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Sample records for resistance plasmid families

  1. Comparative genomics of the IncA/C multidrug resistance plasmid family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, W Florian; Welch, Timothy J; McDermott, Patrick F; Mammel, Mark K; LeClerc, J Eugene; White, David G; Cebula, Thomas A; Ravel, Jacques

    2009-08-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids belonging to the IncA/C plasmid family are widely distributed among Salmonella and other enterobacterial isolates from agricultural sources and have, at least once, also been identified in a drug-resistant Yersinia pestis isolate (IP275) from Madagascar. Here, we present the complete plasmid sequences of the IncA/C reference plasmid pRA1 (143,963 bp), isolated in 1971 from the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila, and of the cryptic IncA/C plasmid pRAx (49,763 bp), isolated from Escherichia coli transconjugant D7-3, which was obtained through pRA1 transfer in 1980. Using comparative sequence analysis of pRA1 and pRAx with recent members of the IncA/C plasmid family, we show that both plasmids provide novel insights into the evolution of the IncA/C MDR plasmid family and the minimal machinery necessary for stable IncA/C plasmid maintenance. Our results indicate that recent members of the IncA/C plasmid family evolved from a common ancestor, similar in composition to pRA1, through stepwise integration of horizontally acquired resistance gene arrays into a conserved plasmid backbone. Phylogenetic comparisons predict type IV secretion-like conjugative transfer operons encoded on the shared plasmid backbones to be closely related to a group of integrating conjugative elements, which use conjugative transfer for horizontal propagation but stably integrate into the host chromosome during vegetative growth. A hipAB toxin-antitoxin gene cluster found on pRA1, which in Escherichia coli is involved in the formation of persister cell subpopulations, suggests persistence as an early broad-spectrum antimicrobial resistance mechanism in the evolution of IncA/C resistance plasmids.

  2. The Salmonella genomic island 1 is specifically mobilized in trans by the IncA/C multidrug resistance plasmid family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douard, Gregory; Praud, Karine; Cloeckaert, Axel; Doublet, Benoît

    2010-12-20

    The Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is a Salmonella enterica-derived integrative mobilizable element (IME) containing various complex multiple resistance integrons identified in several S. enterica serovars and in Proteus mirabilis. Previous studies have shown that SGI1 transfers horizontally by in trans mobilization in the presence of the IncA/C conjugative helper plasmid pR55. Here, we report the ability of different prevalent multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) gene-carrying plasmids to mobilize the multidrug resistance genomic island SGI1. Through conjugation experiments, none of the 24 conjugative plasmids tested of the IncFI, FII, HI2, I1, L/M, N, P incompatibility groups were able to mobilize SGI1 at a detectable level (transfer frequency IncA/C incompatibility group. Several conjugative IncA/C MDR plasmids as well as the sequenced IncA/C reference plasmid pRA1 of 143,963 bp were shown to mobilize in trans SGI1 from a S. enterica donor to the Escherichia coli recipient strain. Depending on the IncA/C plasmid used, the conjugative transfer of SGI1 occurred at frequencies ranging from 10(-3) to 10(-6) transconjugants per donor. Of particular concern, some large IncA/C MDR plasmids carrying the extended-spectrum cephalosporinase bla(CMY-2) gene were shown to mobilize in trans SGI1. The ability of the IncA/C MDR plasmid family to mobilize SGI1 could contribute to its spread by horizontal transfer among enteric pathogens. Moreover, the increasing prevalence of IncA/C plasmids in MDR S. enterica isolates worldwide has potential implications for the epidemic success of the antibiotic resistance genomic island SGI1 and its close derivatives.

  3. Plasmids in Gram negatives: molecular typing of resistance plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carattoli, Alessandra

    2011-12-01

    A plasmid is defined as a double stranded, circular DNA molecule capable of autonomous replication. By definition, plasmids do not carry genes essential for the growth of host cells under non-stressed conditions but they have systems which guarantee their autonomous replication also controlling the copy number and ensuring stable inheritance during cell division. Most of the plasmids confer positively selectable phenotypes by the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. Plasmids evolve as an integral part of the bacterial genome, providing resistance genes that can be easily exchanged among bacteria of different origin and source by conjugation. A multidisciplinary approach is currently applied to study the acquisition and spread of antimicrobial resistance in clinically relevant bacterial pathogens and the established surveillance can be implemented by replicon typing of plasmids. Particular plasmid families are more frequently detected among Enterobacteriaceae and play a major role in the diffusion of specific resistance genes. For instance, IncFII, IncA/C, IncL/M, IncN and IncI1 plasmids carrying extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes and acquired AmpC genes are currently considered to be "epidemic resistance plasmids", being worldwide detected in Enterobacteriaceae of different origin and sources. The recognition of successful plasmids is an essential first step to design intervention strategies preventing their spread. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Expansion of the IncX plasmid family for improved identification and typing of novel plasmids in drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Bielak, Eliza Maria; Fortini, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    and biofilm formation. Previous plasmid-based replicon typing procedures have indicated that the prevalence of IncX plasmids is low among members of the Enterobacteriaceae. However, examination of a number of IncX-like plasmid sequences and their occurrence in various organisms suggests that IncX plasmid...

  5. Mechanisms of Evolution in High-Consequence Drug Resistance Plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Susu; Chandler, Michael; Varani, Alessandro M; Hickman, Alison B; Dekker, John P; Dyda, Fred

    2016-12-06

    The dissemination of resistance among bacteria has been facilitated by the fact that resistance genes are usually located on a diverse and evolving set of transmissible plasmids. However, the mechanisms generating diversity and enabling adaptation within highly successful resistance plasmids have remained obscure, despite their profound clinical significance. To understand these mechanisms, we have performed a detailed analysis of the mobilome (the entire mobile genetic element content) of a set of previously sequenced carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. This analysis revealed that plasmid reorganizations occurring in the natural context of colonization of human hosts were overwhelmingly driven by genetic rearrangements carried out by replicative transposons working in concert with the process of homologous recombination. A more complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary forces driving rearrangements in resistance plasmids may lead to fundamentally new strategies to address the problem of antibiotic resistance. The spread of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria is a serious public health threat, as it can critically limit the types of drugs that can be used to treat infected patients. In particular, carbapenem-resistant members of the Enterobacteriaceae family are responsible for a significant and growing burden of morbidity and mortality. Here, we report on the mechanisms underlying the evolution of several plasmids carried by previously sequenced clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (NIH CC). Our ability to track genetic rearrangements that occurred within resistance plasmids was dependent on accurate annotation of the mobile genetic elements within the plasmids, which was greatly aided by access to long-read DNA sequencing data and knowledge of their mechanisms. Mobile genetic elements such as

  6. Resistant plasmid profile analysis of multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple drug resistance isolates causing UTI has seri- ous implications for the empiric therapy against patho- genic isolates and for the possible co-selection of antimicrobial resistant mediated by multi drug resistant plasmids21,22. E. coli from clinical isolates are known to harbour plasmids of different molecular sizes23.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmid profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to various antimicrobial agents, and the relationship between antimicrobial resistance of the isolates and carriage of plasmids. Design: A random sampling of milk and meat samples was carried out. Setting: Milk was collected from various dairy ...

  8. Plasmid mediated quinolone resistance in Enterobacteriaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, K.T.; LS Klinisch Onderzoek Wagenaar

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the occurrence of Plasmid Mediated Quinolone Resistance (PMQR) in Salmonella and E. coli from The Netherlands and other European countries. Furthermore, the genetic background of these genes was characterized. Fluoroquinolones are widely used antibiotics in both human and

  9. Resistant plasmid profile analysis of multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli has become a major threat and cause of many urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the resistant plasmids of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from (Urinary tract infections)UTIs in Abeokuta.

  10. plasmid mediated resistance in multidrug resistant bacteria isolated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    PLASMID MEDIATED RESISTANCE IN MULTIDRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA. ISOLATED FROM CHILDREN WITH SUSPECTED SEPTICAEMIA IN ZARIA,. NIGERIA. AbdulAziz, Z. A.,1* Ehinmidu, J. O.,1 Adeshina, G. O.,1 Pala, Y. Y2., Yusuf, S. S2. and. Bugaje, M. A.3. 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical ...

  11. Plasmid-Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococci and Other Firmicutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Stefan; Shen, Jianzhong; Wendlandt, Sarah; Fessler, Andrea T; Wang, Yang; Kadlec, Kristina; Wu, Cong-Ming

    2014-12-01

    In staphylococci and other Firmicutes, resistance to numerous classes of antimicrobial agents, which are commonly used in human and veterinary medicine, is mediated by genes that are associated with mobile genetic elements. The gene products of some of these antimicrobial resistance genes confer resistance to only specific members of a certain class of antimicrobial agents, whereas others confer resistance to the entire class or even to members of different classes of antimicrobial agents. The resistance mechanisms specified by the resistance genes fall into any of three major categories: active efflux, enzymatic inactivation, and modification/replacement/protection of the target sites of the antimicrobial agents. Among the mobile genetic elements that carry such resistance genes, plasmids play an important role as carriers of primarily plasmid-borne resistance genes, but also as vectors for nonconjugative and conjugative transposons that harbor resistance genes. Plasmids can be exchanged by horizontal gene transfer between members of the same species but also between bacteria belonging to different species and genera. Plasmids are highly flexible elements, and various mechanisms exist by which plasmids can recombine, form cointegrates, or become integrated in part or in toto into the chromosomal DNA or into other plasmids. As such, plasmids play a key role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes within the gene pool to which staphylococci and other Firmicutes have access. This chapter is intended to provide an overview of the current knowledge of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci and other Firmicutes.

  12. Drug resistance plasmids in Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri.

    OpenAIRE

    Vescovo, M; Morelli, L; Bottazzi, V

    1982-01-01

    Sixteen strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and 20 strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were tested for resistance to 22 antibiotics by using commercially available sensitivity disks. Evidence suggesting linkage of these resistances to plasmids was obtained by "curing" experiments with acridine dyes and high growth temperatures. Examination of plasmid patterns of agarose gel electrophoresis provided further evidence of loss in plasmid DNA under curing conditions in some of the strains examined.

  13. Plasmid Conjugation in E. coli and Drug Resistance | Igwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at determining the antibiotics susceptibility pattern of E. coli isolates claimed to be multidrug resistance using disc diffusion method. It also determined the presence of transferable resistance plasmids through conjugation and evaluated the medical significance of plasmid encoding E. coli and drug ...

  14. Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance in Shigella flexneri Isolated From Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Mannion

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-human primates (NHPs for biomedical research are commonly infected with Shigella spp. that can cause acute dysentery or chronic episodic diarrhea. These animals are often prophylactically and clinically treated with quinolone antibiotics to eradicate these possible infections. However, chromosomally- and plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance has become an emerging concern for species in the family Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, five individual isolates of multi-drug resistant Shigella flexneri were isolated from the feces of three macaques. Antibiotic susceptibility testing confirmed resistance or decreased susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalosporins, gentamicin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, and nalidixic acid. S. flexneri isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and this drug was used to eradicate infection in two of the macaques. Plasmid DNA from all isolates was positive for the plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance gene qnrS, but not qnrA and qnrB. Conjugation and transformation of plasmid DNA from several S. flexneri isolates into antibiotic-susceptible Escherichia coli strains conferred the recipients with resistance or decreased susceptibility to quinolones and beta-lactams. Genome sequencing of two representative S. flexneri isolates identified the qnrS gene on a plasmid-like contig. These contigs showed >99% homology to plasmid sequences previously characterized from quinolone-resistant Shigella flexneri 2a and Salmonella enterica strains. Other antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factor genes were also identified in chromosome and plasmid sequences in these genomes. The findings from this study indicate macaques harbor pathogenic S. flexneri strains with chromosomally- and plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance genes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in S. flexneri isolated from NHPs and warrants

  15. Mechanisms of Evolution in High-Consequence Drug Resistance Plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The dissemination of resistance among bacteria has been facilitated by the fact that resistance genes are usually located on a diverse and evolving set of transmissible plasmids. However, the mechanisms generating diversity and enabling adaptation within highly successful resistance plasmids have remained obscure, despite their profound clinical significance. To understand these mechanisms, we have performed a detailed analysis of the mobilome (the entire mobile genetic element content of a set of previously sequenced carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. This analysis revealed that plasmid reorganizations occurring in the natural context of colonization of human hosts were overwhelmingly driven by genetic rearrangements carried out by replicative transposons working in concert with the process of homologous recombination. A more complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary forces driving rearrangements in resistance plasmids may lead to fundamentally new strategies to address the problem of antibiotic resistance.

  16. Antibiotic resistance plasmids of Staphylococcus aureus and their clinical importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacey, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    A variety of plasmids were isolated physically, and most antibiotic resistance is thought to be plasmid mediated. A number of characters (e.g., resistance to erythromycin or methicillin, and production of pigment) are determined by genes that do not give clear indications of either plasmid or chromosomal location. Although the formation of a particular plasmid is probably, even in bacterial terms, a very rare event, once formed such an element can spread rapidly among the bacterial population. The spectacular increase in the incidence of penicillinase-producing hospital strains in the late 1940's could have been due in part to this process. Evidence is stronger, however, for the intercell transfer of recently isolated plasmids coding for resistance to fusidic acid (and penicillinase production), or for neomycin, or for tetracycline resistance. Study of bacterial plasmids can resolve fundamental biochemical problems, and give some insight into the life of the cell at the molecular level. But the immediate application of the study of staphylococcal plasmids may be directed towards improving the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. The most important aspect of future anti-staphylococcal chemotherapy should thus be the limitation of the use of antibiotics, particularly for application to the skin and nose. (U.S.)

  17. Quinolones Resistance And R-Plasmids Of Clinical Isolates Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There has been reported incidence in the emergence of. Quinolones resistance in clinical isolates in Nigeria and the level in resistance has been on the increase. Objective: To determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmids profiles of 67 clinical Pseudomonas species from a teaching hospital ...

  18. Characterization of an IncA/C Multidrug Resistance Plasmid in Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lianwei; Li, Ruichao; Lin, Dachuan; Zhou, Yuanjie; Fu, Aisi; Ding, Qiong; Chan, Edward Wai Chi; Yao, Wen; Chen, Sheng

    2016-05-01

    Cephalosporin-resistant Vibrio alginolyticus was first isolated from food products, with β-lactamases encoded by blaPER-1, blaVEB-1, and blaCMY-2 being the major mechanisms mediating their cephalosporin resistance. The complete sequence of a multidrug resistance plasmid, pVAS3-1, harboring the blaCMY-2 and qnrVC4 genes was decoded in this study. Its backbone exhibited genetic homology to known IncA/C plasmids recoverable from members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, suggesting its possible origin in Enterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profiles of Aeromonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of Aeromonas hydrophila at commonly used water collection points on the River Njoro and to determine the in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility and plasmid profiles of isolates. In total, 126 samples were collected and 36.5% of them were positive for A. hydrophila.

  20. IncA/C Conjugative Plasmids Mobilize a New Family of Multidrug Resistance Islands in Clinical Vibrio cholerae Non-O1/Non-O139 Isolates from Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Nicolas; Rivard, Nicolas; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Colwell, Rita R; Burrus, Vincent

    2016-07-19

    mediate antimicrobial resistance in environmental and clinical V. cholerae isolates. Our results showed that while IncA/C plasmids are rare in V. cholerae populations, they play an important yet insidious role by specifically propagating a new family of genomic islands conferring resistance to multiple antibiotics. These results suggest that nonepidemic V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains bearing these genomic islands constitute a reservoir of transmissible resistance genes that can be propagated by IncA/C plasmids to V. cholerae populations in epidemic geographical areas as well to pathogenic species of Enterobacteriaceae We recommend future epidemiological surveys take into account the circulation of these genomic islands. Copyright © 2016 Carraro et al.

  1. Processing of Nonconjugative Resistance Plasmids by Conjugation Nicking Enzyme of Staphylococci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollet, Rebecca M.; Ingle, James D.; Hymes, Jeff P.; Eakes, Thomas C.; Eto, Karina Yui; Kwong, Stephen M.; Ramsay, Joshua P.; Firth, Neville; Redinbo, Matthew R. (Curtin U.); (Sydney); (UNC)

    2016-01-04

    Antimicrobial resistance inStaphylococcus aureuspresents an increasing threat to human health. This resistance is often encoded on mobile plasmids, such as pSK41; however, the mechanism of transfer of these plasmids is not well understood. In this study, we first examine key protein-DNA interactions formed by the relaxase enzyme, NES, which initiates and terminates the transfer of the multidrug resistance plasmid pSK41. Two loops on the NES protein, hairpin loops 1 and 2, form extensive contacts with the DNA hairpin formed at theoriTregion of pSK41, and here we establish that these contacts are essential for proper DNA cleavage and religation by the full 665-residue NES proteinin vitro. Second, pSK156 and pCA347 are nonconjugativeStaphylococcus aureusplasmids that contain sequences similar to theoriTregion of pSK41 but differ in the sequence predicted to form a DNA hairpin. We show that pSK41-encoded NES is able to bind, cleave, and religate theoriTsequences of these nonconjugative plasmidsin vitro. Although pSK41 could mobilize a coresident plasmid harboring its cognateoriT, it was unable to mobilize plasmids containing the pSK156 and pCA347 variantoriTmimics, suggesting that an accessory protein like that previously shown to confer specificity in the pWBG749 system may also be involved in transmission of plasmids containing a pSK41-likeoriT. These data indicate that the conjugative relaxase intransmechanism recently described for the pWBG749 family of plasmids also applies to the pSK41 family of plasmids, further heightening the potential significance of this mechanism in the horizontal transfer of staphylococcal plasmids.

    IMPORTANCEUnderstanding the

  2. Survival and evolution of a large multidrug resistance plasmid in new clinical bacterial hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, Andreas; Schønning, Kristian; Munck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Large conjugative plasmids are important drivers of bacterial evolution and contribute significantly to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Although plasmid borne multidrug resistance is recognized as one of the main challenges in modern medicine, the adaptive forces shaping the evolution...

  3. IncA/C plasmids harboured in serious multidrug-resistant Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 strains in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruibai; Yu, Dong; Zhu, Lianhui; Li, Jie; Yue, Junjie; Kan, Biao

    2015-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 emerged in 1992 and is one of two major serogroups to have caused cholera epidemics. After 1998, serious multidrug-resistant (MDR) O139 strains quickly became common in China, showing a multidrug resistance profile to eight antibiotics. It is a great threat to public health, and elucidation of its mechanisms of resistance will provide a helpful guide for the clinical treatment and prevention of cholera. In this study, mega-plasmids from MDR V. cholerae O139 strains were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) without enzyme digestion. One plasmid was isolated and sequenced, belonging to the IncA/C family. Ten antibiotic resistance genes were found in the MDR regions, including a blaTEM-20 gene, and these genes endowed the host with resistance to seven antibiotics. This kind of plasmid was positive in 71.2% (198/278) of toxigenic O139 strains, and the rate of plasmid positivity was consistent with the yearly change in MDR rates of these strains. This study reveals an important role of the IncA/C family plasmid in the spread of multiple antibiotic resistance of epidemic V. cholerae serogroup O139 strains, which has recombined with plasmids from different bacterial species and transferred among V. cholerae strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  4. DNA sequence analysis of plasmids from multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg isolates.

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    Jing Han

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg is among the most detected serovars in swine and poultry, ranks among the top five serotypes associated with human salmonellosis and is disproportionately associated with invasive infections and mortality in humans. Salmonella are known to carry plasmids associated with antimicrobial resistance and virulence. To identify plasmid-associated genes in multidrug resistant S. enterica serovar Heidelberg, antimicrobial resistance plasmids from five isolates were sequenced using the 454 LifeSciences pyrosequencing technology. Four of the isolates contained incompatibility group (Inc A/C multidrug resistance plasmids harboring at least eight antimicrobial resistance genes. Each of these strains also carried a second resistance plasmid including two IncFIB, an IncHI2 and a plasmid lacking an identified Inc group. The fifth isolate contained an IncI1 plasmid, encoding resistance to gentamicin, streptomycin and sulfonamides. Some of the IncA/C plasmids lacked the full concert of transfer genes and yet were able to be conjugally transferred, likely due to the transfer genes carried on the companion plasmids in the strains. Several non-IncA/C resistance plasmids also carried putative virulence genes. When the sequences were compared to previously sequenced plasmids, it was found that while all plasmids demonstrated some similarity to other plasmids, they were unique, often due to differences in mobile genetic elements in the plasmids. Our study suggests that Salmonella Heidelberg isolates harbor plasmids that co-select for antimicrobial resistance and virulence, along with genes that can mediate the transfer of plasmids within and among other bacterial isolates. Prevalence of such plasmids can complicate efforts to control the spread of S. enterica serovar Heidelberg in food animal and human populations.

  5. Impact of co-carriage of IncA/C plasmids with additional plasmids on the transfer of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Pendleton, Sean J; Deck, Joanna; Singh, Ruby; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Johnson, Timothy J; Sanad, Yasser M; Nayak, Rajesh; Foley, Steven L

    2018-04-20

    Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica is often plasmid encoded. A key resistance plasmid group is the incompatibility group (Inc) A/C plasmids that often carry multiple resistance determinants. Previous studies showed that IncA/C plasmids were often co-located with other plasmids. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of plasmid co-carriage on antimicrobial resistance and plasmid transfer. A total of 1267 Salmonella isolates, representing multiple serotypes and sources were previously subjected to susceptibility testing and 251 isolates with resistance to at least 5 antimicrobial agents were identified for further study. Each isolate was subjected to PCR-based replicon typing, and those with IncA/C plasmids were selected for plasmid isolation, PCR-based mapping of IncA/C plasmid backbone genes, and conjugation assays to evaluate resistance plasmid transferability. Of the 87 identified IncA/C positive isolates, approximately 75% carried a plasmid with another identified replicon type, with the most common being I1 (39%), FIA, FIIA, FIB and HI2 (each 15%). PCR-based mapping indicated significant diversity in IncA/C backbone content, especially in regions encoding transfer-associated and hypothetical proteins. Conjugation experiments showed that nearly 68% of the isolates transferred resistance plasmids, with 90% containing additional identified plasmids or larger (>50 kb) non-typeable plasmids. The majority of IncA/C-positive strains were able to conjugally transfer antimicrobial resistance to the recipient, encoded by IncA/C and/or co-carried plasmids. These findings highlight the importance of co-located plasmids for resistance dissemination either by directly transferring resistance genes or by potentially providing the needed conjugation machinery for IncA/C plasmid transfer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Identification and characterization of two novel bla(KLUC resistance genes through large-scale resistance plasmids sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Xu

    Full Text Available Plasmids are important antibiotic resistance determinant carriers that can disseminate various drug resistance genes among species or genera. By using a high throughput sequencing approach, two groups of plasmids of Escherichia coli (named E1 and E2, each consisting of 160 clinical E. coli strains isolated from different periods of time were sequenced and analyzed. A total of 20 million reads were obtained and mapped onto the known resistance gene sequences. As a result, a total of 9 classes, including 36 types of antibiotic resistant genes, were identified. Among these genes, 25 and 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs appeared, of which 9 and 12 SNPs are nonsynonymous substitutions in the E1 and E2 samples. It is interesting to find that a novel genotype of bla(KLUC, whose close relatives, bla(KLUC-1 and bla(KLUC-2, have been previously reported as carried on the Kluyvera cryocrescens chromosome and Enterobacter cloacae plasmid, was identified. It shares 99% and 98% amino acid identities with Kluc-1 and Kluc-2, respectively. Further PCR screening of 608 Enterobacteriaceae family isolates yielded a second variant (named bla(KLUC-4. It was interesting to find that Kluc-3 showed resistance to several cephalosporins including cefotaxime, whereas bla(KLUC-4 did not show any resistance to the antibiotics tested. This may be due to a positively charged residue, Arg, replaced by a neutral residue, Leu, at position 167, which is located within an omega-loop. This work represents large-scale studies on resistance gene distribution, diversification and genetic variation in pooled multi-drug resistance plasmids, and provides insight into the use of high throughput sequencing technology for microbial resistance gene detection.

  7. Survival and evolution of a large multidrug resistance plasmid in new clinical bacterial hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, Andreas; Schønning, Kristian; Munck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    sequencing to show that the long-term persistence and molecular integrity of the plasmid is highly influenced by multiple factors within a 25 kb plasmid region constituting a host-dependent burden. In the E. coli hosts investigated here, improved plasmid stability readily evolves via IS26 mediated deletions...... consistently followed by all evolved E. coli lineages exposes a trade-off between horizontal and vertical transmission that may ultimately limit the dissemination potential of clinical multidrug resistance plasmids in these hosts....

  8. Transformation of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata Cells with an Antibiotic Resistance Gene Using a Ti-Plasmid-Derived Vector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, Jacques; Goldbach, Rob

    1986-01-01

    A chimaeric antibiotic resistance gene was transferred to cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), a member of the legume family. This transfer was established by inoculating cowpea leaf discs with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring a Ti-plasmid-derived vector that contained two copies of a chimaeric

  9. Novel plasmids and resistance phenotypes in Yersinia pestis: unique plasmid inventory of strain Java 9 mediates high levels of arsenic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Mark; Radnedge, Lyndsay; Andersen, Gary; Vietri, Nicholas; Severson, Grant; Mou, Sherry; Ravel, Jacques; Worsham, Patricia L

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the plasmid repertoire of Yersinia pestis is not restricted to the three classical virulence plasmids. The Java 9 strain of Y. pestis is a biovar Orientalis isolate obtained from a rat in Indonesia. Although it lacks the Y. pestis-specific plasmid pMT, which encodes the F1 capsule, it retains virulence in mouse and non-human primate animal models. While comparing diverse Y. pestis strains using subtractive hybridization, we identified sequences in Java 9 that were homologous to a Y. enterocolitica strain carrying the transposon Tn2502, which is known to encode arsenic resistance. Here we demonstrate that Java 9 exhibits high levels of arsenic and arsenite resistance mediated by a novel promiscuous class II transposon, named Tn2503. Arsenic resistance was self-transmissible from Java 9 to other Y. pestis strains via conjugation. Genomic analysis of the atypical plasmid inventory of Java 9 identified pCD and pPCP plasmids of atypical size and two previously uncharacterized cryptic plasmids. Unlike the Tn2502-mediated arsenic resistance encoded on the Y. enterocolitica virulence plasmid; the resistance loci in Java 9 are found on all four indigenous plasmids, including the two novel cryptic plasmids. This unique mobilome introduces more than 105 genes into the species gene pool. The majority of these are encoded by the two entirely novel self-transmissible plasmids, which show partial homology and synteny to other enterics. In contrast to the reductive evolution in Y. pestis, this study underlines the major impact of a dynamic mobilome and lateral acquisition in the genome evolution of the plague bacterium.

  10. Novel plasmids and resistance phenotypes in Yersinia pestis: unique plasmid inventory of strain Java 9 mediates high levels of arsenic resistance.

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    Mark Eppinger

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that the plasmid repertoire of Yersinia pestis is not restricted to the three classical virulence plasmids. The Java 9 strain of Y. pestis is a biovar Orientalis isolate obtained from a rat in Indonesia. Although it lacks the Y. pestis-specific plasmid pMT, which encodes the F1 capsule, it retains virulence in mouse and non-human primate animal models. While comparing diverse Y. pestis strains using subtractive hybridization, we identified sequences in Java 9 that were homologous to a Y. enterocolitica strain carrying the transposon Tn2502, which is known to encode arsenic resistance. Here we demonstrate that Java 9 exhibits high levels of arsenic and arsenite resistance mediated by a novel promiscuous class II transposon, named Tn2503. Arsenic resistance was self-transmissible from Java 9 to other Y. pestis strains via conjugation. Genomic analysis of the atypical plasmid inventory of Java 9 identified pCD and pPCP plasmids of atypical size and two previously uncharacterized cryptic plasmids. Unlike the Tn2502-mediated arsenic resistance encoded on the Y. enterocolitica virulence plasmid; the resistance loci in Java 9 are found on all four indigenous plasmids, including the two novel cryptic plasmids. This unique mobilome introduces more than 105 genes into the species gene pool. The majority of these are encoded by the two entirely novel self-transmissible plasmids, which show partial homology and synteny to other enterics. In contrast to the reductive evolution in Y. pestis, this study underlines the major impact of a dynamic mobilome and lateral acquisition in the genome evolution of the plague bacterium.

  11. Imipenem-resistance in Serratia marcescens is mediated by plasmid expression of KPC-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, W-Q; Zhu, Y-Q; Deng, N-M; Li, L

    2017-04-01

    Imipenem is a broad-spectrum carbapenem antibiotic with applications against severe bacterial infections. Here, we describe the identification of imipenem-resistant Serratia marcescens in our hospital and the role of plasmid-mediated KPC-2 expression in imipenem resistance. We used the modified Hodge test to detect carbapenemase produced in imipenem-resistant strains. His resistance can be transferred to E. coli in co-culture tests, which implicates the plasmid in imipenem resistance. PCR amplification from the plasmid identified two products consistent with KPC-2 of 583 and 1050 bp that were also present in E. coli after co-culture. The restriction pattern for both plasmids was identical, supporting the transfer from the S. marcescens isolate to E. coli. Finally, gene sequencing confirmed KPC-2 in the plasmid. Due to the presence of KPC-2 in the imipenem-resistant S. marcescens, we propose that KPC-2 mediates antibiotic resistance in the S. marcescens isolate.

  12. Multiple drug resistant carbapenemases producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates harbours multiple R-plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan Saranathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The nosocomial human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii has high propensity to develop resistance to antimicrobials and to become multidrug resistant (MDR, consequently complicating the treatment. This study was carried out to investigate the presence of resistant plasmids (R-plasmids among the clinical isolates of A. baumannii. In addition, the study was performed to check the presence of common β-lactamases encoding genes on these plasmids. Methods: A total of 55 clinical isolates of A. baumannii were included in the study and all were subjected to plasmid DNA isolation, followed by PCR to check the presence of resistance gene determinants such as blaOXA-23 , blaOXA-51, blaOXA-58 and blaIMP-1 on these plasmids that encode for oxacillinase (OXA and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL type of carbapenemases. Plasmid curing experiments were carried out on selected isolates using ethidium bromide and acridine orange as curing agents and the antibiotic resistance profiles were evaluated before and after curing. Results: All the isolates were identified as A. baumannii by 16SrDNA amplification and sequencing. Plasmid DNA isolated from these isolates showed the occurrence of multiple plasmids with size ranging from 500bp to ≥ 25 kb. The percentage of blaOXA-51 and blaOXA-23 on plasmids were found to be 78 and 42 per cent, respectively and 20 isolates (36% carried blaIMP-1 gene on plasmids. Significant difference was observed in the antibiograms of plasmid cured isolates when compared to their parental ones. The clinical isolates became susceptible to more than two antibiotic classes after curing of plasmids indicating plasmid borne resistance. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study determined the plasmid mediated resistance mechanisms and occurrence of different resistance genes on various plasmids isolated from MDR A. baumannii. The present findings showed the evidence for antibiotic resistance mediated through multiple plasmids in

  13. Incidence of plasmid-linked antibiotic-heavy metal resistant enterics in water-sediment from agricultural and harbor sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietz, J.A.; Sjorgren, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of antibiotics used in clinical and veterinary practices on the incidence of antibiotic-heavy metal resistant enterics in fresh water and sediment from agricultural and harbor sample sites. A total of 848 bacterial strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae was isolated from agricultural and lake harbor samples. These were examined for anitbiotic-heavy metal resistance. A select smaller number of these isolates were also examined for the presence of plasmids and ability to transfer antibiotic resistance via conjugation or transformation. More than 85% of the 848 isolates from all four sites were resistant to Pb, Zn, and Co while 5.6% to 16% were resistant to Te and 2.4% to 5.7% to Hg. Of the total isolates tested, 87% were resistant to six or more antibiotics and 74% were also simultaneously resistant to Co, Zn, and Pb. Testing the resistance of the water isolates to antibiotics used solely in animal husbandry-veterinary medicine indicated that 55.6% of the agricultural isolates possessed resistance to these antibiotics while only 31.9% of the isolates from harbor water showed resistance to the same antibiotics. Of 41 ampicillin resistant isolates examined, 16 (39%) were capable of transferring antibiotic-heavy resistance markers via conjugation. From this same group, plasmid DNA preparations were made. Of these latter preparations, 67% transformed recipient E. coli cells while 58% possessed discernible, often multiple plasmids when examined by gel electrophoresis.

  14. Plasmid mediated enhancement of uv resistance in Streptococcus faecalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miehl, R.; Miller, M.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    A 38.5-Mdal plasmid of Streptococcus faecalis subdp. zymogenes has been shown to enhance survival following uv irradiation. In addition, the presence of this plasmid increases the mutation frequencies following uv irradiation and enhanced W-reactivation. The data presented indicate that S. faecalis has an inducible error-prone repair system and that the plasmid enhances these repair functions

  15. Plasmid mediated resistance in multidrug resistant bacteria isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibiotic susceptibility testing of isolated bacteria associated with septicaemia in children were carried out using standard microbiological protocol. The MAR index for the test bacterial isolates was determined and the bacterial isolates that displayed multiple antibiotic resistance were investigated for the presence of ...

  16. Antibiotic resistance and plasmid carriage among Escherichia coli isolates from chicken meat in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin Tin Myaing; Saleha, A.A.; Arifah, A.K.; Raha, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates from 131 raw chicken meat samples were tested for susceptibility to 12 antibiotics. Plasmids were isolated from many samples and their DNA molecular weight calculated. An 81.7% plasmid occurrence rate was observed among the isolates, ranging from 0 to 8 in number and with sizes from 1.2 to 118.6 MDa. Plasmids were detected in 93.8% of E. coIi isolates resistant to all 12 antibiotics, and in 90.5% of E. coli isolates resistant to 11. Three (2.8%) isolates harboured 8 plasmids and were resistant to all 12 antibiotics. Antibiotic resistant genes in bacteria are usually carried in extrachromosomal DNA and it is postulated that E. coli with a high number of plasmids possesses wider resistance to antibiotics. (author)

  17. Genetic characterization of blaNDM-harboring plasmids in carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli from Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo Sugawara

    Full Text Available The bacterial enzyme New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase hydrolyzes almost all β-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems, which are drugs of last resort for severe bacterial infections. The spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that carry the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene, blaNDM, poses a serious threat to public health. In this study, we genetically characterized eight carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from a tertiary care hospital in Yangon, Myanmar. The eight isolates belonged to five multilocus-sequence types and harbored multiple antimicrobial-resistance genes, resulting in resistance against nearly all of the antimicrobial agents tested, except colistin and fosfomycin. Nine plasmids harboring blaNDM genes were identified from these isolates. Multiple blaNDM genes were found in the distinct Inc-replicon types of the following plasmids: an IncA/C2 plasmid harboring blaNDM-1 (n = 1, IncX3 plasmids harboring blaNDM-4 (n = 2 or blaNDM-7 (n = 1, IncFII plasmids harboring blaNDM-4 (n = 1 or blaNDM-5 (n = 3, and a multireplicon F plasmid harboring blaNDM-5 (n = 1. Comparative analysis highlighted the diversity of the blaNDM-harboring plasmids and their distinct characteristics, which depended on plasmid replicon types. The results indicate circulation of phylogenetically distinct strains of carbapenem-resistant E. coli with various plasmids harboring blaNDM genes in the hospital.

  18. Plasmid-Mediated Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae Changing Landscape and Implications for Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultsz, Constance; Geerlings, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is increasing worldwide, and pathogenic microorganism's that are resistant to all available antimicrobial agents are increasingly reported. Emerging plasmid-encoded extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases are increasingly reported worldwide.

  19. Plasmids which make their host bacteria mutable as well as resistant to ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Toshihiko; Ando, Takao

    1980-01-01

    Some of the naturally occurring Iα, I zeta, M, N, O and T group plasmids increase both the mutability and UV resistance of their host bacteria, while group H and S plasmids only increase mutability. This suggests that these two plasmid-mediated repair functions are separable. The two functions have no direct relation to their restriction-modification systems and nitrofuran resistant functions. In addition, the close linking between the restriction-modification genes and these repair function genes was suggested in group N plasmids. (author)

  20. Cloning in Streptococcus lactis of plasmid-mediated UV resistance and effect on prophage stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopin, M.C.; Chopin, A.; Rouault, A.; Simon, D.

    1986-01-01

    Plasmid pIL7 (33 kilobases) from Streptococcus lactis enhances UV resistance and prophage stability. A 5.4-kilobase pIL7 fragment carrying genes coding for both characters was cloned into S. lactis, using plasmid pHV1301 as the cloning vector. The recombinant plasmid was subsequently transferred to three other S. lactis strains by transformation or protoplast fusion. Cloned genes were expressed in all tested strains

  1. Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants among oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Rincon Cruz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available High quinolone resistance rates were observed among oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant enterobacteria. In the present study, we searched for the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR genes within the 55 oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant enterobacteria collected in a previous survey. The main PMQR determinants were aac(6'-Ib-cr and qnrB, which had prevalence rates of 42.4% and 33.3%, respectively. The aac(6'-Ib-cr gene was more frequently found in CTX-M-15-producing isolates, while qnrB was homogeneously distributed among all CTX-M producers.

  2. Microarray-based analysis of IncA/C plasmid-associated genes from multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Rebecca L; Frye, Jonathan G; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Meinersmann, Richard J

    2011-10-01

    In the family Enterobacteriaceae, plasmids have been classified according to 27 incompatibility (Inc) or replicon types that are based on the inability of different plasmids with the same replication mechanism to coexist in the same cell. Certain replicon types such as IncA/C are associated with multidrug resistance (MDR). We developed a microarray that contains 286 unique 70-mer oligonucleotide probes based on sequences from five IncA/C plasmids: pYR1 (Yersinia ruckeri), pPIP1202 (Yersinia pestis), pP99-018 (Photobacterium damselae), pSN254 (Salmonella enterica serovar Newport), and pP91278 (Photobacterium damselae). DNA from 59 Salmonella enterica isolates was hybridized to the microarray and analyzed for the presence or absence of genes. These isolates represented 17 serovars from 14 different animal hosts and from different geographical regions in the United States. Qualitative cluster analysis was performed using CLUSTER 3.0 to group microarray hybridization results. We found that IncA/C plasmids occurred in two lineages distinguished by a major insertion-deletion (indel) region that contains genes encoding mostly hypothetical proteins. The most variable genes were represented by transposon-associated genes as well as four antimicrobial resistance genes (aphA, merP, merA, and aadA). Sixteen mercury resistance genes were identified and highly conserved, suggesting that mercury ion-related exposure is a stronger pressure than anticipated. We used these data to construct a core IncA/C genome and an accessory genome. The results of our studies suggest that the transfer of antimicrobial resistance determinants by transfer of IncA/C plasmids is somewhat less common than exchange within the plasmids orchestrated by transposable elements, such as transposons, integrating and conjugative elements (ICEs), and insertion sequence common regions (ISCRs), and thus pose less opportunity for exchange of antimicrobial resistance.

  3. Characterization of a Large Antibiotic Resistance Plasmid Found in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain B171 and Its Relatedness to Plasmids of Diverse E. coli and Shigella Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Tracy H; Michalski, Jane; Nagaraj, Sushma; Okeke, Iruka N; Rasko, David A

    2017-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a leading cause of severe infantile diarrhea in developing countries. Previous research has focused on the diversity of the EPEC virulence plasmid, whereas less is known regarding the genetic content and distribution of antibiotic resistance plasmids carried by EPEC. A previous study demonstrated that in addition to the virulence plasmid, reference EPEC strain B171 harbors a second, larger plasmid that confers antibiotic resistance. To further understand the genetic diversity and dissemination of antibiotic resistance plasmids among EPEC strains, we describe the complete sequence of an antibiotic resistance plasmid from EPEC strain B171. The resistance plasmid, pB171_90, has a completed sequence length of 90,229 bp, a GC content of 54.55%, and carries protein-encoding genes involved in conjugative transfer, resistance to tetracycline ( tetA ), sulfonamides ( sulI ), and mercury, as well as several virulence-associated genes, including the transcriptional regulator hha and the putative calcium sequestration inhibitor ( csi ). In silico detection of the pB171_90 genes among 4,798 publicly available E. coli genome assemblies indicates that the unique genes of pB171_90 ( csi and traI ) are primarily restricted to genomes identified as EPEC or enterotoxigenic E. coli However, conserved regions of the pB171_90 plasmid containing genes involved in replication, stability, and antibiotic resistance were identified among diverse E. coli pathotypes. Interestingly, pB171_90 also exhibited significant similarity with a sequenced plasmid from Shigella dysenteriae type I. Our findings demonstrate the mosaic nature of EPEC antibiotic resistance plasmids and highlight the need for additional sequence-based characterization of antibiotic resistance plasmids harbored by pathogenic E. coli . Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Identification of dfrA14 in two distinct plasmids conferring trimethoprim resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Walker, Stephanie; Atherton, Tom; Fernandez Crespo, Roberto; Williamson, Susanna M; Rogers, Jon; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Weinert, Lucy A; Oshota, Olusegun; Holden, Matt T G; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Langford, Paul R

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the distribution and genetic basis of trimethoprim resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates from pigs in England. Clinical isolates collected between 1998 and 2011 were tested for resistance to trimethoprim and sulphonamide. The genetic basis of trimethoprim resistance was determined by shotgun WGS analysis and the subsequent isolation and sequencing of plasmids. A total of 16 (out of 106) A. pleuropneumoniae isolates were resistant to both trimethoprim (MIC >32 mg/L) and sulfisoxazole (MIC ≥256 mg/L), and a further 32 were resistant only to sulfisoxazole (MIC ≥256 mg/L). Genome sequence data for the trimethoprim-resistant isolates revealed the presence of the dfrA14 dihydrofolate reductase gene. The distribution of plasmid sequences in multiple contigs suggested the presence of two distinct dfrA14-containing plasmids in different isolates, which was confirmed by plasmid isolation and sequencing. Both plasmids encoded mobilization genes, the sulphonamide resistance gene sul2, as well as dfrA14 inserted into strA, a streptomycin-resistance-associated gene, although the gene order differed between the two plasmids. One of the plasmids further encoded the strB streptomycin-resistance-associated gene. This is the first description of mobilizable plasmids conferring trimethoprim resistance in A. pleuropneumoniae and, to our knowledge, the first report of dfrA14 in any member of the Pasteurellaceae. The identification of dfrA14 conferring trimethoprim resistance in A. pleuropneumoniae isolates will facilitate PCR screens for resistance to this important antimicrobial. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  5. Cefotaxime resistant Escherichia coli collected from a healthy volunteer; characterisation and the effect of plasmid loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Kirchner

    Full Text Available In this study 6 CTX-M positive E. coli isolates collected during a clinical study examining the effect of antibiotic use in a human trial were analysed. The aim of the study was to analyse these isolates and assess the effect of full or partial loss of plasmid genes on bacterial fitness and pathogenicity. A DNA array was utilised to assess resistance and virulence gene carriage. Plasmids were characterised by PCR-based replicon typing and addiction system multiplex PCR. A phenotypic array and insect virulence model were utilised to assess the effect of plasmid-loss in E. coli of a large multi-resistance plasmid. All six E. coli carrying bla CTX-M-14 were detected from a single participant and were identical by pulse field gel electrophoresis and MLST. Plasmid profiling and arrays indicated absence of a large multi-drug resistance (MDR F-replicon plasmid carrying blaTEM, aadA4, strA, strB, dfrA17/19, sul1, and tetB from one isolate. Although this isolate partially retained the plasmid it showed altered fitness characteristics e.g. inability to respire in presence of antiseptics, similar to a plasmid-cured strain. However, unlike the plasmid-cured or plasmid harbouring strains, the survival rate for Galleria mellonella infected by the former strain was approximately 5-times lower, indicating other possible changes accompanying partial plasmid loss. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that an apparently healthy individual can harbour bla CTX-M-14 E. coli strains. In one such strain, isolated from the same individual, partial absence of a large MDR plasmid resulted in altered fitness and virulence characteristics, which may have implications in the ability of this strain to infect and any subsequent treatment.

  6. Comparative Sequence Analysis of Multidrug-Resistant IncA/C Plasmids from Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Maria; Pettengill, James B; Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Miller, John; Ayers, Sherry L; Zhao, Shaohua; Allard, Marc W; McDermott, Patrick F; Brown, Eric W; Monday, Steven R

    2017-01-01

    Determinants of multidrug resistance (MDR) are often encoded on mobile elements, such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons, which have the potential to transfer among foodborne pathogens, as well as to other virulent pathogens, increasing the threats these traits pose to human and veterinary health. Our understanding of MDR among Salmonella has been limited by the lack of closed plasmid genomes for comparisons across resistance phenotypes, due to difficulties in effectively separating the DNA of these high-molecular weight, low-copy-number plasmids from chromosomal DNA. To resolve this problem, we demonstrate an efficient protocol for isolating, sequencing and closing IncA/C plasmids from Salmonella sp. using single molecule real-time sequencing on a Pacific Biosciences (Pacbio) RS II Sequencer. We obtained six Salmonella enterica isolates from poultry, representing six different serovars, each exhibiting the MDR-Ampc resistance profile. Salmonella plasmids were obtained using a modified mini preparation and transformed with Escherichia coli DH10Br. A Qiagen Large-Construct kit™ was used to recover highly concentrated and purified plasmid DNA that was sequenced using PacBio technology. These six closed IncA/C plasmids ranged in size from 104 to 191 kb and shared a stable, conserved backbone containing 98 core genes, with only six differences among those core genes. The plasmids encoded a number of antimicrobial resistance genes, including those for quaternary ammonium compounds and mercury. We then compared our six IncA/C plasmid sequences: first with 14 IncA/C plasmids derived from S. enterica available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), and then with an additional 38 IncA/C plasmids derived from different taxa. These comparisons allowed us to build an evolutionary picture of how antimicrobial resistance may be mediated by this common plasmid backbone. Our project provides detailed genetic information about resistance genes in

  7. Comparative Sequence Analysis of Multidrug-Resistant IncA/C Plasmids from Salmonella enterica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hoffmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Determinants of multidrug resistance (MDR are often encoded on mobile elements, such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons, which have the potential to transfer among foodborne pathogens, as well as to other virulent pathogens, increasing the threats these traits pose to human and veterinary health. Our understanding of MDR among Salmonella has been limited by the lack of closed plasmid genomes for comparisons across resistance phenotypes, due to difficulties in effectively separating the DNA of these high-molecular weight, low-copy-number plasmids from chromosomal DNA. To resolve this problem, we demonstrate an efficient protocol for isolating, sequencing and closing IncA/C plasmids from Salmonella sp. using single molecule real-time sequencing on a Pacific Biosciences (Pacbio RS II Sequencer. We obtained six Salmonella enterica isolates from poultry, representing six different serovars, each exhibiting the MDR-Ampc resistance profile. Salmonella plasmids were obtained using a modified mini preparation and transformed with Escherichia coli DH10Br. A Qiagen Large-Construct kit™ was used to recover highly concentrated and purified plasmid DNA that was sequenced using PacBio technology. These six closed IncA/C plasmids ranged in size from 104 to 191 kb and shared a stable, conserved backbone containing 98 core genes, with only six differences among those core genes. The plasmids encoded a number of antimicrobial resistance genes, including those for quaternary ammonium compounds and mercury. We then compared our six IncA/C plasmid sequences: first with 14 IncA/C plasmids derived from S. enterica available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, and then with an additional 38 IncA/C plasmids derived from different taxa. These comparisons allowed us to build an evolutionary picture of how antimicrobial resistance may be mediated by this common plasmid backbone. Our project provides detailed genetic information about

  8. Plasmid Mediated Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistance in Bacillus Strains Isolated From Soils in Rize, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif SEVİM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Bacillus strains which were isolated from soil samples were examined for resistance to 17 different antibiotics (ampicillin, methicillin, erythromycin, norfloxacin, cephalotine, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, vancomycin, oxacilin, neomycin, kanamycin and, novabiocin and to 10 different heavy metals (copper, lead, cobalt, chrome, iron, mercury, zinc, nickel, manganese and, cadmium and for the presence of plasmid DNA. A total of eleven strains (67% were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The most common resistance was observed against methicillin and oxacillin. The most resistance strains were found as Bacillus sp. B3 and Bacillus sp. B11. High heavy metal resistance against copper, chromium, zinc, iron and nickel was detected, but mercury and cobalt resistance was not detected, except for 3 strains (B3, B11, and B12 which showed mercury resistance. It has been determined that seven Bacillus strains have plasmids. The isolated plasmids were transformed into the Bacillus subtilis W168 and it was shown that heavy metal and antibiotic resistance determinants were carried on these plasmids. These results showed that there was a correlation between plasmid content and resistance for both antibiotic and heavy metal resistance

  9. Molecular processes as basis for plasmid-mediated bacterial UV-light resistance and mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshkin, G.I.; Brukhanskij, G.V.; Skavronskaya, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The increase of UV-resistance and UV-induced mutagenesis by lambda 1 pint intmid as well as molecular-genetic mechanisms of plasmid participation in reparation and DNA replication and its degradation after UV-irradiation in plasmid cells on pKM101 plasmid model have been investigated. Data testifying to the necessity of intmid integration in chromosome as obligatory stage of intmid participation in increasing UV-resistance of bacterial cells are obtained. It has been found that intmid raises UV-resistance of cells and increases respectively the UV-induced reverants efficiency. On the basis of the experiment data the conclusion is drawn that the intmid capacity to raise UV-resistance and, possibly, mutagenesis is bound not only with its integration into chromosome but also with pol A + chromosome replication by dependendent imtmid replication complex. It is shown that pKM101 plasmid ensures functioning in E coli cells of inducible, chloroamphenicol-resistant DNA replication, highly resistant to UV-light harmful effect and that the volume of excision reparation in E. coli cells carrying pKM101 plasmid is increased as compared with the volume of reparation in plasmid legs cells. The combination of the data obtained gives grounds to the authors to assume that inducible replication, inducible reparation of DNA and inducible decrease of DNA degradation determined by pKM101 plasmid may serve as recA + lexA + basis dependent increase of UV-resistance and mutagenesis and that these processes provide the possibility of functioning of integrative replication mechanism of plasmid participation in ensuring UV-resistance and mutagenesis of plants

  10. Complete nucleotide sequence of the multidrug resistance IncA/C plasmid pR55 from Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doublet, Benoît; Boyd, David; Douard, Gregory; Praud, Karine; Cloeckaert, Axel; Mulvey, Michael R

    2012-10-01

    To determine the complete nucleotide sequence of the multidrug resistance IncA/C plasmid pR55 from a clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strain that was isolated from a urinary tract infection in 1969 in a French hospital and compare it with those of contemporary emerging IncA/C plasmids. The plasmid was purified and sequenced using a 454 sequencing approach. After draft assembly, additional PCRs and walking reads were performed for gap closure. Sequence comparisons and multiple alignments with other IncA/C plasmids were done using the BLAST algorithm and CLUSTAL W, respectively. Plasmid pR55 (170 810 bp) revealed a shared plasmid backbone (>99% nucleotide identity) with current members of the IncA/C(2) multidrug resistance plasmid family that are widely disseminating antibiotic resistance genes. Nevertheless, two specific multidrug resistance gene arrays probably acquired from other genetic elements were identified inserted at conserved hotspot insertion sites in the IncA/C backbone. A novel transposon named Tn6187 showed an atypical mixed transposon configuration composed of two mercury resistance operons and two transposition modules that are related to Tn21 and Tn1696, respectively, and an In0-type integron. IncA/C(2) multidrug resistance plasmids have a broad host range and have been implicated in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance among Enterobacteriaceae from humans and animals. This typical IncA/C(2) genetic scaffold appears to carry various multidrug resistance gene arrays and is now also a successful vehicle for spreading AmpC-like cephalosporinase and metallo-β-lactamase genes, such as bla(CMY) and bla(NDM), respectively.

  11. High Prevalence of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance and IncQ Plasmids Carrying qnrS2 Gene in Bacteria from Rivers near Hospitals and Aquaculture in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Wen

    Full Text Available Effluents from hospital and aquaculture are considered important sources of quinolone resistance. However, little information is available on the impact of this effluent on nearby rivers. In this study, 188 ciprofloxacin-resistant bacterial isolates obtained from rivers near hospitals and aquaculture were screened for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR genes. Species identification, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and PMQR gene transferability assessment were conducted for PMQR-positive bacteria. Representative qnrS2-encoding plasmids were subsequently sequenced using a primer-walking approach. In total, 44 isolates (23.4% were positive for qnr genes (16 qnrB2, 3 qnrS1, and 25 qnrS2 and 32 isolates (17.0% were positive for aac(6'-Ib-cr. Other PMQR genes were not detected. The qnrB2 and aac(6'-Ib-cr genes had a higher prevalence in aquaculture samples than in hospital samples, and were significantly associated with Enterobacteriaceae (p < 0.05. In contrast, the prevalence of qnrS2 was not site-related, but was significantly associated with Aeromonas spp. (p < 0.05. All PMQR isolates were resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics. Eleven qnrS2-harboring plasmids from Aeromonas spp., including a novel conjugative plasmid pHP18, were selected for sequencing. These plasmids were small in size (6,388-16,197 bp and belonged to the IncQ or IncU plasmid family, with qnrS2 being part of a mobile insertion cassette. Taken together, our findings suggest that aquaculture is a possible source for aac(6'-Ib-cr and qnrB2 dissemination, and demonstrate the ubiquity of qnrS2 in aquatic environments. Finally, Aeromonas spp. served as vectors for qnrS2 with the help of IncQ-type plasmids.

  12. Broad-Host-Range IncP-1 plasmids and their resistance potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena ePopowska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasmids of the incompatibility group IncP-1, also called IncP, as extrachromosomal genetic elements can transfer and replicate virtually in all Gram-negative bacteria. They are composed of backbone genes that encode a variety of essential functions and accessory genes that have implications for human health and environmental bioremediation. Broad-host-range IncP plasmids are known to spread genes between distinct phylogenetic groups of bacteria. These genes often code for resistances to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, heavy metals and quaternary ammonium compounds used as disinfectants. The backbone of these plasmids carries modules that enable them to effectively replicate, move to a new host via conjugative transfer and to be stably maintained in bacterial cells. The adaptive, resistance and virulence genes are mainly located on mobile genetic elements integrated between the functional plasmid backbone modules. Environmental studies have demonstrated the wide distribution of IncP-like replicons in manure, soils and wastewater treatment plants. They also are present in strains of pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria, which can be a cause for concern, because they may encode multiresistance. Their broad distribution suggests that IncP plasmids play a crucial role in bacterial adaptation by utilizing horizontal gene transfer. This review summarizes the variety of genetic information and physiological functions carried by IncP plasmids, which can contribute to the spread of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance while also mediating the process of bioremediation of pollutants. Due to the location of the resistance genes on plasmids with a broad host range and the presence of transposons carrying these genes it seems that the spread of these genes would be possible and quite hazardous in infection control. Future studies are required to determine the level of risk of the spread of resistance genes located on these plasmids.

  13. Plasmid metagenomics reveals multiple antibiotic resistance gene classes among the gut microbiomes of hospitalised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jitwasinkul, Tossawan; Suriyaphol, Prapat; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes are rapidly spread between pathogens and the normal flora, with plasmids playing an important role in their circulation. This study aimed to investigate antibiotic resistance plasmids in the gut microbiome of hospitalised patients. Stool samples were collected from seven...... inpatients at Siriraj Hospital (Bangkok, Thailand) and were compared with a sample from a healthy volunteer. Plasmids from the gut microbiomes extracted from the stool samples were subjected to high-throughput DNA sequencing (GS Junior). Newbler-assembled DNA reads were categorised into known and unknown...... in the gut microbiome; however, it was difficult to link these to the antibiotic resistance genes identified. That the antibiotic resistance genes came from hospital and community environments is worrying....

  14. Plasmid-Mediated Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence in Gram-negatives: the Klebsiella pneumoniae Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Maria S; Traglia, German M; Lin, David L; Tran, Tung; Tolmasky, Marcelo E

    Plasmids harbor genes coding for specific functions including virulence factors and antibiotic resistance that permit bacteria to survive the hostile environment found in the host and resist treatment. Together with other genetic elements such as integrons and transposons, and using a variety of mechanisms, plasmids participate in the dissemination of these traits resulting in the virtual elimination of barriers among different kinds of bacteria. In this article we review the current information about physiology and role in virulence and antibiotic resistance of plasmids from the gram-negative opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae . This bacterium has acquired multidrug resistance and is the causative agent of serious communityand hospital-acquired infections. It is also included in the recently defined ESKAPE group of bacteria that cause most of US hospital infections.

  15. Cloning of Bacteroides fragilis plasmid genes affecting metronidazole resistance and ultraviolet survival in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehnert, G.U.; Abratt, V.R.; Goodman, H.J.; Woods, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Since reduced metronidazole causes DNA damage, resistance to metronidazole was used as a selection method for the cloning of Bacteroides fragilis genes affecting DNA repair mechanisms in Escherichia coli. Genes from B. fragilis Bf-2 were cloned on a recombinant plasmid pMT100 which made E. coli AB1157 and uvrA, B, and C mutant strains more resistant to metronidazole, but more sensitive to far uv irradiation under aerobic conditions. The loci affecting metronidazole resistance and uv sensitivity were linked and located on a 5-kb DNA fragment which originated from the small 6-kb cryptic plasmid pBFC1 present in B. fragilis Bf-2 cells

  16. Effects of Metals on Antibiotic Resistance and Conjugal Plasmid Transfer in Soil Bacterial Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Jianxiao

    Antibiotic resistance currently represents one of the biggest challenges for human health and in recent years the environmental dimension of antibiotic resistance has been increasingly recognized. The soil environment serves as an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance determinants. In addi...... adaptation to metal stress did not significantly increase the permissiveness of the soil bacterial community towards conjugal plasmid transfer........ In addition to direct selection of antibiotic resistance by antibiotics, metals may co-select for antibiotic resistance via different mechanisms causing environmental selection of antibiotic resistance in metal contaminated soils. Horizontal gene transfer of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) like plasmids...... is generally considered one of the most important co-selection mechanisms as multiple resistance genes can be located on the same MGE. This PhD thesis focused on the impact of metals (Cu and Zn) on the development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial communities in soils exposed to different degrees...

  17. Plasmid mediated colistin resistance in food animal intestinal contents detected by selective enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colistin (polymyxin E) is a cationic polypeptide antibiotic that has broad-spectrum activity against Gram-negative bacteria. It is classified as critically important in human medicine for treating hard-to-treat multi-drug resistant infections. Recently a plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene (mc...

  18. The broad-host-range plasmid pSFA231 isolated from petroleum-contaminated sediment represents a new member of the PromA plasmid family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobin; Top, Eva M; Wang, Yafei; Brown, Celeste J; Yao, Fei; Yang, Shan; Jiang, Yong; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    A self-transmissible broad-host-range (BHR) plasmid pSFA231 was isolated from petroleum-contaminated sediment in Shen-fu wastewater irrigation zone, China, using the triparental mating exogenous plasmid capture method. Based on its complete sequence the plasmid has a size of 41.5 kb and codes for 50 putative open reading frames (orfs), 29 of which represent genes involved in replication, partitioning and transfer functions of the plasmid. Phylogenetic analysis grouped pSFA231 into the newly defined PromA plasmid family, which currently includes five members. Further comparative genomic analysis shows that pSFA231 shares the common backbone regions with the other PromA plasmids, i.e., genes involved in replication, maintenance and control, and conjugative transfer. Nevertheless, phylogenetic divergence was found in specific gene products. We propose to divide the PromA group into two subgroups, PromA-α (pMRAD02, pSB102) and PromA-β (pMOL98, pIPO2T, pSFA231, pTer331), based on the splits network analysis of the RepA protein. Interestingly, a cluster of hypothetical orfs located between parA and traA of pSFA231 shows high similarity with the corresponding regions on pMOL98, pIPO2T, and pTer331, suggesting these hypothetical orfs may represent "essential" plasmid backbone genes for the PromA-β subgroup. Alternatively, they may also be accessory genes that were first acquired and then stayed as the plasmid diverged. Our study increases the available collection of complete genome sequences of BHR plasmids, and since pSFA231 is the only characterized PromA plasmid from China, our findings also enhance our understanding of the genetic diversity of this plasmid group in different parts of the world.

  19. The broad-host-range plasmid pSFA231 isolated from petroleum-contaminated sediment represents a new member of the PromA plasmid family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin eLi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-transmissible broad-host-range (BHR plasmid pSFA231 was isolated from petroleum-contaminated sediment in Shen-fu wastewater irrigation zone, China, using the triparental mating exogenous plasmid capture method. Based on its complete sequence the plasmid has a size of 41.5 kb and codes for 50 putative open reading frames (orfs, 28 of which represent genes involved in replication, partitioning and transfer functions of the plasmid. Phylogenetic analysis grouped pSFA231 into the newly defined PromA plasmid family, which currently includes five members. Further comparative genomic analysis shows that pSFA231 shares the common backbone regions with the other PromA plasmids, i.e., genes involved in replication, maintenance and control, and conjugative transfer. Nevertheless, phylogenetic divergence was found in specific gene products. We propose to divide the PromA group into two subgroups, PromA-α (pMRAD02, pSB102 and PromA-β (pMOL98, pIPO2T, pSFA231, pTer331, based on the splits network analysis of the RepA protein. Interestingly, a cluster of hypothetical orfs located between parA and traA of pSFA231 shows high similarity with the corresponding regions on pMOL98, pIPO2T and pTer331, suggesting these hypothetical orfs may represent ‘‘essential’’ plasmid backbone genes for the PromA-β subgroup. Alternatively, they may also be accessory genes that were first acquired and then stayed as the plasmid diverged. Our study increases the available collection of complete genome sequences of BHR plasmids, and since pSFA231 is the only characterized PromA plasmid from China, our findings also enhance our understanding of the genetic diversity of this plasmid group in different parts of the world.

  20. Estimating the Transfer Range of Plasmids Encoding Antimicrobial Resistance in a Wastewater Treatment Plant Microbial Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Liguan; Dechesne, Arnaud; He, Zhiming

    2018-01-01

    sludge microbial community was challenged in standardized filter matings with one of three multidrug resistance plasmids (pKJK5, pB10, and RP4) harbored by Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas putida. Different donor–plasmid combinations had distinct transfer frequencies, ranging from 3 to 50 conjugation...... events per 100000 cells of the WWTP microbial community. In addition, transfer was observed to a broad phylogenetic range of 13 bacterial phyla with several taxa containing potentially pathogenic species. Preferential transfer to taxa belonging to the predicted evolutionary host range of the plasmids...... ARG transmission. However, the contribution of microbial communities in WWTPs to ARG dissemination remains poorly understood. Here, we examined for the first time plasmid permissiveness of an activated sludge microbial community by utilizing an established fluorescent bioreporter system. The activated...

  1. Selective pressure affects transfer and establishment of a Lactobacillus plantarum resistance plasmid in the gastrointestinal environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, Louise; Schjorring, S.; Hammer, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Objectives and methods: A Lactobacillus plantarum strain recently isolated from French raw-milk cheese was tested for its ability to transfer a small plasmid pLFE1 harbouring the erythromycin resistance gene erm(B) to Enterococcus faecalis. Mating was studied in vitro and in different gastrointes......Objectives and methods: A Lactobacillus plantarum strain recently isolated from French raw-milk cheese was tested for its ability to transfer a small plasmid pLFE1 harbouring the erythromycin resistance gene erm(B) to Enterococcus faecalis. Mating was studied in vitro and in different...

  2. Transposon characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) and dissemination of resistance associated with transferable plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Liebana, Ernesto; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: VanA glycopeptide resistance has persisted on broiler farms in the UK despite the absence of the antimicrobial selective pressure, avoparcin. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of horizontal gene transfer of Tn 1546 versus clonal spread in the dissemination of the resist......Objectives: VanA glycopeptide resistance has persisted on broiler farms in the UK despite the absence of the antimicrobial selective pressure, avoparcin. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of horizontal gene transfer of Tn 1546 versus clonal spread in the dissemination...... plasmid replicons, associated with antimicrobial resistance on several unrelated farms. Conclusions: Horizontal transfer of vancomycin resistance may play a more important role in the persistence of antimicrobial resistance than clonal spread. The presence of different plasmid replicons, associated...... with antimicrobial resistance on several unrelated farms, illustrates the ability of these enterococci to acquire and disseminate mobile genetic elements within integrated livestock systems....

  3. Selfish restriction modification genes: resistance of a resident R/M plasmid to displacement by an incompatible plasmid mediated by host killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Y; Naito, T; Kobayashi, I

    1998-01-01

    Previous work from this laboratory demonstrated that plasmids carrying a type II restriction-modification gene complex are not easily lost from their bacterial host because plasmid-free segregant cells are killed through chromosome cleavage. Here, we have followed the course of events that takes place when an Escherichia coli rec BC sbcA strain carrying a plasmid coding for the PaeR7I restriction-modification (R/M) gene complex is transformed by a plasmid with an identical origin of replication. The number of transformants that appeared was far fewer than with the restriction-minus (r-) control. Most of the transformants were very small. After prolonged incubation, the number and the size of the colonies increased, but this increase never attained the level of the r- control. Most of the transformed colonies retained the drug-resistance of the resident, r+ m+ plasmid. These results indicate that post-segregational host killing occurs when a plasmid bearing an R/M gene complex is displaced by an incompatible plasmid. Such cell killing eliminates the competitor plasmid along with the host and, thus, would allow persistence of the R/M plasmid in the neighboring, clonal host cells in nature. This phenomenon is reminiscent of mammalian apoptosis and other forms of altruistic cell death strategy against infection. This type of resistance to displacement was also studied in a wild type Escherichia coli strain that was normal for homologous recombination (rec+). A number of differences between the recBC sbcA strain and the rec+ strain were observed and these will be discussed.

  4. Molecular characterization of a 21.4 kilobase antibiotic resistance plasmid from an α-hemolytic Escherichia coli O108:H- human clinical isolate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fay E Dawes

    Full Text Available This study characterizes the 21.4 kilobase plasmid pECTm80 isolated from Escherichia coli strain 80, an α hemolytic human clinical diarrhoeal isolate (serotype O108:H-. DNA sequence analysis of pECTm80 revealed it belonged to incompatibility group X1, and contained plasmid partition and toxin-antitoxin systems, an R6K-like triple origin (ori replication system, genes required for replication regulation, insertion sequences IS1R, ISEc37 and a truncated transposase gene (Tn3-like ΔtnpA of the Tn3 family, and carried a class 2 integron. The class 2 integron of pECTm80 contains an intact cassette array dfrA1-sat2, encoding resistance to trimethoprim and streptothricin, and an aadA1 gene cassette truncated by the insertion of IS1R. The complex plasmid replication system includes α, β and γ origins of replication. Pairwise BLASTn comparison of pECTm80 with plasmid pE001 reveals a conserved plasmid backbone suggestive of a common ancestral lineage. Plasmid pECTm80 is of potential clinical importance, as it carries multiple genes to ensure its stable maintenance through successive bacterial cell divisions and multiple antibiotic resistance genes.

  5. Influence of tra genes of IncP and F plasmids on the mobilization of small Kanamycin resistance ColE1-Like plasmids in bacterial biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Horizontal gene transfer is a mechanism for movement of antibiotic resistance genes among bacteria. Some small kanamycin resistance (KanR) ColE1-like plasmids isolated from different serotypes of Salmonella enterica were shown to carry mobilization genes; although not self-transmissibl...

