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate had definite decline, but it was difficult to regain the original susceptibility. F. occidentalis had a greater potential to gain high level resistance to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate. Compared with the resistance of F. occidentalis to phoxim and emamectin benzoate, the resistance to imidacloprid increased slower and decreased faster, and thus, imidacloprid was more appropriate to control F. occidentalis in practice.

  5. Clinical Management of HIV Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Karoll J.; Maldarelli, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection has resulted in profound reductions in viremia and is associated with marked improvements in morbidity and mortality. Therapy is not curative, however, and prolonged therapy is complicated by drug toxicity and the emergence of drug resistance. Management of clinical drug resistance requires in depth evaluation, and includes extensive history, physical examination and laboratory studies. Appropriate use of resistance testing provides valuable information useful in constructing regimens for treatment-experienced individuals with viremia during therapy. This review outlines the emergence of drug resistance in vivo, and describes clinical evaluation and therapeutic options of the individual with rebound viremia during therapy. PMID:21994737

  6. Insulin resistance causes inflammation in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimobayashi, Mitsugu; Albert, Verena; Woelnerhanssen, Bettina; Frei, Irina C; Weissenberger, Diana; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Clement, Nicolas; Moes, Suzette; Colombi, Marco; Meier, Jerome A; Swierczynska, Marta M; Jenö, Paul; Beglinger, Christoph; Peterli, Ralph; Hall, Michael N

    2018-03-12

    Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In adipose tissue, obesity-mediated insulin resistance correlates with the accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages and inflammation. However, the causal relationship of these events is unclear. Here, we report that obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice precedes macrophage accumulation and inflammation in adipose tissue. Using a mouse model that combines genetically induced, adipose-specific insulin resistance (mTORC2-knockout) and diet-induced obesity, we found that insulin resistance causes local accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages. Mechanistically, insulin resistance in adipocytes results in production of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), which recruits monocytes and activates proinflammatory macrophages. Finally, insulin resistance (high homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) correlated with reduced insulin/mTORC2 signaling and elevated MCP1 production in visceral adipose tissue from obese human subjects. Our findings suggest that insulin resistance in adipose tissue leads to inflammation rather than vice versa.

  7. Preventing drug resistance in severe influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolny, Hana; Deecke, Lucas

    2015-03-01

    Severe, long-lasting influenza infections are often caused by new strains of influenza. The long duration of these infections leads to an increased opportunity for the emergence of drug resistant mutants. This is particularly problematic for new strains of influenza since there is often no vaccine, so drug treatment is the first line of defense. One strategy for trying to minimize drug resistance is to apply periodic treatment. During treatment the wild-type virus decreases, but resistant virus might increase; when there is no treatment, wild-type virus will hopefully out-compete the resistant virus, driving down the number of resistant virus. We combine a mathematical model of severe influenza with a model of drug resistance to study emergence of drug resistance during a long-lasting infection. We apply periodic treatment with two types of antivirals: neuraminidase inhibitors, which block release of virions; and adamantanes, which block replication of virions. We compare the efficacy of the two drugs in reducing emergence of drug resistant mutants and examine the effect of treatment frequency on the emergence of drug resistant mutants.

  8. Resistive RAMs as analog trimming elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziza, H.; Perez, A.; Portal, J. M.

    2018-04-01

    This work investigates the use of Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) as an analog trimming device. The analog storage feature of the RRAM cell is evaluated and the ability of the RRAM to hold several resistance states is exploited to propose analog trim elements. To modulate the memory cell resistance, a series of short programming pulses are applied across the RRAM cell allowing a fine calibration of the RRAM resistance. The RRAM non volatility feature makes the analog device powers up already calibrated for the system in which the analog trimmed structure is embedded. To validate the concept, a test structure consisting of a voltage reference is evaluated.

  9. The benefits of herbicide-resistant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerry M

    2012-10-01

    Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant crops, primarily glyphosate-resistant soybean, corn, cotton and canola, have helped to revolutionize weed management and have become an important tool in crop production practices. Glyphosate-resistant crops have enabled the implementation of weed management practices that have improved yield and profitability while better protecting the environment. Growers have recognized their benefits and have made glyphosate-resistant crops the most rapidly adopted technology in the history of agriculture. Weed management systems with glyphosate-resistant crops have often relied on glyphosate alone, have been easy to use and have been effective, economical and more environmentally friendly than the systems they have replaced. Glyphosate has worked extremely well in controlling weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops for more than a decade, but some key weeds have evolved resistance, and using glyphosate alone has proved unsustainable. Now, growers need to renew their weed management practices and use glyphosate with other cultural, mechanical and herbicide options in integrated systems. New multiple-herbicide-resistant crops with resistance to glyphosate and other herbicides will expand the utility of existing herbicide technologies and will be an important component of future weed management systems that help to sustain the current benefits of high-efficiency and high-production agriculture. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Direct measurement of the resistivity weighting function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, D. W.; Chan, Winston K.

