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Sample records for resistance phenotype mdr

  1. Genetic transfer of non-P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in somatic cell fusion: dissection of a compound MDR phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijdems, E. W.; Borst, P.; Jongsma, A. P.; de Jong, S.; de Vries, E. G.; van Groenigen, M.; Versantvoort, C. H.; Nieuwint, A. W.; Baas, F.

    1992-01-01

    A non-P-glycoprotein-mediated mechanism of multidrug resistance (non-Pgp MDR) has been identified in doxorubicin-selected sublines of the human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line SW-1573. These sublines are cross-resistant to daunorubicin, VP16-213, Vinca alkaloids, colchicine, gramicidin D,

  2. Genetic transfer of non-P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in somatic cell fusion : Dissection of a compound MDR phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EIJDEMS, EWHM; BORST, P; JONGSMA, APM; de Jong, Steven; DEVRIES, EGE; VANGROENIGEN, M; VERSANTVOORT, CHM; NIEUWINT, AWM; BAAS, F

    1992-01-01

    A non-P-glycoprotein-mediated mechanism of multidrug resistance (non-Pgp MDR) bas been identified in doxorubicin-selected sublines of the human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines SW-1573. These sublines are cross-resistant to daunorubicin, VP16-213, Vinca alkaloids, colchicine, gramicidin D,

  3. Two promoter rearrangements in a drug efflux transporter gene are responsible for the appearance and spread of multidrug resistance phenotype MDR2 in Botrytis cinerea isolates in French and German vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernke, D; Dahm, S; Walker, A-S; Lalève, A; Fillinger, S; Leroch, M; Hahn, M

    2011-10-01

    In French and German vineyards, Botrytis cinerea isolates with multiple fungicide resistance phenotypes have been observed with increasing frequencies. Multidrug resistance (MDR) results from mutations that lead to constitutive overexpression of genes encoding drug efflux transporters. In MDR2 and MDR3 strains, overexpression of the major facilitator superfamily transporter gene mfsM2 has been found to result from a rearrangement in the mfsM2 promoter (type A), caused by insertion of a retroelement (RE)-derived sequence. Here, we report the discovery of another, similar RE-induced rearrangement of the mfsM2 promoter (type B) in a subpopulation of French MDR2 isolates. MDR2 isolates harboring either type A or type B mutations in mfsM2 show the same resistance phenotypes and similar levels of mfsM2 overexpression. RE sequences similar to those in mfsM2 were found in low copy numbers in other but not all B. cinerea strains analyzed, including non-MDR2 strains. Population genetic analyses support the hypothesis that the two rearrangement mutations have only occurred once, and are responsible for the appearance and subsequent spread of all known MDR2 and MDR3 strains in French and German wine-growing regions.

  4. Reversal of typical multidrug resistance by cyclosporin and its non-immunosuppressive analogue SDZ PSC 833 in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the mdr1 phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.W. te Boekhorst (Peter); J. van Kapel (Jan); M. Schoester (Martijn); P. Sonneveld (Pieter)

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstractSummary The new non-immunosuppressive cyclosporin derivative SDZ PSC 833 (PSC) is a potent agent used to overcome typical multidrug resistance (MDR) associated with overexpression of themdr1 gene encoding for a P-170 glycoprotein. In the present study, the efficacy of PSC as

  5. In vivo detection of multidrug-resistant (MDR1) phenotype by technetium-99m sestamibi scan in untreated breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Vecchio, S.; Ciarmiello, A.; Potena, M.I.; Carriero, M.V.; Mainolfi, C.; Botti, G.; Thomas, R.; Cerra, M.; D'Aiuto, G.; Tsuruo, T.; Salvatore, M.

    1997-01-01

    Technetium-99m sestamibi is a transport substrate recognised by the multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein (Pgp). To test whether 99m Tc-sestamibi efflux is enhanced in breast carcinomas overexpressing Pgp, we determined the efflux rates of 99m Tc-sestamibi and Pgp levels in tumours from 30 patients with untreated breast carcinoma. Patients were intravenously injected with 740 MBq of 99m Tc-sestamibi and underwent a 15-min dynamic study followed by the acquisition of static planar images at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h. Tumour specimens were obtained from each patient 24 h after 99m Tc-sestamibi scan and Pgp levels were determined using 125 I-MRK16 monoclonal antibody and in vitro quantitative autoradiography. All breast carcinomas showed high uptake of 99m Tc-sestamibi and data from region of interest analysis on sequential images were fitted with a monoexponential function. The efflux rates of 99m Tc-sestamibi, calculated from decay-corrected time-activity curves, ranged between 0.00121 and 0.01690 min -1 and were directly correlated with Pgp levels measured in the same tumours (r=0.62; P 99m Tc-sestamibi efflux from tumours of group A was 2.7 times higher than that observed in tumours of group B (0.00686 ±0.00390 min -1 vs 0.00250 ±0.00090 min -1 , P 99m Tc-sestamibi showed a sensitivity and a specificity of 80% and 95%, respectively. In conclusion, the efflux rate of 99m Tc-sestamibi may be used for the in vivo identification of the multidrug resistant (MDR1) phenotype in untreated breast cancer patients. (orig.). With 7 figs., 3 tabs

  6. An update on overcoming MDR1-mediated multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Kohji; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Okumura, Katsuhiko

    2006-01-01

    The intrinsic or acquired resistance to anticancer drugs remains one of the most significant factors impeding the progress of cancer chemotherapy. This phenomenon often involves simultaneous resistance to other anticancer drugs that differ in their chemical structure and mode of action and are not even used in chemotherapy. This phenotype has been called multidrug resistance (MDR). Although the cellular basis underlying MDR is not fully understood, several factors mediating therapy resistance in tumors have been proposed. One of the mechanisms leading to chemoresistance of tumor cells is the increased activity of transporter proteins. The best-characterized transporter protein is MDR1/P-glycoprotein, and a number of clinical investigations have suggested that its intrinsic or acquired overexpression resulted in a poor clinical outcome of chemotherapy. Various types of compounds and techniques for the reversal of MDR1/P-glycoprotein-mediated MDR have been developed, and efforts have concentrated on the inhibition of function and suppression of expression. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of MDR1/P-glycoprotein and the modulation of MDR by targeting MDR1/P-glycoprotein.

  7. [Resistance to therapy in primary nephrotic syndrome: effect of MDR1 gene activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowski, J; Zanker, C B; Runowski, D; Zaniew, M; Peszko, A; Medyńska, A; Zwolińska, D; Rogowska-Kalisz, A; Hyla-Klekot, L; Szprygner, K; Weglarska, J; Sieniawska, M; Musiał, W; Maciejewski, J; Baldamus, C A

    2000-04-01

    MDR1 gene encodes for a transmembranous glycoprotein, gp-170, which acts as a drug export pump and is also a cyclosporine(CsA)-binding protein. This study aimed at evaluating MDR1 expression in NS sensitive(S) and resistant(R) to therapy (steroids/S/, cyclophosphamide/C/, CsA) patients. Twenty six boys, 13 girls aged 3-8 years were included to the study. MDR1 was analysed using: 1) evaluation of gp-170 activity according to DiC2/3/ [3,3-Diethyloxa-carbocyanine Iodide] by means of flow cytometry and as 2) mRNA expression of MDR1 determined by RT-PCR. The analysis was performed in the lymphocyte subset CD4/CD45RA presenting suppressor-inducer activity. Negative control, Jurkat-T-cell line, not expressing the MDR1 phenotype, was transfected with viral expression vector containing a full-length cDNA for the human MDR1 gene. We found that: in SR-NS the high expression of MDR1 was associated mainly with the suppressor-inducer T-cells (CD45RA+CD4+) and was subsequently enhanced during an ineffective treatment with C and/or CsA. C-R-NS and CsA-R-NS were partially reversible by S- and R-Verapamil; this was in vitro confirmed by inhibition of export pump activity, gp-170. SS-NS, C-S-NS and CsA-S-NS presented the low expression and activity of MDR1 comparing to R-children (p gene and subsequent high activity of export pump P-gp-170. Calcium channel blockers may reverse the MRD1-related resistance in the therapy of NS. Analysis of MDR1 may help to detect of suspected therapy resistance in NS.

  8. Detection of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.I. Aminu, A.D. Tukur. Abstract. The Emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains especially multidrug resistant-TB (MDR-TB) and indeed extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB) is considered a real threat to achieving TB control. Thus, the WHO identified the need for accelerated access to rapid testing ...

  9. Molecular Analysis of Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recent emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has become an area of great concern. This occurs as a result of inadequate treatment management of tuberculosis which provides a selective pressure that favours the emergence of resistant mutants with enhanced infectiousness.

  10. Impact of BCRP/MXR, MRP1 and MDR1/P-Glycoprotein on thermoresistant variants of atypical and classical multidrug resistant cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Ulrike; Lage, Hermann; Jordan, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The impact of the ABC transporters breast cancer resistance protein/mitoxantrone resistance associated transporter (BCRP/MXR), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and multidrug resistance gene-1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/PGP) on the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype in chemoresistance...... was increased relative to thermosensitive sublines. Although it could be shown that the overexpressed ABC transporters were functionally active, however, no decreased drug accumulations of doxorubicin, mitoxantrone and rhodamine 123 were observed. Thus, expression of BCRP/MXR, MRP1 and MDR1/PGP was found...... to be dependent on the appropriate type of chemoresistance; correlating with a classical or atypical MDR phenotype. Within the thermoresistant variants, however, the increase in ABC transporter expression did obviously not influence the MDR phenotype....

  11. The screening of multi-drug resistance (MDR) susceptibilities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The screening of multi-drug resistance (MDR) susceptibilities of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis to methicillin and vancomycin in teaching hospitals in Nigeria. ... The antibiotics susceptibility patterns were determined both by overnight broth-micro-dilution and agar disk diffusion methods. Results: ...

  12. Expression of mdr1 and mdr3 multidrug-resistance genes in human acute and chronic leukemias and association with stimulation of drug accumulation by cyclosporine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herweijer, H.; Sonneveld, P.; Baas, F.; Nooter, K.

    1990-01-01

    We determined the expression levels of the mdr1 and mdr3 multidrug-resistance genes (also known as PGY1 and PGY3, respectively) in peripheral blood cells from 69 adult patients with acute and chronic leukemias, using an RNase protection assay. Expression of mdr1 was found in samples from patients

  13. Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR- TB) Compared with Non-MDR-TB Infections in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, Omar Salad; Hasan, Habsah; Abdullah, Sarimah; Mat Jeab, Mat Zuki; Ba, Zilfalil; Naing, Nyi Nyi

    2016-07-01

    Treating patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strains is more complicated, complex, toxic, expensive, than treating patients with susceptible TB strains. This study aims to compare the treatment outcomes and potential factors associated between patients with MDR-TB and non MDR TB infections in peninsular Malaysia. This study was a retrospective cohort study. Data were collected from the medical records of all registered MDR-TB patients and Non-MDR-TB patients at five TB hospitals in peninsular Malaysia from January 2010 to January 2014. A total of 314 subjects were studied, including 105 MDR-TB cases and 209 non-MDR-TB. After TB treatment, 24.8% of the MDR-TB patients and 17.7% of non MDR TB relapsed; 17.1% of the MDR-TB patients and 16.3% of non MDR TB defaulted from TB treatment. A significant difference seen in treatment success rate 17.1% for MDR-TB; 63.1% for non MDR TB (P history of TB treatment, and presence of HIV infection.

  14. Analysis of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica by high-throughput DNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Multi drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica is found in food animals and may consequently pose a risk to humans through food borne transmission. To understand the mechanisms that drive this problem, the genetic elements associated with MDR need to be determined. These MDR elements in ...

  15. Molecular detection of multi drug resistant tuberculosis (mdr-tb) in mdr-tb patients' attendant in north western pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, T.; Hayat, A.; Shah, Z.; Hayat, A.; Khan, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the drugs susceptibility pattern of mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.TB) in multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients' attendants in North Western, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Peshawar Tuberculosis Research Laboratory (PTRL), Provincial TB Control Program Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar, (KP) from August 2013 to March 2014. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study in which four hundred and eighty sputum samples from MDR-TB patients' attendants were processed for the detection of M.TB through Ziehl-Neelsen staining, Lowenstein-Jensen, BACTEC MGIT-960 culture and line probe assay. Results: Out of 480 samples, 06 (2.1%) were found positive for M.TB through Ziehl-Neelsen staining while 10 (2.8%) were positive through LJ and BACTEC MGIT-960 culture. The 10 positive samples were further subjected to drugs susceptibility testing and line probes assay test to find out rifampicin, isoniazid, streptomycin and ethambutol resistant and it was found that 6 M.TB isolates were resistant while 4 were sensitive to rifampicin and isoniazid. Among the 6 resistant M.TB strains, 4 showed mutation in rpoB gene at 531, 516 and 526 codons. Conclusion: Majority of MDR-TB patients' attendants had drug-resistant tuberculosis and the rate of drug susceptible TB was low. (author)

  16. Isolation, Characterization and Anti-Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    various traditional medicinal systems for the treatment of rheumatism, painful arthritis, nociceptor, bacterial ..... respiratory tract infection, were found to be MDR pathogenic bacteria against several different kinds of antibiotics (Table ... application in treating MDR bacteria. Many species in Colletotrichum are plant pathogens ...

  17. Targeting multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) by therapeutic vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prabowo, Satria A.; Groeschel, Matthias I.; Schmidt, Ed D. L.; Skrahina, Alena; Mihaescu, Traian; Hasturk, Serap; Mitrofanov, Rotislav; Pimkina, Edita; Visontai, Ildik; de Jong, Bouke; Stanford, John L.; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; van der Werf, Tjipke

    Tuberculosis (TB) has scourged humankind for millennia, and latent infection affects nearly one-third of today's world population. The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB is a major global threat and reflects treatment failure of drug-sensitive disease. MDR-TB management is a burden for

  18. Modulation of human multidrug-resistance MDR-1 gene by natural curcuminoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limtrakul, Pornngarm; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Buddhasukh, Duang

    2004-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a phenomenon that is often associated with decreased intracellular drug accumulation in patient's tumor cells resulting from enhanced drug efflux. It is related to the overexpression of a membrane protein, P-glycoprotein (Pgp-170), thereby reducing drug cytotoxicity. A variety of studies have tried to find MDR modulators which increase drug accumulation in cancer cells. In this study, natural curcuminoids, pure curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn), were compared for their potential ability to modulate the human MDR-1 gene expression in multidrug resistant human cervical carcinoma cell line, KB-V1 by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR. Western blot analysis and RT-PCR showed that all the three curcuminoids inhibited MDR-1 gene expression, and bisdemethoxycurcumin produced maximum effect. In additional studies we found that commercial grade curcuminoid (approximately 77% curcumin, 17% demethoxycurcumin and 3% bisdemthoxycurcumin) decreased MDR-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and had about the same potent inhibitory effect on MDR-1 gene expression as our natural curcuminoid mixtures. These results indicate that bisdemethoxycurcumin is the most active of the curcuminoids present in turmeric for modulation of MDR-1 gene. Treatment of drug resistant KB-V1 cells with curcumin increased their sensitivity to vinblastine, which was consistent with a decreased MDR-1 gene product, a P-glycoprotein, on the cell plasma membrane. Although many drugs that prevent the P-glycoprotein function have been reported, this report describes the inhibition of MDR-1 expression by a phytochemical. The modulation of MDR-1 expression may be an attractive target for new chemosensitizing agents

  19. Troglitazone reverses the multiple drug resistance phenotype in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald F Davies

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Gerald F Davies1, Bernhard HJ Juurlink2, Troy AA Harkness11Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; 2College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: A major problem in treating cancer is the development of drug resistance. We previously demonstrated doxorubicin (DOX resistance in K562 human leukemia cells that was associated with upregulation of glyoxalase 1 (GLO-1 and histone H3 expression. The thiazolidinedione troglitazone (TRG downregulated GLO-1 expression and further upregulated histone H3 expression and post-translational modifications in these cells, leading to a regained sensitivity to DOX. Given the pleiotropic effects of epigenetic changes in cancer development, we hypothesized that TRG may downregulate the multiple drug resistance (MDR phenotype in a variety of cancer cells. To test this, MCF7 human breast cancer cells and K562 cells were cultured in the presence of low-dose DOX to establish DOX-resistant cell lines (K562/DOX and MCF7/DOX. The MDR phenotype was confirmed by Western blot analysis of the 170 kDa P-glycoprotein (Pgp drug efflux pump multiple drug resistance protein 1 (MDR-1, and the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. TRG markedly decreased expression of both MDR-1 and BCRP in these cells, resulting in sensitivity to DOX. Silencing of MDR-1 expression also sensitized MCF7/DOX cells to DOX. Use of the specific and irreversible peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ inhibitor GW9662 in the nanomolar range not only demonstrated that the action of TRG on MCF/DOX was PPARγ-independent, but indicated that PPARγ may play a role in the MDR phenotype, which is antagonized by TRG. We conclude that TRG is potentially a useful adjunct therapy in chemoresistant cancers. Keywords: chemotherapy, doxorubicin, breast cancer resistance protein-1, multiple drug resistance, multiple drug resistance protein 1

  20. Significance of MDR1 and multiple drug resistance in refractory human epileptic brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Gabriele

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The multiple drug resistance protein (MDR1/P-glycoprotein is overexpressed in glia and blood-brain barrier (BBB endothelium in drug refractory human epileptic tissue. Since various antiepileptic drugs (AEDs can act as substrates for MDR1, the enhanced expression/function of this protein may increase their active extrusion from the brain, resulting in decreased responsiveness to AEDs. Methods Human drug resistant epileptic brain tissues were collected after surgical resection. Astrocyte cell cultures were established from these tissues, and commercially available normal human astrocytes were used as controls. Uptake of fluorescent doxorubicin and radioactive-labeled Phenytoin was measured in the two cell populations, and the effect of MDR1 blockers was evaluated. Frozen human epileptic brain tissue slices were double immunostained to locate MDR1 in neurons and glia. Other slices were exposed to toxic concentrations of Phenytoin to study cell viability in the presence or absence of a specific MDR1 blocker. Results MDR1 was overexpressed in blood vessels, astrocytes and neurons in human epileptic drug-resistant brain. In addition, MDR1-mediated cellular drug extrusion was increased in human 'epileptic' astrocytes compared to 'normal' ones. Concomitantly, cell viability in the presence of cytotoxic compounds was increased. Conclusions Overexpression of MDR1 in different cell types in drug-resistant epileptic human brain leads to functional alterations, not all of which are linked to drug pharmacokinetics. In particular, the modulation of glioneuronal MDR1 function in epileptic brain in the presence of toxic concentrations of xenobiotics may constitute a novel cytoprotective mechanism.

  1. Effects of alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist doxazosin on MDR1-mediated multidrug resistance and transcellular transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Kohji; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Kakumoto, Mikio; Tanigawara, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Hironao; Okumura, Katsuhiko; Ohnishi, Noriaki; Yokoyama, Teruyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of doxazosin, an alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist, on P-glycoprotein/MDR1-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) and the transport of anticancer drugs. The effects of doxazosin, prazosin, and terazosin on MDR1-mediated MDR were assessed in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells and the MDR1-overexpressing derivative Hvrl00-6, established by stepwise increases of the vinblastine concentration in the culture medium. The effects of doxazosin on the transcellular transport and intracellular accumulation of [3H]vinblastine, [3H]daunorubicin, and [3H]digoxin, all MDR1 substrates, were evaluated using LLC-GA5-COL150 cell monolayers, established by transfection of human MDR1 cDNA into porcine kidney epithelial LLC-PK1 cells. The sensitivity to vinblastine and paclitaxel of Hvrl00-6 cells was increased at 3.4- and 17.5-fold, respectively, by the addition of 1 microM doxazosin, whereas prazosin and terazosin had weaker or no such effects. Prazosin at 1 microM had a reversal effect on the sensitivity to vinblastine, whereas terazosin had no effect. In transport experiments, doxazosin concentration dependently increased the apical-to-basal transport of radiolabeled drugs in LLC-GA5-COL150 cells, but did not show remarkable effects on the basal-to-apical transport. In addition, doxazosin restored the intracellular accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner in LLC-GA5-COL150 cells. Doxazosin may partly reverse MDR by inhibiting MDR1-mediated transport, making it a candidate lead compound in the development of a reversing agent for MDR.