  6. Transmissible Plasmids and Integrons Shift Escherichia coli Population Toward Larger Multiple Drug Resistance Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhartono, Suhartono; Savin, Mary C; Gbur, Edward E

    2018-04-01

    Transmissible plasmids and integrons may play important roles in the persistence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria throughout aquatic environment by accumulating antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). Class 1 and class 2 integron (intI), mobilization (mob), sulfamethoxazole resistance (sul), and trimethoprim resistance (dfr) genes were PCR-amplified and confirmed through DNA sequencing following plasmid extraction from 139 antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli. E. coli had previously been recovered from wastewater treatment plant effluent and receiving stream water in Northwest Arkansas and isolates had expressed resistance to one to six antibiotics. Almost half of the total isolates (47%) carried putatively transmissible plasmids with mob F12 gene as the most frequently detected mobilization gene. When two or three mob genes were detected per isolate, there was a significant shift in the population toward larger multiple drug resistance (MDR) number. Class 1 and/or 2 integrons were prevalent (46%), and the presence of integron significantly shifted the isolate population toward larger MDR number. More isolates carried single or coexistence of two or three sul genes (99.3%), and single or a combination up to five dfr genes (89.3%) than had exhibited in vitro resistance to the respective antibiotics. These findings indicate not only the role of the wastewater treatment effluent and the stream environment in coaccumulation of ARG with transmissible plasmids and integrons in multiple antibiotic-resistant E. coli populations but also suggest that density of sul and dfr resistance genes within an isolate may serve as a biomarker for mobile MDR in general.

  7. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Salmonella serotypes isolated from chicken carcasses in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Ata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinolones have been extensively used for treatment of a variety of invasive and systemic infections of salmonellosis. Widespread use of these agents has been associated with the emergence and dissemination of quinolone-resistant pathogens. The quinolone resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS and aac(6’-Ib-cr of 85 Salmonella isolates from chicken carcasses were investigated in this study. Isolates were serotyped according to the Kauffman-White-Le Minor scheme, and broth microdilution method was used to determine quinolone resistance. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were investigated by real-time PCR and positive results were confirmed by sequencing. Among the Salmonella isolates, 30/85 (35% and 18/85 (21% were found to be resistant to enrofloxacin (MIC ≥ 2 mg/ml, and danofloxacin (MIC ≥ 2 mg/ml, respectively. All the isolates were negative for qnrA, qnrB and aac(6’-Ib-cr genes, nevertheless 2% (S. Brandenburg and S. Dabou were positive for qnrS (qnrS1 determinant. This study is the first and unique investigating the plasmid- mediated quinolone resistance determinants of Salmonella isolated from chicken carcasses in Turkey.

  8. Development of pVCR94ΔX from Vibrio cholerae, a prototype for studying multidrug resistant IncA/C conjugative plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Nicolas; Sauvé, Maxime; Matteau, Dominick; Lauzon, Guillaume; Rodrigue, Sébastien; Burrus, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has grown steadily in Vibrio cholerae over the last few decades to become a major threat in countries affected by cholera. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) spreads among clinical and environmental V. cholerae strains by lateral gene transfer often mediated by integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family. However, in a few reported but seemingly isolated cases, MDR in V. cholerae was shown to be associated with other self-transmissible genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids. IncA/C conjugative plasmids are often found associated with MDR in isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. To date, IncA/C plasmids have not been commonly found in V. cholerae or other species of Vibrio. Here we present a detailed analysis of pVCR94ΔX derived from pVCR94, a novel IncA/C conjugative plasmid identified in a V. cholerae clinical strain isolated during the 1994 Rwandan cholera outbreak. pVCR94 was found to confer resistance to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol and to transfer at very high frequency. Sequence analysis revealed its mosaic nature as well as high similarity of the core genes responsible for transfer and maintenance with other IncA/C plasmids and ICEs of the SXT/R391 family. Although IncA/C plasmids are considered a major threat in antibiotics resistance, their basic biology has received little attention, mostly because of the difficulty to genetically manipulate these MDR conferring elements. Therefore, we developed a convenient derivative from pVCR94, pVCR94Δ X, a 120.5-kb conjugative plasmid which only codes for sulfamethoxazole resistance. Using pVCR94Δ X, we identified the origin of transfer (oriT) and discovered an essential gene for transfer, both located within the shared backbone, allowing for an annotation update of all IncA/C plasmids. pVCR94Δ X may be a useful model that will provide new insights on the basic biology of IncA/C conjugative plasmids.

  9. Plasmid Conjugation in E. coli and Drug Resistance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    2Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria ... decreasing the emergence of resistant bacteria strains within our environment. ..... Cowan and Steel's Manual for the Identification of Medical.

  10. IncA/C plasmids conferring high azithromycin resistance in vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruibai; Liu, Haican; Zhao, Xiuqin; Li, Jie; Wan, Kanglin

    2018-01-01

    Azithromycin (AZM) is a clinically important antibiotic against Vibrio cholerae, especially for inhibiting V. cholerae colonisation of the intestine and for the treatment of severe cholera in children and pregnant women. An IncA/C plasmid was isolated from two high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) AZM-resistant V. cholerae strains of the two mainly pathogenic serogroups (O1 and O139) isolated in China. In the 172 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), 16 genes were related to antibiotic resistance, of which 5 were well-defined genes associated with macrolide resistance. The five macrolide resistance genes distributed in two clusters, mphR-mrx-mph(K) and mel-mph2, flanked by insertion sequence elements and involving two kinds of resistance mechanism. Deletion of the complete region of the two clusters deceased the AZM MIC from ≥64 µg/mL to ≤0.5 µg/mL. This IncA/C plasmid shows great ability to accumulate antibiotic resistance genes. In addition to 11 resistance genes to other antibiotics, 5 macrolide resistance genes with different function were gathered repeatedly through transposition on one plasmid. This genotype could not be simply explained by antibiotic stress applied on the host from the environment or treatment. These phosphorylases and transmembrane transporters might be involved in the transport and metabolism of other non-antibiotic substances, enabling this kind of plasmid to propagate better in the host. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and characterization of plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes among Escherichia coli from pigs, pig carcasses and human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuyu, Wu; Dalsgaard, A.; Hammerum, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    isolates. Fifty-seven sulfonamide-resistant E. coli were selected based on presence of sul resistance genes and subjected to conjugation and/or transformation experiments. S1 nuclease digestion followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to visualize and determine the size of plasmids. Plasmids...... and humans) were 65%, 45% and 12% for sul2, sul1, and sul3, respectively. Transfer of resistance through conjugation was observed in 42/57 isolates. Resistances to streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim were co-transferred in most strains. Class 1 integrons were present in 80% of sul1-carrying plasmids...

  12. Investigation of plasmid DNA and antibiotic resistance in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-eight strains of Salmonella, Pseudomonas, and Escherichia coli isolated from cultures of stool, urine and wound were tested for their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents. All the strains were resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline. Nineteen Salmonella isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol and ...

  13. Acquisition of Carbapenem Resistance by Plasmid-Encoded-AmpC-Expressing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Ria; Wattel, Agnes A; Arenas, Jesús; Goessens, Wil H F; Tommassen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Although AmpC β-lactamases can barely degrade carbapenems, if at all, they can sequester them and prevent them from reaching their targets. Thus, carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae can result from AmpC production and simultaneous reduction of antibiotic influx into the periplasm by mutations in the porin genes. Here we investigated the route and genetic mechanisms of acquisition of carbapenem resistance in a clinical E. coli isolate carrying bla CMY-2 on a plasmid by selecting for mutants that are resistant to increasing concentrations of meropenem. In the first step, the expression of OmpC, the only porin produced in the strain under laboratory conditions, was lost, leading to reduced susceptibility to meropenem. In the second step, the expression of the CMY-2 β-lactamase was upregulated, leading to resistance to meropenem. The loss of OmpC was due to the insertion of an IS1 element into the ompC gene or to frameshift mutations and premature stop codons in this gene. The bla CMY-2 gene was found to be located on an IncIγ plasmid, and overproduction of the CMY-2 enzyme resulted from an increased plasmid copy number due to a nucleotide substitution in the inc gene. The clinical relevance of these genetic mechanisms became evident from the analysis of previously isolated carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates, which appeared to carry similar mutations. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. The Plasmid Complement of Lactococcus lactis UC509.9 Encodes Multiple Bacteriophage Resistance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Stuart; Mahony, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains are used globally for the production of fermented dairy products, particularly hard cheeses. Believed to be of plant origin, L. lactis strains that are used as starter cultures have undergone extensive adaptation to the dairy environment, partially through the acquisition of extrachromosomal DNA in the form of plasmids that specify technologically important phenotypic traits. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the eight plasmids of L. lactis UC509.9, an Irish dairy starter strain. Key industrial phenotypes were mapped, and genes that are typically associated with lactococcal plasmids were identified. Four distinct, plasmid-borne bacteriophage resistance systems were identified, including two abortive infection systems, AbiB and AbiD1, thereby supporting the observed phage resistance of L. lactis UC509.9. AbiB escape mutants were generated for phage sk1, which were found to carry mutations in orf6, which encodes the major capsid protein of this phage. PMID:24814781

  15. Substrate analog interaction with MCR-1 offers insight into the rising threat of the plasmid-mediated transferable colistin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pengcheng; Song, Guangji; Shi, Mengyang; Zhou, Yafei; Liu, Yang; Lei, Jun; Chen, Peng; Yin, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Colistin is considered a last-resort antibiotic against most gram-negative bacteria. Recent discoveries of a plasmid-mediated, transferable mobilized colistin-resistance gene ( mcr-1) on all continents have heralded the imminent emergence of pan-drug-resistant superbacteria. The inner-membrane protein MCR-1 can catalyze the transfer of phosphoethanolamine (PEA) to lipid A, resulting in colistin resistance. However, little is known about the mechanism, and few drugs exist to address this issue. We present crystal structures revealing the MCR-1 catalytic domain (cMCR-1) as a monozinc metalloprotein with ethanolamine (ETA) and d-glucose, respectively, thus highlighting 2 possible substrate-binding pockets in the MCR-1-catalyzed PEA transfer reaction. Mutation of the residues involved in ETA and d-glucose binding impairs colistin resistance in recombinant Escherichia coli containing full-length MCR-1. Partial analogs of the substrate are used for cocrystallization with cMCR-1, providing valuable information about the family of PEA transferases. One of the analogs, ETA, causes clear inhibition of polymyxin B resistance, highlighting its potential for drug development. These data demonstrate the crucial role of the PEA- and lipid A-binding pockets and provide novel insights into the structure-based mechanisms, important drug-target hot spots, and a drug template for further drug development to combat the urgent, rising threat of MCR-1-mediated antibiotic resistance.-Wei, P., Song, G., Shi, M., Zhou, Y., Liu, Y., Lei, J., Chen, P., Yin, L. Substrate analog interaction with MCR-1 offers insight into the rising threat of the plasmid-mediated transferable colistin resistance.

  16. Prevalence and characterization of plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes among Escherichia coli from pigs, pig carcasses and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuyu; Dalsgaard, Anders; Hammerum, Anette M; Porsbo, Lone J; Jensen, Lars B

    2010-07-30

    Sulfonamide resistance is very common in Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to characterize plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3) in E. coli isolated from pigs and humans with a specific objective to assess the genetic diversity of plasmids involved in the mobility of sul genes. A total of 501 E. coli isolates from pig feces, pig carcasses and human stools were tested for their susceptibility to selected antimicrobial. Multiplex PCR was conducted to detect the presence of three sul genes among the sulfonamide-resistant E. coli isolates. Fifty-seven sulfonamide-resistant E. coli were selected based on presence of sul resistance genes and subjected to conjugation and/or transformation experiments. S1 nuclease digestion followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to visualize and determine the size of plasmids. Plasmids carrying sul genes were characterized by PCR-based replicon typing to allow a comparison of the types of sul genes, the reservoir and plasmid present. A total of 109/501 isolates exhibited sulfonamide resistance. The relative prevalences of sul genes from the three reservoirs (pigs, pig carcasses and humans) were 65%, 45% and 12% for sul2, sul1, and sul3, respectively. Transfer of resistance through conjugation was observed in 42/57 isolates. Resistances to streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim were co-transferred in most strains. Class 1 integrons were present in 80% of sul1-carrying plasmids and 100% of sul3-carrying plasmids, but only in 5% of sul2-carrying plasmids. The sul plasmids ranged from 33 to 160-kb in size and belonged to nine different incompatibility (Inc) groups: FII, FIB, I1, FIA, B/O, FIC, N, HI1 and X1. IncFII was the dominant type in sul2-carrying plasmids (52%), while IncI1 was the most common type in sul1 and sul3-carrying plasmids (33% and 45%, respectively). Multireplicons were found associated with all three sul genes. Sul genes were distributed widely in E. coli isolated

  17. Prevalence and characterization of plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes among Escherichia coli from pigs, pig carcasses and human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammerum Anette M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfonamide resistance is very common in Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to characterize plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3 in E. coli isolated from pigs and humans with a specific objective to assess the genetic diversity of plasmids involved in the mobility of sul genes. Methods A total of 501 E. coli isolates from pig feces, pig carcasses and human stools were tested for their susceptibility to selected antimicrobial. Multiplex PCR was conducted to detect the presence of three sul genes among the sulfonamide-resistant E. coli isolates. Fifty-seven sulfonamide-resistant E. coli were selected based on presence of sul resistance genes and subjected to conjugation and/or transformation experiments. S1 nuclease digestion followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to visualize and determine the size of plasmids. Plasmids carrying sul genes were characterized by PCR-based replicon typing to allow a comparison of the types of sul genes, the reservoir and plasmid present. Results A total of 109/501 isolates exhibited sulfonamide resistance. The relative prevalences of sul genes from the three reservoirs (pigs, pig carcasses and humans were 65%, 45% and 12% for sul2, sul1, and sul3, respectively. Transfer of resistance through conjugation was observed in 42/57 isolates. Resistances to streptomycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim were co-transferred in most strains. Class 1 integrons were present in 80% of sul1-carrying plasmids and 100% of sul3-carrying plasmids, but only in 5% of sul2-carrying plasmids. The sul plasmids ranged from 33 to 160-kb in size and belonged to nine different incompatibility (Inc groups: FII, FIB, I1, FIA, B/O, FIC, N, HI1 and X1. IncFII was the dominant type in sul2-carrying plasmids (52%, while IncI1 was the most common type in sul1 and sul3-carrying plasmids (33% and 45%, respectively. Multireplicons were found associated with all three sul genes

  18. Salmonella Typhimurium ST213 is associated with two types of IncA/C plasmids carrying multiple resistance determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Magdalena; Calva, Edmundo; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Cevallos, Miguel A; Campos, Freddy; Zaidi, Mussaret B; Silva, Claudia

    2011-01-11

    Salmonella Typhimurium ST213 was first detected in the Mexican Typhimurium population in 2001. It is associated with a multi-drug resistance phenotype and a plasmid-borne blaCMY-2 gene conferring resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. The objective of the current study was to examine the association between the ST213 genotype and blaCMY-2 plasmids. The blaCMY-2 gene was carried by an IncA/C plasmid. ST213 strains lacking the blaCMY-2 gene carried a different IncA/C plasmid. PCR analysis of seven DNA regions distributed throughout the plasmids showed that these IncA/C plasmids were related, but the presence and absence of DNA stretches produced two divergent types I and II. A class 1 integron (dfrA12, orfF and aadA2) was detected in most of the type I plasmids. Type I contained all the plasmids carrying the blaCMY-2 gene and a subset of plasmids lacking blaCMY-2. Type II included all of the remaining blaCMY-2-negative plasmids. A sequence comparison of the seven DNA regions showed that both types were closely related to IncA/C plasmids found in Escherichia, Salmonella, Yersinia, Photobacterium, Vibrio and Aeromonas. Analysis of our Typhimurium strains showed that the region containing the blaCMY-2 gene is inserted between traA and traC as a single copy, like in the E. coli plasmid pAR060302. The floR allele was identical to that of Newport pSN254, suggesting a mosaic pattern of ancestry with plasmids from other Salmonella serovars and E. coli. Only one of the tested strains was able to conjugate the IncA/C plasmid at very low frequencies (10-7 to 10-9). The lack of conjugation ability of our IncA/C plasmids agrees with the clonal dissemination trend suggested by the chromosomal backgrounds and plasmid pattern associations. The ecological success of the newly emerging Typhimurium ST213 genotype in Mexico may be related to the carriage of IncA/C plasmids. We conclude that types I and II of IncA/C plasmids originated from a common ancestor and that the

  19. Transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids from biogas plant digestates often belong to the IncP-1 epsilon subgroup

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolters, B.; Kyselková, Martina; Krögerrecklenfort, E.; Kreuzig, R.; Smalla, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, January (2015), Article 765 ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : IncP-1 epsilon plasmid * class 1 integrons * biogas plant digestate * antibiotic resistance * exogenous plasmid isolation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.165, year: 2015

  20. In Silico Detection and Typing of Plasmids using PlasmidFinder and Plasmid Multilocus Sequence Typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carattoli, Alessandra; Zankari, Ea; García-Fernández, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    In the work presented here, we designed and developed two easy-to-use Web tools for in silico detection and characterization of whole-genome sequence (WGS) and whole-plasmid sequence data from members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. These tools will facilitate bacterial typing based on draft...... genomes of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae species by the rapid detection of known plasmid types. Replicon sequences from 559 fully sequenced plasmids associated with the family Enterobacteriaceae in the NCBI nucleotide database were collected to build a consensus database for integration...... sequences identified in the 559 fully sequenced plasmids. For plasmid multilocus sequence typing (pMLST) analysis, a database that is updated weekly was generated from www.pubmlst.org and integrated into a Web tool called pMLST. Both databases were evaluated using draft genomes from a collection...

  1. Characteristics of plasmids in multi-drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated during prospective surveillance of a newly opened hospital in Iraq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Zhe Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria are major causes of nosocomial infections, and antibiotic resistance in these organisms is often plasmid mediated. Data are scarce pertaining to molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in resource constrained areas such as Iraq. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, all MDR Enterobacteriaceae (n = 38 and randomly selected non-MDR counterparts (n = 41 isolated from patients, healthcare workers and environmental surfaces in a newly opened hospital in Iraq were investigated to characterize plasmids found in these isolates and determine their contribution to antibiotic resistance. Our results demonstrated that MDR E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates harbored significantly more (≥ 3 plasmids compared to their non-MDR counterparts, which carried ≤ 2 plasmids (p<0.01. Various large plasmids (~52 to 100 kb from representative isolates were confirmed to contain multiple resistance genes by DNA microarray analysis. Aminoglycoside (acc, aadA, aph, strA/B, and ksgA, β-lactam (bla(TEM1, bla(AMPC, bla(CTX-M-15, bla(OXA-1, bla(VIM-2 and bla(SHV, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (sul/dfr, tetracycline (tet and chloramphenicol (cat resistance genes were detected on these plasmids. Additionally, multiple plasmids carrying multiple antibiotic resistance genes were found in the same host strain. Genetic transfer-associated genes were identified on the plasmids from both MDR and non-MDR isolates. Seven plasmid replicon types (FII, FIA, FIB, B/O, K, I1 and N were detected in the isolates, while globally disseminated IncA/C and IncHI1 plasmids were not detected in these isolates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of the characteristics of the plasmids found in Enterobacteriaceae isolated following the opening of a new hospital in Iraq. The information provided here furthers our understanding of the mechanisms of drug resistance in this specific region and their evolutionary

  2. Translocation of integron-associated resistance in a natural system: Acquisition of resistance determinants by Inc P and Inc W Plasmids from Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvang, Dorthe; Diggle, M.; Platt, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    to determinate the genetic content. Translocation to R751 and R388 was associated with the loss of the indigenous trimethoprim cassette to both plasmids and also acquisition of sulfonamide resistance by R751 and RP4::Tn7, which indicated movement of the 3' terminus of one or both of the DT104 integrons......Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104, 961368, a veterinary field isolate that encodes a chromosomal cluster of resistance genes as well as two integrons, was used to study the mobility of resistance cassettes (aadA2 and pse-1) and nonintegron-associated resistance determinants (chloramphenicol...... and tetracycline). A range of natural plasmids was used as targets for the translocation of resistance. Plasmids that acquired resistance from the DT104 chromosome were segregated by conjugation into Escherichia coli K12. Plasmids R751, R388, and RP4::Tn7 acquired several combinations of resistance determinant...

  3. IncF Plasmids Are Commonly Carried by Antibiotic Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Drinking Water Sources in Northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Lyimo, Beatus; Buza, Joram; Subbiah, Murugan; Temba, Sylivester; Kipasika, Honest; Smith, Woutrina; Call, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the replicon types of plasmids, conjugation efficiencies, and the complement of antibiotic resistance genes for a panel of multidrug resistant E. coli isolates from surface waters in northern Tanzania. Standard membrane filtration was used to isolate and uidA PCR was used to confirm the identity of strains as E. coli. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by breakpoint assay and plasmid conjugation was determined by filter-mating experiments. PCR and s...

  4. Prevalence and characterization of plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes among Escherichia coli from pigs, pig carcasses and human

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shuyu; Dalsgaard, Anders; Hammerum, Anette M; Porsbo, Lone J; Jensen, Lars B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sulfonamide resistance is very common in Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to characterize plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3) in E. coli isolated from pigs and humans with a specific objective to assess the genetic diversity of plasmids involved in the mobility of sul genes. Methods A total of 501 E. coli isolates from pig feces, pig carcasses and human stools were tested for their susceptibility to selected antimicrobial. Multip...

  5. Human Intestinal Cells Modulate Conjugational Transfer of Multidrug Resistance Plasmids between Clinical Escherichia coli Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel; Sommer, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation in the human gut microbiota is believed to play a major role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and virulence plasmids. However, the modulation of bacterial conjugation by the human host remains poorly understood and there is a need for controlled systems...... to study this process. We established an in vitro co-culture system to study the interaction between human intestinal cells and bacteria. We show that the conjugation efficiency of a plasmid encoding an extended spectrum beta-lactamase is reduced when clinical isolates of Escherichia coli are co...... of the intestinal cells exposed to bacteria leading to a two-fold reduction in conjugation efficiency. These results show that human gut epithelial cells can modulate bacterial conjugation and may have relevance to gene exchange in the gut....

  6. Interplay of a non-conjugative integrative element and a conjugative plasmid in the spread of antibiotic resistance via suicidal plasmid transfer from an aquaculture Vibrio isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Lisa; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Fumito; Hirose, Yuu; Onishi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Satoru; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Masuda, Michiaki; Yano, Hirokazu

    2018-01-01

    The capture of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) by mobile genetic elements (MGEs) plays a critical role in resistance acquisition for human-associated bacteria. Although aquaculture environments are recognized as important reservoirs of ARGs, intra- and intercellular mobility of MGEs discovered in marine organisms is poorly characterized. Here, we show a new pattern of interspecies ARGs transfer involving a 'non-conjugative' integrative element. To identify active MGEs in a Vibrio ponticus isolate, we conducted whole-genome sequencing of a transconjugant obtained by mating between Escherichia coli and Vibrio ponticus. This revealed integration of a plasmid (designated pSEA1) into the chromosome, consisting of a self-transmissible plasmid backbone of the MOBH group, ARGs, and a 13.8-kb integrative element Tn6283. Molecular genetics analysis suggested a two-step gene transfer model. First, Tn6283 integrates into the recipient chromosome during suicidal plasmid transfer, followed by homologous recombination between the Tn6283 copy in the chromosome and that in the newly transferred pSEA1. Tn6283 is unusual among integrative elements in that it apparently does not encode transfer function and its excision barely generates unoccupied donor sites. Thus, its movement is analogous to the transposition of insertion sequences rather than to that of canonical integrative and conjugative elements. Overall, this study reveals the presence of a previously unrecognized type of MGE in a marine organism, highlighting diversity in the mode of interspecies gene transfer.

  7. Genomic Analysis of Hospital Plumbing Reveals Diverse Reservoir of Bacterial Plasmids Conferring Carbapenem Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Weingarten

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The hospital environment is a potential reservoir of bacteria with plasmids conferring carbapenem resistance. Our Hospital Epidemiology Service routinely performs extensive sampling of high-touch surfaces, sinks, and other locations in the hospital. Over a 2-year period, additional sampling was conducted at a broader range of locations, including housekeeping closets, wastewater from hospital internal pipes, and external manholes. We compared these data with previously collected information from 5 years of patient clinical and surveillance isolates. Whole-genome sequencing and analysis of 108 isolates provided comprehensive characterization of blaKPC/blaNDM-positive isolates, enabling an in-depth genetic comparison. Strikingly, despite a very low prevalence of patient infections with blaKPC-positive organisms, all samples from the intensive care unit pipe wastewater and external manholes contained carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs, suggesting a vast, resilient reservoir. We observed a diverse set of species and plasmids, and we noted species and susceptibility profile differences between environmental and patient populations of CPOs. However, there were plasmid backbones common to both populations, highlighting a potential environmental reservoir of mobile elements that may contribute to the spread of resistance genes. Clear associations between patient and environmental isolates were uncommon based on sequence analysis and epidemiology, suggesting reasonable infection control compliance at our institution. Nonetheless, a probable nosocomial transmission of Leclercia sp. from the housekeeping environment to a patient was detected by this extensive surveillance. These data and analyses further our understanding of CPOs in the hospital environment and are broadly relevant to the design of infection control strategies in many infrastructure settings.

  8. Characteristics of plasmids in multi-drug-resistant enterobacteriaceae isolated during prospective surveillance of a newly opened hospital in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. are increasingly common causes of infections in hospitals worldwide and also in the U.S. military treatment facilities. Plasmids are thought to play an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in thes...

  9. The Use of a Combined Bioinformatics Approach to Locate Antibiotic Resistance Genes on Plasmids From Whole Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica Serovars From Humans in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egle Kudirkiene

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we identified plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance genes in draft whole genome sequences of 16 selected Salmonella enterica isolates representing six different serovars from humans in Ghana. The plasmids and the location of resistance genes in the genomes were predicted using a combination of PlasmidFinder, ResFinder, plasmidSPAdes and BLAST genomic analysis tools. Subsequently, S1-PFGE was employed for analysis of plasmid profiles. Whole genome sequencing confirmed the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes in Salmonella isolates showing multidrug resistance phenotypically. ESBL, either blaTEM52−B or blaCTX−M15 were present in two cephalosporin resistant isolates of S. Virchow and S. Poona, respectively. The systematic genome analysis revealed the presence of different plasmids in different serovars, with or without insertion of antimicrobial resistance genes. In S. Enteritidis, resistance genes were carried predominantly on plasmids of IncN type, in S. Typhimurium on plasmids of IncFII(S/IncFIB(S/IncQ1 type. In S. Virchow and in S. Poona, resistance genes were detected on plasmids of IncX1 and TrfA/IncHI2/IncHI2A type, respectively. The latter two plasmids were described for the first time in these serovars. The combination of genomic analytical tools allowed nearly full mapping of the resistance plasmids in all Salmonella strains analyzed. The results suggest that the improved analytical approach used in the current study may be used to identify plasmids that are specifically associated with resistance phenotypes in whole genome sequences. Such knowledge would allow the development of rapid multidrug resistance tracking tools in Salmonella populations using WGS.

  10. An In Vitro Chicken Gut Model Demonstrates Transfer of a Multidrug Resistance Plasmid from Salmonella to Commensal Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Roderick M; Cawthraw, Shaun A; Nunez-Garcia, Javier; Ellis, Richard J; Kay, Gemma; Pallen, Mark J; Woodward, Martin J; Anjum, Muna F

    2017-07-18

    The chicken gastrointestinal tract is richly populated by commensal bacteria that fulfill various beneficial roles for the host, including helping to resist colonization by pathogens. It can also facilitate the conjugative transfer of multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids between commensal and pathogenic bacteria which is a significant public and animal health concern as it may affect our ability to treat bacterial infections. We used an in vitro chemostat system to approximate the chicken cecal microbiota, simulate colonization by an MDR Salmonella pathogen, and examine the dynamics of transfer of its MDR plasmid harboring several genes, including the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase bla CTX-M1 We also evaluated the impact of cefotaxime administration on plasmid transfer and microbial diversity. Bacterial community profiles obtained by culture-independent methods showed that Salmonella inoculation resulted in no significant changes to bacterial community alpha diversity and beta diversity, whereas administration of cefotaxime caused significant alterations to both measures of diversity, which largely recovered. MDR plasmid transfer from Salmonella to commensal Escherichia coli was demonstrated by PCR and whole-genome sequencing of isolates purified from agar plates containing cefotaxime. Transfer occurred to seven E. coli sequence types at high rates, even in the absence of cefotaxime, with resistant strains isolated within 3 days. Our chemostat system provides a good representation of bacterial interactions, including antibiotic resistance transfer in vivo It can be used as an ethical and relatively inexpensive approach to model dissemination of antibiotic resistance within the gut of any animal or human and refine interventions that mitigate its spread before employing in vivo studies. IMPORTANCE The spread of antimicrobial resistance presents a grave threat to public health and animal health and is affecting our ability to respond to bacterial infections

  11. Isolation of novel IncA/C and IncN fluoroquinolone resistance plasmids from an antibiotic-polluted lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Johnning, Anna; Nilsson, Ida; Smalla, Kornelia; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2015-10-01

    Antibiotic-polluted environments may function as reservoirs for novel resistance plasmids not yet encountered in pathogens. The aims of this study were to assess the potential of resistance transfer between bacteria from such environments and Escherichia coli, and to characterize the conjugative elements involved. Sediment samples from Kazipally lake and Asanikunta tank, two Indian lakes with a history of severe pollution with fluoroquinolones, were investigated. Proportions of resistant bacteria were determined by selective cultivation, while horizontal gene transfer was studied using a GFP-tagged E. coli as recipient. Retrieved transconjugants were tested for susceptibility by Etest(®) and captured conjugative resistance elements were characterized by WGS. The polluted lakes harboured considerably higher proportions of ciprofloxacin-resistant and sulfamethoxazole-resistant bacteria than did other Indian and Swedish lakes included for comparison (52% versus 2% and 60% versus 7%, respectively). Resistance plasmids were captured from Kazipally lake, but not from any of the other lakes; in the case of Asanikunta tank because of high sediment toxicity. Eight unique IncA/C and IncN resistance plasmids were identified among 11 sequenced transconjugants. Five plasmids were fully assembled, and four of these carried the quinolone resistance gene qnrVC1, which has previously only been found on chromosomes. Acquired resistance genes, in the majority of cases associated with class 1 integrons, could be linked to decreased susceptibility to several different classes of antibiotics. Our study shows that environments heavily polluted with antibiotics contain novel multiresistance plasmids transferrable to E. coli. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Evolution of Regions Containing Antibiotic Resistance Genes in FII-2-FIB-1 ColV-Colla Virulence Plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert A; Hall, Ruth M

    2018-05-01

    Three ColV virulence plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance genes were assembled from draft genome sequences of commensal ST95, ST131, and ST2705 Escherichia coli isolates from healthy Australians. Plasmids pCERC4, pCERC5, and pCERC9 include almost identical backbones containing FII-2 and FIB-1 replicons and the conserved ColV virulence region with an additional ColIa determinant. Only pCERC5 includes a complete, uninterrupted F-like transfer region and was able to conjugate. pCERC5 and pCERC9 contain Tn1721, carrying the tet(A) tetracycline resistance determinant in the same location, with Tn2 (bla TEM ; ampicillin resistance) interrupting the Tn1721 in pCERC5. pCERC4 has a Tn1721/Tn21 hybrid transposon carrying dfrA5 (trimethoprim resistance) and sul1 (sulfamethoxazole resistance) in a class 1 integron. Four FII-2:FIB-1 ColV-ColIa plasmids in the GenBank nucleotide database have a related transposon in the same position, but an IS26 has reshaped the resistance gene region, deleting 2,069 bp of the integron 3'-CS, including sul1, and serving as a target for IS26 translocatable units containing bla TEM , sul2 and strAB (streptomycin resistance), or aphA1 (kanamycin/neomycin resistance). Another ColV-ColIa plasmid containing a related resistance gene region has lost the FII replicon and acquired a unique transfer region via recombination within the resistance region and at oriT. Eighteen further complete ColV plasmid sequences in GenBank contained FIB-1, but the FII replicons were of three types, FII-24, FII-18, and a variant of FII-36.

  13. Cloning and DNA sequence of the mercuric- and organomercurial-resistance determinants of plasmid pDU1358

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, H.G.; Foster, T.J.; Silver, S.; Misra, T.K.

    1987-01-01

    The broad-spectrum mercurial-resistance plasmid pDU1358 was analyzed by cloning the resistance determinants and preparing a physical and genetic map of a 45-kilobase (kb) region of the plasmid that contains two separate mercurial-resistance operons that mapped about 20 kb apart. One encoded narrow-spectrum mercurial resistance to Hg 2+ and a few organomercurials; the other specified broad-spectrum resistance to phenylmercury and additional organomercurials. Each determinant governed mercurial transport functions. Southern DNA x DNA hybridization experiments using gene-specific probes from the plasmid R100 mer operon indicated close homology with the R100 deteminant. The 2153 base pairs of the promoter-distal part of the broad-spectrum Hg 2+ -resistance operon of pDU1358 were sequenced. This region included the 3'-terminal part of the merA gene, merD, unidentified reading frame URF1, and a part of URF2 homologous to previously sequenced determinants of plasmid R100. Between the merA and merD genes, an open reading frame encoding a 212 amino acid polypeptide was identified as the merB gene that determines the enzyme organomercurial lyase that cleaves the C-Hg bond of phenylmercury

  14. The master activator of IncA/C conjugative plasmids stimulates genomic islands and multidrug resistance dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Nicolas; Matteau, Dominick; Luo, Peng; Rodrigue, Sébastien; Burrus, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    Dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes occurs mostly by conjugation, which mediates DNA transfer between cells in direct contact. Conjugative plasmids of the IncA/C incompatibility group have become a substantial threat due to their broad host-range, the extended spectrum of antimicrobial resistance they confer, their prevalence in enteric bacteria and their very efficient spread by conjugation. However, their biology remains largely unexplored. Using the IncA/C conjugative plasmid pVCR94ΔX as a prototype, we have investigated the regulatory circuitry that governs IncA/C plasmids dissemination and found that the transcriptional activator complex AcaCD is essential for the expression of plasmid transfer genes. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with exonuclease digestion (ChIP-exo) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) approaches, we have identified the sequences recognized by AcaCD and characterized the AcaCD regulon. Data mining using the DNA motif recognized by AcaCD revealed potential AcaCD-binding sites upstream of genes involved in the intracellular mobility functions (recombination directionality factor and mobilization genes) in two widespread classes of genomic islands (GIs) phylogenetically unrelated to IncA/C plasmids. The first class, SGI1, confers and propagates multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis, whereas MGIVmi1 in Vibrio mimicus belongs to a previously uncharacterized class of GIs. We have demonstrated that through expression of AcaCD, IncA/C plasmids specifically trigger the excision and mobilization of the GIs at high frequencies. This study provides new evidence of the considerable impact of IncA/C plasmids on bacterial genome plasticity through their own mobility and the mobilization of genomic islands.

  15. Identification of a Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Gene in Salmonella Isolates from Texas Dairy Farm Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K J; Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Norman, K N; Ohta, N; Scott, H M

    2017-06-01

    A recent increase in plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) has been detected among Salmonella isolated from humans in the United States, and it is necessary to determine the sources of human infection. We had previously isolated Salmonella from dairy farm environmental samples collected in Texas, and isolates were tested for anti-microbial susceptibility. Two isolates, serotyped as Salmonella Muenster, showed the discordant pattern of nalidixic acid susceptibility and intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. For this project, whole-genome sequencing of both isolates was performed to detect genes associated with quinolone resistance. The plasmid-mediated qnrB19 gene and IncR plasmid type were identified in both isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PMQR in Salmonella isolated from food animals or agricultural environments in the United States. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Dissemination of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with new plasmid-borne bla(OXA-72) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shu-Chen; Yang, Su-Pen; Lee, Yi-Tzu; Chuang, Han-Chuan; Chen, Chien-Pei; Chang, Chi-Ling; Chen, Te-Li; Lu, Po-Liang; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Fung, Chang-Phone

    2013-07-13

    The systemic surveillance of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (IRAB) from multicenters in Taiwan revealed the emergence of isolates with bla(OXA-72). This study described their genetic makeup, mechanism of spread, and contribution to carbapenem resistance. Two hundred and ninety-one non-repetitive isolates of A. baumannii were collected from 10 teaching hospitals from different geographical regions in Taiwan from June 2007 to September 2007. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution. Clonality was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Plasmid was extracted and digested by restriction enzymes, and subsequently analyzed by electrophoresis and Southern blot for bla(OXA-72). The flanking regions of bla(OXA-72) were determined by inverse PCR. The contribution of bla(OXA-72) to imipenem MIC was determined by transforming plasmids carrying bla(OXA-72) into imipenem-susceptible A. baumannii. Among 142 IRAB in Taiwan, 27 harbored bla(OXA-72); 22 originated from Southern Taiwan, 5 from Central Taiwan, and none from Northern Taiwan. There were two major clones. The bla(OXA-72) was identified in the plasmids of all isolates. Two genetic structures flanking plasmid-borne bla(OXA-72) were identified and shared identical sequences in certain regions; the one described in previous literature was present in only one isolate, and the new one was present in the remaining isolates. Introduction of bla(OXA-72) resulted in an increase of imipenem MIC in the transformants. The overexpression of bla(OXA-72) mRNA in response to imipenem further supported the contribution of bla(OXA-72). In conclusion, isolates with new plasmid-borne blaOXA-72 were found to be disseminated successfully in Southern Taiwan. The spread of the resistance gene depended on clonal spread and dissemination of a new plasmid. Bla(OXA-72) in these isolates directly led to their imipenem-resistance.

  17. Sequence Analysis of IncA/C and IncI1 Plasmids Isolated from Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Newport Using Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guojie; Allard, Marc; Hoffmann, Maria; Muruvanda, Tim; Luo, Yan; Payne, Justin; Meng, Kevin; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick; Brown, Eric; Meng, Jianghong

    2018-04-05

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) plasmids play an important role in disseminating antimicrobial resistance genes. To elucidate the antimicrobial resistance gene compositions in A/C incompatibility complex (IncA/C) plasmids carried by animal-derived MDR Salmonella Newport, and to investigate the spread mechanism of IncA/C plasmids, this study characterizes the complete nucleotide sequences of IncA/C plasmids by comparative analysis. Complete nucleotide sequencing of plasmids and chromosomes of six MDR Salmonella Newport strains was performed using PacBio RSII. Open reading frames were assigned using prokaryotic genome annotation pipeline (PGAP). To understand genomic diversity and evolutionary relationships among Salmonella Newport IncA/C plasmids, we included three complete IncA/C plasmid sequences with similar backbones from Salmonella Newport and Escherichia coli: pSN254, pAM04528, and peH4H, and additional 200 draft chromosomes. With the exception of canine isolate CVM22462, which contained an additional IncI1 plasmid, each of the six MDR Salmonella Newport strains contained only the IncA/C plasmid. These IncA/C plasmids (including references) ranged in size from 80.1 (pCVM21538) to 176.5 kb (pSN254) and carried various resistance genes. Resistance genes floR, tetA, tetR, strA, strB, sul, and mer were identified in all IncA/C plasmids. Additionally, bla CMY-2 and sugE were present in all IncA/C plasmids, excepting pCVM21538. Plasmid pCVM22462 was capable of being transferred by conjugation. The IncI1 plasmid pCVM22462b in CVM22462 carried bla CMY-2 and sugE. Our data showed that MDR Salmonella Newport strains carrying similar IncA/C plasmids clustered together in the phylogenetic tree using chromosome sequences and the IncA/C plasmids from animal-derived Salmonella Newport contained diverse resistance genes. In the current study, we analyzed genomic diversities and phylogenetic relationships among MDR Salmonella Newport using complete plasmids and chromosome

  18. Characterization of the population structure, drug resistance mechanisms and plasmids of the community-associated Enterobacter cloacae complex in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Kai; Yu, Wei; Cao, Xiaoli; Shen, Ping; Lu, Haifeng; Luo, Qixia; Rossen, John W. A.; Xiao, Yonghong

    Objectives: To investigate the population structure, drug resistance mechanisms and plasmids of community-associated Enterobacter cloacae complex (CA-ECC) isolates in China. Methods: Sixty-two CA-ECC isolates collected from 31 hospitals across China were typed by hsp60 typing and MLST. ESBL and

  19. LONG-TERM STARVATION-INDUCED LOSS OF APPARENT ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN CELLS CONTAINING THE PLASMID PSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and a Pseudomonas sp. strain 133B containing the pSa plasmid were starved in well water for up to 523 days. There were two patterns of apparent antibiotic resistance loss observed. In Pseudomonas sp. strain 133B, there was no apparent lo...

  20. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance; interactions between human, animal and environmental ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent ePOIREL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones is being increasingly reported among human but also veterinary isolates during the last two to three decades, very likely as a consequence of the large clinical usage of those antibiotics. Even if the principle mechanisms of resistance to quinolones are chromosome-encoded, due to modifications of molecular targets (DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, decreased outer-membrane permeability (porin defect and overexpression of naturally-occurring efflux, the emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR has been reported since 1998. Although these PMQR determinants confer low-level resistance to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones, they are a favorable background for selection of additional chromosome-encoded quinolone resistance mechanisms. Different transferable mechanisms have been identified, corresponding to the production of Qnr proteins, of the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6’-Ib-cr, or of the QepA-type or OqxAB-type efflux pumps. Qnr proteins protect target enzymes (DNA gyrase and type IV topoisomerase from quinolone inhibition (mostly nalidixic acid. The AAC(6’-Ib-cr determinant acetylates several fluoroquinolones, such as norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Finally, the QepA and OqxAB efflux pumps extrude fluoroquinolones from the bacterial cell. A series of studies have identified the environment to be a reservoir of PMQR genes, with farm animals and aquatic habitats being significantly involved. In addition, the origin of the qnr genes has been identified, corresponding to the waterborne species Shewanella sp. Altogether, the recent observations suggest that the aquatic environment might constitute the original source of PMQR genes, that would secondly spread among animal or human isolates.

  1. Characterization of Two Multidrug-Resistant IncA/C Plasmids from the 1960s by Using the MinION Sequencer Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Mónika; Nagy, Tibor; Wilk, Tímea; Farkas, Tibor; Hegyi, Anna; Olasz, Ferenc; Kiss, János

    2016-11-01

    Two A/C incompatibility group (IncA/C family) plasmids from the 1960s have been sequenced and classified into the A/C 2 type 1 group. R16a and IP40a contain novel antibiotic resistance islands and a complete GIsul2 genomic island not previously found in the family. In the 173.1-kb R16a, the 29.9-kb antibiotic resistance island (ARI) is located in a unique backbone position not utilized by ARIs. ARI R16a consists of Tn1, Tn6020, and Tn6333, harboring the resistance genes bla TEM-1D and aphA1b and a mer module, respectively; a truncated Tn5393 copy; and a gene cluster with unknown function. Plasmid IP40a is 170.4 kb in size and contains a 5.6-kb ARI inserted into the kfrA gene. ARI IP40a carrying bla TEM-1D and aphA1b genes is composed of Tn1 with a Tn6023 insertion. Additionally, IP40a harbors single IS2, IS186, and Tn1000 insertions scattered in the backbone; an IS150 copy in GIsul2; and a complete Tn6333 carrying a mer module at the position of ARI R16a Loss of resistance markers in R16a, IP40a, and R55 was observed during stability tests. Every phenotypic change proved to be the result of recombination events involving mobile elements. Intramolecular transposition of IS copies that generated IP40a derivatives lacking large parts of the backbone could account for the formation of other family members, too. The MinION platform proved to be a valuable tool in bacterial genome sequencing since it generates long reads that span repetitive elements and facilitates full-length plasmid or chromosome assembly. Nanopore technology enables rapid characterization of large, low-copy-number plasmids and their rearrangement products. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Complete Sequences of Six IncA/C Plasmids of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotype Newport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guojie; Allard, Marc W; Hoffmann, Maria; Monday, Steven R; Muruvanda, Tim; Luo, Yan; Payne, Justin; Rump, Lydia; Meng, Kevin; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F; Brown, Eric W; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-02-26

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Newport has been a long-standing public health concern in the United States. We present the complete sequences of six IncA/C plasmids from animal-derived MDR S. Newport ranging from 80.1 to 158.5 kb. They shared a genetic backbone with S. Newport IncA/C plasmids pSN254 and pAM04528. Copyright © 2015 Cao et al.

  3. CRISPR-Cas and Restriction-Modification Act Additively against Conjugative Antibiotic Resistance Plasmid Transfer in Enterococcus faecalis

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Valerie J.; Huo, Wenwen; Sharifi, Ardalan; Palmer, Kelli L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial infections. Conjugative pheromone-responsive plasmids are narrow-host-range mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that are rapid disseminators of antibiotic resistance in the faecalis species. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas and restriction-modification confer acquired and innate immunity, respectively, against MGE acquisition in bacteria. Most multidrug-resistant E.?fa...

  4. Plasmid-Mediated Resistance to Thrombin-Induced Platelet Microbicidal Protein in Staphylococci: Role of the qacA Locus

    OpenAIRE

    Kupferwasser, Leon Iri; Skurray, Ronald A.; Brown, Melissa H.; Firth, Neville; Yeaman, Michael R.; Bayer, Arnold S.

    1999-01-01

    Thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein 1 (tPMP-1) is a small, cationic peptide released from rabbit platelets following thrombin stimulation. In vitro resistance to this peptide among strains of Staphylococcus aureus correlates with the survival advantage of such strains at sites of endothelial damage in humans as well as in experimental endovascular infections. The mechanisms involved in the phenotypic resistance of S. aureus to tPMP-1 are not fully delineated. The plasmid-encoded st...

  5. Plasmid-mediated resistance to thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein in staphylococci: role of the qacA locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferwasser, L I; Skurray, R A; Brown, M H; Firth, N; Yeaman, M R; Bayer, A S

    1999-10-01

    Thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein 1 (tPMP-1) is a small, cationic peptide released from rabbit platelets following thrombin stimulation. In vitro resistance to this peptide among strains of Staphylococcus aureus correlates with the survival advantage of such strains at sites of endothelial damage in humans as well as in experimental endovascular infections. The mechanisms involved in the phenotypic resistance of S. aureus to tPMP-1 are not fully delineated. The plasmid-encoded staphylococcal gene qacA mediates multidrug resistance to multiple organic cations via a proton motive force-dependent efflux pump. We studied whether the qacA gene might also confer resistance to cationic tPMP-1. Staphylococcal plasmids encoding qacA were found to confer resistance to tPMP-1 in an otherwise susceptible parental strain. Deletions which removed the region containing the qacA gene in the S. aureus multiresistance plasmid pSK1 abolished tPMP-1 resistance. Resistance to tPMP-1 in the qacA-bearing strains was inoculum independent but peptide concentration dependent, with the level of resistance decreasing at higher peptide concentrations for a given inoculum. There was no apparent cross-resistance in qacA-bearing strains to other endogenous cationic antimicrobial peptides which are structurally distinct from tPMP-1, including human neutrophil defensin 1, protamine, or the staphylococcal lantibiotics pep5 and nisin. These data demonstrate that the staphylococcal multidrug resistance gene qacA also mediates in vitro resistance to cationic tPMP-1.

  6. Isolation of a conjugative F-like plasmid from a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain CM6 using tandem shock wave-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Alonso, G; Cruz-Medina, J A; Caballero-Pérez, J; Arvizu-Hernández, I; Ávalos-Esparza, L M; Cruz-Hernández, A; Romero-Gómez, S; Rodríguez, A L; Pastrana-Martínez, X; Fernández, F; Loske, A M; Campos-Guillén, J

    2015-07-01

    Genetic characterization of plasmids from bacterial strains provides insight about multidrug resistance. Ten wild type Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from cow fecal samples were characterized by their antibiotic resistance profile, plasmid patterns and three different identification methods. From one of the strains, a fertility factor-like plasmid was replicated using tandem shock wave-mediated transformation. Underwater shock waves with a positive pressure peak of up to approximately 40 MPa, followed by a pressure trough of approximately -19 MPa were generated using an experimental piezoelectric shock wave source. Three different shock wave energies and a fixed delay of 750 μs were used to study the relationship between energy and transformation efficiency (TE), as well as the influence of shock wave energy on the integrity of the plasmid. Our results showed that the mean shock wave-mediated TE and the integrity of the large plasmid (~70 kb) were reduced significantly at the energy levels tested. The sequencing analysis of the plasmid revealed a high identity to the pHK17a plasmid, including the replication system, which was similar to the plasmid incompatibility group FII. It also showed that it carried an extended spectrum beta-lactamase gene, ctx-m-14. Furthermore, diverse genes for the conjugative mechanism were identified. Our results may be helpful in improving methodologies for conjugative plasmid transfer and directly selecting the most interesting plasmids from environmental samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative genomics of multidrug resistance-encoding IncA/C plasmids from commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli from multiple animal sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alarcón, Claudia; Singer, Randall S; Johnson, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Incompatibility group A/C (IncA/C) plasmids have received recent attention for their broad host range and ability to confer resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents. Due to the potential spread of multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes from foodborne pathogens to human pathogens, the dissemination of these plasmids represents a public health risk. In this study, four animal-source IncA/C plasmids isolated from Escherichia coli were sequenced and analyzed, including isolates from commercial dairy cows, pigs and turkeys in the U.S. and Chile. These plasmids were initially selected because they either contained the floR and tetA genes encoding for florfenicol and tetracycline resistance, respectively, and/or the bla(CMY-2) gene encoding for extended spectrum β-lactamase resistance. Overall, sequence analysis revealed that each of the four plasmids retained a remarkably stable and conserved backbone sequence, with differences observed primarily within their accessory regions, which presumably have evolved via horizontal gene transfer events involving multiple modules. Comparison of these plasmids with other available IncA/C plasmid sequences further defined the core and accessory elements of these plasmids in E. coli and Salmonella. Our results suggest that the bla(CMY-2) plasmid lineage appears to have derived from an ancestral IncA/C plasmid type harboring floR-tetAR-strAB and Tn21-like accessory modules. Evidence is mounting that IncA/C plasmids are widespread among enteric bacteria of production animals and these emergent plasmids have flexibility in their acquisition of MDR-encoding modules, necessitating further study to understand the evolutionary mechanisms involved in their dissemination and stability in bacterial populations.

  8. Comparative genomics of multidrug resistance-encoding IncA/C plasmids from commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli from multiple animal sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fernández-Alarcón

    Full Text Available Incompatibility group A/C (IncA/C plasmids have received recent attention for their broad host range and ability to confer resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents. Due to the potential spread of multidrug resistance (MDR phenotypes from foodborne pathogens to human pathogens, the dissemination of these plasmids represents a public health risk. In this study, four animal-source IncA/C plasmids isolated from Escherichia coli were sequenced and analyzed, including isolates from commercial dairy cows, pigs and turkeys in the U.S. and Chile. These plasmids were initially selected because they either contained the floR and tetA genes encoding for florfenicol and tetracycline resistance, respectively, and/or the bla(CMY-2 gene encoding for extended spectrum β-lactamase resistance. Overall, sequence analysis revealed that each of the four plasmids retained a remarkably stable and conserved backbone sequence, with differences observed primarily within their accessory regions, which presumably have evolved via horizontal gene transfer events involving multiple modules. Comparison of these plasmids with other available IncA/C plasmid sequences further defined the core and accessory elements of these plasmids in E. coli and Salmonella. Our results suggest that the bla(CMY-2 plasmid lineage appears to have derived from an ancestral IncA/C plasmid type harboring floR-tetAR-strAB and Tn21-like accessory modules. Evidence is mounting that IncA/C plasmids are widespread among enteric bacteria of production animals and these emergent plasmids have flexibility in their acquisition of MDR-encoding modules, necessitating further study to understand the evolutionary mechanisms involved in their dissemination and stability in bacterial populations.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of a Human-Invasive Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain of the Emerging Sequence Type 213 Harboring a Multidrug Resistance IncA/C Plasmid and a blaCMY-2-Carrying IncF Plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudia; Calva, Edmundo; Calva, Juan J; Wiesner, Magdalena; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Puente, José L; Vinuesa, Pablo

    2015-11-12

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 33676 was isolated in Mexico City, Mexico, from a patient with a systemic infection, and its complete genome sequence was determined using PacBio single-molecule real-time technology. Strain 33676 harbors an IncF plasmid carrying the extended-spectrum cephalosporin gene blaCMY-2 and a multidrug resistance IncA/C plasmid. Copyright © 2015 Silva et al.

  10. High-level fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198 epidemic clone with IncA/C conjugative plasmid carrying bla(CTX-M-25) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasyl, Dariusz; Kern-Zdanowicz, Izabela; Domańska-Blicharz, Katarzyna; Zając, Magdalena; Hoszowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-30

    Multidrug resistant Salmonella Kentucky strains have been isolated from turkeys in Poland since 2009. Multiple mutations within chromosomal genes gyrA and parC were responsible for high-level ciprofloxacin resistance. One of the isolates was extended spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL) positive: the strain 1643/2010 carried a conjugative 167,779 bps plasmid of IncA/C family. The sequence analysis revealed that it carried a blaCTX-M-25 gene and an integron with another β-lactamase encoding gene-blaOXA-21. This is the first known report of a CTX-M-25 encoding gene both in Poland and in Salmonella Kentucky world-wide, as well as in the IncA/C plasmid. Analysis of the integron showed a novel arrangement of gene cassettes-aacA4, aacC-A1 and blaOXA-21 where the latter might result from an intergeneric gene transfer. The study confirmed Salmonella Kentucky population isolated in Poland belongs to global epidemics of high level fluoroquinolone resistant clone ST198 that can carry rare β-lactamase genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Diversity and stability of plasmids from glycopeptide resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, H.; Villadsen, A. G.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2005-01-01

    was seen at the end of the 7-year period, coinciding with the ban in 1998 of the macrolide tylosin as growth promoter for pig production. The stability of the plasmid in its original host was compared with stability of the same plasmid in BM4105RF, when both strains were maintained in liquid cultures...

  12. Increased Frequency of ColV Plasmids and Mannose-Resistant Hemagglutinating Activity in an Escherichia coli K1 Population

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The expression of traits linked to pathogenicity was studied in a population of Escherichia coli K1 strains. It was found that E. coli K1 strains isolated from extraintestinal infection harbor the ColV plasmid and express mannose-resistant hemagglutinating activity type VI with a high frequency. The presence of these properties may play a role in the ability of some E. coli K1 serogroups to invade.

  13. The involvement of tetA and tetE tetracycline resistance genes in plasmid and chromosomal resistance of Aeromonas in Brazilian strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Teruszkin Balassiano

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the involvement of tetA and tetE genes in the tetracycline resistance of 16 strains of genus Aeromonas, isolated from clinical and food sources. Polymerase chain reactions revealed that 37.5% of the samples were positive for tetA, and also 37.5% were tetE positive. One isolate was positive for both genes. Only the isolate A. caviae 5.2 had its resistance associated to the presence of a plasmid, pSS2. The molecular characterization of pSS2 involved the construction of its restriction map and the determination of its size. The digestion of pSS2 with HindIII originated two fragments (A and B that were cloned separately into the pUC18 vector. The tetA gene was shown to be located on the HindIII-A fragment by PCR. After transforming a tetracycline-sensitive strain with pSS2, the transformants expressed the resistance phenotype and harbored a plasmid whose size was identical to that of pSS2. The results confirmed the association between pSS2 and the tetracycline resistance phenotype, and suggest a feasible dissemination of tetA and tetE among strains of Aeromonas. This study suggests the spreading tetA and tetE genes in Aeromonas in Brazil and describes a resistance plasmid that probably contributes to the dissemination of the resistance.

  14. Norwegian patients and retail chicken meat share cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli and IncK/blaCMY-2 resistance plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, E S; Wester, A L; Ahrenfeldt, J; Mo, S S; Slettemeås, J S; Steinbakk, M; Samuelsen, Ø; Grude, N; Simonsen, G S; Løhr, I H; Jørgensen, S B; Tofteland, S; Lund, O; Dahle, U R; Sunde, M

    2017-06-01

    In 2012 and 2014 the Norwegian monitoring programme for antimicrobial resistance in the veterinary and food production sectors (NORM-VET) showed that 124 of a total of 406 samples (31%) of Norwegian retail chicken meat were contaminated with extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to compare selected cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from humans and poultry to determine their genetic relatedness based on whole genome sequencing (WGS). Escherichia coli representing three prevalent cephalosporin-resistant multi-locus sequence types (STs) isolated from poultry (n=17) were selected from the NORM-VET strain collections. All strains carried an IncK plasmid with a bla CMY-2 gene. Clinical E. coli isolates (n=284) with AmpC-mediated resistance were collected at Norwegian microbiology laboratories from 2010 to 2014. PCR screening showed that 29 of the clinical isolates harboured both IncK and bla CMY-2 . All IncK/bla CMY-2 -positive isolates were analysed with WGS-based bioinformatics tools. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 2.5 Mbp of shared genome sequences showed close relationship, with fewer than 15 SNP differences between five clinical isolates from urinary tract infections (UTIs) and the ST38 isolates from poultry. Furthermore, all of the 29 clinical isolates harboured IncK/bla CMY-2 plasmid variants highly similar to the IncK/bla CMY-2 plasmid present in the poultry isolates. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that clonal transfer of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from chicken meat to humans may occur, and may cause difficult-to-treat infections. Furthermore, these E. coli can be a source of AmpC-resistance plasmids for opportunistic pathogens in the human microbiota. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High Prevalence of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance and IncQ Plasmids Carrying qnrS2 Gene in Bacteria from Rivers near Hospitals and Aquaculture in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Yanping; Pu, Xiaoying; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Effluents from hospital and aquaculture are considered important sources of quinolone resistance. However, little information is available on the impact of this effluent on nearby rivers. In this study, 188 ciprofloxacin-resistant bacterial isolates obtained from rivers near hospitals and aquaculture were screened for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes. Species identification, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and PMQR gene transferability assessment were conducted for PMQR-p...

  16. Changing plasmid types responsible for extended spectrum cephalosporin resistance in Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the United States, 1996–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Folster, J. P.; Pecic, G.; Stroika, S.; Rickert, R.; Whichard, J.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157 is a major cause of foodborne illness. Plasmids are genetic elements that mobilize antimicrobial resistance determinants including blaCMY β-lactamases that confer resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC). ESCs are important for treating a variety of infections. IncA/C plasmids are found among diverse sources, including cattle, the principal source of E. coli O157 infections in humans. IncI1 plasmids are common among E. coli and Salmonella from poultry and oth...

  17. Complete nucleotide sequence of pGA45, a 140,698-bp incFIIY plasmid encoding blaIMI-3-mediated carbapenem resistance, from river sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjun eDang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmid pGA45 was isolated from the sediment of Haihe River using E. coli CV601 (gfp-tagged as recipients and indigenous bacteria from sediment as donors. This plasmid confers reduced susceptibility to imipenem which belongs to carbapenem group. Plasmid pGA45 was fully sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system. The complete sequence of plasmid pGA45 was 140,698 bp in length with an average G+C content of 52.03%. Sequence analysis shows that pGA45 belongs to incFIIY group and harbors a backbone region shares high homology and gene synteny to several other incF plasmids including pNDM1_EC14653, pYDC644, pNDM-Ec1GN574, pRJF866, pKOX_NDM1 and pP10164-NDM. In addition to the backbone region, plasmid pGA45 harbors two notable features including one blaIMI-3-containing region and one type VI secretion system region. The blaIMI-3-containing region is responsible for bacteria carbapenem resistance and the type VI secretion system region is probably involved in bacteria virulence, respectively. Plasmid pGA45 represents the first complete nucleotide sequence of the blaIMI-harboring plasmid from environment sample and the sequencing of this plasmid provided insight into the architecture used for the dissemination of blaIMI carbapenemase genes.

  18. Direct identification of antibiotic resistance genes on single plasmid molecules using CRISPR/Cas9 in combination with optical DNA mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Vilhelm; Rajer, Fredrika; Frykholm, Karolin; Nyberg, Lena K.; Quaderi, Saair; Fritzsche, Joachim; Kristiansson, Erik; Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Sandegren, Linus; Westerlund, Fredrik

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial plasmids are extensively involved in the rapid global spread of antibiotic resistance. We here present an assay, based on optical DNA mapping of single plasmids in nanofluidic channels, which provides detailed information about the plasmids present in a bacterial isolate. In a single experiment, we obtain the number of different plasmids in the sample, the size of each plasmid, an optical barcode that can be used to identify and trace the plasmid of interest and information about which plasmid that carries a specific resistance gene. Gene identification is done using CRISPR/Cas9 loaded with a guide-RNA (gRNA) complementary to the gene of interest that linearizes the circular plasmids at a specific location that is identified using the optical DNA maps. We demonstrate the principle on clinically relevant extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing isolates. We discuss how the gRNA sequence can be varied to obtain the desired information. The gRNA can either be very specific to identify a homogeneous group of genes or general to detect several groups of genes at the same time. Finally, we demonstrate an example where we use a combination of two gRNA sequences to identify carbapenemase-encoding genes in two previously not characterized clinical bacterial samples.

  19. Physical structure and genetic expression of the sulfonamide-resistance plasmid pLS80 and its derivatives in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, P.; Espinosa, M.; Lacks, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The 10-kb chromosomal fragment of Streptococcus pneumoniae cloned in pLS80 contains the sul-d allele of the pneumococcal gene for dihydropteroate synthase. As a single copy in the chromosome this allele confers resistance to sulfanilamide at 0.2 mg/ml; in the multicopy plasmid it confers resistance to 2.0 mg/ml. The sul-d mutation was mapped by restriction analysis to a 0.4-kb region. A spontaneous deletion beginning approx. 1.5 kb to the right of the sul-d mutation prevented gene function, possibly by removing a promoter. This region could be restored by chromosomal facilitation and be demonstrated in the plasmid by selection for sulfonamide resistance. Under selection for a vector marker, tetracycline resistance, only the deleted plasmid was detectable, apparently as a result of plasmid segregation and the advantageous growth rates of cells with smaller plasmids. When such cells were selected for sulfonamide resistance, the deleted region returned to the plasmid, presumably by equilibration between the chromosome and the plasmid pool, to give a low frequency (approx. 10/sup -3/) of cells resistant to sulfanilamide at 2.0 mg/ml. Models for the mechanisms of chromosomal facilitation and equilibration are proposed. Several derivatives of pLS80 could be transferred to Bacillus subtilis, where they conferred resistance to sulfanilamide at 2 mg/ml, thereby demonstrating cross-species expression of the pneumococcal gene. Transfer of the plasmids to B. subtilis gave rise to large deletions to the left of the sul-d marker, but these deletions did not interfere with the sul-d gene function. Restriction maps of pLS80 and its variously deleted derivatives are presented.

  20. Dissemination of plasmid-encoded AmpC β-lactamases in antimicrobial resistant Salmonella serotypes originating from humans, pigs and the swine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelara, Shivaramu; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2014-09-17

    The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the inter-serovar exchange of AmpC β-lactamase conferring plasmids isolated from humans, pigs and the swine environment. Plasmids isolated from a total of 21 antimicrobial resistant (AMR) Salmonella isolates representing human clinical cases (n=6), pigs (n=6) and the swine farm environment (n=9) were characterized by replicon typing and restriction digestion, inter-serovar transferability by conjugation, and presence of AmpC β-lactamase enzyme encoding gene blaCMY-2 by southern hybridization. Based on replicon typing, the majority (17/21, 81%) of the plasmids belonged to the I1-Iγ Inc group and were between 70 and 103kb. The potential for inter-serovar plasmid transfer was further confirmed by the PCR detection of AMR genes on the plasmids isolated from trans-conjugants. Plasmids from Salmonella serovars Anatum, Ouakam, Johannesburg and Typhimurium isolated from the same cohort of pigs and their environment and S. Heidelberg from a single human clinical isolate had identical plasmids based on digestion with multiple restriction enzymes (EcoRI, HindIII and PstI) and southern blotting. We demonstrated likely horizontal inter-serovar exchange of plasmid-encoding AmpC β-lactamases resistance among MDR Salmonella serotypes isolated from pigs, swine farm environment and clinical human cases. This study provides valuable information on the role of the swine farm environment and by extension other livestock farm environments, as a potential reservoir of resistant bacterial strains that potentially transmit resistance determinants to livestock, in this case, swine, humans and possibly other hosts by horizontal exchange of plasmids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation, Functional Characterization and Transmissibility of p3PS10, a Multidrug Resistance Plasmid of the Fish Pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Saavedra

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern due to its association with the loss of efficacy of antimicrobial therapies. Horizontal transfer events may play a significant role in the dissemination of resistant bacterial phenotypes, being mobilizable plasmids a well-known mechanism. In this study, we aimed to gain insights into the genetics underlying the development of antibiotic resistance by Piscirickettsia salmonis isolates, a bacterial fish pathogen and causative agent of salmonid piscirickettsiosis, and the main target of antibiotics used in Chilean salmon farming. We provide experimental evidence that the plasmid p3PS10, which harbors multidrug resistance genes for chloramphenicol (cat2, tetracyclines [tet(31], aminoglycosides (sat1 and aadA1, and sulfonamides (sul2, is carried by a group of P. salmonis isolates exhibiting a markedly reduced susceptibility to oxytetracycline in vitro (128–256 μg/mL of minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC. Antibiotic susceptibility analysis extended to those antibiotics showed that MIC of chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim were high, but the MIC of florfenicol remained at the wild-type level. By means of molecular cloning, we demonstrate that those genes encoding putative resistance markers are indeed functional. Interestingly, mating assays clearly show that p3PS10 is able to be transferred into and replicate in different hosts, thereby conferring phenotypes similar to those found in the original host. According to epidemiological data, this strain is distributed across aquaculture settings in southern Chile and is likely to be responsible for oxytetracycline treatment failures. This work demonstrates that P. salmonis is more versatile than it was thought, capable of horizontally transferring DNA, and probably playing a role as a vector of resistance traits among the seawater bacterial population. However, the low transmission frequency of p3PS10 suggests a

  2. The multidrug resistance IncA/C transferable plasmid encodes a novel domain-swapped dimeric protein-disulfide isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Kurth, Fabian; Neyer, Simon; Schembri, Mark A; Martin, Jennifer L

    2014-01-31

    The multidrug resistance-encoding IncA/C conjugative plasmids disseminate antibiotic resistance genes among clinically relevant enteric bacteria. A plasmid-encoded disulfide isomerase is associated with conjugation. Sequence analysis of several IncA/C plasmids and IncA/C-related integrative and conjugative elements (ICE) from commensal and pathogenic bacteria identified a conserved DsbC/DsbG homolog (DsbP). The crystal structure of DsbP reveals an N-terminal domain, a linker region, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. A DsbP homodimer is formed through domain swapping of two DsbP N-terminal domains. The catalytic domain incorporates a thioredoxin-fold with characteristic CXXC and cis-Pro motifs. Overall, the structure and redox properties of DsbP diverge from the Escherichia coli DsbC and DsbG disulfide isomerases. Specifically, the V-shaped dimer of DsbP is inverted compared with EcDsbC and EcDsbG. In addition, the redox potential of DsbP (-161 mV) is more reducing than EcDsbC (-130 mV) and EcDsbG (-126 mV). Other catalytic properties of DsbP more closely resemble those of EcDsbG than EcDsbC. These catalytic differences are in part a consequence of the unusual active site motif of DsbP (CAVC); substitution to the EcDsbC-like (CGYC) motif converts the catalytic properties to those of EcDsbC. Structural comparison of the 12 independent subunit structures of DsbP that we determined revealed that conformational changes in the linker region contribute to mobility of the catalytic domain, providing mechanistic insight into DsbP function. In summary, our data reveal that the conserved plasmid-encoded DsbP protein is a bona fide disulfide isomerase and suggest that a dedicated oxidative folding enzyme is important for conjugative plasmid transfer.