    1998-12-01

    We have directly measured the resistivity weighting function—the sensitivity of a four-wire resistance measurement to local variations in resistivity—for a square specimen of photoconducting material. This was achieved by optically perturbing the local resistivity of the specimen while measuring the effect of this perturbation on its four-wire resistance. The weighting function we measure for a square geometry with electrical leads at its corners agrees well with calculated results, displaying two symmetric regions of negative weighting which disappear when van der Pauw averaging is performed.

  11. Antibacterial drug discovery in the resistance era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eric D; Wright, Gerard D

    2016-01-21

    The looming antibiotic-resistance crisis has penetrated the consciousness of clinicians, researchers, policymakers, politicians and the public at large. The evolution and widespread distribution of antibiotic-resistance elements in bacterial pathogens has made diseases that were once easily treatable deadly again. Unfortunately, accompanying the rise in global resistance is a failure in antibacterial drug discovery. Lessons from the history of antibiotic discovery and fresh understanding of antibiotic action and the cell biology of microorganisms have the potential to deliver twenty-first century medicines that are able to control infection in the resistance era.

  12. Mathematical analysis of multi-antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-09-15

    Multi-antibiotic resistance in bacterial infections is a growing threat to public health. Some experiments were carried out to study the multi-antibiotic resistance. The changes of the multi-antibiotic resistance with time were achieved by numerical simulations and the mathematical models, with the calculated temperature field, velocity field, and the antibiotic concentration field. The computed results and experimental results are compared. Both numerical simulations and the analytic models suggest that minor low concentrations of antibiotics could induce antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Overcoming resistance to β-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Roberta J; Melander, Christian

    2013-05-03

    β-Lactam antibiotics are one of the most important antibiotic classes but are plagued by problems of resistance, and the development of new β-lactam antibiotics through side-chain modification of existing β-lactam classes is not keeping pace with resistance development. In this JOCSynopsis, we summarize small molecule strategies to overcome resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. These approaches include the development of β-lactamase inhibitors and compounds that interfere with the ability of the bacteria to sense an antibiotic threat and activate their resistance mechanisms.

  14. History of insecticide resistance of Triatominae vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Grasielle Caldas Dávila; Vinãs, Pedro Albajar; Rosa, Aline Cristine Luiz; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2015-01-01

    In the last 15 years, different types of Triatominae resistance to different insecticides have been reported; thus, resistance may be more widespread than known, requiring better characterization and delimitation, which was the aim of this review. This review was structured on a literature search of all articles from 1970 to 2015 in the PubMed database that contained the keywords Insecticide resistance and Triatominae . Out of 295 articles screened by title, 33 texts were selected for detailed analysis. Insecticide resistance of Triatomines is a complex phenomenon that has been primarily reported in Argentina and Bolivia, and is caused by different factors (associated or isolated). Insecticide resistance of Triatominae is a characteristic inherited in an autosomal and semi-dominant manner, and is polygenic, being present in both domestic and sylvatic populations. The toxicological profile observed in eggs cannot be transposed to different stages of evolution. Different toxicological profiles exist at macro- and microgeographical levels. The insecticide phenotype has both reproductive and developmental costs. Different physiological mechanisms are involved in resistance. Studies of Triatomine resistance to insecticides highlight three deficiencies in interpreting the obtained results: I) the vast diversity of methodologies, despite the existence of a single guiding protocol; II) the lack of information on the actual impact of resistance ratios in the field; and III) the concept of the susceptibility reference lineage. Research on the biological and behavioral characteristics of each Triatominae species that has evolved resistance is required in relation to the environmental conditions of each region.

  15. How to Fight Back Against Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantas, Gautam; Sommer, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Mapping the exchange of genes between pathogens and nonpathogens offers new ways to understand and manage the spread of drug-resistant strains. In reality, the development of new antibiotics is only part of the solution, as pathogens will inevitably develop resistance to even the most promising new...... compounds. To save the era of antibiotics, scientists must figure out what it is about bacterial pathogens that makes resistance inevitable. Although most studies on drug resistance have focused on disease causing pathogens, recent efforts have shifted attention to the resistomes of nonpathogenic bacteria...