  2. MDR-TB treatment as prevention: The projected population-level impact of expanded treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendall, Emily A.; Azman, Andrew S.; Cobelens, Frank G.; Dowdy, David W.

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, approximately 480,000 people developed active multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), while only 97,000 started MDR-TB treatment. We sought to estimate the impact of improving access to MDR-TB diagnosis and treatment, under multiple diagnostic algorithm and treatment regimen scenarios,

  3. Management and control of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB): Addressing policy needs for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atre, Sachin R; Murray, Megan B

    2016-05-06

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) challenges TB control efforts because of delays in diagnosis plus its long-term treatment which has toxic effects. Of TB high-incidence countries, India carries the highest burden of MDR-TB cases. We describe policy issues in India concerning MDR-TB diagnosis and management in a careful review of the literature including a systematic review of studies on the prevalence of MDR-TB. Of 995 articles published during 2001-2016 and retrieved from the PubMed, only 20 provided data on the population prevalence of MDR-TB. We further reviewed and describe diagnostic criteria and treatment algorithms in use and endorsed by the Revised National TB Control Program of India. We discuss problems encountered in treating MDR-TB patients with standardized regimens. Finally, we provide realistic suggestions for policymakers and program planners to improve the management and control of MDR-TB in India.Journal of Public Health Policy advance online publication, 6 May 2016; doi:10.1057/jphp.2016.14.

  4. Development of PET and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals to study multi-drug resistance (MDR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsififs, A.; Dikic, B.; Greguric, I.; Knott, R.; Mattner, F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Cellular resistance or Multidrug Resistance (MDR) to cytotoxic agents is the major cause of treatment failure in many human cancers. P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a Mr 17,0000 transmembrane protein and Multi Resistance Protein (MRP) are two proteins that are over expressed and confer resistance to a large number of chemotherapeutic agents by enhancing their extracellular transport. P-glycoprotein is expressed at a relative high level in treated and untreated human malignant tumours, including renal, colonic, adrenal, hepatocellular carcinoma and a considerable percentage of breast carcinomas. 99m Tc-Sestamibi, a lipophilic cationic complex is a transport substrate for Pgp. In clinical studies of human neoplasms it was found that tumour uptake and clearance of this tracer correlate with Pgp expression and may be used for the phenotypic assessment of MDR. However, new tracers with better substrate specificity for Pgp and other drug transporters would greatly assist in optimising chemotherapeutic treatment and improving patient management by predicting tumour response to therapy and to assist in the development of antagonists, which may reverse or halt MDR. The aim of this project is therefore to develop PET and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals with improved affinity and selectivity for Pgp and MRP for the clinical evaluation of MDR in cancer patients. To optimise cellular transport characteristics, a number of chemical families that have been found to be substrates of Pgp and other drug efflux pumps, will be investigated. In the first instance, a series of drugs based on the flavonol natural product, Quercetin will be developed, screened for MDR and radiolabelled with PET and SPECT isotopes. Quercetin and related flavonol derivatives have been selected for this project because of their moderate to good affinity for Pgp. With the assistance of molecular modeling and in vitro studies, structural modification will be undertaken to improve the specificity and affinity for

  5. Molecular detection of fluoroquinolone-resistance in multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Cambodia suggests low association with XDR phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Alan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug susceptibility testing (DST remains an important concern for implementing treatment of MDR tuberculosis patients. Implementation of molecular tests for drug resistance identification would facilitate DST particularly in developing countries where culturing is difficult to perform. We have characterized multidrug resistant strains in Cambodia using MDTDRsl tests, drug target sequencing and phenotypic tests. Methods A total of 65 non-MDR and 101 MDR TB isolates collected between May 2007 and June 2009 were tested for resistance to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides/cyclic peptides using the GenoType® MTBDRsl assay and gene sequencing. Rifampicin resistance (RMP-R was tested using gene sequencing and genotyping was assessed by spoligotyping. Results A total of 95 of the 101 MDR strains were confirmed to be RMP-R by rpoB gene sequencing. Fourteen of the 101 MDR isolates (14% carried a gyrA mutation associated with fluoroquinolone-resistance (FQ-R (detected by the MTBDRsl assay and sequencing compared with only 1 (1.5% of the 65 non-MDR strains. Only 1 (1% of the MDR isolates was found to be XDR TB. The MDR group contained a higher proportion of Beijing or Beijing like strains (58% than the non MDR group (28%. This percentage is higher in MDR FQ-R strains (71%. Conclusions The new GenoType® MTBDRsl assay combined with molecular tests to detect RMP-R and isoniazid resistance (INH-R represents a valuable tool for the detection of XDR TB. In Cambodia there is a low rate of XDR amongst MDR TB including MDR FQ-R TB. This suggests a low association between FQ-R and XDR TB. Strain spoligotyping confirms Beijing strains to be more prone to accumulate antibiotic resistance.

  6. Overlapping phenotypes of multidrug resistance among panels of human cancer-cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, M A; Shoemaker, R H; Flens, M J; Scheffer, G L; Wu, L; Prather, T R; Scheper, R J

    1996-01-17

    In addition to P-glycoprotein (Pgp), 2 proteins related to multidrug resistance (MDR) have recently been described. The Multidrug-Resistance-associated protein (MRP) is one of the ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporters. The Lung-Resistance Protein (LRP) is the major component of human vaults, which are newly described cellular organelles and thought to mediate intracellular transport processes. Using immunocytochemical methods, we have examined the expression of MRP and LRP among panels of human cancer-cell lines not selected for drug resistance which have been previously characterized for expression of Pgp, and in vitro response to a variety of anti-cancer drugs. Expression of MRP and LRP was observed in 47/55 (87%) and 46/59 (78%) cell lines, respectively. Statistically significant correlations were observed between expression of each of these 3 proteins and in vitro sensitivity to at least one drug classically associated with MDR. LRP showed the greatest individual predictive value, which also applied to several non-classical MDR drugs. Co-expression of 2-3 MDR-related proteins was observed in 64% of the lines and was, in general, associated with high relative levels of drug resistance. Previously identified "classic" MDR lines as well as "pan-resistant" lines concurrently expressed all 3 MDR-related proteins. Some highly drug-resistant cell lines without detectable MDRI/Pgp were found to express relatively high levels of MRP and LRP. The high prevalence of MRP and LRP expression observed in this large set of cell lines, which have not been subjected to laboratory drug selection, suggests that MDR mechanisms associated with these proteins may be widespread in human malignancies. Moreover, the overlapping of these more recently recognized MDR phenotypes with Pgp-type MDR results in a complex phenotype, the understanding of which may be of importance in the development of new drugs and design of clinical treatment protocols, particularly those seeking to employ

  7. Multiple drug resistance protein (MDR-1, multidrug resistance-related protein (MRP and lung resistance protein (LRP gene expression in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Terci Valera

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Despite the advances in the cure rate for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, approximately 25% of affected children suffer relapses. Expression of genes for the multiple drug resistance protein (MDR-1, multidrug resistance-related protein (MRP, and lung resistance protein (LRP may confer the phenotype of resistance to the treatment of neoplasias. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the expression of the MDR-1, MRP and LRP genes in children with a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia via the semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and to determine the correlation between expression and event-free survival and clinical and laboratory variables. DESIGN: A retrospective clinical study. SETTING: Laboratory of Pediatric Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Bone marrow aspirates from 30 children with a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia were assessed for the expression of messenger RNA for the MDR-1, MRP and LRP genes by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: In the three groups studied, only the increased expression of LRP was related to worsened event-free survival (p = 0.005. The presence of the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA was correlated with increased LRP expression (p = 0.009 and increased risk of relapse or death (p = 0.05. The relative risk of relapse or death was six times higher among children with high LRP expression upon diagnosis (p = 0.05, as confirmed by multivariate analysis of the three genes studied (p = 0.035. DISCUSSION: Cell resistance to drugs is a determinant of the response to chemotherapy and its detection via RT-PCR may be of clinical importance. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of the expression of genes for resistance to antineoplastic drugs in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia upon diagnosis, and particularly the expression of the LRP gene, may be of clinical relevance, and should be the

  8. (MRSA) and E. coli Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant and Escherichia coli, multidrug-resistant included in the list of antibiotic-resistant priority pathogens from WHO. As multidrug-resistant bacteria problem is increasing, it is necessary to probe new sources for identifying antimicrobial compounds. Medicinal plants ...

  9. [Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in a black African carceral area: Experience of Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloba, Y; Ouattara, K; Soumaré, D; Kanouté, T; Berthé, G; Baya, B; Konaté, B; Keita, M; Diarra, B; Cissé, A; Camara, F S; Diallo, S

    2018-02-01

    Prison constitutes a risk factor for the emergence of multi-drug resistance of tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The aim of this work was to study MDR-TB in a black African carceral center. Prospective study from January to December 2016 at the central house of arrest for men, Bamako. The study population was composed of tuberculous detainee. The suspicion of MDR-TB was done in any tuberculosis case remained positive in the second month of first-line treatment or in contact with an MDR-TB case. Among 1622 detainee, 21 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were notified (1.29%), with an annual incidence of 13 cases/1000 detainee, they were 16 cases of SP-PTB (microscopy smear positive tuberculosis) and five cases of microscopy smear negative tuberculosis. The mean age was 28±7 years, extremes of 18 and 46 years. A negative association was found between the notion of smoking and occupation in the occurrence of tuberculosis (OR=0.036, [95% CI: 0.03-0.04], P=0.03. Among the 21 tuberculosis cases notified, one confirmed case of MDR-TB was detected (4.7%). In the first semester of 2016 cohort, we notified a cure rate of 87.5% (7/8 SP-PTB cases), and the confirmed MDR-TB case on treatment (21-month regimen), evolution enameled of pulmonary and hearing sequelae at seven months treatment. It was the first case of MDR-TB detected in a prison in Mali. Late diagnosis, evolution is enameled of sequelae and side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of expression and modulation of multidrug-resistance (MDR) and establishment of a new bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, W.

    1993-08-01

    The present thesis deals with the resistance of human malignant cells against cellular toxicity of anticancer drugs, a phenomenon representing one of the major obstacles to successful chemotherapy. One mechanism underlying a cross-resistance to different drugs called multidrug resistance (MDR) is characterized by the expression of an active transport protein (P-glycoprotein), causing decreased intracellular drug retention and cytotoxicity. The main subjects of the present work were to establish different detection methods for MDR and its modulation (by substances blocking activity of P-glycoprotein) including immunological methods (immunocytochemistry, radioimmunoassay), molecular biology (slot-blot analysis, in-situ hybridization) and functional assays (drug-accumulation analysis, drug-cytotoxicity analysis). The methods were evaluated and compared using human and mouse MDR control cell lines and human tumor cell lines established in our laboratory. In cell lines derived from human melanoma - a malignancy insensitive to chemotherapy - expression of P-glycoprotein of relatively low transporting activity was detected by different methods in 8 of 33 cases. Furthermore a new sensitive in vitro assay for the functional detection of MDR was established using the biological features of cytochalasins, a microfilament disrupting substance group. These compounds were shown to be substrates for the P-glycoprotein efflux pump and their effects on cell division (blockade of cytokinesis resulting in multinucleate cells) correlated with MDR-activity of the tested cells. With this new assay P-glycoprotein activity can be demonstrated and analysed over a wide range of resistance against different cytotoxic drugs. Therefore it may by a suitable tool for research and diagnosis in the field of drug resistance

  11. Experimental evolution of resistance to artemisinin combination therapy results in amplification of the mdr1 gene in a rodent malaria parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise A Rodrigues

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Lacking suitable alternatives, the control of malaria increasingly depends upon Artemisinin Combination Treatments (ACT: resistance to these drugs would therefore be disastrous. For ACTs, the biology of resistance to the individual components has been investigated, but experimentally induced resistance to component drugs in combination has not been generated.We have used the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi to select in vivo resistance to the artesunate (ATN+mefloquine (MF version of ACT, through prolonged exposure of parasites to both drugs over many generations. The selection procedure was carried out over twenty-seven consecutive sub-inoculations under increasing ATN+MF doses, after which a genetically stable resistant parasite, AS-ATNMF1, was cloned. AS-ATNMF1 showed increased resistance to ATN+MF treatment and to artesunate or mefloquine administered separately. Investigation of candidate genes revealed an mdr1 duplication in the resistant parasites and increased levels of mdr1 transcripts and protein. There were no point mutations in the atpase6 or ubp1genes.Resistance to ACTs may evolve even when the two drugs within the combination are taken simultaneously and amplification of the mdr1 gene may contribute to this phenotype. However, we propose that other gene(s, as yet unidentified, are likely to be involved.

  12. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF DRACONTOMELON DAO EXTRACTS ON METHICILLIN-RESISTANT S. AUREUS (MRSA) AND E. COLI MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE (MDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniati, Yuniati; Hasanah, Nurul; Ismail, Sjarif; Anitasari, Silvia; Paramita, Swandari

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus , methicillin-resistant and Escherichia coli , multidrug-resistant included in the list of antibiotic-resistant priority pathogens from WHO. As multidrug-resistant bacteria problem is increasing, it is necessary to probe new sources for identifying antimicrobial compounds. Medicinal plants represent a rich source of antimicrobial agents. One of the potential plants for further examined as antibacterial is Dracontomelon dao (Blanco) Merr. & Rolfe. The present study designed to find the antibacterial activity of D. dao stem bark extracts on Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and E. coli Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR), followed by determined secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity and determined the value of MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration). D. dao stem bark extracted using 60% ethanol. Disc diffusion test methods used to find the antibacterial activity, following by microdilution methods to find the value of MIC and MBC. Secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity determined by bioautography using TLC (thin layer chromatography) methods. D. dao stem bark extracts are sensitive to MSSA, MRSA and E.coli MDR bacteria. The inhibition zone is 16.0 mm in MSSA, 11.7 mm in MRSA and 10.7 mm in E. coli MDR. The entire MBC/MIC ratios for MSSA, MRSA and E.coli MDR is lower than 4. The ratio showed bactericidal effects of D. dao stem bark extracts. In TLC results, colorless bands found to be secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. D. dao stem bark extracts are potential to develop as antibacterial agent especially against MRSA and E. coli MDR strain.

  13. Molecular Targets Related Drug Resistance Mechanisms in MDR-, XDR-, and TDR-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Adnan Hameed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a formidable infectious disease that remains a major cause of death worldwide today. Escalating application of genomic techniques has expedited the identification of increasing number of mutations associated with drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Unfortunately the prevalence of bacillary resistance becomes alarming in many parts of the world, with the daunting scenarios of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB, extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB and total drug-resistant tuberculosis (TDR-TB, due to number of resistance pathways, alongside some apparently obscure ones. Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular/ genetic basis of drug targets and drug resistance mechanisms have been steadily made. Intriguing findings through whole genome sequencing and other molecular approaches facilitate the further understanding of biology and pathology of M. tuberculosis for the development of new therapeutics to meet the immense challenge of global health.

  14. Efficacy of moxifloxacin & econazole against multidrug resistant (MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis in murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U D Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Studies have shown the bactericidal potential of econazole and clotrimazole against Mycobacterium tuberculosis under in vitro and ex vivo conditions along with their synergism with conventional antituberculosis drugs. These molecules were also found to be effective against different multidrug resistant (MDR M. tuberculosis isolates in vitro. Hence the present study was designed to evaluate the in vivo antimycobacterial potential of moxifloxacin and econazole alone and in combination against multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in a mice model. Methods: Mice were infected with 2.5×10 [7] bacilli of MDR strain of M. tuberculosis by aerosol route of infection. After four weeks of infection, chemotherapy was started orally by moxifloxacin 8.0 mg/kg body wt and econazole 3.3 mg/kg alone and in combination, as well as with four first line anti-tuberculosis drugs as a positive control. The animals were sacrificed and the lungs and spleen were excised under aspetic conditions. The tissues were homogenized with sterile normal saline, an aliquot of the homogenate was plated on Middlebrook 7H11 agar supplemented with oleate albumin dextrose catalase (OADC and incubated at 37°C for four weeks. The number of visible and individual colonies were counted. Results: The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs (RIF+INH+EMB+PZA after eight weeks of therapy had no impact as the bacillary load in lungs and spleens remained unchanged. However, econazole, moxifloxacin alone as well as in combination significantly reduced the bacillary load in lungs as well as in spleens of MDR-TB bacilli infected mice. Interpretation & conclusions: Co-administration of the two drugs (econazole and moxifloxacin to MDR-TB strain JAL-7782 infected mice exhibited additive effect, the efficacy of the drugs in combination being higher as compared with ECZ or MOX alone. These results were substantiated by histopathological studies. This study suggests the utility of

  15. Mechanisms of multidrug resistance in HL60 cells. Analysis of resistance associated membrane proteins and levels of mdr gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, T; Latoud, C; Arnold, S T; Safa, A R; Felsted, R L; Center, M S

    1989-10-15

    HL60 cells isolated for resistance to Adriamycin do not contain P-glycoprotein, as determined with immunological probes. These cells, however, are multidrug resistant and defective in the cellular accumulation of drug. In view of these findings, we have examined in greater detail certain properties of the HL60/Adr cells and have compared these properties to an HL60 drug-resistant isolate (HL60/Vinc) which contains high levels of P-glycoprotein. The results of these studies demonstrated that verapamil induces a major increase in cellular drug accumulation in both HL60/Adr and HL60/Vinc isolates. An 125I-labeled photoaffinity analog of verapamil labeled P-glycoprotein contained in membranes of HL60/Vinc cells. In contrast, this agent did not label any protein selectively associated with drug resistance in membranes of the HL60/Adr isolate. The photoactive dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker [3H]azidopine and [125I]NASV, a photoaffinity analog of vinblastine, labelled P-glycoprotein in membranes from HL60/Vinc cells, whereas in experiments with the HL60/Adr isolate there was no detectable labeling of a drug resistance associated membrane protein. Additional studies have been carried out to analyze membrane proteins of HL60/Adr cells labeled with the photoaffinity agent 8-azido-alpha-[32P]ATP (AzATP32). The results demonstrate that this agent labeled a resistance associated membrane protein of 190 kilodaltons (P190). P190 is essentially absent in membranes of drug-sensitive cells. Labeling of P190 with AzATP32 in membranes of resistant cells was blocked completely when incubations were carried out in the presence of excess unlabeled ATP. Additional studies were carried out to analyze mdr gene amplification and expression in sensitive and resistant cells. Experiments carried out with human 5',mdr1 (1.1 kb) and mdr3 (1.0 kb) cDNAs demonstrate that both of these sequences were highly amplified in the HL60/Vinc isolate. Only the mrd1 gene sequence however, was

  16. MDR1 siRNA loaded hyaluronic acid-based CD44 targeted nanoparticle systems circumvent paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqian; Lyer, Arun K.; Singh, Amit; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J.; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-02-01

    Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is an almost universal phenomenon in patients with ovarian cancer, and this severely limits the ultimate success of chemotherapy in the clinic. Overexpression of the MDR1 gene and corresponding P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is one of the best known MDR mechanisms. MDR1 siRNA based strategies were proposed to circumvent MDR, however, systemic, safe, and effective targeted delivery is still a major challenge. Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) targeted hyaluronic acid (HA) based nanoparticle has been shown to successfully deliver chemotherapy agents or siRNAs into tumor cells. The goal of this study is to evaluate the ability of HA-PEI/HA-PEG to deliver MDR1 siRNA and the efficacy of the combination of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA with paclitaxel to suppress growth of ovarian cancer. We observed that HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticles can efficiently deliver MDR1 siRNA into MDR ovarian cancer cells, resulting in down-regulation of MDR1 and Pgp expression. Administration of HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles followed by paclitaxel treatment induced a significant inhibitory effect on the tumor growth, decreased Pgp expression and increased apoptosis in MDR ovarian cancer mice model. Our findings suggest that CD44 targeted HA-PEI/HA-PEG/MDR1 siRNA nanoparticles can serve as a therapeutic tool with great potentials to circumvent MDR in ovarian cancer.