  3. Comparative genomics of the pIPO2/pSB102 family of environmental plasmids : sequence, evolution, and ecology of pTer331 isolated from Collimonas fungivorans Ter331

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mela, Francesca; Fritsche, Kathrin; Boersma, Hidde; van Elsas, Jan D.; Bartels, Daniela; Meyer, Folker; de Boer, Wietse; van Veen, Johannes A.; Leveau, Johan H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Plasmid pTer331 from the bacterium Collimonas fungivorans Ter331 is a new member of the pIPO2/pSB102 family of environmental plasmids. The 40 457-bp sequence of pTer331 codes for 44 putative ORFs, most of which represent genes involved in replication, partitioning and transfer of the plasmid. We

  4. The complete sequence and comparative analysis of a multidrug- resistance and virulence multireplicon IncFII plasmid pEC302/04 from an extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli EC302/04 indicate extensive diversity of IncFII plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Sze eHo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC that causes extraintestinal infections often harbor plasmids encoding fitness traits such as resistance and virulence determinants that are of clinical importance. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pEC302/04 from a multidrug-resistant E. coli EC302/04 which was isolated from the tracheal aspirate of a patient in Malaysia. In addition, we also performed comparative sequence analyses of 18 related IncFIIA plasmids to determine the phylogenetic relationship and diversity of these plasmids. The 140,232 bp pEC302/04 is a multireplicon plasmid that bears three replication systems (FII, FIA and FIB with subtype of F2:A1:B1. The plasmid is self-transmissible with a complete transfer region. pEC302/04 also carries antibiotic resistance genes such as blaTEM-1 and a class I integron containing sul1, cml and aadA resistance genes, conferring multidrug resistance (MDR to its host, E. coli EC302/04. Besides, two iron acquisition systems (SitABCD and IutA-IucABCD which are the conserved virulence determinants of ExPEC-colicin V or B and M (ColV/ColBM-producing plasmids were identified in pEC302/04. Multiple toxin-antitoxin (TA-based addiction systems (i.e., PemI/PemK, VagC/VagD, CcdA/CcdB, and Hok/Sok and a plasmid partitioning system, ParAB and PsiAB, which are important for plasmid maintenance were also found.Comparative plasmid analysis revealed only one conserved gene, the repA1 as the core genome, showing that there is an extensive diversity among the IncFIIA plasmids. The phylogenetic relationship of 18 IncF plasmids based on the core regions revealed that ColV/ColBM-plasmids and non-ColV/ColBM plasmids were separated into two distinct groups. These plasmids, which carry highly diverse genetic contents, are also mosaic in nature. The atypical combination of genetic materials, i.e., the MDR- and ColV/ColBM-plasmid-virulence encoding regions in a single ExPEC plasmid is rare but of

  5. The Complete Sequence and Comparative Analysis of a Multidrug-Resistance and Virulence Multireplicon IncFII Plasmid pEC302/04 from an Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli EC302/04 Indicate Extensive Diversity of IncFII Plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wing Sze; Yap, Kien-Pong; Yeo, Chew Chieng; Rajasekaram, Ganeswrie; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2015-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) that causes extraintestinal infections often harbor plasmids encoding fitness traits such as resistance and virulence determinants that are of clinical importance. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pEC302/04 from a multidrug-resistant E. coli EC302/04 which was isolated from the tracheal aspirate of a patient in Malaysia. In addition, we also performed comparative sequence analyses of 18 related IncFIIA plasmids to determine the phylogenetic relationship and diversity of these plasmids. The 140,232 bp pEC302/04 is a multireplicon plasmid that bears three replication systems (FII, FIA, and FIB) with subtype of F2:A1:B1. The plasmid is self-transmissible with a complete transfer region. pEC302/04 also carries antibiotic resistance genes such as bla TEM-1 and a class I integron containing sul1, cml and aadA resistance genes, conferring multidrug resistance (MDR) to its host, E. coli EC302/04. Besides, two iron acquisition systems (SitABCD and IutA-IucABCD) which are the conserved virulence determinants of ExPEC-colicin V or B and M (ColV/ColBM)-producing plasmids were identified in pEC302/04. Multiple toxin-antitoxin (TA)-based addiction systems (i.e., PemI/PemK, VagC/VagD, CcdA/CcdB, and Hok/Sok) and a plasmid partitioning system, ParAB, and PsiAB, which are important for plasmid maintenance were also found. Comparative plasmid analysis revealed only one conserved gene, the repA1 as the core genome, showing that there is an extensive diversity among the IncFIIA plasmids. The phylogenetic relationship of 18 IncF plasmids based on the core regions revealed that ColV/ColBM-plasmids and non-ColV/ColBM plasmids were separated into two distinct groups. These plasmids, which carry highly diverse genetic contents, are also mosaic in nature. The atypical combination of genetic materials, i.e., the MDR- and ColV/ColBM-plasmid-virulence encoding regions in a single ExPEC plasmid is rare but of clinical

  6. Multiplex PCR for detection of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance determinants, mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-4 and mcr-5 for surveillance purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebelo, Ana Rita; Bortolaia, Valeria; Kjeldgaard, Jette S.

    2018-01-01

    Background and aim: Plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanisms have been identified worldwide in the past years. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for detection of all currently known transferable colistin resistance genes (mcr-1 to mcr-5, and variants) in Enterobacteriace...

  7. Bacteria isolated from pristine high altitude environments in the Argentinean Andean wetlands: plasmid profile and multiple antibiotic resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dib, J.R.; Martinez, M.A.; Sineriz, F.; Farias, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Andean wetlands, placed in the North-Western Argentine at 4,600 m altitude, are attractive for both, environmental and biotechnology studies. Most of these wetlands are completely remote and inaccessible, having a high salinity and metal contents, a wide range of daily temperature changes, and an important intensity of solar UV-B radiation. Bacteria isolated from these environments were identified by 16SrDNA sequence and resulted in Gram-positive colored bacteria. Interesting features, to our knowledge never reported so far from bacteria isolates from these pristine high altitude lake-environments, such as similar plasmids profiles and multiple antibiotic resistances are the focus of this work. At least two plasmids were found in all isolates studied by using modifications of the alkaline Iysis method. Their preliminary characterization in this work includes size, incompatibility group through PCR, genetic transference to suitable hosts by transformation and conjugation, and studies of possible relationships of them with antibiotic resistances. (author)

  8. Occurrence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases, Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance, and Disinfectant Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli Isolated from Ready-To-Eat Meat Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Ye, Lei; Kromann, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    There are growing concerns about the coselection of resistance against antibiotics and disinfectants in bacterial pathogens. The aim of this study was to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), plasmid-mediated quinolone...... resistance genes (PMQRs), and quaternary ammonium compound resistance genes (QACs) in Escherichia coli isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products obtained in Guangzhou, China, and to determine whether these genes were colocalized in the isolates. A total of 64 E. coli isolates were obtained from 720 RTE...... isolates from RTE meat products. The E. coli isolates with multiple antimicrobial resistance genes may transmit to humans through food chain and thus require further investigation and increased awareness....

  9. Plasmid Flux in Escherichia coli ST131 Sublineages, Analyzed by Plasmid Constellation Network (PLACNET), a New Method for Plasmid Reconstruction from Whole Genome Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcillán-Barcia, M. Pilar; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Coque, Teresa M.; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial whole genome sequence (WGS) methods are rapidly overtaking classical sequence analysis. Many bacterial sequencing projects focus on mobilome changes, since macroevolutionary events, such as the acquisition or loss of mobile genetic elements, mainly plasmids, play essential roles in adaptive evolution. Existing WGS analysis protocols do not assort contigs between plasmids and the main chromosome, thus hampering full analysis of plasmid sequences. We developed a method (called plasmid constellation networks or PLACNET) that identifies, visualizes and analyzes plasmids in WGS projects by creating a network of contig interactions, thus allowing comprehensive plasmid analysis within WGS datasets. The workflow of the method is based on three types of data: assembly information (including scaffold links and coverage), comparison to reference sequences and plasmid-diagnostic sequence features. The resulting network is pruned by expert analysis, to eliminate confounding data, and implemented in a Cytoscape-based graphic representation. To demonstrate PLACNET sensitivity and efficacy, the plasmidome of the Escherichia coli lineage ST131 was analyzed. ST131 is a globally spread clonal group of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), comprising different sublineages with ability to acquire and spread antibiotic resistance and virulence genes via plasmids. Results show that plasmids flux in the evolution of this lineage, which is wide open for plasmid exchange. MOBF12/IncF plasmids were pervasive, adding just by themselves more than 350 protein families to the ST131 pangenome. Nearly 50% of the most frequent γ–proteobacterial plasmid groups were found to be present in our limited sample of ten analyzed ST131 genomes, which represent the main ST131 sublineages. PMID:25522143

  10. Plasmid flux in Escherichia coli ST131 sublineages, analyzed by plasmid constellation network (PLACNET), a new method for plasmid reconstruction from whole genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Val F; de Toro, María; Garcillán-Barcia, M Pilar; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Coque, Teresa M; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial whole genome sequence (WGS) methods are rapidly overtaking classical sequence analysis. Many bacterial sequencing projects focus on mobilome changes, since macroevolutionary events, such as the acquisition or loss of mobile genetic elements, mainly plasmids, play essential roles in adaptive evolution. Existing WGS analysis protocols do not assort contigs between plasmids and the main chromosome, thus hampering full analysis of plasmid sequences. We developed a method (called plasmid constellation networks or PLACNET) that identifies, visualizes and analyzes plasmids in WGS projects by creating a network of contig interactions, thus allowing comprehensive plasmid analysis within WGS datasets. The workflow of the method is based on three types of data: assembly information (including scaffold links and coverage), comparison to reference sequences and plasmid-diagnostic sequence features. The resulting network is pruned by expert analysis, to eliminate confounding data, and implemented in a Cytoscape-based graphic representation. To demonstrate PLACNET sensitivity and efficacy, the plasmidome of the Escherichia coli lineage ST131 was analyzed. ST131 is a globally spread clonal group of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), comprising different sublineages with ability to acquire and spread antibiotic resistance and virulence genes via plasmids. Results show that plasmids flux in the evolution of this lineage, which is wide open for plasmid exchange. MOBF12/IncF plasmids were pervasive, adding just by themselves more than 350 protein families to the ST131 pangenome. Nearly 50% of the most frequent γ-proteobacterial plasmid groups were found to be present in our limited sample of ten analyzed ST131 genomes, which represent the main ST131 sublineages.

  11. Plasmid flux in Escherichia coli ST131 sublineages, analyzed by plasmid constellation network (PLACNET, a new method for plasmid reconstruction from whole genome sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Val F Lanza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial whole genome sequence (WGS methods are rapidly overtaking classical sequence analysis. Many bacterial sequencing projects focus on mobilome changes, since macroevolutionary events, such as the acquisition or loss of mobile genetic elements, mainly plasmids, play essential roles in adaptive evolution. Existing WGS analysis protocols do not assort contigs between plasmids and the main chromosome, thus hampering full analysis of plasmid sequences. We developed a method (called plasmid constellation networks or PLACNET that identifies, visualizes and analyzes plasmids in WGS projects by creating a network of contig interactions, thus allowing comprehensive plasmid analysis within WGS datasets. The workflow of the method is based on three types of data: assembly information (including scaffold links and coverage, comparison to reference sequences and plasmid-diagnostic sequence features. The resulting network is pruned by expert analysis, to eliminate confounding data, and implemented in a Cytoscape-based graphic representation. To demonstrate PLACNET sensitivity and efficacy, the plasmidome of the Escherichia coli lineage ST131 was analyzed. ST131 is a globally spread clonal group of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC, comprising different sublineages with ability to acquire and spread antibiotic resistance and virulence genes via plasmids. Results show that plasmids flux in the evolution of this lineage, which is wide open for plasmid exchange. MOBF12/IncF plasmids were pervasive, adding just by themselves more than 350 protein families to the ST131 pangenome. Nearly 50% of the most frequent γ-proteobacterial plasmid groups were found to be present in our limited sample of ten analyzed ST131 genomes, which represent the main ST131 sublineages.

  12. Strategic Approaches with Resistant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, Miranda; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes the operation of a 10-session brief therapy unit for families who have failed in more traditional treatment modalities. Case material is presented to exemplify five different treatment strategies: symptom prescription, reframing, illusion of alternatives, role play, and strategic alliances. Advantages and limitations are discussed.…

  13. A multicopy phr-plasmid increases the ultraviolet resistance of a recA strain of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Satake, M.; Shinagawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    It has been previously reported that the ultraviolet sensitivity of recA strains of Escherichia coli in the dark is suppressed by a plasmid pKY1 which carries the phr gene, suggesting that this is due to a novel effect of photoreactivating enzyme (PRE) of E. coli in the dark. In this work, it is observed that an increase of UV-resistance by pKY1 in the dark is not apparent in strains with a mutation in either uvrA, uvrB, uvrC, lexA, recBC or recF. The sensitivity of recA lexA and recA recBC multiple mutants to UV is suppressed by the plasmid but that of recA uvrA, recA uvrB and recA uvrC is not. Host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated lambda phage is slightly more efficient in the recA/pKY1 strain compared with the parental recA strain. On the other hand, the recA and recA/pKY1 strains do not differ significantly in the following properties: Hfr recombination, induction of lambda by UV, and mutagenesis. It is suggested that dark repair of PRE is correlated with its capacity of excision repair. (Auth.)

  14. CRISPR-Cas and Restriction-Modification Act Additively against Conjugative Antibiotic Resistance Plasmid Transfer in Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Valerie J; Huo, Wenwen; Sharifi, Ardalan; Palmer, Kelli L

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial infections. Conjugative pheromone-responsive plasmids are narrow-host-range mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that are rapid disseminators of antibiotic resistance in the faecalis species. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas and restriction-modification confer acquired and innate immunity, respectively, against MGE acquisition in bacteria. Most multidrug-resistant E. faecalis isolates lack CRISPR-Cas and possess an orphan locus lacking cas genes, CRISPR2, that is of unknown function. Little is known about restriction-modification defense in E. faecalis. Here, we explore the hypothesis that multidrug-resistant E. faecalis strains are immunocompromised. We assessed MGE acquisition by E. faecalis T11, a strain closely related to the multidrug-resistant hospital isolate V583 but which lacks the ~620 kb of horizontally acquired genome content that characterizes V583. T11 possesses the E. faecalis CRISPR3-cas locus and a predicted restriction-modification system, neither of which occurs in V583. We demonstrate that CRISPR-Cas and restriction-modification together confer a 4-log reduction in acquisition of the pheromone-responsive plasmid pAM714 in biofilm matings. Additionally, we show that the orphan CRISPR2 locus is functional for genome defense against another pheromone-responsive plasmid, pCF10, only in the presence of cas9 derived from the E. faecalis CRISPR1-cas locus, which most multidrug-resistant E. faecalis isolates lack. Overall, our work demonstrated that the loss of only two loci led to a dramatic reduction in genome defense against a clinically relevant MGE, highlighting the critical importance of the E. faecalis accessory genome in modulating horizontal gene transfer. Our results rationalize the development of antimicrobial strategies that capitalize upon the immunocompromised status of multidrug-resistant E. faecalis. IMPORTANCE

  15. High diversity of genes and plasmids encoding resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in clinical Escherichia coli from commercial poultry flocks in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Giulia; Bortolaia, Valeria; Vanni, Michele

    2018-01-01

    = 98) and layers (n = 22) between 2008 and 2012. 3GC-resistant isolates were screened for extended-spectrum and AmpC β-lactamase (ESBL/AmpC), while all isolates were tested for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes. ESBL/AmpC- and PMQR-positive isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel......% of isolates from turkeys, broilers and layers, respectively. We identified seven ESBL/AmpC-encoding plasmid types, usually conjugative (78%), with a marked prevalence of IncI1/pST3 plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1. PMQR occurred less frequently among isolates from turkeys (0.9%) compared to those from broilers (5......%) and layers (4%). The PMQR genes qnrS, qnrB19 and oqxA/B were located on three plasmid types and two non-typeable plasmids, mostly (85%) conjugative. ESBL/AmpC- and PMQR-positive isolates were genetically unrelated and 64% of them were additionally resistant to aminoglycosides, sulfonamides and tetracyclines...

  16. Mosaic Structure of a Multiple-Drug-Resistant, Conjugative Plasmid from Campylobacter jejuni

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nirdnoy, Warawadee; Mason, Carl J; Guerry, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    ..., where it apparently integrated into the chromosome and expressed high-level resistance to multiple aminoglycoside antibiotics. This work provides new information about both the nature of drug resistance in C...

  17. A study on the role that quorum sensing play in antibiotic-resistant plasmid conjugative transfer in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueheng; Ma, Qingping; Su, Bingmei; Chen, Rui; Lin, Juan; Lin, Zhifen; Wang, Dali; Yu, Yang

    2018-03-01

    Horizontal genes transfer (HGT) plays an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. However, the mechanisms of HGT of ARGs under the influence of antibiotics in sub-MIC remain rarely explored. Moreover, given its collective nature, HGT was considered to be relative to quorum sensing (QS) system. To investigate whether QS has any impact on horizontal gene transfer of ARGs, experiments were conducted to determine the conjugative efficiency of plasmid RP4 on Escherichia coli (E.coli) under the influences of tetracyclines (TCs), quorum sensing autoinducers (AIs) and quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs). The results indicated that the sub-MIC TCs could facilitate the conjugative transfer of RP4, a process which could be enhanced by AIs but inhibited by QSIs. This study demonstrated the roles that QS played in the dissemination of ARGs, and provided theoretical insights into the mechanism of HGT of ARGs in the environment.

  18. Transfer and persistence of a multi-drug resistance plasmid in situ of the infant gut microbiota in the absence of antibiotic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gumpert, Heidi; Kubicek-Sutherland, Jessica Z.; Porse, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    lineage was maintained for months, demonstrating that antibiotic resistance genes can disseminate and persist in the gut microbiome; even in absence of antibiotic selection. Furthermore, through in vivo competition assays, we suggest that the resistant transconjugant can persist through a fitness......The microbial ecosystem residing in the human gut is believed to play an important role in horizontal exchange of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes that threatens human health. While the diversity of gut-microorganisms and their genetic content has been studied extensively, high...... infections, as well as the loss and acquisition of plasmids in these lineages during their colonization of the human gut. In particular, we captured the exchange of multidrug resistance genes, and identified a clinically relevant conjugative plasmid mediating the transfer. This resistant transconjugant...

  19. C68 from the Sulfolobus islandicus plasmid-virus pSSVx is a novel member of the AbrB-like transcription factor family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contursi, Patrizia; D'Ambrosio, Katia; Pirone, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    The genetic element pSSVx from Sulfolobus islandicus, strain REY15/4, is a hybrid between a plasmid and a fusellovirus. This plasmid-virus hybrid infects several species of the hyperthermophilic acidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus. The open reading frame orfc68 of pSSVx encodes a 7.7 kDa protein...... factors, such as AbrB from Bacillus subtilis. Nevertheless, C68 constitutes a novel representative of this family because it shows several peculiar structural and functional features....

  20. Outbreak of NDM-1-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Dutch Hospital, with Interspecies Transfer of the Resistance Plasmid and Unexpected Occurrence in Unrelated Health Care Centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Thijs; Lutgens, Suzanne P M; Hermans, Mirjam H A; Wever, Peter C; Schneeberger, Peter M.; Renders, Nicole H M; Leenders, Alexander C. A. P.; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.; Schoffelen, Annelot F; Notermans, Daan; Witteveen, Sandra; Bathoorn, Erik; Schouls, Leo M.

    In the Netherlands, the number of cases of infection with New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM)-positive Enterobacteriaceae is low. Here, we report an outbreak of NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in a Dutch hospital with interspecies transfer of the resistance plasmid and unexpected

  1. Outbreak of NDM-1-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Dutch Hospital, with Interspecies Transfer of the Resistance Plasmid and Unexpected Occurrence in Unrelated Health Care Centers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Thijs; Lutgens, Suzanne P M; Hermans, Mirjam H A; Wever, Peter C; Schneeberger, Peter M; Renders, Nicole H M; Leenders, Alexander C A P; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; Schoffelen, Annelot; Notermans, Daan; Witteveen, Sandra; Bathoorn, Erik; Schouls, Leo M

    In the Netherlands, the number of cases of infection with New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM)-positive Enterobacteriaceae is low. Here, we report an outbreak of NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in a Dutch hospital with interspecies transfer of the resistance plasmid and unexpected

  2. Detection of mcr-1 encoding plasmid-mediated colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from human bloodstream infection and imported chicken meat, Denmark 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, H.; Hammerum, A. M.; Hansen, F.

    2015-01-01

    The plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, was detected in an Escherichia coli isolate from a Danish patient with bloodstream infection and in five E. coli isolates from imported chicken meat. One isolate from chicken meat belonged to the epidemic spreading sequence type ST131...

  3. Emergence of Plasmid-Mediated Fosfomycin-Resistance Genes among Escherichia coli Isolates, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzerara, Yahia; Gallah, Salah; Hommeril, Baptiste; Genel, Nathalie; Decré, Dominique; Rottman, Martin; Arlet, Guillaume

    2017-09-01

    FosA, a glutathione S-transferase that inactivates fosfomycin, has been reported as the cause of enzymatic resistance to fosfomycin. We show that multiple lineages of FosA-producing extended spectrum β-lactamase Escherichia coli have circulated in France since 2012, potentially reducing the efficacy of fosfomycin in treating infections with antimicrobial drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli.

  4. Transfer and Persistence of a Multi-Drug Resistance Plasmid in situ of the Infant Gut Microbiota in the Absence of Antibiotic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Gumpert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The microbial ecosystem residing in the human gut is believed to play an important role in horizontal exchange of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes that threatens human health. While the diversity of gut-microorganisms and their genetic content has been studied extensively, high-resolution insight into the plasticity, and selective forces shaping individual genomes is scarce. In a longitudinal study, we followed the dynamics of co-existing Escherichia coli lineages in an infant not receiving antibiotics. Using whole genome sequencing, we observed large genomic deletions, bacteriophage infections, as well as the loss and acquisition of plasmids in these lineages during their colonization of the human gut. In particular, we captured the exchange of multidrug resistance genes, and identified a clinically relevant conjugative plasmid mediating the transfer. This resistant transconjugant lineage was maintained for months, demonstrating that antibiotic resistance genes can disseminate and persist in the gut microbiome; even in absence of antibiotic selection. Furthermore, through in vivo competition assays, we suggest that the resistant transconjugant can persist through a fitness advantage in the mouse gut in spite of a fitness cost in vitro. Our findings highlight the dynamic nature of the human gut microbiota and provide the first genomic description of antibiotic resistance gene transfer between bacteria in the unperturbed human gut. These results exemplify that conjugative plasmids, harboring resistance determinants, can transfer and persists in the gut in the absence of antibiotic treatment.

  5. Chlamydial plasmids and bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlikowska-Warych, Małgorzata; Śliwa-Dominiak, Joanna; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia are absolute pathogens of humans and animals; despite being rather well recognised, they are still open for discovery. One such discovery is the occurrence of extrachromosomal carriers of genetic information. In prokaryotes, such carriers include plasmids and bacteriophages, which are present only among some Chlamydia species. Plasmids were found exclusively in Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis, C. psittaci, C. pneumoniae, C. suis, C. felis, C. muridarum and C. caviae. In prokaryotic organisms, plasmids usually code for genes that facilitate survival of the bacteria in the environment (although they are not essential). In chlamydia, their role has not been definitely recognised, apart from the fact that they participate in the synthesis of glycogen and encode proteins responsible for their virulence. Furthermore, in C. suis it was evidenced that the plasmid is integrated in a genomic island and contains the tetracycline-resistance gene. Bacteriophages specific for chlamydia (chlamydiaphages) were detected only in six species: C. psittaci, C. abortus, C. felis, C. caviae C. pecorum and C. pneumoniae. These chlamydiaphages cause inhibition of the developmental cycle, and delay transformation of reticulate bodies (RBs) into elementary bodies (EBs), thus reducing the possibility of infecting other cells in time. Plasmids and bacteriophages can be used in the diagnostics of chlamydioses; although especially in the case of plasmids, they are already used for detection of chlamydial infections. In addition, bacteriophages could be used as therapeutic agents to replace antibiotics, potentially addressing the problem of increasing antibiotic-resistance among chlamydia.

  6. The prevalence and epidemiology of plasmid-mediated penicillin and tetracycline resistance among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Guangzhou, China, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Heping; Wu, Xingzhong; Huang, Jinmei; Qin, Xiaolin; Xue, Yaohua; Zeng, Weiying; Lan, Yinyuan; Ou, Jiangli; Tang, Sanmei; Fang, Mingheng

    2015-10-09

    Gonococcal antimicrobial resistance is a global problem. Different resistance plasmids have emerged and spread among the isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae worldwide and in China. We conducted this study to monitor the plasmid-mediated penicillin and tetracycline resistance among N. gonorrhoeae isolates in Guangzhou from 2002 to 2012. Consecutive isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were collected from outpatients with gonorrhea attending the STD clinic in Guangdong Provincial Centre for Skin Diseases and STIs Control and Prevention. Penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG) isolates were analyzed by the paper acidometric method. Plasmid-mediated resistance to tetracycline in N. gonorrhoeae (TRNG) isolates was screened by the agar plate dilution method. Plasmid types were determined for TRNG and PPNG isolates using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to penicillin and tetracycline were detected by the agar plate dilution. Of 1378 consecutive N. gonorrhoeae isolates, 429 PPNG and 639 TRNG isolates were identified. The prevalence of PPNG, TRNG, and PPNG/TRNG increased from 18.3 to 47.1 % (χ (2) = 31.57, p penicillin G and tetracycline persisted at high levels and the MIC90s were 32-fold higher than the resistant cutoff point over 11 years. The prevalence rates of penicillin- and tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae varied from 90.9 to 91.1 % and from 88.3 to 89.3 % during 2002 to 2012, respectively. Resistance to penicillin and tetracycline among N. gonorrhoeae isolates remained at high levels in Guangzhou. The Asian type PPNG continued to spread and Dutch type TRNG was still the dominant strain. The African type PPNG has emerged and is spreading rapidly.

  7. Seawater is a reservoir of multi-resistant Escherichia coli, including strains hosting plasmid-mediated quinolones resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Marta S; Pereira, Anabela; Araújo, Susana M; Castro, Bruno B; Correia, António C M; Henriques, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine antibiotic resistance (AR) dissemination in coastal water, considering the contribution of different sources of fecal contamination. Samples were collected in Berlenga, an uninhabited island classified as Natural Reserve and visited by tourists for aquatic recreational activities. To achieve our aim, AR in Escherichia coli isolates from coastal water was compared to AR in isolates from two sources of fecal contamination: human-derived sewage and seagull feces. Isolation of E. coli was done on Chromocult agar. Based on genetic typing 414 strains were established. Distribution of E. coli phylogenetic groups was similar among isolates of all sources. Resistances to streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalothin, and amoxicillin were the most frequent. Higher rates of AR were found among seawater and feces isolates, except for last-line antibiotics used in human medicine. Multi-resistance rates in isolates from sewage and seagull feces (29 and 32%) were lower than in isolates from seawater (39%). Seawater AR profiles were similar to those from seagull feces and differed significantly from sewage AR profiles. Nucleotide sequences matching resistance genes bla TEM, sul1, sul2, tet(A), and tet(B), were present in isolates of all sources. Genes conferring resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins were detected in seawater (bla CTX-M-1 and bla SHV-12) and seagull feces (bla CMY-2). Plasmid-mediated determinants of resistance to quinolones were found: qnrS1 in all sources and qnrB19 in seawater and seagull feces. Our results show that seawater is a relevant reservoir of AR and that seagulls are an efficient vehicle to spread human-associated bacteria and resistance genes. The E. coli resistome recaptured from Berlenga coastal water was mainly modulated by seagulls-derived fecal pollution. The repertoire of resistance genes covers antibiotics critically important for humans, a potential risk for human health.

  8. Seawater is a reservoir of multi-resistant Escherichia coli, including strains hosting plasmid-mediated quinolones resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Alves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine antibiotic resistance (AR dissemination in coastal water, considering the contribution of different sources of faecal contamination. Samples were collected in Berlenga, an uninhabited island classified as Natural Reserve and visited by tourists for aquatic recreational activities. To achieve our aim, AR in Escherichia coli isolates from coastal water was compared to AR in isolates from two sources of faecal contamination: human-derived sewage and seagull faeces. Isolation of E. coli was done on Chromocult agar. Based on genetic typing 414 strains were established. Distribution of E. coli phylogenetic groups was similar among isolates of all sources. Resistances to streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalothin and amoxicillin were the most frequent. Higher rates of AR were found among seawater and faeces isolates, except for last-line antibiotics used in human medicine. Multi-resistance rates in isolates from sewage and seagull faeces (29% and 32% were lower than in isolates from seawater (39%. Seawater AR profiles were similar to those from seagull faeces and differed significantly from sewage AR profiles. Nucleotide sequences matching resistance genes blaTEM, sul1, sul2, tet(A and tet(B, were present in isolates of all sources. Genes conferring resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins were detected in seawater (blaCTX-M-1 and blaSHV-12 and seagull faeces (blaCMY-2. Plasmid-mediated determinants of resistance to quinolones were found: qnrS1 in all sources and qnrB19 in seawater and seagull faeces. Our results show that seawater is a relevant reservoir of AR and that seagulls are an efficient vehicle to spread human-associated bacteria and resistance genes. The E. coli resistome recaptured from Berlenga coastal water was mainly modulated by seagulls-derived faecal pollution. The repertoire of resistance genes covers antibiotics critically important for humans, a potential risk for human health.

  9. Acquisition of carbapenem resistance by plasmid-encoded-AmpC-expressing Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tommassen - van Boxtel, Ria; Wattel, Agnes A.; Arenas Busto, Jesus; Goessens, Wil H.F.; Tommassen, J

    2017-01-01

    Although AmpC β-lactamases can barely degrade carbapenems, if at all, they can sequester them and prevent them from reaching their targets. Thus, carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae can result from AmpC production and simultaneous reduction of antibiotic influx

  10. Human and Swine Hosts Share Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium CC17 and CC5 and Enterococcus faecalis CC2 Clonal Clusters Harboring Tn1546 on Indistinguishable Plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitas, Ana R.; Coque, Teresa M.; Novais, Carla

    2011-01-01

    clonally related Enterococcus faecium clonal complex 5 (CC5) isolates (17 sequence type 6 [ST6], 6 ST5, 5 ST185, 1 ST147, and 1 ST493) were obtained from feces of swine and healthy humans. This collection included isolates widespread among pigs of European Union (EU) countries since the mid-1990s. Each ST...... comprised isolates showing similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns (≤6 bands difference; >82% similarity). Some CC5 PFGE subtype strains from swine were indistinguishable from hospital vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) causing infections. A truncated variant of Tn1546 (encoding...... resistance to vancomycin) and tcrB (coding for resistance to copper) were consistently located on 150- to 190-kb plasmids (rep(pLG1)). E. faecium CC17 (ST132) isolates from pig manure and two clinical samples showed identical PFGE profiles and contained a 60-kb mosaic plasmid (rep(Inc18) plus rep...

  11. Ordering the mob: Insights into replicon and MOB typing schemes from analysis of a curated dataset of publicly available plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlek, Alex; Phan, Hang; Sheppard, Anna E; Doumith, Michel; Ellington, Matthew; Peto, Tim; Crook, Derrick; Walker, A Sarah; Woodford, Neil; Anjum, Muna F; Stoesser, Nicole

    2017-05-01

    Plasmid typing can provide insights into the epidemiology and transmission of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance. The principal plasmid typing schemes are replicon typing and MOB typing, which utilize variation in replication loci and relaxase proteins respectively. Previous studies investigating the proportion of plasmids assigned a type by these schemes ('typeability') have yielded conflicting results; moreover, thousands of plasmid sequences have been added to NCBI in recent years, without consistent annotation to indicate which sequences represent complete plasmids. Here, a curated dataset of complete Enterobacteriaceae plasmids from NCBI was compiled, and used to assess the typeability and concordance of in silico replicon and MOB typing schemes. Concordance was assessed at hierarchical replicon type resolutions, from replicon family-level to plasmid multilocus sequence type (pMLST)-level, where available. We found that 85% and 65% of the curated plasmids could be replicon and MOB typed, respectively. Overall, plasmid size and the number of resistance genes were significant independent predictors of replicon and MOB typing success. We found some degree of non-concordance between replicon families and MOB types, which was only partly resolved when partitioning plasmids into finer-resolution groups (replicon and pMLST types). In some cases, non-concordance was attributed to ambiguous boundaries between MOBP and MOBQ types; in other cases, backbone mosaicism was considered a more plausible explanation. β-lactamase resistance genes tended not to show fidelity to a particular plasmid type, though some previously reported associations were supported. Overall, replicon and MOB typing schemes are likely to continue playing an important role in plasmid analysis, but their performance is constrained by the diverse and dynamic nature of plasmid genomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diversity and stability of Plasmids from glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium (GRE) isolated from pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Henrik; Villadsen, A.G.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2005-01-01

    was seen at the end of the 7-year period, coinciding with the ban in 1998 of the macrolide tylosin as growth promoter for pig production. The stability of the plasmid in its original host was compared with stability of the same plasmid in BM4105RF, when both strains were maintained in liquid cultures...

  13. Co-spread of metal and antibiotic resistance within ST3-IncHI2 plasmids from E. coli isolates of food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Liangxing; Li, Xingping; Li, Liang; Li, Shumin; Liao, Xiaoping; Sun, Jian; Liu, Yahong

    2016-05-04

    Concerns have been raised in recent years regarding co-selection for antibiotic resistance among bacteria exposed to heavy metals, particularly copper and zinc, used as growth promoters for some livestock species. In this study, 25 IncHI2 plasmids harboring oqxAB (20/25)/blaCTX-M (18/25) were found with sizes ranging from ∼260 to ∼350 kb and 22 belonged to the ST3-IncHI2 group. In addition to blaCTX-M and oqxAB, pcoA-E (5/25) and silE-P (5/25), as well as aac(6')-Ib-cr (18/25), floR (16/25), rmtB (6/25), qnrS1(3/25) and fosA3 (2/25), were also identified on these IncHI2 plasmids. The plasmids carried pco and sil contributed to increasing in the MICs of CuSO4 and AgNO3. The genetic context surrounding the two operons was well conserved except some variations within the pco operon. The ~32 kb region containing the two operons identified in the IncHI2 plasmids was also found in chromosomes of different Enterobacteriaceae species. Further, phylogenetic analysis of this structure showed that Tn7-like transposon might play an important role in cross-genus transfer of the sil and pco operons among Enterobacteriaceae. In conclusion, co-existence of the pco and sil operons, and oqxAB/blaCTX-M as well as other antibiotic resistance genes on IncHI2 plasmids may promote the development of multidrug-resistant bacteria.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of plasmid-determined mercury and cadmium resistances in bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucifora, G.

    1989-01-01

    The structural basis for induction of the broad spectrum mercurial resistance operon of pDU1358 with inorganic mercury and with phenylmercury acetate was addressed by DNA sequencing analysis (that showed that a major difference occurred in the 3' 29 base pairs of the ital merR gene compared to the merR genes of Tn501 and R100) and by lac-fusion transcription experiments regulated by merR in trans. The lac-fusion results were compared with those from a narrow spectrum operon, and the pDU1358 merR deleted at the 3' end. A hybrid mer operon containing the merR gene from pDU1358 and lacking the merB gene was inducible by both phenylmercury and inorganic Hg 2+ , showing that organomercurial lyase is not needed for induction by organomercurials. A mutant form of pDU1358 merR missing the C-terminal 17 amino acids responded to inorganic Hg 2+ but not to phenylmercury, indicating that the C-terminal region of the MerR protein of the pDU1358 mer operon is required for the recognition of phenylmercury acetate. The down regulation of the mer operon by the merD gene was also measured in trans with complementing mer operons of pDU1358 or R100 or merD - mutants. In the presence of the merD gene, beta-galactosidase activity was lowered by 2 to 4 fold. The merD gene gene product was visualized by autoradiography. The Cd 2+ resistance determinant cadA of S. aureus was investigated. The nucleotide sequence of the DNA fragment containing the cadA determinant revealed two open reading frames the larger one of which is essential for expression of cadmium resistance

  15. Comparative genomics of an IncA/C multidrug resistance plasmid from Escherichia coli and Klebsiella isolates from intensive care unit patients and the utility of whole-genome sequencing in health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Tracy H; Zhao, LiCheng; Boutin, Mallory A; Stancil, Angela; Robinson, Gwen; Harris, Anthony D; Rasko, David A; Johnson, J Kristie

    2014-08-01

    The IncA/C plasmids have been implicated for their role in the dissemination of β-lactamases, including gene variants that confer resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, which are often the treatment of last resort against multidrug-resistant, hospital-associated pathogens. A bla(FOX-5) gene was detected in 14 Escherichia coli and 16 Klebsiella isolates that were cultured from perianal swabs of patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) of the University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC) in Baltimore, MD, over a span of 3 years. Four of the FOX-encoding isolates were obtained from subsequent samples of patients that were initially negative for an AmpC β-lactamase upon admission to the ICU, suggesting that the AmpC β-lactamase-encoding plasmid was acquired while the patient was in the ICU. The genomes of five E. coli isolates and six Klebsiella isolates containing bla(FOX-5) were selected for sequencing based on their plasmid profiles. An ∼ 167-kb IncA/C plasmid encoding the FOX-5 β-lactamase, a CARB-2 β-lactamase, additional antimicrobial resistance genes, and heavy metal resistance genes was identified. Another FOX-5-encoding IncA/C plasmid that was nearly identical except for a variable region associated with the resistance genes was also identified. To our knowledge, these plasmids represent the first FOX-5-encoding plasmids sequenced. We used comparative genomics to describe the genetic diversity of a plasmid encoding a FOX-5 β-lactamase relative to the whole-genome diversity of 11 E. coli and Klebsiella isolates that carry this plasmid. Our findings demonstrate the utility of whole-genome sequencing for tracking of plasmid and antibiotic resistance gene distribution in health care settings. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Novel Ambler class A beta-lactamase LAP-1 and its association with the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant QnrS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirel, Laurent; Cattoir, Vincent; Soares, Ana; Soussy, Claude-James; Nordmann, Patrice

    2007-02-01

    The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant QnrS1 was identified in non-clonally related Enterobacter cloacae isolates in association with a transferable narrow-spectrum beta-lactam resistance marker. Cloning experiments allowed the identification of a novel Ambler class A beta-lactamase, named LAP-1. It shares 62 and 61% amino acid identity with the most closely related beta-lactamases, TEM-1 and SHV-1, respectively. It has a narrow-spectrum hydrolysis of beta-lactams and is strongly inhibited by clavulanic acid and sulbactam and, to a lesser extent, by tazobactam. Association of the blaLAP-1 gene with the qnrS1 gene was identified in E. cloacae isolates from France and Vietnam. These genes were plasmid located and associated with similar insertion sequences but were not associated with sul1-type class 1 integrons, as opposed to the qnrA genes.

  17. pIMP-PH114 carrying bla IMP-4 in a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain is closely related to other multidrug-resistant IncA/C2 plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pak-Leung; Lo, Wai-U; Chan, Jane; Cheung, Yuk-Yam; Chow, Kin-Hung; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Lin, Chi-Ho; Que, Tak-Lun

    2014-02-01

    The IncA/C plasmids are broad host-range vehicles which have been associated with wide dissemination of CMY-2 among Enterobacteriaceae of human and animal origins. Acquired metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) such as the IMP-type enzymes are increasingly reported in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria worldwide, particularly in Enterobacteriaceae. We described the complete sequence of the first IMP-4-encoding IncA/C2 plasmid, pIMP-PH114 (151,885 bp), from a sequence type 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain that was recovered from a patient who was hospitalized in the Philippines. pIMP-PH114 consists of a backbone from the IncA/C2 plasmids, with the insertion of a novel Tn21-like class 1 integron composite structure (containing the cassette array bla IMP-4-qacG-aacA4-catB3, followed by a class C β-lactamase bla DHA-1 and the mercury resistance operon, merRTPCADE) and a sul2-floR encoding region. Phylogenetic analysis of the IncA/C repA sequences showed that pIMP-PH114 formed a subgroup with other IncA/C plasmids involved in the international spread of CMY-2, TEM-24 and NDM-1. Identical bla IMP-4 arrays have been described among different Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter spp. in China, Singapore and Australia but the genetic context is different. The broad host range of IncA/C plasmids may have facilitated dissemination of the bla IMP-4 arrays among different diverse groups of bacteria.

  18. Complete Sequence of Four Multidrug-Resistant MOBQ1 Plasmids Harboring blaGES-5 Isolated from Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens Persisting in a Hospital in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, David; Taylor, Geoffrey; Fuller, Jeff; Bryce, Elizabeth; Embree, Joanne; Gravel, Denise; Katz, Kevin; Kibsey, Pamela; Kuhn, Magdalena; Langley, Joanne; Mataseje, Laura; Mitchell, Robyn; Roscoe, Diane; Simor, Andrew; Thomas, Eva; Turgeon, Nathalie; Mulvey, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The usefulness of carbapenems for gram-negative infections is becoming compromised by organisms harboring carbapenemases, enzymes which can hydrolyze the drug. Currently KPC (class A), NDM (class B), and OXA-48 types (class D) are the most globally widespread carbapenemases. However, among the GES-type class A extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) there are variants that hydrolyze carbapenems, with blaGES-5 being the most common. Two Escherichia coli and two Serratia marcescens harboring blaGES-5 on plasmids were isolated by the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) from four different patients in a single hospital over a 2-year period. Complete sequencing of the blaGES-5 plasmids indicated that all four had nearly identical backbones consisting of genes for replication, partitioning, and stability, but contained variant accessory regions consisting of mobile elements and antimicrobial resistance genes. The plasmids were of a novel replicon type, but belonged to the MOBQ1 group based on relaxase sequences, and appeared to be mobilizable, but not self-transmissible. Considering the time periods of bacterial isolation, it would appear the blaGES-5 plasmid has persisted in an environmental niche for at least 2 years in the hospital. This has implications for infection control and clinical care when it is transferred to clinically relevant gram-negative organisms.

  19. Familial short fifth metacarpals and insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyari, Muwafag; Hamamy, Hanan; Barham, Muries; Ajlouni, Kamel; Al-Hadidy, Azmy

    2006-01-01

    Very few reports on the phenotype of short fifth metacarpals have been published in the medical literature. We report a Jordanian family in which three sisters aged 15, 13 and 8 years revealed bilateral shortening of the fifth fingers and radiological shortening of the fifth metacarpals. The father had unilateral short fifth metacarpal. The elder two sisters, their father as well as their brother and another sister manifested insulin resistance. Spherocytosis was diagnosed in one of the girls and her father. The parents are non-consanguineous. This constellation of findings has not been previously reported and could point to the presence of two disorders segregating in the family or to a novel syndrome with autosomal dominant inheritance and variable expressivity. (orig.)

  20. Resistance to nitrofurantoin and UV-irradiation in recA; uvrA; and uvrA, lexA, Escherichia coli mutants conferred by an R-plasmid from an Escherichia coli clinical isolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obaseiki-Ebor, E.E. (Univ. of Benin, Benin City (Nigeria). Faculty of Pharmacy, Dept. of Pharmaceutical Microbiology)

    1984-01-01

    There have been some reports of R-plasmids conferring nitrofuran resistance by decreasing the reduction of nitrofurantoin. The mechanism by which these R-plasmids mediate nitrofurantoin resistance is still not properly understood. Since DNA repair mutants are very sensitive to nitrofurantoin, it was therefore of interest to see whether R-plasmids conferring nitrofurantoin resistance affected the nitrofurantoin sensitivity of recA; uvrA and uvrA, lexA strains of E. coli K-12. Protection against UV-irradiation was also estimated. The experiments showed that the nitrofurantoin resistance conferred by R-plasmid pBN105 was not due to defective nitrofurantoin reduction or altered permeability of the cell. Because it is known that repair-deficient bacteria have increased susceptibility to nitrofurantoin, it may be suggested that the mechanisms of UV and nitrofurantoin protection conferred by pBN105 to the DNA repair mutant strains are related.

  1. Resistance to nitrofurantoin and UV-irradiation in recA; uvrA; and uvrA, lexA, Escherichia coli mutants conferred by an R-plasmid from an Escherichia coli clinical isolate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaseiki-Ebor, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    There have been some reports of R-plasmids conferring nitrofuran resistance by decreasing the reduction of nitrofurantoin. The mechanism by which these R-plasmids mediate nitrofurantoin resistance is still not properly understood. Since DNA repair mutants are very sensitive to nitrofurantoin, it was therefore of interest to see whether R-plasmids conferring nitrofurantoin resistance affected the nitrofurantoin sensitivity of recA; uvrA and uvrA, lexA strains of E. coli K-12. Protection against UV-irradiation was also estimated. The experiments showed that the nitrofurantoin resistance conferred by R-plasmid pBN105 was not due to defective nitrofurantoin reduction or altered permeability of the cell. Because it is known that repair-deficient bacteria have increased susceptibility to nitrofurantoin, it may be suggested that the mechanisms of UV and nitrofurantoin protection conferred by pBN105 to the DNA repair mutant strains are related. (Auth.)

  2. Plasmid-mediated AmpC-type beta-lactamase isolated from Klebsiella pneumoniae confers resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactams, including moxalactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, T; Arakawa, Y; Ohta, M; Ichiyama, S; Wacharotayankun, R; Kato, N

    1993-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae NU2936 was isolated from a patient and was found to produce a plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase (MOX-1) which conferred resistance to broad spectrum beta-lactams, including moxalactam, flomoxef, ceftizoxime, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime. Resistance could be transferred from K. pneumoniae NU2936 to Escherichia coli CSH2 by conjugation with a transfer frequency of 5 x 10(-7). The structural gene of MOX-1 (blaMOX-1) was cloned and expressed in E. coli HB101. The MIC of moxalactam for E. coli HB101 producing MOX-1 was > 512 micrograms/ml. The apparent molecular mass and pI of this enzyme were calculated to be 38 kDa and 8.9, respectively. Hg2+ and Cu2+ failed to block enzyme activity, and the presence of EDTA in the reaction buffer did not reduce the enzyme activity. However, clavulanate and cloxacillin, serine beta-lactamase inhibitors, inhibited the enzyme activity competitively (Kis = 5.60 and 0.35 microM, respectively). The kinetic study of MOX-1 suggested that it effectively hydrolyzed broad-spectrum beta-lactams. A hybridization study confirmed that blaMOX-1 is encoded on a large resident plasmid (pRMOX1; 180 kb) of strain NU2936. By deletion analysis, the functional region was localized within a 1.2-kb region of the plasmid. By amino acid sequencing, 18 of 33 amino acid residues at the N terminus of MOX-1 were found to be identical to those of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AmpC. These findings suggest that MOX-1 is a plasmid-mediated AmpC-type beta-lactamase that provides enteric bacteria resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactams, including moxalactam. Images PMID:8517725

  3. Genetic diversity, anti-microbial resistance, plasmid profile and frequency of the Vi antigen in Salmonella Dublin strains isolated in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, F P; Frazão, M R; Rodrigues, D P; Costa, R G; Casas, M R T; Fernandes, S A; Falcão, J P; Campioni, F

    2018-02-01

    Salmonella Dublin is strongly adapted to cattle causing enteritis and/or systemic disease with high rates of mortality. However, it can be sporadically isolated from humans, usually causing serious disease, especially in patients with underlying chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to molecularly type S. Dublin strains isolated from humans and animals in Brazil to verify the diversity of these strains as well as to ascertain possible differences between strains isolated from humans and animals. Moreover, the presence of the capsular antigen Vi and the plasmid profile was characterized in addition to the anti-microbial resistance against 15 drugs. For this reason, 113 S. Dublin strains isolated between 1983 and 2016 from humans (83) and animals (30) in Brazil were typed by PFGE and MLVA. The presence of the capsular antigen Vi was verified by PCR, and the phenotypic expression of the capsular antigen was determined serologically. Also, a plasmid analysis for each strain was carried out. The strains studied were divided into 35 different PFGE types and 89 MLVA-types with a similarity of ≥80% and ≥17.5%, respectively. The plasmid sizes found ranged from 2 to >150 kb and none of the strains studied presented the capsular antigen Vi. Resistance or intermediate resistance was found in 23 strains (20.3%) that were resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, imipenem, nalidixic acid, piperacillin, streptomycin and/or tetracycline. The majority of the S. Dublin strains studied and isolated over a 33-year period may descend from a common subtype that has been contaminating humans and animals in Brazil and able to cause invasive disease even in the absence of the capsular antigen. The higher diversity of resistance phenotypes in human isolates, as compared with animal strains, may be a reflection of the different anti-microbial treatments used to control S. Dublin infections in humans in Brazil. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Integron, Plasmid and Host Strain Characteristics of Escherichia coli from Humans and Food Included in the Norwegian Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunde, Marianne; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov; Slettemeås, Jannice Schau; Böckerman, Inger; Norström, Madelaine

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli (n=331) isolates from humans with bloodstream infections were investigated for the presence of class 1 and class 2 integrons. The integron cassettes arrays were characterized and the findings were compared with data from similar investigations on resistant E. coli from meat and meat products (n=241) produced during the same time period. All isolates were obtained from the Norwegian monitoring programs for antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens and in the veterinary sector. Methods used included PCR, sequencing, conjugation experiments, plasmid replicon typing and subtyping, pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis and serotyping. Integrons of class 1 and 2 occurred significantly more frequently among human isolates; 45.4% (95% CI: 39.9-50.9) than among isolates from meat; 18% (95% CI: 13.2 -23.3), (pfood source and from a human clinical sample highlights the possible role of meat as a source of resistance elements for pathogenic bacteria.

  5. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates from food and human samples by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance, plasmid profiling, (GTG5-PCR and ERIC-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fardsanei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has been a primary cause of human salmonellosis in many countries. The major objective of this study was to investigate genetic diversity among Salmonella Enteritidis strains from different origins (food and human by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC -PCR, as well as to assess their plasmid profiling and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 30 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 15 from food samples (chicken, lamb, beef and duck meats and 15 from clinical samples were collected in Tehran. Identification of isolates as Salmonella was confirmed by using conventional standard biochemical and serological tests. Multiplex-PCR was used for serotyping of isolates to identify Salmonella Enteritidis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 16 agents founds drug resistance patterns among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates. No resistance was observed to cephalexin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem or meropenem, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. The highest resistance (96.7% was observed to nitrofurantoin. Seven plasmid profiles (P1–P7 were detected, and a 68-kb plasmid was found in all isolates. Two different primers; ERIC and (GTG5 were used for genotyping, which each produced four profiles. The majority of clinical and food isolates fell into two separate common types (CTs with a similar percentage of 95% by ERIC-PCR. Using primer (GTG5, 29 isolates incorporated in three CTs with 70% of isolates showing a single banding pattern. Limited genetic diversity among human and food isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis may indicate that contaminated foods were possibly the source of human salmonellosis. These results confirmed that ERIC-PCR genotyping has limited discriminatory power for Salmonella Enteritidis of different origin.

  6. Plasmid borne Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Class D β-Lactamases (CHDLs) and AdeABC efflux pump conferring carbapenem-tigecycline resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii isolates harboring TnAbaRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savari, Mohammad; Ekrami, Alireza; Shoja, Saeed; Bahador, Abbas

    2017-03-01

    Here we studied the prevalence and mechanisms of simultaneous resistance to carbapenem and tigecycline and accumulation of resistance determinants reservoirs in genome of Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) clinical isolates. Susceptibility of the isolates were measured to 18 antimicrobial agents. Genetic diversity of the microbial population was determined using the International Clonal lineage typing (IC typing), multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) and plasmid profiling methods. To detect the AbaRs, Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Class D β-Lactamases (CHDLs) genes, AdeABC efflux pump genes and resistance determinants, PCR was used. Filter mating experiments were used to prove that if carbapenem resistance genes are located on conjugative plasmids or not. Among the A. baumannii clinical isolates, 40.8% were carbapenem-tigecycline resistant and in this population, 46.9% were belonging to IC I, IC II or IC III and 53.1% were IC variants. These isolates had fallen in 40 MLVA types and were harboring plasmids in multiple numbers and sizes. In this study, bla OXA-23-like was the most prevalent CHDL and conjugation analysis proved that the carbapenem resistance genes are located on conjugative plasmids. All efflux pump genes, except for adeC, were detected in all carbapenem-tigecycline resistant A. baumannii (CTRAb) isolates. Resistance determinants were distributed in both TnAbaRs and R plasmids with a shift toward the R plasmids. Emerging of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) with simultaneous resistance to the last line therapy including tigecycline represent emerging of extensively drug resistance (XDR) and pandrug resistance (PDR) phenotypes that would be a great threat to our public health system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The presence of plasmid-mediated resistance genes among uropathogenes isolated from diabetic and non-diabetic patients with chronic pyelonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Chub

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Increased multidrug resistance of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs compromises the efficacy of treatment of urinary tract infections. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing uropathogens from patients with chronic pyelonephritis (CP and to evaluate the risk factors of these types of infections. Screening for the presence of plasmid-mediated ESBL was performed by polymerase chain reaction. Out of 105 patients, 22 (20.9% revealed strains with resistance genes: 11 (36.7%, 11 (36.7% and 8 (26.7% were identified to carry bla(TEM, bla(SHV and bla(CTX-M beta-lactamase genes, respectively. We have demonstrated that prevalence of the resistance among patients with CP combined with type 2 DM was 31.3%, while among patients with CP without type 2 DM was 27.4%; however the difference between these groups was not significant. The main factors related with appearance of plasmid-mediated resistance genes were age range above 55 years, Chronic Kidney Disease stage ІІІ and ІV, in-patient treatment history, history of using antibiotics last year. Isolation and detection of ESBL-producing strains are essential fоr the sеlection оf the mоst effеctive antibiоtic for the empiric trеatment.

  8. The spacing between adjacent binding sites in the family of repeats affects the functions of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 in transcription activation and stable plasmid maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebner, Christy; Lasanen, Julie; Battle, Scott; Aiyar, Ashok

    2003-07-05

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the closely related Herpesvirus papio (HVP) are stably replicated as episomes in proliferating latently infected cells. Maintenance and partitioning of these viral plasmids requires a viral sequence in cis, termed the family of repeats (FR), that is bound by a viral protein, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1). Upon binding FR, EBNA1 maintains viral genomes in proliferating cells and activates transcription from viral promoters required for immortalization. FR from either virus encodes multiple binding sites for the viral maintenance protein, EBNA1, with the FR from the prototypic B95-8 strain of EBV containing 20 binding sites, and FR from HVP containing 8 binding sites. In addition to differences in the number of EBNA1-binding sites, adjacent binding sites in the EBV FR are typically separated by 14 base pairs (bp), but are separated by 10 bp in HVP. We tested whether the number of binding sites, as well as the distance between adjacent binding sites, affects the function of EBNA1 in transcription activation or plasmid maintenance. Our results indicate that EBNA1 activates transcription more efficiently when adjacent binding sites are separated by 10 bp, the spacing observed in HVP. In contrast, using two separate assays, we demonstrate that plasmid maintenance is greatly augmented when adjacent EBNA1-binding sites are separated by 14 bp, and therefore, presumably lie on the same face of the DNA double helix. These results provide indication that the functions of EBNA1 in transcription activation and plasmid maintenance are separable.

  9. The spacing between adjacent binding sites in the family of repeats affects the functions of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 in transcription activation and stable plasmid maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebner, Christy; Lasanen, Julie; Battle, Scott; Aiyar, Ashok

    2003-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the closely related Herpesvirus papio (HVP) are stably replicated as episomes in proliferating latently infected cells. Maintenance and partitioning of these viral plasmids requires a viral sequence in cis, termed the family of repeats (FR), that is bound by a viral protein, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1). Upon binding FR, EBNA1 maintains viral genomes in proliferating cells and activates transcription from viral promoters required for immortalization. FR from either virus encodes multiple binding sites for the viral maintenance protein, EBNA1, with the FR from the prototypic B95-8 strain of EBV containing 20 binding sites, and FR from HVP containing 8 binding sites. In addition to differences in the number of EBNA1-binding sites, adjacent binding sites in the EBV FR are typically separated by 14 base pairs (bp), but are separated by 10 bp in HVP. We tested whether the number of binding sites, as well as the distance between adjacent binding sites, affects the function of EBNA1 in transcription activation or plasmid maintenance. Our results indicate that EBNA1 activates transcription more efficiently when adjacent binding sites are separated by 10 bp, the spacing observed in HVP. In contrast, using two separate assays, we demonstrate that plasmid maintenance is greatly augmented when adjacent EBNA1-binding sites are separated by 14 bp, and therefore, presumably lie on the same face of the DNA double helix. These results provide indication that the functions of EBNA1 in transcription activation and plasmid maintenance are separable

  10. A classification system for plasmids from Enterococci and other Gram-positive bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Valenzuela, Antonio Jesus Sanchez

    2010-01-01

    A classification system for plasmids isolated from enterococci and other Gram-positive bacteria was developed based on 111 published plasmid sequences from enterococci and other Gram-positive bacteria; mostly staphylococci. Based on PCR amplification of conserved areas of the replication initiating....... Furthermore, conjugation experiments were performed obtaining 30 transconjugants when selecting for antimicrobial resistance. Among them 19 gave no positive amplicons indicating presence of rep-families not tested for in this experimental setup....

  11. A rapid matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry-based method for single-plasmid tracking in an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna F; Wang, Honghui; Weingarten, Rebecca A; Drake, Steven K; Suffredini, Anthony F; Garfield, Mark K; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Youn, Jung-Ho; Stock, Frida; Tso, Hanna; DeLeo, Jim; Cimino, James J; Frank, Karen M; Dekker, John P

    2014-08-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have spread globally and represent a serious and growing threat to public health. Rapid methods for tracking plasmids carrying carbapenemase genes could greatly benefit infection control efforts. Here, we demonstrate that real-time, direct tracking of a single plasmid in a bacterial strain responsible for an outbreak is possible using a commercial matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system. In this case, we retrospectively tracked the bla(KPC) carbapenemase gene-bearing pKpQIL plasmid responsible for a CRE outbreak that occurred at the NIH Clinical Center in 2011. An ∼ 11,109-Da MS peak corresponding to a gene product of the bla(KPC) pKpQIL plasmid was identified and characterized using a combination of proteomics and molecular techniques. This plasmid peak was present in spectra from retrospectively analyzed K. pneumoniae outbreak isolates, concordant with results from whole-genome sequencing, and absent from a diverse control set of bla(KPC)-negative clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Notably, the gene characterized here is located adjacent to the bla(KPC) Tn4401 transposon on the pKpQIL plasmid. Sequence analysis demonstrates the presence of this gene in other bla(KPC) Tn4401-containing plasmids and suggests that this signature MS peak may be useful in tracking other plasmids conferring carbapenem resistance. Plasmid identification using this MALDI-TOF MS method was accomplished in as little as 10 min from isolated colonies and 30 min from positive (spiked) blood cultures, demonstrating the potential clinical utility for real-time plasmid tracking in an outbreak. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. A Rapid Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry-Based Method for Single-Plasmid Tracking in an Outbreak of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna F.; Wang, Honghui; Weingarten, Rebecca A.; Drake, Steven K.; Suffredini, Anthony F.; Garfield, Mark K.; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Youn, Jung-Ho; Stock, Frida; Tso, Hanna; DeLeo, Jim; Cimino, James J.; Frank, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have spread globally and represent a serious and growing threat to public health. Rapid methods for tracking plasmids carrying carbapenemase genes could greatly benefit infection control efforts. Here, we demonstrate that real-time, direct tracking of a single plasmid in a bacterial strain responsible for an outbreak is possible using a commercial matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system. In this case, we retrospectively tracked the blaKPC carbapenemase gene-bearing pKpQIL plasmid responsible for a CRE outbreak that occurred at the NIH Clinical Center in 2011. An ∼11,109-Da MS peak corresponding to a gene product of the blaKPC pKpQIL plasmid was identified and characterized using a combination of proteomics and molecular techniques. This plasmid peak was present in spectra from retrospectively analyzed K. pneumoniae outbreak isolates, concordant with results from whole-genome sequencing, and absent from a diverse control set of blaKPC-negative clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Notably, the gene characterized here is located adjacent to the blaKPC Tn4401 transposon on the pKpQIL plasmid. Sequence analysis demonstrates the presence of this gene in other blaKPC Tn4401-containing plasmids and suggests that this signature MS peak may be useful in tracking other plasmids conferring carbapenem resistance. Plasmid identification using this MALDI-TOF MS method was accomplished in as little as 10 min from isolated colonies and 30 min from positive (spiked) blood cultures, demonstrating the potential clinical utility for real-time plasmid tracking in an outbreak. PMID:24850353

  13. Degenerate primer MOB typing of multiresistant clinical isolates of E. coli uncovers new plasmid backbones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcillán-Barcia, M Pilar; Ruiz del Castillo, Belén; Alvarado, Andrés; de la Cruz, Fernando; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Degenerate Primer MOB Typing is a PCR-based protocol for the classification of γ-proteobacterial transmissible plasmids in five phylogenetic relaxase MOB families. It was applied to a multiresistant E. coli collection, previously characterized by PCR-based replicon-typing, in order to compare both methods. Plasmids from 32 clinical isolates of multiresistant E. coli (19 extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers and 13 non producers) and their transconjugants were analyzed. A total of 95 relaxases were detected, at least one per isolate, underscoring the high potential of these strains for antibiotic-resistance transmission. MOBP12 and MOBF12 plasmids were the most abundant. Most MOB subfamilies detected were present in both subsets of the collection, indicating a shared mobilome among multiresistant E. coli. The plasmid profile obtained by both methods was compared, which provided useful data upon which decisions related to the implementation of detection methods in the clinic could be based. The phylogenetic depth at which replicon and MOB-typing classify plasmids is different. While replicon-typing aims at plasmid replication regions with non-degenerate primers, MOB-typing classifies plasmids into relaxase subfamilies using degenerate primers. As a result, MOB-typing provides a deeper phylogenetic depth than replicon-typing and new plasmid groups are uncovered. Significantly, MOB typing identified 17 plasmids and an integrative and conjugative element, which were not detected by replicon-typing. Four of these backbones were different from previously reported elements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A degenerate primer MOB typing (DPMT method to classify gamma-proteobacterial plasmids in clinical and environmental settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Alvarado

    Full Text Available Transmissible plasmids are responsible for the spread of genetic determinants, such as antibiotic resistance or virulence traits, causing a large ecological and epidemiological impact. Transmissible plasmids, either conjugative or mobilizable, have in common the presence of a relaxase gene. Relaxases were previously classified in six protein families according to their phylogeny. Degenerate primers hybridizing to coding sequences of conserved amino acid motifs were designed to amplify related relaxase genes from γ-Proteobacterial plasmids. Specificity and sensitivity of a selected set of 19 primer pairs were first tested using a collection of 33 reference relaxases, representing the diversity of γ-Proteobacterial plasmids. The validated set was then applied to the analysis of two plasmid collections obtained from clinical isolates. The relaxase screening method, which we call "Degenerate Primer MOB Typing" or DPMT, detected not only most known Inc/Rep groups, but also a plethora of plasmids not previously assigned to any Inc group or Rep-type.

  15. Prevalence and characterisation of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance and mutations in the gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes among Shigella isolates from Henan, China, between 2001 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiyan; Duan, Guangcai; Zhu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Weidong; Xi, Yuanlin; Fan, Qingtang

    2013-08-01

    A total of 293 Shigella isolates were isolated from patients with diarrhoea in four villages of Henan, China. This study investigated the prevalence of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qepA and aac(6')-Ib-cr and compared the polymorphic quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE. Of the isolates, 292 were found to be resistant to nalidixic acid and pipemidic acid, whereas 77 were resistant to ciprofloxacin (resistance rate of 26.3%). Resistance of the Shigella isolates to ciprofloxacin significantly increased from 2001 to 2008 (PShigella isolates are common in China. This study found that there was a significant increase in mutation rates of the QRDR and the resistant rates to ciprofloxacin. Other mechanisms may be present in the isolates that also contribute to their resistance to ciprofloxacin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in clinical isolates of the tribe Proteeae from Argentina: First report of qnrD in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornoz, Ezequiel; Lucero, Celeste; Romero, Genara; Rapoport, Melina; Guerriero, Leonor; Andres, Patricia; Galas, Marcelo; Corso, Alejandra; Petroni, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    To analyse the occurrence and prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in the tribe Proteeae, 81 isolates (65 Proteus spp., 12 Morganella morganii and 4 Providencia stuartii) consecutively collected in 66 hospitals belonging to the WHONET-Argentina Resistance Surveillance Network were studied. Of the 81 isolates, 50 (62%) were susceptible to quinolones [43/65 (66%) Proteus spp. and 7/12 (58%) M. morganii). The remaining 31 isolates (22 Proteus spp., 5 M. morganii and all P. stuartii) showed high-level resistance to nalidixic acid (NAL) and decreased susceptibility or resistance to ciprofloxacin. All NAL-resistant isolates harboured mutations associated with quinolone resistance (MAQRs) in both gyrA (S83I/R) and parC (S80I/R), and some also had MAQRs in gyrB (S464Y/F). The unique PMQR gene detected was qnrD, which was found in 2/81 isolates (Proteus mirabilis Q1084 and Proteus vulgaris Q5169), giving a prevalence of 2.5% in Proteeae. These two isolates were from different geographical regions and both harboured MAQRs in gyrA and parC. The qnrD genes were located on the related plasmids pEAD1-1 (2683bp) and pEAD1-2 (2669bp). Plasmid pEAD1-1 was 100% identical to pCGH15 and differed in only three nucleotides from pDIJ09-518a, which were previously found in clinical isolates of P. mirabilis (China) and Providencia rettgeri (France), respectively, whilst pEAD1-2 was not previously described. The extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M-2 was found in 27% (22/81) of the isolates and was significantly associated with quinolone resistance but not with qnrD (only P. mirabilis Q1084 expressed CTX-M-2). This is the first report of qnrD in the Americas. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of integrons, plasmids and SXT elements in multidrug resistance of Vibrio cholerae and Providencia vermicola obtained from a clinical isolate of diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha eRajpara

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The isolates of Vibrio cholerae and Providencia vermicola obtained from a diarrhoeal patient were investigated for genetic elements governing their drug resistance phenotypes. Out of fourteen antibiotics tested, V. cholerae Vc IDH02365 isolate showed resistance to nine antibiotics, while P. vermicola Pv NBA2365 was found to be resistant to all the antibiotics except polymyxin B. Though SXT integrase was depicted in both the bacteria, class 1 integron was found to be associated only with Pv NBA2365. Integrons in Pv NBA2365 conferred resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides and trimethoprim. Pv NBA2365 carried two transformable plasmids imparting distinct antibiotic resistance traits to their Escherichia coli transformants. In rabbit ileal loop assays, Pv NBA2365 did not show any fluid accumulation in contrast with Vc IDH02365 that showed high fluid accumulation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a highly drug resistant P.vermicola and additionally co-existence of multidrug resistant V. cholerae and P. vermicola. Both the microbes appeared to possess a wide array of mobile genetic elements for a large spectrum of antimicrobial agents, some of which are being used in the treatment of acute diarrhoea.