  16. Natural disease resistance in threatened staghorn corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven V Vollmer

    Full Text Available Disease epidemics have caused extensive damage to tropical coral reefs and to the reef-building corals themselves, yet nothing is known about the abilities of the coral host to resist disease infection. Understanding the potential for natural disease resistance in corals is critically important, especially in the Caribbean where the two ecologically dominant shallow-water corals, Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata, have suffered an unprecedented mass die-off due to White Band Disease (WBD, and are now listed as threatened under the US Threatened Species Act and as critically endangered under the IUCN Red List criteria. Here we examine the potential for natural resistance to WBD in the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis by combining microsatellite genotype information with in situ transmission assays and field monitoring of WBD on tagged genotypes. We show that six percent of staghorn coral genotypes (3 out of 49 are resistant to WBD. This natural resistance to WBD in staghorn corals represents the first evidence of host disease resistance in scleractinian corals and demonstrates that staghorn corals have an innate ability to resist WBD infection. These resistant staghorn coral genotypes may explain why pockets of Acropora have been able to survive the WBD epidemic. Understanding disease resistance in these corals may be the critical link to restoring populations of these once dominant corals throughout their range.

  17. Theory of resistivity-gradient-driven turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.; Diamond, P.H.; Carreras, B.A.; Callen, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    A theory of the nonlinear evolution and saturation of resistivity driven turbulence, which evolves from linear rippling instabilities, is presented. The nonlinear saturation mechanism is identified both analytically and numerically. Saturation occurs when the turbulent diffusion of the resistivity is large enough so that dissipation due to parallel electron thermal conduction balances the nonlinearly modified resistivity gradient driving term. The levels of potential, resistivity, and density fluctuations at saturation are calculated. A combination of computational modeling and analytic treatment is used in this investigation.

  18. Mechanisms of insulin resistance in obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk for type 2 diabetes through induction of insulin resistance. Treatment of type 2 diabetes has been limited by little translational knowledge of insulin resistance although there have been several well-documented hypotheses for insulin resistance. In those hypotheses, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, hyperinsulinemia and lipotoxicity have been the major concepts and have received a lot of attention. Oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, genetic background, aging, fatty liver, hypoxia and lipodystrophy are active subjects in the study of these concepts. However, none of those concepts or views has led to an effective therapy for type 2 diabetes. The reason is that there has been no consensus for a unifying mechanism of insulin resistance. In this review article, literature is critically analyzed and reinterpreted for a new energy-based concept of insulin resistance, in which insulin resistance is a result of energy surplus in cells. The energy surplus signal is mediated by ATP and sensed by adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Decreasing ATP level by suppression of production or stimulation of utilization is a promising approach in the treatment of insulin resistance. In support, many of existing insulin sensitizing medicines inhibit ATP production in mitochondria. The effective therapies such as weight loss, exercise, and caloric restriction all reduce ATP in insulin sensitive cells. This new concept provides a unifying cellular and molecular mechanism of insulin resistance in obesity, which may apply to insulin resistance in aging and lipodystrophy. PMID:23471659

  19. Insulin resistance and bone: a biological partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Caterina; Epstein, Solomon; Napoli, Nicola

    2018-04-01

    Despite a clear association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and fracture risk, the pathogenesis of bone fragility in T2D has not been clearly elucidated. Insulin resistance is the primary defect in T2D. Insulin signalling regulates both bone formation and bone resorption, but whether insulin resistance can affect bone has not been established. On the other hand, evidence exists that bone might play a role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. This article reviews the available experimental and clinical evidence on the interplay between bone and insulin resistance. Interestingly, a bilateral relationship between bone and insulin resistance seems to exist that unites them in a biological partnership.

  20. Development of ultra radiation-resistant cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Shun-ichi; Handa, Katsue; Kubo, Masaji; Tsutsumi, Yukihiro; Seguchi, Tadao.

    1990-01-01

    For the purpose of using in the environment where the exposure to the radiation of large dose occurs, the ultra radiation-resistant cables using acenaphthylene bromide condensation product Con-BACN were developed, and it was already reported. However, since the Con-BACN is the mixture of condensation products, the bromine content, the condensed composition and the effect of giving radiation resistance tended to change widely. In this paper, the review of the method of synthesizing Con-BACN, the composition of the obtained condensation product, the mechanism that the Con-BACN gives the effect of radiation resistance and the characteristics of the ultra radiation-resistant cables using the Con-BACN are reported. The new reaction for synthesizing Con-BACN was developed, which solved the difficulty in the old process. The optimum condensation composition was decided in view of the characteristics of radiation resistance. Also the yield of Con-BACN was improved to 70-90%. It was predicted that graft reaction exerted influence to the effect of giving radiation resistance. The radiation resistance, environment resistance and incombustibility of the ultra radiation-resistant cables are reported. (K.I.)