  17. Changes in the expression of miR-381 and miR-495 are inversely associated with the expression of the MDR1 gene and development of multi-drug resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR frequently develops in cancer patients exposed to chemotherapeutic agents and is usually brought about by over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp which acts as a drug efflux pump to reduce the intracellular concentration of the drug(s. Thus, inhibiting P-gp expression might assist in overcoming MDR in cancer chemotherapy. MiRNAome profiling using next-generation sequencing identified differentially expressed microRNAs (miRs between parental K562 cells and MDR K562 cells (K562/ADM induced by adriamycin treatment. Two miRs, miR-381 and miR-495, that were strongly down-regulated in K562/ADM cells, are validated to target the 3'-UTR of the MDR1 gene. These miRs are located within a miR cluster located at chromosome region 14q32.31, and all miRs in this cluster appear to be down-regulated in K562/ADM cells. Functional analysis indicated that restoring expression of miR-381 or miR-495 in K562/ADM cells was correlated with reduced expression of the MDR1 gene and its protein product, P-gp, and increased drug uptake by the cells. Thus, we have demonstrated that changing the levels of certain miR species modulates the MDR phenotype in leukemia cells, and propose further exploration of the use of miR-based therapies to overcome MDR.

  18. The glutathione S-transferase inhibitor 6-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-ylthio)hexanol overcomes the MDR1-P-glycoprotein and MRP1-mediated multidrug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Alessandro; Cianfriglia, Maurizio; Dupuis, Maria Luisa; Mallano, Alessandra; Sau, Andrea; Pellizzari Tregno, Francesca; Pezzola, Silvia; Caccuri, Anna Maria

    2009-07-01

    There has been an ever growing interest in the search for new anti-tumor compounds that do not interact with MDR1-Pgp and MRP1 drug transporters and so circumvent the effect of these proteins conferring multidrug resistance (MDR) and poor prognosis in AML patients. We have investigated the cytotoxic activity of the strong glutathione S-transferase (GST) inhibitor 6-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-ylthio)hexanol (NBDHEX) on AML (HL60) cell lines. Functional drug efflux studies and cell proliferation assays were performed on both sensitive and MDR AML (HL60) cells after incubation with NBDHEX. Moreover, the mode of cell death (apoptosis vs. necrosis) as well as the correlation between NBDHEX susceptibility and GST activity or Bcl-2 expression was investigated. NBDHEX is not a substrate of either MDR1-Pgp or MRP1 efflux pumps; in fact, it is not only cytotoxic toward the parental HL60 cell line, but also overcomes the MDR phenotype of its HL60/DNR and HL60/ADR variants. The data herein reported show that NBDHEX mediates efficient killing of both MDR1-Pgp and MRP1 over-expressing AML cells. Therefore, this drug can potentially be used as an effective agent for treating MDR in AML patients.

  19. Current and developing therapies for the treatment of multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniyandi, Malaisamy; Ramachandran, Rajeswari

    2017-09-01

    India accounts for 25% of the global burden of MDR-TB. In 2016, the India's Revised National TB Control Programme reported a success rate of 46% among 19,298 MDR-TB patients treated under the programme. This suboptimal treatment outcome warrants an urgent need for newer drugs and newer regimens in the treatment of MDR-TB. India requires new shorter, cheap, safe and effective anti-TB regimen to treat MDR-TB. Areas covered: We used different search strategies to obtain relevant literature from PubMed, on Indian experiences of developing therapies for the treatment of MDR-TB. Further information from the Central TB Division Government of India on programmatic management of resistant TB was collected. Expert opinion: In 2016 WHO recommended a shorter MDR-TB regimen of 9-12 months (4-6 Km-Mfx-Pto-Cfz-Z-Hhigh-dose-E /5 Mfx-Cfz-Z-E) may be used instead of longer regimens. Currently, conducting trials involving newer drugs such as bedaquiline, have been proposed. The regimen will be of a shorter duration containing isoniazid, prothionamide, bedaquiline, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide (STREAM regimen). To successfully treat MDR-TB one requires new classes of antibiotic and newer diagnostic tests. This represents an enormous financial and technical challenge to the programme managers and policy makers.

  20. The UDP-glucose ceramide glycosyltransferase (UGCG) and the link to multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Marthe-Susanna; Gruber, Lisa; Mattjus, Peter; Geisslinger, Gerd; Grösch, Sabine

    2018-02-06

    The UDP-glucose ceramide glycosyltransferase (UGCG) is a key enzyme in the sphingolipid metabolism by generating glucosylceramide (GlcCer), the precursor for all glycosphingolipids (GSL), which are essential for proper cell function. Interestingly, the UGCG is also overexpressed in several cancer types and correlates with multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) gene expression. This membrane protein is responsible for efflux of toxic substances and protects cancer cells from cell damage through chemotherapeutic agents. Studies showed a connection between UGCG and MDR1 overexpression and multidrug resistance development, but the precise underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we give an overview about the UGCG and its connection to MDR1 in multidrug resistant cells. Furthermore, we focus on UGCG transcriptional regulation, the impact of UGCG on cellular signaling pathways and the effect of UGCG and MDR1 on the lipid composition of membranes and how this could influence multidrug resistance development. To our knowledge, this is the first review presenting an overview about UGCG with focus on the relationship to MDR1 in the process of multidrug resistance development.

  1. Functional evidence of multidrug resistance transporters (MDR in rodent olfactory epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Molinas

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein (Pgp and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1 are membrane transporter proteins which function as efflux pumps at cell membranes and are considered to exert a protective function against the entry of xenobiotics. While evidence for Pgp and MRP transporter activity is reported for olfactory tissue, their possible interaction and participation in the olfactory response has not been investigated.Functional activity of putative MDR transporters was assessed by means of the fluorometric calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM accumulation assay on acute rat and mouse olfactory tissue slices. Calcein-AM uptake was measured as fluorescence intensity changes in the presence of Pgp or MRP specific inhibitors. Epifluorescence microscopy measured time course analysis in the olfactory epithelium revealed significant inhibitor-dependent calcein uptake in the presence of each of the selected inhibitors. Furthermore, intracellular calcein accumulation in olfactory receptor neurons was also significantly increased in the presence of either one of the Pgp or MRP inhibitors. The presence of Pgp or MRP1 encoding genes in the olfactory mucosa of rat and mouse was confirmed by RT-PCR with appropriate pairs of species-specific primers. Both transporters were expressed in both newborn and adult olfactory mucosa of both species. To assess a possible involvement of MDR transporters in the olfactory response, we examined the electrophysiological response to odorants in the presence of the selected MDR inhibitors by recording electroolfactograms (EOG. In both animal species, MRPs inhibitors induced a marked reduction of the EOG magnitude, while Pgp inhibitors had only a minor or no measurable effect.The findings suggest that both Pgp and MRP transporters are functional in the olfactory mucosa and in olfactory receptor neurons. Pgp and MRPs may be cellular constituents of olfactory receptor neurons and represent potential mechanisms for modulation

  2. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. [Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1990-10-15

    The overall objective of this work was to promote nuclear medicine applications in oncology. This is being done by improving the scientific basis of diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up with cyclotron-produced tracers. For diagnostic use, positron-emitting isotopes such as Ga-66 and I-124 are being used. Initial studies on the characterization of He-4 particle energies required for Ga-66 production have been completed. Parameters for I-124 radiolabelling of monoclonal antibodies have been determined; the labelled antibodies have been used in animal studies using positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify antibody concentration within tumors in vivo. Imaging physics studies have demonstrated that I-124 can be quantitatively imaged by PET, even in the presence of 100-told greater concentrations of I-131. Measurement of concentrations of label in vivo has been accomplished in nuclei mice bearing neuroblastoma tumors and nude rats bearing human ovarian cancer cells. These studies have major implications for both the quantification of dosimetry and quantification kinetic assessment of anti-tumor antibody localization in vivo. For treatment of tumors, F-18 has been incorporated in 2-fluoro-2-deoxy glucose and 5-fluoro uridine, and O-15 labelled water has been produced. Reagents incorporating C-11 and N-13 are under development. In a related area, C-14 labelled colchicine is being studied as a means of assaying cells for multiple drug resistance (MDR). Cells expressing MDR are shown to retain significantly less C-14 colchiene. This suggest that colchiene retention may be of useful probe in modelling and studying MDR development in human tumors. The precursor required for producing C-11 colchicine has also been synthesized. 11 refs. (MHB)

  3. Different phenotypic and molecular mechanisms associated with multidrug resistance in Gram-negative clinical isolates from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy OM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Omneya M Helmy, Mona T Kashef Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Objectives: We set out to investigate the prevalence, different mechanisms, and clonal relatedness of multidrug resistance (MDR among third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates from Egypt.Materials and methods: A total of 118 third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates were included in this study. Their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined using Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method. Efflux pump-mediated resistance was tested by the efflux-pump inhibitor-based microplate assay using chlorpromazine. Detection of different aminoglycoside-, β-lactam-, and quinolone-resistance genes was done using polymerase chain reaction. The genetic diversity of MDR isolates was investigated using random amplification of polymorphic DNA.Results: Most of the tested isolates exhibited MDR phenotypes (84.75%. The occurrence of efflux pump-mediated resistance in the different MDR species tested was 40%–66%. Acinetobacter baumannii isolates showed resistance to most of the tested antibiotics, including imipenem. The blaOXA-23-like gene was detected in 69% of the MDR A. baumannii isolates. The MDR phenotype was detected in 65% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, of which only 23% exhibited efflux pump-mediated resistance. On the contrary, efflux-mediated resistance to piperacillin and gentamicin was recorded in 47.5% of piperacillin-resistant and 25% of gentamicin-resistant MDR Enterobacteriaceae. Moreover, the plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance genes (aac(6’-Ib-cr, qnrB, and qnrS were detected in 57.6% and 83.33% of quinolone-resistant MDR Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, respectively. The β-lactamase-resistance gene blaSHV-31 was detected for the first time in one MDR K. pneumoniae isolate from an endotracheal tube specimen in Egypt

  4. Intracellular targeted co-delivery of shMDR1 and gefitinib with chitosan nanoparticles for overcoming multidrug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiwei; Yang, Guang; Shi, Yijie; Su, Chang; Liu, Ming; Feng, Bo; Zhao, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, multidrug resistance and side effects of drugs limit the effectiveness of chemotherapies in clinics. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (MDR1), as a member of the ATP-binding cassette family, acts on transporting drugs into cell plasma across the membrane of cancer cells and leads to the occurrence of multidrug resistance, thus resulting in the failure of chemotherapy in cancer. The main aims of this research were to design a nanodelivery system for accomplishing the effective co-delivery of gene and antitumor drug and overcoming multidrug resistance effect. In this study, shMDR1 and gefitinib-encapsulating chitosan nanoparticles with sustained release, small particle size, and high encapsulation efficiency were prepared. The serum stability, protection from nuclease, and transfection efficiency of gene in vitro were investigated. The effects of co-delivery of shMDR1 and gefitinib in nanoparticles on reversing multidrug resistance were also evaluated by investigating the cytotoxicity, cellular uptake mechanism, and cell apoptosis on established gefitinib-resistant cells. The results demonstrated that chitosan nanoparticles entrapping gefitinib and shMDR1 had the potential to overcome the multidrug resistance and improve cancer treatment efficacy, especially toward resistant cells. PMID:26648717

  5. Antimicrobial potential of Halophilic actinomycetes against multi drug resistant (MDR) ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Sana; Sajid, Imran

    2016-03-01

    A collection of forty halophilic actinomycetes isolated from water and mud samples of the saline lake at Kalar Kahar, salt range, Pakistan, was screened to investigate their antimicrobial potential against multi drug resistant (MDR) ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacterial pathogens. The isolates exhibited significant tolerance to alkaline conditions and grew well at pH 9-11. The taxonomic status of the isolated strains was determined by morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and by 16s rRNA gene sequencing. The results revealed that majority of the isolates (90%) belong to the genus Streptomyces. Most of the isolates exhibited remarkable antimicrobial activity up to 20mm zone of inhibition against MDR ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter spp. Additionally the isolates showed moderate to high cytotoxicity in the range of 40 to 80% larval mortality against Artemia salina in a micro well cytotoxicity assay. The chemical screening or the so called metabolic fingerprinting of the methanolic extracts of each isolate, by thin layer chromatography (TLC) using various staining reagents and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV), indicated an impressive diversity of the compounds produced by these strains. The study reveals that these halophilic actinomycetes are a promising source of bioactive compounds. The preparative scale fermentation, isolation, purification and structure elucidation of the compounds produced by them may yield novel antimicrobial or chemotherapeutic agents.

  6. Ferulic acid reverses ABCB1-mediated paclitaxel resistance in MDR cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Ganesan; Balupillai, Agilan; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Shanmugam, Mohana; Gunaseelan, Srithar; Mary, Beaulah; Prasad, N Rajendra

    2016-09-05

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major obstacle in cancer chemotherapy. The use of the dietary phytochemicals as chemosensitizing agents to enhance the efficacy of conventional cytostatic drugs has recently gained the attention as a plausible approach for overcoming the drug resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a naturally occurring diet-based phenolic acid, ferulic acid, could sensitize paclitaxel efficacy in ABCB1 overexpressing (P-glycoprotein) colchicine selected KB Ch(R)8-5 cell line. In vitro drug efflux assays demonstrated that ferulic acid inhibits P-glycoprotein transport function in drug resistant KB Ch(R)8-5 cell lines. However, ferulic acid significantly downregulates ABCB1 expression in a concentration dependent manner. Cytotoxicity assay reveals that ferulic acid decreased paclitaxel resistance in KBCh(R)8-5 and HEK293/ABCB1 cells, which indicates its chemosensitizing potential. Clonogenic cell survival assay and apoptotic morphological staining further confirm the chemosensitizing potential of ferulic acid in drug resistant KB Ch(R)8-5 cell lines. Ferulic acid treatment enhances paclitaxel mediated cell cycle arrest and upregulates paclitaxel-induced apoptotic signaling in KB resistant cells. Hence, it has been concluded that downregulation of ABCB1 and subsequent induction of paclitaxel-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptotic signaling may be the cause for the chemosensitizing potential of ferulic acid in P-gp overexpressing cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. HIF-1α inhibition reverses multidrug resistance in colon cancer cells via downregulation of MDR1/P-glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfang Chen

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR is one of the major reasons chemotherapy-based treatments fail. Hypoxia is generally associated with tumor chemoresistance. However, the correlation between the heterodimeric hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 and the multidrug resistance (MDR1 gene/transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp remains unclear. This study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms of reversing colon cancer MDR by focusing on the target gene HIF-1α.A chemotherapeutic sensitivity assay was used to observe the efficiency of MDR reversal in LoVo multicellular spheroids (MCS. The apoptotic level induced by different drugs was examined by flow cytometry (FCM. Binding of HIF-1α to the MDR1 gene promoter was evaluated by Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP. The relationship between HIF-1α/P-gp expression and sensitivity to chemotherapy was analyzed.The sensitivity of LoVo MCS to all four chemotherapy drugs was decreased to varying degrees under hypoxic conditions. After silencing the HIF-1α gene, the sensitivities of LoVo MCS to all four chemotherapy drugs were restored. The apoptotic levels that all the drugs induced were all decreased to various extents in the hypoxic group. After silencing HIF-1α, the apoptosis level induced by all four chemotherapy drugs increased. The expression of HIF-1α and P-gp was significantly enhanced in LoVo MCS after treatment with hypoxia. Inhibiting HIF-1α significantly decreased the expression of MDR1/P-gp mRNA or protein in both the LoVo monolayers and LoVo MCS. The ChIP assay showed that HIF-1α was bound to the MDR1 gene promoter. Advanced colon carcinoma patients with expression of both HIF-1α and P-gp were more resistant to chemotherapy than that with non expression.HIF-1α inhibition reverses multidrug resistance in colon cancer cells via downregulation of MDR1/P-gp. The expression of HIF-1α and MDR1/P-gp can be used as a predictive marker for chemotherapy resistance in colon cancer.

  8. In vitro and in vivo reversal of multidrug resistance in a human leukemia-resistant cell line by mdr1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, C; Calabretta, B

    1996-10-01

    A major obstacle to successful cancer chemotherapy is the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) by tumor cells. Overexpression of the mdrl gene product P-glycoprotein (P-170) is characteristic of such cells. In this study, in vitro and in vivo reversion of MDR was attempted in a human leukemia cell line resistant to vincristine (HL-60/Vinc) using an 18-mer mdr1 antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide ([S]ODN) in combination with vincristine. As control of sequence specificity, both sense and scrambled [S]ODNs were used. The ability of these [S]ODNs to reverse MDR was studied in vitro and in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. In vitro treatment with antisense [S]ODNs restored vincristine sensitivity of HL-60/Vinc cells, whereas no changes in drug sensitivity were observed upon treatment with the sense or scrambled sequence. The in vitro effects correlated with inhibition of P-170 expression in HL-60/Vinc cells exposed to the mdr1 antisense [S]ODNs. In vivo reversal of MDR was obtained in SCID mice given injections of HL-60/Vinc cells and systemically treated with [S]ODNs plus vincristine, as indicated by a significantly prolonged survival of SCID mice that received the combination therapy of mdr1 antisense [S]ODNs + vincristine. Treatments with mdr1 antisense or scrambled [S]ODNs, vincristine, or scrambled [S]ODNs + vincristine had no effect on survival. These results suggest that the use of mdr1 antisense ODNs in combination with standard antineoplastic drugs might be useful in reversing MDR in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Pharmacological modification of multi-drug resistance (MDR) in vitro detected by a novel fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay. Reversal of resistance and selective cytotoxic actions of cyclosporin A and verapamil on MDR leukemia T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, R; Nygren, P

    1990-07-15

    A novel fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA), based on measurements of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis and DNA staining by Hoechst 33342, was used for drug sensitivity testing and detection of resistance reversal in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines. The 72-hr assay was found to be sensitive, reproducible and linearly related to the number of viable cells within a broad range of cell concentrations. At clinically achievable drug concentrations, the calcium channel blocker Verapamil (ver) and the immunosuppressant Cyclosporin A (csA) were found to partly reverse acquired Vincristine (vcr) resistance in multi-drug resistant (MDR) T-ALL L100 cells with little or no effect on the drug-sensitive parental L0 cell line. By combining the fluorometric indices, we found that low concentrations of csA were growth-inhibitory, whereas higher concentrations (greater than 10 micrograms/ml) were progressively cytotoxic for drug-sensitive L0 cells. In MDR L100 cells, on the other hand, csA produced significant cell kill even at low drug concentrations. Ver had no effects on sensitive L0 cells but showed considerable cytotoxic action towards MDR L100 cells. There was no apparent relationship between drug reversal of vcr resistance and the cytotoxic actions of the drug per se since the calcium channel blocker diltiazem (dil) significantly potentiated the actions of vcr on MDR L100 cells without being more toxic to these cells (compared to vcr-sensitive L0 cells).

  10. MDR Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates are resistant to antibiotics that influence their swimming and swarming motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motile bacteria utilize one or more strategies for movement, such as darting, gliding, sliding, swarming, swimming, and twitching. The ability to move is considered a virulence factor in many pathogenic bacteria, including Salmonella. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella encodes acquired factors t...