  18. Frequency and diversity of small cryptic plasmids in the genus Rahnella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summers David K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rahnella is a widely distributed genus belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and frequently present on vegetables. Although Rahnella has interesting agro-economical and industrial properties and several strains possess antibiotic resistances and toxin genes which might spread within microbial communities, little is known about plasmids of this genus. Thus, we isolated a number of Rahnella strains and investigated their complements of small plasmids. Results In total 53 strains were investigated and 11 plasmids observed. Seven belonged to the ColE1 family; one was ColE2-like and three shared homology to rolling circle plasmids. One of them belonged to the pC194/pUB110 family and two showed similarity to poorly characterised plasmid groups. The G+C content of two rolling circle plasmids deviated considerably from that of Rahnella, indicating that their usual hosts might belong to other genera. Most ColE1-like plasmids formed a subgroup within the ColE1 family that seems to be fairly specific for Rahnella. Intriguingly, the multimer resolution sites of all ColE1-like plasmids had the same orientation with respect to the origin of replication. This arrangement might be necessary to prevent inappropriate synthesis of a small regulatory RNA that regulates cell division. Although the ColE1-like plasmids did not possess any mobilisation system, they shared large parts with high sequence identity in coding and non-coding regions. In addition, highly homologous regions of plasmids isolated from Rahnella and the chromosomes of Erwinia tasmaniensis and Photorhabdus luminescens could be identified. Conclusions For the genus Rahnella we observed plasmid-containing isolates at a frequency of 19%, which is in the average range for Enterobacteriaceae. These plasmids belonged to diffent groups with members of the ColE1-family most frequently found. Regions of striking sequence homology of plasmids and bacterial chromosomes highlight the

  19. Horizontal transfer of tet(M) and erm(B) resistance plasmids from food strains of Lactobacillus plantarum to Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 in the gastrointestinal tract of gnotobiotic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Louise; Wilcks, Andrea; Hammer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Two wild-type strains of Lactobacillus plantarum previously isolated from fermented dry sausages were analysed for their ability to transfer antibiotic resistance plasmids in the gastrointestinal tract. For this purpose, we used gnotobiotic rats as an in vivo model. Rats were initially inoculated......(2) CFU g(-1) faeces towards the end of the experiment. For erm(B)-TCs, the number was significantly higher and increased to c. 10(3) CFU g(-1) faeces. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing in vivo transfer of wild-type antibiotic resistance plasmids from L. plantarum to E. faecalis....

  20. Sequencing of IncX-plasmids suggests ubiquity of mobile forms of a biofilm-promoting gene cassette recruited from Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Burmølle

    Full Text Available Plasmids are a highly effective means with which genetic traits that influence human health, such as virulence and antibiotic resistance, are disseminated through bacterial populations. The IncX-family is a hitherto sparsely populated group of plasmids that are able to thrive within Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, a replicon-centric screening method was used to locate strains from wastewater sludge containing plasmids belonging to the IncX-family. A transposon aided plasmid capture method was then employed to transport IncX-plasmids from their original hosts (and co-hosted plasmids into a laboratory strain (Escherichia coli Genehogs® for further study. The nucleotide sequences of the three newly isolated IncX-plasmids (pLN126_33, pMO17_54, pMO440_54 and the hitherto un-sequenced type-plasmid R485 revealed a remarkable occurrence of whole or partial gene cassettes that promote biofilm-formation in Klebsiella pneumonia or E. coli, in all four instances. Two of the plasmids (R485 and pLN126_33 were shown to directly induce biofilm formation in a crystal violet retention assay in E. coli. Sequence comparison revealed that all plasmid-borne forms of the type 3 fimbriae encoding gene cassette mrkABCDF were variations of a composite transposon Tn6011 first described in the E. coli IncX plasmid pOLA52. In conclusion, IncX-plasmids isolated from Enterobacteriaceae over almost 40 years and on three different continents have all been shown to carry a type 3 fimbriae gene cassette mrkABCDF stemming from pathogenic K. pneumoniae. Apart from contributing general knowledge about IncX-plasmids, this study also suggests an apparent ubiquity of a mobile form of an important virulence factor and is an illuminating example of the recruitment, evolution and dissemination of genetic traits through plasmid-mediated horizontal gene transfer.

  1. Sequencing of IncX-plasmids suggests ubiquity of mobile forms of a biofilm-promoting gene cassette recruited from Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmølle, Mette; Norman, Anders; Sørensen, Søren J; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg

    2012-01-01

    Plasmids are a highly effective means with which genetic traits that influence human health, such as virulence and antibiotic resistance, are disseminated through bacterial populations. The IncX-family is a hitherto sparsely populated group of plasmids that are able to thrive within Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, a replicon-centric screening method was used to locate strains from wastewater sludge containing plasmids belonging to the IncX-family. A transposon aided plasmid capture method was then employed to transport IncX-plasmids from their original hosts (and co-hosted plasmids) into a laboratory strain (Escherichia coli Genehogs®) for further study. The nucleotide sequences of the three newly isolated IncX-plasmids (pLN126_33, pMO17_54, pMO440_54) and the hitherto un-sequenced type-plasmid R485 revealed a remarkable occurrence of whole or partial gene cassettes that promote biofilm-formation in Klebsiella pneumonia or E. coli, in all four instances. Two of the plasmids (R485 and pLN126_33) were shown to directly induce biofilm formation in a crystal violet retention assay in E. coli. Sequence comparison revealed that all plasmid-borne forms of the type 3 fimbriae encoding gene cassette mrkABCDF were variations of a composite transposon Tn6011 first described in the E. coli IncX plasmid pOLA52. In conclusion, IncX-plasmids isolated from Enterobacteriaceae over almost 40 years and on three different continents have all been shown to carry a type 3 fimbriae gene cassette mrkABCDF stemming from pathogenic K. pneumoniae. Apart from contributing general knowledge about IncX-plasmids, this study also suggests an apparent ubiquity of a mobile form of an important virulence factor and is an illuminating example of the recruitment, evolution and dissemination of genetic traits through plasmid-mediated horizontal gene transfer.

  2. Origin and Evolution of Rickettsial Plasmids.

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    Khalid El Karkouri

    Full Text Available Rickettsia species are strictly intracellular bacteria that have undergone a reductive genomic evolution. Despite their allopatric lifestyle, almost half of the 26 currently validated Rickettsia species have plasmids. In order to study the origin, evolutionary history and putative roles of rickettsial plasmids, we investigated the evolutionary processes that have shaped 20 plasmids belonging to 11 species, using comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis between rickettsial, microbial and non-microbial genomes.Plasmids were differentially present among Rickettsia species. The 11 species had 1 to 4 plasmid (s with a size ranging from 12 kb to 83 kb. We reconstructed pRICO, the last common ancestor of the current rickettsial plasmids. pRICO was vertically inherited mainly from Rickettsia/Orientia chromosomes and diverged vertically into a single or multiple plasmid(s in each species. These plasmids also underwent a reductive evolution by progressive gene loss, similar to that observed in rickettsial chromosomes, possibly leading to cryptic plasmids or complete plasmid loss. Moreover, rickettsial plasmids exhibited ORFans, recent gene duplications and evidence of horizontal gene transfer events with rickettsial and non-rickettsial genomes mainly from the α/γ-proteobacteria lineages. Genes related to maintenance and plasticity of plasmids, and to adaptation and resistance to stress mostly evolved under vertical and/or horizontal processes. Those involved in nucleotide/carbohydrate transport and metabolism were under the influence of vertical evolution only, whereas genes involved in cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis, cycle control, amino acid/lipid/coenzyme and secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and metabolism underwent mainly horizontal transfer events.Rickettsial plasmids had a complex evolution, starting with a vertical inheritance followed by a reductive evolution associated with increased complexity via horizontal gene

  3. PCR-Based Analysis of ColE1 Plasmids in Clinical Isolates and Metagenomic Samples Reveals Their Importance as Gene Capture Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Ares-Arroyo; Cristina Bernabe-Balas; Alfonso Santos-Lopez; Maria R. Baquero; Kashi N. Prasad; Dolores Cid; Carmen Martin-Espada; Alvaro San Millan; Bruno Gonzalez-Zorn

    2018-01-01

    ColE1 plasmids are important vehicles for the spread of antibiotic resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae families of bacteria. Their monitoring is essential, as they harbor important resistant determinants in humans, animals and the environment. In this work, we have analyzed ColE1 replicons using bioinformatic and experimental approaches. First, we carried out a computational study examining the structure of different ColE1 plasmids deposited in databases. Bioinformatic an...

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase and plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from chickens in Anhui province, China.

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    Lin Li

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL genes and plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance (PMQR determinants in 202 Escherichia coli isolates from chickens in Anhui Province, China, and to determine whether ESBL and PMQR genes co-localized in the isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility for 12 antimicrobials was determined by broth microdilution. Polymerase chain reactions (PCRs, DNA sequencing, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE were employed to characterize the molecular basis for β-lactam and fluoroquinolone resistance. High rates of antimicrobial resistance were observed, 147 out of the 202 (72.8% isolates were resistant to at least 6 antimicrobial agents and 28 (13.9% of the isolates were resistant to at least 10 antimicrobials. The prevalence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM-1 and blaTEM-206 genes was 19.8%, 24.3% and 11.9%, respectively. Seventy-five out of the 202 (37.1% isolates possessed a plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant in the form of qnrS (n = 21; this determinant occurred occasionally in combination with aac(6'-1b-cr (n = 65. Coexistence of ESBL and/or PMQR genes was identified in 31 of the isolates. Two E. coli isolates carried blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M and qnrS, while two others carried blaCTX-M, qnrS and aac(6'-1b-cr. In addition, blaTEM-1, qnrS and aac(6'-1b-cr were co-located in two other E. coli isolates. PFGE analysis showed that these isolates were not clonally related and were genetically diverse. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe detection of TEM-206-producing E. coli in farmed chickens, and the presence of blaTEM-206, qnrS and aac(6'-1b-cr in one of the isolates.

  5. Comparison of two DNA microarrays for detection of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor genes in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and non-Enterobacteriaceae.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Fiona

    2010-06-01

    A DNA microarray was developed to detect plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance (AR) and virulence factor (VF) genes in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and non-Enterobacteriaceae. The array was validated with the following bacterial species: Escherichiacoli (n=17); Klebsiellapneumoniae (n=3); Enterobacter spp. (n=6); Acinetobacter genospecies 3 (n=1); Acinetobacterbaumannii (n=1); Pseudomonasaeruginosa (n=2); and Stenotrophomonasmaltophilia (n=2). The AR gene profiles of these isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The DNA microarray consisted of 155 and 133 AR and VF gene probes, respectively. Results were compared with the commercially available Identibac AMR-ve Array Tube. Hybridisation results indicated that there was excellent correlation between PCR and array results for AR and VF genes. Genes conferring resistance to each antibiotic class were identified by the DNA array. Unusual resistance genes were also identified, such as bla(SHV-5) in a bla(OXA-23)-positive carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. The phylogenetic group of each E. coli isolate was verified by the array. These data demonstrate that it is possible to screen simultaneously for all important classes of mobile AR and VF genes in Enterobacteriaceae and non-Enterobacteriaceae whilst also assigning a correct phylogenetic group to E. coli isolates. Therefore, it is feasible to test clinical Gram-negative bacteria for all known AR genes and to provide important information regarding pathogenicity simultaneously.

  6. Whole Genome Sequencing and Plasmid Genomics of Antimicrobial Resistance – Salmonella’s mobile genetic elements and the antimicrobial resistance genes they carry

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR), multidrug resistance (MDR), and carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), the specter of widespread untreatable bacterial infections threatens human and animal health. The ability of these emerging resistances to transfer between bacteria on mob...

  7. Emergence and Spread of Plasmid-Borne tet(B)::ISCR2 in Minocycline-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Vilacoba, Elisabet; Almuzara, Marisa; Gulone, Lucía; Traglia, German Matias; Figueroa, Silvia A.; Sly, Gabriela Edith; Fernandez, Analia; Centron, Daniela; Ramirez, Maria Soledad

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to minocycline has emerged in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Buenos Aires Hospitals. Few reports about the description and dispersion of tet genes were published in this species. We observed the presence of tet(B) in all minocycline resistant isolates. This gene was found associated to the ISCR2 mobile element, which could in part explain its dispersion. Fil: Vilacoba, Elisabet. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Co...

  8. Plasmid-free CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in Plasmodium falciparum confirms mutations conferring resistance to the dihydroisoquinolone clinical candidate SJ733.

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    Emily D Crawford

    Full Text Available Genetic manipulation of the deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum remains challenging, but the rise of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing tools is increasing the feasibility of altering this parasite's genome in order to study its biology. Of particular interest is the investigation of drug targets and drug resistance mechanisms, which have major implications for fighting malaria. We present a new method for introducing drug resistance mutations in P. falciparum without the use of plasmids or the need for cloning homologous recombination templates. We demonstrate this method by introducing edits into the sodium efflux channel PfATP4 by transfection of a purified CRISPR/Cas9-guide RNA ribonucleoprotein complex and a 200-nucleotide single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN repair template. Analysis of whole genome sequencing data with the variant-finding program MinorityReport confirmed that only the intended edits were made, and growth inhibition assays confirmed that these mutations confer resistance to the antimalarial SJ733. The method described here is ideally suited for the introduction of mutations that confer a fitness advantage under selection conditions, and the novel finding that an ssODN can function as a repair template in P. falciparum could greatly simplify future editing attempts regardless of the nuclease used or the delivery method.

  9. MvaT Family Proteins Encoded on IncP-7 Plasmid pCAR1 and the Host Chromosome Regulate the Host Transcriptome Cooperatively but Differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Choong-Soo; Takahashi, Yurika; Shintani, Masaki; Takeda, Toshiharu; Suzuki-Minakuchi, Chiho; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki

    2016-02-01

    MvaT proteins are members of the H-NS family of proteins in pseudomonads. The IncP-7 conjugative plasmid pCAR1 carries an mvaT-homologous gene, pmr. In Pseudomonas putida KT2440 bearing pCAR1, pmr and the chromosomally carried homologous genes, turA and turB, are transcribed at high levels, and Pmr interacts with TurA and TurB in vitro. In the present study, we clarified how the three MvaT proteins regulate the transcriptome of P. putida KT2440(pCAR1). Analyses performed by a modified chromatin immunoprecipitation assay with microarray technology (ChIP-chip) suggested that the binding regions of Pmr, TurA, and TurB in the P. putida KT2440(pCAR1) genome are almost identical; nevertheless, transcriptomic analyses using mutants with deletions of the genes encoding the MvaT proteins during the log and early stationary growth phases clearly suggested that their regulons were different. Indeed, significant regulon dissimilarity was found between Pmr and the other two proteins. Transcription of a larger number of genes was affected by Pmr deletion during early stationary phase than during log phase, suggesting that Pmr ameliorates the effects of pCAR1 on host fitness more effectively during the early stationary phase. Alternatively, the similarity of the TurA and TurB regulons implied that they might play complementary roles as global transcriptional regulators in response to plasmid carriage. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Genetic characterization and plasmid replicon typing of ß-lactam resistant Escherichia coli from humans and companion animals in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited therapeutic options due to antimicrobial resistance (AR) is a major threat to human and animal health worldwide. There is a paucity of information on ß-lactam resistant Esherichia coli isolated from companion animals in developing countries; therefore their zoonotic impact is unknown. This s...

  11. Role of the RS1 sequence of the cholera vibrio in amplification of the segment of plasmid DNA carrying the gene of resistance to tetracycline and the genes of cholera toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fil'kova, S.L.; Il'ina, T.S.; Gintsburg, A.L.; Yanishevskii, N.V.; Smirnov, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    The hybrid plasmid pCO107, representing cointegrate 14(2)-5(2) of two plasmids, an F-derivative (pOX38) and a PBR322-derivative (pCT105) with an RS1 sequence of the cholera vibrio cloned in its makeup, contains two copes of RS1 at the sites of union of the two plasmids. Using a tetracycline resistance marker (Tc R ) of the plasmid pCT105, clones were isolated which have an elevated level of resistance to tetracycline (an increase of from 4- to 30-fold). Using restriction analysis and the Southern blot method of hybridization it was shown that the increase in the level of resistance of tetracycline is associated with the amplification of pCT105 portion of the cointegrate, and that the process of amplification is governed by the presence of direct repeats of the RS1 sequence at its ends. The increase in the number of copies of the pCT105 segment, which contains in its composition the genes of cholera toxin (vct), is accompanied by an increase in toxin production

  12. Insight into Two ABC Transporter Families Involved in Lantibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Clemens

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides, which contain (methyl-lanthionine-rings are called lantibiotics. They are produced by several Gram-positive bacteria and are mainly active against these bacteria. Although these are highly potent antimicrobials, some human pathogenic bacteria express specific ABC transporters that confer resistance and counteract their antimicrobial activity. Two distinct ABC transporter families are known to be involved in this process. These are the Cpr- and Bce-type ABC transporter families, named after their involvement in cationic peptide resistance in Clostridium difficile, and bacitracin efflux in Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Both resistance systems differentiate to each other in terms of the proteins involved. Here, we summarize the current knowledge and describe the divergence as well as the common features present in both the systems to confer lantibiotic resistance.

  13. KPC-mediated resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae in two hospitals in Padua, Italy, June 2009-December 2011: massive spreading of a KPC-3-encoding plasmid and involvement of non-intensive care units

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    Richter Sara N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs producing bacteria have emerged as a cause of multidrug-resistant nosocomial infections worldwide. KPCs are plasmid-encoded enzymes capable of hydrolysing a broad spectrum of beta-lactams, including carbapenems and monobactams, therefore worryingly limiting antimicrobial treatment options. Analysis of circulating bacterial strains and KPC alleles may help understanding the route of KPC dissemination and therefore help containing the infection. Methods KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae dissemination in two 1580- and 300- bed hospitals in Padua, Italy, from initial outbreak in 2009 to late 2011 was analysed. Molecular and clinical epidemiology, including bacterial strains, KPC-encoding plasmid sequences and associated resistance genes, involved hospital wards and relocation of patients were described. Routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing and MIC of carbapenems on clinical isolates were performed. Detection of resistance genes was obtained by PCR and sequencing. MLST, PFGE and ERIC were used for molecular genotyping. Plasmid analysis was obtained by digestion with restriction enzymes and deep sequencing. Results KPC-positive clinical samples were isolated from nearly 200 patients. In the initial outbreak intensive care units were almost exclusively involved, while medical, surgical and long-term wards were successively massively concerned. Analysis of KPC alleles, plasmids and bacterial sequence types (STs indicated that during the initial outbreak KPC-3 in ST258 and KPC-2 in ST147 were each confined in one of the two surveilled hospitals. While KPC-2 dissemination was effectively contained, KPC-3 in ST258 cross-spreading was observed. The simultaneous presence of two carbapenemases, VIM-1 and KPC-2, in the same isolate was also observed in three patients. Total sequencing of plasmid content of two KPC-3 strains showed novel association of resistance plasmids. Conclusions The

  14. Characterization of a small erythromycin resistance plasmid pLFE1 from the food-isolate Lactobacillus plantarum M345

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, Louise; Bielak, Eliza; Hammer, Karin

    2009-01-01

    found. A putative replication initiation site including a single-strand origin (sso) -like region succeeded by a characteristic pMV158 family double-strand origin (dso) was located upstream of the replication region. An open reading frame following a typical origin of transfer (oriT) site and coding...

  15. Techniques for overcoming community resistance to family planning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, H A

    1968-01-01

    Methods of overcoming resistance to publicly subsidized family planning programs are discussed. The main sources of opposition include groups that oppose family planning for moral reasons, and those who object to the spending of government funds to provide services and information. Such opposition can be weakened by indicating that family planning clinics fulf: 11 important medical needs. Presenting social justification for family planning can help to lower oppostion. In order to secure participation in the programs by low income groups it is essential to have community leaders involved in policy decisions and to use indigenous community paraprofessionals in the clinics. A coalition of representatives of the poor community and the health and welfare system, aided by the community organization, can lead to an effective family planning program.

  16. Prevalence of Smqnr and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia from Japan: novel variants of Smqnr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kanamori

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important pathogen in healthcare-associated infections. S. maltophilia may contain Smqnr, a quinolone resistance gene encoding the pentapeptide repeat protein, which confers low-level quinolone resistance upon expression in a heterologous host. We investigated the prevalence of Smqnr and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR determinants in S. maltophilia isolates from Japan. A total of 181 consecutive and nonduplicate clinical isolates of S. maltophilia were collected from four areas of Japan. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for these strains were determined. PCR was conducted for Smqnr and PMQR genes, including qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrS, aac(6′-Ib and qepA. PCR products for Smqnr and aac(6′-Ib were sequenced. For the S. maltophilia isolates containing Smqnr, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was performed using XbaI. Resistance rates to ceftazidime, levofloxacin, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol and minocycline were 67.4%, 6.1%, 17.7%, 8.8% and 0%, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 50% and 90% of organisms were 0.5 and 2 mg/L for moxifloxacin but 1 and 4 mg/L for levofloxacin, respectively. Smqnr was detected in 104 of the 181 S. maltophilia isolates (57.5%, and the most frequent was Smqnr6, followed by Smqnr8 and Smqnr11. Eleven novel variants from Smqnr48 to Smqnr58 were detected. The 24 Smqnr-containing S. maltophilia isolates were typed by PFGE and divided into 21 unique types. Nine S. maltophilia isolates (5.0% carried aac(6′-Ib-cr. No qnr or qepA genes were detected. This study describes a high prevalence of Smqnr and novel variants of Smqnr among S. maltophilia from Japan. Continuous antimicrobial surveillance and further molecular epidemiological studies on quinolone resistance in S. maltophilia are needed.

  17. Mechanisms Involved in Acquisition of blaNDM Genes by IncA/C2 and IncFIIY Plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wailan, Alexander M; Sidjabat, Hanna E; Yam, Wan Keat; Alikhan, Nabil-Fareed; Petty, Nicola K; Sartor, Anna L; Williamson, Deborah A; Forde, Brian M; Schembri, Mark A; Beatson, Scott A; Paterson, David L; Walsh, Timothy R; Partridge, Sally R

    2016-07-01

    blaNDM genes confer carbapenem resistance and have been identified on transferable plasmids belonging to different incompatibility (Inc) groups. Here we present the complete sequences of four plasmids carrying a blaNDM gene, pKP1-NDM-1, pEC2-NDM-3, pECL3-NDM-1, and pEC4-NDM-6, from four clinical samples originating from four different patients. Different plasmids carry segments that align to different parts of the blaNDM region found on Acinetobacter plasmids. pKP1-NDM-1 and pEC2-NDM-3, from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, respectively, were identified as type 1 IncA/C2 plasmids with almost identical backbones. Different regions carrying blaNDM are inserted in different locations in the antibiotic resistance island known as ARI-A, and ISCR1 may have been involved in the acquisition of blaNDM-3 by pEC2-NDM-3. pECL3-NDM-1 and pEC4-NDM-6, from Enterobacter cloacae and E. coli, respectively, have similar IncFIIY backbones, but different regions carrying blaNDM are found in different locations. Tn3-derived inverted-repeat transposable elements (TIME) appear to have been involved in the acquisition of blaNDM-6 by pEC4-NDM-6 and the rmtC 16S rRNA methylase gene by IncFIIY plasmids. Characterization of these plasmids further demonstrates that even very closely related plasmids may have acquired blaNDM genes by different mechanisms. These findings also illustrate the complex relationships between antimicrobial resistance genes, transposable elements, and plasmids and provide insights into the possible routes for transmission of blaNDM genes among species of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Norwegian patients and retail chicken meat share cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli and IncK/blaCMY-2 resistance plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, E. S.; Wester, A. L.; Ahrenfeldt, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    In 2012 and 2014 the Norwegian monitoring programme for antimicrobial resistance in the veterinary and food production sectors (NORM-VET) showed that 124 of a total of 406 samples (31%) of Norwegian retail chicken meat was contaminated with extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli....... The aim of this study was to compare selected cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from humans and poultry to determine their genetic relatedness based on whole genome sequencing (WGS). E. coli representing three prevalent cephalosporin-resistant multi-locus sequence types (STs) isolated from poultry (n=17...

  19. Inactivation efficiency of plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance genes during water treatment with chlorine, UV, and UV/H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Younggun; Chung, Hay Jung; Wen Di, Doris Yoong; Dodd, Michael C; Hur, Hor-Gil; Lee, Yunho

    2017-10-15

    This study assessed the inactivation efficiency of plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) both in extracellular form (e-ARG) and present within Escherichia coli (intracellular form, i-ARG) during water treatment with chlorine, UV (254 nm), and UV/H 2 O 2 . A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method was used to quantify the ARG damage to amp R (850 bp) and kan R (806 bp) amplicons, both of which are located in the pUC4K plasmid. The plate count and flow cytometry methods were also used to determine the bacterial inactivation parameters, such as culturability and membrane damage, respectively. In the first part of the study, the kinetics of E. coli inactivation and ARG damage were determined in phosphate buffered solutions. The ARG damage occurred much more slowly than E. coli inactivation in all cases. To achieve 4-log reduction of ARG concentration at pH 7, the required chlorine exposure and UV fluence were 33-72 (mg × min)/L for chlorine and 50-130 mJ/cm 2 for UV and UV/H 2 O 2 . After increasing pH from 7 to 8, the rates of ARG damage decreased for chlorine, while they did not vary for UV and UV/H 2 O 2 . The i-ARGs mostly showed lower rates of damage compared to the e-ARGs due to the protective roles of cellular components against oxidants and UV. The contribution of OH radicals to i-ARG damage was negligible in UV/H 2 O 2 due to significant OH radical scavenging by cellular components. In all cases, the ARG damage rates were similar for amp R versus kan R , except for the chlorination of e-ARGs, in which the damage to amp R occurred faster than that to kan R . Chlorine and UV dose-dependent ARG inactivation levels determined in a wastewater effluent matrix could be reasonably explained by the kinetic data obtained from the phosphate buffered solutions and the expected oxidant (chlorine and OH radicals) demands by water matrix components. These results can be useful in optimizing chlorine and UV-based disinfection systems to achieve ARG

  20. Prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in a farrowing farm: ST1121 clone harboring IncHI2 plasmid contributes to the dissemination of blaCMY-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui eDeng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During a regular monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in a farrowing farm in Southern China, 117 Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from sows and piglets. Compared with the isolates from piglets, the isolates from sows exhibited higher resistance rates to the tested cephalosporins. Correspondingly, the total detection rate of the blaCMY-2/blaCTX-M genes in the sow isolates (34.2% was also significantly higher than that of the piglet isolates (13.6% (p<0.05. The blaCMY-2 gene had a relatively high prevalence (11.1% in the E. coli isolates. MLST and PFGE analysis revealed the clonal spread of ST1121 E. coli in most (7/13 of the blaCMY-2-positive isolates. An indistinguishable IncHI2 plasmid harboring blaCMY-2 was also identified in each of the seven ST1121 E. coli isolates. Complete sequence analysis of this IncHI2 plasmid (pEC5207 revealed that pEC5207 may have originated through recombination of an IncHI2 plasmid with a blaCMY-2-carrying IncA/C plasmid like pCFSAN007427_01. In addtion to blaCMY-2, pEC5207 also carried other resistance determinants for aminoglycosides (aacA7, sulfonamides (sul1, as well as heavy metals ions, such as Cu and Ag. The susceptibility testing showed that the pEC5207 can mediate both antibiotic and heavy metal resistance. This highlights the role of pEC5207 in co-selection of blaCMY-2-positive isolates under the selective pressure of heavy metals, cephalosporins and other antimicrobials. In conclusion, clonal spread of an ST1121 type E. coli strain harboring an IncHI2 plasmid contributed to the dissemination of blaCMY-2 in a farrowing farm in Southern China. We also have determined the first complete sequence analysis of a blaCMY-2-carrying IncHI2 plasmid.

  1. Mechanisms of resistance to HER family targeting antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruser, Tim J. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Wheeler, Deric L., E-mail: dlwheeler@wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of receptor tyrosine kinases consists of four members: EGFR (HER1/ErbB1), HER2/neu (ErbB2), HER3 (ErbB3) and HER4 (ErbB4). Receptor activation via ligand binding leads to downstream signaling that influence cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Aberrant expression or activity of EGFR and HER2 have been strongly linked to the etiology of several human epithelial cancers including but not limited to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), colorectal cancer (CRC), and breast cancer. With this, intense efforts have been made to inhibit the activity of the EGFR and HER2 by designing antibodies against the ligand binding domains (cetuximab, panitumumab and trastuzumab) or small molecules against the tyrosine kinase domains (erlotinib, gefitinib, and lapatinib). Both approaches have shown considerable clinical promise. However, increasing evidence suggests that the majority of patients do not respond to these therapies, and those who show initial response ultimately become refractory to treatment. While mechanisms of resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been extensively studied, resistance to monoclonal antibodies is less well understood, both in the laboratory and in the clinical setting. In this review, we discuss resistance to antibody-based therapies against the EGFR and HER2, similarities between these resistance profiles, and strategies to overcome resistance to HER family targeting monoclonal antibody therapy.

  2. Characterization of a Staphylococcal Plasmid Related to pUB110 and Carrying Two Novel Genes, vatC and vgbB, Encoding Resistance to Streptogramins A and B and Similar Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allignet, Jeanine; Liassine, Nadia; El Solh, Névine

    1998-01-01

    We isolated and sequenced a plasmid, named pIP1714 (4,978 bp), which specifies resistance to streptogramins A and B and the mixture of these compounds. pIP1714 was isolated from a Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii strain found in the environment of a hospital where pristinamycin was extensively used. Resistance to both compounds and related antibiotics is encoded by two novel, probably cotranscribed genes, (i) vatC, encoding a 212-amino-acid (aa) acetyltransferase that inactivates streptogramin A and that exhibits 58.2 to 69.8% aa identity with the Vat, VatB, and SatA proteins, and (ii) vgbB, encoding a 295-aa lactonase that inactivates streptogramin B and that shows 67% aa identity with the Vgb lactonase. pIP1714 includes a 2,985-bp fragment also found in two rolling-circle replication and mobilizable plasmids, pUB110 and pBC16, from gram-positive bacteria. In all three plasmids, the common fragment was delimited by two direct repeats of four nucleotides (GGGC) and included (i) putative genes closely related to repB, which encodes a replication protein, and to pre(mob), which encodes a protein required for conjugative mobilization and site-specific recombination, and (ii) sequences very similar to the double- and single-strand origins (dso, ssoU) and the recombination site, RSA. The antibiotic resistance genes repB and pre(mob) carried by each of these plasmids were found in the same transcriptional orientation. PMID:9661023

  3. Characterization of a staphylococcal plasmid related to pUB110 and carrying two novel genes, vatC and vgbB, encoding resistance to streptogramins A and B and similar antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allignet, J; Liassine, N; el Solh, N

    1998-07-01

    We isolated and sequenced a plasmid, named pIP1714 (4,978 bp), which specifies resistance to streptogramins A and B and the mixture of these compounds. pIP1714 was isolated from a Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii strain found in the environment of a hospital where pristinamycin was extensively used. Resistance to both compounds and related antibiotics is encoded by two novel, probably cotranscribed genes, (i) vatC, encoding a 212-amino-acid (aa) acetyltransferase that inactivates streptogramin A and that exhibits 58.2 to 69.8% aa identity with the Vat, VatB, and SatA proteins, and (ii) vgbB, encoding a 295-aa lactonase that inactivates streptogramin B and that shows 67% aa identity with the Vgb lactonase. pIP1714 includes a 2,985-bp fragment also found in two rolling-circle replication and mobilizable plasmids, pUB110 and pBC16, from gram-positive bacteria. In all three plasmids, the common fragment was delimited by two direct repeats of four nucleotides (GGGC) and included (i) putative genes closely related to repB, which encodes a replication protein, and to pre(mob), which encodes a protein required for conjugative mobilization and site-specific recombination, and (ii) sequences very similar to the double- and single-strand origins (dso, ssoU) and the recombination site, RSA. The antibiotic resistance genes repB and pre(mob) carried by each of these plasmids were found in the same transcriptional orientation.

  4. Characterization of a Staphylococcal Plasmid Related to pUB110 and Carrying Two Novel Genes, vatC and vgbB, Encoding Resistance to Streptogramins A and B and Similar Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Allignet, Jeanine; Liassine, Nadia; El Solh, Névine

    1998-01-01

    We isolated and sequenced a plasmid, named pIP1714 (4,978 bp), which specifies resistance to streptogramins A and B and the mixture of these compounds. pIP1714 was isolated from a Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii strain found in the environment of a hospital where pristinamycin was extensively used. Resistance to both compounds and related antibiotics is encoded by two novel, probably cotranscribed genes, (i) vatC, encoding a 212-amino-acid (aa) acetyltransferase that inactivates streptogr...

  5. Plasmid segregation mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, G.; Gerdes, Kenn

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial plasmids encode partitioning (par) loci that ensure ordered plasmid segregation prior to cell division. par loci come in two types: those that encode actin-like ATPases and those that encode deviant Walker-type ATPases. ParM, the actin-like ATPase of plasmid R1, forms dynamic filaments...... that segregate plasmids paired at mid-cell to daughter cells. Like microtubules, ParM filaments exhibit dynamic instability (i.e., catastrophic decay) whose regulation is an important component of the DNA segregation process. The Walker box ParA ATPases are related to MinD and form highly dynamic, oscillating...... filaments that are required for the subcellular movement and positioning of plasmids. The role of the observed ATPase oscillation is not yet understood. However, we propose a simple model that couples plasmid segregation to ParA oscillation. The model is consistent with the observed movement...

  6. Characterization of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Determinants in High-Level Quinolone-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from the Community: First Report of qnrD Gene in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanat, Betitera; Machuca, Jesús; Díaz-De-Alba, Paula; Mezhoud, Halima; Touati, Abdelaziz; Pascual, Álvaro; Rodríguez-Martínez, José-Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to assess the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR)-producing isolates in a collection of quinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae of community origin isolated in Bejaia, Algeria. A total of 141 nalidixic acid-resistant Enterobacteriaceae community isolates were collected in Bejaia (Northern Algeria) and screened for PMQR genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For PMQR-positive strains, antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution and disk diffusion. Mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the target genes, gyrA and parC, were detected with a PCR-based method and sequencing. Southern blotting, conjugation and transformation assays and molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing were also performed. The prevalence of PMQR-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates was 13.5% (19/141); 11 of these isolates produced Aac(6')-Ib-cr and 8 were qnr-positive (4 qnrB1-like, 2 qnrS1-like, and 2 qnrD1-like), including the association with aac(6')-Ib-cr gene in three cases. PMQR gene transfer by conjugation was successful in 6 of 19 isolates tested. PFGE revealed that most of the PMQR-positive Escherichia coli isolates were unrelated, except for two groups comprising two and four isolates, respectively, including the virulent multidrug-resistant clone E. coli ST131 that were clonally related. Our findings indicate that PMQR determinants are prevalent in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from the community studied. We describe the first report of the qnrD gene in Algeria.

  7. Global Transcriptional Regulation of Backbone Genes in Broad-Host-Range Plasmid RA3 from the IncU Group Involves Segregation Protein KorB (ParB Family).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinska, Anna; Godziszewska, Jolanta; Wojciechowska, Anna; Ludwiczak, Marta; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2016-04-01

    The KorB protein of the broad-host-range conjugative plasmid RA3 from the IncU group belongs to the ParB family of plasmid and chromosomal segregation proteins. As a partitioning DNA-binding factor, KorB specifically recognizes a 16-bp palindrome which is an essential motif in the centromere-like sequence parSRA3, forms a segrosome, and together with its partner IncC (ParA family) participates in active DNA segregation ensuring stable plasmid maintenance. Here we show that by binding to this palindromic sequence, KorB also acts as a repressor for the adjacent mobC promoter driving expression of the mobC-nicoperon, which is involved in DNA processing during conjugation. Three other promoters, one buried in the conjugative transfer module and two divergent promoters located at the border between the replication and stability regions, are regulated by KorB binding to additional KorB operators (OBs). KorB acts as a repressor at a distance, binding to OBs separated from their cognate promoters by between 46 and 1,317 nucleotides. This repressor activity is facilitated by KorB spreading along DNA, since a polymerization-deficient KorB variant with its dimerization and DNA-binding abilities intact is inactive in transcriptional repression. KorB may act as a global regulator of RA3 plasmid functions in Escherichia coli, since its overexpression in transnegatively interferes with mini-RA3 replication and stable maintenance of RA3. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Ecological and genetic determinants of plasmid distribution in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medaney, Frances; Ellis, Richard J; Raymond, Ben

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial plasmids are important carriers of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Nevertheless, little is known of the determinants of plasmid distribution in bacterial populations. Here the factors affecting the diversity and distribution of the large plasmids of Escherichia coli were explored in cattle grazing on semi-natural grassland, a set of populations with low frequencies of antibiotic resistance genes. Critically, the population genetic structure of bacterial hosts was chararacterized. This revealed structured E. coli populations with high diversity between sites and individuals but low diversity within cattle hosts. Plasmid profiles, however, varied considerably within the same E. coli genotype. Both ecological and genetic factors affected plasmid distribution: plasmid profiles were affected by site, E. coli diversity, E. coli genotype and the presence of other large plasmids. Notably 3/26 E. coli serotypes accounted for half the observed plasmid-free isolates indicating that within species variation can substantially affect carriage of the major conjugative plasmids. The observed population structure suggest that most of the opportunities for within species plasmid transfer occur between different individuals of the same genotype and support recent experimental work indicating that plasmid-host coevolution, and epistatic interactions on fitness costs are likely to be important in determining occupancy. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The extended regulatory networks of SXT/R391 integrative and conjugative elements and IncA/C conjugative plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Laprade, Dominic; Carraro, Nicolas; Burrus, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, healthcare systems are challenged by a major worldwide drug resistance crisis caused by the massive and rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and associated emergence of multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria, in both clinical and environmental settings. Conjugation is the main driving force of gene transfer among microorganisms. This mechanism of horizontal gene transfer mediates the translocation of large DNA fragments between two bacterial cells in direct contact. Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family (SRIs) and IncA/C conjugative plasmids (ACPs) are responsible for the dissemination of a broad spectrum of antibiotic resistance genes among diverse species of Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae. The biology, diversity, prevalence and distribution of these two families of conjugative elements have been the subject of extensive studies for the past 15 years. Recently, the transcriptional regulators that govern their dissemination through the expression of ICE- or plasmid-encoded transfer genes have been described. Unrelated repressors control the activation of conjugation by preventing the expression of two related master activator complexes in both types of elements, i.e., SetCD in SXT/R391 ICEs and AcaCD in IncA/C plasmids. Finally, in addition to activating ICE- or plasmid-borne genes, these master activators have been shown to specifically activate phylogenetically unrelated mobilizable genomic islands (MGIs) that also disseminate antibiotic resistance genes and other adaptive traits among a plethora of pathogens such as Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella enterica.

  10. The extended regulatory networks of SXT/R391 integrative and conjugative elements and IncA/C conjugative plasmids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic ePoulin-Laprade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, healthcare systems are challenged by a major worldwide drug resistance crisis caused by the massive and rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and associated emergence of multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria, in both clinical and environmental settings. Conjugation is the main driving force of gene transfer among microorganisms. This mechanism of horizontal gene transfer mediates the translocation of large DNA fragments between two bacterial cells in direct contact. Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs of the SXT/R391 family (SRIs and IncA/C conjugative plasmids (ACPs are responsible for the dissemination of a broad spectrum of antibiotic resistance genes among diverse species of Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae. The biology, diversity, prevalence and distribution of these two families of conjugative elements have been the subject of extensive studies for the past 15 years. Recently, the transcriptional regulators that govern their dissemination through the expression of ICE- or plasmid-encoded transfer genes have been described. Unrelated repressors control the activation of conjugation by preventing the expression of two related master activator complexes in both types of elements, i.e. SetCD in SXT/R391 ICEs and AcaCD in IncA/C plasmids. Finally, in addition to activating ICE- or plasmid-borne genes, these master activators have been shown to specifically activate phylogenetically unrelated mobilizable genomic islands (MGIs that also disseminate antibiotic resistance genes and other adaptive traits among a plethora of pathogens such as Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella enterica.

  11. PCR-Based Analysis of ColE1 Plasmids in Clinical Isolates and Metagenomic Samples Reveals Their Importance as Gene Capture Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ares-Arroyo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ColE1 plasmids are important vehicles for the spread of antibiotic resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae families of bacteria. Their monitoring is essential, as they harbor important resistant determinants in humans, animals and the environment. In this work, we have analyzed ColE1 replicons using bioinformatic and experimental approaches. First, we carried out a computational study examining the structure of different ColE1 plasmids deposited in databases. Bioinformatic analysis of these ColE1 replicons revealed a mosaic genetic structure consisting of a host-adapted conserved region responsible for the housekeeping functions of the plasmid, and a variable region encoding a wide variety of genes, including multiple antibiotic resistance determinants. From this exhaustive computational analysis we developed a new PCR-based technique, targeting a specific sequence in the conserved region, for the screening, capture and sequencing of these small plasmids, either specific for Enterobacteriaceae or specific for Pasteurellaceae. To validate this PCR-based system, we tested various collections of isolates from both bacterial families, finding that ColE1 replicons were not only highly prevalent in antibiotic-resistant isolates, but also present in susceptible bacteria. In Pasteurellaceae, ColE1 plasmids carried almost exclusively antibiotic resistance genes. In Enterobacteriaceae, these plasmids encoded a large range of traits, including not only antibiotic resistance determinants, but also a wide variety of genes, showing the huge genetic plasticity of these small replicons. Finally, we also used a metagenomic approach in order to validate this technique, performing this PCR system using total DNA extractions from fecal samples from poultry, turkeys, pigs and humans. Using Illumina sequencing of the PCR products we identified a great diversity of genes encoded by ColE1 replicons, including different antibiotic resistance

  12. Permissiveness of soil microbial communities towards broad host range plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli

    . Plasmids are implicated in the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of multi-resistant pathogenic bacteria, making it crucial to be able to quantify, understand, and, ideally, control plasmid transfer in mixed microbial communities. The fate of plasmids in microbial communities...... of microbial communities may be directly interconnected through transfer of BHR plasmids at a so far unrecognized level. The developed method furthermore enabled me to explore how agronomic practices may affect gene transfer in soil microbial communities. I compared bacterial communities extracted from plots...

  13. Antibiotic-Resistant Extended Spectrum ß-Lactamase- and Plasmid-Mediated AmpC-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Retail Food Products and the Pearl River in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qinghua; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jumei; Yang, Guangzhu; Wang, Huixian; Huang, Jiahui; Chen, Mongtong; Xue, Liang; Wang, Juan

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a survey in 2015 to evaluate the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid-mediated AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in retail food and water of the Pearl River in Guangzhou, China, as well as their antibiotic resistance profiles. Samples (88 fresh food samples and 43 water samples) from eight different districts were analyzed by direct plating and after enrichment. Multidrug-resistant strains were found in 41.7 and 43.4% of food and water samples, respectively. ESBLs were found in 3.4 and 11.6% of food and water samples, respectively, and AmpC producers were found in 13.6 and 16.3% of food and water samples, respectively. Molecular characterization revealed the domination of blaCTX−Mgenes; plasmidic AmpC was of the type DHA-1 both in food and water samples. Thirteen of Fifty one β-lactamase-producing positive isolates were detected to be transconjugants, which readily received the β-lactamase genes conferring resistance to β-lactam antibiotics as well as some non-β-lactam antibiotics. These findings provide evidence that retail food and the river water may be considered as reservoirs for the dissemination of β-lactam antibiotics, and these resistance genes could readily be transmitted to humans through the food chain and water. PMID:28217112

  14. STIMULATION OF RESISTANCE OF BEE FAMILIES DURING WINTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nicolae eremia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees use as food nectar, honey, pollen and bee bread. They collect nectar and pollen on flowers, that process in food - honey and bee bread. Food provides the bees body with energy due to carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, lipids, vitamins, minerals. The goal of the studies was to stimulate the bees’ resistance during wintering against nesemosa disease in bee families’ survival after winter time and productivity increasing. There was established that the optimal dose of feed additive Pramix Bionorm P (symbiotic complex, in reserves supplementing of food of bee families during autumn is 150 mg of sugar syrup. There was revealed that using of the feed additive Pramix Bionorm P (symbiotic complex, in bees feeding for reserves supplementing of bees food ensures a stimulating of resistance at wintering of bees, decreases the quantity of used honey during wintering at one space between honey combs populated with bees, as well increases the productivity.

  15. Characterization of the IncA/C plasmid pSCEC2 from Escherichia coli of swine origin that harbours the multiresistance gene cfr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-Jiang; Xu, Xing-Ran; Schwarz, Stefan; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Dai, Lei; Zheng, Hua-Jun; Liu, Siguo

    2014-02-01

    To determine the complete nucleotide sequence of the multidrug resistance plasmid pSCEC2, isolated from a porcine Escherichia coli strain, and to analyse it with particular reference to the cfr gene region. Plasmid pSCEC2 was purified from its E. coli J53 transconjugant and then sequenced using the 454 GS-FLX System. After draft assembly, predicted gaps were closed by PCR with subsequent sequencing of the amplicons. Plasmid pSCEC2 is 135 615 bp in size and contains 200 open reading frames for proteins of ≥100 amino acids. Analysis of the sequence of pSCEC2 revealed two resistance gene segments. The 4.4 kb cfr-containing segment is flanked by two IS256 elements in the same orientation, which are believed to be involved in the dissemination of the rRNA methylase gene cfr. The other segment harbours the resistance genes floR, tet(A)-tetR, strA/strB and sul2, which have previously been found on other IncA/C plasmids. Except for these two resistance gene regions, the pSCEC2 backbone displayed >99% nucleotide sequence identity to that of other IncA/C family plasmids isolated in France, Chile and the USA. The cfr gene was identified on an IncA/C plasmid, which is well known for its broad host range and transfer and maintenance properties. The location on such a plasmid will further accelerate the dissemination of cfr and co-located resistance genes among different Gram-negative bacteria. The genetic context of cfr on plasmid pSCEC2 underlines the complexity of cfr transfer events and confirms the role that insertion sequences play in the spread of cfr.

  16. International collaborative study on the occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli isolated from animals, humans, food and the environment in 13 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veldman, Kees; Cavaco, Lina; Mevius, Dik

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was initiated to collect retrospective information on the occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli isolates in Europe and to identify the responsible genes. METHODS: Databases of national reference laboratories...... containing MIC values for Salmonella and E. coli isolated between 1994 and 2009 in animals, humans, food and the environment from 13 European countries were screened for isolates exhibiting a defined quinolone resistance phenotype, i.e. reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and nalidixic acid. PCR...... isolate. No qnrC or qepA genes were detected in either Salmonella or E. coli. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the occurrence and dissemination of PMQR genes in Salmonella and E. coli in Europe with a defined quinolone resistance phenotype. We also report the first detection of qnrD in Salmonella collected...

  17. Presence of Glycopeptide-Encoding Plasmids in Enterococcal Isolates from Food and Humans in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Valenzuela, Antonio Jesus Sanchez; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2011-01-01

    developed techniques for classification of plasmids. Replicons associated with sex pheromone-inducible plasmids were detected in all GR E. faecalis, whereas GR Enterococcus faecium contained plasmids known to be widely distributed among enterococci. vanA resistance is common in E. faecium isolates from meat...... and animals in Europe and is rarely found in E. faecalis. This article describes the first characterization of MGE from vanA mediated E. faecalis, thus linking this resistance genotype to pheromone responding plasmids....

  18. Plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infection in the Auckland community likely to be resistant to commonly prescribed antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkovic, Dragana; Morris, Arthur J; Dyet, Kristin; Bakker, Sarah; Heffernan, Helen

    2015-03-13

    To estimate the prevalence and characterise plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase (PMACBL)- producing Escherichia coli in the Auckland community. All cefoxitin non-susceptible (NS) E. coli identified at the two Auckland community laboratories between 1 January and 31 August 2011 were referred to ESR for boronic acid double-disc synergy testing, to detect the production of AmpC beta-lactamase, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the presence of PMACBL genes. PMACBL-producing isolates were typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and PCR was used to determine their phylogenetic group and to identify multilocus sequence type (ST)131. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) were performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. 101 (51%) and 74 (37%) of 200 non-duplicate cefoxitin-NS E. coli were PMACBL producers or assumed hyper-producers of chromosomal AmpC beta-lactamase, respectively. The prevalence of PMACBL-producing E. coli was 0.4%. PMACBL-producing E. coli were significantly less susceptible to norfloxacin, trimethoprim and nitrofurantoin than E. coli that produced neither a PMACBL nor an ESBL. Very few (4%) PMACBL-producing E. coli co-produced an ESBL. Most (88%) of the PMACBL-producing isolates had a CMY-2-like PMACBL. The PMACBL-producing E. coli isolates were diverse based on their PFGE profiles, 44% belonged to phylogenetic group D, and only four were ST131. 100 of the 101 PMACBL-producing E. coli were cultured from urine, and were causing urinary tract infection (UTI) in the majority of patients. The median patient age was 56 years and most (94%) of the patients were women. A greater proportion of patients with community-acquired UTI caused by PMACBL-producing E. coli received a beta-lactam antimicrobial than patients with community-acquired UTI caused by other non-AmpC, non-ESBL-producing E. coli. Thirty-six (43%) patients with community

  19. Destabilization of IncA and IncC plasmids by SGI1 and SGI2 type Salmonella genomic islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Christopher J; Hamidian, Mohammad; Ambrose, Stephanie J; Hall, Ruth M

    Both the Salmonella genomic islands (SGI) and the conjugative IncC plasmids are known to contribute substantially to the acquisition of resistance to multiple antibiotics, and plasmids in the A/C group are known to mobilize the Salmonella genomic island SGI1, which also carries multiple antibiotic resistance genes. Plasmid pRMH760 (IncC; A/C 2 ) was shown to mobilize SGI1 variants SGI1-I, SGI1-F, SGI1-K and SGI2 from Salmonella enterica to Escherichia coli where it was integrated at the preferred location, at the end of the trmE (thdF) gene. The plasmid was transferred at a similar frequency. However, we observed that co-transfer of the SGI and the plasmid was rarer. In E. coli to E. coli transfer, the frequency of transfer of the IncC plasmid pRMH760 was at least 1000-fold lower when the donor carried SGI1-I or SGI1-K, indicating that the SGI suppresses transfer of the plasmid. In addition, pRMH760 was rapidly lost from both E. coli and S. enterica strains that also carried SGI1-I, SGI1-F or SGI2. However, plasmid loss was not seen when the SGI1 variant was SGI1-K, which lacks two segments of the SGI1 backbone. The complete sequence of the SGI1-I and SGI1-F were determined and SGI1-K also carries two single base substitutions relative to SGI1-I. The IncA (A/C 1 ) plasmid RA1 was also shown to mobilize SGI2-A and though there are significant differences between the backbones of IncA and IncC plasmids, RA1 was also rapidly lost when SGI2-A was present in the same cell. We conclude that there are multiple interactions, both cooperative and antagonistic, between an IncA or IncC plasmid and the SGI1 and SGI2 family genomic islands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The qacC gene has recently spread between rolling circle plasmids of Staphylococcus, indicative of a novel gene transfer mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudy M. Wassenaar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of Staphylococcus species to quaternary ammonium compounds, frequently used as disinfectants and biocides, can be attributed to qac genes. These qac gene products belong to the Small Multidrug Resistant (SMR protein family, and are often encoded by rolling-circle (RC replicating plasmids. Four classes of SMR-type qac gene families have been described in Staphylococcus species: qacC, qacG, qacJ and qacH. Within their class, these genes are highly conserved, but qacC genes are extremely conserved, although they are found in variable plasmid backgrounds. The lower degree of sequence identity of these plasmids compared to the strict nucleotide conservation of their qacC means that this gene has recently spread. In the absence of insertion sequences or other genetic elements explaining the mobility, we sought for an explanation of mobilization by sequence comparison. Publically available sequences of qac genes, their flanking genes and the replication gene that is invariably present in RC-plasmids were compared to reconstruct the evolutionary history of these plasmids and to explain the recent spread of qacC. Here we propose a new model that explains how qacC is mobilized and transferred to acceptor RC-plasmids without assistance of other genes, by means of its location in between the Double Strand replication Origin (DSO and the Single-Strand replication Origin (SSO. The proposed mobilization model of this DSO-qacC-SSO element represents a novel mechanism of gene mobilization in RC-plasmids, which has also been employed by other genes, such as lnuA (conferring lincomycin resistance. The proposed gene mobility has aided to the wide spread of clinically relevant resistance genes in Staphylococcus populations.

  1. Horizontol dissemination of TEM- and SHV-typr beta-lactamase genes-carrying resistance plasmids amongst clonical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae Disseminação horizontal de plasmídios de resistência contendo genes de beta-lactamase dos tipos TEM e SHV entre isolados clínicos de Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Birol Ozgumus

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing bacteria have been isolated at increasing frequency worldwide. Expression of ESBL is often associated with multidrug resistance and dissemination by resistance plasmids. During a two-month period in 2000, 133 clinical isolates of enterobacterial strains were randomly collected from outpatients and inpatients at a university hospital in Turkey. The ESBL producing strains were determined by double-disk synergy (DDS testing. Twenty ESBL producing strains (15% including Escherichia coli (n = 9, Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 7, Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 2 and Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 2 were detected and further analyzed for their resistance transfer features, plasmid profile and nature of the resistance genes. Plasmid transfer assays were performed using broth mating techniques. TEM- and SHV- genes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and hybridization using specific probes. EcoRI restriction enzyme analyses of R plasmids were used in the detection of epidemic plasmids. Fourteen plasmid profiles (A, B1, B2, C1, and C2 to L were obtained with EcoRI restriction enzyme analysis. Most of these plasmids were detected to carry both TEM- and SHV-derived genes by PCR, and confirmed by localizing each gene by hybridization assay. Epidemiological evidence indicated that there was an apparent horizontal dissemination of conjugative R plasmids among multidrug-resistant enterobacterial genera and species in this hospitalO isolamento de bactérias produtoras de beta-lactamases de espectro expandido (ESBL está aumentando no mundo todo. Freqüentemente, a expressão de ESBL está associada com resistência a múltiplas drogas e disseminação por plasmídios de resistência. Durante um período de dois meses em 2000, 133 isolados clínicos de cepas de enterobactérias foram obtidos aleatoriamente de pacientes internos e externos de um hospital universitário na Turquia. As cepas produtoras de ESBL foram

  2. Sequences of a co-existing SXT element, a chromosomal integron (CI) and an IncA/C plasmid and their roles in multidrug resistance in a Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruibai; Li, Jie; Kan, Biao

    2016-09-01

    The ongoing seventh cholera pandemic is attributed to Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strains. Although antibiotic therapy ameliorates symptoms in patients and reduces pathogen transfer to the environment, multidrug resistance remains a major clinical threat. An O1 El Tor strain isolated from a patient in 1998 was intermediate or resistant to 13 antibiotics and could potentially produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), which is very rare in O1 strains. Using genome sequencing, three relevant genetic elements were identified in this strain: a hybrid SXT element (ICEVchCHN1307); a new IncA/C plasmid (pVC1307); and a chromosomal integron. Twenty antibiotic resistance genes were located on them, including blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-14 and phenotypically silenced tetRA genes. These data elucidate the role of individual genetic components in antibiotic resistance and the accumulation of drug resistance genes in V. cholerae. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Complete nucleotide sequence and analysis of two conjugative broad host range plasmids from a marine microbial biofilm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Norberg

    Full Text Available The complete nucleotide sequence of plasmids pMCBF1 and pMCBF6 was determined and analyzed. pMCBF1 and pMCBF6 form a novel clade within the IncP-1 plasmid family designated IncP-1 ς. The plasmids were exogenously isolated earlier from a marine biofilm. pMCBF1 (62 689 base pairs; bp and pMCBF6 (66 729 bp have identical backbones, but differ in their mercury resistance transposons. pMCBF1 carries Tn5053 and pMCBF6 carries Tn5058. Both are flanked by 5 bp direct repeats, typical of replicative transposition. Both insertions are in the vicinity of a resolvase gene in the backbone, supporting the idea that both transposons are "res-site hunters" that preferably insert close to and use external resolvase functions. The similarity of the backbones indicates recent insertion of the two transposons and the ongoing dynamics of plasmid evolution in marine biofilms. Both plasmids also carry the insertion sequence ISPst1, albeit without flanking repeats. ISPs1is located in an unusual site within the control region of the plasmid. In contrast to most known IncP-1 plasmids the pMCBF1/pMCBF6 backbone has no insert between the replication initiation gene (trfA and the vegetative replication origin (oriV. One pMCBF1/pMCBF6 block of about 2.5 kilo bases (kb has no similarity with known sequences in the databases. Furthermore, insertion of three genes with similarity to the multidrug efflux pump operon mexEF and a gene from the NodT family of the tripartite multi-drug resistance-nodulation-division (RND system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found. They do not seem to confer antibiotic resistance to the hosts of pMCBF1/pMCBF6, but the presence of RND on promiscuous plasmids may have serious implications for the spread of antibiotic multi-resistance.

  4. Emergence of carbapenem resistant Escherichia coli isolates producing blaNDM and blaOXA-48-like carried on IncA/C and IncL/M plasmids at two Iranian university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solgi, Hamid; Giske, Christian G; Badmasti, Farzad; Aghamohammad, Shadi; Havaei, Seyed Asghar; Sabeti, Shahram; Mostafavizadeh, Kamyar; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh

    2017-11-01

    The emergence of carbapenem resistance among Escherichia coli is a serious threat to public health. The objective of this study was to investigate resistance genes and clonality of carbapenem resistant E. coli in Iran. Between February 2015 and July 2016, a total of 32 non-duplicate E. coli isolates that were ertapenem resistant or intermediate (R/I-ETP) were collected from patient clinical or surveillance cultures (rectal swabs) at two university hospitals. Resistance genes were identified by PCR and sequencing. Conjugation experiments, PCR-based replicon typing, PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed. PCR assays showed, among the 32 isolates, twenty-nine strains produced carbapenemase genes. The predominant carbapenemase was bla OXA-48 (82.8%), followed by bla NDM-1 (31%), bla NDM-7 (6.9%) and bla OXA-181 (3.4%). Seven of the bla NDM positive isolates co-harbored bla OXA-48 carbapenemases. The bla NDM and bla OXA-48 were found in IncA/C and IncL/M conjugative plasmids, respectively. The bla CTX-M-15 , qnrA and intI1 genes were also present in most isolates. The PFGE revealed genetic diversity among the 28 E. coli isolates, which belonged to six minor PFGE clusters and 14 isolates were singletons. The 26 isolates were distributed into 18 STs, of which two were dominant (ST648 and ST167). We identified one bla NDM-1 -positive ST131 E. coli isolates that harbor the bla CTX-M-15 and bla TEM genes. Horizontal transfer of IncA/C and IncL/M plasmids has likely facilitated the spread of the bla OXA-48 and bla NDM genes among E. coli. Their clonal diversity and the presence of faecal carriers in isolates suggest an endemic spread of OXA-48 and NDM. Therefore, it emphasizes the critical importance of monitoring and controlling the spread of carbapenem resistant E. coli. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Identification of IncA/C Plasmid Replication and Maintenance Genes and Development of a Plasmid Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Steven J; Phan, Minh-Duy; Peters, Kate M; Forde, Brian M; Chong, Teik Min; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan; Paterson, David L; Walsh, Timothy R; Beatson, Scott A; Schembri, Mark A

    2017-02-01

    Plasmids of incompatibility group A/C (IncA/C) are becoming increasingly prevalent within pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae They are associated with the dissemination of multiple clinically relevant resistance genes, including bla CMY and bla NDM Current typing methods for IncA/C plasmids offer limited resolution. In this study, we present the complete sequence of a bla NDM-1 -positive IncA/C plasmid, pMS6198A, isolated from a multidrug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Hypersaturated transposon mutagenesis, coupled with transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS), was employed to identify conserved genetic elements required for replication and maintenance of pMS6198A. Our analysis of TraDIS data identified roles for the replicon, including repA, a toxin-antitoxin system; two putative partitioning genes, parAB; and a putative gene, 053 Construction of mini-IncA/C plasmids and examination of their stability within E. coli confirmed that the region encompassing 053 contributes to the stable maintenance of IncA/C plasmids. Subsequently, the four major maintenance genes (repA, parAB, and 053) were used to construct a new plasmid multilocus sequence typing (PMLST) scheme for IncA/C plasmids. Application of this scheme to a database of 82 IncA/C plasmids identified 11 unique sequence types (STs), with two dominant STs. The majority of bla NDM -positive plasmids examined (15/17; 88%) fall into ST1, suggesting acquisition and subsequent expansion of this bla NDM -containing plasmid lineage. The IncA/C PMLST scheme represents a standardized tool to identify, track, and analyze the dissemination of important IncA/C plasmid lineages, particularly in the context of epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of heavy metals facilitate the horizontal transfer of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance genes in water environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Gu, April Z; Cen, Tianyu; Li, Xiangyang; He, Miao; Li, Dan; Chen, Jianmin

    2018-06-01

    Although widespread antibiotic resistance has been mostly attributed to the selective pressure generated by overuse and misuse of antibiotics, recent growing evidence suggests that chemicals other than antibiotics, such as certain metals, can also select and stimulate antibiotic resistance via both co-resistance and cross-resistance mechanisms. For instance, tetL, merE, and oprD genes are resistant to both antibiotics and metals. However, the potential de novo resistance induced by heavy metals at environmentally-relevant low concentrations (much below theminimum inhibitory concentrations [MICs], also referred as sub-inhibitory) has hardly been explored. This study investigated and revealed that heavy metals, namely Cu(II), Ag(I), Cr(VI), and Zn(II), at environmentally-relevant and sub-inhibitory concentrations, promoted conjugative transfer of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) between E. coli strains. The mechanisms of this phenomenon were further explored, which involved intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, SOS response, increased cell membrane permeability, and altered expression of conjugation-relevant genes. These findings suggest that sub-inhibitory levels of heavy metals that widely present in various environments contribute to the resistance phenomena via facilitating horizontal transfer of ARGs. This study provides evidence from multiple aspects implicating the ecological effect of low levels of heavy metals on antibiotic resistance dissemination and highlights the urgency of strengthening efficacious policy and technology to control metal pollutants in the environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasmid-mediated UV-protection in Streptococcus lactis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopin, M.C.; Rouault, A. (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Rennes (France). Lab. de Recherches de Technologie Laitiere); Moillo-Batt, A. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Hopital de Pontchaillon, 35 - Rennes (France))

    1985-02-01

    Streptococcus lactis strain IL594 contains 9 plasmids, designated pIL1 to pIL9. On the basis of protoplast-induced curing experiments the authors showed that derivatives containing pIL7 were resistant to UV-irradiation while derivatives lacking pIL7 were sensitive. The pIL7-determined UV-protection was confirmed by co-transfer of the plasmid and of the character into a plasmid-free derivative of S. lactis IL594. Moreover, prophage induction required higher UV-fluence in this derivative carrying pIL7 than in the plasmid-free strain. This is the first report of a plasmid-mediated UV-protection in group N streptococci.

  8. Plasmid-mediated UV-protection in Streptococcus lactis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopin, M.-C.; Rouault, A.

    1985-01-01

    Streptococcus lactis strain IL594 contains 9 plasmids, designated pIL1 to pIL9. On the basis of protoplast-induced curing experiments the authors showed that derivatives containing pIL7 were resistant to UV-irradiation while derivatives lacking pIL7 were sensitive. The pIL7-determined UV-protection was confirmed by cotransfer of the plasmid and of the character into a plasmid-free derivative of S. lactis IL594. Moreover, prophage induction required higher UV-fluence in this derivative carrying pIL7 than in the plasmid-free strain. This is the first report of a plasmid-mediated UV-protection in group N streptococci. (orig.)

  9. An Exploration of Feminist Family Therapists' Resistance to and Collusion with Oppression

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Annabelle Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In this study, I explore the ways in which feminist family therapists encourage exploration of, resistance to, and collusion with, oppression. I explore qualitatively the critical dialogues, both inner, and with others, that feminist family therapists employ to address oppressive systems. My research questions are: a. How do family therapists who identify as feminist describe how their feminist identities and ideas about feminism have evolved over time? b. How do feminist family therapists re...

  10. Two Different Tetracycline Resistance Mechanisms, Plasmid-Carried tet(L) and Chromosomally Located Transposon-Associated tet(M), Coexist in Lactobacillus sakei Rits 9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ammor, M.S.; Gueimonde, M.; Danielsen, M.; Zagorec, M.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Reyes-Gavilán, de los C.G.; Mayo, B.; Margolles, A.

    2008-01-01

    Lactobacillus sakei is extensively used as functional starter culture in fermented meat products. One of the safety criteria of a starter culture is the absence of potentially transferable antibiotic resistance determinants. However, tetracycline-resistant L. sakei strains have already been

  11. Pmr, a histone-like protein H1 (H-NS) family protein encoded by the IncP-7 plasmid pCAR1, is a key global regulator that alters host function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Choong-Soo; Suzuki, Chiho; Naito, Kunihiko; Takeda, Toshiharu; Takahashi, Yurika; Sai, Fumiya; Terabayashi, Tsuguno; Miyakoshi, Masatoshi; Shintani, Masaki; Nishida, Hiromi; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki

    2010-09-01

    Histone-like protein H1 (H-NS) family proteins are nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) conserved among many bacterial species. The IncP-7 plasmid pCAR1 is transmissible among various Pseudomonas strains and carries a gene encoding the H-NS family protein, Pmr. Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is a host of pCAR1, which harbors five genes encoding the H-NS family proteins PP_1366 (TurA), PP_3765 (TurB), PP_0017 (TurC), PP_3693 (TurD), and PP_2947 (TurE). Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that the presence of pCAR1 does not affect the transcription of these five genes and that only pmr, turA, and turB were primarily transcribed in KT2440(pCAR1). In vitro pull-down assays revealed that Pmr strongly interacted with itself and with TurA, TurB, and TurE. Transcriptome comparisons of the pmr disruptant, KT2440, and KT2440(pCAR1) strains indicated that pmr disruption had greater effects on the host transcriptome than did pCAR1 carriage. The transcriptional levels of some genes that increased with pCAR1 carriage, such as the mexEF-oprN efflux pump genes and parI, reverted with pmr disruption to levels in pCAR1-free KT2440. Transcriptional levels of putative horizontally acquired host genes were not altered by pCAR1 carriage but were altered by pmr disruption. Identification of genome-wide Pmr binding sites by ChAP-chip (chromatin affinity purification coupled with high-density tiling chip) analysis demonstrated that Pmr preferentially binds to horizontally acquired DNA regions. The Pmr binding sites overlapped well with the location of the genes differentially transcribed following pmr disruption on both the plasmid and the chromosome. Our findings indicate that Pmr is a key factor in optimizing gene transcription on pCAR1 and the host chromosome.