  11. Increases in doxorubicin sensitivity and radioiodide uptake by transfecting shMDR and sodium/iodide symporter gene in cancer cells expressing multidrug resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sohn Joo; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, You La; Choi, Chang Ik; Lee, Sang Woo; Yoo, Jeong Soo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, In Kyu; Lee, Jae Tae

    2007-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of the cancer cells related to mdr1 gene expression can be effectively treated by selective short hairpin RNA for mdr1 gene (shMDR). Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene is well known to have both reporter and therapeutic gene characteristics. We have co-transfected both shMDR and NIS gene into colon cancer cells (HCT15 cell) expressing MDR and Tc-99m sestamibi and I-125 uptake were measured. In addition, cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin and I-131 therapy were also assessed after transfection. At first, shMDR was transfected with liposome reagent into human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and HCT cells. shMDR transfection was confirmed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Adenovirus expressing NIS (Ad-NIS) gene and shMDR (Ad-shMDR) were co-transfected with Ad-NIS into HCT15 cells. Forty-eight hours after infection, inhibition of P-gycoprotein (Pgp) function by shMDR was analyzed by a change of Tc-99m sestamibi uptake and doxorubicin cytotoxicity, and functional activity of induced NIS gene expression was assessed with I-125 uptake assay. In HEK293 cells transfected with shMDR, mdr1 mRNA and Pgp protein expressions were down regulated. HCT15 cells infected with 20 MOI of Ad-NIS was higher NIS protein expression than control cells. After transfection of 300 MOI of Ad-shMDR either with or without 10 MOI of Ad-NIS, uptake of Tc-99m sestamibi increased up to 1.5-fold than control cells. HCT15 cells infected with 10 MOI of Ad-NIS showed approximately 25-fold higher I-125 uptake than control cells. Cotransfection of Ad-shMDR and Ad-NIS resulted in enhanced cytotoxic by doxorubicin in HCT15 cells. I-131 treatment on HCT15 cells infected with 20 MOI of Ad-NIS revealed increased cytotoxic effect. Suppression of mdr1 gene expression, retention of Tc-99m sestamibi, enhanced doxorubicin cytotoxicity and increases in I-125 uptake were achieved in MDR expressing cancer cell by co-transfection of shMDR and NIS gene. Dual therapy with doxorubicin and

  12. Isolation, Identification And Screening Antibacterial Activity from Marine Sponge-Associated Fungi Against Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandala Sibero, Mada; Sabdaningsih, Aninditia; Cristianawati, Olvi; Nuryadi, Handung; Karna Radjasa, Ocky; Sabdono, Agus; Trianto, Agus

    2017-02-01

    Irrational used of antibiotic in several decades ago causing resistant in bacteria and decreasing the cure rate of infectious diseases. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli is known to cause various of infectious diseases such as urinary tract infection, nosocomial bloodstream infection, meningitis, bacteraemia, and gastrointestinal disease. Marine sponge-associated fungi have potential as source of new compound to combat MDR E. coli. The aims of this research were to isolate marine sponge-assosiated fungi, to screen potential fungi against MDR E. coli, to identify the potential fungi and its host sponge. There were 29 marine sponge-associated fungi successfully isolated from 9 sponges. Among 29 sponge-associated fungi screened, there were 7 isolates showed antibacterial activity against MDR E. coli. The best inhibition zone produced by MPS 14.1/MT 02 and MPS 14.3/MT 04 from sponge PP.SP.16.14. According to fungi identification result fungus MPS 14.1/MT 02 was identified as Trichoderma asperellum while MPS 14.3/MT 04 was identified as Trichoderma reesei. Sponge identification leaded the PP.SP.16.14 as Cinachyrella sp.

  13. Inhibition of ABCB1 (MDR1 expression by an siRNA nanoparticulate delivery system to overcome drug resistance in osteosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiro Susa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in treating osteosarcoma has improved patients' average 5 year survival rate from 20% to 70% in the past 30 years. However, for patients who progress after chemotherapy, its effectiveness diminishes due to the emergence of multi-drug resistance (MDR after prolonged therapy.In order to overcome both the dose-limiting side effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents and the therapeutic failure resulting from MDR, we designed and evaluated a novel drug delivery system for MDR1 siRNA delivery. Novel biocompatible, lipid-modified dextran-based polymeric nanoparticles were used as the platform for MDR1 siRNA delivery; and the efficacy of combination therapy with this system was evaluated. In this study, multi-drug resistant osteosarcoma cell lines (KHOS(R2 and U-2OS(R2 were treated with the MDR1 siRNA nanocarriers and MDR1 protein (P-gp expression, drug retention, and immunofluoresence were analyzed. Combination therapy of the MDR1 siRNA loaded nanocarriers with increasing concentrations of doxorubicin was also analyzed. We observed that MDR1 siRNA loaded dextran nanoparticles efficiently suppresses P-gp expression in the drug resistant osteosarcoma cell lines. The results also demonstrated that this approach may be capable of reversing drug resistance by increasing the amount of drug accumulation in MDR cell lines.Lipid-modified dextran-based polymeric nanoparticles are a promising platform for siRNA delivery. Nanocarriers loaded with MDR1 siRNA are a potential treatment strategy for reversing MDR in osteosarcoma.

  14. Glucosylceramide synthase upregulates MDR1 expression in the regulation of cancer drug resistance through cSrc and β-catenin signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabot Myles C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance is the outcome of multiple-gene interactions in cancer cells under stress of anticancer agents. MDR1 overexpression is most commonly detected in drug-resistant cancers and accompanied with other gene alterations including enhanced glucosylceramide synthase (GCS. MDR1 encodes for P-glycoprotein that extrudes anticancer drugs. Polymorphisms of MDR1 disrupt the effects of P-glycoprotein antagonists and limit the success of drug resistance reversal in clinical trials. GCS converts ceramide to glucosylceramide, reducing the impact of ceramide-induced apoptosis and increasing glycosphingolipid (GSL synthesis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying MDR1 overexpression and how it interacts with GCS may find effective approaches to reverse drug resistance. Results MDR1 and GCS were coincidently overexpressed in drug-resistant breast, ovary, cervical and colon cancer cells; silencing GCS using a novel mixed-backbone oligonucleotide (MBO-asGCS sensitized these four drug-resistant cell lines to doxorubicin. This sensitization was correlated with the decreased MDR1 expression and the increased doxorubicin accumulation. Doxorubicin treatment induced GCS and MDR1 expression in tumors, but MBO-asGCS treatment eliminated "in-vivo" growth of drug-resistant tumor (NCI/ADR-RES. MBO-asGCS suppressed the expression of MDR1 with GCS and sensitized NCI/ADR-RES tumor to doxorubicin. The expression of P-glycoprotein and the function of its drug efflux of tumors were decreased by 4 and 8 times after MBO-asGCS treatment, even though this treatment did not have a significant effect on P-glycoprotein in normal small intestine. GCS transient transfection induced MDR1 overexpression and increased P-glycoprotein efflux in dose-dependent fashion in OVCAR-8 cancer cells. GSL profiling, silencing of globotriaosylceramide synthase and assessment of signaling pathway indicated that GCS transfection significantly increased globo series

  15. Isomeric N,N-bis(cyclohexanol)amine aryl esters: the discovery of a new class of highly potent P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-dependent multidrug resistance (MDR) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodori, Elisabetta; Martelli, Cecilia; Salerno, Milena; Darghal, Nacira; Dei, Silvia; Garnier-Suillerot, Arlette; Gualtieri, Fulvio; Manetti, Dina; Scapecchi, Serena; Romanelli, Maria Novella

    2007-02-22

    A new series of P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-dependent multidrug resistance (MDR) inhibitors having a N,N-bis(cyclohexanol)amine scaffold have been designed, following the frozen analog approach. With respect to the parent flexible molecules, the new compounds show improved potency and efficacy. Among them, compound 1d, on anthracycline-resistant erythroleukemia K562 cells, is able to completely reverse Pgp-dependent MDR at low nanomolar concentration.

  16. Photodynamic responsiveness of human leukemia Jurkat/A4 cells with multidrug resistant phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philchenkov, A A; Shishko, E D; Zavelevich, M P; Kuiava, L M; Miura, K; Blokhin, D Y; Shton, I O; Gamaleia, N F

    2014-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered as a possible alternative approach to overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR). Analysis of cross-resistance to PDT in cells with different MDR pathways and resistance levels seems to be advantageous for elucidating the general mechanisms of cancer cell resistance to various treatment modalities. The aim of the study was to clarify whether the Jurkat/A4 leukemia cells with MDR phenotype are cross-resistant to PDT. Human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia line Jurkat and Jurkat/A4 subline with MDR phenotype were used. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and Photolon (a complex of chlorine-e6 and polyvinylpyrrolidone; PL) or gold nanocomposite of PL were applied as photosensitizers. The cells were pretreated with photosensitizers and exposed to laser radiation at corresponding wavelengths. The phototoxicity was assessed in trypan blue exclusion test. The hypodiploid cell fraction was analyzed by flow cytometry of propidium iodide-stained cells. Expression of genes related to PDT resistance was analyzed by microarray technique with Affymetrix U133A chips. ALA-mediated PDT resulted in dose-dependent cell death in both lines, the relative photodynamic efficacy in Jurkat/A4 cells being inferior to that in the parental Jurkat cells. There was no correlation between phototoxicity and apoptosis induction both in Jurkat and Jurkat/A4 cells. PL-mediated general phototoxicity in Jurkat cells amounted up to 75% at the maximal photosensitizer dose with about 40% of apoptotic death fraction. PL-phototoxicity in Jurkat/A4 cells was considerably lower. In contrast to Jurkat cells, PL-gold composite did not increase the efficacy of photosensitization as compared to free PL in Jurkat/A4 cells. Multidrug-resistant Jurkat/A4 cells exhibit reduced sensitivity to phototoxic effect in comparison with parental Jurkat cells independently of nature of the photosensitizer being assayed.

  17. N-alkanol-N-cyclohexanol amine aryl esters: Multidrug resistance (MDR) reversing agents with high potency and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodori, Elisabetta; Dei, Silvia; Coronnello, Marcella; Floriddia, Elisa; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Manetti, Dina; Romanelli, Maria Novella; Santo Domingo Porqueras, Diego; Salerno, Milena

    2017-02-15

    In a continuing search for potent P-gp-dependent multidrug-resistant (MDR) reversers we synthesized and studied a new series of N-alkanol-N-cyclohexanol amine aryl esters characterized by the presence of two linkers with different flexibility: a polymethylene chain of variable length and a cyclohexylic scaffold, that gave origin to two geometrical isomers (cis and trans). The reversal activity of the new compounds was evaluated on the K562/DOX cell line by three tests: pirarubicin uptake modulation, doxorubicin cytotoxicity enhancement (reversal fold, RF) and inhibition of P-gp-mediated rhodamine-123 (Rhd 123) efflux tests. The chemical stability of their ester function was evaluated in the experimental conditions utilized (phosphate buffer solution (PBS), bovine serum and in the presence of K562/DOX cells) and in human plasma. The new series of molecules showed very interesting MDR reversing properties; in particular compound 5b (ELF26B), characterized by trans stereochemistry and a 5-methylene chain, presented the best pharmacological profile and is stable in each tested medium. Compound 5b could be an interesting lead for the development of new potent and efficacious P-gp-dependent MDR modulators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Coexpression of invasive markers (uPA, CD44) and multiple drug-resistance proteins (MDR1, MRP2) is correlated with epithelial ovarian cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Hao, J; Wang, L; Li, Y

    2009-01-01

    Background: Invasion and metastases of cancer cells and the development of resistance to anticancer therapies are the main causes of treatment failure and mortality in cancer patients. Methods: We evaluated invasive markers of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and CD44 and multiple drug-resistance (MDR) markers of MDR1 and MRP2 in four epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell lines, primary tumours (n=120) and matched metastatic lesions (n=40) by immunofluoresence labelling. We correlated uPA and CD44 with MDR markers in primary and metastatic cells using confocal microscope. We also investigated the relationship of the expression of uPA, CD44 and MDR1 with various progression parameters. Results: The coexpression of uPA and CD44 with MDR markers was found in primary and metastatic cells. The overexpression of uPA, CD44 and MDR1 was found in most primary and matched metastatic lesions of EOC, and was significantly associated with tumour stage, grade, residual disease status, relapse and presence of ascites (P0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest that the overexpression of uPA, CD44 and MRD1 is correlated with EOC progression; both uPA and CD44 are related with drug resistance during EOC metastasis and could be useful therapeutically. PMID:19603017

  19. Prediction of Phenotypic Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles From Whole Genome Sequences of Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuert, Saskia; Nair, Satheesh; Day, Martin R; Doumith, Michel; Ashton, Philip M; Mellor, Kate C; Jenkins, Claire; Hopkins, Katie L; Woodford, Neil; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Godbole, Gauri; Dallman, Timothy J

    2018-01-01

    Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS), is essential for monitoring transmission of resistance from the food chain to humans, and for establishing effective treatment protocols. We evaluated the prediction of phenotypic resistance in NTS from genotypic profiles derived from whole genome sequencing (WGS). Genes and chromosomal mutations responsible for phenotypic resistance were sought in WGS data from 3,491 NTS isolates received by Public Health England's Gastrointestinal Bacteria Reference Unit between April 2014 and March 2015. Inferred genotypic AMR profiles were compared with phenotypic susceptibilities determined for fifteen antimicrobials using EUCAST guidelines. Discrepancies between phenotypic and genotypic profiles for one or more antimicrobials were detected for 76 isolates (2.18%) although only 88/52,365 (0.17%) isolate/antimicrobial combinations were discordant. Of the discrepant results, the largest number were associated with streptomycin (67.05%, n = 59). Pan-susceptibility was observed in 2,190 isolates (62.73%). Overall, resistance to tetracyclines was most common (26.27% of isolates, n = 917) followed by sulphonamides (23.72%, n = 828) and ampicillin (21.43%, n = 748). Multidrug resistance (MDR), i.e., resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes, was detected in 848 isolates (24.29%) with resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines being the most common MDR profile ( n = 231; 27.24%). For isolates with this profile, all but one were S . Typhimurium and 94.81% ( n = 219) had the resistance determinants bla TEM-1, strA-strB, sul2 and tet (A). Extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes were identified in 41 isolates (1.17%) and multiple mutations in chromosomal genes associated with ciprofloxacin resistance in 82 isolates (2.35%). This study showed that WGS is suitable as a rapid means of determining AMR patterns of NTS for public health surveillance.

  20. High expression of multidrug resistance-1 (MDR-1) and its relationship with multiple prognostic factors in gastric carcinomas in patients in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürel, S; Yerci, O; Filiz, G; Dolar, E; Yilmazlar, T; Nak, S G; Gülten, M; Zorluoğlu, A; Memik, F

    1999-01-01

    Drug resistance remains a major problem in the treatment of gastric cancer. In Turkey, gastric carcinoma is the second most common cancer and, because the rate of early diagnosis is low, chemotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of the disease. We aimed to investigate expression of the multidrug resistance-1 gene (MDR-1) and its relationship with multiple prognostic factors in gastric cancers. Between 1996 and 1998, a total of 55 patients (37 men and 19 women; median age 55 years) were studied. Sections from specimens of gastric carcinomas were immunohistochemically stained to detect P-glycoprotein (which is associated with MDR-1 expression). We found MDR-1 expression in 48 (87%) of the patients. None of the multiple prognostic factors, including histological type of tumour, correlated with expression of MDR-1. Patients who had low MDR-1 expression had better survival. We conclude that the expression of MDR-1 in gastric cancer is high in Turkey, and this may be related to poor prognosis.

  1. Epidemic levels of drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR and XDR-TB in a high HIV prevalence setting in Khayelitsha, South Africa.

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    Helen S Cox

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is emerging as a significant threat to tuberculosis control in high HIV prevalence countries such as South Africa, limited data is available on the burden of drug resistant tuberculosis and any association with HIV in such settings. We conducted a community-based representative survey to assess the MDR-TB burden in Khayelitsha, an urban township in South Africa with high HIV and TB prevalence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adult clinic attendees suspected for pulmonary tuberculosis in two large primary care clinics, together constituting 50% of the tuberculosis burden in Khayelitsha. Drug susceptibility testing (DST for isoniazid and rifampicin was conducted using a line probe assay on positive sputum cultures, and with culture-based DST for first and second-line drugs. Between May and November 2008, culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed in 271 new and 264 previously treated tuberculosis suspects (sample enriched with previously treated cases. Among those with known HIV status, 55% and 71% were HIV infected respectively. MDR-TB was diagnosed in 3.3% and 7.7% of new and previously treated cases. These figures equate to an estimated case notification rate for MDR-TB of 51/100,000/year, with new cases constituting 55% of the estimated MDR-TB burden. HIV infection was not significantly associated with rifampicin resistance in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is an extremely high burden of MDR-TB in this setting, most likely representing ongoing transmission. These data highlight the need to diagnose drug resistance among all TB cases, and for innovative models of case detection and treatment for MDR-TB, in order to interrupt transmission and control this emerging epidemic.

  2. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, validation of methods BACTECTM MGIT 960 and AnyplexM TII MTB / MDR / XDR Detection for detection of antibiotic resistance to first and second line in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centeno Urena, Yadel

    2014-01-01

    A literature review is developed of drug-resistant TB in the world and in Costa Rica. The mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics are studied of the bacterium that causes tuberculosis; drug resistance to first-line and second-line, treatment regimen according to the World Health Organization and edge detection methods available in the market. The agreement between the results is studied by the phenotypic detection system of resistance of M. tuberculosis BACTEC MGIT960 and PCR, in real-time of commercial kit Anyplex II MTB/MDR/XDR, for genotypic identification of M. tuberculosis and related mutations to resistance with the referring results to thirty strains provided by the Pan American Health Organization, allowing a significant shortening in the time of obtaining reliable results. The results obtained have allowed to suggest a possible implementation at the Centro Nacional de Referencia en Micobacteriologia (CNRM), to perform antibiotic susceptibility testing and genotypic testing of multidrug cases respectively. The study results have allowed the implementation of the technology of genotypic detection of M. tuberculosis in the CNRM, obtaining for the first time in Costa Rica, information about genes of M. tuberculosis related to the generation of resistance to the major drugs of Primary treatment scheme as well as testing of resistance to second-line drug for resistant strains referred to the Centro Nacional de Referencia en Micobacteriologia in 2013. (author) [es

  3. Amplification of genome sections in mammalian somatic cells resistant to colchicine. VII. Localization of original and amplified copes of the mdr gene in the same segment of chromosome 4 of the Dzungarian hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokova, O.I.; Siyanova, E.Yu.; Gudkov, A.V.; Kopnin, B.P.

    1988-01-01

    Using in situ hybridization, the mdr gene was mapped in chromosomes of Dzungarian hamster embryonic cells, amplification of which accompanies development of multidrug resistance (MDR). It was shown that the mdr gene is located in chromosome segment 4q15-21, in which, according to data obtained previously, amplified copes of open quotes MDR genes close quotes (mdr, et al.) are distributed, as a rule. Results obtained, as well as data of other investigators, attest to the fact that integration recombination of amplified copies of DNA occurs primarily at the site of disposition of homologous sequences

  4. Reversing multidrug resistance in Caco-2 by silencing MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, and BCL-2/BCL-xL using liposomal antisense oligonucleotides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Li Lo

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR is a major impediment to chemotherapy. In the present study, we designed antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs against MDR1, MDR-associated protein (MRP1, MRP2, and/or BCL-2/BCL-xL to reverse MDR transporters and induce apoptosis, respectively. The cationic liposomes (100 nm composed of N-[1-(2,3-dioleyloxypropyl]-n,n,n-trimethylammonium chloride and dioleoyl phosphotidylethanolamine core surrounded by a polyethylene glycol (PEG shell were prepared to carry ASOs and/or epirubicin, an antineoplastic agent. We aimed to simultaneously suppress efflux pumps, provoke apoptosis, and enhance the chemosensitivity of human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells to epirubicin. We evaluated encapsulation efficiency, particle size, cytotoxicity, intracellular accumulation, mRNA levels, cell cycle distribution, and caspase activity of these formulations. We found that PEGylated liposomal ASOs significantly reduced Caco-2 cell viability and thus intensified epirubicin-mediated apoptosis. These formulations also decreased the MDR1 promoter activity levels and enhanced the intracellular retention of epirubicin in Caco-2 cells. Epirubicin and ASOs in PEGylated liposomes remarkably decreased mRNA expression levels of human MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, and BCL-2. The combined treatments all significantly increased the mRNA expressions of p53 and BAX, and activity levels of caspase-3, -8, and -9. The formulation of epirubicin and ASOs targeting both pump resistance of MDR1, MRP1, and MRP2 and nonpump resistance of BCL-2/BCL-xL demonstrated more superior effect to all the other formulations used in this study. Our results provide a novel insight into the mechanisms by which PEGylated liposomal ASOs against both resistance types act as activators to epirubicin-induced apoptosis through suppressing MDR1, MRP1, and MRP2, as well as triggering intrinsic mitochondrial and extrinsic death receptor pathways. The complicated regulation of MDR highlights the necessity

  5. The process behind the expression of mdr-1/P-gp and mrp/MRP in human leukemia/lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Masao

    2009-04-01

    There is a controversy over the link between phenotypes of multidrug resistance (MDR) and clinical outcome in leukemia/lymphoma patients. This may be because the process behind the induction and loss of expression of genotypes and phenotypes by which MDR develops and the role of MDR in fresh cells of human leukemia/lymphoma are not clearly defined. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) increased and decreased along with mdr-1 expression in three cell lines out of five vincristine (VCR)-resistant cell lines. MRP appeared with increased mrp expression in the other two cell lines. After the drug was removed from the culture system, mdr-1/P-gp changed in parallel with the level of VCR resistance, although mrp and MRP did not. It was concluded that P-gp is directly derived from mdr-1 and that mdr-1/P-gp supports the VCR-resistance but mrp/MRP is not directly linked to the VCR-resistance. These results should contribute to a better understanding of MDR phenomenon in cancer.

  6. Phenotypic and Genotypic Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella from Chicken Carcasses Marketed at Ibague, Colombia

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    D Cortes Vélez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica is responsible for alimentary toxic infections associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products and the antimicrobial resistant patterns of Salmonella circulating in the Tolima region are currently unknown. To address this issue, both the phenotype and genotype antibiotic resistance patterns of 47 Salmonella isolated from raw chicken carcasses sold at the Ibague city were analyzed by the disc diffusion, microdilution and PCR assays. All 47 Salmonella isolates showed resistance to five or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance to Ampicillin (AMP, Amikacin (AMK, Gentamicin (GEN, Tobramycin (TOB, Cefazoline (CFZ, Cefoxitin (FOX, Nitrofurantoin (NIT, Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (SXT, Tetracycline (TET, Ciprofloxacin (CIP and Enrofloxacin (ENR was observed in 42.35% of Salmonella isolates. All tested S. Paratyphi B var Java isolates showed resistance to at least 12 antibiotics. S. Hvittingfoss showed resistance to 5 antibiotics, whereas S. Muenster showed resistance to seven antibiotics. Amplification of a number of antibiotic resistance genes showed that blaTEM (100% correlated well with resistance to Ampicilin and Cephalosporin, whereas aadB (87% correlated well with resistance to Aminoglycosides. It is concluded that Salmonella isolated from raw chicken meat marketed at Ibague showed MDR by both phenotypic and genotypic methods and they may represent an important threat to human health. Additional studies are needed to establish the relationship between antibiotic resistance in Salmonella from poultry products and clinical isolates.

  7. Expression of multidrug resistance markers ABCB1 (MDR-1/P-gp) and ABCC1 (MRP-1) in renal cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma patients respond poorly to conventional chemotherapy, this unresponsiveness may be attributable to multidrug resistance (MDR). The mechanisms of MDR in renal cancer are not fully understood and the specific contribution of ABC transporter proteins which have been implicated in the chemoresistance of various cancers has not been fully defined in this disease. METHODS: In this retrospective study the expression of two of these transporter efflux pumps, namely MDR-1 P-gp (ABCB1) and MRP-1 (ABCC1) were studied by immunohistochemistry in archival material from 95 renal cell carcinoma patients. RESULTS: In the first study investigating MDR-1 P-gp and MRP-1 protein expression patterns in renal cell carcinoma patients, high levels of expression of both efflux pumps are observed with 100% of tumours studied showing MDR-1 P-gp and MRP-1 positivity. CONCLUSION: Although these findings do not prove a causal role, the high frequency of tumours expressing these efflux pumps suggests that they may be important contributors to the chemoresistance of this tumour type.

  8. Expression of multi-drug resistance-related genes MDR3 and MRP as prognostic factors in clinical liver cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zheng; Peng, Sun; Hong-Ming, Pan; Kai-Feng, Wang

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the expression of multi-drug resistance-related genes, MDR3 and MRP, in clinical specimens of primary liver cancer and their potential as prognostic factors in liver cancer patients. A total of 26 patients with primary liver cancer were enrolled. The expression of MDR3 and MRP genes was measured by real-time PCR and the association between gene expression and the prognosis of patients was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and COX regression model. This study showed that increases in MDR3 gene expression were identified in cholangiocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis and HBsAg-positive patients, while MRP expression increased in hepatocellular carcinoma, non-cirrhosis and HBsAg-negative patients. Moreover, conjugated bilirubin and total bile acid in the serum were significantly reduced in patients with high MRP expression compared to patients with low expression. The overall survival tended to be longer in patients with high MDR3 and MRP expression compared to the control group. MRP might be an independent prognostic factor in patients with liver cancer by COX regression analysis. MDR3 and MRP may play important roles in liver cancer patients as prognostic factors and their underlying mechanisms in liver cancer are worthy of further investigation.

  9. Synthesis of novel 1,8-acridinediones derivatives: Investigation of MDR reversibility on breast cancer cell lines T47D and tamoxifen-resistant T47D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moallem, S A; Dehghani, N; Mehri, S; Shahsavand, Sh; Alibolandi, M; Hadizadeh, F

    2015-01-01

    Multi drug resistance (MDR) is a serious obstacle in the management of breast cancer. Therefore, overcoming MDR using novel anticancer agents is a top priority for medicinal chemists. It was found that dihydropyridines lacking calcium antagonistic activity (e.g acridinediones) possess MDR modifier potency. In this study, the capability of four novel acridine-1,8-diones derivatives 3a-d were evaluated as MDR reversing agents. In addition, the relationship between structural properties and biological effects of synthesized compounds was discussed. In vitro cytotoxicity of acridine-1,8-diones 3a-d derivatives in combination with doxorubicin (DOX) on T47D and tomoxifen-resistant T47D (TAMR-6) breast cancer cell lines were investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test. Drug resistant index (DRI), which is equal to the ratio of IC50 in drug-resistant cells over IC50 in drug-sensitive cells, was calculated for each substance. Flowcytometry experiments were also implemented to distinguish cells undergoing apoptosis from those undergoing necrosis. The results from MTT and flowcytometry experiments indicated that 1 nM 3c derivative along with DOX significantly (PT47D and TAMR-6 breast cancer cell lines. Synthesized compounds 3a and 3b also at concentrations of 1 nM with DOX significantly increased the cytotoxicity of DOX on T47D and TAMR-6 breast cancer cell lines. Meanwhile, 3d derivative with DOX did not exhibit good synergistic effect on cytotoxic activity of DOX, and slightly increased DOX cytotoxicity in both cell lines. Our results proposed that 3c may be an attractive lead compound for further development as a chemotherapeutic agent for MDR breast cancer therapy in combination with routine chemotherapeutic agents such as DOX.

  10. Is colistin effective in the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extremely drug-resistant (XDR) gram-negative microorganisms in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Aykac, Kubra; Cengiz, Ali Bulent; Bayhan, Cihangul; Sancak, Banu; Karadag Oncel, Eda; Kara, Ates; Ceyhan, Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    The increasing incidence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extremely drug-resistant (XDR) gram-negative organisms has led to the reemergence of colistin use. Clinical and demographic data were collected on 94 pediatric patients diagnosed with MDR or XDR gram-negative infections and treated with either a colistin-containing regimen (colistin group) or at least one antimicrobial agent other than colistin (noncolistin group). The overall clinical response rates were 65.8% in the colistin group and 70.0% in the noncolistin group (P = 0.33). The infection-related mortality rates were 11% in the colistin group and 13.3% in the noncolistin group (P = 0.74). There was no statistically significant difference in nephrotoxicity in the colistin and noncolistin groups. Colistin therapy was at least as effective and as safe as beta-lactam antibiotics or quinolones, with or without aminoglycosides, in the treatment of infections caused by gram-negative organisms and may be a therapeutic option in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a Patient-Centred, Psychosocial Support Intervention for Multi-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB Care in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeepa Khanal

    Full Text Available Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB poses a major threat to public health worldwide, particularly in low-income countries. The current long (20 month and arduous treatment regime uses powerful drugs with side-effects that include mental ill-health. It has a high loss-to-follow-up (25% and higher case fatality and lower cure-rates than those with drug sensitive tuberculosis (TB. While some national TB programmes provide small financial allowances to patients, other aspects of psychosocial ill-health, including iatrogenic ones, are not routinely assessed or addressed. We aimed to develop an intervention to improve psycho-social well-being for MDR-TB patients in Nepal. To do this we conducted qualitative work with MDR-TB patients, health professionals and the National TB programme (NTP in Nepal. We conducted semi-structured interviews (SSIs with 15 patients (10 men and 5 women, aged 21 to 68, four family members and three frontline health workers. In addition, three focus groups were held with MDR-TB patients and three with their family members. We conducted a series of meetings and workshops with key stakeholders to design the intervention, working closely with the NTP to enable government ownership. Our findings highlight the negative impacts of MDR-TB treatment on mental health, with greater impacts felt among those with limited social and financial support, predominantly married women. Michie et al's (2011 framework for behaviour change proved helpful in identifying corresponding practice- and policy-level changes. The findings from this study emphasise the need for tailored psycho-social support. Recent work on simple psychological support packages for the general population can usefully be adapted for use with people with MDR-TB.

  12. Molecular identification of marine symbiont bacteria of gastropods from the waters of the Krakal coast Yogyakarta and its potential as a Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) antibacterial agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahry, Muhammad Syaifudien; Pringgenies, Delianis; Trianto, Agus

    2017-01-01

    The resistance of pathogenic bacteria may occur to many types of antibiotics, especially in cases of non-compliance use of antibiotics, which likely to allow the evolution of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria. Gastropods seas are marine invertebrates informed capable of production of secondary metabolites as antibacterial MDR. The purpose of the study was the isolation and identification of gastropod symbiont bacteria found in the waters of Krakal, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta, which has the ability to produce antibacterial compounds against MDR(Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, MRSA (methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus), Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus homunis) molecular. Stages of this research began with the isolation of bacteria, bacteria screening for anti-MDR compound, mass culture, and extraction, antibacterial activity test, DNA extraction, amplification by PCR 16S rDNA and sequencing. The results of the study showed that 19 isolates of bacteria were isolated from three species of gastropods namely Littorina scabra, Cypraea moneta and Conus ebraeus. Among them, 4 isolates showed activity against MDR test bacteria (E. coli, E. cloacae, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus and S. homunis). The highest activity was displayed by code LS.G1.8 isolate with the largest inhibition zone 15.47±0.45mm on S. humonis at 250 µg/disk concentration. Isolate CM.G2.1 showed largest inhibition zone, with 21.5±0.07mm on MRSA at 1000 µg/disk concentration and isolate the largest inhibition zone CM.G2.5 14.37±0.81mm on MRSA 14.37±0.81mm at concentrations 1000 µg/disk. The molecular identification of isolates LS.G1.8 has 99% homology with Bacillus subtilis and isolates CM.G2.1 has 99% homology with Bacillus pumillus.

  13. [Polymorphisms of the multiple drug resistance gene (MDR1) in Mapuche, Mestizo and Maori populations in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielandt, Ana María; Vollrath, Valeska; Chianale, José

    2004-09-01

    There are significant differences in drug responses among different ethnic groups. The multidrug transporter P-gp, encoded by the MDR1 gene, plays a key role in determining drug bioavailability, and an association between a polymorphism in exon 26 (C3435T) and lower P-gp expression has been found. The co-segregation of this polymorphism with the polymorphism in exon 12 (C1236T) and in exon 21 (G2677T/A) determines several MDR1 haplotypes in humans. To characterize the polymorphisms of exons 26, 21 and 12 of the MDR1 gene in different Chilean populations. Using a polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism technique, we studied the allelic frequencies and the distribution of MDR1 haplotypes in 3 Chilean populations: Mestizo (n=104), Mapuche (n=96, living in the National Reservation of the Huapi Island, Ranico Lake) and Maori (n=52, living in Eastern Island). The frequency of the normal MDR1*1 haplotype, without mutations, was lower in Mapuches than in Mestizos or Maoris (p0.0.5), but lower than the frequencies reported in Caucasians or Asians (p<0.05). We found significant differences in the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms of the MDR1 gene in Chilean populations, related to the ethnic origins of our ancestors.

  14. T cell cytokine responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis following stimulation with proteins purified from Mycobacterium tuberculosis MDR clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Alireza; Yari, Shamsi; Ghanei, Mostafa; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Amanzadeh, Amir; Tabarsi, Payam; Saeedfar, Keyvan; Bahrmand, Ahmadreza

    2016-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a devastating disease that remains a major health threat worldwide. The appearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistance to current antibiotics is a growing problem, both in the third world and in developed countries. Completion of genomic sequencing of M. tuberculosis provides a strong foundation for subsequent identification of proteins to aid the understanding of protein function and the discovery of new drug targets or a TB vaccine. This study employed a proteomics approach to identify proteins from antibiotic resistant M. tuberculosis isolates and compare them to drug-sensitive isolates to determine the role of T cells in multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB patients against M. tuberculosis-purified proteins (Rv0147) as compared with healthy subjects. Proteins were extracted by Triton X-114 detergent-phase separation and precipitated by adding saturated ammonium sulfate to the supernatant. Following isoelectric focusing, proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Mass spectrometry was performed, and protein sequences were determined. Peripheral bloom mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured, and autologous T cells were isolated from PBMCs by negative selection. Cells were subsequently cultured at 37°C in 5% CO 2 , followed by stimulation with 10μg/mL of the protein candidate (Rv0147) for 72h. Culture supernatants were assayed for interleukin (IL)-10 and interferon (IFN)-γ by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The identified proteins included Rv3057c, Rv0009, Rv3161c, Rv3614c, Rv0685, Rv2986c, Rv0443, Rv2114, Rv3311, Rv0831, Rv3804, and Rv3614c, and our results showed that the majority of upregulated or overexpressed proteins belonged to pathways associated with cellular metabolism, cell wall integrity, respiration, or cell membrane construction. Additionally, Rv1876 from MDR-TB isolates was predicted to be involved in the expression of bacterioferritin exclusively in MDR-TB-related resistance

  15. Refractory versus resistant hypertension: Novel distinctive phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenbostel, Tanja; Siddiqui, Mohammed; Gharpure, Nitin; Calhoun, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Resistant hypertension (RHTN) is relatively common with an estimated prevalence of 10-20% of treated hypertensive patients. It is defined as blood pressure (BP) >140/90 mmHg treated with ≥3 antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic, if tolerated. Refractory hypertension is a novel phenotype of severe antihypertensive treatment failure. The proposed definition for refractory hypertension, i.e. BP >140/90 mmHg with use of ≥5 different antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) has been applied inconsistently. In comparison to RHTN, refractory hypertension seems to be less prevalent than RHTN. This review focuses on current knowledge about this novel phenotype compared with RHTN including definition, prevalence, mechanisms, characteristics and comorbidities, including cardiovascular risk. In patients with RHTN excess fluid retention is thought to be a common mechanism for the development of RHTN. Recently, evidence has emerged suggesting that refractory hypertension may be more of neurogenic etiology due to increased sympathetic activity as opposed to excess fluid retention. Treatment recommendations for RHTN are generally based on use and intensification of diuretic therapy, especially with the combination of a long-acting thiazide-like diuretic and an MRA. Based on findings from available studies, such an approach does not seem to be a successful strategy to control BP in patients with refractory hypertension and effective sympathetic inhibition in such patients, either with medications and/or device based approaches may be needed. PMID:29034321

  16. Active Sputum Monitoring Detects Substantial Rate of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in an HIV-Infected Population in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassim, Shaheen; Shaw, Pamela A.; Sangweni, Phumelele; Malan, Lizette; Ntshani, Ella; Mathibedi, Monkwe Jethro; Stubbs, Nomso; Metcalf, Julia A; Eckes, Risa; Masur, Henry; Komati, Stephanus

    2010-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) co-infection with HIV is a substantial problem in South Africa. There has been a presumption that drug resistant strains of TB are common in South Africa, but few studies have documented this impression. Methods In Phidisa, a joint observational and randomized HIV treatment study for South African National Defence Force members and dependents, an initiative obtained microbiologic TB testing in subjects who appeared to be at high risk. We report results for HIV-infected subjects. Results TB was identified by culture in 116/584 (19.9%) of patients selected for sputum examination on the basis of suggestive symptoms. Smear was an insensitive technique for confirming the diagnosis: only 33% of culture-positive patients were identified by smear, with a 0.2% false positive rate. Of the 107 culture-positive individuals with susceptibility testing, 22 (20.6%) were identified to be MDR and 4 (3.7%) became extremely drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR) while under observation. Culture-positive cases with a history of TB treatment had more than twice the rate of MDR than those without, 27.1% vs. 11.9% (p=0.05). Conclusions TB is common in this cohort of HIV-infected patients. Smear was not a sensitive technique for identifying culture-positive cases in this health system. Drug susceptibility testing is essential to proper patient management because MDR was present in 20.6% of culture-positive patients. Better management strategies are needed to reduce the development of MDR-TB since so many such patients had received prior antituberculous therapy that was presumably not curative. PMID:20196651

  17. From MDR to MXR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litman, Thomas; Druley, T E; Stein, W D

    2001-01-01

    The ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of membrane transporters is one of the largest protein classes known, and counts numerous proteins involved in the trafficking of biological molecules across cell membranes. The first known human ABC transporter was P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which confers......-gp, as well as other ABC transporters involved in MDR: the family of multidrug-resistance-associated proteins (MRP1-7), and the recently discovered ABC half-transporter MXR (also known as BCRP, ABCP and ABCG2). We describe recent progress in the analysis of protein structure-function relationships...

  18. Correlation of molecular resistance mechanisms and phenotypic resistance levels in streptomycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, A; Sander, P; Schaper, K J; Scholz, M; Böttger, E C

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of streptomycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis demonstrated that there is a close correlation between the molecular resistance mechanism and the in vitro activity of streptomycin: mutations in rpsL were mainly associated with high-level resistance, mutations in rrs were associated with an intermediate level of resistance, and streptomycin-resistant isolates with wild-type rpsL and rrs exhibited a low-level resistance phenotype. In...

  19. Outcomes of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB among a cohort of South African patients with high HIV prevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E Farley

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a major clinical challenge, particularly in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV co-infection. MDR-TB treatment is increasingly available, but outcomes have not been well characterized. South Africa has provided MDR-TB treatment for a decade, and we evaluated outcomes by HIV status for patients enrolled between 2000 and 2004 prior to anti-retroviral access.We assessed treatment outcomes in a prospective cohort of patients with MDR-TB from eight provincial programs providing second line drugs. World Health Organization definitions were used. Results were stratified by HIV status.Seven hundred fifty seven patients with known HIV status were included in the final analysis, and HIV infection was documented in 287 (38%. Overall, 348 patients (46.0% were successfully treated, 74 (9.8% failed therapy, 177 (23.4% died and 158 (20.9% defaulted. Patients with HIV were slightly younger and less likely to be male compared to HIV negative patients. Patients with HIV were less likely to have a successful treatment outcome (40.0 vs. 49.6; P<0.05 and more likely to die (35.2 vs. 16.2; P<0.0001. In a competing risk survival analysis, patients with HIV had a higher hazard of death (HR: 2.33, P<0.0001. Low baseline weight (less than 45 kg and less than 60 kg was also associated with a higher hazard of death (HR: 2.52, P<0.0001; and HR: 1.50, P<0.0001, respectively, compared to weight greater than 60 kg. Weight less than 45 kg had higher risk of failure (HR: 3.58, P<0.01. Any change in treatment regimen was associated with a higher hazard of default (HR: 2.86; 95% CI 1.55-5.29, P<0.001 and a lower hazard of death (HR: 0.63, P<0.05.In this MDR-TB treatment program patients with HIV infection and low weight had higher hazards of death. Overall treatment outcomes were poor. Efforts to improve treatment for MDR-TB are urgently needed.