  12. Identification, characterization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the rolling-circle replication initiator protein from plasmid pSTK1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, Stephen B.; Mecia, Lauren B.; Phillips, Simon E. V.; Thomas, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    A proteolytically stable fragment of a plasmid replication initiation protein from the thermophile G. stearothermophilus has been biochemically characterized, crystallized and diffraction data collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å. Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens poses an ever-increasing risk to human health. In antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus this resistance often resides in extra-chromosomal plasmids, such as those of the pT181 family, which replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism mediated by a plasmid-encoded replication initiation protein. Currently, there is no structural information available for the pT181-family Rep proteins. Here, the crystallization of a catalytically active fragment of a homologous replication initiation protein from the thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus responsible for the replication of plasmid pSTK1 is reported. Crystals of the RepSTK1 fragment diffracted to a resolution of 2.5 Å and belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1

  13. Identification of oriT and a recombination hot spot in the IncA/C plasmid backbone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, Anna; Szabó, Mónika; Olasz, Ferenc; Kiss, János

    2017-09-06

    Dissemination of multiresistance has been accelerating among pathogenic bacteria in recent decades. The broad host-range conjugative plasmids of the IncA/C family are effective vehicles of resistance determinants in Gram-negative bacteria. Although more than 150 family members have been sequenced to date, their conjugation system and other functions encoded by the conserved plasmid backbone have been poorly characterized. The key cis-acting locus, the origin of transfer (oriT), has not yet been unambiguously identified. We present evidence that IncA/C plasmids have a single oriT locus immediately upstream of the mobI gene encoding an indispensable transfer factor. The fully active oriT spans ca. 150-bp AT-rich region overlapping the promoters of mobI and contains multiple inverted and direct repeats. Within this region, the core domain of oriT with reduced but detectable transfer activity was confined to a 70-bp segment containing two inverted repeats and one copy of a 14-bp direct repeat. In addition to oriT, a second locus consisting of a 14-bp imperfect inverted repeat was also identified, which mimicked the function of oriT but which was found to be a recombination site. Recombination between two identical copies of these sites is RecA-independent, requires a plasmid-encoded recombinase and resembles the functioning of dimer-resolution systems.

  14. Cacao families and parents selected as resistant to natural infection of Moniliophthora perniciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina S. Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The known sources of resistance to witches’ broom (WB, a severe disease of cacao, are limited. Aiming to identify families and parents resistant to Moniliophthora perniciosa, a population of 22 families was evaluated by assessing the number of brooms formed per tree during 10 years under field conditions. The population was established in randomized blocks with three replications of 12 plants each. Significant differences were observed among families. The most outstanding families were NA33 x RB39 and RB39 x P4B, which presented the lowest WB incidence during 10 years. The increase in natural field infection of Scavina clones families and their descendants were clearly demonstrated after 2006. The existence of additive effects for resistance appears clearly for families, which had other source of resistance associated with Scavina. Clones RB39, RB36, P4B, NA33 and CSUL3 are promising parents for pyramiding resistance genes and increasing the stability and durability of resistance to WB.

  15. Hepatic steatosis does not cause insulin resistance in people with familial hypobetalipoproteinaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M. E.; Lammers, N. M.; Nederveen, A. J.; van der Graaf, M.; Heerschap, A.; Ackermans, M. T.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Stroes, E. S.; Serlie, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is strongly associated with hepatic and whole-body insulin resistance. It has proved difficult to determine whether hepatic steatosis itself is a direct cause of insulin resistance. In patients with familial hypobetalipoproteinaemia (FHBL), hepatic steatosis is a direct consequence

  16. A study on hypophosphatemic vitamin D resistant rickets in a family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Doo Young; Byon, Joo Nam; Suh, Chee Jang; Won, Jong Jin [Won Kwang University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-09-15

    Hypophosphatemic vitamin D resistant rickets is a form of rickets characterized by typical structural deformities and roentgenographic and metabolic changes. It has a strong familiar tendency and appear to genetically transmitted. Authors experienced 7 patients with hypophoshatemic vitamin D resistant rickets which have been manifested through three generation in a family at Won Kwang University Hospital from December 1982 to May 1984. Authors studied hypophoshatemic vitamin D resistant rickets clinically, radiologically, biochemically and pathologically, and reported with review of literatures.

  17. Antibiotic Trapping by Plasmid-Encoded CMY-2 beta-Lactamase Combined with Reduced Outer Membrane Permeability as a Mechanism of Carbapenem Resistance in Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goessens, W.H.F.; van der Bij, A.K.; van Boxtel, R.; Pitout, J.D.D.; van Ulsen, J.P.; Melles, D.C.; Tommassen, J.

    2013-01-01

    A liver transplant patient was admitted with cholangitis, for which meropenem therapy was started. Initial cultures showed a carbapenem-susceptible (CS) Escherichia coli strain, but during admission, a carbapenem-resistant (CR) E. coli strain was isolated. Analysis of the outer membrane protein

  18. Antibiotic trapping by plasmid-encoded cmy-2-lactamase combined with reduced outer membrane permeability as a mechanism of carbapenem resistance in escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); A.K. van der Bij (Akke); R. van Boxtel (Ria); J.D.D. Pitout (J. D D); P. van Ulsen (Peter); D.C. Melles (Damian); J. Tommassen (Jan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractA liver transplant patient was admitted with cholangitis, for which meropenem therapy was started. Initial cultures showed a carbapenem-susceptible (CS) Escherichia coli strain, but during admission, a carbapenem-resistant (CR) E. coli strain was isolated. Analysis of the outer membrane

  19. Persistence of antibiotic resistance and plasmid-associated genes in soil following application of sewage sludge and abundance on vegetables at harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahube, Teddie O; Marti, Romain; Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Duenk, Peter; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward

    2016-07-01

    Sewage sludge recovered from wastewater treatment plants contains antibiotic residues and is rich in antibiotic resistance genes, selected for and enriched in the digestive tracts of human using antibiotics. The use of sewage sludge as a crop fertilizer constitutes a potential route of human exposure to antibiotic resistance genes through consumption of contaminated crops. Several gene targets associated with antibiotic resistance (catA1, catB3, ereA, ereB, erm(B), str(A), str(B), qnrD, sul1, and mphA), mobile genetic elements (int1, mobA, IncW repA, IncP1 groups -α, -β, -δ, -γ, -ε), and bacterial 16S rRNA (rrnS) were quantified by qPCR from soil and vegetable samples obtained from unamended and sludge-amended plots at an experimental field in London, Ontario. The qPCR data reveals an increase in abundance of gene targets in the soil and vegetables samples, indicating that there is potential for additional crop exposure to antibiotic resistance genes carried within sewage sludge following field application. It is therefore advisable to allow an appropriate delay period before harvesting of vegetables for human consumption.

  20. Fast and efficient three-step target-specific curing of a virulence plasmid in Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Marcos H; Teplitski, Max

    2015-12-01

    Virulence plasmids borne by serovars of Salmonella enterica carry genes involved in its pathogenicity, as well as other functions. Characterization of phenotypes associated with virulence plasmids requires a system for efficiently curing strains of their virulence plasmids. Here, we developed a 3-step protocol for targeted curing of virulence plasmids. The protocol involves insertion of an I-SecI restriction site linked to an antibiotic resistance gene into the target plasmid using λ-Red mutagenesis, followed by the transformation with a temperature-sensitive auxiliary plasmid which carries I-SecI nuclease expressed from a tetracycline-inducible promoter. Finally, the auxiliary plasmid is removed by incubation at 42 °C and the plasmid-less strains are verified on antibiotic-containing media. This method is fast and very efficient: over 90 % of recovered colonies lacked their virulence plasmid.

  1. Class 1 integrons and plasmid-mediated multiple resistance genes of the Campylobacter species from pediatric patient of a university hospital in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Chih; Tien, Ni; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Huang, Tsurng-Juhn; Wang, I-Kuan

    2017-01-01

    The Campylobacter species usually causes infection between humans and livestock interaction via livestock breeding. The studies of the Campylobacter species thus far in all clinical isolates were to show the many kinds of antibiotic phenomenon that were produced. Their integrons cause the induction of antibiotic resistance between bacterial species in the Campylobacter species. The bacterial strains from the diarrhea of pediatric patient which isolated by China Medical University Hospital storage bank. These isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The anti-microbial susceptibility test showed that Campylobacter species resistant to cefepime, streptomycin, tobramycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (all C. jejuni and C. coli isolates), ampicillin (89% of C. jejuni ; 75% of C. coli ), cefotaxime (78% of C. jejuni ; 100% of C. coli ), nalidixic acid (78% of C. jejuni ; 100% of C. coli ), tetracycline (89% of C. jejuni ; 25% C. coli ), ciprofloxacin (67% of C. jejuni ; 50% C. coli ), kanamycin (33% of C. jejuni ; 75% C. coli ) and the C. fetus isolate resisted to ampicillin, cefotaxime, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, kanamycin by disc-diffusion method. The effect for ciprofloxacin and tetracycline of the Campylobacter species was tested using an E-test. The tet, erm , and integron genes were detected by PCR assay. According to the sequencing analysis (type I: dfr12 - gcuF - aadA2 genes and type II: dfrA7 gene), the cassette type was identified. The most common gene cassette type (type I: 9 C. jejuni and 2 C. coli isolates; type II: 1 C. coli isolates) was found in 12 class I integrase-positive isolates. Our results suggested an important information in the latency of Campylobacter species with resistance genes, and irrational antimicrobial use should be concerned.

  2. Expressional and Biochemical Characterization of Rice Disease Resistance Gene Xa3/Xa26 Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songjie Xu; Yinglong Cao; Xianghua Li; Shiping Wang

    2007-01-01

    The rice (Oryza sativa L.) Xa3/Xa26 gene, conferring race-specific resistance to bacterial blight disease and encoding a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor kinase-like protein, belongs to a multigene family consisting of tandem clustered homologous genes, colocalizing with several uncharacterized genes for resistance to bacterial blight or fungal blast. To provide more information on the expressional and biochemical characteristics of the Xa3/Xa26 family, we analyzed the family members. Four Xa3/Xa26 family members in the indica rice variety Teqing, which carries a bacterial blight resistance gene with a chromosomal location tightly linked to Xa3/Xa26, and five Xa3/Xa26 family members in the japonica rice variety Nipponbare, which carries at least one uncharacterized blast resistance gene, were constitutively expressed in leaf tissue. The result suggests that some of the family members may be candidates of these uncharacterized resistance genes. At least five putative N-glycosylation sites in the LRR domain of XA3/XA26 protein are not glycosylated. The XA3/XA26 and its family members MRKa and MRKc all possess the consensus sequences of paired cysteines, which putatively function in dimerization of the receptor proteins for signal transduction, immediately before the first LRR and immediately after the last LRR. However, no homo-dimer between the XA3/XA26 molecules or hetero-dimer between XA3/XA26 and MRKa or MRKc were formed, indicating that XA3/XA26 protein might function either as a monomer or a hetero-dimer formed with other protein outside of the XA3/XA26 family. These results provide valuable information for further extensive investigation into this multiple protein family.

  3. Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamases, AmpC Beta-Lactamases and Plasmid Mediated Quinolone Resistance in Klebsiella spp. from Companion Animals in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donati, Valentina; Feltrin, Fabiola; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2014-01-01

    also for the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene. All Klebsiella isolates showed multiresistance towards aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, trimethoprim and amphenicols, mediated by strA/B, aadA2, aadB, ant (2")-Ia, aac(6')-Ib, sul, tet, dfr and cat genes in various combinations. The emergence in pets...... of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella with ESBL, AmpC and PMQR determinants, poses further and serious challenges in companion animal therapy and raise concerns for possible bidirectional transmission between pets and humans, especially at household level....

  4. Characterization of a novel plasmid type and various genetic contexts of bla OXA-58 in Acinetobacter spp. from multiple cities in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqi Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Several studies have described the epidemiological distribution of blaOXA-58-harboring Acinetobacter baumannii in China. However, there is limited data concerning the replicon types of blaOXA-58-carrying plasmids and the genetic context surrounding blaOXA-58 in Acinetobacter spp. in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve non-duplicated blaOXA-58-harboring Acinetobacter spp. isolates were collected from six hospitals in five different cities between 2005 and 2010. The molecular epidemiology of the isolates was carried out using PFGE and multilocus sequence typing. Carbapenemase-encoding genes and plasmid replicase genes were identified by PCR. The genetic location of blaOXA-58 was analyzed using S1-nuclease method. Plasmid conjugation and electrotransformation were performed to evaluate the transferability of blaOXA-58-harboring plasmids. The genetic structure surrounding blaOXA-58 was determined by cloning experiments. The twelve isolates included two Acinetobacter pittii isolates (belong to one pulsotype, three Acinetobacter nosocomialis isolates (belong to two pulsotypes and seven Acinetobacter baumannii isolates (belong to two pulsotypes/sequence types. A. baumannii ST91 was found to be a potential multidrug resistant risk clone carrying both blaOXA-58 and blaOXA-23. blaOXA-58 located on plasmids varied from ca. 52 kb to ca. 143 kb. All plasmids can be electrotransformed to A. baumannii recipient, but were untypeable by the current replicon typing scheme. A novel plasmid replicase named repAci10 was identified in blaOXA-58-harboring plasmids of two A. pittii isolates, three A. nosocomialis isolates and two A. baumannii isolates. Four kinds of genetic contexts of blaOXA-58 were identified. The transformants of plasmids with structure of IS6 family insertion sequence (ISOur1, IS1008 or IS15-ΔISAba3-like element-blaOXA-58 displayed carbapenem nonsusceptible, while others with structure of intact ISAba3-like element

  5. Persistence Mechanisms of Conjugative Plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Are plasmids selfish parasitic DNA molecules or an integrated part of the bacterial genome? This chapter reviews the current understanding of the persistence mechanisms of conjugative plasmids harbored by bacterial cells and populations. The diversity and intricacy of mechanisms affecting the suc...

  6. The characteristics of micrococcus (deinococcus) radiodurans sark plasmids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjarief, Sri Hariani; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    The characterization of micrococcus (deinococcus) radiodurans sark plasmids. This bacterium has been classified as a new genus deinococcus radiodurans which is resistant to gamma-rays. It can repair itself completely almost all of DNA damages including double strand breaks induced by gamma-rays up to about 5 KGy. To reveal the repair mechanism, several investigations had been done to develop a cloning vector available for the genetic analysis. For this purpose D. radiodurans Sark are to be prepared as a vector by studying the characteristics of its plasmid. Plasmids were isolated by electrophoresis using 0.6% low-melting-temperature agarose in TAE and run for 5.5 hours, followed by the identification. An antibiotic marker was also carried out in this experiment to identify its location in the genetic materials of the cell, beside making a restriction map of the plasmid. Results have shown that D. radiodurans Sark has 4 plasmids (P1, P2, P3, and P4) and the refampicin resistant genes were not found in the plasmid. (authors). 14 refs; 4 figs

  7. Explanatory chapter: how plasmid preparation kits work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Laura

    2013-01-01

    To isolate plasmid DNA from bacteria using a commercial plasmid miniprep kit (if interested, compare this protocol with Isolation of plasmid DNA from bacteria). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Horizontal Transfer of the Salmonella enterica Serovar Infantis Resistance and Virulence Plasmid pESI to the Gut Microbiota of Warm-Blooded Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Aviv

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis is one of the prevalent salmonellae worldwide. Recently, we showed that the emergence of S. Infantis in Israel was facilitated by the acquisition of a unique megaplasmid (pESI conferring multidrug resistance and increased virulence phenotypes. Here we elucidate the ecology, transmission properties, and regulation of pESI. We show that despite its large size (~280 kb, pESI does not impose a significant metabolic burden in vitro and that it has been recently fixed in the domestic S. Infantis population. pESI conjugation and the transcription of its pilus (pil genes are inhibited at the ambient temperature (27°C and by ≥1% bile but increased under temperatures of 37 to 41°C, oxidative stress, moderate osmolarity, and the microaerobic conditions characterizing the intestinal environment of warm-blooded animals. The pESI-encoded protein TraB and the oxygen homeostasis regulator Fnr were identified as transcriptional regulators of pESI conjugation. Using the mouse model, we show that following S. Infantis infection, pESI can be horizontally transferred to the gut microbiota, including to commensal Escherichia coli strains. Possible transfer, but not persistence, of pESI was also observed into Gram-positive mouse microbiota species, especially Lactobacillus reuteri. Moreover, pESI was demonstrated to further disseminate from gut microbiota to S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, in the context of gastrointestinal infection. These findings exhibit the ability of a selfish clinically relevant megaplasmid to distribute to and from the microbiota and suggest an overlooked role of the microbiota as a reservoir of mobile genetic elements and intermediator in the spread of resistance and virulence genes between commensals and pathogenic bacteria.

  9. Mobility of the native Bacillus subtilis conjugative plasmid pLS20 is regulated by intercellular signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Praveen K; Ramachandran, Gayetri; Ramos-Ruiz, Ricardo; Peiró-Pastor, Ramón; Abia, David; Wu, Ling J; Meijer, Wilfried J J

    2013-10-01

    Horizontal gene transfer mediated by plasmid conjugation plays a significant role in the evolution of bacterial species, as well as in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity determinants. Characterization of their regulation is important for gaining insights into these features. Relatively little is known about how conjugation of Gram-positive plasmids is regulated. We have characterized conjugation of the native Bacillus subtilis plasmid pLS20. Contrary to the enterococcal plasmids, conjugation of pLS20 is not activated by recipient-produced pheromones but by pLS20-encoded proteins that regulate expression of the conjugation genes. We show that conjugation is kept in the default "OFF" state and identified the master repressor responsible for this. Activation of the conjugation genes requires relief of repression, which is mediated by an anti-repressor that belongs to the Rap family of proteins. Using both RNA sequencing methodology and genetic approaches, we have determined the regulatory effects of the repressor and anti-repressor on expression of the pLS20 genes. We also show that the activity of the anti-repressor is in turn regulated by an intercellular signaling peptide. Ultimately, this peptide dictates the timing of conjugation. The implications of this regulatory mechanism and comparison with other mobile systems are discussed.

  10. Targeting the HER family with Pan-HER effectively overcomes resistance to cetuximab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Mari; Bahrar, Harsh; Brand, Toni M; Pearson, Hannah E; Coan, John P; Orbuch, Rachel A; Flanigan, Bailey G; Swick, Adam D; Prabakaran, Prashanth; Lantto, Johan; Horak, Ivan D.; Kragh, Michael; Salgia, Ravi; Kimple, Randy J; Wheeler, Deric L

    2016-01-01

    Cetuximab, an antibody against the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) has shown efficacy in treating head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), metastatic colorectal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite the clinical success of cetuximab, many patients do not respond to cetuximab. Furthermore, virtually all patients who do initially respond become refractory, highlighting both intrinsic and acquired resistance to cetuximab as significant clinical problems. To understand mechanistically how cancerous cells acquire resistance, we previously developed models of acquired resistance using the H226 NSCLC and UM-SCC1 HNSCC cell lines. Cetuximab-resistant clones showed a robust upregulation and dependency on the HER family receptors EGFR, HER2 and HER3. Here, we examined Pan-HER, a mixture of six antibodies targeting these receptors on cetuximab-resistant clones. In cells exhibiting acquired or intrinsic resistance to cetuximab, Pan-HER treatment decreased all three receptors’ protein levels and down-stream activation of AKT and MAPK. This correlated with decreased cell proliferation in cetuximab-resistant clones. To determine whether Pan-HER had a therapeutic benefit in vivo, we established de novo cetuximab-resistant mouse xenografts and treated resistant tumors with Pan-HER. This regimen resulted in a superior growth delay of cetuximab-resistant xenografts compared to mice continued on cetuximab. Furthermore, intrinsically cetuximab-resistant HNSCC patient-derived xenograft tumors treated with Pan-HER exhibited significant growth delay compared to vehicle/cetuximab controls. These results suggest that targeting HER family receptors simultaneously with Pan-HER is a promising treatment strategy for tumors displaying intrinsic or acquired resistance to cetuximab. PMID:27422810

  11. Plasmid profiles and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukoya, D K; Asielue, J O; Olasupo, N A; Ikea, J K

    1995-06-01

    In an investigation into the problems of infections due to Staphylococcus aureus in Nigeria, 100 strains were isolated from various hospitals in Lagos. The strains were screened for the presence of plasmids and for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Plasmids were extracted by modification of the method of Takahashi and Nagono[1]. The plasmids were diverse in nature. The strains were found to be highly resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics.

  12. Developing Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) for Parents of Treatment-Resistant Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Versek, Brian; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Meyers, Kathleen; Benishek, Lois A.; Bresani, Elena; Washio, Yukiko; Arria, Amelia; Meyers, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a project focused on training parents to facilitate their treatment-resistant adolescent's treatment entry and to manage their child after entry into community-based treatment. Controlled studies show that Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a unilateral treatment that fosters treatment entry of adults; however,…

  13. Assessment of beech scale resistance in full- and half-sibling American beech families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason; C. Dana Nelson

    2010-01-01

    A beech bark disease infested American beech tree (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and two uninfested trees were selected in a mature natural stand in Michigan, USA, and mated to form two full-sib families for evaluating the inheritance of resistance to beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind.), the insect element of beech bark disease....

  14. Conjugal plasmid transfer (pAM beta 1) in Lactobacillus plantarum.

    OpenAIRE

    Shrago, A W; Chassy, B M; Dobrogosz, W J

    1986-01-01

    The streptococcal plasmid pAM beta 1 (erythromycin resistance) was transferred via conjugation from Streptococcus faecalis to Lactobacillus plantarum and was transferred among L. plantarum strains. Streptococcus sanguis Challis was transformed with pAM beta 1 isolated from these transconjugants, and transformants harboring intact pAM beta 1 could conjugate the plasmid back to L. plantarum.

  15. Plasmid and chromosome partitioning: surprises from phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Bugge Jensen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    Plasmids encode partitioning genes (par) that are required for faithful plasmid segregation at cell division. Initially, par loci were identified on plasmids, but more recently they were also found on bacterial chromosomes. We present here a phylogenetic analysis of par loci from plasmids and chr...

  16. IncA/C plasmids: An emerging threat to human and animal health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy J; Lang, Kevin S

    2012-01-01

    Incompatibility group IncA/C plasmids are large, low copy, theta-replicating plasmids that have been described in the literature for over 40 years. However, they have only recently been intensively studied on the genomic level because of their associations with the emergence of multidrug resistance in enteric pathogens of humans and animals. These plasmids are unique among other enterobacterial plasmids in many aspects, including their modular structure and gene content. While the IncA/C plasmid genome structure has now been well defined, many questions remain pertaining to their basic biological mechanisms of dissemination and regulation. Here, we discuss the history of IncA/C plasmids in light of our recent understanding of their population distribution, genomics, and effects on host bacteria.

  17. Insights into dynamics of mobile genetic elements in hyperthermophilic environments from five new Thermococcus plasmids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mart Krupovic

    Full Text Available Mobilome of hyperthermophilic archaea dwelling in deep-sea hydrothermal vents is poorly characterized. To gain insight into genetic diversity and dynamics of mobile genetic elements in these environments we have sequenced five new plasmids from different Thermococcus strains that have been isolated from geographically remote hydrothermal vents. The plasmids were ascribed to two subfamilies, pTN2-like and pEXT9a-like. Gene content and phylogenetic analyses illuminated a robust connection between pTN2-like plasmids and Pyrococcus abyssi virus 1 (PAV1, with roughly half of the viral genome being composed of genes that have homologues in plasmids. Unexpectedly, pEXT9a-like plasmids were found to be closely related to the previously sequenced plasmid pMETVU01 from Methanocaldococcus vulcanius M7. Our data suggests that the latter observation is most compatible with an unprecedented horizontal transfer of a pEXT9a-like plasmid from Thermococcales to Methanococcales. Gene content analysis revealed that thermococcal plasmids encode Hfq-like proteins and toxin-antitoxin (TA systems of two different families, VapBC and RelBE. Notably, although abundant in archaeal genomes, to our knowledge, TA and hfq-like genes have not been previously found in archaeal plasmids or viruses. Finally, the plasmids described here might prove to be useful in developing new genetic tools for hyperthermophiles.

  18. Antibiogram and plasmid profiling of carbapenemase and extended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The increased reports of ESBL dissemination from various centres in south western, Nigeria and the recent emergence of carbapenem resistant bacteria prompted the conception of this study. Objectives: To demonstrate the relationship between high molecular weight plasmids and the expression of antibiotic ...

  19. Antibiogram and plasmid profiling of carbapenemase and extended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    susceptibility was recorded against the Quinolone class of antibiotics; Meropenem remained the most active antibiotic against ESBL isolates ... Conclusion: Due to the relationship between high molecular weight plasmids and multi-drug resistance, we hereby recommend ..... Agents. Chemotherapy 2005; 49: 2137-. 2139. 7.

  20. Genetic characterization of plasmid pRJ5 of Staphylococcus aureus compared to plasmid pE194

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.S. de; Freire Bastos, M.C. de

    1993-01-01

    The pRJ5, a naturally occurring constitutive macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B (MLS) resistance plasmid of Staphylococcus aureus, was compared to pE194, a plasmid that confers the inducible phenotype. pRJ5 was stable in all strains of S. aureus tested, even under growth at 43 O C, which distinguished it from pE194 which was shown to be thermo-sensitive for replication. pRJ5, like pE194, was highly unstable in Bacillus subtilis when the cells were grown in nonselective conditions. Multimeric forms of pRJ5 DNA were detected in the few cells of B. subtilis that retained this plasmid. pE194 was transduced by phages φ 11 and φ 443 at frequencies 400 and 20-fold higher, respectively, than pRJ5. Both plasmids were co-transduced with the plasmid pRJ4. pRJ5 was shown to be compatible with pE194. Therefore they belong to distinct Inc groups. Hybridization studies revealed that pRJ5 shares a 1.35 kb region of homology to pE194, which is limited to the erm gene, conferring MLS resistance. (author)

  1. antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmid profiles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-09-01

    Sep 1, 2000 ... antimicrobial agents by use of disc diffusion technique(23). Bacterial strains were ... a roller drum at 37°C. About 1.5 ml of each overnight broth culture was ... antimicrobial agents compared to 36% of milk isolates (p. = 0.0394). A higher .... Hall, B., Greene, R., Potter, M. E. Cohen, M. L. and Brake, B. A..

  2. The ABC gene family in arthropods: comparative genomics and role in insecticide transport and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, Wannes; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    About a 100 years ago, the Drosophila white mutant marked the birth of Drosophila genetics. The white gene turned out to encode the first well studied ABC transporter in arthropods. The ABC gene family is now recognized as one of the largest transporter families in all kingdoms of life. The majority of ABC proteins function as primary-active transporters that bind and hydrolyze ATP while transporting a large diversity of substrates across lipid membranes. Although extremely well studied in vertebrates for their role in drug resistance, less is known about the role of this family in the transport of endogenous and exogenous substances in arthropods. The ABC families of five insect species, a crustacean and a chelicerate have been annotated in some detail. We conducted a thorough phylogenetic analysis of the seven arthropod and human ABC protein subfamilies, to infer orthologous relationships that might suggest conserved function. Most orthologous relationships were found in the ABCB half transporter, ABCD, ABCE and ABCF subfamilies, but specific expansions within species and lineages are frequently observed and discussed. We next surveyed the role of ABC transporters in the transport of xenobiotics/plant allelochemicals and their involvement in insecticide resistance. The involvement of ABC transporters in xenobiotic resistance in arthropods is historically not well documented, but an increasing number of studies using unbiased differential gene expression analysis now points to their importance. We give an overview of methods that can be used to link ABC transporters to resistance. ABC proteins have also recently been implicated in the mode of action and resistance to Bt toxins in Lepidoptera. Given the enormous interest in Bt toxicology in transgenic crops, such findings will provide an impetus to further reveal the role of ABC transporters in arthropods. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of a Novel Conjugative Plasmid in Mycobacteria That Requires Both Type IV and Type VII Secretion

    KAUST Repository

    Ummels, R.; Abdallah, A. M.; Kuiper, V.; Aajoud, A.; Sparrius, M.; Naeem, R.; Spaink, H. P.; van Soolingen, D.; Pain, Arnab; Bitter, W.

    2014-01-01

    Conjugative plasmids play an important role in horizontal gene transfer between different bacteria and, as such, in their adaptation and evolution. This effect is most obvious in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. Thus far, conjugation of natural plasmids has been described only rarely for mycobacterial species. In fact, it is generally accepted that M. tuberculosis does not show any recent sign of horizontal gene transfer. In this study, we describe the identification of a new widespread conjugative plasmid that can also be efficiently transferred to M. tuberculosis. This plasmid therefore poses both a threat and an opportunity. The threat is that, through the acquisition of antibiotic resistance markers, this plasmid could start a rapid spread of antibiotic resistance genes between pathogenic mycobacteria. The opportunity is that we could use this plasmid to generate new tools for the efficient introduction of foreign DNA in slow-growing mycobacteria.

  4. Recombinogenic engineering of conjugative plasmids with fluorescent marker cassettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Molin, Søren; Zechner, E.L.

    2002-01-01

    An efficient approach for the insertion of fluorescent marker genes with sequence specificity into conjugative plasmids in Escherichia coli is described. For this purpose, homologous recombination of linear double-stranded targeting DNA was mediated by the bacteriophage lambda recombination...... resistance genes and fluorescent markers. The choice of 5' non-homologous extensions in primer pairs used for amplifying the marker cassettes determines the site specificity of the targeting DNA. This methodology is applicable to the modification of all plasmids that replicate in E coli and is not restricted...

  5. Genomic analysis of 495 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium reveals broad dissemination of a vanA plasmid in more than 19 clones from Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, Mette; Gumpert, Heidi; Bayliss, Sion

    2017-01-01

    . The majority of the isolates were located in three groups (n = 44, 100 and 218) and clonal spread of VREfm between wards and hospitals was identified. Five Tn1546-like transposon types were identified. A dominant truncated transposon (type 4, 92%) was spread across all but one VREfm group. The closed van......A plasmid was highly covered by reads from isolates containing the type 4 transposon. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that it was the dissemination of the type 4 Tn1546-like transposon and plasmid via horizontal transfer to multiple populations of E. faecium, followed by clonal spread of new VREfm clones...

  6. Identification of a Novel Conjugative Plasmid in Mycobacteria That Requires Both Type IV and Type VII Secretion

    KAUST Repository

    Ummels, R.

    2014-09-23

    Conjugative plasmids have been identified in a wide variety of different bacteria, ranging from proteobacteria to firmicutes, and conjugation is one of the most efficient routes for horizontal gene transfer. The most widespread mechanism of plasmid conjugation relies on different variants of the type IV secretion pathway. Here, we describe the identification of a novel type of conjugative plasmid that seems to be unique for mycobacteria. Interestingly, while this plasmid is efficiently exchanged between different species of slow-growing mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it could not be transferred to any of the fast-growing mycobacteria tested. Genetic analysis of the conjugative plasmid showed the presence of a locus containing homologues of three type IV secretion system components and a relaxase. In addition, a new type VII secretion locus was present. Using transposon insertion mutagenesis, we show that in fact both these secretion systems are essential for conjugation, indicating that this plasmid represents a new class of conjugative plasmids requiring two secretion machineries. This plasmid could form a useful new tool to exchange or introduce DNA in slow-growing mycobacteria. IMPORTANCE: Conjugative plasmids play an important role in horizontal gene transfer between different bacteria and, as such, in their adaptation and evolution. This effect is most obvious in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. Thus far, conjugation of natural plasmids has been described only rarely for mycobacterial species. In fact, it is generally accepted that M. tuberculosis does not show any recent sign of horizontal gene transfer. In this study, we describe the identification of a new widespread conjugative plasmid that can also be efficiently transferred to M. tuberculosis. This plasmid therefore poses both a threat and an opportunity. The threat is that, through the acquisition of antibiotic resistance markers, this plasmid could start a rapid spread of

  7. Impact of colistin sulfate treatment of broilers on the presence of resistant bacteria and resistance genes in stored or composted manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Devendec, Laetitia; Mourand, Gwenaelle; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Léaustic, Julien; Jouy, Eric; Keita, Alassane; Couet, William; Rousset, Nathalie; Kempf, Isabelle

    2016-10-15

    The application of manure may result in contamination of the environment with antimicrobials, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, resistance genes and plasmids. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the administration of colistin and of manure management on (i) the presence of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and (ii) the prevalence of various antimicrobial resistance genes in feces and in composted or stored manure. One flock of chickens was treated with colistin at the recommended dosage and a second flock was kept as an untreated control. Samples of feces, litter and stored or composted manure from both flocks were collected for isolation and determination of the colistin-susceptibility of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa and quantification of genes coding for resistance to different antimicrobials. The persistence of plasmids in stored or composted manure from colistin-treated broilers was also evaluated by plasmid capturing experiments. Results revealed that colistin administration to chickens had no apparent impact on the antimicrobial resistance of the dominant Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa populations in the chicken gut. Composting stimulated an apparently limited decrease in genes coding for resistance to different antimicrobial families. Importantly, it was shown that even after six weeks of composting or storage, plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance genes could still be transferred to a recipient E. coli. In conclusion, composting is insufficient to completely eliminate the risk of spreading antimicrobial resistance through chicken manure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multilocus sequence typing of IncN plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Fernández, Aurora; Villa, Laura; Moodley, Arshnee

    2011-01-01

    that spread and persistence of this particular IncN-carrying blaVIM-1 lineage in Greece. CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes the use of pMLST as a suitable and rapid method for identification of IncN epidemic plasmid lineages. The recent spread of blaCTX-M-1 among humans and animals seems to be associated......OBJECTIVES: Incompatibility group N (IncN) plasmids have been associated with the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and are a major vehicle for the spread of blaVIM-1 in humans and blaCTX-M-1 in animals. A plasmid multilocus sequence typing (pMLST) scheme was developed for rapid...... in different countries from both animals and humans belonged to ST1, suggesting dissemination of an epidemic plasmid through the food chain. Fifteen of 17 plasmids carrying blaVIM-1 from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, isolated during a 5year period in Greece were assigned to ST10, suggesting...

  9. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of members from the Enterobacteriaceae family isolated from canaries (Serinus canaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben V. Horn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Enterobacteriaceae family contains potentially zoonotic bacteria, and their presence in canaries is often reported, though the current status of these in bird flocks is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the most common genera of enterobacteria from canaries (Serinus canaria and their antimicrobial resistance profiles. From February to June of 2013, a total of 387 cloacal swab samples from eight domiciliary breeding locations of Fortaleza city, Brazil, were collected and 58 necropsies were performed in canaries, which belonged to the Laboratory of Ornithological Studies. The samples were submitted to microbiological procedure using buffered peptone water and MacConkey agar. Colonies were selected according to their morphological characteristics on selective agar and submitted for biochemical identification and antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 61 isolates were obtained, of which 42 were from cloacal swabs and 19 from necropsies. The most isolated bacteria was Escherichia coli with twenty five strains, followed by fourteen Klebsiellaspp., twelve Enterobacterspp., seven Pantoea agglomerans, two Serratiaspp. and one Proteus mirabilis. The antimicrobial to which the strains presented most resistance was sulfonamides with 55.7%, followed by ampicillin with 54.1% and tetracycline with 39.3%. The total of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR was 34 (55.7%. In conclusion, canaries harbor members of the Enterobacteriaceae family and common strains present a high antimicrobial resistance rate, with a high frequency of MDR bacteria.

  10. Treatment with Cefotaxime Affects Expression of Conjugation Associated Proteins and Conjugation Transfer Frequency of an IncI1 Plasmid in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea S B; Liu, Gang; Boysen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    research suggests that the effect of antibiotic treatment on plasmid conjugation frequencies, and hence the spread of resistance plasmids, may have been overestimated. We addressed the question by quantifying transfer proteins and conjugation frequencies of a blaCTX-M-1 encoding IncI1 resistance plasmid....... The frequency of plasmid conjugation, measured in an antibiotic free environment, increased significantly when the donor was pre-grown in broth containing CTX compared to growth without this drug, regardless of whether blaCTX-M-1 was located on the plasmid or in trans on the chromosome. The results shows...

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and plasmid-mediated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    negative Staphylococci (CoNS) were isolated from clinical samples and isolates subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing, plasmid curing and plasmid DNA isolation. Result: The highest percentages isolates were recovered from urine samples and ...

  12. Comparative and functional triatomine genomics reveals reductions and expansions in insecticide resistance-related gene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Lucila; Lavore, Andrés; Sierra, Ivana; Palacio, Victorio; Martinez-Barnetche, Jesús; Latorre-Estivalis, José Manuel; Mougabure-Cueto, Gaston; Francini, Flavio; Lorenzo, Marcelo G; Rodríguez, Mario Henry; Ons, Sheila; Rivera-Pomar, Rolando V

    2017-02-01

    Triatomine insects are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan parasite that is the causative agent of Chagas' disease. This is a neglected disease affecting approximately 8 million people in Latin America. The existence of diverse pyrethroid resistant populations of at least two species demonstrates the potential of triatomines to develop high levels of insecticide resistance. Therefore, the incorporation of strategies for resistance management is a main concern for vector control programs. Three enzymatic superfamilies are thought to mediate xenobiotic detoxification and resistance: Glutathione Transferases (GSTs), Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) and Carboxyl/Cholinesterases (CCEs). Improving our knowledge of key triatomine detoxification enzymes will strengthen our understanding of insecticide resistance processes in vectors of Chagas' disease. The discovery and description of detoxification gene superfamilies in normalized transcriptomes of three triatomine species: Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma infestans and Triatoma pallidipennis is presented. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of these superfamilies among the triatomine transcriptomes and the genome of Rhodnius prolixus, also a triatomine vector of Chagas' disease, and other well-studied insect genomes was performed. The expression pattern of detoxification genes in R. prolixus transcriptomes from key organs was analyzed. The comparisons reveal gene expansions in Sigma class GSTs, CYP3 in CYP superfamily and clade E in CCE superfamily. Moreover, several CYP families identified in these triatomines have not yet been described in other insects. Conversely, several groups of insecticide resistance related enzymes within each enzyme superfamily are reduced or lacking in triatomines. Furthermore, our qRT-PCR results showed an increase in the expression of a CYP4 gene in a T. infestans population resistant to pyrethroids. These results could point to an involvement of metabolic detoxification mechanisms on the high

  13. Comparative and functional triatomine genomics reveals reductions and expansions in insecticide resistance-related gene families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Traverso

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Triatomine insects are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan parasite that is the causative agent of Chagas' disease. This is a neglected disease affecting approximately 8 million people in Latin America. The existence of diverse pyrethroid resistant populations of at least two species demonstrates the potential of triatomines to develop high levels of insecticide resistance. Therefore, the incorporation of strategies for resistance management is a main concern for vector control programs. Three enzymatic superfamilies are thought to mediate xenobiotic detoxification and resistance: Glutathione Transferases (GSTs, Cytochromes P450 (CYPs and Carboxyl/Cholinesterases (CCEs. Improving our knowledge of key triatomine detoxification enzymes will strengthen our understanding of insecticide resistance processes in vectors of Chagas' disease.The discovery and description of detoxification gene superfamilies in normalized transcriptomes of three triatomine species: Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma infestans and Triatoma pallidipennis is presented. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of these superfamilies among the triatomine transcriptomes and the genome of Rhodnius prolixus, also a triatomine vector of Chagas' disease, and other well-studied insect genomes was performed. The expression pattern of detoxification genes in R. prolixus transcriptomes from key organs was analyzed. The comparisons reveal gene expansions in Sigma class GSTs, CYP3 in CYP superfamily and clade E in CCE superfamily. Moreover, several CYP families identified in these triatomines have not yet been described in other insects. Conversely, several groups of insecticide resistance related enzymes within each enzyme superfamily are reduced or lacking in triatomines. Furthermore, our qRT-PCR results showed an increase in the expression of a CYP4 gene in a T. infestans population resistant to pyrethroids. These results could point to an involvement of metabolic detoxification mechanisms

  14. Plasmid profiling of bacterial isolates from confined environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houdt, Rob; Provoost, Ann; Coninx, Ilse; Leys, Natalie; Mergeay, Max

    Plasmid profiling of bacterial isolates from confined environments R. Van Houdt, I. Coninx, A. Provoost, N. Leys, and M. Mergeay Expertise group for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium. Human exploration of extreme and isolated hostile environments such as space requires special confined small volume habitats to protect and house the crew. However, human confinement in such small volume habitats has restrictions on waste disposal and personal hygiene and inevitably generates a particular community of microorganisms within the habitat. These microorganisms are mainly originating from the crew (skin, mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract, mouth, and gastrointestinal tract) but also include the residing environmental microorganisms. Earth-based confined habitats such as the Antarctic Research Station Concordia are used as test beds for long-duration spaceflights to study the physiologic and psychological adaptation to isolated environments. The dynamics of the environmental microbial population in such a test bed could render additional insights in assessing the potential health risks in long-duration space missions. Not only total bacterial contamination levels are important, but it is essential to identify also the predominant microbial taxa and their mobile genetic elements (MGE). These MGEs could be exchanged between bacteria by horizontal gene transfer and may alter the pathogenic potential since they often carry antibiotic resistance or more in general adaptation-enhancing traits. In this study several bacterial strains isolated in the Concordia research station were examined for their plasmid content. An optimized protocol for extraction of large plasmids showed the present of at least one plasmid in 50% of the strains. For all strains the minimal inhibitory concentration of a range of antibiotics was determined indicating resistance to

  15. Efflux pump-mediated benzalkonium chloride resistance in Listeria monocytogenes isolated from retail food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaobing; Yu, Tao; Liang, Yu; Ji, Shengdong; Guo, Xiaowei; Ma, Jianmin; Zhou, Lijun

    2016-01-18

    In this study, efflux pump-mediated benzalkonium chloride (BC) resistance, including plasmid-encoded (Qac protein family and BcrABC) and chromosome-borne efflux pumps, was investigated in Listeria monocytogenes from retail food in China. Among the 59 L. monocytogenes strains, 13 (22.0%) strains were resistant to BC. The PCR results showed that bcrABC was harbored by 2 of 13 BC resistant strains. However, none of the qac genes were detected among the 59 strains. The bcrABC was absent in both of the plasmid cured strains, indicating that this BC resistance determinant was plasmid-encoded in the two bcrABC-positive strains. In the presence of reserpine, most of the bcrABC-negative strains had decreases in the MICs of BC, suggesting the existence of other efflux pumps and their role in BC resistance. After exposed to reserpine, the reduction in BC MICs was observed in the two cured strains, indicating that efflux pumps located on chromosome was also involved in BC resistance. Our findings suggest that food products may act as reservoirs for BC resistant isolates of L. monocytogenes and plasmid- and chromosome-encoded efflux pumps could mediate the BC resistance of L. monocytogenes, which is especially relevant to the adaption of this organism in food-related environments with frequent BC use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Novel IncA/C1 Group Conjugative Plasmid, Encoding VIM-1 Metallo-Beta-Lactamase, Mediates the Acquisition of Carbapenem Resistance in ST104 Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from Neonates in the Intensive Care Unit of V. Monaldi Hospital in Naples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Eliana P; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Del Franco, Mariateresa; Crivaro, Valeria; Bernardo, Mariano; Cuccurullo, Susanna; Pennino, Francesca; Triassi, Maria; Marone, Piero; Sassera, Davide; Zarrilli, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae has raised major public health concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology and the mechanism of carbapenem resistance acquisition of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from 20 neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the V. Monaldi Hospital in Naples, Italy, from April 2015 to March 2016. Genotype analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) identified PFGE type A and subtypes A1 and A2 in 17, 2, and 1 isolates, respectively, and assigned all isolates to sequence type (ST) 104. K. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to all classes of β-lactams including carbapenems, fosfomycin, gentamicin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, but susceptible to quinolones, amikacin, and colistin. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that resistance to third-generation cephems and imipenem could be transferred along with an IncA/C plasmid containing the extended spectrum β-lactamase bla SHV -12 and carbapenem-hydrolyzing metallo-β-lactamase bla V IM-1 genes. The plasmid that we called pIncAC_KP4898 was 156,252 bp in size and included a typical IncA/C backbone, which was assigned to ST12 and core genome (cg) ST12.1 using the IncA/C plasmid MLST (PMLST) scheme. pIncAC_KP4898 showed a mosaic structure with bla V IM-1 into a class I integron, bla SHV -12 flanked by IS6 elements, a mercury resistance and a macrolide 2'-phosphotransferase clusters, ant(3″), aph(3″), aacA4, qnrA1, sul1 , and dfrA14 conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, quinolones, sulfonamides, and trimethoprim, respectively, several genes predicted to encode transfer functions and proteins involved in DNA transposition. The acquisition of pIncAC_KP4898 carrying bla V IM-1 and bla SHV -12 contributed to the spread of ST104 K. pneumoniae in the NICU of V. Monaldi Hospital in Naples.

  17. A Novel IncA/C1 Group Conjugative Plasmid, Encoding VIM-1 Metallo-Beta-Lactamase, Mediates the Acquisition of Carbapenem Resistance in ST104 Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from Neonates in the Intensive Care Unit of V. Monaldi Hospital in Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana P. Esposito

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae has raised major public health concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology and the mechanism of carbapenem resistance acquisition of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from 20 neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of the V. Monaldi Hospital in Naples, Italy, from April 2015 to March 2016. Genotype analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST identified PFGE type A and subtypes A1 and A2 in 17, 2, and 1 isolates, respectively, and assigned all isolates to sequence type (ST 104. K. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to all classes of β-lactams including carbapenems, fosfomycin, gentamicin, and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, but susceptible to quinolones, amikacin, and colistin. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that resistance to third-generation cephems and imipenem could be transferred along with an IncA/C plasmid containing the extended spectrum β-lactamase blaSHV -12 and carbapenem-hydrolyzing metallo-β-lactamase blaV IM-1 genes. The plasmid that we called pIncAC_KP4898 was 156,252 bp in size and included a typical IncA/C backbone, which was assigned to ST12 and core genome (cg ST12.1 using the IncA/C plasmid MLST (PMLST scheme. pIncAC_KP4898 showed a mosaic structure with blaV IM-1 into a class I integron, blaSHV -12 flanked by IS6 elements, a mercury resistance and a macrolide 2′-phosphotransferase clusters, ant(3″, aph(3″, aacA4, qnrA1, sul1, and dfrA14 conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, quinolones, sulfonamides, and trimethoprim, respectively, several genes predicted to encode transfer functions and proteins involved in DNA transposition. The acquisition of pIncAC_KP4898 carrying blaV IM-1 and blaSHV -12 contributed to the spread of ST104 K. pneumoniae in the NICU of V. Monaldi Hospital in Naples.

  18. Multiplex PCR Study of Plasmid-Mediated AmpC Beta-Lactamases Genes in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Dehghani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:   AmpC β-lactamases are important cephalosporinases chromosomally encoded in many of Enterobacteriaceae and a few other organisms where they mediate resistance to cephalothin, cefazolin, cefoxitin and penicillins. The six different families of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases have been described, but no phenotypic test can discriminate among them. AmpC multiplex PCR has been successfully used to discriminate plasmid-mediated ampC specific families in organisms such as Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to indicate the prevalence of AmpC β-lactamase genes by specifically designed primers through PCR test.Methods:   243 total clinical urine samples were collected, and 227 isolates were identified as Escherichia coli based on standard biochemical tests. Subsequently, the isolates were screened by disc diffusion and combined disc test for β-lactamase production. Resistant isolates were evaluated by PCR for ampC family determination. Results:  Antibiotic resistance pattern were observed as follows: cefepime (%25, ceftazidime (%31, ceftriaxone (%37, cefotaxime (%38. The ratio of isolates was detected as ESBLs and AmpC producers were 34% and 5.2%, respectively. PCR performed on 12 selected isolates via phenotypic tests and the results revealed that among 12 isolates, 11 contained blaCMY-42. Conclusion:  Unfortunately, antibiotic resistance has become an increasingly critical problem in many countries like Iran and occurrence of isolates co-expressing AmpC-β-lactamases and ESBLs can create serious problems in the future. As antibiotic options in the treatment of AmpC β-lactamases and ESBLs producing organisms are extremely limited, molecular screening by laboratories is suggested to reduce the risk of therapeutic defeat.

  19. Plasmid DNA Analysis of Pasteurella multocida Serotype B isolated from Haemorrhagic Septicaemia outbreaks in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 150 purified isolates of Pasteurella multocida serotype B were used (Salmah, 2004 for plasmid DNA curing experiment to determine hyaluronidase activity, antibiotic resistance pattern (ARP and mice lethality test (LD50 for their role of pathogenicity. A plasmid curing experiment was carried out by using the intercalating agent; ethidium bromide and rifampicin, where it was found all the plasmids had been cured (plasmidless from Pasteurella multocida. All of these plasmidless isolates maintained their phenotypic characteristics. They showed the same antibiotic resistancepattern as before curing, produced hyaluronidase and possessed lethality activity in mice when injected intraperitoneally(i.p. Based on this observation, the antibiotic resistance, hyaluronidase activity and mice virulence could probably be chromosomal-mediated. Plasmids were detected 100% in all P. multocida isolates with identical profile of 2 plasmids size 3.0 and 5.5 kb. No large plasmids could be detected in all isolates. Since all the isolates appeared to have identicalplasmid profiles, they were subjected to restriction enzyme(RE analysis. From RE analysis results obtained, it can be concluded that the plasmid DNA in serotype B isolates are identical. Only 4 of 32 REs were found to cleave these plasmids with identical restriction fingerprints; BglII, HaeIII, RsaI and SspI. From RE analysis results, it can be concluded that the plasmid DNA isolates are identical. This plasmid might not played any role in pathogenicity of Pasteurella multocida serotype B, however this information is important for the construction of shuttle vectors in genetic studies of the pathogenicity of haemorrhagic septicaemia(HS.

  20. Characterization of a plasmid carrying cat, ermB and tetS genes in a foodborne Listeria monocytogenes strain and uptake of the plasmid by cariogenic Streptococcus mutans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Shi, Lei

    2016-01-01

    A multi-drug resistant (MDR) Listeria monocytogenes isolate (serotype 1/2c) was recovered from a quick-frozen rice flour product collected from Langfang city in northern China. PCR screening identified the presence of cat, ermB and tetS genes. The plasmid profile of the strain showed the presence...... of an approximately 22.4-kb plasmid. Curing of this plasmid resulted in the loss of cat, ermB and tetS genes and increased susceptibility to several antibiotics, suggesting the involvement of the plasmid in multiple antibiotic resistances. Moreover, the plasmid was able to be uptaken by human oral pathogen...

  1. A survey of the pyrabactin resistance-like abscisic acid receptor gene family in poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingling; Li, Hejuan; Peng, Yajing; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Fugeng; Luan, Sheng; Lan, Wenzhi

    2017-08-03

    The conserved PYR/PYL/RCAR family acts as abscisic acid (ABA) receptors for land plants to adapt to terrestrial environments. Our recent study reported that the exogenous overexpression of poplar PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, the PYR/PYL/RCAR orthologs, promoted the sensitivity of transgenic Arabidopsis to ABA responses. Here, we surveyed the PtPYRL family in poplar, and revealed that although the sequence and structure are relatively conserved among these receptors, PtPYRL members have differential expression patterns and the sensitivity to ABA or drought treatment, suggesting that PtPYRLs might be good candidates to a future biotechnological use to enhance poplar resistance to water-stress environments.

  2. The impact of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on patients with advanced cancer and their family members: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Aoife; Larkin, Philip; O'Sullivan, Niamh

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the impact of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on patients with advanced cancer, such as its impact on the quality of life of this vulnerable group. To date, research on meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the palliative care setting has had a quantitative focus. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of a meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus diagnosis on patients and their carers. This article reports upon a qualitative interview study of nine patients with advanced cancer and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and nine family members (n = 18). Framework analysis was used to analyse the data. Patients and family members of patients with advanced cancer either admitted to the specialist palliative care unit or receiving palliative care in the hospital setting, who had a laboratory confirmed diagnosis of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation, were considered for inclusion in the study. Four themes were identified using framework analysis: reactions to receiving a meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus diagnosis, the need for effective communication of the meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus diagnosis, the enigmatic nature of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and lessons to guide the future care of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus patients. This article indicates that meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus can have a significant impact on advanced cancer patients and their families. This impact may be underestimated, but early and careful face-to-face explanation about meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its implications can help patients and their families to cope better with it. These findings should be considered when developing policy relating to meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus management and infection control in specialist palliative care settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Plasmid DNA Delivery: Nanotopography Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hao; Yu, Meihua; Lu, Yao; Gu, Zhengying; Yang, Yannan; Zhang, Min; Fu, Jianye; Yu, Chengzhong

    2017-12-20

    Plasmid DNA molecules with unique loop structures have widespread bioapplications, in many cases relying heavily on delivery vehicles to introduce them into cells and achieve their functions. Herein, we demonstrate that control over delicate nanotopography of silica nanoparticles as plasmid DNA vectors has significant impact on the transfection efficacy. For silica nanoparticles with rambutan-, raspberry-, and flower-like morphologies composed of spike-, hemisphere-, and bowl-type subunit nanotopographies, respectively, the rambutan-like nanoparticles with spiky surfaces demonstrate the highest plasmid DNA binding capability and transfection efficacy of 88%, higher than those reported for silica-based nanovectors. Moreover, it is shown that the surface spikes of rambutan nanoparticles provide a continuous open space to bind DNA chains via multivalent interactions and protect the gene molecules sheltered in the spiky layer against nuclease degradation, exhibiting no significant transfection decay. This unique protection feature is in great contrast to a commercial transfection agent with similar transfection performance but poor protection capability against enzymatic cleavage. Our study provides new understandings in the rational design of nonviral vectors for efficient gene delivery.

  4. Mutation in ESBL Plasmid from Escherichia coli O104:H4 Leads Autoagglutination and Enhanced Plasmid Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaël Poidevin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Conjugative plasmids are one of the main driving force of wide-spreading of multidrug resistance (MDR bacteria. They are self-transmittable via conjugation as carrying the required set of genes and cis-acting DNA locus for direct cell-to-cell transfer. IncI incompatibility plasmids are nowadays often associated with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing Enterobacteria in clinic and environment. pESBL-EA11 was isolated from Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak strain in Germany in 2011. During the previous study identifying transfer genes of pESBL-EA11, it was shown that transposon insertion at certain DNA region of the plasmid, referred to as Hft, resulted in great enhancement of transfer ability. This suggested that genetic modifications can enhance dissemination of MDR plasmids. Such ‘superspreader’ mutations have attracted little attention so far despite their high potential to worsen MDR spreading. Present study aimed to gain our understanding on regulatory elements that involved pESBL transfer. While previous studies of IncI plasmids indicated that immediate downstream gene of Hft, traA, is not essential for conjugative transfer, here we showed that overexpression of TraA in host cell elevated transfer rate of pESBL-EA11. Transposon insertion or certain nucleotide substitutions in Hft led strong TraA overexpression which resulted in activation of essential regulator TraB and likely overexpression of conjugative pili. Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscopy observation suggested that IncI pili are distinct from other types of conjugative pili (such as long filamentous F-type pili and rather expressed throughout the cell surface. High transfer efficiency in the mutant pESBL-EA11 was involved with hyperpiliation which facilitates cell-to-cell adhesion, including autoagglutination. The capability of plasmids to evolve to highly transmissible mutant is alarming, particularly it might also have adverse effect on host pathogenicity.

  5. Compatibility and entry exclusion of IncA and IncC plasmids revisited: IncA and IncC plasmids are compatible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Stephanie J; Harmer, Christopher J; Hall, Ruth M

    2018-02-24

    In an early study, IncA and IncC plasmids that were reported to be compatible were grouped as the "A-C complex" based on similarities and on strong entry exclusion. However, recently, the term IncA/C has been used frequently to describe plasmids belonging to both of these two groups. Granted that the supporting data was not included in the original reports and that the consensus iteron sequences have since been shown to be essentially identical, we have addressed the question again. The original IncA plasmid, RA1, and the IncC plasmid pRMH760, were introduced into the same cell by transformation, and were found to be maintained stably for over 100 generations in the absence of selection for either plasmid, i.e. they were compatible. We conclude that use of the term IncA/C for this important plasmid group is indeed incorrect and it causes unnecessary confusion. Granted the importance of IncC plasmids in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, we recommend that use of the misleading terms IncA/C, IncA/C 1 and IncA/C 2 should cease. In addition, RA1 and pRMH760 were shown to each completely prevent entry of the other via conjugative transfer into the cell they reside in. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A genetic study of a Staphylococus aureus plasmid involving cure and transference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Costa Darini

    Full Text Available High frequency transfer and elimination of drug resistance may indicate an extrachromosomal inheritance of genetic determinants. This study shows the cure and transfer of a small plasmid and tetracycline resistance in Staphylococcus aureus 1030 (55TetR strains. Several methods are available for plasmid elimination. We used ethidium bromide, an agent that binds to DNA, and thus inhibits DNA polymerase. This caused a high frequency of loss of the small plasmid and resistance to tetracycline. Transfer of tetracycline resistance was done in a mixed culture at a frequency of 10-6. This type of study is very important to physicians and epidemiology investigators and provides better knowledge on antibiotic-resistance mechanisms that may occur in vivo in a hospital environment.

  7. Complete sequences of IncHI1 plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1 and qnrS1 in equine Escherichia coli provide new insights into plasmid evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolejska, Monika; Villa, Laura; Minoia, Marco

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the structure of two multidrug-resistant IncHI1 plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1 in Escherichia coli isolates disseminated in an equine clinic in the Czech Republic. METHODS: A complete nucleotide sequencing of 239 kb IncHI1 (pEQ1) and 287 kb IncHI1/X1 (pEQ2) plasmids was per...... highlight the structure and evolution of IncHI1 from equine E. coli. A plasmid-mediated sugar metabolic element could play a key role in strain fitness, contributing to the successful dissemination and maintenance of these plasmids in the intestinal microflora of horses....

  8. Characterization of plasmids harbouring qnrS1, qnrB2 and qnrB19 genes in Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Fernandez, A.; Fortini, D.; Veldman, K.T.; Mevius, D.J.; Carattoli, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize plasmids carrying qnrS1, qnrB2 and qnrB19 genes identified in Salmonella strains from The Netherlands. The identification of plasmids may help to follow the dissemination of these resistance genes in different countries and environments.

  9. Efflux pump genes of the resistance-nodulation-division family in Burkholderia cenocepacia genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manina Giulia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia cenocepacia is recognized as opportunistic pathogen that can cause lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. A hallmark of B. cenocepacia infections is the inability to eradicate the organism because of multiple intrinsic antibiotic resistance. As Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND efflux systems are responsible for much of the intrinsic multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, this study aims to identify RND genes in the B. cenocepacia genome and start to investigate their involvement into antimicrobial resistance. Results Genome analysis and homology searches revealed 14 open reading frames encoding putative drug efflux pumps belonging to RND family in B. cenocepacia J2315 strain. By reverse transcription (RT-PCR analysis, it was found that orf3, orf9, orf11, and orf13 were expressed at detectable levels, while orf10 appeared to be weakly expressed in B. cenocepacia. Futhermore, orf3 was strongly induced by chloramphenicol. The orf2 conferred resistance to fluoroquinolones, tetraphenylphosphonium, streptomycin, and ethidium bromide when cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli KAM3, a strain lacking the multidrug efflux pump AcrAB. The orf2-overexpressing E. coli also accumulate low concentrations of ethidium bromide, which was restored to wild type level in the presence of CCCP, an energy uncoupler altering the energy of the drug efflux pump. Conclusion The 14 RND pumps gene we have identified in the genome of B. cenocepacia suggest that active efflux could be a major mechanism underlying antimicrobial resistance in this microorganism. We have characterized the ORF2 pump, one of these 14 potential RND efflux systems. Its overexpression in E. coli conferred resistance to several antibiotics and to ethidium bromide but it remains to be determined if this pump play a significant role in the antimicrobial intrinsic resistance of B. cenocepacia. The characterization of antibiotic efflux pumps in B

  10. Protocol for Evaluating the Permissiveness of Bacterial Communities Toward Conjugal Plasmids by Quantification and Isolation of Transconjugants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli; Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F.

    2014-01-01

    may encode catabolic pathways, virulence factors, and antibiotic or metal resistances, it is of environmental, evolutionary, and medical relevance to track and monitor the fate of plasmids in mixed microbial community. When assessing the short-term and long-term implications of conjugal plasmid...... a gfp-tagged plasmid in a mCherry red fluorescently tagged donor strain repressing gfp expression. We take advantage of fluorescent marker genes to microscopically detect plasmid transfer events and use subsequent high-throughput fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate...

  11. Characterization and drug resistance patterns of Ewing's sarcoma family tumor cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A May

    Full Text Available Despite intensive treatment with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, over 70% of patients with metastatic Ewing's Sarcoma Family of Tumors (EFT will die of their disease. We hypothesize that properly characterized laboratory models reflecting the drug resistance of clinical tumors will facilitate the application of new therapeutic agents to EFT. To determine resistance patterns, we studied newly established EFT cell lines derived from different points in therapy: two established at diagnosis (CHLA-9, CHLA-32, two after chemotherapy and progressive disease (CHLA-10, CHLA-25, and two at relapse after myeloablative therapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation (post-ABMT (CHLA-258, COG-E-352. The new lines were compared to widely studied EFT lines TC-71, TC-32, SK-N-MC, and A-673. These lines were extensively characterized with regard to identity (short tandem repeat (STR analysis, p53, p16/14 status, and EWS/ETS breakpoint and target gene expression profile. The DIMSCAN cytotoxicity assay was used to assess in vitro drug sensitivity to standard chemotherapy agents. No association was found between drug resistance and the expression of EWS/ETS regulated genes in the EFT cell lines. No consistent association was observed between drug sensitivity and p53 functionality or between drug sensitivity and p16/14 functionality across the cell lines. Exposure to chemotherapy prior to cell line initiation correlated with drug resistance of EFT cell lines in 5/8 tested agents at clinically achievable concentrations (CAC or the lower tested concentration (LTC: (cyclophosphamide (as 4-HC and doxorubicin at CAC, etoposide, irinotecan (as SN-38 and melphalan at LTC; P<0.1 for one agent, and P<0.05 for four agents. This panel of well-characterized drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cell lines will facilitate in vitro preclinical testing of new agents for EFT.

  12. Diversity and role of plasmids in adaptation of bacteria inhabiting the Lubin copper mine in Poland, an environment rich in heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz eDziewit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lubin underground mine, is one of three mining divisions in the Lubin-Glogow Copper District in Lower Silesia province (Poland. It is the source of polymetallic ore that is rich in copper, silver and several heavy metals. Black shale is also significantly enriched in fossil organic matter in the form of long-chain hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, thiophenes and metalloporphyrins. Biological analyses have revealed that this environment is inhabited by extremophilic bacteria and fungi. Kupfershiefer black shale and samples of water, bottom and mineral sediments from the underground (below 600 m Lubin mine were taken and twenty bacterial strains were isolated and characterized. All exhibited multi-resistant and hypertolerant phenotypes to heavy metals. We analyzed the plasmidome of these strains in order to evaluate the diversity and role of mobile DNA in adaptation to the harsh conditions of the mine environment. Experimental and bioinformatic analyses of 11 extrachromosomal replicons were performed. Three plasmids, including a broad-host-range replicon containing a Tn3 family transposon, carried genes conferring resistance to arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, mercury and zinc. Functional analysis revealed that the resistance modules exhibit host specificity, i.e. they may increase or decrease tolerance to toxic ions depending on the host strain. The other identified replicons showed diverse features. Among them we identified a catabolic plasmid encoding enzymes involved in the utilization of histidine and vanillate, a putative plasmid-like prophage carrying genes responsible for NAD biosynthesis, and two repABC-type plasmids containing virulence-associated genes. These findings provide an unique molecular insight into the pool of extrachromosomal replicons and highlight their role in the biology and adaptation of extremophilic bacteria inhabiting terrestrial deep subsurface.

  13. In Vivo Transmission of an IncA/C Plasmid in Escherichia coli Depends on Tetracycline Concentration, and Acquisition of the Plasmid Results in a Variable Cost of Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy J; Singer, Randall S; Isaacson, Richard E; Danzeisen, Jessica L; Lang, Kevin; Kobluk, Kristi; Rivet, Bernadette; Borewicz, Klaudyna; Frye, Jonathan G; Englen, Mark; Anderson, Janet; Davies, Peter R

    2015-05-15

    IncA/C plasmids are broad-host-range plasmids enabling multidrug resistance that have emerged worldwide among bacterial pathogens of humans and animals. Although antibiotic usage is suspected to be a driving force in the emergence of such strains, few studies have examined the impact of different types of antibiotic administration on the selection of plasmid-containing multidrug resistant isolates. In this study, chlortetracycline treatment at different concentrations in pig feed was examined for its impact on selection and dissemination of an IncA/C plasmid introduced orally via a commensal Escherichia coli host. Continuous low-dose administration of chlortetracycline at 50 g per ton had no observable impact on the proportions of IncA/C plasmid-containing E. coli from pig feces over the course of 35 days. In contrast, high-dose administration of chlortetracycline at 350 g per ton significantly increased IncA/C plasmid-containing E. coli in pig feces (P IncA/C plasmid to other indigenous E. coli hosts. There was no evidence of conjugal transfer of the IncA/C plasmid to bacterial species other than E. coli. In vitro competition assays demonstrated that bacterial host background substantially impacted the cost of IncA/C plasmid carriage in E. coli and Salmonella. In vitro transfer and selection experiments demonstrated that tetracycline at 32 μg/ml was necessary to enhance IncA/C plasmid conjugative transfer, while subinhibitory concentrations of tetracycline in vitro strongly selected for IncA/C plasmid-containing E. coli. Together, these experiments improve our knowledge on the impact of differing concentrations of tetracycline on the selection of IncA/C-type plasmids. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. High carotenoids content can enhance resistance of selected Pinctada fucata families to high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zihao; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Baosuo; Li, Haimei; Fan, Sigang; Yu, Dahui

    2017-02-01

    Carotenoids are a class of natural antioxidants widely found in aquatic, and they have significant effects on the growth, survival, and immunity of these organisms. To investigate the mechanisms of carotenoids in high temperature resistance, we observed the immune response of selected pearl oyster Pinctada fucata (Akoya pearl oyster) families with different carotenoids contents to high temperature stress. The results indicated that the survival rate (SR) of P. fucata decreased significantly with increase in temperature from 26 °C to 34 °C and with the decrease of total carotenoids content (TCC); when the TCC was higher, the SR tended to be higher. TCC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) decreased significantly at 30 °C with increasing stress time. Correlation analysis indicated that TAC was positively and linearly correlated with TCC, and SR was S-type correlated with TCC and TAC. Immune analysis indicated that levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in selected families (with higher TCC) under temperature stress (at 30 °C) were generally significantly lower than in the control group (with lowest TCC) and from 0 to 96 h, the levels of each of these substances varied significantly. Levels of SOD, CAT, and MDA within each family first rose from 0 to 3 h, then decreased to their lowest point after 24 h, and then rose again to their highest levels at 96 h. When TCC was higher, the levels of SOD, CAT, and MDA tended to be lower. These findings indicated that carotenoids play an important role in improving survival rates of P. fucata under high temperature stress by enhancing animals' antioxidant system, and could serve as an index for breeding stress-resistant lines in selective breeding practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Enterobacter plasmid as a new genetic background for the transposon Tn1331

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    Alavi MR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad R Alavi1,2, Vlado Antonic2, Adrien Ravizee1, Peter J Weina3, Mina Izadjoo1,2, Alexander Stojadinovic21Division of Wound Biology and Translational Research, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and American Registry of Pathology, Washington DC, 2Combat Wound Initiative Program, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington DC, 3The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USABackground: Genus Enterobacter includes important opportunistic nosocomial pathogens that could infect complex wounds. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes in these microorganisms represents a challenging clinical problem in the treatment of these wounds. In the authors’ screening of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from complex wounds, an Enterobacter species was isolated that harbors antibiotic-resistant plasmids conferring resistance to Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to identify the resistance genes carried by one of these plasmids.Methods: The plasmids from the Enterobacter isolate were propagated in E. coli and one of the plasmids, designated as pR23, was sequenced by the Sanger method using fluorescent dye-terminator chemistry on a genetic analyzer. The assembled sequence was annotated by search of the GenBank database.Results: Plasmid pR23 is composed of the transposon Tn1331 and a backbone plasmid that is identical to the plasmid pPIGDM1 from Enterobacter agglomerans. The multidrug-resistance transposon Tn1331, which confers resistance to aminoglycoside and beta lactam antibiotics, has been previously isolated only from Klebsiella. The Enterobacter plasmid pPIGDM1, which carries a ColE1-like origin of replication and has no apparent selective marker, appears to provide a backbone for propagation of Tn1331 in Enterobacter. The recognition sequence of Tn1331 transposase for insertion into pPIGDM1 is the pentanucleotide TATTA, which occurs only once throughout the length of this plasmid.Conclusion: Transposition of Tn1331 into

  16. Characterization of marine bacteria highly resistant to mercury exhibiting multiple resistances to toxic chemicals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De, J.; Ramaiah, N.