  20. [Paracoccidioidomicosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TBC-MDR) in patient coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunura R, Juan; Salazar M, Daniela; Vásquez L, Tania; Endo G, Sergio; Rodríguez F, Alejandrina; Zerpa L, Rito

    2010-12-01

    A case of an adult male patient diagnosed with HIV and Hepatitis C co infection is presented. He had granu-lomatuos hepatitis and blood smear positive to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis concomitant to the detection of MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum further complicated with reactivation of cytomegalovirus (possible pancreatitis and retinitis). Difficulties in diagnostic and therapeutic approach in a patient with multiple infections are reviewed.

  1. The roles of CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1 in kaempferol-induced suppression with fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jing; Zhang, MengXiang; Wang, TianMing; Li, Yue; Wang, ChangZhong

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections caused by fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans are an intractable clinical problem, calling for new efficient antifungal drugs. Kaempferol, an active flavonoid, has been considered a potential candidate against Candida species. This work investigates the resistance reversion of kaempferol in fluconazole-resistant C. albicans and the underlying mechanism. The antifungal activities of fluconazole and/or kaempferol were assessed by a series of standard procedures including broth microdilution method, checkerboard assay and time-kill (T-K) test in nine clinical strains as well as a standard reference isolate of C. albicans. Subsequently, the morphological changes, the efflux of rhodamine 6G, and the expressions of CDR 1, CDR 2, and MDR 1 were analysed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), inverted fluorescence microscope and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in C. albicans z2003. For all the tested C. albicans strains, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of fluconazole and kaempferol ranged 0.25-32 and 128-256 μg/mL with a range of fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.257-0.531. In C. albicans z2003, the expression of both CDR 1 and CDR 2 were decreased after exposure to kaempferol alone with negligible rhodamine 6G accumulation, while the expression of CDR 1, CDR 2 and MDR 1 were all decreased when fluconazole and kaempferol were used concomitantly with notable fluorescence of rhodamine 6G observed. Kaempferol-induced reversion in fluconazole-resistant C. albicans might be likely due to the suppression of the expression of CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1.

  2. Enhanced MDR1 gene expression in human T-cell leukemia virus-I-infected patients offers new prospects for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, A; Nightingale, S; Taylor, G P; Gant, T W; Cann, A J

    1998-04-01

    Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the protein product of the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), confers a drug resistant phenotype on cells. This phenotype is reminiscent of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-transformed leukemic cells, for which no consistently effective chemotherapeutic regime has been found. The presence of an active multiple drug resistance (MDR) phenotype in freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HTLV-I-infected subjects was investigated. Significant P-gp-mediated efflux activity and enhanced MDR1 mRNA expression was observed in nine of 10 HTLV-infected subjects. The development of MDR phenotypes was found to be independent of disease type or status with significant MDR activities being observed in adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), HTLV-associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP), and asymptomatic HTLV-infected individuals. P-gp-mediated drug efflux was also found to be restricted to CD3+ T-cell populations. Furthermore, we show the novel finding that the MDR1 gene promoter is transcriptionally activated by the HTLV-I tax protein, suggesting a molecular basis for the development of drug resistance in HTLV-I infections. These observations open up the possibility of new chemotherapeutic approaches to HTLV-associated diseases through the use of P-gp inhibitors.

  3. The Role of Efflux Pumps in Schistosoma mansoni Praziquantel Resistant Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armada, Ana; Belo, Silvana; Carrilho, Emanuel; Viveiros, Miguel; Afonso, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease caused by a trematode of the genus Schistosoma that is second only to malaria in public health significance in Africa, South America, and Asia. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice to treat this disease due to its high cure rates and no significant side effects. However, in the last years increasingly cases of tolerance to PZQ have been reported, which has caused growing concerns regarding the emergency of resistance to this drug. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe the selection of a parasitic strain that has a stable resistance phenotype to PZQ. It has been reported that drug resistance in helminths might involve efflux pumps such as members of ATP-binding cassette transport proteins, including P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein families. Here we evaluate the role of efflux pumps in Schistosoma mansoni resistance to PZQ, by comparing the efflux pumps activity in susceptible and resistant strains. The evaluation of the efflux activity was performed by an ethidium bromide accumulation assay in presence and absence of Verapamil. The role of efflux pumps in resistance to PZQ was further investigated comparing the response of susceptible and resistant parasites in the absence and presence of different doses of Verapamil, in an ex vivo assay, and these results were further reinforced through the comparison of the expression levels of SmMDR2 RNA by RT-PCR. Conclusions/Significance This work strongly suggests the involvement of Pgp-like transporters SMDR2 in Praziquantel drug resistance in S. mansoni. Low doses of Verapamil successfully reverted drug resistance. Our results might give an indication that a combination therapy with PZQ and natural or synthetic Pgp modulators can be an effective strategy for the treatment of confirmed cases of resistance to PZQ in S. mansoni. PMID:26445012

  4. Metalloproteins during development of Walker-256 carcinosarcoma resistant phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Chekhun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was focused on the detection of changes in serum and tumor metal-containing proteins in animals during development of doxorubicin-resistant phenotype in malignant cells after 12 courses of chemotherapy. We found that on every stage of resistance development there was a significant increase in content of ferritin and transferrin proteins (which take part in iron traffick and storage in Walker-256 carcinosarcoma tissue. We observed decreased serum ferritin levels at the beginning stage of the resistance development and significant elevation of this protein levels in the cases with fully developed resistance phenotype. Transferrin content showed changes opposite to that of ferritin. During the development of resistance phenotype the tumor tissue also exhibited increased ‘free iron’ concentration that putatively correlate with elevation of ROS generation and levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 active forms. The tumor non-protein thiol content increases gradually as well. The serum of animals with early stages of resistance phenotype development showed high ceruloplasmin activity and its significant reduction after loss of tumor sensitivity to doxorubicin. Therefore, the development of resistance phenotype in Walker-256 carcinosarcoma is accompanied by both the deregulation of metal-containing proteins in serum and tumor tissue and by the changes in activity of antioxidant defense system. Thus, the results of this study allow us to determine the spectrum of metal-containing proteins that are involved in the development of resistant tumor phenotype and that may be targeted for methods for doxorubicin sensitivity correction therapy.

  5. Study of tea polyphenol as a reversal agent for carcinoma cell lines' multidrug resistance (study of TP as a MDR reversal agent)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Aizhi; Wang Xiangyun; Guo Zhenquan

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine MDR1 expression product P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and study the effect and mechanism of tea polyphenol (TP) in reversion of multidrug resistance (MDR) in carcinoma cell lines. Immunocytochemical method was used for qualitative detection of Pgp. A comparative study of cytotoxicity and multidrug resistance reversion effect was made by MTT assay for tea polyphenol and quinidine in MCF-7 and MCF-7/Adr cell lines. The multidrug resistance reversion effect and mechanism were studied by measuring the uptake of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin in the carcinoma cell lines. (1) The Pgp overexpression in MCF-7/Adr cells was found to be strong positive, while the Pgp expression of MCF-7 was negative. (2) Although both tea polyphenol and quinidine could not remarkably change the toxicity of adriamycin to MCF-7, they could improve the sensitivity of MCF-7/Adr to adriamycin. The reversion index of tea polyphenol and quinidine was 3 and 10 respectively. (3) The cellular uptake of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin was remarkably lower in MCF-7/Adr than in MCF-7. The uptake of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin in MCF-7/Adr exhibited a 4, 13, 16 fold increase in the presence of 200, 400 and 500 μg/ml of tea polyphenol respectively. The uptake of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin in MCF-7/Adr exhibited only a 4-fold increase in the presence of 200 μM of quinidine. Immunocytochemistry can detect P-glycoprotein expression level qualitatively. Tea polyphenol is not only an anti-tumor agent, but also a multidrug resistant modulator similar to quinidine. The multidrug resistance reversion mechanism of tea polyphenol seems to be its inhibition of the activity of P-glycoprotein. Tea polyphenol has the advantage of very low toxicity in tumor treatment

  6. Impact of BCRP/MXR, MRP1 and MDR1/P-Glycoprotein on thermoresistant variants of atypical and classical multidrug resistant cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Ulrike; Lage, Hermann; Jordan, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    and thermoresistance was investigated in the parental human gastric carcinoma cell line EPG85-257P, the atypical MDR subline EPG85-257RNOV, the classical MDR subline EPG85-257RDB and their thermoresistant counterparts EPG85-257P-TR, EPG85-257RNOV-TR and EPG85-257RDB-TR. Within the atypical MDR subline EPG85-257RNOV...... expression of BCRP/MXR and of MRP1 were clearly enhanced (vs. parental and classical MDR lines). MDR1/PGP expression was distinctly elevated in the classical MDR subline EPG85-257RDB (vs. parental and atypical MDR sublines). In all thermoresistant counterparts basal expression of BCRP/MXR, MRP1 and MDR1/PGP...

  7. Multi-drug resistance (MDR1 gene and P-glycoprotein influence on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodymanic of therapeutic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linardi Renata Lehn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available (MDR1 gene expressed in tumor cells and also in several normal tissues, such as intestine, liver, kidney, blood-brain barrier, spinal cord, and placenta. P-gp has been identified in mice, rat, bovine, monkey, rodents, and human beings and has been receiving a particular clinical relevance because this protein expression limits brain access and intestinal absorption of many drugs. This protein plays a role as a protective barrier against a wide variety of substrates, avoiding drug entry into the central nervous system. P-glycoprotein also interferes with drug bioavailability and disposition, including absorption, distribution, metabolization, and excretion, influencing pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic of drugs. Modulation of P-gp may help the efficacy of treatment of several diseases and can explain some adverse central nervous system effects induced by drugs after intravenous administration and the poor response of oral administration in patients. Alteration in P-gp expression or function has been associated with several diseases susceptibility in humans and animals. Furthermore, additional studies relating MDR1 and P-gp expression has an important clinical implication also in terms of treatment efficacy.

  8. Immunohistochemical detection of MDR proteins in Wilms' tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodorova, I; Rybarova, S; Vecanova, J; Plank, L; Kluchova, D

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our work was to determine the expression of three MDR proteins (MDR1/Pgp, MRP1 and LRP/MVP) in 15 tissue samples of nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumour). The majority of Wilms' tumours respond well to chemotherapy and are successfully cured, but a small subset displays resistance to therapy. The molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in this tumour type of childhood are still poorly analyzed. In our opinion, the elucidation of reasons for therapy failure in nephroblastomas is urgently needed before cure becomes a reality for children with this cancer. To demonstrate these proteins the enzyme indirect immunohistochemical method was used. The brown colour of the diaminobenzidine reaction product allowed us to define the distribution of stain clearly. Our immunohistochemical analysis did not demonstrate any expression of MDR1 in all cases of nephroblastoma (14 cases were after pre-operative chemotherapy, 1 case wasn't). The analysis of MRP1 and LRP expression in our set revealed 60% positivity for MRP1 and 26.7% positivity for LRP. The ability to recognize the multidrug resistance phenotype might assist in choosing specific chemotherapeutic regimens to improve prognosis and therapy (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 20). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  9. Cordycepin Down-Regulates Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR/HIF-1α through Regulating AMPK/mTORC1 Signaling in GBC-SD Gallbladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ding Wu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the bile duct, with low 5-year survival rate and poor prognosis. Novel effective treatments are urgently needed for the therapy of this disease. Here, we showed that cordycepin, the bioactive compound in genus Cordyceps, induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in cultured gallbladder cancer cells (Mz-ChA-1, QBC939 and GBC-SD lines. We found that cordycepin inhibited mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1 activation and down-regulated multiple drug resistant (MDR/hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α expression through activating of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling in gallbladder cancer GBC-SD cells. Contrarily, AMPKα1-shRNA depletion dramatically inhibited cordycepin-induced molecular changes as well as GBC-SD cell apoptosis. Further, our results showed that co-treatment with a low concentration cordycepin could remarkably enhance the chemosensitivity of GBC-SD cells to gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, and the mechanism may be attributed to AMPK activation and MDR degradation. In summary, cordycepin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in gallbladder cancer cells via activating AMPK signaling. Cordycepin could be a promising new drug or chemo-adjuvant for gallbladder cancer.

  10. [Embelin Reverses the Multi-drug Resistance of K562/D to Daunorubicin Independently of P-gp and MDR1 mRNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui-Nan; Liu, Zhuo-Gang; Hu, Rong

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the mechanism of reversing drug resistance of K562/D cells to daunorubicin by Embelin and its relationship with P-gp and MDR1 mRNA. MTT assay was used to detect and compare the cell proliferation rate of treating with DNR alone and DNR combined with Embelin. Flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining was used to detect cell apoptosis rate, Western blot was used to detect the expression of XIAP,Caspase-3,BCL-2,BAX and P-gp of K562/D cells after using DNR alone and combining with Embelin. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect XIAP,BCL-2,BAX and MDR1 mRNA. The IC 50 of K562 and K562/D cells treated with DNR for 24 h were 2.177 µg/ml and 69.43 µg/ml, respectively. The drug-resistance index was 31.89; The proliferation inhibition rates of K562/D cells treated with Embelin of 3, 10, 30, 100 and 300 µg/ml for 24 h were 2.70%±1.08%, 10.92%±4.89%, 28.13%±2.09%, 36.56%±3.24% and 43.59%±1.16%; The proliferation inhibition rates of K562/D cells treated with DNR of 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 µg/ml combined with 10 µg/ml Embelin for 24 h were 31.92%±3.29%, 49.57%±6.87%, 55.16%±0.78% and 71.94%±3.89%. The IC 50 was 2.11 µg/ml respectively. The reverse index was 32.91. The apoptosis rates of K562/D cells treated with 0.1 µg/ml DNR alone or combined with Embelin of 10 µg/ml and 30 µg/ml for 24 h were 12.06%±0.95%, 27.54%±0.59% and 39.59%±1.57%, respectively. The results of Western blot showed that after combination of DNR with Embelin, the expression of Caspase-3 was significantly down-regulated (PPPP-gp expression later (PPPP>0.05). The down-regulation of XIAP contributes to enhance the effect of DNR on K562/D cells, the mechanism of Embelin-reversing the drug-resistence of K562/D cells to DNR does not relate with P-gp and MDR1 mRNA.

  11. Artemether resistance in vitro is linked to mutations in PfATP6 that also interact with mutations in PfMDR1 in travellers returning with Plasmodium falciparum infections.

    KAUST Repository

    Pillai, Dylan R

    2012-04-27

    BACKGROUND: Monitoring resistance phenotypes for Plasmodium falciparum, using in vitro growth assays, and relating findings to parasite genotype has proved particularly challenging for the study of resistance to artemisinins. METHODS: Plasmodium falciparum isolates cultured from 28 returning travellers diagnosed with malaria were assessed for sensitivity to artemisinin, artemether, dihydroartemisinin and artesunate and findings related to mutations in pfatp6 and pfmdr1. RESULTS: Resistance to artemether in vitro was significantly associated with a pfatp6 haplotype encoding two amino acid substitutions (pfatp6 A623E and S769N; (mean IC50 (95% CI) values of 8.2 (5.7 - 10.7) for A623/S769 versus 623E/769 N 13.5 (9.8 - 17.3) nM with a mean increase of 65%; p = 0.012). Increased copy number of pfmdr1 was not itself associated with increased IC50 values for artemether, but when interactions between the pfatp6 haplotype and increased copy number of pfmdr1 were examined together, a highly significant association was noted with IC50 values for artemether (mean IC50 (95% CI) values of 8.7 (5.9 - 11.6) versus 16.3 (10.7 - 21.8) nM with a mean increase of 87%; p = 0.0068). Previously described SNPs in pfmdr1 are also associated with differences in sensitivity to some artemisinins. CONCLUSIONS: These findings were further explored in molecular modelling experiments that suggest mutations in pfatp6 are unlikely to affect differential binding of artemisinins at their proposed site, whereas there may be differences in such binding associated with mutations in pfmdr1. Implications for a hypothesis that artemisinin resistance may be exacerbated by interactions between PfATP6 and PfMDR1 and for epidemiological studies to monitor emerging resistance are discussed.

  12. Antibacterial and antibiotic-resistance modifying activity of the extracts and compounds from Nauclea pobeguinii against Gram-negative multi-drug resistant phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seukep, Jackson A; Sandjo, Louis P; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; Kuete, Victor

    2016-07-07

    Multi-drug resistance of Gram-negative bacteria constitutes a major obstacle in the antibacterial fight worldwide. The discovery of new and effective antimicrobials and/or resistance modulators is necessary to combat the spread of resistance or to reverse the multi-drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial and antibiotic-resistance modifying activities against 29 Gram-negative bacteria including multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes of the methanol extracts from Nauclea pobeguiinii leaves (NPL), Nauclea pobeguiinii bark (NPB) and six compounds from the bark extract, identified as 3-acetoxy-11-oxo-urs-12-ene (1), p-coumaric acid (2), citric acid trimethyl ester (3), resveratrol (4), resveratrol β- D -glucopyranoside (5) and strictosamide (6). The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of crude extracts and compounds as well as the antibiotic-resistance modifying effects of MPB and 4. MIC determinations indicate values ranging from 32-1024 μg/mL for NPB and NPL on 89.7 % and 69.0 % of the tested bacterial strains respectively. MIC values below 100 μg/mL were obtained with NPB against Escherichia coli ATCC10536, AG100 and Enterobacter aerogenes CM64 strains. The lowest MIC value for crude extracts of 32 μg/mL was obtained with NPB against E. coli ATCC10536. Compound 4 was active all tested bacteria, whilst 1, 3 and 6 displayed weak and selective inhibitory effects. The corresponding MIC value (16 μg/mL) was obtained with 4 against Klebsiella pneumoniae KP55 strain. Synergistic effects of the combination of NPB with chloramphenicol (CHL), kanamycin (KAN) as well as that of compound 4 with streptomycin (STR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) were observed. The present study provides information on the possible use of Nauclea pobeguinii and compound 4 in the control of Gram-negative bacterial infections including MDR phenotypes. It also indicates

  13. Evolutionary Genetic Analysis Uncovers Multiple Species with Distinct Habitat Preferences and Antibiotic Resistance Phenotypes in the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Complex

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    Luz E. Ochoa-Sánchez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Stenotrophomonas (Gammaproteobacteria has a broad environmental distribution. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is its best known species because it is a globally emerging, multidrug-resistant (MDR, opportunistic pathogen. Members of this species are known to display high genetic, ecological and phenotypic diversity, forming the so-called S. maltophilia complex (Smc. Heterogeneous resistance and virulence phenotypes have been reported for environmental Smc isolates of diverse ecological origin. We hypothesized that this heterogeneity could be in part due to the potential lumping of several cryptic species in the Smc. Here we used state-of-the-art phylogenetic and population genetics methods to test this hypothesis based on the multilocus dataset available for the genus at pubmlst.org. It was extended with sequences from complete and draft genome sequences to assemble a comprehensive set of reference sequences. This framework was used to analyze 108 environmental isolates obtained in this study from the sediment and water column of four rivers and streams in Central Mexico, affected by contrasting levels of anthropogenic pollution. The aim of the study was to identify species in this collection, defined as genetically cohesive sequence clusters, and to determine the extent of their genetic, ecological and phenotypic differentiation. The multispecies coalescent, coupled with Bayes factor analysis was used to delimit species borders, together with population genetic structure analyses, recombination and gene flow estimates between sequence clusters. These analyses consistently revealed that the Smc contains at least 5 significantly differentiated lineages: S. maltophilia and Smc1 to Smc4. Only S. maltophilia was found to be intrinsically MDR, all its members expressing metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs. The other Smc lineages were not MDR and did not express MBLs. We also obtained isolates related to S. acidaminiphila, S. humi and S. terrae. They

  14. Polymorphisms in the xenobiotic transporter Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1) and interaction with meat intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Østergaard, Mette; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    The xenobiotic transporters, Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1/ABCB1) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) may restrict intestinal absorption of various carcinogens, including heterocyclic amines (HCA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived prostaglandins promote gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, affecting angiogenesis, apoptosis, and invasiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in these genes were associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and to investigate possible interactions with lifestyle factors such as smoking, meat consumption, and NSAID use. The following polymorphisms were analyzed; a synonymous MDR1 C3435T (rs1045642) in exon26, G-rs3789243-A in intron3, the functional BCRP C421A (rs2231142), the two COX-2 A-1195G (rs689466) and G-765C (rs20417) in the promoter region, and the COX-2 T8473C (rs5275) polymorphisms in the 3'-untranslated region. The polymorphisms were assessed together with lifestyle factors in a nested case-cohort study of 359 cases and a random cohort sample of 765 participants from the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer and Health study. Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 intron 3 polymorphism were at 1.52-fold higher risk of CRC than homozygous wild type allele carriers (Incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.52, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.12-2.06). Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 C3435T exon 26 had a lower risk of CRC than homozygous C-allele carriers (IRR = 0.71 (CI:0.50-1.00)). There was interaction between these MDR1 polymorphisms and intake of red and processed meat in relation to CRC risk. Homozygous MDR1 C3435T C-allele carriers were at 8% increased risk pr 25 gram meat per day (CI: 1.00-1.16) whereas variant allele carriers were not at increased risk (p for interaction = 0.02). COX-2 and BCRP polymorphisms were not associated with CRC risk. There was interaction between NSAID use and MDR1 C3435T and COX-2 T8473C (p-values for interaction 0

  15. Phenotypic occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2017-03-13

    Mar 13, 2017 ... Because of the ability of the staphylococci to change resistance pattern over time, MRSA may continue to be a problem in the future. In Africa, relatively high prevalence rates of MRSA have been reported especially in Nigeria, Kenya and Cameroon (20-76%) and below 10% in Tunisia and Algeria (Nwanko ...