    , GP15 and GP16) and one Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CH07) which showed comparatively higher resistance to toxic heavy metals and xenobiotics and were used in more detailed experiments. Antibiotic sensitivity of all three isolates after plasmid curing... using Nucleospin Plasmid isolation kit (Macherey Nagel, Germany) and agarose gel electrophoresis. To further confirm the presence/absence of plasmid, two different plasmid curing assays were performed to note the loss, if any, of mercury resistance...

  17. The large universal Pantoea plasmid LPP-1 plays a major role in biological and ecological diversification

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    De Maayer Pieter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pantoea spp. are frequently isolated from a wide range of ecological niches and have various biological roles, as plant epi- or endophytes, biocontrol agents, plant-growth promoters or as pathogens of both plant and animal hosts. This suggests that members of this genus have undergone extensive genotypic diversification. One means by which this occurs among bacteria is through the acquisition and maintenance of plasmids. Here, we have analyzed and compared the sequences of a large plasmid common to all sequenced Pantoea spp. Results and discussion The Large PantoeaPlasmids (LPP-1 of twenty strains encompassing seven different Pantoea species, including pathogens and endo-/epiphytes of a wide range of plant hosts as well as insect-associated strains, were compared. The LPP-1 plasmid sequences range in size from ~281 to 794 kb and carry between 238 and 750 protein coding sequences (CDS. A core set of 46 proteins, encompassing 2.2% of the total pan-plasmid (2,095 CDS, conserved among all LPP-1 plasmid sequences, includes those required for thiamine and pigment biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that these plasmids have arisen from an ancestral plasmid, which has undergone extensive diversification. Analysis of the proteins encoded on LPP-1 also showed that these plasmids contribute to a wide range of Pantoea phenotypes, including the transport and catabolism of various substrates, inorganic ion assimilation, resistance to antibiotics and heavy metals, colonization and persistence in the host and environment, pathogenesis and antibiosis. Conclusions LPP-1 is universal to all Pantoea spp. whose genomes have been sequenced to date and is derived from an ancestral plasmid. LPP-1 encodes a large array of proteins that have played a major role in the adaptation of the different Pantoea spp. to their various ecological niches and their specialization as pathogens, biocontrol agents or benign saprophytes found in many diverse

  18. SUCCESSION PROCESS IN A FAMILY BUSINESS: KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT OVERCOMING RESISTANCE TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Sá Freire

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the perception of a family business’ employees over changes brought about by the company’s succession procsess through the identification of existing problems and the probabilities of overcoming them. The company was classified as a family business organization as per Bernhoeft´s (1991 definition, and the perspectives proposed by Motta (2001 were used as a basis for change analysis. The succession challenges were studied through the knowledge management viewpoint. The methodological approach is characterized as a qualitative descriptive study done through interviews and document analysis. Quantitative data was used, with the application of questionnaires in order to obtain primary data. Data analysis is mainly characterized by its qualitative and descriptive content. After data analysis, the following issues were detected: (1 lack of or inneficient internal communication, (2 the decision making process was either slow or not committed to the desired results and (3 there was either dual leadership or no leadership. It was concluded that in order to achieve the objectives of the changes, it would require a new look into the intraorganizational integration to eliminate features of the family business such as lack of dialogue and unilateral decisions. It is finally suggested the use of strategies for sharing information and knowledge that will pave the way for understanding the entire succession process, overcoming uncertainties and individual resistance. Thus, the inclusion of Knowledge Management in the family business succession process will result in more aware leaders, managers and employees in terms of change of power during the mentioned process.

  19. Two members of TaRLK family confer powdery mildew resistance in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingting; Xiao, Jin; Xu, Jun; Wan, Wentao; Qin, Bi; Cao, Aizhong; Chen, Wei; Xing, Liping; Du, Chen; Gao, Xiquan; Zhang, Shouzhong; Zhang, Ruiqi; Shen, Wenbiao; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Xiue

    2016-01-25

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminearum f.sp. tritici (Bgt), is one of the most severe fungal diseases of wheat. The exploration and utilization of new gene resources is the most effective approach for the powdery mildew control. We report the cloning and functional analysis of two wheat LRR-RLKs from T. aestivum c.v. Prins- T. timopheevii introgression line IGV1-465, named TaRLK1 and TaRLK2, which play positive roles in regulating powdery mildew resistance in wheat. The two LRR-RLKs contain an ORF of 3,045 nucleotides, encoding a peptide of 1014 amino acids, with seven amino acids difference. Their predicted proteins possess a signal peptide, several LRRs, a trans-membrane domain, and a Ser/Thr protein kinase domain. In response to Bgt infection, the TaRLK1/2 expression is up-regulated in a developmental-stage-dependent manner. Single-cell transient over-expression and gene-silencing assays indicate that both genes positively regulate the resistance to mixed Bgt inoculums. Transgenic lines over-expressing TaRLK1 or TaRLK2 in a moderate powdery mildew susceptible wheat variety Yangmai 158 led to significantly enhanced powdery mildew resistance. Exogenous applied salicylic acid (SA) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced the expression of both genes, and H2O2 had a higher accumulation at the Bgt penetration sites in RLK over-expression transgenic plants, suggesting a possible involvement of SA and altered ROS homeostasis in the defense response to Bgt infection. The two LRR-RLKs are located in the long arm of wheat chromosome 2B, in which the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm6 is located, but in different regions. Two members of TaRLK family were cloned from IGV1-465. TaRLK1 and TaRLK2 contribute to powdery mildew resistance of wheat, providing new resistance gene resources for wheat breeding.

  20. Rhodnius prolixus supergene families of enzymes potentially associated with insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schama, Renata; Pedrini, Nicolás; Juárez, M Patricia; Nelson, David R; Torres, André Q; Valle, Denise; Mesquita, Rafael D

    2016-02-01

    Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis, is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi. Once known as an endemic health problem of poor rural populations in Latin American countries, it has now spread worldwide. The parasite is transmitted by triatomine bugs, of which Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) is one of the vectors and a model organism. This species occurs mainly in Central and South American countries where the disease is endemic. Disease prevention focuses on vector control programs that, in general, rely intensely on insecticide use. However, the massive use of chemical insecticides can lead to resistance. One of the major mechanisms is known as metabolic resistance that is associated with an increase in the expression or activity of detoxification genes. Three of the enzyme families that are involved in this process - carboxylesterases (CCE), glutathione s-transferases (GST) and cytochrome P450s (CYP) - are analyzed in the R. prolixus genome. A similar set of detoxification genes to those of the Hemipteran Acyrthosiphon pisum but smaller than in most dipteran species was found in R. prolixus genome. All major CCE classes (43 genes found) are present but the pheromone/hormone processing class had fewer genes than usual. One main expansion was detected on the detoxification/dietary class. The phosphotriesterase family, recently associated with insecticide resistance, was also represented with one gene. One microsomal GST gene was found and the cytosolic GST gene count (14 genes) is extremely low when compared to the other hemipteran species with sequenced genomes. However, this is similar to Apis mellifera, a species known for its deficit in detoxification genes. In R. prolixus 88 CYP genes were found, with representatives in the four clans (CYP2, CYP3, CYP4 and mitochondrial) usually found in insects. R. prolixus seems to have smaller species-specific expansions of CYP genes than

  1. STUDY REGARDING EFFICIENCY OF INDUCED GENETIC TRANSFORMATION IN BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS WITH PLASMID DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. VINTILĂ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Bacillus licheniformis was subject to genetic transformation with plasmid vectors (pLC1 and pNC61, using electroporation technique, protoplast transformation and bivalent cations (CaCl2 mediated transformation. In the case of transformation by electroporation of Bacillus licheniformis B40, the highest number of transformed colonies (3 were obtained only after a 1,79 KV electric shock, for 2,2 milliseconds. Using this transformation technique we have obtained six kanamycin resistant transformants. The frequency of Bacillus licheniformis B40 protoplasts transformation using pLC1 and pNC61 plasmid vectors is approximately 10% (TF = 10%. As a result of pLC1 plasmid integration in Bacillus licheniformis protoplasts, six kanamycin resistant transformants were obtained. The pNC61 plasmid, which confers trimethoprim resistance, does not integrate in receiver cells by protoplast transformation. The direct genetic transformation in the presence of bivalent cations (CaCl2, mediated by pLC1 and pNC61 plasmid vectors, produce a low transformation frequency. Using this technique, we have obtained three trimethoprim resistant colonies and four kanamycin resistant colonies. The chemical way of transformation is the only technique, which realizes the integration of pNC61 in B. licheniformis B40 cells.

  2. The Aspergillus fumigatus Damage Resistance Protein Family Coordinately Regulates Ergosterol Biosynthesis and Azole Susceptibility

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    Jinxing Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ergosterol is a major and specific component of the fungal plasma membrane, and thus, the cytochrome P450 enzymes (Erg proteins that catalyze ergosterol synthesis have been selected as valuable targets of azole antifungals. However, the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus has developed worldwide resistance to azoles largely through mutations in the cytochrome P450 enzyme Cyp51 (Erg11. In this study, we demonstrate that a cytochrome b5-like heme-binding damage resistance protein (Dap family, comprised of DapA, DapB, and DapC, coordinately regulates the functionality of cytochrome P450 enzymes Erg5 and Erg11 and oppositely affects susceptibility to azoles. The expression of all three genes is induced in an azole concentration-dependent way, and the decreased susceptibility to azoles requires DapA stabilization of cytochrome P450 protein activity. In contrast, overexpression of DapB and DapC causes dysfunction of Erg5 and Erg11, resulting in abnormal accumulation of sterol intermediates and further accentuating the sensitivity of ΔdapA strains to azoles. The results of exogenous-hemin rescue and heme-binding-site mutagenesis experiments demonstrate that the heme binding of DapA contributes the decreased azole susceptibility, while DapB and -C are capable of reducing the activities of Erg5 and Erg11 through depletion of heme. In vivo data demonstrate that inactivated DapA combined with activated DapB yields an A. fumigatus mutant that is easily treatable with azoles in an immunocompromised mouse model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Compared to the single Dap proteins found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we suggest that this complex Dap family regulatory system emerged during the evolution of fungi as an adaptive means to regulate ergosterol synthesis in response to environmental stimuli.

  3. Novel Plasmid Transformation Method Mediated by Chrysotile, Sliding Friction, and Elastic Body Exposure

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    Naoto Yoshida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli as a plasmid recipient cell was dispersed in a chrysotile colloidal solution, containing chrysotile adsorbed to plasmid DNA (chrysotile-plasmid cell mixture. Following this, the chrysotile-plasmid cell mixture was dropped onto the surface of an elastic body, such as agarose, and treated physically by sliding a polystyrene streak bar over the elastic body to create friction. Plasmid DNA was easily incorporated into E. coli, and antibiotic resistance was conferred by transformation. The transformation efficiency of E. coli cultured in solid medium was greater than that of E. coli cultured in broth. To obtain greater transformation efficiency, we attempted to determine optimal transformation conditions. The following conditions resulted in the greatest transformation efficiency: the recipient cell concentration within the chrysotileplasmid cell mixture had an optical density greater than or equal to 2 at 550 nm, the vertical reaction force applied to the streak bar was greater than or equal to 40 g, and the rotation speed of the elastic body was greater than or equal to 34 rpm. Under these conditions, we observed a transformation efficiency of 107 per μg plasmid DNA. The advantage of achieving bacterial transformation using the elastic body exposure method is that competent cell preparation of the recipient cell is not required. In addition to E. coli, other Gram negative bacteria are able to acquire plasmid DNA using the elastic body exposure method.

  4. Prediction and analysis of three gene families related to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fred Y; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2017-06-20

    The resistance to leaf rust (Lr) caused by Puccinia triticina in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been well studied over the past decades with over 70 Lr genes being mapped on different chromosomes and numerous QTLs (quantitative trait loci) being detected or mapped using DNA markers. Such resistance is often divided into race-specific and race-nonspecific resistance. The race-nonspecific resistance can be further divided into resistance to most or all races of the same pathogen and resistance to multiple pathogens. At the molecular level, these three types of resistance may cover across the whole spectrum of pathogen specificities that are controlled by genes encoding different protein families in wheat. The objective of this study is to predict and analyze genes in three such families: NBS-LRR (nucleotide-binding sites and leucine-rich repeats or NLR), START (Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein [STaR] related lipid-transfer) and ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporter. The focus of the analysis is on the patterns of relationships between these protein-coding genes within the gene families and QTLs detected for leaf rust resistance. We predicted 526 ABC, 1117 NLR and 144 START genes in the hexaploid wheat genome through a domain analysis of wheat proteome. Of the 1809 SNPs from leaf rust resistance QTLs in seedling and adult stages of wheat, 126 SNPs were found within coding regions of these genes or their neighborhood (5 Kb upstream from transcription start site [TSS] or downstream from transcription termination site [TTS] of the genes). Forty-three of these SNPs for adult resistance and 18 SNPs for seedling resistance reside within coding or neighboring regions of the ABC genes whereas 14 SNPs for adult resistance and 29 SNPs for seedling resistance reside within coding or neighboring regions of the NLR gene. Moreover, we found 17 nonsynonymous SNPs for adult resistance and five SNPs for seedling resistance in the ABC genes, and five nonsynonymous SNPs for

  5. Unraveling the regulatory network of IncA/C plasmid mobilization: When genomic islands hijack conjugative elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Nicolas; Matteau, Dominick; Burrus, Vincent; Rodrigue, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Conjugative plasmids of the A/C incompatibility group (IncA/C) have become substantial players in the dissemination of multidrug resistance. These large conjugative plasmids are characterized by their broad host-range, extended spectrum of antimicrobials resistance, and prevalence in enteric bacteria recovered from both environmental and clinical settings. Until recently, relatively little was known about the basic biology of IncA/C plasmids, mostly because of the hindrance of multidrug resistance for molecular biology experiments. To circumvent this issue, we previously developed pVCR94ΔX, a convenient prototype that codes for a reduced set of antibiotic resistances. Using pVCR94ΔX, we then characterized the regulatory pathway governing IncA/C plasmid dissemination. We found that the expression of roughly 2 thirds of the genes encoded by this plasmid, including large operons involved in the conjugation process, depends on an FlhCD-like master activator called AcaCD. Beyond the mobility of IncA/C plasmids, AcaCD was also shown to play a key role in the mobilization of different classes of genomic islands (GIs) identified in various pathogenic bacteria. By doing so, IncA/C plasmids can have a considerable impact on bacterial genomes plasticity and evolution.

  6. Sequential acquisition of R-plasmids in vivo by Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, D J; Sommerville, J S; Gribben, J

    1984-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium, resistant only to trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole, was isolated from the faeces and blood of a chronic alcoholic patient in acute renal failure. The isolates harboured an 18 Md non-conjugative plasmid. He was dialysed peritoneally and treated with ampicillin; four days later there was no clinical improvement and his peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF) had become infected. Salm. typhimurium was isolated from faeces and PDF. Both isolates were additionally resistant to ampicillin and contained two plasmids (55 Md and 18 Md). Therapy was changed to chloramphenicol and gentamicin was added to the PDF. Two weeks later Salm. typhimurium was again isolated from PDF and faeces. The PDF isolate was unchanged but 4% of the colonies isolated from this faecal specimen were resistant to chloramphenicol and had acquired an additional 62 Md plasmid. From all PDF and faecal specimens two different strains of Escherichia coli and one strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated which contained plasmids indistinguishable, on the basis of molecular weight and transferable resistance markers, from those acquired by Salm. typhimurium. The transferability of these plasmids in vitro to E. coli K12 and to the patient's initial Salm. typhimurium was studied and the results discussed.

  7. Spontaneous mutability and light-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium: effects of an R-plasmid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdivia, L.

    1979-01-01

    The UV-protecting plasmid R46 was transferred by conjugation to a genetically marked mouse-virulent Salmonella typhimurium strain, not derived from LT2; in this host the plasmid conferred UV protection and enhanced UV mutagenesis just as it does in LT2 lines. Tra - derivatives of R46 encountered during transduction retained UV-protecting and mutagenesis-enhancing ability. Stored strains carrying the R46-derived plasmids with strong mutator effect but not UV-protecting had lost most of their original streptomycin resistance but were slightly resistant to spectinomycin; attempts to transfer such plasmids failed. R46 enhanced the weak mutagenic effect of visible light on several his and trp mutants of strain LT2, including some whose frequency of spontaneous reversion was not increased by the plasmid. A mutagenic effect was produced by visible-light irradiation of hisG46(R46), either growing cells or nonmultiplying (histidine-deprived cells at 10 0 C). Presence of catalase or cyanide during irradiation did not prevent mutagenesis, which excludes some hypothetical mechanisms. Visible-light irradiation of hisG46 or hisG46(R46) under strict anaerobiosis had little or no mutagenic effect (controls showed that revertants if produced would have been detected). This is as expected if visible-light irradiation in air causes photodynamic damage to DNA and mutations are produced during error-prone, plasmid-enhanced repair

  8. Plasmid ColE1 as a Molecular Vehicle for Cloning and Amplification of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershfield, Vickers; Boyer, Herbert W.; Yanofsky, Charles; Lovett, Michael A.; Helinski, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    DNA fragments obtained from EcoRI endonuclease digestion of bacteriophage ϕ80pt190 (trp+) and the plasmid ColE1 were covalently joined with polynucleotide ligase. Transformation of Escherichia coli trp- strains to tryptophan independence with the recombined DNA selected for reconstituted ColE1 plasmids containing the tryptophan operon and the ϕ80 immunity region. Similarly, an EcoRI endonuclease generated fragment of plasmid pSC105 DNA containing the genetic determinant of kanamycin resistance was inserted into the ColE1 plasmid and recovered in E. coli. The plasmids containing the trp operon (ColE1-trp) and the kanamycin resistance gene were maintained under logarithmic growth conditions at a level of 25-30 copies per cell and accumulate to the extent of several hundred copies per cell in the presence of chloramphenicol. Cells carrying the ColE1-trp plasmid determined the production of highly elevated levels of trp operon-specific mRNA and tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes. Images PMID:4610576

  9. Plasmids of Staphylococcus cohnii isolated from the intensive-care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, E M; Rózalska, M; Cieślikowski, T; Nowak, T

    2004-01-01

    Numerous isolates of both subspecies of Staphylococcus cohnii were found in the environment of the intensive-care unit of a pediatric hospital. These isolates carried in their cells many plasmids, up to fourteen, of a wide range of sizes ( 56 kb). Striking was the occurrence of large plasmids not very common in staphylococci. These were present in > 80% of S. cohnii isolates. Fifty-two different plasmid profiles were found in 79 investigated isolates belonging to S. cohnii ssp. cohnii and S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus. Isolates similar in plasmid profiles were grouped in antibiotic-resistance clusters established for 9 antibiotics (gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, mupirocin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin) using the method of unweighted pair group mathematical averages (UPGMA). Many isolates were multiresistant to antibiotics and produced bacteriocins.

  10. Large-scale preparation of plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilig, J S; Elbing, K L; Brent, R

    2001-05-01

    Although the need for large quantities of plasmid DNA has diminished as techniques for manipulating small quantities of DNA have improved, occasionally large amounts of high-quality plasmid DNA are desired. This unit describes the preparation of milligram quantities of highly purified plasmid DNA. The first part of the unit describes three methods for preparing crude lysates enriched in plasmid DNA from bacterial cells grown in liquid culture: alkaline lysis, boiling, and Triton lysis. The second part describes four methods for purifying plasmid DNA in such lysates away from contaminating RNA and protein: CsCl/ethidium bromide density gradient centrifugation, polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, anion-exchange chromatography, and size-exclusion chromatography.

  11. Virulence factors, antimicrobial resistance, and plasmid content of Escherichia coli isolated in swine commercial farms Fatores de virulência, resistência aos antimicrobianos, presença de plasmídeos em Escherichia coli isoladas de amostras clínicas e ambientais de suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Costa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolates were evaluated. A total of 80 E. coli isolates were evaluated, being 64 from clinical samples (intestinal content and fragments of organs from diarrheic piglets, seven from feces of clinically healthy piglets and sows, and nine environmental samples (five from facilities, two from feed, one from insect, and one from waste. Molecular characterization was performed by PCR detection of fimbriae and toxin genes and plasmid content determination. The isolates were also characterized according to their resistance or sensitivity to the following drugs: ampicillin, trimethoprim:sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, amikacine, colistin, norfloxacin, florfenicol, enrofloxacin, cefalexin, trimethoprim, neomycin, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin. From 80 E. coli isolates, 53.8% were classified as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC, 2.5% were shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC, and 43.8% showed a non specific pattern and were unclassified. One fecal isolate from non-diarrheic piglet was classified as ETEC by PCR. Clinical isolates showed resistance mainly for tetracycline and trimethoprim:sulfamethoxazole. Plasmidial DNA was observed in 70 isolates, being 78.5% of clinical isolates, 8.57% of non-diarrheic feces, and 12.8% of environment.Os fatores de virulência e a resistência aos antimicrobianos foram avaliados em Escherichia coli. Um total de 80 isolados de E. coli, sendo 64 de amostras clínicas (conteúdo intestinal e fragmentos de órgãos de leitões diarreicos, sete das fezes de porcas e leitões saudáveis e nove de amostras ambientais (cinco de instalações, dois de alimentos, um de inseto e um de esterqueira. A caracterização molecular feita pela PCR objetivou detectar fimbrias e toxinas, bem como a determinação do conteúdo de plasmídeos. Os isolados foram caracterizados quanto à resistência ou sensibilidade às seguintes drogas: ampicilina, sulfazotrim

  12. Purification and Genetic Characterization of Enterocin I from Enterococcus faecium 6T1a, a Novel Antilisterial Plasmid-Encoded Bacteriocin Which Does Not Belong to the Pediocin Family of Bacteriocins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floriano, Belén; Ruiz-Barba, José L.; Jiménez-Díaz, Rufino

    1998-01-01

    Enterocin I (ENTI) is a novel bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium 6T1a, a strain originally isolated from a Spanish-style green olive fermentation. The bacteriocin is active against many olive spoilage and food-borne gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, including clostridia, propionibacteria, and Listeria monocytogenes. ENTI was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, binding to an SP-Sepharose fast-flow column, and phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B and C2/C18 reverse-phase chromatography. The purification procedure resulted in a final yield of 954% and a 170,000-fold increase in specific activity. The primary structure of ENTI was determined by amino acid and nucleotide sequencing. ENTI consists of 44 amino acids and does not show significant sequence similarity with any other previously described bacteriocin. Sequencing of the entI structural gene, which is located on the 23-kb plasmid pEF1 of E. faecium 6T1a, revealed the absence of a leader peptide at the N-terminal region of the gene product. A second open reading frame, ORF2, located downstream of entI, encodes a putative protein that is 72.7% identical to ENTI. entI and ORF2 appear to be cotranscribed, yielding an mRNA of ca. 0.35 kb. A gene encoding immunity to ENTI was not identified. However, curing experiments demonstrated that both enterocin production and immunity are conferred by pEF1. PMID:9835578

  13. [Replication of Streptomyces plasmids: the DNA nucleotide sequence of plasmid pSB 24.2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotin, A P; Sorokin, A V; Aleksandrov, N N; Danilenko, V N; Kozlov, Iu I

    1985-11-01

    The nucleotide sequence of DNA in plasmid pSB 24.2, a natural deletion derivative of plasmid pSB 24.1 isolated from S. cyanogenus was studied. The plasmid amounted by its size to 3706 nucleotide pairs. The G-C composition was equal to 73 per cent. The analysis of the DNA structure in plasmid pSB 24.2 revealed the protein-encoding sequence of DNA, the continuity of which was significant for replication of the plasmid containing more than 1300 nucleotide pairs. The analysis also revealed two A-T-rich areas of DNA, the G-C composition of which was less than 55 per cent and a DNA area with a branched pin structure. The results may be of value in investigation of plasmid replication in actinomycetes and experimental cloning of DNA with this plasmid as a vector.

  14. Development of a self-replicating plasmid system for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglennon, Gareth A; Cook, Beth S; Matthews, Dominic; Deeney, Alannah S; Bossé, Janine T; Langford, Paul R; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N

    2013-07-29

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a prevalent swine respiratory pathogen that is a major cause of economic loss to pig producers. Control is achieved by a combination of antimicrobials, vaccination and management practices, but current vaccines offer only partial control and there is a need for improved preventative strategies. A major barrier to advances in understanding the pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae and in developing new vaccines is the lack of tools to genetically manipulate the organism. We describe the development and optimisation of the first successful plasmid-based system for the genetic manipulation of M. hyopneumoniae. Our artificial plasmids contain the origin of replication (oriC) of M. hyopneumoniae along with tetM, conferring resistance to tetracycline. With these plasmids, we have successfully transformed M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 by electroporation, generating tetracycline resistant organisms. The persistence of extrachromosomal plasmid and maintenance of plasmid DNA over serial passages shows that these artificial plasmids are capable of self-replication in M. hyopneumoniae. In addition to demonstrating the amenability of M. hyopneumoniae to genetic manipulation and in optimising the conditions necessary for successful transformation, we have used this system to determine the minimum functional oriC of M. hyopneumoniae. In doing so, we have developed a plasmid with a small oriC that is stably maintained over multiple passages that may be useful in generating targeted gene disruptions. In conclusion, we have generated a set of plasmids that will be valuable in studies of M. hyopneumoniae pathogenesis and provide a major step forward in the study of this important swine pathogen.

  15. Characterization of epidemic IncI1-Iγ plasmids harboring ambler class A and C genes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica from animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hilde; Bossers, Alex; Harders, Frank; Wu, Guanghui; Woodford, Neil; Schwarz, Stefan; Guerra, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Irene; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Brouwer, Michael; Mevius, Dik

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the plasmid-encoded factors contributing to the emergence and spread of epidemic IncI1-Iγ plasmids obtained from Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica isolates from animal and human reservoirs. For this, 251 IncI1-Iγ plasmids carrying various extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) or AmpC β-lactamase genes were compared using plasmid multilocus sequence typing (pMLST). Thirty-two of these plasmids belonging to different pMLST types were sequenced using Roche 454 and Illumina platforms. Epidemic IncI1-Iγ plasmids could be assigned to various dominant clades, whereas rarely detected plasmids clustered together as a distinct clade. Similar phylogenetic trees were obtained using only the plasmid backbone sequences, showing that the differences observed between the plasmids belonging to distinct clades resulted mainly from differences between their backbone sequences. Plasmids belonging to the various clades differed particularly in the presence/absence of genes encoding partitioning and addiction systems, which contribute to stable inheritance during cell division and plasmid maintenance. Despite this, plasmids belonging to the various phylogenetic clades also showed marked resistance gene associations, indicating the circulation of successful plasmid-gene combinations. The variation in traY and excA genes found in IncI1-Iγ plasmids is conserved within pMLST sequence types and plays a role in incompatibility, although functional study is needed to elucidate the role of these genes in plasmid epidemiology. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. The master regulator of IncA/C plasmids is recognized by the Salmonella Genomic island SGI1 as a signal for excision and conjugal transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, János; Papp, Péter Pál; Szabó, Mónika; Farkas, Tibor; Murányi, Gábor; Szakállas, Erik; Olasz, Ferenc

    2015-10-15

    The genomic island SGI1 and its variants, the important vehicles of multi-resistance in Salmonella strains, are integrative elements mobilized exclusively by the conjugative IncA/C plasmids. Integration and excision of the island are carried out by the SGI1-encoded site-specific recombinase Int and the recombination directionality factor Xis. Chromosomal integration ensures the stable maintenance and vertical transmission of SGI1, while excision is the initial step of horizontal transfer, followed by conjugation and integration into the recipient. We report here that SGI1 not only exploits the conjugal apparatus of the IncA/C plasmids but also utilizes the regulatory mechanisms of the conjugation system for the exact timing and activation of excision to ensure efficient horizontal transfer. This study demonstrates that the FlhDC-family activator AcaCD, which regulates the conjugation machinery of the IncA/C plasmids, serves as a signal of helper entry through binding to SGI1 xis promoter and activating SGI1 excision. Promoters of int and xis genes have been identified and the binding site of the activator has been located by footprinting and deletion analyses. We prove that expression of xis is activator-dependent while int is constitutively expressed, and this regulatory mechanism is presumably responsible for the efficient transfer and stable maintenance of SGI1. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Fitness Advantage of mcr-1–Bearing IncI2 and IncX4 Plasmids in Vitro

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    Renjie Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the impact of diverse plasmids bearing colistin resistance gene mcr-1 on host fitness. Forty-seven commensal E. coli isolates recovered from the pig farm where mcr-1 was first identified were screened for mcr-1. mcr-1-bearing plasmids were characterized by sequencing. The fitness impact of mcr-1-bearing plasmids was evaluated by in vitro competition assays. Twenty-seven (57.5% E. coli isolates were positive for mcr-1. The mcr-1 genes were mainly located on plasmids belonging to IncI2 (n = 5, IncX4 (n = 11, IncHI2/ST3 (n = 8, IncFII (n = 2, and IncY (n = 2. InHI2 plasmids also carried other resistance genes (floR, blaCTX−M, and fosA3 and were only detected in isolates from nursery pigs. Sequences of the representative mcr-1–bearing plasmids were almost identical to those of the corresponding plasmid types reported previously. An increase in the fitness of IncI2- and IncX4-carrying strains was observed, while the presence of IncHI2, IncFII and IncY plasmids showed a fitness cost although an insignificant fitness increase was initially observed in IncFII or IncY plasmids-containing strains. Acquisition of IncI2-type plasmid was more beneficial for host E. coli DH5α than either IncHI2 or IncX4 plasmid, while transformants with IncHI2-type plasmid presented a competitive disadvantage against IncI2 or IncX4 plasmid containing strains. In conclusion, IncI2, IncX4, and IncHI2 were the major plasmid types driving the dissemination of mcr-1 in this farm. Increased fitness or co-selection by other antimicrobials might contribute to the further dissemination of the three epidemic mcr-1–positive plasmids (IncI2, IncX4, and IncHI2 in this farm and worldwide.

  18. Characterization of new plasmids from methylotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, V; Holubová, I; Benada, O; Hubácek, J

    1991-07-01

    Several tens of methanol-utilizing bacterial strains isolated from soil were screened for the presence of plasmids. From the obligate methylotroph Methylomonas sp. strain R103a plasmid pIH36 (36 kb) was isolated and its restriction map was constructed. In pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFM), belonging to the genus Methylobacterium four plasmids were detected: plasmids pIB200 (200 kb) and pIB14 (14 kb) in the strain R15d and plasmids pWU14 (14 kb) and pWU7 (7.8 kb) in the strain M17. Because of the small size and the presence of several unique REN sites (HindIII, EcoRI, NcoI), plasmid pWU7 was chosen for the construction of a vector for cloning in methylotrophs. Cointegrates pKWU7A and pKWU7B were formed between pWU7 and the E. coli plasmid pK19 Kmr, which were checked for conjugative transfer from E. coli into the methylotrophic host.

  19. Antibiotics and Resistance: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chromosomes and plasmids. Transposons often carry genes specifying antimicrobial resistance. Virus An extremely small infective agent, visible only with an electron microscope. Viruses can cause disease in humans, animals and plants. Viruses consist of a protein coat ...

  20. Mechanisms of quinolone resistance and implications for human and animal health

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    Velhner Maja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinolone antibiotics have been widely used in human and veterinary medicine. This has caused the development of resistance and difficulties in the treatment of complicated bacterial infections in humans. The resistance to quinolones develops due to chromosome mutations and it can also be transferred by plasmids. The target enzyme for quinolones in Gram-negative bacteria is Gyrasa A, while the target enzyme in Grampositive bacteria is mostly topoisomerase IV. Gyrase A consists of two subunits encoded by genes gyrA and gyrB. The function of the enzyme is to introduce negative super coiling in DNA and therefore is essential for the replication of bacteria. Quinolone resistance develops if point mutations at 83 and/or 87 codon are introduced on gyrA. Establishing a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC to this group of antimicrobials will reveal possible mutations. Recently it was discovered that quinolone resistance is transmittable by plasmid termed PMQR (plasmid mediated quinolone resistance. The target gene marked qnr encodes a pentapeptide repeat family protein. Pentapeptide repeats form sheets, involved in protein-protein interactions. Qnr protein binds to GyrA protecting the enzyme from the inhibitory effect of ciprofloxacin. The distribution of qnr related resistance is higher in humans than in animals. In poultry, however, this type of resistance is present more than in other animals. Plasmid mediated resistance contributes to the faster spread of quinolone resistance. Proper food handling will significantly contribute to decreasing the risk from infection to which people are exposed. In medical and veterinary laboratories antimicrobial resistance monitoring in clinical and environmental isolates is advised. Since correlation between antibiotics application and antimicrobial resistance is often suggested, antimicrobial use must be under strict control of the authorities both in human and in veterinary medicine. .

  1. Dynamics in copy numbers of five plasmids of a dairy Lactococcus lactis in dairy-related conditions including near-zero growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mastrigt, Oscar; Lommers, Marcel M A N; de Vries, Yorick C; Abee, Tjakko; Smid, Eddy J

    2018-03-23

    Lactic acid bacteria can carry multiple plasmids affecting their performance in dairy fermentations. The expression of plasmid-encoded genes and the activity of the corresponding proteins is severely affected by changes in the number of plasmid copies. We studied the impact of growth rate on dynamics of plasmid copy numbers at high growth rates in chemostat cultures and down to near-zero growth rates in retentostat cultures. Five plasmids of the dairy strain Lactococcus lactis FM03-V1 were selected which varied in size (3 to 39 kb), in replication mechanism (theta or rolling-circle) and in putative (dairy-associated) functions. Copy numbers ranged from 1.5 to 40.5 and the copy number of theta-type replicating plasmids were negatively correlated to the plasmid size. Despite the extremely wide range of growth rates (0.0003 h -1 to 0.6 h -1 ), copy numbers of the five plasmids were stable and only slightly increased at near-zero growth rates showing that the plasmid replication rate was strictly controlled. One low-copy number plasmid, carrying a large exopolysaccharide gene cluster, was segregationally unstable during retentostat cultivations reflected in complete loss of the plasmid in one of the retentostat cultures. The copy number of the five plasmids was also hardly affected by varying the pH value, nutrient limitation or presence of citrate (maximum 2.2-fold) signifying the stability in copy number of the plasmids. Importance Lactococcus lactis is extensively used in starter cultures for dairy fermentations. Important traits for growth and survival of L. lactis in dairy fermentations are encoded by genes located on plasmids, such as genes involved in lactose and citrate metabolism, protein degradation and oligopeptide uptake and bacteriophage resistance. Because the number of plasmid copies could affect the expression of plasmid-encoded genes, it is important to know the factors that influence the plasmid copy numbers. We monitored plasmid copy numbers of L

  2. Characterization of the Complete Nucleotide Sequences of IncA/C2 Plasmids Carrying In809-Like Integrons from Enterobacteriaceae Isolates of Wildlife Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannitsis, Costas C; Kutilova, Iva; Medvecky, Matej; Hrabak, Jaroslav; Dolejska, Monika

    2017-09-01

    A total of 18 Enterobacteriaceae (17 from gulls and 1 from a clinical sample) collected from Australia, carrying IncA/C plasmids with the IMP-encoding In809-like integrons, were studied. Seven plasmids, being representatives of different origins, plasmid sizes, replicon combinations, and resistance genes, were completely sequenced. Plasmid pEc158, identified in a clinical Escherichia coli ST752 isolate, showed extensive similarity to type 2 IncA/C 2 plasmids. pEc158 carried none of the bla CMY-2 -like region or ARI-B and ARI-A regions, while it contained a hybrid transposon structure. The six remaining plasmids, which were of wildlife origin, were highly similar to each other and probably were fusion derivatives of type 1 and type 2 A/C 2 plasmids. The latter plasmids contained an ARI-B region and hybrid transposon structures. In all plasmids, hybrid transposon structures containing In809-like integrons were inserted 3,434 bp downstream of the rhs2 start codon. In all cases, the one outermost 38-bp inverted repeat (IR) of the transposon was associated with the Tn 1696 tnp module, while the other outermost 38-bp IR of the transposon was associated with either a Tn 6317 -like module or a Tn 21 mer module. However, the internal structure of the transposon and the resistance genes were different in each plasmid. These findings indicated that, for the specific periods of time and settings, different IncA/C 2 plasmid types carrying In809-like elements circulated among isolates of wildlife and clinical origins. Additionally, they provided the basis for speculations regarding the reshuffling of IncA/C 2 plasmids with In809-like integrons and confirmed the rapid evolution of IncA/C 2 plasmid lineages. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Comparative Genomics of Rhodococcus equi Virulence Plasmids Indicates Host-Driven Evolution of the vap Pathogenicity Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Iain; Anastasi, Elisa; Alvarez, Sonsiray; Scortti, Mariela; Vázquez-Boland, José A

    2017-05-01

    The conjugative virulence plasmid is a key component of the Rhodococcus equi accessory genome essential for pathogenesis. Three host-associated virulence plasmid types have been identified the equine pVAPA and porcine pVAPB circular variants, and the linear pVAPN found in bovine (ruminant) isolates. We recently characterized the R. equi pangenome (Anastasi E, et al. 2016. Pangenome and phylogenomic analysis of the pathogenic actinobacterium Rhodococcus equi. Genome Biol Evol. 8:3140-3148.) and we report here the comparative analysis of the virulence plasmid genomes. Plasmids within each host-associated type were highly similar despite their diverse origins. Variation was accounted for by scattered single nucleotide polymorphisms and short nucleotide indels, while larger indels-mostly in the plasticity region near the vap pathogencity island (PAI)-defined plasmid genomic subtypes. Only one of the plasmids analyzed, of pVAPN type, was exceptionally divergent due to accumulation of indels in the housekeeping backbone. Each host-associated plasmid type carried a unique PAI differing in vap gene complement, suggesting animal host-specific evolution of the vap multigene family. Complete conservation of the vap PAI was observed within each host-associated plasmid type. Both diversity of host-associated plasmid types and clonality of specific chromosomal-plasmid genomic type combinations were observed within the same R. equi phylogenomic subclade. Our data indicate that the overall strong conservation of the R. equi host-associated virulence plasmids is the combined result of host-driven selection, lateral transfer between strains, and geographical spread due to international livestock exchanges. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. RepA and RepB exert plasmid incompatibility repressing the transcription of the repABC operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Oseguera, Angeles; Cevallos, Miguel A

    2013-11-01

    Rhizobium etli CFN42 has a multipartite genome composed of one chromosome and six large plasmids with low copy numbers, all belonging to the repABC plasmid family. All elements essential for replication and segregation of these plasmids are encoded within the repABC operon. RepA and RepB direct plasmid segregation and are involved in the transcriptional regulation of the operon, and RepC is the initiator protein of the plasmid. Here we show that in addition to RepA (repressor) and RepB (corepressor), full transcriptional repression of the operon located in the symbiotic plasmid (pRetCFN42d) of this strain requires parS, the centromere-like sequence, and the operator sequence. However, the co-expression of RepA and RepB is sufficient to induce the displacement of the parental plasmid. RepA is a Walker-type ATPase that self associates in vivo and in vitro and binds specifically to the operator region in its RepA-ADP form. In contrast, RepA-ATP is capable of binding to non-specific DNA. RepA and RepB form high molecular weight DNA-protein complexes in the presence of ATP and ADP. RepA carrying ATP-pocket motif mutations induce full repression of the repABC operon without the participation of RepB and parS. These mutants specifically bind the operator sequence in their ATP or ADP bound forms. In addition, their expression in trans exerts plasmid incompatibility against the parental plasmid. RepA and RepB expressed in trans induce plasmid incompatibility because of their ability to repress the repABC operon and not only by their capacity to distort the plasmid segregation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic dissection of powdery mildew resistance in interspecific half-sib grapevine families using SNP-based maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Soon Li; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Clark, Matthew D; Gadoury, David M; Sun, Qi; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Luby, James J

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) identification in perennial fruit crops is impeded largely by their lengthy generation time, resulting in costly and labor-intensive maintenance of breeding programs. In a grapevine (genus Vitis ) breeding program, although experimental families are typically unreplicated, the genetic backgrounds may contain similar progenitors previously selected due to their contribution of favorable alleles. In this study, we investigated the utility of joint QTL identification provided by analyzing half-sib families. The genetic control of powdery mildew was studied using two half-sib F 1 families, namely GE0711/1009 (MN1264 × MN1214; N  = 147) and GE1025 (MN1264 × MN1246; N  = 125) with multiple species in their ancestry. Maternal genetic maps consisting of 1077 and 1641 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, respectively, were constructed using a pseudo-testcross strategy. Ratings of field resistance to powdery mildew were obtained based on whole-plant evaluation of disease severity. This 2-year analysis uncovered two QTLs that were validated on a consensus map in these half-sib families with improved precision relative to the parental maps. Examination of haplotype combinations based on the two QTL regions identified strong association of haplotypes inherited from 'Seyval blanc', through MN1264, with powdery mildew resistance. This investigation also encompassed the use of microsatellite markers to establish a correlation between 206-bp (UDV-015b) and 357-bp (VViv67) fragment sizes with resistance-carrying haplotypes. Our work is one of the first reports in grapevine demonstrating the use of SNP-based maps and haplotypes for QTL identification and tagging of powdery mildew resistance in half-sib families.

  6. Comparative symbiotic plasmid analysis indicates that symbiosis gene ancestor type affects plasmid genetic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Zhao, L; Zhang, L; Wu, Y; Chou, M; Wei, G

    2018-07-01

    Rhizobial symbiotic plasmids play vital roles in mutualistic symbiosis with legume plants by executing the functions of nodulation and nitrogen fixation. To explore the gene composition and genetic constitution of rhizobial symbiotic plasmids, comparison analyses of 24 rhizobial symbiotic plasmids derived from four rhizobial genera was carried out. Results illustrated that rhizobial symbiotic plasmids had higher proportion of functional genes participating in amino acid transport and metabolism, replication; recombination and repair; carbohydrate transport and metabolism; energy production and conversion and transcription. Mesorhizobium amorphae CCNWGS0123 symbiotic plasmid - pM0123d had similar gene composition with pR899b and pSNGR234a. All symbiotic plasmids shared 13 orthologous genes, including five nod and eight nif/fix genes which participate in the rhizobia-legume symbiosis process. These plasmids contained nod genes from four ancestors and fix genes from six ancestors. The ancestral type of pM0123d nod genes was similar with that of Rhizobium etli plasmids, while the ancestral type of pM0123d fix genes was same as that of pM7653Rb. The phylogenetic trees constructed based on nodCIJ and fixABC displayed different topological structures mainly due to nodCIJ and fixABC ancestral type discordance. The study presents valuable insights into mosaic structures and the evolution of rhizobial symbiotic plasmids. This study compared 24 rhizobial symbiotic plasmids that included four genera and 11 species, illuminating the functional gene composition and symbiosis gene ancestor types of symbiotic plasmids from higher taxonomy. It provides valuable insights into mosaic structures and the evolution of symbiotic plasmids. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Evaluation of the effect of non-B DNA structures on plasmid integrity via accelerated stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, S C; Monteiro, G A; Prazeres, D M F

    2009-04-01

    Plasmid biopharmaceuticals are a new class of medicines with an enormous potential. Attempts to increase the physical stability of highly purified supercoiled (SC) plasmid DNA in pharmaceutical aqueous solutions have relied on: (i) changing the DNA sequence, (ii) improving manufacturing to reduce deleterious impurities and initial DNA damage, and (iii) controlling the storage medium characteristics. In this work we analyzed the role of secondary structures on the degradation of plasmid molecules. Accelerated stability experiments were performed with SC, open circular (OC) and linear (L) isoforms of three plasmids which differed only in the "single-strandlike" content of their polyadenylation (poly A) signals. We have proved that the presence of more altered or interrupted (non-B) DNA secondary structures did not directly translate into an easier strand scission of the SC isoforms. Rather, those unusual structures imposed a lower degree of SC in the plasmids, leading to an increase in their resistance to thermal degradation. However, this behavior was reversed when the relaxed or L isoforms were tested, in which case the absence of SC rendered the plasmids essentially double-stranded. Overall, this work suggests that plasmid DNA sequence and secondary structures should be taken into account in future investigations of plasmid stability during prolonged storage.

  8. Expansion of plasmid mediated blaACT-2 among Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with postoperative infection and its transcriptional response under cephalosporin stress.

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    Birson Ingti, Deepjyoti Paul, Anand Prakash Maurya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Organisms harboring multiple plasmid mediated β-lactamases are major concerns in nosocomial infections. Among these plasmid mediated β-lactamases, ACT (EBC family is a clinically important enzyme capable of hydrolyzing broad spectrum cephalosporins. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ACT determinant along with other co-existing β-lactamase genes in P. aeruginosa strains. Methods: A total of 176 Pseudomonas isolates were phenotypically screened for the presence of AmpC β-lactamase by M3DET Method followed by Molecular detection using PCR assay. Transcriptional evaluation of blaACT-2 gene was analyzed by RT-PCR and its transferability was performed by transformation and conjugation. Results: Present study demonstrates the presence of ACT-2 allele among 12 strains of P. aeruginosa. Co-existence of other β-lactamase genes were encountered among ACT-2 harboring strains which includes CTX-M (n=2, SHV (n=3, TEM (n=2, VEB (n=2, OXA-10 (n=1, CIT (n=2 and DHA (n=3. Fingerprinting by REP PCR revealed the isolates harboring ACT-2 to be distinct and these isolates showed high resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and even to carbapenem group of drugs. This ACT-2 allele was encoded in the plasmid (L/M, FIA, FIB Inc. Group and conjugatively transferable. Transcriptional analysis revealed a significant increase in ACT-2 expression (483 fold when induced by ceftriaxone at 4 µg/ml followed by ceftazidime at 8 µg/ml (31 fold and cefotaxime 4 µg/ml (8 fold. Conclusion: In this study detection of ACT-2 plasmid mediated AmpC β-lactamase along with other β-lactamase genes in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa represents a serious therapeutic challenge. Therefore, revision in antimicrobial policy is required for effective treatment of patients infected with pathogen expressing this mechanism. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 7(2: 75-82

  9. Return of neonatal CPAP resistance - the Medijet device family examined using in vitro flow simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Markus; Donaldsson, Snorri; Jonsson, Baldvin; Drevhammar, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Medijet nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) generators are a family of devices developed from the Benveniste valve. Previous studies have shown that the in vitro performance of the Medijet disposable generator was similar to the Neopuff resistor system. We hypothesised that resistance would be the main mechanism of CPAP generation in the Medijet disposable generator. The in vitro performance of the Medijet reusable and disposable systems, the Neopuff resistor system and the Benveniste and Infant Flow nonresistor systems were investigated using static and dynamic bench tests. Large differences in performance were found between the different systems. The disposable Medijet demonstrated high resistance, low pressure stability and high imposed work of breathing. The results also showed that encapsulating the Benveniste valve changed it into a resistor system. The main mechanism of CPAP generation for the disposable Medijet generator was resistance. The Medijet device family showed increasing resistance with each design generation. The high resistance of the Medijet disposable generator could be of great value when examining the clinical importance of pressure stability. Our results suggest that this device should be used cautiously in patients where pressure-stable CPAP is believed to be clinically important. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Characterization of plasmids in a human clinical strain of Lactococcus garvieae.

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    Mónica Aguado-Urda

    Full Text Available The present work describes the molecular characterization of five circular plasmids found in the human clinical strain Lactococcus garvieae 21881. The plasmids were designated pGL1-pGL5, with molecular sizes of 4,536 bp, 4,572 bp, 12,948 bp, 14,006 bp and 68,798 bp, respectively. Based on detailed sequence analysis, some of these plasmids appear to be mosaics composed of DNA obtained by modular exchange between different species of lactic acid bacteria. Based on sequence data and the derived presence of certain genes and proteins, the plasmid pGL2 appears to replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism, while the other four plasmids appear to belong to the group of lactococcal theta-type replicons. The plasmids pGL1, pGL2 and pGL5 encode putative proteins related with bacteriocin synthesis and bacteriocin secretion and immunity. The plasmid pGL5 harbors genes (txn, orf5 and orf25 encoding proteins that could be considered putative virulence factors. The gene txn encodes a protein with an enzymatic domain corresponding to the family actin-ADP-ribosyltransferases toxins, which are known to play a key role in pathogenesis of a variety of bacterial pathogens. The genes orf5 and orf25 encode two putative surface proteins containing the cell wall-sorting motif LPXTG, with mucin-binding and collagen-binding protein domains, respectively. These proteins could be involved in the adherence of L. garvieae to mucus from the intestine, facilitating further interaction with intestinal epithelial cells and to collagenous tissues such as the collagen-rich heart valves. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the characterization of plasmids in a human clinical strain of this pathogen.

  11. Plasmid fermentation process for DNA immunization applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Aaron E; Williams, James A

    2014-01-01

    Plasmid DNA for immunization applications must be of the highest purity and quality. The ability of downstream purification to efficiently produce a pure final product is directly influenced by the performance of the upstream fermentation process. While several clinical manufacturing facilities already have validated fermentation processes in place to manufacture plasmid DNA for use in humans, a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale fermentation process can be valuable for in-house production of plasmid DNA for use in animal efficacy studies. This chapter describes a simple fed-batch fermentation process for producing bacterial cell paste enriched with high-quality plasmid DNA. A constant feeding strategy results in a medium cell density culture with continuously increasing plasmid amplification towards the end of the process. Cell banking and seed culture preparation protocols, which can dramatically influence final product yield and quality, are also described. These protocols are suitable for production of research-grade plasmid DNA at the 100 mg-to-1.5 g scale from a typical 10 L laboratory benchtop fermentor.

  12. Plasmid-mediated mineralization of 4-chlorobiphenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, M.S.; Hooper, S.W.; Sayler, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Strains of Alcaligenes and Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from a mixed culture already proven to be proficient at complete mineralization of monohalogenated biphenyls. These strains were shown to harbor a 35 x 10(6)-dalton plasmid mediating a complete pathway for 4-chlorobiphenyl (4CB) oxidation. Subsequent plasmid curing of these bacteria resulted in the abolishment of the 4CB mineralization phenotype and loss of even early 4CB metabolism by Acinetobacter spp. Reestablishment of the Alcaligenes plasmid, denoted pSS50, in the cured Acinetobacter spp. via filter surface mating resulted in the restoration of 4CB mineralization abilities. 4CB mineralization, however, proved to be an unstable characteristic in some subcultured strains. Such loss was not found to coincide with any detectable alteration in plasmid size. Cultures capable of complete mineralization, as well as those limited to partial metabolism of 4CB, produced 4-chlorobenzoate as a metabolite. Demonstration of mineralization of a purified 14 C-labeled chlorobenzoate showed it to be a true intermediate in 4CB mineralization. Unlike the mineralization capability, the ability to produce a metabolite has proven to be stable on subculture. These results indicate the occurrence of a novel plasmid, or evolved catabolic plasmid, that mediates the complete mineralization of 4CB

  13. Transfer of the pheromone-inducible plasmid pCF10 among Enterococcus faecalis microorganisms colonizing the intestine of mini-pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Laugesen, D.; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2002-01-01

    A new animal model, the streptomycin-treated mini-pig, was developed in order to allow colonization of defined strains of Enterococcus faecalis in numbers sufficient to study plasmid transfer. Transfer of the pheromone-inducible pCF10 plasmid between streptomycin-resistant strains of E. faecalis OG...

  14. MHC polymorphism and disease resistance to vibrio anguillarum in 8 families of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yan-hong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC have a critical role in both the innate and adaptive immune responses because of their involvement in presenting foreign peptides to T cells. However, the nature has remained largely unknown. Results We examined the genetic variation in MHC class IIB in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis after challenge with vibrio anguillarum. Two thousand and four hundred fry from 12 half-smooth tongue sole families were challenged with Vibrio anguillarum. To determine any association between alleles and resistance or susceptibility to V. anguillarum, 160 individuals from four high-resistance (HR, 73.27% mortality families were selected for MHC IIB exon2 gene sequence analysis. The MHC IIB exon2 genes of tongue sole displayed a high level of polymorphism and were discovered at least four loci. Meanwhile, the dN/dS [the ratio of non-synonymous (dN substitutions to synonymous (dS substitutions] in the peptide-binding region (PBR was higher than that in the non-peptide-binding region (non-PBR. Eighty-eight alleles were discovered among 160 individuals, and 13 out of 88 alleles were used to analyze the distribution pattern between the resistant and susceptible families. Certain alleles presented in HR and LR with a different frequency, while other alleles were discovered in only the HR or LR families, not both. Five alleles, Cyse-DBB*6501, Cyse-DBB*4002, Cyse-DBB*6102, Cyse-DBB*5601 and Cyse-DBB*2801, were found to be associated with susceptibility to V. anguillarum with a frequency of 1.25%, 1.25%, 1.25%, 1.25% and 2.5% in the HR families, and 35%, 33.75%, 27.5%, 16.25%, 15% in the LR families (p Cyse-DBB*3301, Cyse-DBB*4701, Cyse-DBB*6801 and Cyse-DBB*5901, were found to be associated with resistance to V. anguillarum, with a frequency of 13.75%, 11.25%, 11.25%, 8.75% in the HR families and 1.25%, 1.25%, 1.25%, 1.25% and 1.25% in the LR families (p Conclusions Elucidation of the

  15. Behavior of IncQ Plasmids in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, Jacques; Schilperoort, Rob

    1981-01-01

    Inc-Q plasmids were introduced into Agrobacterium tumefuciens, by mobilization from Escherichia coli with an Inc-P plasmid, or by transformation with purified plasmid DNA. It was found that they were stably maintained. The presence of an Inc-Q plasmid did not influence tumorigenicity. These results

  16. Isolation and characterization of two cryptic plasmids in the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas sp. strain ENI-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, A; Kato, J; Hirota, R; Kuroda, A; Ikeda, T; Takiguchi, N; Ohtake, H

    1999-06-01

    Two plasmids were discovered in the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas sp. strain ENI-11, which was isolated from activated sludge. The plasmids, designated pAYS and pAYL, were relatively small, being approximately 1.9 kb long. They were cryptic plasmids, having no detectable plasmid-linked antibiotic resistance or heavy metal resistance markers. The complete nucleotide sequences of pAYS and pAYL were determined, and their physical maps were constructed. There existed two major open reading frames, ORF1 in pAYS and ORF2 in pAYL, each of which was more than 500 bp long. The predicted product of ORF2 was 28% identical to part of the replication protein of a Bacillus plasmid, pBAA1. However, no significant similarity to any known protein sequences was detected with the predicted product of ORF1. pAYS and pAYL had a highly homologous region, designated HHR, of 262 bp. The overall identity was 98% between the two nucleotide sequences. Interestingly, HHR-homologous sequences were also detected in the genomes of ENI-11 and the plasmidless strain Nitrosomonas europaea IFO14298. Deletion analysis of pAYS and pAYL indicated that HHR, together with either ORF1 or ORF2, was essential for plasmid maintenance in ENI-11. To our knowledge, pAYS and pAYL are the first plasmids found in the ammonia-oxidizing autotrophic bacteria.

  17. Comparative metagenomic analysis of plasmid encoded functions in the human gut microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchesi Julian R

    2010-01-01

    particular the increased relative abundance and broad phylogenetic distribution was identified for a putative RelBE toxin/antitoxin addiction module, a putative phosphohydrolase/phosphoesterase, and an ORF of unknown function. Our analysis also indicates that some plasmids or plasmid families are present in the gut microbiomes of geographically isolated human hosts with a broad global distribution (America, Japan and Europe, and are potentially unique to the human gut microbiome. Further investigation of the plasmid population associated with the human gut is likely to provide important insights into the development, functioning and evolution of the human gut microbiota.

  18. Impact of family history on relations between insulin resistance, LDL cholesterol and carotid IMT in healthy adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anderwald, Christian

    2010-08-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is implicated as an independent risk factor for vascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and\\/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the associations between IR, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and subclinical atherosclerosis (common and internal carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT)) in healthy European adults.

  19. Characterization of resistance gene analogues (RGAs in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh. and their evolutionary history of the Rosaceae family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Perazzolli

    Full Text Available The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh. cultivar 'Golden Delicious'. This represents 1.51% of the total number of predicted genes for this cultivar. Several evolutionary features are pronounced in M. domestica, including a high fraction (80% of RGAs occurring in clusters. This suggests frequent tandem duplication and ectopic translocation events. Of the identified RGAs, 56% are located preferentially on six chromosomes (Chr 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 15, and 25% are located on Chr 2. TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS classes of RGAs are primarily exclusive of different chromosomes, and 99% of non-TIR-NBS RGAs are located on Chr 11. A phylogenetic reconstruction was conducted to study the evolution of RGAs in the Rosaceae family. More than 1400 RGAs were identified in six species based on their NBS domain, and a neighbor-joining analysis was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the protein sequences. Specific phylogenetic clades were found for RGAs of Malus, Fragaria, and Rosa, indicating genus-specific evolution of resistance genes. However, strikingly similar RGAs were shared in Malus, Pyrus, and Prunus, indicating high conservation of specific RGAs and suggesting a monophyletic origin of these three genera.

  20. Characterization of Resistance Gene Analogues (RGAs) in Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and Their Evolutionary History of the Rosaceae Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Angela; Righetti, Laura; Bailey, Aubrey; Fontana, Paolo; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivar ‘Golden Delicious’. This represents 1.51% of the total number of predicted genes for this cultivar. Several evolutionary features are pronounced in M. domestica, including a high fraction (80%) of RGAs occurring in clusters. This suggests frequent tandem duplication and ectopic translocation events. Of the identified RGAs, 56% are located preferentially on six chromosomes (Chr 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 15), and 25% are located on Chr 2. TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS classes of RGAs are primarily exclusive of different chromosomes, and 99% of non-TIR-NBS RGAs are located on Chr 11. A phylogenetic reconstruction was conducted to study the evolution of RGAs in the Rosaceae family. More than 1400 RGAs were identified in six species based on their NBS domain, and a neighbor-joining analysis was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the protein sequences. Specific phylogenetic clades were found for RGAs of Malus, Fragaria, and Rosa, indicating genus-specific evolution of resistance genes. However, strikingly similar RGAs were shared in Malus, Pyrus, and Prunus, indicating high conservation of specific RGAs and suggesting a monophyletic origin of these three genera. PMID:24505246

  1. Characterization of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and their evolutionary history of the Rosaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzolli, Michele; Malacarne, Giulia; Baldo, Angela; Righetti, Laura; Bailey, Aubrey; Fontana, Paolo; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivar 'Golden Delicious'. This represents 1.51% of the total number of predicted genes for this cultivar. Several evolutionary features are pronounced in M. domestica, including a high fraction (80%) of RGAs occurring in clusters. This suggests frequent tandem duplication and ectopic translocation events. Of the identified RGAs, 56% are located preferentially on six chromosomes (Chr 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 15), and 25% are located on Chr 2. TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS classes of RGAs are primarily exclusive of different chromosomes, and 99% of non-TIR-NBS RGAs are located on Chr 11. A phylogenetic reconstruction was conducted to study the evolution of RGAs in the Rosaceae family. More than 1400 RGAs were identified in six species based on their NBS domain, and a neighbor-joining analysis was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the protein sequences. Specific phylogenetic clades were found for RGAs of Malus, Fragaria, and Rosa, indicating genus-specific evolution of resistance genes. However, strikingly similar RGAs were shared in Malus, Pyrus, and Prunus, indicating high conservation of specific RGAs and suggesting a monophyletic origin of these three genera.

  2. Influence of endogenous plasmids on phenotypes of Pantoea vagans strain C9-1 associated with epiphytic fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoea vagans strain C9-1 is an effective biological control agent for fire blight of pear and apple. C9-1 carries three circular plasmids: pPag1 (168 kb), pPag2 (166 kb), and pPag3 (530 kb). Of these, pPag3, a member of the large Pantoea plasmid family, was proposed to contribute to epiphytic fitn...

  3. The MYST family histone acetyltransferase complex regulates stress resistance and longevity through transcriptional control of DAF-16/FOXO transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takako; Uno, Masaharu; Honjoh, Sakiko; Nishida, Eisuke

    2017-08-09

    The well-known link between longevity and the Sir2 histone deacetylase family suggests that histone deacetylation, a modification associated with repressed chromatin, is beneficial to longevity. However, the molecular links between histone acetylation and longevity remain unclear. Here, we report an unexpected finding that the MYST family histone acetyltransferase complex (MYS-1/TRR-1 complex) promotes rather than inhibits stress resistance and longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans Our results show that these beneficial effects are largely mediated through transcriptional up-regulation of the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16. MYS-1 and TRR-1 are recruited to the promoter regions of the daf-16 gene, where they play a role in histone acetylation, including H4K16 acetylation. Remarkably, we also find that the human MYST family Tip60/TRRAP complex promotes oxidative stress resistance by up-regulating the expression of FOXO transcription factors in human cells. Tip60 is recruited to the promoter regions of the foxo1 gene, where it increases H4K16 acetylation levels. Our results thus identify the evolutionarily conserved role of the MYST family acetyltransferase as a key epigenetic regulator of DAF-16/FOXO transcription factors. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. Effect of ionizing radition on conjugative R plasmid in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmetova, M.; Puzova, H.; Rexa, R.

    1986-01-01

    Five-fold cyclic gamma irradiation of E. coli strain No. 214 with conjugative R plasmid with doses of 150 Gy, with the exception of chloramphenicol, did not essentially affect the expression of the examined determinants of resistance to antimicrobial substances (tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, canamycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxidine). The dose of 150 Gy from the first irradiation of the strain reduced the transfer frequency of the R plasmid approximately hundred-fold. After the second up to the fourth irradiation of the strain the transfer frequency went back to approximately its original value. (author)

  5. Formation of Escherichia coli Hfr strains by integrative suppression with the P group plasmid RP1.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, R R; Thorlton, C L; Unger, L

    1981-01-01

    Hfr strains of Escherichia coli were obtained by integrative suppression of a dnaA(Ts) mutation by the Inc P-1 plasmid RP1 without prior creation of an unnatural homology between the plasmid and the E. coli chromosome. Unmodified RP1 mobilized the polarized transfer of the chromosome in a counterclock-wise direction from a distinct origin between 81 min (pyrE) and 82 min (dnaA) with pyrE as a leading marker. Inheritance of RP1-Hfr chromosomal and antibiotic resistance genes was due to recombi...

  6. Circulation of a multiresistant, conjugative, IncA/C plasmid within the nosocomial Providencia stuartii population in the Athens area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakkoupi, Panagiota; Tryfinopoulou, Kyriaki; Polemis, Michalis; Pappa, Olga; Miriagou, Vivi; Vatopoulos, Alkiviadis

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the study is to report a multidrug-resistant outbreak of Providencia stuartii that occurred in inpatients in the Athens area in 2012 resulting from a very successful transmissible A/C multidrug-resistant plasmid. Thirteen multidrug-resistant P. stuartii clinical isolates from 5 hospitals were studied. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Antibiotic resistance genes and their genetic surround were detected by PCR and sequencing. Plasmid analysis included conjugation experiments using liquid cultures, sizing by S1 digestion, and incompatibility replicon typing by PCR. Isolates were grouped into 2 distinct clonal types A and B, exhibiting similarity less than 70%. Isolates of type A were recovered from patients hospitalized in 4 different hospitals with no obvious epidemiological linkage, while isolates of type B were recovered from patients treated in a single hospital. Both clonal types harbored a conjugative plasmid of 130 bp and IncA/C replicon type carrying 5 β-lactamase genes bla(SHV-5), bla(VEB-1), bla(VIM-1), bla(OXA-10), and bla(TEM-1) and aminoglycosides resistant determinants. All β-lactamase genes were included in stable structures as IS26, IS1999, and In-e541. The current plasmid seemed to have many common determinants with previously reported plasmids derived from P. stuartii and Proteus mirabilis clinical isolates and exhibited the ability to circulate in nosocomial bacterial populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An Enterobacter Plasmid as a New Genetic Background for the Transposon Tn1331

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    determined to be 99% similar to E. cloacae by both 16S rDNA and Phoenix analysis and was designated Enterobacter sp W001. Enterobacter sp W001 was...adolescents. JAMA. 2002;287(23):3096–3102. 9. Foster TJ. Plasmid- determined resistance to antimicrobial drugs and toxic metal ions in bacteria. Microbiol...mediated type II dihydrofolate reductase gene among trimethoprim -resistant urinary pathogens in Greek hospitals. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1992;29

  8. Characterization of Soybean WRKY Gene Family and Identification of Soybean WRKY Genes that Promote Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Zhou, Yuan; Chi, Yingjun; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2017-12-19

    WRKY proteins are a superfamily of plant transcription factors with important roles in plants. WRKY proteins have been extensively analyzed in plant species including Arabidopsis and rice. Here we report characterization of soybean WRKY gene family and their functional analysis in resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN), the most important soybean pathogen. Through search of the soybean genome, we identified 174 genes encoding WRKY proteins that can be classified into seven groups as established in other plants. WRKY variants including a WRKY-related protein unique to legumes have also been identified. Expression analysis reveals both diverse expression patterns in different soybean tissues and preferential expression of specific WRKY groups in certain tissues. Furthermore, a large number of soybean WRKY genes were responsive to salicylic acid. To identify soybean WRKY genes that promote soybean resistance to SCN, we first screened soybean WRKY genes for enhancing SCN resistance when over-expressed in transgenic soybean hairy roots. To confirm the results, we transformed five WRKY genes into a SCN-susceptible soybean cultivar and generated transgenic soybean lines. Transgenic soybean lines overexpressing three WRKY transgenes displayed increased resistance to SCN. Thus, WRKY genes could be explored to develop new soybean cultivars with enhanced resistance to SCN.

  9. The Prevalence of the OqxAB Multidrug Efflux Pump amongst Olaquindox-Resistant Escherichia coli in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Jørgensen, Helle S.

    2005-01-01

    The quinoxaline olaquindox has been used extensively as a growth promoter for pigs. Recently, we isolated a plasmid (pOLA52) conferring resistance to olaquindox from swine manure. On this plasmid, the oqxA and oqxB genes encode an RND-family multidrug efflux pump, OqxAB. It facilitates resistance...... to olaquindox as well as resistance to other antimicrobials like chloramphenicol. In this study, 10 of the 556 (1.8%) previously isolated Escherichia coli strains were shown to have an MIC = 64 µg/ml olaquindox. In nine of the ten strains, the oqxA gene was detected. Sequencing of an internal fragment of oqx......A from the oqxA-positive strains showed no variation, indicating highly conserved oqxA genes. All of the oqxA-positive strains contain plasmids with replicons similar to that of pOLA52. It was verified by Southern hybridization that the oqxAB operon was situated on plasmids in most, if not all, resistant...

  10. The prevalence of the OqxAB amongst olaquindox-resistant multidrug efflux pump Escherichia coli in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.H.; Sørensen, S.J.; Jørgensen, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    The quinoxaline olaquindox has been used extensively as a growth promoter for pigs. Recently, we isolated a plasmid (pOLA52) conferring resistance to olaquindox from swine manure. On this plasmid, the oqxA and oqxB genes encode an RND-family multidrug efflux pump, OqxAB. It facilitates resistance...... to olaquindox as well as resistance to other antimicrobials like chloramphenicol. In this study, 10 of the 556 (1.8%) previously isolated Escherichia coli strains were shown to have an MIC >= 64 mu g/ml olaquindox. In nine of the ten strains, the oqxA gene was detected. Sequencing of an internal fragment of oqx......A from the oqxA-positive strains showed no variation, indicating highly conserved oqxA genes. All of the oqxA-positive strains contain plasmids with replicons similar to that of pOLA52. It was verified by Southern hybridization that the oqxAB operon was situated on plasmids in most, if not all, resistant...

  11. The sudden dominance of blaCTX-M harbouring plasmids in Shigella spp. Circulating in Southern Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhu Thi Khanh Nguyen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasmid mediated antimicrobial resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem. The rise of CTX-M class extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs has been well documented in industrialized countries. Vietnam is representative of a typical transitional middle income country where the spectrum of infectious diseases combined with the spread of drug resistance is shifting and bringing new healthcare challenges.We collected hospital admission data from the pediatric population attending the hospital for tropical diseases in Ho Chi Minh City with Shigella infections. Organisms were cultured from all enrolled patients and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Those that were ESBL positive were subjected to further investigation. These investigations included PCR amplification for common ESBL genes, plasmid investigation, conjugation, microarray hybridization and DNA sequencing of a bla(CTX-M encoding plasmid.We show that two different bla(CTX-M genes are circulating in this bacterial population in this location. Sequence of one of the ESBL plasmids shows that rather than the gene being integrated into a preexisting MDR plasmid, the bla(CTX-M gene is located on relatively simple conjugative plasmid. The sequenced plasmid (pEG356 carried the bla(CTX-M-24 gene on an ISEcp1 element and demonstrated considerable sequence homology with other IncFI plasmids.The rapid dissemination, spread of antimicrobial resistance and changing population of Shigella spp. concurrent with economic growth are pertinent to many other countries undergoing similar development. Third generation cephalosporins are commonly used empiric antibiotics in Ho Chi Minh City. We recommend that these agents should not be considered for therapy of dysentery in this setting.

  12. STUDY REGARDING EFFICIENCY OF INDUCED GENETIC TRANSFORMATION IN BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS WITH PLASMID DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINTILĂ T.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Bacillus licheniformis was subject to genetic transformation with plasmidvectors (pLC1 and pNC61, using electroporation technique, protoplasttransformation and bivalent cations (CaCl2 mediated transformation. In the case oftransformation by electroporation of Bacillus licheniformis B40, the highest numberof transformed colonies (3 were obtained only after a 1,79 KV electric shock, for 2,2milliseconds. Using this transformation technique we have obtained six kanamycinresistant transformants. The frequency of Bacillus licheniformis B40 protoplaststransformation using pLC1 and pNC61 plasmid vectors is approximately 10% (TF =10%. As a result of pLC1 plasmid integration in Bacillus licheniformis protoplasts,six kanamycin resistant transformants were obtained. The pNC61 plasmid, whichconfers trimethoprim resistance, does not integrate in receiver cells by protoplasttransformation. The direct genetic transformation in the presence of bivalent cations(CaCl2, mediated by pLC1 and pNC61 plasmid vectors, produce a lowtransformation frequency. Using this technique, we have obtained three trimethoprimresistant colonies and four kanamycin resistant colonies. The chemical way oftransformation is the only technique, which realizes the integration of pNC61 in B.licheniformis B40 cells.

  13. Literacy, Education, and Inequality: Assimilation and Resistance Narratives from Families Residing at a Homeless Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Mary M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I draw on data from my qualitative dissertation study of the literacy practices of five families who resided in a homeless shelter to complicate the relationship between literacy, education, and inequality. Homelessness is examined through the lens of sponsorship to understand the differential access the families have to powerful…

  14. Autonomous replication of plasmids bearing monkey DNA origin-enriched sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frappier, L.; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, M.

    1987-01-01

    Twelve clones of origin-enriched sequences (ORS) isolated from early replicating monkey (CV-1) DNA were examined for transient episomal replication in transfected CV-1, COS-7, and HeLa cells. Plasmid DNA was isolated at time intervals after transfection and screened by the Dpn I resistance assay or by the bromodeoxyuridine substitution assay to differentiate between input and replicated DNA. The authors have identified four monkey ORS (ORS3, -8, -9, and -12) that can support plasmid replication in mammalian cells. This replication is carried out in a controlled and semiconservative manner characteristic of mammalian replicons. ORS replication was most efficient in HeLa cells. Electron microscopy showed ORS8 and ORS12 plasmids of the correct size with replication bubbles. Using a unique restriction site in ORS12, we have mapped the replication bubble within the monkey DNA sequence

  15. Tolerance to various toxicants by marine bacteria highly resistant to mercury

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De, J.; Ramaiah, N.; Mesquita, A.; Verlecar, X.N.

    of growth in media containing 5 ppm mercury. Plasmid-curing assays done in this study ascertained that resistance to mercury antibiotics, and toxic xenobiotics is mediated by chromosomally borne genes and/or transposable elements rather than by plasmids...

  16. Cholesterol-conjugated supramolecular assemblies of low generations polyamidoamine dendrimers for enhanced EGFP plasmid DNA transfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golkar, Nasim; Samani, Soliman Mohammadi; Tamaddon, Ali Mohammad, E-mail: amtamadon@gmail.com [Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Aimed to prepare an enhanced gene delivery system with low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency, various cholesterol-conjugated derivates of low generation polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers were prepared. The conjugates were characterized by TNBS assay, FTIR, and {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy. Self-assembly of the dendrimer conjugates (G1-Chol, G2-Chol, and G3-Chol) was investigated by pyrene assay. Following formation of the complexes between enhanced green fluorescence protein plasmid and the dendrimer conjugates at various N (primary amine)/P (phosphate) mole ratios, plasmid condensation, biologic stability, cytotoxicity, and protein expression were investigated. The conjugates self-assembled into micellar dispersions with the critical micelle concentration values (<50 µg/ml) depending on the dendrimer generation and cholesterol/amine mole ratio. Cholesterol conjugation resulted in higher resistance of the condensed plasmid DNA in a competition assay with heparin sulfate. Also, the transfection efficiency was determined higher for the cholesterol conjugates than unmodified dendrimers in HepG2 cells, showing the highest for G2-Chol at 40 % degree of cholesterol modification (G2-Chol{sub 40 %}) among various dendrimer generations. Interestingly, such conjugate showed a complete protection of plasmid against serum nucleases. Our results confirmed that the cholesterol conjugation to PAMAM dendrimers of low generations bearing little cytotoxicity improves their several physicochemical and biological characteristics required for an enhanced delivery of plasmid DNA into cells.

  17. Protein-Nanocrystal Conjugates Support a Single Filament Polymerization Model in R1 Plasmid Segregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Charina L.; Claridge, Shelley A.; Garner, Ethan C.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Mullins, R. Dyche

    2008-07-15

    To ensure inheritance by daughter cells, many low-copy number bacterial plasmids, including the R1 drug-resistance plasmid, encode their own DNA segregation systems. The par operon of plasmid R1 directs construction of a simple spindle structure that converts free energy of polymerization of an actin-like protein, ParM, into work required to move sister plasmids to opposite poles of rod-shaped cells. The structures of individual components have been solved, but little is known about the ultrastructure of the R1 spindle. To determine the number of ParM filaments in a minimal R1 spindle, we used DNA-gold nanocrystal conjugates as mimics of the R1 plasmid. Wefound that each end of a single polar ParM filament binds to a single ParR/parC-gold complex, consistent with the idea that ParM filaments bind in the hollow core of the ParR/parC ring complex. Our results further suggest that multifilament spindles observed in vivo are associated with clusters of plasmidssegregating as a unit.

  18. Characterization and plasmid elimination of NDM-1-producing Acinetobacter calcoaceticus from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Sun

    Full Text Available The presence of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens in the environment poses a serious threat to public health. The opportunistic Acinetobacter spp. are among the most prevalent causes of nosocomial infections. Here, we performed complete genome sequencing of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain XM1570, which was originally cultivated from the sputum of a patient diagnosed with pneumonia in Xiamen in 2010. We identified carbapenem resistance associated gene bla(NDM-1 located on a 47.3-kb plasmid. Three methods--natural reproduction, sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment and nalidixic acid treatment--were used to eliminate the bla(NDM-1-encoding plasmid, which achieved elimination rates of 3.32% (10/301, 83.78% (278/332, and 84.17% (298/354, respectively. Plasmid elimination dramatically increased antibiotic sensitivity, reducing the minimum bacteriostatic concentration of meropenem from 256 µg/ml in the clinical strain to 0.125 µg/ml in the plasmid-eliminated strain. Conjugation transfer assays showed that the bla(NDM-1-containing plasmid could be transferred into Escherichia coli DH5α:pBR322 in vitro as well as in vivo in mice. The bla(NDM-1 genetic environment was in accordance with that of other bla(NDM-1 genes identified from India, Japan, and Hong-Kong. The multilocus sequence type of the isolate was identified as ST-70. Two novel genes encoding intrinsic OXA and ADC were identified and named as OXA-417 and ADC-72. The finding of bla(NDM-1 in species like A. calcoaceticus demonstrates the wide spread of this gene in gram-negative bacteria which is possible by conjugative plasmid transfer. The results of this study may help in the development of a treatment strategy for controlling NDM-1 bacterial infection and transmission.

  19. Non-host Plant Resistance against Phytophthora capsici Is Mediated in Part by Members of the I2 R Gene Family in Nicotiana spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Arreguín, Julio C; Shimada-Beltrán, Harumi; Sevillano-Serrano, Jacobo; Moffett, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The identification of host genes associated with resistance to Phytophthora capsici is crucial to developing strategies of control against this oomycete pathogen. Since there are few sources of resistance to P. capsici in crop plants, non-host plants represent a promising source of resistance genes as well as excellent models to study P. capsici - plant interactions. We have previously shown that non-host resistance to P. capsici in Nicotiana spp. is mediated by the recognition of a specific P. capsici effector protein, PcAvr3a1 in a manner that suggests the involvement of a cognate disease resistance (R) genes. Here, we have used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and transgenic tobacco plants expressing dsRNA in Nicotiana spp. to identify candidate R genes that mediate non-host resistance to P. capsici . Silencing of members of the I2 multigene family in the partially resistant plant N. edwardsonii and in the resistant N. tabacum resulted in compromised resistance to P. capsici . VIGS of two other components required for R gene-mediated resistance, EDS1 and SGT1 , also enhanced susceptibility to P. capsici in N. edwardsonii , as well as in the susceptible plants N. benthamiana and N. clevelandii . The silencing of I2 family members in N. tabacum also compromised the recognition of PcAvr3a1. These results indicate that in this case, non-host resistance is mediated by the same components normally associated with race-specific resistance.

  20. Characterization of Shigella Strains by Plasmid Profile Analysis and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns in a Pediatric Hospital in Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Sakhaei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: High incidences of dysentery and diarrhea were reported in a pediatric hospital in Ahvaz, Iran during March to April, 2013. Objectives: A cross-sectional study was therefore undertaken to identify the causative agents. Patients and Methods: A total of 230 diarrhea samples were collected from the patients and analyzed by routine bacteriological methods. Bacterial identification, serological assay, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs screening and plasmid profile analysis were performed according to the standard guidelines. Results: A total of 70 Shigella strains including %70 (n = 49 S. sonnei and 30% (n = 21 S. flexneri were isolated from diarrhea samples. Most of the Shigella isolates showed high degrees of resistance to ampicillin, ulafamethoxazole- trimethoprime and cefexim. Concurrent resistance to sulafametoxazole- trimethoprime and ampicillin was the most common resistance pattern. Overall, 11.4% of Shigella isolates showed the ESBL producer criteria. The plasmid profile patterns of all the strains were determined by a modified alkaline lysis method. By plasmid profile analysis 23 genotypes were identified among all the isolates, 14 and 9 genotypes among the S. sonnei and S. Flexneri respectively. S. sonnei and S. flexneri isolates demonstrated unique plasmid profiles. Conclusions: These data demonstrated that S. sonnei strains are the main cause of shigellosis as the prevalent Shigella serotype in Iran. We also found that the antibiotic resistance rates are increasing among Shigella strains. Plasmid profile analysis is more reliable than antibiotic susceptibility patterns in epidemiologic studies.

  1. Identification of Orch3, a locus controlling dominant resistance to autoimmune orchitis, as kinesin family member 1C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana del Rio

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO, the principal model of non-infectious testicular inflammatory disease, can be induced in susceptible mouse strains by immunization with autologous testicular homogenate and appropriate adjuvants. As previously established, the genome of DBA/2J mice encodes genes that are capable of conferring dominant resistance to EAO, while the genome of BALB/cByJ mice does not and they are therefore susceptible to EAO. In a genome scan, we previously identified Orch3 as the major quantitative trait locus controlling dominant resistance to EAO and mapped it to chromosome 11. Here, by utilizing a forward genetic approach, we identified kinesin family member 1C (Kif1c as a positional candidate for Orch3 and, using a transgenic approach, demonstrated that Kif1c is Orch3. Mechanistically, we showed that the resistant Kif1c(D2 allele leads to a reduced antigen-specific T cell proliferative response as a consequence of decreased MHC class II expression by antigen presenting cells, and that the L(578 → P(578 and S(1027 → P(1027 polymorphisms distinguishing the BALB/cByJ and DBA/2J alleles, respectively, can play a role in transcriptional regulation. These findings may provide mechanistic insight into how polymorphism in other kinesins such as KIF21B and KIF5A influence susceptibility and resistance to human autoimmune diseases.

  2. Plasmid transfer by conjugation in Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombination and horizontal gene transfer have been implicated in the adaption of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) to infect a wide variety of different plant species. There is evidence that certain strains of Xf carry native plasmids equipped with transfer and mobilization genes, suggesting conjugation as ...

  3. Standardized Cloning and Curing of Plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Ida; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Porse, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    and exchange of genetic parts in the Standard European Vectors Architecture (SEVA) vector system. Additionally, to facilitate rapid testing and iterative bioengineering using different vector designs, we provide a one-step protocol for a universal CRISPR-Cas9-based plasmid curing system (pFREE) and demonstrate...

  4. Optimization of plasmid electrotransformation into Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to improve electroporation, optical density of bacteria, recovery time and electrical parameter (field strength and capacitance) were optimized using the Taguchi statistical method. ANOVA of obtained data indicated that the optimal conditions of electrotransformation of pET-28a (+) plasmid into Escherichia coli ...

  5. Plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Bugge Jensen, Rasmus; Gerdes, Kenn

    2000-01-01

    Recent major advances in the understanding of prokaryotic DNA segregation have been achieved by using fluorescence microscopy to visualize the localization of cellular components. Plasmids and bacterial chromosomes are partitioned in a highly dynamic fashion, suggesting the presence of a mitotic...

  6. THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR BETA GENE MUTATION (P453A) IN A TURKISH FAMILY PRODUCING RESISTANCE TO THYROID HORMONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktaroglu, Taner; Noel, Janet; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Refetoff, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    Two members of a Turkish family, a mother and son, had thyroid function tests suggestive of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH). The clinical presentation was, however, different. The mother (proposita) had palpitation, weakness, tiredness, nervousness, dry mouth and was misdiagnosed as having multinodular toxic goiter which was treated with antithyroid drugs and partial thyroidectomy. Her younger son had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and primary encopresis, but normal intellectual quotient. Both had elevated serum iodothyronine levels with nonsuppressed thyrotropin. A mutation in one allele of the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene (P453A) was identified, providing a genetic confirmation for the diagnosis of RTH. PMID:18561095

  7. Transfection of embryonated Muscovy duck eggs with a recombinant plasmid is suitable for rescue of infectious Muscovy duck parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianye; Huang, Yu; Ling, Jueyi; Wang, Zhixiang; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2017-12-01

    For members of the family Parvoviridae, rescue of infectious virus from recombinant plasmid is usually done in cultured cells. In this study, the whole genome of the pathogenic Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) strain YY was cloned into the pBluescript II (SK) vector, generating recombinant plasmid pYY. With the aid of a transfection reagent, pYY plasmid was inoculated into 11-day-old embryonated Muscovy duck eggs via the chorioallantoic membrane route, resulting in the successful rescue of infectious virus and death of the embryos. The rescued virus exhibited pathogenicity in Muscovy ducklings similar to that of its parental strain, as evaluated based on the mortality rate. The results demonstrate that plasmid transfection in embryonated Muscovy duck eggs is a convenient and efficacious method for rescue of infectious MDPV in comparison to transfection of primary cells, which is somewhat time-consuming and laborious.

  8. Simple method for identification of plasmid-coded proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancar, A.; Hack, A.M.; Rupp, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    Proteins encoded by plasmid DNA are specifically labeled in uv-irradiated cells of Escherichia coli carrying recA and uvrA mutations because extensive degradation of the chromosome DNA occurs concurrently with amplification of plasmid DNA

  9. Proposed model for the high rate of rearrangement and rapid migration observed in some IncA/C plasmid lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinersmann, R J; Lindsey, R L; Bono, J L; Smith, T P; Oakley, B B

    2013-08-01

    IncA/C plasmids are a class of plasmids from the Enterobacteriaceae that are relatively large (49 to >180 kbp), that are readily transferred by conjugation, and that carry multiple antimicrobial resistance genes. Reconstruction of the phylogeny of these plasmids has been difficult because of the high rate of remodeling by recombination-mediated horizontal gene transfer (HGT). We hypothesized that evaluation of nucleotide polymorphisms relative to the rate of HGT would help to develop a clock to show whether anthropic practices have had significant influences on the lineages of the plasmid. A system was developed to rapidly sequence up to 191 known open reading frames from each of 39 recently isolated IncA/C plasmids from a diverse panel of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli strains. With these data plus sequences from GenBank, we were able to distinguish six distinct lineages that had extremely low numbers of polymorphisms within each lineage, especially among the largest group designated as group 1. Two regions, each about half the plasmid in size, could be distinguished with a separate lineal pattern. The distribution of group 1 showed that it has migrated extremely rapidly with fewer polymorphisms than can be expected in 2,000 years. Remodeling by frequent HGT was evident, with a pattern that appeared to have the highest rate just upstream of the putative conjugation origin of transfer (oriT). It seems likely that when an IncA/C plasmid is transferred by conjugation there is an opportunity for plasmid remodeling adjacent to the oriT, which was also adjacent to a multiple antimicrobial resistance gene cassette.

  10. Molecular characterization of a new efficiently transducing bacteriophage identified in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Marian; Pantůček, Roman; Růžičková, Vladislava; Doškař, Jirˇí

    2016-01-01

    In Staphylococcus aureus, generalized transduction mediated by temperate bacteriophages represents a highly efficient way of transferring antibiotic resistance genes between strains. In the present study, we identified and characterized in detail a new efficiently transducing bacteriophage of the family Siphoviridae, designated ϕJB, which resides as a prophage in the meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain Jevons B. Whole-genome sequencing followed by detailed in silico analysis uncovered a linear dsDNA genome consisting of 43 ,12 bp and comprising 70 ORFs, of which ∼40 encoded proteins with unknown function. A global genome alignment of ϕJB and other efficiently transducing phages ϕ11, ϕ53, ϕ80, ϕ80α and ϕNM4 showed a high degree of homology with ϕNM4 and substantial differences with regard to other phages. Using a model transduction system with a well-defined donor and recipient, ϕJB transferred the tetracycline resistance plasmid pT181 and a penicillinase plasmid with outstanding frequencies, beating most of the above-mentioned phages by an order of magnitude. Moreover, ϕJB demonstrated high frequencies of transferring antibiotic resistance plasmids even upon induction from a lysogenic donor strain. Considering such transducing potential, ϕJB and related bacteriophages may serve as a suitable tool for elucidating the nature of transduction and its contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in naturally occurring MRSA populations.

  11. The Pic19 NBS-LRR gene family members are closely linked to Scmv1, but not involved in maize resistance to sugarcane mosaic virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Lu; Ingvardsen, Christina Rønn; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    the isolation and characterization of the Pic19R gene family members from the inbred line FAP1360A, which shows complete resistance to SCMV. Two primer pairs were designed based on the conserved regions among the known Pic19 paralogs and used for rapid amplification of cDNA ends of FAP1360A. Six full-length c...... of the Pic19R family indicated that the Pic19R-1 paralog is identical to the known Rxo1 gene conferring resistance to rice bacterial streak disease and none of the other Pic19R paralogs seems to be involved in resistance to SCMV...

  12. Conjugal properties of the Sinorhizobium meliloti plasmid mobilome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorio, Mariano; Giusti, María A; Del Papa, María F; Draghi, Walter O; Lozano, Mauricio J; Tejerizo, Gonzalo Torres; Lagares, Antonio

    2008-09-01

    The biology and biochemistry of plasmid transfer in soil bacteria is currently under active investigation because of its central role in prokaryote adaptation and evolution. In this work, we examined the conjugal properties of the cryptic plasmids present in a collection of the N(2)-fixing legume-symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti. The study was performed on 65 S. meliloti isolates recovered from 25 humic soils of Argentina, which were grouped into 22 plasmid-profile types [i.e. plasmid operational taxonomic units (OTUs)]. The cumulative Shannon index calculated for the observed plasmid profiles showed a clear saturation plateau, thus indicating an adequate representation of the S. meliloti plasmid-profile types in the isolates studied. The results show that isolates of nearly 14% of the plasmid OTUs hosted transmissible plasmids and that isolates of 29% of the plasmid OTUs were able to retransfer the previously characterized mobilizable-cryptic plasmid pSmeLPU88b to a third recipient strain. It is noteworthy that isolates belonging to 14% of the plasmid OTUs proved to be refractory to the entrance of the model plasmid pSmeLPU88b, suggesting either the presence of surface exclusion phenomena or the occurrence of restriction incompatibility with the incoming replicon. Incompatibility for replication between resident plasmids and plasmid pSmeLPU88b was observed in c. 20% of the OTUs. The results reported here reveal a widespread compatibility among the conjugal functions of the cryptic plasmids in S. meliloti, and this fact, together with the observed high proportion of existing donor genotypes, points to the extrachromosomal compartment of the species as being an extremely active plasmid mobilome.

  13. Plasmid Complement of Lactococcus lactis NCDO712 Reveals a Novel Pilus Gene Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazanova, Mariya; Beerthuyzen, Marke; Siezen, Roland; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Marcela M; de Jong, Anne; van der Meulen, Sjoerd; Kok, Jan; Bachmann, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis MG1363 is an important gram-positive model organism. It is a plasmid-free and phage-cured derivative of strain NCDO712. Plasmid-cured strains facilitate studies on molecular biological aspects, but many properties which make L. lactis an important organism in the dairy industry are plasmid encoded. We sequenced the total DNA of strain NCDO712 and, contrary to earlier reports, revealed that the strain carries 6 rather than 5 plasmids. A new 50-kb plasmid, designated pNZ712, encodes functional nisin immunity (nisCIP) and copper resistance (lcoRSABC). The copper resistance could be used as a marker for the conjugation of pNZ712 to L. lactis MG1614. A genome comparison with the plasmid cured daughter strain MG1363 showed that the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms that accumulated in the laboratory since the strains diverted more than 30 years ago is limited to 11 of which only 5 lead to amino acid changes. The 16-kb plasmid pSH74 was found to contain a novel 8-kb pilus gene cluster spaCB-spaA-srtC1-srtC2, which is predicted to encode a pilin tip protein SpaC, a pilus basal subunit SpaB, and a pilus backbone protein SpaA. The sortases SrtC1/SrtC2 are most likely involved in pilus polymerization while the chromosomally encoded SrtA could act to anchor the pilus to peptidoglycan in the cell wall. Overexpression of the pilus gene cluster from a multi-copy plasmid in L. lactis MG1363 resulted in cell chaining, aggregation, rapid sedimentation and increased conjugation efficiency of the cells. Electron microscopy showed that the over-expression of the pilus gene cluster leads to appendices on the cell surfaces. A deletion of the gene encoding the putative basal protein spaB, by truncating spaCB, led to more pilus-like structures on the cell surface, but cell aggregation and cell chaining were no longer observed. This is consistent with the prediction that spaB is involved in the anchoring of the pili to the cell.

  14. Characterization of class 1 integrons associated with R-plasmids in clinical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates from various geographical areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A.S.; Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Larsen, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Class 1 integrons were found in 26 of 40 antibiotic-resistant isolates of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida from Northern Europe and North America. Three different dhfr genes, conferring trimethoprim resistance, and one ant(3 " )1a aminoglycoside resistance gene were identified as gene...... inserts. The gene cassettes tended to be conserved among isolates from a particular geographical area. Nineteen isolates transferred R- plasmids carrying different tet determinants to Escherichia coli in filter mating assays, and in 15 cases, the class 1 integrons were co-transferred. Transferable...... sulphadiazine, trimethoprim and streptomycin resistances were invariably encoded by integrons. It thus appears that integron-encoded antibiotic resistance genes contribute substantially to the horizontal spread of antimicrobial resistance within this species, being associated with conjugative plasmids....

  15. Characterization of the maize lipoxygenase gene family in relation to aflatoxin accumulation resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwaseun F. Ogunola; Leigh K. Hawkins; Erik Mylroie; Michael V. Kolomiets; Eli Borrego; Juliet D. Tang; Paul W. Williams; Marilyn L. Warburton

    2017-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a globally important staple food crop prone to contamination by aflatoxin, a carcinogenic secondary metabolite produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. An efficient approach to reduce accumulation of aflatoxin is the development of germplasm resistant to colonization and toxin...

  16. The Brassicaceae family displays divergent, shoot-skewed NLR resistance gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, David; Gupta, Vikas; Bachmann, Asger

    2018-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat resistance genes (NLRs) allow plants to detect microbial effectors. We hypothesized that NLR expression patterns could reflect organ-specific differences in effector challenge and tested this by carrying out a meta-analysis of expression data for 1,235 ...

  17. Rust resistance in seedling families of Pinus albicaulis and Pinus strobiformis and implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; R. Danchok; J. Hamlin; J. Hill; D. Conklin

    2011-01-01

    Infection and mortality levels from Cronartium ribicola, the fungus causing white pine blister rust, are very high in parts of the geographic range of Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine) and P. strobiformis (Southwestern white pine). Genetic resistance to this non-native fungus will be one of the key factors in maintaining or restoring populations of these species in...

  18. Diversity of Clostridium perfringens isolates from various sources and prevalence of conjugative plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Miseon; Deck, Joanna; Foley, Steven L; Nayak, Rajesh; Songer, J Glenn; Seibel, Janice R; Khan, Saeed A; Rooney, Alejandro P; Hecht, David W; Rafii, Fatemeh

    2016-04-01

    Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen, causing food poisoning and other mild to severe infections in humans and animals. Some strains of C. perfringens contain conjugative plasmids, which may carry antimicrobial resistance and toxin genes. We studied genomic and plasmid diversity of 145 C. perfringens type A strains isolated from soils, foods, chickens, clinical samples, and domestic animals (porcine, bovine and canine), from different geographic areas in the United States between 1994 and 2006, using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and/or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). MLVA detected the genetic diversity in a majority of the isolates. PFGE, using SmaI and KspI, confirmed the MLVA results but also detected differences among the strains that could not be differentiated by MLVA. All of the PFGE profiles of the strains were different, except for a few of the epidemiologically related strains, which were identical. The PFGE profiles of strains isolated from the same domestic animal species were clustered more closely with each other than with other strains. However, a variety of C. perfringens strains with distinct genetic backgrounds were found among the clinical isolates. Variation was also observed in the size and number of plasmids in the strains. Primers for the internal fragment of a conjugative tcpH gene of C. perfringens plasmid pCPF4969 amplified identical size fragments from a majority of strains tested; and this gene hybridized to the various-sized plasmids of these strains. The sequences of the PCR-amplified tcpH genes from 12 strains showed diversity among the tcpH genes. Regardless of the sources of the isolates, the genetic diversity of C. perfringens extended to the plasmids carrying conjugative genes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. [Isolation and characterization of petroleum catabolic broad-host-range plasmids from Shen-Fu wastewater irrigation zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Fei; Wang, Ya-Fei; Li, Hui; Li, Xiao-Bin

    2013-11-01

    Based on triparental mating, we isolated a total of eight broad host range (BHR) petroleum hydrocarbon catabolic plasmids from the soils, sediments, and wastewater samples in the Shen-Fu irrigation zone. The antibiotic resistance of the plasmids was tested, and then, the plasmids were transferred to Escherichia coli EC100. The plasmids carrying no antibiotic resistance were tagged by miniTn5 transposon consisting of antibiotic resistant genes. The PCR-based incompatibility test revealed that the pS3-2C and pS4-6G belonged to Inc P group, the pS3-2G, pW22-3G, and pA15-7G belonged to Inc N group, the pS7-2G was identified as Inc W plasmid, and the pA23-1G and pA10-1C were placed into Inc Q group. By adopting the reported PCR amplification methods of petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading catabolic genes, the petroleum-degrading capability of these BHR plasmids were preliminarily analyzed. The plasmids pS3-2G, pS7-2G, pA23-1G, pW22-3G, and pA10-1C carried aromatic ring- hydroxylating dioxygenase gene phdA and toluene monooxygenase gene touA; the plasmid pA15-7G carried touA and toluene dioxygenase gene tod; the plasmid pS3-2C carried ben, phdA, and tod; whereas the pS4-6G only carried ben. The host range test showed that all the isolated plasmids except pS3-2C could be transferred and maintained stably in the representative strains Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58, Cupriavidus necator JMP228, and E. coli EC100 of the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Proteobacteria, respectively.

  20. Construction of Biologically Functional Bacterial Plasmids In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stanley N.; Chang, Annie C. Y.; Boyer, Herbert W.; Helling, Robert B.

    1973-01-01

    The construction of new plasmid DNA species by in vitro joining of restriction endonuclease-generated fragments of separate plasmids is described. Newly constructed plasmids that are inserted into Escherichia coli by transformation are shown to be biologically functional replicons that possess genetic properties and nucleotide base sequences from both of the parent DNA molecules. Functional plasmids can be obtained by reassociation of endonuclease-generated fragments of larger replicons, as well as by joining of plasmid DNA molecules of entirely different origins. Images PMID:4594039

  1. A Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division Family Xenobiotic Efflux Pump in an Obligate Anaerobe, Porphyromonas gingivalis

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Takeshi; Yoshimura, Fuminobu

    2002-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative obligate anaerobe, contains two homologs of an Escherichia coli resistance-nodulation-cell division-type multidrug exporter gene, acrB, in putative operons, together with homologs of membrane fusion protein gene acrA and outer membrane channel gene tolC. MIC determination and accumulation assays with mutants with disruptions of one or more genes showed that one cluster, named xepCAB, pumped out multiple agents including rifampin, puromycin, and ethidi...

  2. Staphylococcus sciuri bacteriophages double-convert for staphylokinase and phospholipase, mediate interspecies plasmid transduction, and package mecA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, M; Mašlaňová, I; Indráková, A; Šiborová, M; Mikulášek, K; Bendíčková, K; Plevka, P; Vrbovská, V; Zdráhal, Z; Doškař, J; Pantůček, R

    2017-04-13

    Staphylococcus sciuri is a bacterial pathogen associated with infections in animals and humans, and represents a reservoir for the mecA gene encoding methicillin-resistance in staphylococci. No S. sciuri siphophages were known. Here the identification and characterization of two temperate S. sciuri phages from the Siphoviridae family designated ϕ575 and ϕ879 are presented. The phages have icosahedral heads and flexible noncontractile tails that end with a tail spike. The genomes of the phages are 42,160 and 41,448 bp long and encode 58 and 55 ORFs, respectively, arranged in functional modules. Their head-tail morphogenesis modules are similar to those of Staphylococcus aureus ϕ13-like serogroup F phages, suggesting their common evolutionary origin. The genome of phage ϕ575 harbours genes for staphylokinase and phospholipase that might enhance the virulence of the bacterial hosts. In addition both of the phages package a homologue of the mecA gene, which is a requirement for its lateral transfer. Phage ϕ879 transduces tetracycline and aminoglycoside pSTS7-like resistance plasmids from its host to other S. sciuri strains and to S. aureus. Furthermore, both of the phages efficiently adsorb to numerous staphylococcal species, indicating that they may contribute to interspecies horizontal gene transfer.

  3. Sequence analysis and characterization of rolling-circle replicating plasmid pVCM01 from Salmonella enterica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penido, A. F. B.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Characterization of cryptic plasmid pVCM01 (accession number JX133088 isolated from Salmonella enterica Enteritidis. Methodology and results: The complete sequence of pVCM01 was obtained. This plasmid possesses 1981 bp, with G+C content of 57% in agreement of the range of Salmonella genomic DNA. pVCM01 has a high degree of similarity to pB and pJ plasmids. It possesses six main open reading frames, only one have a very high degree of amino acid identity with protein involved in the rolling-circle-like replication (RCR. Based on the sequence similarities, pVCM01 plasmid belonged to the pC194/pUB110 rolling-circle replicating plasmid family. The Rep pVCM01 possesses the motifs: FLTLTVRN, HPHFHTL, SGDGYVKHERW, which were present in all Rep proteins. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The small size of pVCM01 plasmid and its stability in E. coli cells, make it an attractive candidate to develop new vectors, such as cloning and/or expression vector.

  4. Enterococcus faecalis Sex Pheromone cCF10 Enhances Conjugative Plasmid Transfer In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Helmut; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Karau, Melissa J; Till, Lisa M; Kashyap, Purna C; Patel, Robin; Dunny, Gary M

    2018-02-13

    Cell-cell communication mediated by peptide pheromones (cCF10 [CF]) is essential for high-frequency plasmid transfer in vitro in Enterococcus faecalis To examine the role of pheromone signaling in vivo , we established either a CF-producing (CF+) recipient or a recipient producing a biologically inactive variant of CF (CF- recipient) in a germfree mouse model 3 days before donor inoculation and determined transfer frequencies of the pheromone-inducible plasmid pCF10. Plasmid transfer was detected in the upper and middle sections of the intestinal tract 5 h after donor inoculation and was highly efficient in the absence of antibiotic selection. The transconjugant/donor ratio reached a maximum level approaching 1 on day 4 in the upper intestinal tract. Plasmid transfer was significantly lower with the CF- recipient. While rescue of the CF- mating defect by coculture with CF+ recipients is easily accomplished in vitro , no extracellular complementation occurred in vivo This suggests that most pheromone signaling in the gut occurs between recipient and donor cells in very close proximity. Plasmid-bearing cells (donors plus transconjugants) steadily increased in the population from 0.1% after donor inoculation to about 10% at the conclusion of the experiments. This suggests a selective advantage of pCF10 carriage distinct from antibiotic resistance or bacteriocin production. Our results demonstrate that pheromone signaling is required for efficient pCF10 transfer in vivo In the absence of CF+ recipients, a low level of transfer to CF- recipients occurred in the gut. This may result from low-level host-mediated induction of the donors in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, similar to that previously observed in serum. IMPORTANCE Horizontal gene transfer is a major factor in the biology of Enterococcus faecalis , an important nosocomial pathogen. Previous studies showing efficient conjugative plasmid transfer in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of experimental animals did

  5. Diversity and homogeneity among small plasmids of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida linked with geographical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina A Attéré

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Furunculosis, which is caused by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, is a major salmonid disease in fish farms worldwide. Several plasmids found in this bacterium confer phenotypes such drug resistance and virulence. Small plasmids (pAsa1, pAsa2, pAsa3, and pAsal1 related to ColE1- and ColE2-type replicons are usually present in its normal plasmidome. In the present study, with the objective to investigate if these plasmids display particularities related to the origin of the isolates bearing them, a total of 153 isolates, including 78 new and 75 previously described, were analyzed for the presence of small plasmids by PCR and DNA restriction fragment profiling. A geographical dichotomy between Canadian and European isolates for their propensity to do not have pAsa3 or pAsal1 was found. In addition, the genotyping analysis led to the identification of two European isolates harboring an unusual pAsal1. An investigation by next-generation sequencing (NGS of these two isolates shed light on two pAsal1 variants (pAsal1C and pAsal1D. As with pAsal1B, another pAsal1 variant previously described, these two new variants bore a second insertion sequence (ISAS5 in addition to the usual ISAS11. The characterization of these variants suggested that they could predominate over the wild-type pAsal1 in stressful conditions such as growth at temperatures of 25°C and above. To obtain a comprehensive portrait of the mutational pressure on small plasmids, 26 isolates whose DNA had been sequenced by NGS were investigated. pAsa3 and pAsal1 were more prone to mutations than pAsa1 and pAsa2, especially in the mobA gene, which encodes a relaxase and a primase. Lastly, the average copy number of each plasmid per cell was assessed using raw sequencing data. A clear trend with respect to the relative proportion per cell of each plasmid was identified. Our large-scale study revealed a geographical dichotomy in small plasmid repertoire in addition to a clear trend

  6. Multi-antibiotics-resistance plasmid profile of enteric pathogens in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr J. T. Ekanem

    malnourished children and is usually disproportionately high, accounting for up to. 45% of diarrhea deaths in Brazil, Bangladesh and in several African countries9,22. In Nigeria, the incidence of acute watery diarrhea is approximately 4.9 episodes per year and there are approximately 200,000 diarrhea related deaths of ...

  7. Plasmids profiles, antibiotic and heavy metal resistance incidence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about the bacterial communities associated with the plant inhabiting desert ecosystem. In this study, the bacterial population associated with grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) plant, growing desert soil was analyzed using the culture dependent approach. A total of 111 bacterial isolates were isolated from stems and ...

  8. Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most frequent β-lactamase type was cefotaximase (CTX-M), which generally hydrolyzes cefotaxime (92 %) more than it does ceftazidime; followed by temoneira (TEM, 39 %); sulfhydryl variable (SHV, 5 %), and Vietnamese extended-spectrum beta–lactamase (VEB, 1.6 %). Conclusion: A high prevalence of aac(6')-Ib-cr ...

  9. Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    PMQR) genes and the prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) types in Escherichia coli clinical isolates. Methods: Sixty-one ESBL-producing urinary E. coli isolates were studied. An antibiotic susceptibility test was performed ...

  10. A plasmid containing the human metallothionein II gene can function as an antibody-assisted electrophoretic biosensor for heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Dennis C; Starr, Clarise R; Lyon, Wanda J

    2016-01-01

    Different forms of heavy metals affect biochemical systems in characteristic ways that cannot be detected with typical metal analysis methods like atomic absorption spectrometry. Further, using living systems to analyze interaction of heavy metals with biochemical systems can be laborious and unreliable. To generate a reliable easy-to-use biologically-based biosensor system, the entire human metallothionein-II (MT-II) gene was incorporated into a plasmid (pUC57-MT) easily replicated in Escherichia coli. In this system, a commercial polyclonal antibody raised against human metal-responsive transcription factor-1 protein (MTF-1 protein) could modify the electrophoretic migration patterns (i.e. cause specific decreases in agarose gel electrophoretic mobility) of the plasmid in the presence or absence of heavy metals other than zinc (Zn). In the study here, heavy metals, MTF-1 protein, and polyclonal anti-MTF-1 antibody were used to assess pUC57-MT plasmid antibody-assisted electrophoretic mobility. Anti-MTF-1 antibody bound both MTF-1 protein and pUC57-MT plasmid in a non-competitive fashion such that it could be used to differentiate specific heavy metal binding. The results showed that antibody-inhibited plasmid migration was heavy metal level-dependent. Zinc caused a unique mobility shift pattern opposite to that of other metals tested, i.e. Zn blocked the antibody ability to inhibit plasmid migration, despite a greatly increased affinity for DNA by the antibody when Zn was present. The Zn effect was reversed/modified by adding MTF-1 protein. Additionally, antibody inhibition of plasmid mobility was resistant to heat pre-treatment and trypsinization, indicating absence of residual DNA extraction-resistant bacterial DNA binding proteins. DNA binding by anti-DNA antibodies may be commonly enhanced by xenobiotic heavy metals and elevated levels of Zn, thus making them potentially effective tools for assessment of heavy metal bioavailability in aqueous solutions and

  11. CARTOGRAPHIE DU PLASMIDE pSU100, PLASMIDE CRYPTIQUE DE LACTOBACILLUS CASEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F BENSALAH

    2003-06-01

    Ce plasmide appelé pSU100 a été cloné dans le vecteur de transformation pUC18 au site EcoRI chez E. coli JM103. Les profils électrophorétiques de restriction obtenus par des digestions simples, doubles et triples sous l’action de 33 endonucléases, ont contribué à l’élaboration d’une carte de restriction de ce plasmide. Cinq sites uniques ont été identifiés, ainsi que d’autres sites doubles et multiples. Une étude préliminaire du rôle physiologique de ce plasmide a permis de déceler une résistance à la kanamycine.

  12. Spread of clonally related Escherichia coli harboring an IncA/C1 plasmid encoding IMP-8 and its recruitment into an unrelated MCR-1-containing isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elena, Alan; Cejas, Daniela; Magariños, Francisco; Jewtuchowicz, Virginia; Facente, Andrea; Gutkind, Gabriel; Di Conza, José; Radice, Marcela

    2018-04-16

    Ten IMP-8-producing Escherichia coli isolates were recovered from the surveillance cultures of a neonatal intensive care unit, of which eight were clonally related. A 168.2-kb- bla IMP-8 plasmid was fully sequenced, and it corresponded to the recently described IncA/C1-ST13. This plasmid was detected in all isolates, even in those no clonally related. One unrelated isolate was also resistant to colistin and positive for mcr-1. This marker was located in a 62.7-kb-IncI2 plasmid, which was also fully sequenced. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. CAPRRESI: Chimera Assembly by Plasmid Recovery and Restriction Enzyme Site Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán, Orlando; Ramírez-Romero, Miguel A; Dávila, Guillermo

    2017-06-25

    Here, we present chimera assembly by plasmid recovery and restriction enzyme site insertion (CAPRRESI). CAPRRESI benefits from many strengths of the original plasmid recovery method and introduces restriction enzyme digestion to ease DNA ligation reactions (required for chimera assembly). For this protocol, users clone wildtype genes into the same plasmid (pUC18 or pUC19). After the in silico selection of amino acid sequence regions where chimeras should be assembled, users obtain all the synonym DNA sequences that encode them. Ad hoc Perl scripts enable users to determine all synonym DNA sequences. After this step, another Perl script searches for restriction enzyme sites on all synonym DNA sequences. This in silico analysis is also performed using the ampicillin resistance gene (ampR) found on pUC18/19 plasmids. Users design oligonucleotides inside synonym regions to disrupt wildtype and ampR genes by PCR. After obtaining and purifying complementary DNA fragments, restriction enzyme digestion is accomplished. Chimera assembly is achieved by ligating appropriate complementary DNA fragments. pUC18/19 vectors are selected for CAPRRESI because they offer technical advantages, such as small size (2,686 base pairs), high copy number, advantageous sequencing reaction features, and commercial availability. The usage of restriction enzymes for chimera assembly eliminates the need for DNA polymerases yielding blunt-ended products. CAPRRESI is a fast and low-cost method for fusing protein-coding genes.

  14. Conjugative plasmid pAW63 brings new insights into the genesis of the Bacillus anthracis virulence plasmid pXO2 and of the Bacillus thuringiensis plasmid pBT9727

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahillon Jacques

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis belong to the genetically close-knit Bacillus cereus sensu lato group, a family of rod-shaped Gram-positive bacteria. pAW63 is the first conjugative plasmid from the B. cereus group to be completely sequenced. Results The 71,777 bp nucleotide sequence of pAW63 reveals a modular structure, including a 42 kb tra region encoding homologs of the Type IV secretion systems components VirB11, VirB4 and VirD4, as well as homologs of Gram-positive conjugation genes from Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Listeria, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species. It also firmly establishes the existence of a common backbone between pAW63, pXO2 from Bacillus anthracis and pBT9727 from the pathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis serovar konkukian strain 97-27. The alignment of these three plasmids highlights the presence of well conserved segments, in contrast to distinct regions of high sequence plasticity. The study of their specific differences has provided a three-point reference framework that can be exploited to formulate solid hypotheses concerning the functionalities and the molecular evolution of these three closely related plasmids. This has provided insight into the chronology of their divergence, and led to the discovery of two Type II introns on pAW63, matching copies of the mobile element IS231L in different loci of pXO2 and pBT9727, and the identification on pXO2 of a 37 kb pathogenicity island (PAI containing the anthrax capsule genes. Conclusion The complete sequence determination of pAW63 has led to a functional map of the plasmid yielding insights into its conjugative apparatus, which includes T4SS-like components, as well as its resemblance to other large plasmids of Gram-positive bacteria. Of particular interest is the extensive homology shared between pAW63 and pXO2, the second virulence plasmid of B. anthracis, as well as pBT9727 from the pathogenic strain B. thuringiensis

  15. Host-Specific Patterns of Genetic Diversity among IncI1-I gamma and IncK Plasmids Encoding CMY-2 beta-Lactamase in Escherichia coli Isolates from Humans, Poultry Meat, Poultry, and Dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Katrine Hartung; Bortolaia, Valeria; Nielsen, Christine Ahl

    2016-01-01

    and commensal E. coli isolates collected from 2006 to 2012 from humans, retail poultry meat, broilers, and dogs. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and conjugation were performed in conjunction with plasmid replicon typing, plasmid multilocus sequence typing (p......MLST), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and sequencing of selected bla(CMY-2)-harboring plasmids. MLST revealed high strain diversity, with few E. coli lineages occurring in multiple host species and sample types. bla(CMY-2) was detected on plasmids in 83 (89%) isolates. Most (75%) of the plasmids...... were conjugative and did not (96%) cotransfer resistance to antimicrobials other than cephalosporins. The main replicon types identified were IncI1-I gamma (55%) and IncK (39%). Isolates from different host species mainly carried distinct plasmid subtypes. Seven of the 18 human isolates harbored IncI1...

  16. Yeast transformation mediated by Agrobacterium strains harboring an Ri plasmid: comparative study between GALLS of an Ri plasmid and virE of a Ti plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shinji; Sato, Yukari; Momota, Naoto; Tanaka, Katsuyuki; Moriguchi, Kazuki; Suzuki, Katsunori

    2012-07-01

    Agrobacterium strains containing a Ti plasmid can transfer T-DNA not only to plants but also to fungi, including the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, no Agrobacterium strain harboring an Ri plasmid has been evaluated in fungal transformation. Some Ri plasmids have GALLS , instead of virE1 and virE2. GALLS protein can functionally substitute in plant transformation for a structurally different protein VirE2. In this study, we compared the yeast transformation ability among Agrobacterium donors: a strain containing a Ti plasmid, strains harboring either an agropine-type or a mikimopine-type Ri plasmid, and a strain having a modified Ri plasmid supplemented with a Ti plasmid type virE operon. Agrobacterium strains possessing GALLS transformed yeast cells far less efficiently than the strain containing virE operon. Production of GALLS in recipient yeast cells improved the yeast transformation mediated by an Agrobacterium strain lacking neither GALLS nor virE operon. A reporter assay to detect mobilization of the proteins fused with Cre recombinase revealed that VirE2 protein is much more abundant in yeast cells than GALLS. Based on these results, we concluded that the low yeast transformability mediated by Agrobacterium strains having the Ri plasmid is because of low amount of mobilized GALLS in yeast cells. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Conjugal transfer of plasmid pAM beta 1 in Lactobacillus reuteri and between lactobacilli and Enterococcus faecalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Tannock, G W

    1987-01-01

    The broad-host-range plasmid pAM beta 1 (erythromycin resistance) was transferred conjugally from Streptococcus lactis to Lactobacillus reuteri, L. murinus, and L. fermentum. Transfer of pAM beta 1 between two L. reuteri strains occurred, and lactobacillus transconjugants could act as donors of pAM beta 1 in crosses with Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2.

  18. Liposome-enhanced transformation of Streptococcus lactis and plasmid transfer by intergeneric protoplast fusion of Streptococcus lactis and Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, Jos M.B.M. van der; Kok, Jan; Lelie, Daniel van der; Venema, Gerhardus

    An efficient protoplast transformation system and a procedure of plasmid transfer by means of protoplast fusion is described for Streptococcus lactis. Protoplasts of S. lactis IL1403 and S. lactis MG1363 were transformed by pGK12 [2.9 MDa erythromycin resistance (Emr)] with an efficiency of 3 × 10^5

  19. Eukaryotic resistance to fluoride toxicity mediated by a widespread family of fluoride export proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sanshu; Smith, Kathryn D; Davis, Jared H; Gordon, Patricia B; Breaker, Ronald R; Strobel, Scott A

    2013-11-19

    Fluorine is an abundant element and is toxic to organisms from bacteria to humans, but the mechanisms by which eukaryotes resist fluoride toxicity are unknown. The Escherichia coli gene crcB was recently shown to be regulated by a fluoride-responsive riboswitch, implicating it in fluoride response. There are >8,000 crcB homologs across all domains of life, indicating that it has an important role in biology. Here we demonstrate that eukaryotic homologs [renamed FEX (fluoride exporter)] function in fluoride export. FEX KOs in three eukaryotic model organisms, Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans, are highly sensitized to fluoride (>200-fold) but not to other halides. Some of these KO strains are unable to grow in fluoride concentrations found in tap water. Using the radioactive isotope of fluoride, (18)F, we developed an assay to measure the intracellular fluoride concentration and show that the FEX deletion strains accumulate fluoride in excess of the external concentration, providing direct evidence of FEX function in fluoride efflux. In addition, they are more sensitive to lower pH in the presence of fluoride. These results demonstrate that eukaryotic FEX genes encode a previously unrecognized class of fluoride exporter necessary for survival in standard environmental conditions.

  20. Genes from plasmid pKM101 in Haemophilus influenzae: separation of functions of mucA and mucB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balganesh, M.; Setlow, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae, normally not mutable by UV, became UV mutable with a recombinant plasmid insertion. A 7.8-kilobase-pair (kbp) fragment of the plasmid pKM101 containing the mucA and mucB genes was ligated to the shuttle vector pDM2, and a Rec- strain of H. influenzae was transformed with the ligated mixture. All of the transformants, unlike the parent Rec- strain, were resistant to UV, could carry out postreplication repair and Weigle reactivation, showed greatly increased spontaneous mutation, and contained a plasmid carrying an insert of only 1.2 rather than 7.8 kbp. This plasmid in a umuC mutant strain of Escherichia coli complemented a pKM101 derivative lacking mucA function but with an intact mucB gene, although there was no complementation with a mucA+ mucB- plasmid, suggesting that the newly constructed plasmid coded for the mucA protein; this is in accord with the restriction analysis and hybridization between the plasmid and a probe containing all of the mucA gene but only a small fraction of mucB. When one of the H. influenzae Rec- transformants lost the plasmid, the resistance to UV was retained but the high spontaneous mutation and UV mutability were not. The fact that there was hybridization between the chromosome of the cured strain and a probe containing both muc genes but none when almost no mucB was present suggested that at least part of the mucB gene had been integrated into the Rec- chromosome. Five different postreplication repair-proficient strains became UV mutable and had high spontaneous mutation rates caused by the putative mucA plasmid, indicating that these strains already possessed a chromosomal equivalent of the mucB gene

  1. Spread of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft-tissue infection within a family: implications for antibiotic therapy and prevention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Amir, N H

    2010-04-01

    Outbreaks or clusters of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) within families have been reported. We describe a family cluster of CA-MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection where CA-MRSA was suspected because of recurrent infections which failed to respond to flucloxacillin. While the prevalence of CA-MRSA is low worldwide, CA-MRSA should be considered in certain circumstances depending on clinical presentation and risk assessment. Surveillance cultures of family contacts of patients with MRSA should be considered to help establish the prevalence of CA-MRSA and to inform the optimal choice of empiric antibiotic treatment.

  2. Early viral replication and induced or constitutive immunity in rainbow trout families with differential resistance to Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, M.K.; LaPatra, S.E.; Woodson, J.C.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess correlates of innate resistance in rainbow trout full-sibling families that differ in susceptibility to Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). As part of a commercial breeding program, full-sibling families were challenged with IHNV by waterborne exposure at the 1 g size to determine susceptibility to IHNV. Progeny from select families (N = 7 families) that varied in susceptibility (ranging from 32 to 90% cumulative percent mortality (CPM)) were challenged again at the 10 g size by intra-peritoneal injection and overall mortality, early viral replication and immune responses were evaluated. Mortality challenges included 20–40 fish per family while viral replication and immune response studies included 6 fish per family at each time point (24, 48 and 72 h post-infection (hpi)). CPM at the 1 g size was significantly correlated with CPM at the 10 g size, indicating that inherent resistance was a stable trait irrespective of size. In the larger fish, viral load was measured by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR in the anterior kidney and was a significant predictor of family disease outcome at 48 hpi. Type I interferon (IFN) transcript levels were significantly correlated with an individual's viral load at 48 and 72 hpi, while type II IFN gene expression was significantly correlated with an individual's viral load at 24 and 48 hpi. Mean family type I but not type II IFN gene expression was weakly associated with susceptibility at 72 hpi. There was no association between mean family susceptibility and the constitutive expression of a range of innate immune genes (e.g. type I and II IFN pathway genes, cytokine and viral recognition receptor genes). The majority of survivors from the challenge had detectable serum neutralizing antibody titers but no trend was observed among families. This result suggests that even the most resistant families experienced sufficient levels of viral replication to trigger specific

  3. Study of antagonistic effects of Lactobacillus strains as probiotics on multi drug resistant (MDR bacteria isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiyeh Naderi

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Treatment of E. coli with probiotic suspension was not effective on inhibition of the plasmid carrying hypothetical ampicillin resistant gene. Moreover, the plasmid profiles obtained from probiotic-treated isolates were identical to untreated isolates.

  4. Plasmid P1 replication: negative control by repeated DNA sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Chattoraj, D; Cordes, K; Abeles, A

    1984-01-01

    The incompatibility locus, incA, of the unit-copy plasmid P1 is contained within a fragment that is essentially a set of nine 19-base-pair repeats. One or more copies of the fragment destabilizes the plasmid when present in trans. Here we show that extra copies of incA interfere with plasmid DNA replication and that a deletion of most of incA increases plasmid copy number. Thus, incA is not essential for replication but is required for its control. When cloned in a high-copy-number vector, pi...

  5. Plasmids foster diversification and adaptation of bacterial populations in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia

    2012-11-01

    It is increasingly being recognized that the transfer of conjugative plasmids across species boundaries plays a vital role in the adaptability of bacterial populations in soil. There are specific driving forces and constraints of plasmid transfer within bacterial communities in soils. Plasmid-mediated genetic variation allows bacteria to respond rapidly with adaptive responses to challenges such as irregular antibiotic or metal concentrations, or opportunities such as the utilization of xenobiotic compounds. Cultivation-independent detection and capture of plasmids from soil bacteria, and complete sequencing have provided new insights into the role and ecology of plasmids. Broad host range plasmids such as those belonging to IncP-1 transfer a wealth of accessory functions which are carried by similar plasmid backbones. Plasmids with a narrower host range can be more specifically adapted to particular species and often transfer genes which complement chromosomally encoded functions. Plasmids seem to be an ancient and successful strategy to ensure survival of a soil population in spatial and temporal heterogeneous conditions with various environmental stresses or opportunities that occur irregularly or as a novel challenge in soil. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enterococcus faecalis Sex Pheromone cCF10 Enhances Conjugative Plasmid Transfer In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Hirt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell-cell communication mediated by peptide pheromones (cCF10 [CF] is essential for high-frequency plasmid transfer in vitro in Enterococcus faecalis. To examine the role of pheromone signaling in vivo, we established either a CF-producing (CF+ recipient or a recipient producing a biologically inactive variant of CF (CF− recipient in a germfree mouse model 3 days before donor inoculation and determined transfer frequencies of the pheromone-inducible plasmid pCF10. Plasmid transfer was detected in the upper and middle sections of the intestinal tract 5 h after donor inoculation and was highly efficient in the absence of antibiotic selection. The transconjugant/donor ratio reached a maximum level approaching 1 on day 4 in the upper intestinal tract. Plasmid transfer was significantly lower with the CF− recipient. While rescue of the CF− mating defect by coculture with CF+ recipients is easily accomplished in vitro, no extracellular complementation occurred in vivo. This suggests that most pheromone signaling in the gut occurs between recipient and donor cells in very close proximity. Plasmid-bearing cells (donors plus transconjugants steadily increased in the population from 0.1% after donor inoculation to about 10% at the conclusion of the experiments. This suggests a selective advantage of pCF10 carriage distinct from antibiotic resistance or bacteriocin production. Our results demonstrate that pheromone signaling is required for efficient pCF10 transfer in vivo. In the absence of CF+ recipients, a low level of transfer to CF− recipients occurred in the gut. This may result from low-level host-mediated induction of the donors in the gastrointestinal (GI tract, similar to that previously observed in serum.

  7. Complete Sequence of a F33:A-:B- Conjugative Plasmid Carrying the oqxAB, fosA3 and blaCTX-M-55 Elements from a Foodborne Escherichia coli Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Ho-yin Wong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the complete sequence of pE80, a conjugative IncFII plasmid recovered from an E. coli strain isolated from chicken meat. This plasmid harbors multiple resistance determinants including oqxAB, fosA3, blaCTX-M-55 and blaTEM-1, and is a close variant of the recently reported p42-2 element, which was recovered from E. coli of veterinary source. Recovery of pE80 constitutes evidence that evolution or genetic re-arrangement of IncFII type plasmids residing in animal-borne organisms is an active event, which involves acquisition and integration of foreign resistance elements into the plasmid backbone. Dissemination of these plasmids may further compromise the effectiveness of current antimicrobial strategies.

  8. The culturable soil antibiotic resistome: a community of multi-drug resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Fiona; Duffy, Brion

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the soil bacterial resistome is essential to understanding the evolution and development of antibiotic resistance, and its spread between species and biomes. We have identified and characterized multi-drug resistance (MDR) mechanisms in the culturable soil antibiotic resistome and linked the resistance profiles to bacterial species. We isolated 412 antibiotic resistant bacteria from agricultural, urban and pristine soils. All isolates were multi-drug resistant, of which greater than 80% were resistant to 16-23 antibiotics, comprising almost all classes of antibiotic. The mobile resistance genes investigated, (ESBL, bla NDM-1, and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) resistance genes) were not responsible for the respective resistance phenotypes nor were they present in the extracted soil DNA. Efflux was demonstrated to play an important role in MDR and many resistance phenotypes. Clinically relevant Burkholderia species are intrinsically resistant to ciprofloxacin but the soil Burkholderia species were not intrinsically resistant to ciprofloxacin. Using a phenotypic enzyme assay we identified the antibiotic specific inactivation of trimethoprim in 21 bacteria from different soils. The results of this study identified the importance of the efflux mechanism in the soil resistome and variations between the intrinsic resistance profiles of clinical and soil bacteria of the same family.

  9. The culturable soil antibiotic resistome: a community of multi-drug resistant bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Walsh

    Full Text Available Understanding the soil bacterial resistome is essential to understanding the evolution and development of antibiotic resistance, and its spread between species and biomes. We have identified and characterized multi-drug resistance (MDR mechanisms in the culturable soil antibiotic resistome and linked the resistance profiles to bacterial species. We isolated 412 antibiotic resistant bacteria from agricultural, urban and pristine soils. All isolates were multi-drug resistant, of which greater than 80% were resistant to 16-23 antibiotics, comprising almost all classes of antibiotic. The mobile resistance genes investigated, (ESBL, bla NDM-1, and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR resistance genes were not responsible for the respective resistance phenotypes nor were they present in the extracted soil DNA. Efflux was demonstrated to play an important role in MDR and many resistance phenotypes. Clinically relevant Burkholderia species are intrinsically resistant to ciprofloxacin but the soil Burkholderia species were not intrinsically resistant to ciprofloxacin. Using a phenotypic enzyme assay we identified the antibiotic specific inactivation of trimethoprim in 21 bacteria from different soils. The results of this study identified the importance of the efflux mechanism in the soil resistome and variations between the intrinsic resistance profiles of clinical and soil bacteria of the same family.

  10. Comparative Sequence Analysis of Plasmids from Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Construction of a Shuttle Cloning Vector▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Hoon; Halgerson, Jamie S.; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; O'Sullivan, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    While plasmids are very commonly associated with the majority of the lactic acid bacteria, they are only very rarely associated with Lactobacillus delbrueckii, with only four characterized to date. In this study, the complete sequence of a native plasmid, pDOJ1, from a strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was determined. It consisted of a circular DNA molecule of 6,220 bp with a G+C content of 44.6% and a characteristic ori and encoded six open reading frames (ORFs), of which functions could be predicted for three—a mobilization (Mob) protein, a transposase, and a fused primase-helicase replication protein. Comparative analysis of pDOJ1 and the other available L. delbrueckii plasmids (pLBB1, pJBL2, pN42, and pLL1212) revealed a very similar organization and amino acid identities between 85 and 98% for the putative proteins of all six predicted ORFs from pDOJ1, reflecting a common origin for L. delbrueckii plasmids. Analysis of the fused primase-helicase replication gene found a similar fused organization only in the theta replicating group B plasmids from Streptococcus thermophilus. This observation and the ability of the replicon to function in S. thermophilus support the idea that the origin of plasmids in L. delbrueckii was likely from S. thermophilus. This may reflect the close association of these two species in dairy fermentations, particularly yogurt production. As no vector based on plasmid replicons from L. delbrueckii has previously been constructed, an Escherichia coli-L. delbrueckii shuttle cloning vector, pDOJ4, was constructed from pDOJ1, the p15A ori, the chloramphenicol resistance gene of pCI372, and the lacZ polylinker from pUC18. This cloning vector was successfully introduced into E. coli, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, S. thermophilus, and Lactococcus lactis. This shuttle cloning vector provides a new tool for molecular analysis of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and other lactic acid bacteria. PMID:17526779

  11. Complete nucleotide sequence of CTX-M-15-plasmids from clinical Escherichia coli isolates: insertional events of transposons and insertion sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemieke Smet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli strains are regarded as major global pathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The nucleotide sequence of three plasmids (pEC_B24: 73801-bp; pEC_L8: 118525-bp and pEC_L46: 144871-bp from Escherichia coli isolates obtained from patients with urinary tract infections and one plasmid (pEC_Bactec: 92970-bp from an Escherichia coli strain isolated from the joint of a horse with arthritis were determined. Plasmid pEC_Bactec belongs to the IncI1 group and carries two resistance genes: bla(TEM-1 and bla(CTX-M-15. It shares more than 90% homology with a previously published bla(CTX-M-plasmid from E. coli of human origin. Plasmid pEC_B24 belongs to the IncFII group whereas plasmids pEC_L8 and pEC_L46 represent a fusion of two replicons of type FII and FIA. On the pEC_B24 backbone, two resistance genes, bla(TEM-1 and bla(CTX-M-15, were found. Six resistance genes, bla(TEM-1, bla(CTX-M-15, bla(OXA-1, aac6'-lb-cr, tetA and catB4, were detected on the pEC_L8 backbone. The same antimicrobial drug resistance genes, with the exception of tetA, were also identified on the pEC_L46 backbone. Genome analysis of all 4 plasmids studied provides evidence of a seemingly frequent transposition event of the bla(CTX-M-15-ISEcp1 element. This element seems to have a preferred insertion site at the tnpA gene of a bla(TEM-carrying Tn3-like transposon, the latter itself being inserted by a transposition event. The IS26-composite transposon, which contains the bla(OXA-1, aac6'-lb-cr and catB4 genes, was inserted into plasmids pEC_L8 and pEC_L46 by homologous recombination rather than a transposition event. Results obtained for pEC_L46 indicated that IS26 also plays an important role in structural rearrangements of the plasmid backbone and seems to facilitate the mobilisation of fragments from other plasmids. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data suggests that IS26 together with ISEcp1 could play a critical role in the evolution of

  12. Broad host range plasmids can invade an unexpectedly diverse fraction of a soil bacterial community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli; Riber, Leise; Dechesne, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    and Actinobacteria suggests that inter-Gram plasmid transfer of IncP-1 and IncPromA-type plasmids is a frequent phenomenon. While the plasmid receiving fractions of the community were both plasmid- and donor- dependent, we identified a core super-permissive fraction that could take up different plasmids from diverse...

  13. Familial hyperinsulinemia associated with secretion of an abnormal insulin, and coexistence of insulin resistance in the propositus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinik, A I; Seino, S; Funakoshi, A; Schwartz, J; Matsumoto, M; Schteingart, D E; Fu, Z Z; Tsai, S T

    1986-04-01

    A 45-yr-old muscular nonobese white man who had a 9-yr history of syncopal episodes was studied on several occasions between April 1979 and August 1984. Fasting glucose concentrations ranged between 74-115 mg/dl, and those of insulin ranged between 14-64 microU/ml. Reactive hypoglycemia 3-4 h after ingestion of glucose occurred in the first 2 yr. Glucose tolerance was impaired in 1979, from February 1982 through September 1983, and again in August 1984. The maximum plasma insulin response to glucose ranged between 475-1630 microU/ml. When studied in November 1982, insulin (0.1 U/kg) caused a fall in blood glucose concentration of only 25% (normal, greater than 50%), and maximal glucose utilization during the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was 7.5 mg/kg . min (normal, greater than 12 mg/kg . min). Plasma counterregulatory hormone concentrations were normal, and antibodies to insulin and the insulin receptor were absent. Binding of exogenous insulin to the patient's cellular receptors (monocytes, red blood cells, and skin fibroblasts) was normal. Insulin was purified from plasma by immunoaffinity and molecular sieve chromatography and was found to elute later than human insulin on reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. It was more hydrophobic than normal human insulin and had only 10% of the activity of normal insulin in terms of ability to bind to and stimulate glucose metabolism in isolated rat adipocytes. The abnormal insulin was identified in two of three sons and a sister, but not in the mother, brother, or niece. Sensitivity to insulin was normal in the two sons who had abnormal insulin. These results suggest that in this family the abnormal insulin was due to a biosynthetic defect, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The hyperinsulinemia was not associated with diabetes in family members who had no insulin resistance.