  16. Phenotypic occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the occurrence of MRSA among camels in Kano abattoir, a total of 300 nasal swabs were collected from camels at the lairage in Kano abattoir, Kano state, Nigeria to isolate and biochemically characterize Staphylococcus aureus and confirm methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among isolates using ...

  17. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Myristica fragrans seed (nutmeg) extract and its antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Senthilkumar; Sivaji, Ilakkia; Kandasamy, Selvam; Duraisamy, Senbagam; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2017-06-01

    Biosynthesis of nanoparticles has received increasing attention due its effective mode of action, eco-friendly preparation methodology, and less cytotoxicity. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from aqueous seed extract of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) were characterized. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of bioactive components acts as effective in reducing and capping agents for converting AgNO 3 to AgNPs. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the biologically reduced reaction mixture showed the surface plasmon peak at 420 nm, which is the characteristic peak of AgNPs. The functional molecules present in the M. fragrans seed extract and their interaction with the AgNPs were identified by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic silver nanoparticle and diameter was calculated using Scherrer's equation. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) image showed spherical shaped particles with an average size of 25 nm. The scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) confirmed the presence of elemental silver. The antibacterial activity of biosynthesized AgNPs was evaluated against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) according to agar well diffusion, MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration), and IC 50 (inhibitory concentration 50%). The results confirm that bacterial growth was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Further, the cytotoxic effect of biosynthesized AgNPs on rat spleenocytes was analyzed. Thus, it is suggested that the nutmeg-biosynthesized AgNPs could be a lead drug and used effectively to control the MDR S. Typhi, thereby reducing public health issues and environmental pollution.

  18. The roles of variants in human multidrug resistance (MDR1 gene and their haplotypes on antiepileptic drugs response: a meta-analysis of 57 studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported the associations between the ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1, also known as MDR1 polymorphisms and their haplotypes with risk of response to antiepileptic drugs in epilepsy, however, the results were inconclusive.The Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI and Chinese Biomedicine databases were searched up to July 15, 2014. Pooled odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using a fixed-effects or random-effects model based on heterogeneity tests. Meta-regression and Galbraith plot analysis were carried out to explore the possible heterogeneity.A total of 57 studies involving 12407 patients (6083 drug-resistant and 6324 drug-responsive patients with epilepsy were included in the pooled-analysis. For all three polymorphisms (C3435T, G2677T/A, and C1236T, we observed a wide spectrum of minor allele frequencies across different ethnicities. A significantly decreased risk of AEDs resistance was observed in Caucasian patients with T allele of C3435T variant, which was still significant after adjusted by multiple testing corrections (T vs C: OR=0.83, 95%CI=0.71-0.96, p=0.01. However, no significant association was observed between the other two variants and AEDs resistance. Of their haplotypes in ABCB1 gene (all studies were in Indians and Asians, no significant association was observed with AEDs resistance. Moreover, sensitivity and Cumulative analysis showed that the results of this meta-analysis were stable.In summary, this meta-analysis demonstrated that effect of C3435T variant on risk of AEDs resistance was ethnicity-dependent, which was significant in Caucasians. Additionally, further studies in different ethnic groups are warranted to clarify possible roles of haplotypes in ABCB1 gene in AEDs resistance, especially in Caucasians.

  19. IPEC-J2 MDR1, a Novel High-Resistance Cell Line with Functional Expression of Human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) for Drug Screening Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lasse; Helms, Hans Christian Cederberg; Brodin, Birger

    2016-01-01

    The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump has been shown to affect drug distribution and absorption in various organs and to cause drug resistance in cancer therapy. The aim of this work was to develop a cell line to serve as a screening system for potential substrates of P-gp. This requires a cell...... line with high paracellular tightness, low expression of nonhuman ABC transporters, and high expression of functional human P-gp (ABCB1). The porcine intestinal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2, was selected as a transfection host, due to its ability to form extremely high-resistance monolayers (>10,000 Ω......·cm(2)) and its low endogenous expression of ABC-type efflux transporters. The IPEC-J2 cells were transfected with a plasmid that contained the sequence of the human MDR1 gene, which encodes P-gp, followed by a selection of successfully transfected cells with geneticin and puromycin. The resulting cell...

  20. 2'-O-methyl-modified anti-MDR1 fork-siRNA duplexes exhibiting high nuclease resistance and prolonged silencing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova Kruglova, Natalya S; Meschaninova, Mariya I; Venyaminova, Alya G; Zenkova, Marina A; Vlassov, Valentin V; Chernolovskaya, Elena L

    2010-12-01

    The thermodynamic asymmetry of siRNA duplexes determines their silencing activity. Favorable asymmetry can be achieved by incorporation of mismatches into the 3' part of the sense strand, providing fork-siRNAs, which exhibit higher silencing activity and higher sensitivity to nucleases. Recently, we found that selective 2'-O-methyl modifications of the nuclease-sensitive sites of siRNA significantly improve its nuclease resistance without substantial loss of silencing activity. Here, we examined the impact of nucleotide mismatches and the number and location of 2'-O-methyl modifications on the silencing activity and nuclease resistance of anti-MDR1 siRNAs. We found that both nonmodified and selectively modified fork-siRNAs with 4 mismatches at the 3' end of the sense strand suppress the expression of target gene at lower effective concentrations than the parent siRNAs with classical duplex design. The selective modification of nuclease-sensitive sites significantly improved the stability of fork-siRNAs in the presence of serum. The selectively modified fork-siRNA duplexes provided inhibitory effect over a period of 12 days posttransfection, whereas the gene silencing activity of the nonmodified analogs expired within 6 days. Thus, selective chemical modifications and structural alteration of siRNA duplexes improve their silencing properties and significantly prolong the duration of their silencing effect.

  1. Multiple Origins of Mutations in the mdr1 Gene—A Putative Marker of Chloroquine Resistance in P. vivax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Mette L; Ranjitkar, Samir; Rajakaruna, Rupika S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chloroquine combined with primaquine has been the recommended antimalarial treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria infections for six decades but the efficacy of this treatment regimen is threatened by chloroquine resistance (CQR). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the multidrug...... resistance gene, Pvmdr1 are putative determinants of CQR but the extent of their emergence at population level remains to be explored. OBJECTIVE: In this study we describe the prevalence of SNPs in the Pvmdr1 among samples collected in seven P. vivax endemic countries and we looked for molecular evidence...

  2. Rapid electrochemical phenotypic profiling of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besant, Justin D; Sargent, Edward H; Kelley, Shana O

    2015-07-07

    Rapid phenotyping of bacteria to identify drug-resistant strains is an important capability for the treatment and management of infectious disease. At present, the rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibility is hindered by the requirement that, in existing devices, bacteria must be pre-cultured for 2-3 days to reach detectable levels. Here we report a novel electrochemical approach that achieves rapid readout of the antibiotic susceptibility profile of a bacterial infection within one hour. The electrochemical reduction of a redox-active molecule is monitored that reports on levels of metabolically-active bacteria. Bacteria are captured in miniaturized wells, incubated with antimicrobials and monitored for resistance. This electrochemical phenotyping approach is effective with clinically-relevant levels of bacteria, and provides results comparable to culture-based analysis. Results, however, are delivered on a much faster timescale, with resistance profiles available after a one hour incubation period.

  3. Digoxin up-regulates multidrug resistance transporter (MDR1) mRNA and simultaneously down-regulates steroid xenobiotic receptor mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Kohji; Takagi, Kentaro; Tsujimoto, Masayuki; Ohnishi, Noriaki; Yokoyama, Teruyoshi

    2003-06-20

    A steroid xenobiotic receptor (SXR) is involved in the induction of MDR1/P-glycoprotein. MDR1 up-regulation by digoxin was previously demonstrated in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells, but the participation of SXR remains unclear. Herein, the participation of SXR in MDR1 up-regulation was examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in Caco-2 cells, and digoxin-tolerant cells (Caco/DX) as well as human colon carcinoma LS180 cells, which expressed SXR. MDR1 mRNA expression in Caco-2 or LS180 cells was increased by exposure to 1 microM digoxin for 24h, in a concentration-dependent manner, but SXR mRNA decreased concentration-dependently and was undetectable or significantly lower at 1 microM digoxin, indicating antithetical changes in MDR1 and SXR mRNA expression. Moreover, the MDR1 mRNA level was higher in Caco/DX cells than Caco-2 cells, whereas the SXR mRNA level was lower in Caco/DX cells. Consequently, digoxin was demonstrated to up-regulate MDR1 mRNA and simultaneously down-regulate SXR mRNA expression.

  4. Metallo- β-lactamases among Multidrug Resistant (MDR Gram Negative Bacteria Isolated from Clinical Specimens during 2009 in Sanandaj, Kurdistan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himen Salimizand

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, there are numerous reports about emerging multi drug resistant gram negative bacteria all around the world, especially in ICUs. Rarely, Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL enzymes are responsible for these cases. Study of MBLs for diagnosing and preventing distribution of the origin of infection are critical issues. In addition, we would like to compare the efficacy of Iranian and foreign- made antibiotic disks. Materials and Methods: During 2009 all entered clinical specimens to the laboratory tested for detecting gram negative bacteria. Isolated bacteria were tested by Kirby-Bauer method to antibiotic susceptibility test by Iranian and foreign (MAST disks. For gram negative carbapenem resistant isolates, PCR technique used to detect VIM, GIM, and SIM variants of MBLs.Results: During one year, 17890 clinical specimens referred Besat laboratory. The most specimen was Urine (8172 followed by blood culture (5190 that in which 1110 gram negative and positives isolated. Out of which, 778 (70% of isolates were gram negatives. MDR gram negatives were 157 (20.2%. Imipenem and meropenem were the most efficient antibiotics (all susceptible and ceftriaxone was the least (19 % susceptible. E. coli was the most prevalent isolate. 79 Gram negative isolates (10.1% were resistant to Iranian-made discs but all susceptible for foreign ones. All 79 isolates were tested by PCR for MBL genes, that, all were negative. Besides, Iranian imipenem and cefepime disks have had distinguishable difference in susceptibility of isolates.Conclusion: Fortunately, none of gram negative isolates were MBL producer, which revealed no colonization of MBL producing bacteria. Iranian-made disks appear efficient except for imipenem and cefepime.

  5. Mycosynthesis, characterization and antibacterial properties of AgNPs against multidrug resistant (MDR bacterial pathogens of female infertility cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnusamy Manogaran Gopinath

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using bacteria, fungus and plants has emerged as a simple and viable alternative to more complex physical and chemical synthetic procedures. The present investigation explains rapid and extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using fungus Fusarium oxysporum NGD and characterization of the synthesized silver nanoparticles using UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The size range of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was around 16.3–70 nm. The FTIR studies showed major peaks of proteins involved in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Further, antibacterial effect of the silver nanoparticles against multidrug resistant pathogens Enterobacter sp. ANT 02 [HM803168], Pseudomonas aeruginosa ANT 04 [HM803170], Klebsiella pneumoniae ANT 03 [HM803169] and Escherichia coli ANT 01 [HM803167] was tested using turbidometric assay at 10, 20, 30, 40 μg AgNPs/ml alone and in combination with ampicillin using agar well diffusion assay. All the resistant bacteria were found to be susceptible to the antibiotic in the presence of the silver nanoparticles.

  6. Adaptive Laboratory Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance Using Different Selection Regimes Lead to Similar Phenotypes and Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Leonie Johanna; Munck, Christian; Ellabaan, Mostafa M Hashim

    2017-01-01

    compare the geno- and phenotypes of Escherichia coli after evolution to Amikacin, Piperacillin, and Tetracycline under four different selection regimes. Interestingly, key mutations that confer antibiotic resistance as well as phenotypic changes like collateral sensitivity and cross-resistance emerge...

  7. Multiple Origins of Mutations in the mdr1 Gene--A Putative Marker of Chloroquine Resistance in P. vivax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette L Schousboe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chloroquine combined with primaquine has been the recommended antimalarial treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria infections for six decades but the efficacy of this treatment regimen is threatened by chloroquine resistance (CQR. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the multidrug resistance gene, Pvmdr1 are putative determinants of CQR but the extent of their emergence at population level remains to be explored.In this study we describe the prevalence of SNPs in the Pvmdr1 among samples collected in seven P. vivax endemic countries and we looked for molecular evidence of drug selection by characterising polymorphism at microsatellite (MS loci flanking the Pvmdr1 gene.We examined the prevalence of SNPs in the Pvmdr1 gene among 267 samples collected from Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Sudan, São Tomé and Ecuador. We measured and diversity in four microsatellite (MS markers flanking the Pvmdr1 gene to look evidence of selection on mutant alleles.SNP polymorphism in the Pvmdr1 gene was largely confined to codons T958M, Y976F and F1076L. Only 2.4% of samples were wildtype at all three codons (TYF, n = 5, 13.3% (n = 28 of the samples were single mutant MYF, 63.0% of samples (n = 133 were double mutant MYL, and 21.3% (n = 45 were triple mutant MFL. Clear geographic differences in the prevalence of these Pvmdr mutation combinations were observed. Significant linkage disequilibrium (LD between Pvmdr1 and MS alleles was found in populations sampled in Ecuador, Nepal and Sri Lanka, while significant LD between Pvmdr1 and the combined 4 MS locus haplotype was only seen in Ecuador and Sri Lanka. When combining the 5 loci, high level diversity, measured as expected heterozygosity (He, was seen in the complete sample set (He = 0.99, while He estimates for individual loci ranged from 0.00-0.93. Although Pvmdr1 haplotypes were not consistently associated with specific flanking MS alleles, there was significant differentiation between geographic

  8. Carfilzomib resistance due to ABCB1/MDR1 overexpression is overcome by nelfinavir and lopinavir in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, A; Stolze, S C; Rasche, L; Weinhold, N; Morgan, G J; Kraus, M; Bader, J; Overkleeft, H S; Besse, L; Driessen, C

    2018-02-01

    Proteasome inhibitor (PI) carfilzomib (CFZ) has activity superior to bortezomib (BTZ) and is increasingly incorporated in multiple myeloma (MM) frontline therapy and relapsed settings. Most MM patients ultimately experience PI-refractory disease, an unmet medical need with poorly understood biology and dismal outcome. Pharmacologic targeting of ABCB1 improved patient outcomes, including MM, but suffered from adverse drug effects and insufficient plasma concentrations. Proteomics analysis identified ABCB1 overexpression as the most significant change in CFZ-resistant MM cells. We addressed the functional role of ABCB1 overexpression in MM and observed significantly upregulated ABCB1 in peripheral blood malignant plasma cells (PCs) vs untreated patients' bone marrow PC. ABCB1 overexpression reduces the proteasome-inhibiting activity of CFZ due to drug efflux, in contrast to BTZ. Likewise, the cytotoxicity of established anti-MM drugs was significantly reduced in ABCB1-expressing MM cells. In search for potential drugs targeting ABCB1 in clinical trials, we identified the HIV protease inhibitors nelfinavir (NFV) and lopinavir (LPV) as potent functional modulators of ABCB1-mediated drug export, most likely via modulation of mitochondria permeability transition pore. NFV and LPV restored CFZ activity at therapeutically relevant drug levels and thus represent ready-to-use drugs to be tested in clinical trials to target ABCB1 and to re-sensitize PC to established myeloma drugs, in particular CFZ.

  9. Phenotypic Detection and Antibiogram of β‑lactamase‑producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None of the isolates were resistant to piperacillin‑tazobactam. P. penneri isolates exhibited high resistance to most of the antibiotics. Conclusions: A high prevalence of ESBL and AmpC β‑lactamases was found that concurrently showed MDR. Phenotypic methods for the detection of β‑lactamases are easy and simple and ...

  10. High throughput phenotyping for aphid resistance in large plant collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phloem-feeding insects are among the most devastating pests worldwide. They not only cause damage by feeding from the phloem, thereby depleting the plant from photo-assimilates, but also by vectoring viruses. Until now, the main way to prevent such problems is the frequent use of insecticides. Applying resistant varieties would be a more environmental friendly and sustainable solution. For this, resistant sources need to be identified first. Up to now there were no methods suitable for high throughput phenotyping of plant germplasm to identify sources of resistance towards phloem-feeding insects. Results In this paper we present a high throughput screening system to identify plants with an increased resistance against aphids. Its versatility is demonstrated using an Arabidopsis thaliana activation tag mutant line collection. This system consists of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer and the circulative virus Turnip yellows virus (TuYV. In an initial screening, with one plant representing one mutant line, 13 virus-free mutant lines were identified by ELISA. Using seeds produced from these lines, the putative candidates were re-evaluated and characterized, resulting in nine lines with increased resistance towards the aphid. Conclusions This M. persicae-TuYV screening system is an efficient, reliable and quick procedure to identify among thousands of mutated lines those resistant to aphids. In our study, nine mutant lines with increased resistance against the aphid were selected among 5160 mutant lines in just 5 months by one person. The system can be extended to other phloem-feeding insects and circulative viruses to identify insect resistant sources from several collections, including for example genebanks and artificially prepared mutant collections.

  11. Distribution of the Strains of Multidrug-resistant, Extensively Drug-resistant, and Pandrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Burn Patients

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    Hajieh Ghasemian Safaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic and Gram-negative pathogen that is used as the most important factor in burn wound infections, and due to the rapid acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR, it causes high mortality rates in these sectors. Thus, diagnosis and assessment of antibiotic resistance patterns are very important in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibiotic resistance pattern and determining P. aeruginosa MDR. Materials and Methods: In this study, phenotypic, biochemical, and polymerase chain reaction tests were used to identify P. aeruginosa from 120 wound burn samples that 96 samples were detected to P. aeruginosa species. In the next step, according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute standard guidelines, antibiogram test was performed by disk diffusion method for amikacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, gentamicin, cefepime, aztreonam, meropenem, colistin, ceftazidime, and piperacillin-tazobactam antibiotics. Antibiotic data were analyzed by WHONET software; finally, the rate of antibiotic resistance and MDR strains was determined. Results: The highest antibiotic resistance belonged to amikacin (94.8% and norfloxacin (90.6%; in contrast, colistin (8.3% had the lowest and the MDR strains were MDR (95.8% and extensively drug resistance (XDR (87.5%. Conclusion: In this study, there was MDR with an alarming rate including MDR (95.8%, XDR (87.5%, and pan-drug resistance (0%. As a result, given antibiotics to patients should be controlled by the antibiogram results to avoid increasing MDR strains.