  14. Nucleotide sequence of pOLA52: a conjugative IncX1 plasmid from Escherichia coli which enables biofilm formation and multidrug efflux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anders; Hansen, Lars H.; She, Qunxin

    2008-01-01

    . The plasmid was also classified as IncX1 with incompatibility testing. The conjugal transfer and plasmid maintenance regions of pOLA52 therefore seem to represent IncX1 orthologues of the well-characterized IncX2 plasmid R6K. Sequence homology searches in GenBank also suggested a considerably higher...... of type 3 fimbriae (mrkABCDF). The plasmid was found to be 51,602 bp long with 68 putative genes. About half of the plasmid constituted a conserved IncX1-type backbone with predicted regions for conjugation, replication and partitioning, as well as a toxin/antitoxin (TA) plasmid addiction system...... prevalence of IncX1 group plasmids than IncX2. The 21 kb 'genetic load' region of pOLA52 was shown to consist of a mosaic, among other things a fragmented Tn3 transposon encoding ampicillin resistance. Most notably the oqxAB and mrkABCDF cassettes were contained within two composite transposons (Tn6010...

  15. Silencing of the major family of NBS-LRR-encoding genes in lettuce results in the loss of multiple resistance specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Piskurewicz, Urszula; Tomczak, Anna; Ochoa, Oswaldo; Michelmore, Richard W

    2007-09-01

    The RGC2 gene cluster in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the largest known families of genes encoding nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins. One of its members, RGC2B, encodes Dm3 which determines resistance to downy mildew caused by the oomycete Bremia lactucae carrying the cognate avirulence gene, Avr3. We developed an efficient strategy for analysis of this large family of low expressed genes using post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). We transformed lettuce cv. Diana (carrying Dm3) using chimeric gene constructs designed to simultaneously silence RGC2B and the GUS reporter gene via the production of interfering hairpin RNA (ihpRNA). Transient assays of GUS expression in leaves accurately predicted silencing of both genes and were subsequently used to assay silencing in transgenic T(1) plants and their offspring. Levels of mRNA were reduced not only for RGC2B but also for all seven diverse RGC2 family members tested. We then used the same strategy to show that the resistance specificity encoded by the genetically defined Dm18 locus in lettuce cv. Mariska is the result of two resistance specificities, only one of which was silenced by ihpRNA derived from RGC2B. Analysis of progeny from crosses between transgenic, silenced tester stocks and lettuce accessions carrying other resistance genes previously mapped to the RGC2 locus indicated that two additional resistance specificities to B. lactucae, Dm14 and Dm16, as well as resistance to lettuce root aphid (Pemphigus bursarius L.), Ra, are encoded by RGC2 family members.

  16. Dissemination of NDM-1-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Mediated by the IncX3-Type Plasmid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ying; Du, Xiaoxing; Shen, Yuqin; Yu, Yunsong

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and spread of NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae have resulted in a worldwide public health risk that has affected some provinces of China. China is an exceptionally large country, and there is a crucial need to investigate the epidemic of bla NDM-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae in our province. A total of 186 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates (CRE) were collected in a grade-3 hospital in Zhejiang province. Carbapenem-resistant genes, including bla KPC, bla IMP, bla VIM, bla OXA-48 and bla NDM-1 were screened and sequenced. Ninety isolates were identified as harboring the bla KPC-2 genes, and five bla NDM-1-positive isolates were uncovered. XbaI-PFGE revealed that three bla NDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae isolates belonged to two different clones. S1-PFGE and southern blot suggested that the bla NDM-1 genes were located on IncX3-type plasmids with two different sizes ranging from 33.3 to 54.7 kb (n=4) and 104.5 to 138.9 kb (n=1), respectively, all of which could easily transfer to Escherichia coli by conjugation and electrotransformation. The high-throughput sequencing of two plasmids was performed leading to the identification of a smaller 54-kb plasmid, which had high sequence similarity with a previously reported pCFNDM-CN, and a larger plasmid in which only a 7.8-kb sequence of a common gene environment around bla NDM-1 (bla NDM-1-trpF- dsbC-cutA1-groEL-ΔInsE,) was detected. PCR mapping and sequencing demonstrated that four smaller bla NDM-1 plasmids contained a common gene environment around bla NDM-1 (IS5-bla NDM-1-trpF- dsbC-cutA1-groEL). We monitored the CRE epidemic in our hospital and determined that KPC-2 carbapenemase was a major risk to patient health and the IncX3-type plasmid played a vital role in the spread of the bla NDM-1 gene among the CRE. PMID:26047502

  17. Prevalence and occurrence rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant in the worldwide population: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Roshani, Daem; Shakib, Pegah; Rouhi, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) can occur in different ways. Furthermore, drug resistant in M. tuberculosis family is a major problem that creates obstacles in treatment and control of tuberculosis (TB) in the world. One of the most prevalent families of M. tuberculosis is Haarlem, and it is associated with drug resistant. Our objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and occurrence rate of M. tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant (MDR) in the worldwide using meta-analysis based on a systematic review that performed on published articles. Materials and Methods: Data sources of this study were 78 original articles (2002-2012) that were published in the literatures in several databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Biological abstracts, ISI web of knowledge and IranMedex. The articles were systematically reviewed for prevalence and rate of MDR. Data were analyzed using meta-analysis and random effects models with the software package Meta R, Version 2.13 (P < 0.10). Results: Final analysis included 28601 persons in 78 articles. The highest and lowest occurrence rate of Haarlem family in M. tuberculosis was in Hungary in 2006 (66.20%) with negative MDR-TB and in China in 2010 (0.8%), respectively. From 2002 to 2012, the lowest rate of prevalence was in 2010, and the highest prevalence rate was in 2012. Also 1.076% were positive for MDR and 9.22% were negative (confidence interval: 95%).0020. Conclusion: Many articles and studies are performed in this field globally, and we only chose some of them. Further studies are needed to be done in this field. Our study showed that M. tuberculosis Haarlem family is prevalent in European countries. According to the presence of MDR that was seen in our results, effective control programs are needed to control the spread of drug-resistant strains, especially Haarlem family. PMID:25767526

  18. Prevalence and occurrence rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant in the worldwide population: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ramazanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis can occur in different ways. Furthermore, drug resistant in M. tuberculosis family is a major problem that creates obstacles in treatment and control of tuberculosis (TB in the world. One of the most prevalent families of M. tuberculosis is Haarlem, and it is associated with drug resistant. Our objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and occurrence rate of M. tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant (MDR in the worldwide using meta-analysis based on a systematic review that performed on published articles. Materials and Methods: Data sources of this study were 78 original articles (2002-2012 that were published in the literatures in several databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Biological abstracts, ISI web of knowledge and IranMedex. The articles were systematically reviewed for prevalence and rate of MDR. Data were analyzed using meta-analysis and random effects models with the software package Meta R, Version 2.13 (P < 0.10. Results: Final analysis included 28601 persons in 78 articles. The highest and lowest occurrence rate of Haarlem family in M. tuberculosis was in Hungary in 2006 (66.20% with negative MDR-TB and in China in 2010 (0.8%, respectively. From 2002 to 2012, the lowest rate of prevalence was in 2010, and the highest prevalence rate was in 2012. Also 1.076% were positive for MDR and 9.22% were negative (confidence interval: 95%.0020. Conclusion: Many articles and studies are performed in this field globally, and we only chose some of them. Further studies are needed to be done in this field. Our study showed that M. tuberculosis Haarlem family is prevalent in European countries. According to the presence of MDR that was seen in our results, effective control programs are needed to control the spread of drug-resistant strains, especially Haarlem family.

  19. In vitro transfer of multiple resistance observed in vivo during a Salmonella london epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, J; Marjai, E

    1980-01-01

    Between 1976 and 1978, waves of Salmonella london infections conveyed by raw meat and meat products were observed. The strains isolated during the epidemic were first susceptible then developed multiple antibiotic resistance. The identical antibiotic resistance patterns of the strain and their more frequent occurrence in hospital environments indicated plasmid-mediated resistance. R-plasmid transfer, minimum inhibition concentration and resistance elimination were studied in representative strains. The resistant S. london strain and transconjugants of Escherichia coli rendered resistant were compared. The results proved that multiple resistance was plasmid-mediated.

  20. F14:A-:B- and IncX4 Inc group cfr-positive plasmids circulating in Escherichia coli of animal origin in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiumei; Zhu, Yao; Hua, Xin; Chen, Fuguang; Wang, Changzhen; Zhang, Yanhe; Liu, Siguo; Zhang, Wanjiang

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the cfr gene in Escherichia coli isolates from domestic animals in Northeast China and to characterize the cfr-containing plasmids. Between June 2015 and April 2016, 370 E. coli isolates were collected from pigs, chickens, and dairy cows in Northeast China. Among these, 111 were florfenicol resistant, including 109 isolates carrying the floR gene and 6 positives for cfr. The prevalence of cfr in E. coli isolates from the four northeast provinces in China was 1.6% (6/370), which was higher than that previously reported (0.08% and 0.5%). All six cfr-containing E. coli isolates were highly resistant to florfenicol (100%), cefotaxime (100%), and fosfomycin (100%). Complete sequence analysis of two cfr-carrying plasmids revealed high homology of the IncX4-type pEC14cfr plasmid with two other cfr-harboring plasmids, pSD11 and pGXEC6, found in swine E. coli isolates from southern China. pEC14cfr-like plasmids have been isolated in five provinces in southern and northern China. The isolation sites were up to 2700 kilometers apart, implying that pEC14cfr-like plasmids are likely to be national epidemic cfr-carrying plasmids that mediate the dissemination of cfr in China. Moreover, the genetic structure (IS26-IS26-cfr-rec-pre/mob-ramA-IS26) of the second cfr-carrying plasmid, IncF14:A-:B- pEC295cfr, represents a novel genetic environment for cfr identified for the first time in the present study. Sequence homology analysis indicated that the cfr-carrying element was most likely introduced into a cfr-negative pEC12 plasmid backbone, which evolved into the cfr-carrying vector, pEC295cfr. Moreover, isolation of the IncF14:A-:B- pEC295cfr plasmid harboring cfr suggests that IncFII plasmids maybe have become additional effective vehicles for cfr dissemination. These results highlight the importance of surveying the prevalence of IncX4 and IncFII plasmids in gram-negative bacteria, especially in swine E. coli

  1. Identification of pOENI-1 and Related Plasmids in Oenococcus oeni Strains Performing the Malolactic Fermentation in Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Marion; Bilhère, Eric; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline; Moine, Virginie; Lucas, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmids in lactic acid bacteria occasionally confer adaptive advantages improving the growth and behaviour of their host cells. They are often associated to starter cultures used in the food industry and could be a signature of their superiority. Oenococcus oeni is the main lactic acid bacteria species encountered in wine. It performs the malolactic fermentation that occurs in most wines after alcoholic fermentation and contributes to their quality and stability. Industrial O. oeni starters may be used to better control malolactic fermentation. Starters are selected empirically by virtue of their fermentation kinetics and capacity to survive in wine. This study was initiated with the aim to determine whether O. oeni contains plasmids of technological interest. Screening of 11 starters and 33 laboratory strains revealed two closely related plasmids, named pOENI-1 (18.3-kb) and pOENI-1v2 (21.9-kb). Sequence analyses indicate that they use the theta mode of replication, carry genes of maintenance and replication and two genes possibly involved in wine adaptation encoding a predicted sulphite exporter (tauE) and a NADH:flavin oxidoreductase of the old yellow enzyme family (oye). Interestingly, pOENI-1 and pOENI-1v2 were detected only in four strains, but this included three industrial starters. PCR screenings also revealed that tauE is present in six of the 11 starters, being probably inserted in the chromosome of some strains. Microvinification assays performed using strains with and without plasmids did not disclose significant differences of survival in wine or fermentation kinetics. However, analyses of 95 wines at different phases of winemaking showed that strains carrying the plasmids or the genes tauE and oye were predominant during spontaneous malolactic fermentation. Taken together, the results revealed a family of related plasmids associated with industrial starters and indigenous strains performing spontaneous malolactic fermentation that possibly

  2. Application of methylation in improving plasmid transformation into Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huilin; Xu, Linlin; Rong, Qianyu; Xu, Zheng; Ding, Yunfei; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Yulong; Li, Boqing; Ji, Xiaofei

    2018-05-23

    Helicobacter pylori is an important gastrointestinal pathogen. Its strains possess different levels of powerful restriction modification systems, which are significant barriers to genetic tools used for studying the role of functional genes in its pathogenesis. Methylating vectors in vitro was reported as an alternative to overcome this barrier in several bacteria. In this study we used two H. pylori-E. coli shuttle plasmids and several single/double-crossover homologous recombination gene-targeting plasmids, to test the role of methylation in H. pylori transformation. According to our results, transformants could be obtained only after shuttle plasmids were methylated before transformation. It is helpful in gene complementation and over-expression although at a low frequency. The frequency of gene-targeting transformation was also increased after methylation, especially for the single-crossover recombination plasmids, the transformants of which could only be obtained after methylation. For the double-crossover recombination targeting plasmids, the initial yield of transformants was 0.3-0.8 × 10 2 CFUs per microgram plasmid DNA. With the help of methylation, the yield was increased to 0.4-1.3 × 10 2 CFUs per microgram plasmid DNA. These results suggest that in vitro methylation can improve H. pylori transformation by different plasmids, which will benefit the pathogenic mechanism research. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Functional analysis of three plasmids from Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, R. van; Golic, N.; Bongers, R.; Leer, R.J.; Vos, W.M. de; Siezen, R.J.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 harbors three plasmids, pWCFS101, pWCFS102, and pWCFS103, with sizes of 1,917, 2,365, and 36,069 bp, respectively. The two smaller plasmids are of unknown function and contain replication genes that are likely to function via the rolling-circle replication mechanism.

  4. Production and pharmaceutical formulation of plasmid DNA vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, I.

    2013-01-01

    Research leading to the thesis ‘Production and pharmaceutical formulation of plasmid DNA vaccines‘ can be divided into two parts. The first part describes the development of a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) compliant plasmid DNA production process of pDNA vaccines for the treatment of Human

  5. Transfer of conjugative plasmids among bacteria under environmentally relevant conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musovic, Sanin

    Mobile genetiske elementer (f.eks. plasmider), der ofte bærer ekstra funktioner såsom antibiotikaresistens, eller kataboliske- og xenobiotiske nedbrydnings gener, antages at have en meget vigtigt evolutionær rolle for bakterier. I denne PhD afhandling undersøgte jeg størrelsen af plasmid overførs...

  6. Two novel conjugative plasmids from a single strain of Sulfolobus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erauso, G.; Stedman, K.M.; Werken, van de H.J.G.; Zillig, W.; Oost, van der J.

    2006-01-01

    Two conjugative plasmids (CPs) were isolated and characterized from the same 'Sulfolobus islandicus' strain, SOG2/4, The plasmids were separated from each other and transferred into Sulfolobus soltataricus. One has a high copy number and is not stable (pSOG1) whereas the other has a low copy number

  7. The technology of large-scale pharmaceutical plasmid purification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further test demonstrated that the pcDNAlacZ purified with CTAB and authoritative endotoxin-free plasmid Kit had the similar transfection efficiency in vivo and in vitro. CTAB can be used for plasmid purification; the main advantages of the DNAs purified with CTAB include the avoidance of animal-derived enzymes, toxic ...

  8. Insulin-resistance and metabolic syndrome are related to executive function in women in a large family-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuur, M; Henneman, P; van Swieten, J C; Zillikens, M C; de Koning, I; Janssens, A C J W; Witteman, J C M; Aulchenko, Y S; Frants, R R; Oostra, B A; van Dijk, K Willems; van Duijn, C M

    2010-08-01

    While type 2 diabetes is well-known to be associated with poorer cognitive performance, few studies have reported on the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and contributing factors, such as insulin-resistance (HOMA-IR), low adiponectin-, and high C-reactive protein (CRP)-levels. We studied whether these factors are related to cognitive function and which of the MetS components are independently associated. The study was embedded in an ongoing family-based cohort study in a Dutch population. All participants underwent physical examinations, biomedical measurements, and neuropsychological testing. Linear regression models were used to determine the association between MetS, HOMA-IR, adiponectin levels, CRP, and cognitive test scores. Cross-sectional analyses were performed in 1,898 subjects (mean age 48 years, 43% men). People with MetS had significantly higher HOMA-IR scores, lower adiponectin levels, and higher CRP levels. MetS and high HOMA-IR were associated with poorer executive function in women (P = 0.03 and P = 0.009). MetS and HOMA-IR are associated with poorer executive function in women.

  9. Diastolic dysfunction is associated with insulin resistance, but not with aldosterone level in normotensive offspring of hypertensive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizek, Bogomir; Poredos, Pavel; Trojar, Andrej; Zeljko, Tadej

    2008-01-01

    We investigated left ventricular (LV) morphology and function in association with insulin level/insulin resistance (IR) and aldosterone level in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension (familial trait, FT). The study encompassed 76 volunteers of whom 44 were normotensive with FT (aged 28-39 years) and 32 age-matched controls without FT. LV mass and function were measured using conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. LV diastolic function was reported as peak septal annular velocities (E(m) and E(m)/A(m) ratio) in tissue Doppler imaging. Fasting insulin and aldosterone were determined. In subjects with FT, the LV mass was higher than in controls (92.14 +/- 24.02 vs. 70.08 +/- 20.58 g; p < 0.001). The study group had a worse LV diastolic function than control subjects (lower E(m) and E(m)/A(m) ratio; p < 0.001). In subjects with FT, the E(m)/A(m) ratio was independently associated with IR (partial p = 0.029 in multivariate model, R(2) = 0.51), but not with LV mass. The aldosterone level was comparable in both groups. In normotensive individuals with FT, LV morphological and functional abnormalities were found. LV dysfunction but not an increase in LV mass is associated with IR. The aldosterone level is probably not responsible for the development of early hypertensive heart disease. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Deciphering conjugative plasmid permissiveness in wastewater microbiomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquiod, Samuel Jehan Auguste; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Milani, Stefan Morberg

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are designed to robustly treat polluted water. They are characterized by ceaseless flows of organic, chemical and microbial matter, followed by treatment steps before environmental release. WWTPs are hotspots of horizontal gene transfer between bacteria via...... still remains largely uncharted. Furthermore, current in vitro methods used to assess conjugation in complex microbiomes do not include in situ behaviours of recipient cells, resulting in partial understanding of transfers. We investigated the in vitro conjugation capacities of WWTP microbiomes from...... inlet sewage and outlet treated water using the broad-host range IncP-1 conjugative plasmid, pKJK5. A thorough molecular approach coupling metagenomes to 16S rRNA DNA/cDNA amplicon sequencing was established to characterize microbiomes using the ecological concept of functional response groups. A broad...

  11. Double Copies of bla(KPC-3)::Tn4401a on an IncX3 Plasmid in Klebsiella pneumoniae Successful Clone ST512 from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Daniela; Villa, Laura; Feudi, Claudia; Pires, João; Bonura, Celestino; Mammina, Caterina; Endimiani, Andrea; Carattoli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    A carbapenem-resistant sequence type 512 (ST512) Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase 3 (KPC-3)-producing K. pneumoniae strain showing a novel variant plasmid content was isolated in Palermo, Italy, in 2014. ST512 is a worldwide successful clone associated with the spread of bla(KPC) genes located on the IncFIIk pKpQIL plasmid. In our ST512 strain, the bla(KPC-3) gene was unusually located on an IncX3 plasmid, whose complete sequence was determined. Two copies of bla(KPC-3)::Tn4401a caused by intramolecular transposition events were detected in the plasmid. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms of Virulence Plasmids in Rhodococcus equi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Shinji; Shoda, Masato; Sasaki, Yukako; Tsubaki, Shiro; Fortier, Guillaume; Pronost, Stephane; Rahal, Karim; Becu, Teotimo; Begg, Angela; Browning, Glenn; Nicholson, Vivian M.; Prescott, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Virulent Rhodococcus equi, which is a well-known cause of pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals, possesses a large plasmid encoding virulence-associated 15- to 17-kDa antigens. Foal and soil isolates from five countries—Argentina, Australia, Canada, France, and Japan—were investigated for the presence of 15- to 17-kDa antigens by colony blotting, using the monoclonal antibody 10G5, and the gene coding for 15- to 17-kDa antigens by PCR. Plasmid DNAs extracted from positive isolates were digested with restriction endonucleases BamHI, EcoRI, EcoT22I, and HindIII, and the digestion patterns that resulted divided the plasmids of virulent isolates into five closely related types. Three of the five types had already been reported in Canadian and Japanese isolates, and the two new types had been found in French and Japanese isolates. Therefore, we tentatively designated these five types 85-kb type I (pREAT701), 85-kb type II (a new type), 87-kb type I (EcoRI and BamHI type 2 [V. M. Nicholson and J. F. Prescott, J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:738–740, 1997]), 87-kb type II (a new type), and 90-kb (pREL1) plasmids. The 85-kb type I plasmid was found in isolates from Argentina, Australia, Canada, and France. Plasmid 87-kb type I was isolated in specimens from Argentina, Canada, and France. The 85-kb type II plasmid appeared in isolates from France. On the other hand, plasmids 87-kb type II and 90-kb were found only in isolates from Japan. These results revealed geographic differences in the distribution of the virulence plasmids found in the five countries and suggested that the restriction fragment length polymorphism of virulence plasmids might be useful to elucidate the molecular epidemiology of virulent R. equi in the world. PMID:10488224

  13. PCR-based plasmid typing in Enterococcus faecium strains reveals widely distributed pRE25-, pRUM-, pIP501-and pHT beta-related replicons associated with glycopeptide resistance and stabilizing toxin-antitoxin systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosvoll, T.C.S.; Pedersen, T.; Sletvold, H.

    2010-01-01

    A PCR-based typing scheme was applied to identify plasmids in an epidemiologically and geographically diverse strain collection of Enterococcus faecium (n=93). Replicon types of pRE25 (n=56), pRUM (n=41), pIP501 (n=17) and pHT beta (n=14) were observed in 83% of the strains, while pS86, pCF10, pA...

  14. Influência do uso de enrofloxacina no desenvolvimento de resistência às quinolonas mediada por plasmídeos em Escherichia coli de vitelos [Selection of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in commensal E. coli by the use of enrofloxacin in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerreiro, L.; Couto, N.; Centeno, M.

    O conhecimento existente sobre a presença e frequência de genes de Resistência às Quinolonas Mediada por Plasmídeos (RQMP) em estirpes comensais de E. coli de origem bovina é escasso a nível mundial. O presente trabalho teve como objectivos:i) avaliar a frequência de genes de RQMP, designadamente...... exista uma associação entre a presença de genes de RQMP e valores de CIMs, verifica-se um aumento da frequência destes genes ao longo do estudo longitudinal. Este é o primeiro estudo que descreve a existência de resistência às quinolonas por qQnrD em isolados de E. coli de bovinos....

  15. FabV/Triclosan Is an Antibiotic-Free and Cost-Effective Selection System for Efficient Maintenance of High and Medium-Copy Number Plasmids in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed A; Chew, Yik Wei

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics are frequently used to maintain plasmid vectors in bacterial hosts such as Escherichia coli. Due to the risk of spread of antibiotic resistance, the regulatory authorities discourage the use of antibiotic resistance genes/antibiotics for the maintenance of plasmid vectors in certain biotechnology applications. Overexpression of E. coli endogenous fabI gene and subsequent selection on Triclosan has been proposed as a practical alternative to traditional antibiotic selection systems. Unfortunately, overexpression of fabI cannot be used to select medium-copy number plasmids, typically used for the expression of heterologous proteins in E. coli. Here we report that Vibrio cholera FabV, a functional homologue of E. coli FabI, can be used as a suitable marker for the selection and maintenance of both high and medium-copy number plasmid vectors in E. coli.

  16. The essence of NAC gene family to the cultivation of drought-resistant soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Reem M; Ali, Mohammed; Feng, Xing; Li, Xia

    2017-02-28

    The NAC gene family is notable due to its large size, as well as its relevance in crop cultivation - particularly in terms of enhancing stress tolerance of plants. These plant-specific proteins contain NAC domain(s) that are named after Petunia NAM and Arabidopsis ATAF1/2 and CUC2 transcription factors based on the consensus sequence they have. Despite the knowledge available regarding NAC protein function, an extensive study on the possible use of GmNACs in developing soybean cultivars with superior drought tolerance is yet to be done. In response to this, our study was carried out, mainly through means of phylogenetic analysis (rice and Arabidopsis NAC genes served as seeding sequences). Through this, 139 GmNAC genes were identified and later grouped into 17 clusters. Furthermore, real-time quantitative PCR was carried out on drought-stressed and unstressed leaf tissues of both sensitive (B217 and H228) and tolerant (Jindou 74 and 78) cultivars. This was done to analyze the gene expression of 28 dehydration-responsive GmNAC genes. Upon completing the analysis, it was found that GmNAC gene expression is actually dependent on genotype. Eight of the 28 selected genes (GmNAC004, GmNAC021, GmNAC065, GmNAC066, GmNAC073, GmNAC082, GmNAC083 and GmNAC087) were discovered to have high expression levels in the drought-resistant soybean varieties tested. This holds true for both extreme and standard drought conditions. Alternatively, the drought-sensitive cultivars exhibited lower GmNAC expression levels in comparison to their tolerant counterparts. The study allowed for the identification of eight GmNAC genes that could be focused upon in future attempts to develop superior soybean varieties, particularly in terms of drought resistance. This study revealed that there were more dehydration-responsive GmNAC genes as (GmNAC004, GmNAC005, GmNAC020 and GmNAC021) in addition to what were reported in earlier inquiries. It is important to note though, that discovering such

  17. The effect of mutation on Rhodococcus equi virulence plasmid gene expression and mouse virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Prescott, John F

    2004-11-15

    An 81 kb virulence plasmid containing a pathogenicity island (PI) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals but its specific function in virulence and regulation of plasmid-encoded virulence genes is unclear. Using a LacZ selection marker developed for R. equi in this study, in combination with an apramycin resistance gene, an efficient two-stage homologous recombination targeted gene mutation procedure was used to mutate three virulence plasmid genes, a LysR regulatory gene homologue (ORF4), a ResD-like two-component response regulator homologue (ORF8), and a gene (ORF10) of unknown function that is highly expressed by R. equi inside macrophages, as well as the chromosomal gene operon, phoPR. Virulence testing by liver clearance after intravenous injection in mice showed that the ORF4 and ORF8 mutants were fully attenuated, that the phoPR mutant was hypervirulent, and that virulence of the ORF10 mutant remained unchanged. A virulence plasmid DNA microarray was used to compare the plasmid gene expression profile of each of the four gene-targeted mutants against the parental R. equi strain. Changes were limited to PI genes and gene induction was observed for all mutants, suggesting that expression of virulence plasmid genes is dominated by a negative regulatory network. The finding of attenuation of ORF4 and ORF8 mutants despite enhanced transcription of vapA suggests that factors other than VapA are important for full expression of virulence. ORF1, a putative Lsr antigen gene, was strongly and similarly induced in all mutants, implying a common regulatory pathway affecting this gene for all four mutated genes. ORF8 is apparently the centre of this common pathway. Two distinct highly correlated gene induction patterns were observed, that of the ORF4 and ORF8 mutants, and that of the ORF10 and phoPR mutants. The gene induction pattern distinguishing these two groups paralleled their virulence in mice.

  18. Plasmid-associated sensitivity of Bacillus thuringiensis to UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, T.G.; Wilson, G.R.; Bull, D.L.; Aronson, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus thuringiensis were more sensitive to UV light than were spores or cells of plasmid-cured B. thuringiensis strains or of the closely related Bacillus cereus. Introduction of B. thuringiensis plasmids into B. cereus by cell mating increased the UV sensitivity of the cells and spores. Protoxins encoded by one or more B. thuringiensis plasmids were not involved in spore sensitivity, since a B. thuringiensis strain conditional for protoxin accumulation was equally sensitive at the permissive and nonpermissive temperatures. In addition, introduction of either a cloned protoxin gene, the cloning vector, or another plasmid not containing a protoxin gene into a plasmid-cured strain of B. thuringiensis all increased the UV sensitivity of the spores. Although the variety of small, acid-soluble proteins was the same in the spores of all strains examined, the quantity of dipicolinic acid was about twice as high in the plasmid-containing strains, and this may account for the differences in UV sensitivity of the spores. The cells of some strains harboring only B. thuringiensis plasmids were much more sensitive than cells of any of the other strains, and the differences were much greater than observed with spores

  19. A replicating plasmid-based vector for GFP expression in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishag, H Z A; Liu, M J; Yang, R S; Xiong, Q Y; Feng, Z X; Shao, G Q

    2016-04-28

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) causes porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP) that significantly affects the pig industry worldwide. Despite the availability of the whole genome sequence, studies on the pathogenesis of this organism have been limited due to the lack of a genetic manipulation system. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to generate a general GFP reporter vector based on a replicating plasmid. Here, we describe the feasibility of GFP reporter expression in M. hyopneumoniae (strain 168L) controlled by the p97 gene promoter of this mycoplasma. An expression plasmid (pMD18-TOgfp) containing the p97 gene promoter, and origin of replication (oriC) of M. hyopneumoniae, tetracycline resistant marker (tetM), and GFP was constructed and used to transform competent M. hyopneumoniae cells. We observed green fluorescence in M. hyopneumoniae transformants under fluorescence microscopy, which indicates that there was expression of the GFP reporter that was driven by the p97 gene promoter. Additionally, an electroporation method for M. hyopneumoniae with an efficiency of approximately 1 x 10(-6) transformants/μg plasmid DNA was optimized and is described herein. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the susceptibility of M. hyopneumoniae to genetic manipulation whereby foreign genes are expressed. This work may encourage the development of genetic tools to manipulate the genome of M. hyopneumoniae for functional genomic analyses.

  20. AAVS1-Targeted Plasmid Integration in AAV Producer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuxia; Frederick, Amy; Martin, John M; Scaria, Abraham; Cheng, Seng H; Armentano, Donna; Wadsworth, Samuel C; Vincent, Karen A

    2017-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) producer cell lines are created via transfection of HeLaS3 cells with a single plasmid containing three components (the vector sequence, the AAV rep and cap genes, and a selectable marker gene). As this plasmid contains both the cis (Rep binding sites) and trans (Rep protein encoded by the rep gene) elements required for site-specific integration, it was predicted that plasmid integration might occur within the AAVS1 locus on human chromosome 19 (chr19). The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration in AAVS1 might be correlated with vector yield. Plasmid integration sites within several independent cell lines were assessed via Southern, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and PCR analyses. In the Southern analyses, the presence of fragments detected by both rep- and AAVS1-specific probes suggested that for several mid- and high-producing lines, plasmid DNA had integrated into the AAVS1 locus. Analysis with puroR and AAVS1-specific probes suggested that integration in AAVS1 was a more widespread phenomenon. High-producing AAV2-secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) lines (masterwell 82 [MW82] and MW278) were evaluated via FISH using probes specific for the plasmid, AAVS1, and a chr19 marker. FISH analysis detected two plasmid integration sites in MW278 (neither in AAVS1), while a total of three sites were identified in MW82 (two in AAVS1). An inverse PCR assay confirmed integration within AAVS1 for several mid- and high-producing lines. In summary, the FISH, Southern, and PCR data provide evidence of site-specific integration of the plasmid within AAVS1 in several AAV producer cell lines. The data also suggest that integration in AAVS1 is a general phenomenon that is not necessarily restricted to high producers. The results also suggest that plasmid integration within the AAVS1 locus is not an absolute requirement for a high vector yield.

  1. Conjugative IncFI plasmids carrying CTX-M-15 among Escherichia coli ESBL producing isolates at a University hospital in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hain Torsten

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-drug-resistant, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, constitute an emerging public-health concern. Little data on the molecular epidemiology of ESBL producing Escherichia coli is available in Germany. Here we describe the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of ESBL producing-Escherichia coli isolates at a German University hospital. Methods We analysed 63 non-duplicate clinical ESBL isolates obtained over an 8-month period using PCR and sequence-based ESBL allele typing, plasmid replicon typing, phylogenetic group typing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE based genotyping and plasmid profiling was performed, as well as confirmatory DNA-based hybridization assays. Results Examination of the 63 Escherichia coli isolates revealed an almost equal distribution among the E. coli phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2 and D. High prevalence (36/63 of the CTX-M-15 gene was observed and an analysis of PFGE-based patterns revealed the presence of this CTX-M allele in multiple clones. Resistance to cefotaxime was a transferable trait and a commonly occurring 145.5 kb conjugative IncFI plasmid was detected in 65% of E. coli carrying the CTX-M-15 allele. The rate of transferable antibiotic resistances for GM, SXT, TET, GM-SXT-TET, SXT-TET and GM-TET was 33%, 61%, 61%, 27%, 44% and 11%, respectively. The remaining strains did not have a common IncFI plasmid but harboured transferable IncFI plasmids with sizes that ranged from 97 to 242.5 kb. Conclusion Our data demonstrate the presence of IncFI plasmids within the prevailing E. coli population in a hospital setting and suggest that the dissemination of CTX-M-15 allele is associated to lateral transfer of these well-adapted, conjugative IncFI plasmids among various E. coli genotypes.

  2. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND COMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED FROM SOME PLANTS BELONGING TO FAMILY LAMIACEAE AGAINST SOME MULTIDRUG RESISTANT GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma A. Ahmed, Nadia Hafez Salah El-Din Ouda, Sherif Moussa Husseiny and Abeer Adel

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of eight essential oils against some multi-drug resistant Gram negative bacteria (three different isolates of each Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae). The hydrodistilled essential oils of the fresh aerial part of some medicinal plants belonging to family Lamiaceae namely: Origanum majorana L. , Origanum majorana L. , Origanum syriacum L., Thymus capitatus L., Thymus vulgaris L., Salvia fruticosa Mill., Mentha vir...

  3. Transcriptome mapping of pAR060302, a blaCMY-2-positive broad-host-range IncA/C plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kevin S; Danzeisen, Jessica L; Xu, Wayne; Johnson, Timothy J

    2012-05-01

    The multidrug resistance-encoding plasmids belonging to the IncA/C incompatibility group have recently emerged among Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica strains in the United States. These plasmids have a unique genetic structure compared to other enterobacterial plasmid types, a broad host range, and a propensity to acquire large numbers of antimicrobial resistance genes via their accessory regions. Using E. coli strain DH5α harboring the prototype IncA/C plasmid pAR060302, we sought to define the baseline transcriptome of IncA/C plasmids under laboratory growth and in the face of selective pressure. The effects of ampicillin, florfenicol, or streptomycin exposure were compared to those on cells left untreated at logarithmic phase using Illumina platform-based RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Under growth in Luria-Bertani broth lacking antibiotics, much of the backbone of pAR060302 was transcriptionally inactive, including its putative transfer regions. A few plasmid backbone genes of interest were highly transcribed, including genes of a putative toxin-antitoxin system and an H-NS-like transcriptional regulator. In contrast, numerous genes within the accessory regions of pAR060302 were highly transcribed, including the resistance genes floR, bla(CMY-2), aadA, and aacA. Treatment with ampicillin or streptomycin resulted in no genes being differentially expressed compared to controls lacking antibiotics, suggesting that many of the resistance-associated genes are not differentially expressed due to exposure to these antibiotics. In contrast, florfenicol treatment resulted in the upregulation of floR and numerous chromosomal genes. Overall, the transcriptome mapping of pAR060302 suggests that it mitigates the fitness costs of carrying resistance-associated genes through global regulation with its transcriptional regulators.

  4. Fosfomycin Resistance in Escherichia coli, Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrowais, Hind; McElheny, Christi L; Spychala, Caressa N; Sastry, Sangeeta; Guo, Qinglan; Butt, Adeel A; Doi, Yohei

    2015-11-01

    Fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli is rare in the United States. An extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli clinical strain identified in Pennsylvania, USA, showed high-level fosfomycin resistance caused by the fosA3 gene. The IncFII plasmid carrying this gene had a structure similar to those found in China, where fosfomycin resistance is commonly described.

  5. Analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) thaumatin-like protein (TLP) gene family and demonstration that TLP29 contributes to disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoxiao; Qiao, Hengbo; Zhang, Xiuming; Guo, Chunlei; Wang, Mengnan; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2017-06-27

    Thaumatin-like protein (TLP) is present as a large family in plants, and individual members play different roles in various responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we studied the role of 33 putative grape (Vitis vinifera L.) TLP genes (VvTLP) in grape disease resistance. Heat maps analysis compared the expression profiles of 33 genes in disease resistant and susceptible grape species infected with anthracnose (Elsinoe ampelina), powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) or Botrytis cinerea. Among these 33 genes, the expression level of TLP29 increased following the three pathogens inoculations, and its homolog from the disease resistant Chinese wild grape V. quinquangularis cv. 'Shang-24', was focused for functional studies. Over-expression of TLP29 from grape 'Shang-24' (VqTLP29) in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced its resistance to powdery mildew and the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but decreased resistance to B. cinerea. Moreover, the stomatal closure immunity response to pathogen associated molecular patterns was strengthened in the transgenic lines. A comparison of the expression profiles of various resistance-related genes after infection with different pathogens indicated that VqTLP29 may be involved in the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene signaling pathways.

  6. Educational Conditions for (Self-Development of Children’s Resistance to Consumerism in the Family [Warunki edukacyjne w rodzinach dla rozwijania oporu dzieci wobec konsumpcjonizmu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juodaitytė AUDRONĖ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research on the development of 6–7 year old children’s resistance to consumerism in the family, conducted in 2012–2013. The research was conducted combining qualitative and quantitative methods of research. The method of interviews with the child and parents’ survey was applied. The research investigated the situation of the development of children’s resistance to consumerism in the family, disclosed children’s consumerism experience, which includes children’s knowledge of places of trade and their visits to them, children’s knowledge about the assortment of products, brands and the main providers of knowledge about consumption and consumerism for children, namely family members, peers and the media. The article also presents the analysis of children’s knowledge of advertising, children’s perceptions about TV advertising and their attitudes to it. Based on research results, educational conditions that are important for development of 6–7 year old children’s resistance to consumerism are distinguished.

  7. An ochre mutation in the vitamin D receptor gene causes hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-resistant rickets in three families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, H.H.; Hughes, M.R.; Thompson, E.T.; Pike, J.W.; O'Malley, B.W.; Malloy, P.J.; Feldman, D.; Hochberg, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 -resistant rickets is a rare autosomal-recessive disease resulting from target-organ resistance to the action of the active hormonal form of vitamin D. Four affected children from three related families with the classical syndrome of hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 -resistant rickets and the absence of detectable binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in cultured fibroblasts or lymphoblasts were examined for genetic abnormalities in the VDR gene. Genomic DNA from Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblasts of eight family members was isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction techniques. Amplified fragments containing the eight structural exons encoding the VDR protein were sequenced. The DNA from all affected children exhibited a single C → A base substitution within exon 7 at nucleotide 970. Although the affected children were all homozygotic for the mutation, the four parents tested all exhibited both wild-type and mutant alleles, indicating a heterozygous state. Recreated mutant receptor exhibited no specific 1,25-[ 3 H]dihydroxyvitamin D 3 binding and failed to activate a cotransfected VDR promoter-reporter gene construct. Thus these findings identify an ochre mutation in a human steroid hormone receptor in patients with hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 -resistant rickets

  8. An ochre mutation in the vitamin D receptor gene causes hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D sub 3 -resistant rickets in three families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, H.H.; Hughes, M.R.; Thompson, E.T.; Pike, J.W.; O' Malley, B.W. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA)); Malloy, P.J.; Feldman, D. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (USA)); Hochberg, Z. (Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel))

    1989-12-01

    Hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}-resistant rickets is a rare autosomal-recessive disease resulting from target-organ resistance to the action of the active hormonal form of vitamin D. Four affected children from three related families with the classical syndrome of hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}-resistant rickets and the absence of detectable binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in cultured fibroblasts or lymphoblasts were examined for genetic abnormalities in the VDR gene. Genomic DNA from Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblasts of eight family members was isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction techniques. Amplified fragments containing the eight structural exons encoding the VDR protein were sequenced. The DNA from all affected children exhibited a single C {yields} A base substitution within exon 7 at nucleotide 970. Although the affected children were all homozygotic for the mutation, the four parents tested all exhibited both wild-type and mutant alleles, indicating a heterozygous state. Recreated mutant receptor exhibited no specific 1,25-({sup 3}H)dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} binding and failed to activate a cotransfected VDR promoter-reporter gene construct. Thus these findings identify an ochre mutation in a human steroid hormone receptor in patients with hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}-resistant rickets.

  9. Evolution of IncA/C blaCMY-₂-carrying plasmids by acquisition of the blaNDM-₁ carbapenemase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carattoli, Alessandra; Villa, Laura; Poirel, Laurent; Bonnin, Rémy A; Nordmann, Patrice

    2012-02-01

    The bla(NDM-1) gene has been reported to be often located on broad-host-range plasmids of the IncA/C type in clinical but also environmental bacteria recovered from the New Delhi, India, area. IncA/C-type plasmids are the main vehicles for the spread of the cephalosporinase gene bla(CMY-2), frequently identified in the United States, Canada, and Europe. In this study, we completed the sequence of IncA/C plasmid pNDM-KN carrying the bla(NDM-1) gene, recovered from a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from Kenya. This sequence was compared with those of three IncA/C-type reference plasmids from Escherichia coli, Yersinia ruckeri, and Photobacterium damselae. Comparative analysis showed that the bla(NDM-1) gene was located on a widely diffused plasmid scaffold known to be responsible for the spread of bla(CMY-2)-like genes and consequently for resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Considering that IncA/C plasmids possess a broad host range, this scaffold might support a large-scale diffusion of the bla(NDM-1) gene among Gram-negative rods.

  10. Comparative assessment of plasmid DNA delivery by encapsulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research January 2018; 17 (1): 1-10 ... Purpose: To compare the gene delivery effectiveness of plasmid DNA (pDNA) ..... Intramuscular delivery of DNA ... copolymeric system for gene delivery in complete.

  11. The technology of large-scale pharmaceutical plasmid purification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... DNA vaccine, the cost of purification must be decreased. Although commonly .... Three mice were killed every 4 days interval. Tissues of heart, liver, .... Now, methods such as chromatography had good prospects in plasmid ...

  12. Photoinduced silver nanoparticles/nanorings on plasmid DNA scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Yu, Mei; Li, Songmei; Zhang, Jindan

    2012-01-23

    Biological scaffolds are being actively explored for the synthesis of nanomaterials with novel structures and unexpected properties. Toroidal plasmid DNA separated from the Bacillus host is applied as a sacrificial mold for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanorings. The photoirradiation method is applied to reduce Ag(I) on the plasmid. The nanoparticles are obtained by varying the concentration of the Ag(I) ion solution and the exposure time of the plasmid-Ag(I) complex under UV light at 254 nm and room temperature. It is found that the plasmid serves not only as a template but also as a reductant to drive the silver nucleation and deposition. The resulting nanoparticles have a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and 20-30 nm average diameter. The detailed mechanism is discussed, and other metals or alloys could also be synthesized with this method. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Isolation and properties of plasmids from Deinococcus radiodurans Sark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjarief, S.H.; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kurita, Hiromi; Kitayama, Shigeru; Watanabe, Hiroshi.

    1990-05-01

    Radioresistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans, can repair completely almost all of DNA damages including double strand breaks induced by gamma-rays up to about 5 kGy. In order to reveal the repair mechanism, it is necessary to develop a cloning vector available for the genetic analysis. We tried to isolate plasmids from D.radiodurans Sark strain. In the present paper the isolation and properties of plasmids were described. (author)

  14. Elimination of indigenous linear plasmids in Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. jinggangensis and Streptomyces sp. FR008 to increase validamycin A and candicidin productivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chenyang; Wu, Hang; Su, Xiurong; Bai, Linquan

    2017-05-01

    Giant linear plasmids, which replicate independently of the chromosomes, widely exist in actinobacteria. Previous studies mostly focused on the replication and evolution of the linear plasmids or the secondary metabolite gene clusters and the resistance gene clusters therein. However, the relationships of the linear plasmids to the productivities of secondary metabolites have not been studied. In this work, we developed a method to eliminate the indigenous linear plasmid pSHJG1 in Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. jinggangensis, and validamycin A titer increased by 12.5% (from 19.16 ± 1.93 to 21.56 ± 2.25 g/L) in the high-yielding strain TL01 and 43.7% (from 4.67 ± 0.05 to 6.71 ± 0.21 g/L) in the wild-type strain 5008, whereas the cellular growth of the plasmid-cured mutant was reduced. Subsequently, the plasmid-cured mutant was complemented with three structure genes involved in cellular growth in pSHJG1 under the control of a strong PvalA promoter. Among them, the complementation of genes pSHJG1.069 and pSHJG1.072, encoding a putative hydrolase and putative P-loop ATPase, respectively, resulted in the restoration of cellular growth and validamycin A titer. Furthermore, the elimination of indigenous linear plasmid pHZ228 in the candicidin producer Streptomyces sp. FR008 also led to enhanced candicidin production and reduced cellular growth. Because of the wide distribution of indigenous linear plasmids in actinobacteria, the engineering strategy described here could be implemented in a variety of strains for the overproduction of various natural products.

  15. Characterization of tet(Y)-carrying LowGC plasmids exogenously captured from cow manure at a conventional dairy farm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselková, Martina; Chrudimský, Tomáš; Husník, Filip; Chroňáková, Alica; Heuer, H.; Smalla, K.; Elhottová, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 6 (2016), č. článku fiw075. ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/2077; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13046 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cattle manure * LowGC plasmids * tetracycline resistance * tet(Y) * Acinetobacter * horizontal gene transfer Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2016

  16. Resistance to Linezolid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Birte; Ntokou, Eleni

    2017-01-01

    Linezolid is an antimicrobial agent that binds to the bacterial ribosome and thereby inhibits protein synthesis. Soon after its release as a clinical drug, it became clear that bacteria could become resistant to linezolid. The resistance mechanisms are mainly causing alteration of the drug target...... site, but probably efflux might also play a role. The resistance is still rare in surveillance studies, but outbreaks of resistant clones from hospitals have been observed. So far the main mechanisms of resistance are occurrence of mutations in ribosomal genes or obtaining plasmids with a gene coding...... for a methyltransferase providing resistance. The most obvious way to avoid resistance may be development of derivatives of linezolid overcoming the known resistance mechanisms....

  17. Pyrethroid Resistance in Malaysian Populations of Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti Is Mediated by CYP9 Family of Cytochrome P450 Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Intan H; Kamgang, Basile; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Riveron, Jacob M; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S

    2017-01-01

    Dengue control and prevention rely heavily on insecticide-based interventions. However, insecticide resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, threatens the continued effectiveness of these tools. The molecular basis of the resistance remains uncharacterised in many endemic countries including Malaysia, preventing the design of evidence-based resistance management. Here, we investigated the underlying molecular basis of multiple insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations across Malaysia detecting the major genes driving the metabolic resistance. Genome-wide microarray-based transcription analysis was carried out to detect the genes associated with metabolic resistance in these populations. Comparisons of the susceptible New Orleans strain to three non-exposed multiple insecticide resistant field strains; Penang, Kuala Lumpur and Kota Bharu detected 2605, 1480 and 425 differentially expressed transcripts respectively (fold-change>2 and p-value ≤ 0.05). 204 genes were commonly over-expressed with monooxygenase P450 genes (CYP9J27, CYP6CB1, CYP9J26 and CYP9M4) consistently the most up-regulated detoxification genes in all populations, indicating that they possibly play an important role in the resistance. In addition, glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and other gene families commonly associated with insecticide resistance were also over-expressed. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis indicated an over-representation of GO terms linked to resistance such as monooxygenases, carboxylesterases, glutathione S-transferases and heme-binding. Polymorphism analysis of CYP9J27 sequences revealed a high level of polymorphism (except in Joho Bharu), suggesting a limited directional selection on this gene. In silico analysis of CYP9J27 activity through modelling and docking simulations suggested that this gene is involved in the multiple resistance in Malaysian populations as it is predicted to metabolise pyrethroids, DDT and bendiocarb. The predominant

  18. Plasmid (pKM101)-mediated enhancement of repair and mutagenesis: dependence on chromosomal genes in 'Escherichia coli' K-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.C.

    1977-01-01

    The drug resistance plasmid pKM101 plays a major role in the Ames Salmonella/microsome carcinogen detecting system by enhancing chemical mutagenesis. It is shown that in Escherichia coli K-12 the plasmid pKM101 enhances both spontaneous and methyl methanesulfonate-caused reversion of an ochre mutation, bacterial survival after ultaviolet irradiation, and reactivation of ultraviolet-irradiated lambda in unirradiated cells. All these effects are shown to be dependent on the recA + lexA + genotype but not on the recB + recC + or recF + genotypes. The recA lexA-dependence of the plasmid-mediated repair and mutagenesis suggests an interaction with the cell's inducible error-prone repair system. The presence of pKM101 is shown to cause an additional increase in methyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis in a tif mutant beyond that caused by growth at 42 0 . The presence of the plasmid raises the level of the Weigle-reactivation curve for the reactivation of ultraviolet-irradiated lambda in E. coli and causes a shift of the maximum to a higher UV fluence. These observations suggest that pKM101 does not exert its effects by altering the regulation of the cell's error-prone repair system but rather by supplying a mechanistic component or components. (orig.) [de

  19. Development of a chromosome-plasmid balanced lethal system for Lactobacillus acidophilus with thyA gene as selective marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X; Xu, J G

    2000-01-01

    A chromosome-plasmid balanced lethal gene delivery system for Lactobacillus acidophilus based on the thyA gene was developed. The selected L. acidophilus DOM La strain carries a mutated thyA gene and has an obligate requirement for thymidine. This strain can be used as a host for the constructed shuttle vector pFXL03, lacking antibiotic-resistant markers but having the wild-type thyA gene from L. casei which complements the thyA chromosomal mutation. The vector also contains the replicon region from plasmid pUC19 and that of the Lactococcus plasmid pWV01, which allows the transfer between Escherichia coli, L. casei and L. acidophilus. Eight unique restriction sites (i.e., PstI, HindIII, SphI, SalI, AccI, XbaI, KpnI and SacI) are available for cloning. After 40-time transfers in modified MRS medium, no plasmid loss was observed. The vector pFXL03 is potentially useful as a food-grade vaccine delivery system for L. acidophilus.

  20. Abortive phage-infection and UV-protection markers on ColI plasmids from epidemic strains of Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Cultures of Escherichia coli carrying ColI plasmids received in conjugation from strains of Salmonella typhimurium and S. agona were examined for abortive infection (Abi) of phage BF23 and for enhanced resistance to the lethal action of UV-irradiation (Uvr). The Abi character of stored cultures of E. coli was also compared with the reaction of the same stock culture tested 5 years before. Seven of the eight potential types differentiated by three characters were represented among 160 ColI plasmids: ColIa Abi + Uvr + (3 plasmids), ColIa Abi - Uvr + (1), ColIa Abi - Uvr-> (2), ColIb Abi + Uvr + (85), ColIb Abi + Uvr - (5), ColIb Abi - Uvr + (4), ColIb Abi-? Uvr - (60). Recognition that different plasmid types could be carried by strains of a clone proved useful in the interpretation of the epidemic spread of strains of S. typhimurium of phage type/biotype 141/9f in Scotland and in tracing the ancestry of a recently emerged rhamnose non-fermenting mutant strain of S. agona. (author)

  1. Detection of the IncX3 plasmid carrying blaKPC-3 in a Serratia marcescens strain isolated from a kidney-liver transplanted patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gona, Floriana; Caio, Carla; Iannolo, Gioacchin; Monaco, Francesco; Di Mento, Giuseppina; Cuscino, Nicola; Fontana, Ignazio; Panarello, Giovanna; Maugeri, Gaetano; Mezzatesta, Maria Lina; Stefani, Stefania; Conaldi, Pier Giulio

    2017-10-01

    Dissemination of resistance to carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae through plasmids is an increasingly important concern in health care worldwide. Here we report the first description of an IncX3 plasmid carrying the blaKPC-3 gene in a strain of Serratia marcescens isolated from a kidney-liver transplanted patient at the transplantation centre ISMETT (Istituto Mediterraneo per i Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione, Palermo, Italy). To localize the transposable element containing the resistance-associated gene Next-Generation Sequencing of the bacterial DNA was performed. S. marcescens was positive for blaKPC-3 and blaSHV-11 genes. The molecular analysis demonstrated that the blaKPC-3 gene of this bacterial strain was located in one copy of the Tn-3-like element Tn4401-a carried in a plasmid that is 53 392 bp in size and showed the typical IncX3 scaffold. Our data demonstrated the presence of a new blaKPC-3 harbouring the IncX3 plasmid in S. marcescens. The possible dissemination among Enterobacteriaceae of this type of plasmid should be monitored and evaluated in terms of clinical risk.

  2. Putative DNA-dependent RNA polymerase in Mitochondrial Plasmid of Paramecium caudatum Stock GT704

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trina Ekawati Tallei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria of Paramecium caudatum stock GT704 has a set of four kinds of linear plasmids with sizes of 8.2, 4.1, 2.8 and 1.4 kb. The plasmids of 8.2 and 2.8 kb exist as dimers consisting of 4.1- and 1.4-kb monomers, respectively. The plasmid 2.8 kb, designated as pGT704-2.8, contains an open reading frame encodes for putative DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP. This study reveals that this RNAP belongs to superfamily of DNA/RNA polymerase and family of T7/T3 single chain RNA polymerase and those of mitochondrial plasmid of fungi belonging to Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. It is suggested that RNAP of pGT704-2.8 can perform transcription without transcription factor as promoter recognition. Given that only two motifs were found, it could not be ascertained whether this RNAP has a full function independently or integrated with mtDNA in carrying out its function.

  3. Adding to Yersinia enterocolitica Gene Pool Diversity: Two Cryptic Plasmids from a Biotype 1A Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lepka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequence of two novel cryptic plasmids (4357 and 14 662 base pairs carried by a Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strain isolated from pork. As distinguished from most biotype 1A strains, this isolate, designated 07-04449, exhibited adherence to eukaryotic cells. The smaller plasmid pYe4449-1 carries five attributable open reading frames (ORFs encoding the first CcdA/CcdB-like antitoxin/toxin system described for a Yersinia plasmid, a RepA-like replication initiation protein, and mobilizing factors MobA and MobC. The deduced amino acid sequences showed highest similarity to proteins described in Salmonella (CcdA/B, Klebsiella (RepA, and Plesiomonas (MobA/C indicating genomic fluidity among members of the Enterobacteriaceae. One additional ORF with unknown function, termed ORF5, was identified with an ancestry distinct from the rest of the plasmid. While the C+G content of ORF5 is 38.3%, the rest of pYe4449-1 shows a C+G content of 55.7%. The C+G content of the larger plasmid pYe4449-2 (54.9% was similar to that of pYe4449-1 (53.7% and differed from that of the Y. enterocolitica genome (47.3%. Of the 14 ORFs identified on pYe4449-2, only six ORFs showed significant similarity to database entries. For three of these ORFs likely functions could be ascribed: a TnpR-like resolvase and a phage replication protein, localized each on a low C+G island, and DNA primase TraC. Two ORFs of pYe4449-2, ORF3 and ORF7, seem to encode secretable proteins. Epitope-tagging of ORF3 revealed protein expression at 4°C but not at or above 27°C suggesting adaptation to a habitat outside swine. The hypothetical protein encoded by ORF7 is the member of a novel repeat protein family sharing the DxxGN(xnDxxGN motif. Our findings illustrate the exceptional gene pool diversity within the species Y. enterocolitica driven by horizontal gene transfer events.

  4. Analysis of metal and biocides resistance genes in drug resistance and susceptible Salmonella enterica from food animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Generally drug resistant bacteria carry antibiotic resistance genes and heavy metal and biocide resistance genes on large conjugative plasmids. The presence of these metal and biocide resistance genes in susceptible bacteria are not assessed comprehensively. Hence, WGS data of susceptib...

  5. Plasmids and rickettsial evolution: insight from Rickettsia felis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Gillespie

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of Rickettsia felis revealed a number of rickettsial genetic anomalies that likely contribute not only to a large genome size relative to other rickettsiae, but also to phenotypic oddities that have confounded the categorization of R. felis as either typhus group (TG or spotted fever group (SFG rickettsiae. Most intriguing was the first report from rickettsiae of a conjugative plasmid (pRF that contains 68 putative open reading frames, several of which are predicted to encode proteins with high similarity to conjugative machinery in other plasmid-containing bacteria.Using phylogeny estimation, we determined the mode of inheritance of pRF genes relative to conserved rickettsial chromosomal genes. Phylogenies of chromosomal genes were in agreement with other published rickettsial trees. However, phylogenies including pRF genes yielded different topologies and suggest a close relationship between pRF and ancestral group (AG rickettsiae, including the recently completed genome of R. bellii str. RML369-C. This relatedness is further supported by the distribution of pRF genes across other rickettsiae, as 10 pRF genes (or inactive derivatives also occur in AG (but not SFG rickettsiae, with five of these genes characteristic of typical plasmids. Detailed characterization of pRF genes resulted in two novel findings: the identification of oriV and replication termination regions, and the likelihood that a second proposed plasmid, pRFdelta, is an artifact of the original genome assembly.Altogether, we propose a new rickettsial classification scheme with the addition of a fourth lineage, transitional group (TRG rickettsiae, that is unique from TG and SFG rickettsiae and harbors genes from possible exchanges with AG rickettsiae via conjugation. We offer insight into the evolution of a plastic plasmid system in rickettsiae, including the role plasmids may have played in the acquirement of virulence traits in pathogenic strains, and the

  6. Type 3 fimbriae, encoded by the conjugative plasmid pOLA52, enhance biofilm formation and transfer frequencies in Enterobacteriaceae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmølle, Mette; Bahl, Martin Iain; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2008-01-01

    pathogenic, members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella Typhimurium, Kluyvera sp. and Enterobacter aerogenes, pOLA52 facilitated increased biofilm formation. pOLA52 is believed to represent the first example of a conjugative plasmid encoding type 3 fimbriae...

  7. Delivery of a survivin promoter-driven antisense survivin-expressing plasmid DNA as a cancer therapeutic: a proof-of-concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin KY

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kun-Yuan Lin,1 Siao Muk Cheng,2 Shing-Ling Tsai,2 Ju-Ya Tsai,1 Chun-Hui Lin,1 Chun Hei Antonio Cheung1,2 1Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC; 2Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC Abstract: Survivin is a member of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins family. It is overexpressed in many different cancer types but not in the differentiated normal tissue. In addition, overexpression of survivin promotes cancer cell survival and induces chemotherapeutic drug resistance, making it an attractive target for new anticancer interventions. Despite survivin being a promising molecular target for anticancer treatment, it is widely accepted that survivin is only a “semi-druggable” target. Therefore, it is important to develop a new strategy to target survivin for anticancer treatment. In this study, we constructed a novel survivin promoter-driven full-length antisense survivin (pSur/AS-Sur expression plasmid DNA. Promoter activity assay revealed that the activity of the survivin promoter of pSur/AS-Sur correlated with the endogenous expression of survivin at the transcriptional level in the transfected A549, MDA-MB-231, and PANC-1 cancer cells. Western blot analysis showed that liposomal delivery of pSur/AS-Sur successfully downregulated the expression of survivin in A549, MBA-MB-231, and PANC-1 cells in vitro. In addition, delivery of pSur/AS-Sur induced autophagy, caspase-dependent apoptosis, and caspase-independent apoptosis as indicated by the increased LC3B-II conversion, autophagosome formation, caspase-9/-3 and poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 cleavage, and apoptosis-inducing factor nuclear translocation in A549, MBA-MB-231, and PANC-1 cells. Importantly, liposomal delivery of pSur/AS-Sur was also capable of decreasing the proliferation of the survivin/MDR1 coexpressing multidrug-resistant KB-TAX50 cancer cells and

  8. Prevalence and molecular characterization of plasmid- mediated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pseudomonas aeruginisa, Acinetobacter baumannii and. Klebsiella pneumomiae in Brooklyn, NY. J Antimicrob. Chemother 2007; 60: 78-82. 12. Busato C, Gabardo J, Leão M. The evolution of the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus found on healthcare workers correlated with local consumption of antibiotics. Braz J Infect ...

  9. THE ENDOGENOUS BACILLUS-SUBTILIS (NATTO) PLASMIDS PTA1015 AND PTA1040 CONTAIN SIGNAL PEPTIDASE-ENCODING GENES - IDENTIFICATION OF A NEW STRUCTURAL MODULE ON CRYPTIC PLASMIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEIJER, WJJ; DEJONG, A; BEA, G; WISMAN, A; TJALSMA, H; VENEMA, G; BRON, S; MAARTEN, J; VANDIJL, JM

    Various strains of Bacillus subtilis (natto) contain small cryptic plasmids that replicate via the rolling-circle mechanism. Like plasmids from other Gram-positive bacteria, these plasmids are composed of several distinct structural modules. A new structural module was identified on the B. subtilis

  10. Plasmid transferability of KPC into a virulent K2 serotype Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Leung-Kei Kristopher; Huang, David B; Chiang, Tom

    2014-03-31

    KPC-producing carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infections are associated with high mortality; however, their virulence determinants are not well defined. We investigated the virulence and plasmid transferability among KPC-containing K. pneumoniae isolates. KPC-2 and -3 were successfully conjugated and retained by a virulent K2 K. pneumoniae recipient isolate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed KPC-2 and -3 donor strains were resistant to more than four classes of antibiotics while the K2 isolate was only initially resistant to ampicillin. After conjugation of KPC-2 and -3, the K2 K. pneumoniae transconjugants became resistant to all beta-lactams. Additionally, the KPC K2 K. pneumoniae transconjugants continued to retain its high serum resistance and murine lethality. Conjugation and retainment of KPC by virulent K2 K. pneumoniae and the ability of the tranconjugants to maintain its high serum resistance and murine lethality after conjugation was demonstrated in this study. These findings are concerning for the potential of KPC-like genes to disseminate among virulent K. pneumoniae isolates.

  11. Characterisation of IncA/C2 plasmids carrying an In416-like integron with the blaVIM-19 gene from Klebsiella pneumoniae ST383 of Greek origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannitsis, Costas C; Dolejska, Monika; Izdebski, Radosław; Giakkoupi, Panagiota; Skálová, Anna; Chudějová, Kateřina; Dobiasova, Hana; Vatopoulos, Alkiviadis C; Derde, Lennie P G; Bonten, Marc J M; Gniadkowski, Marek; Hrabák, Jaroslav

    2016-02-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of three multidrug resistance (MDR) IncA/C-like plasmids from Enterobacteriaceae isolates carrying the VIM-type carbapenemase-encoding integrons In4863 (blaVIM-19-aacA7-dfrA1-ΔaadA1-smr2) or In4873 (blaVIM-1-aacA7-dfrA1-ΔaadA1-smr2) were determined, which are the first In416-like elements identified in Greece. Plasmids pKP-Gr642 and pKP-Gr8143 were from Klebsiella pneumoniae ST383 isolates, whereas plasmid pEcl-Gr4873 was from an Enterobacter cloacae ST88 isolate. Sequencing showed that pKP-Gr642 (162787bp) and pKP-Gr8143 (154395bp) consisted of the type 1 IncA/C2 conserved backbone, the blaCMY-2-like gene-containing region, and the ARI-B (with the sul2 gene) and ARI-A (with a class 1 integron) resistance islands, like the plasmid pUMNK88_161 from the USA. The third plasmid, pEcl-Gr4873 (153958bp), exhibited extensive similarity with the type 2 IncA/C2 plasmid pR55 from France. pEcl-Gr4873 carried only one resistance island of a hybrid transposon structure inserted in a different location to ARI-A in type 1 A/C2 plasmids. In all three plasmids, the In416-like integrons In4863 or In4873 were identified within non-identical class II transposon structures. All three In416-like-carrying regions presented significant similarities with the MDR region of the IncA/C2 plasmid pCC416 from Italy, carrying the prototype In416 integron (blaVIM-4-aacA7-dfrA1-ΔaadA1-smr2). These findings provided the basis for speculations regarding the evolution of IncA/C2 plasmids with In416-like integrons, and confirmed the rapid evolution of some IncA/C2 plasmid lineages. Considering the broad host range of IncA/C2 molecules, it seems that pKP-Gr642, pKP-Gr8143 and pEcl-Gr4873 plasmids might support the diffusion of In416-like integrons among Enterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. New plasmid-mediated aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase, AAC(6')-Ian, and ESBL, TLA-3, from a Serratia marcescens clinical isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wanchun; Wachino, Jun-Ichi; Kimura, Kouji; Yamada, Keiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2015-05-01

    Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates showing amikacin resistance (MIC 64 to >256 mg/L) in the absence of 16S rRNA methyltransferase (MTase) genes were found. The aim of this study was to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying amikacin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates that do not produce 16S rRNA MTases. PCR was performed to detect already-known amikacin resistance determinants. Cloning experiments and sequence analyses were performed to characterize unknown amikacin resistance determinants. Transfer of amikacin resistance determinants was performed by conjugation and transformation. The complete nucleotide sequence of the plasmids was determined by next-generation sequencing technology. Amikacin resistance enzymes were purified with a column chromatography system. The enzymatic function of the purified protein was investigated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and HPLC. Among the 14 isolates, 9 were found to carry already-known amikacin resistance determinants such as aac(6')-Ia and aac(6')-Ib. Genetic analyses revealed the presence of a new amikacin acetyltransferase gene, named aac(6')-Ian, located on a 169 829 bp transferable plasmid (p11663) of the Serratia marcescens strain NUBL-11663, one of the five strains negative for known aac(6') genes by PCR. Plasmid p11663 also carried a novel ESBL gene, named blaTLA-3. HPLC and TLC analyses demonstrated that AAC(6')-Ian catalysed the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A onto an amine at the 6'-position of various aminoglycosides. We identified aac(6')-Ian as a novel amikacin resistance determinant together with a new ESBL gene, blaTLA-3, on a transferable plasmid of a S. marcescens clinical isolate. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Plasmids in Vibrio parahemolyticus strains isolated in Japan and Bangladesh with special reference to different distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, T; Ando, T; Kusakabe, A; Ullah, M A

    1983-01-01

    We surveyed plasmids in naturally occurring Vibrio parahemolyticus strains isolated in Japan and Bangladesh. Among the strains isolated in Japan, about half of the strains isolated from stools of patients of domestic diarrhea outbreaks as well as of travelers returning from East Asia were found to have plasmids, but no strains from foods had plasmids. In contrast, among the strains isolated in Bangladesh, none of the four strains isolated from patients had plasmids, but two out of eight strains isolated from water had plasmids, suggesting that plasmids are common in strains from the water in Bangladesh. All plasmids so far reported in V. parahemolyticus were detected in strains isolated from stools of patients. Incidences of plasmids in this organism were not so high in either area. In Japan, all plasmids were detected in strains from human intestines at 37 C, but in Bangladesh, where the temperature is around 30-40 C, the plasmids were detected in strains from the natural environment. These results suggested the possibility that these plasmids can come from different bacteria under rather high temperatures and that incidences of plasmids are influenced by the incidences of plasmids in bacteria present in the vicinity of V. parahemolyticus strains. None of these plasmids were found to have any relation to the biological characters tested.