  12. In vivo RNA interference-mediated ablation of MDR1 P-glycoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pichler, Andrea; Zelcer, Noam; Prior, Julie L.; Kuil, Annemieke J.; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2005-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major obstacle to successful chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer and can be caused by overexpression of P-glycoprotein, the MDR1 gene product. To further validate a knockdown approach for circumventing MDR, we developed a P-glycoprotein inhibition strategy using

  13. Multidrug resistance phenotypes are widespread over different bacterial taxonomic groups thriving in surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso-da-Rocha, Carlos; Manaia, Célia M

    2016-09-01

    The environment is the original and most ancient source of the antibiotic resistance determinants that threat the human health nowadays. In the environment, water is a privileged habitat and mode of dissemination of bacteria of different origins. Freshwater bodies that cross urban areas are supposed to hold a complex mixture of both human/animal origin and strictly environmental bacteria. In this study, we were interested in unveiling the bacterial diversity in urban river transects and, simultaneously, investigate the occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, in particular the multidrug resistant (MDR). With this aim, water and sediments of two rivers were sampled from an urban transect and the bacterial diversity was assessed based on 16S rRNA gene-based community analysis and, simultaneously, total heterotrophic bacteria were isolated in the presence and in the absence of antibiotics. The three predominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, in water, or Acidobacteria, in sediments. MDR bacteria were observed to belong to the predominant phyla observed in water, mostly of the classes Gamma- and Betaproteobacteria (Proteobacteria) and Sphingobacteriia and Flavobacteriia (Bacteroidetes) and belonged to genera of ubiquitous (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas) or mainly environmental (Chitinophaga, Chryseobacterium) bacteria. The observation that MDR bacteria are widespread in the environment and over distinct phylogenetic lineages has two relevant implications: i) the potential of environmental bacteria as source or facilitators for antibiotic resistance acquisition; ii) the need to complement culture-independent methods with culture-based approaches in order to identify major sources of MDR profiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Sudanese Patients

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    Solima M. A. Sabeel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Currently, mutations in rpoB, KatG, and rrs genes and inhA promoter were considered to be involved in conferring resistance to rifampicin, isoniazid, and streptomycin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB. Objective. The aims of this study were to detect the prevalence of first-line tuberculosis (TB drug resistance among a group of previously treated and newly detected TB patients, to determine the association between prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR and demographic information (age and sex, to explain genes correlated with MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and to characterize MTB via 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA analysis. Methods. A hundred MTB isolates from Sudanese pulmonary TB patients were included in the study. The proportional method of drug susceptibility test was carried out on Löwenstein-Jensen media. Multiplex PCR of rpoB and KatG genes and inhA promoter was conducted; then rrs genes were amplified by conventional PCR and were sequenced. The sequences of the PCR product were compared with known rrs gene sequences in the GenBank database by multiple sequence alignment tools. Result. The prevalence of MDR was 14.7% among old cases and 5.3% among newly diagnosed cases. Conclusion. Mutations in rrs could be considered as a diagnostic marker.

  15. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from ready-to-eat food of animal origin--phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpińska, Magda; Łaniewska-Trokenheim, Łucja

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from 146 ready-to-eat food of animal origin (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes). 58 strains were isolated, they were classified as Staphylococcus xylosus (n = 29), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 16); Staphylococcus lentus (n = 7); Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n = 4); Staphylococcus hyicus (n = 1) and Staphylococcus simulans (n = 1) by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Isolates were tested for resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, cefoxitin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, tigecycline, rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, linezolid, trimetoprim, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin by the disk diffusion method. PCR was used for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes encoding: methicillin resistance--mecA; macrolide resistance--erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mrs(A/B); efflux proteins tet(K) and tet(L) and ribosomal protection proteins tet(M). For all the tet(M)-positive isolates the presence of conjugative transposons of the Tn916-Tn1545 family was determined. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (41.3%) followed by clindamycin (36.2%), tigecycline (24.1%), rifampicin (17.2%) and erythromycin (13.8%). 32.2% staphylococcal isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). All methicillin resistant staphylococci harboured mecA gene. Isolates, phenotypic resistant to tetracycline, harboured at least one tetracycline resistance determinant on which tet(M) was most frequent. All of the isolates positive for tet(M) genes were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545 -like integrase family gene. In the erythromycin-resistant isolates, the macrolide resistance genes erm(C) or msr(A/B) were present. Although coagulase-negative staphylococci are not classical food poisoning bacteria, its presence in food could be of public health significance due to the possible spread of

  16. High Frequency of a Single Nucleotide Substitution (c.-6-180T>G) of the Canine MDR1/ABCB1 Gene Associated with Phenobarbital-Resistant Idiopathic Epilepsy in Border Collie Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Mizukami, Keijiro; Yabuki, Akira; Chang, Hye-Sook; Uddin, Mohammad Mejbah; Rahman, Mohammad Mahbubur; Kushida, Kazuya; Kohyama, Moeko; Yamato, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    A single nucleotide substitution (c.-6-180T>G) associated with resistance to phenobarbital therapy has been found in the canine MDR1/ABCB1 gene in Border Collies with idiopathic epilepsy. In the present study, a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was developed for genotyping this mutation, and a genotyping survey was carried out in a population of 472 Border Collies in Japan to determine the current allele frequency. The survey demonstrated the frequencies of the T/T wild type...

  17. Transmission of MDR and XDR tuberculosis in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhao

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant (MDR and extensively drug-resistant (XDR tuberculosis (TB are global health problems. We sought to determine the characteristics, prevalence, and relative frequency of transmission of MDR and XDR TB in Shanghai, one of the largest cities in Asia.TB is diagnosed in district TB hospitals in Shanghai, China. Drug susceptibility testing for first-line drugs was performed for all culture positive TB cases, and tests for second-line drugs were performed for MDR cases. VNTR-7 and VNTR-16 were used to genotype the strains, and prior treatment history and treatment outcomes were determined for each patient.There were 4,379 culture positive TB cases diagnosed with drug susceptibility test results available during March 2004 through November 2007. 247 (5.6% were infected with a MDR strain of M. tuberculosis and 11 (6.3% of the 175 MDR patients whose isolate was tested for susceptibility to second-line drugs, were XDR. More than half of the patients with MDR and XDR were newly diagnosed and had no prior history of TB treatment. Nearly 57% of the patients with MDR were successfully treated.Transmission of MDR and XDR strains is a serious problem in Shanghai. While a history of prior anti-TB treatment indicates which individuals may have acquired MDR or XDR TB, it does not accurately predict which TB patients have disease caused by transmission of MDR and XDR strains. Therefore, universal drug susceptibility testing is recommended for new and retreatment TB cases.

  18. Mechanisms of resistance in nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica strains exhibiting a nonclassical quinolone resistance phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunell, Marianne; Webber, Mark A; Kotilainen, Pirkko; Lilly, Andrew J; Caddick, Jonathan M; Jalava, Jari; Huovinen, Pentti; Siitonen, Anja; Hakanen, Antti J; Piddock, Laura J V

    2009-09-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica strains with a nonclassical quinolone resistance phenotype were isolated from patients returning from Thailand or Malaysia to Finland. A total of 10 isolates of seven serovars were studied in detail, all of which had reduced susceptibility (MIC > or = 0.125 microg/ml) to ciprofloxacin but were either susceptible or showed only low-level resistance (MIC resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE by PCR and denaturing high-pressure liquid chromatography and the amplification of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qnrD, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qepA by PCR. PMQR was confirmed by plasmid analysis, Southern hybridization, and plasmid transfer. No mutations in the QRDRs of gyrA, gyrB, parC, or parE were detected with the exception of a Thr57-Ser substitution within ParC seen in all but the S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. The qnrA and qnrS genes were the only PMQR determinants detected. Plasmids carrying qnr alleles were transferable in vitro, and the resistance phenotype was reproducible in Escherichia coli DH5alpha transformants. These data demonstrate the emergence of a highly mobile qnr genotype that, in the absence of mutation within topoisomerase genes, confers the nontypical quinolone resistance phenotype in S. enterica isolates. The qnr resistance mechanism enables bacteria to survive elevated quinolone concentrations, and therefore, strains carrying qnr alleles may be able to expand during fluoroquinolone treatment. This is of concern since nonclassical quinolone resistance is plasmid mediated and therefore mobilizable.

  19. Mdr65 decreases toxicity of multiple insecticides in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haina; Buchon, Nicolas; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2017-10-01

    ABC transporters are ubiquitous membrane-bound proteins, present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The major function of eukaryotic ABC transporters is to mediate the efflux of a variety of substrates (including xenobiotics) out of cells. ABC transporters have been widely investigated in humans, particularly for their involvement in multidrug resistance (MDR). Considerably less is known about their roles in transport and/or excretion in insects. ABC transporters are only known to function as exporters in insects. Drosophila melanogaster has 56 ABC transporter genes, including eight which are phylogenetically most similar to the human Mdr genes (ABCB1 clade). We investigated the role of ABC transporters in the ABCB1 clade in modulating the susceptibility to insecticides. We took advantage of the GAL4/UAS system in D. melanogaster to knockdown the expression levels of Mdr65, Mdr50, Mdr49 and ABCB6 using transgenic UAS-RNAi lines and conditional driver lines. The most notable effects were increased sensitivities to nine different insecticides by silencing of Mdr65. Furthermore, a null mutation of Mdr65 decreased the malathion, malaoxon and fipronil LC 50 values by a factor of 1.9, 2.1 and 3.9, respectively. Altogether, this data demonstrates the critical role of ABC transporters, particularly Mdr65, in altering the toxicity of specific, structurally diverse, insecticides in D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid Screening of MDR-TB in Cases of Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis Using Geno Type MTBDRplus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Kumari

    Full Text Available Drug resistance in tuberculosis is a major public health challenge in developing countries. The limited data available on drug resistance in extra pulmonary tuberculosis stimulated us to design our study on anti-tuberculosis drug resistance pattern in cases of extra pulmonary tuberculosis in a tertiary referral hospital of North India. We performed Geno Type MTBDRplus assay in comparison with conventional drug susceptibility testing by proportion method to study the mutation patterns in rpoB, katG and inhA genes.A total of 510 extra pulmonary samples were included in this study. After the smear microscopy, all the specimens were subjected for culture on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ media. Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST was performed on LJ media for all the MTB isolates and compared with the results of Geno Type MTBDRplus assay which was performed with the DNA isolated from the culture by conventional method.Of 510 specimens cultured, the total culture positivity obtained was 11.8% (60 encompassing 54 (10.6% Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 6 (1.2% non-tubercular mycobacteria (NTM. DST results by Geno Type MTBDRplus assay and solid culture methods were compared in 51 MTB isolates excluding the two Rif indeterminate and one invalid test. Geno Type MTBDRplus accurately identified 13 of 14 rifampicin-resistant strains, 14 of 15 isoniazid-resistant strains and 13 of 14 as multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in comparison with conventional method. Sensitivity and specificity were 92.86% and 97.30% respectively for detection of RIF resistance, 93.33% and 94.44% respectively for detection of INH resistance, 92.86% and 97.30% respectively for detection of MDR-TB, while the overall concordance of Geno Type MTBDRplus assay with conventional DST was 94.11%. The turn-around time for performing Geno Type MTBDRplus assay test was 48 hours.The problem of MDR in extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB cannot be overlooked and due attention on patients

  1. New structure-activity relationship studies in a series of N,N-bis(cyclohexanol)amine aryl esters as potent reversers of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, Francesca; Coronnello, Marcella; Bellucci, Cristina; Dei, Silvia; Guandalini, Luca; Manetti, Dina; Martelli, Cecilia; Romanelli, Maria Novella; Scapecchi, Serena; Salerno, Milena; Menif, Hayette; Bello, Ivan; Mini, Enrico; Teodori, Elisabetta

    2013-01-15

    As a continuation of previous research on a new series of potent and efficacious P-gp-dependent multidrug resistant (MDR) reversers with a N,N-bis(cyclohexanol)amine scaffold, we have designed and synthesized several analogs by modulation of the two aromatic moieties linked through ester functions to the N,N-bis(cyclohexanol)amine, aiming to optimize activity and to extend structure-activity relationships (SAR) within the series. This scaffold, when esterified with two different aromatic carboxylic acids, gives origin to four geometric isomers (cis/trans, trans/trans, cis/cis and trans/cis). The new compounds were tested on doxorubicin-resistant erythroleukemia K562 cells (K562/DOX) in the pirarubicin uptake assay. Most of them resulted in being potent modulators of the extrusion pump P-gp, showing potency values ([I](0.5)) in the submicromolar and nanomolar range. Of these, compounds 2b, 2c, 3d, 5a-d and 6d, showed excellent efficacy with a α(max) close to 1. Selected compounds (2d, 3a, 3b, 5a-d) were further studied to evaluate their doxorubicin cytotoxicity potentiation (RF) on doxorubicin-resistant erythroleukemia K562 cells and were found able to enhance significantly doxorubicin cytotoxicity on K562/DOX cells. The results of both pirarubicin uptake and the cytotoxicity assay, indicate that the new compounds of the series are potent P-gp-mediated MDR reversers. They present a structure with a mix of flexible and rigid moieties, a property that seems critical to allow the molecules to choose the most productive of the several binding modes possible in the transporter recognition site. In particular, compounds 5c and 5d, similar to the already reported analogous isomers 1c and 1d,(29) are potent and efficacious modulators of P-gp-dependent MDR and may be promising leads for the development of MDR-reversal drugs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations between Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes, Antimicrobial Resistance Genes, and Virulence Genes of Fecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Healthy Grow-Finish Pigs ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Rosengren, Leigh B.; Waldner, Cheryl L.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Escherichia coli often carries linked antimicrobial resistance genes on transmissible genetic elements. Through coselection, antimicrobial use may select for unrelated but linked resistance or virulence genes. This study used unconditional statistical associations to investigate the relationships between antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and antimicrobial resistance genes in 151 E. coli isolates from healthy pigs. Phenotypic resistance to each drug was significantly associated with phenotyp...

  3. Multiple Genetic Analysis System-Based Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing in Helicobacter pylori and High Eradication Rate With Phenotypic Resistance-Guided Quadruple Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fangyuan; Ji, Danian; Huang, Renxiang; Zhang, Fan; Huang, Yiqin; Xiang, Ping; Kong, Mimi; Nan, Li; Zeng, Xianping; Wu, Yong; Bao, Zhijun

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotics resistance in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major factor for eradication failure. Molecular tests including fluorescence in situ hybridization, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and dual priming oligonucleotide-PCR (DPO-PCR) play critical roles in the detection of antibiotic susceptibility; however, limited knowledge is known about application of multiple genetic analysis system (MGAS) in the area of H. pylori identification and antibiotics resistance detection.The aim of this study is to determine the antibiotics resistance using different molecular tests and evaluate the treatment outcomes of E-test-based genotypic resistance.A total of 297 patients with dyspepsia complaint were recruited for gastroscopies. Ninety patients with H. pylori culture positive were randomly divided into 2 groups (test group and control group). E-test, general PCR, and MGAS assay were performed in test group. Patients in control group were treated with empirical therapy (rabeprazole + bismuth potassium citrate + amoxicillin [AMX] + clarithromycin [CLR]), whereas patients in test group received quadruple therapy based on E-test results twice daily for 14 consecutive days. The eradication effect of H. pylori was confirmed by C-urea breath test after at least 4 weeks when treatment was finished.Rapid urease test showed 46.5% (128/297) patients with H. pylori infection, whereas 30.3% (90/297) patients were H. pylori culture positive. E-test showed that H. pylori primary resistance rate to CLR, AMX, metronidazole, tetracycline, and levofloxacin (LVX) was 40.0% (18/45), 4.4% (2/45), 53.3% (24/45), 0% (0/45), and 55.6% (25/45), respectively. In addition, there are many multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes, and the MDR strains have higher minimum inhibitory concentration than their single-drug resistant counterparts. Considering E-test as the reference test, the sensitivities of general PCR and MGAS in detecting CLR resistance were 83.3% (15/18) and 94.4% (17

  4. Environmental and genetic modulation of the phenotypic expression of antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Dan I

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Antibiotic resistance can be acquired by mutation or horizontal transfer of a resistance gene, and generally an acquired mechanism results in a predictable increase in phenotypic resistance. However, recent findings suggest that the environment and/or the genetic context can modify the phenotypic expression of specific resistance genes/mutations. An important implication from these findings is that a given genotype does not always result in the expected phenotype. This dissociation of genotype and phenotype has important consequences for clinical bacteriology and for our ability to predict resistance phenotypes from genetics and DNA sequences. A related problem concerns the degree to which the genes/mutations currently identified in vitro can fully explain the in vivo resistance phenotype, or whether there is a significant additional amount of presently unknown mutations/genes (genetic ‘dark matter’) that could contribute to resistance in clinical isolates. Finally, a very important question is whether/how we can identify the genetic features that contribute to making a successful pathogen, and predict why some resistant clones are very successful and spread globally? In this review, we describe different environmental and genetic factors that influence phenotypic expression of antibiotic resistance genes/mutations and how this information is needed to understand why particular resistant clones spread worldwide and to what extent we can use DNA sequences to predict evolutionary success. PMID:28333270

  5. Enhancing stress resistance and production phenotypes through transcriptome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Felix H; Hartner, Franz S; Fink, Gerald R; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    As Saccharomyces cerevisiae is engineered further as a microbial factory for industrially relevant but potentially cytotoxic molecules such as ethanol, issues of cell viability arise that threaten to place a biological limit on output capacity and/or the use of less refined production conditions. Evidence suggests that one naturally evolved mode of survival in deleterious environments involves the complex, multigenic interplay between disparate stress response and homeostasis mechanisms. Rational engineering of such resistance would require a systems-level understanding of cellular behavior that is, in general, not yet available. To circumvent this limitation, we have developed a phenotype discovery approach termed global transcription machinery engineering (gTME) that allows for the generation and selection of nonphysiological traits. We alter gene expression on a genome-wide scale by selecting for dominant mutations in a randomly mutagenized general transcription factor. The gene encoding the mutated transcription factor resides on a plasmid in a strain carrying the unaltered chromosomal allele. Thus, although the dominant mutations may destroy the essential function of the plasmid-borne variant, alteration of the transcriptome with minimal perturbation to normal cellular processes is possible via the presence of the native genomic allele. Achieving a phenotype of interest involves the construction and diversity evaluation of yeast libraries harboring random sequence variants of a chosen transcription factor and the subsequent selection and validation of mutant strains. We describe the rationale and procedures associated with each step in the context of generating strains possessing enhanced ethanol tolerance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Phenotypic changes contributing to Enterobacter gergoviae biocide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périamé, M; Philippe, N; Condell, O; Fanning, S; Pagès, J-M; Davin-Regli, A

    2015-08-01

    Enterobacter gergoviae is a recurrent contaminant of cosmetic and hygiene products. To understand how this bacterium adapts to biocides, we studied Ent. gergoviae CIP 76.01 and its triclosan and Methylisothiazolinone-chloromethylisothiazolinone (MIT-CMIT) tolerant isogenic mutants. They were compared with others also isolated from contaminated cosmetics. Phenotypic differences were noted and these included changes in the bacterial envelope and flagella along with differences in motility, and biofilm growth rates. Triclosan and MIT-CMIT derivatives expressed flagella and other MIT-CMIT derivatives exhibited some external appendages. Those bacteria expressing a high-level minimal inhibitory concentration to MIT-CMIT, expressed a strong biofilm formation. No differential phenotypes were noted for carbon source utilisation. Enterobacter gergoviae demonstrated a diverse response to both of these preservatives contained in cosmetic preparations, depending on their concentrations. Interestingly, this adaptive response is associated with modifications of filament structure-related proteins contributing to increase the organism motility and the production of biofilm. Recurrent contaminations of cosmetics products by Ent. gergoviae, needed a better understanding concerning the bacterial adaptation to preservative agents, with particular concern to triclosan and MIT-CMIT. We demonstrated that bacteria response is associated to various mechanisms represented by expression of external appendages (pili or fimbriae) that control cell motility and biofilm formation and evolving as the concentration of biocides adaptation increased. Such mechanisms which are not chemical specific can also promote a cross-resistance to other biocidal agents. The characterization of Ent. gergoviae adaptability to biocides allows industry to adjust the ranges of concentrations and composition of preservatives in formula. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Comparative Study on the MDR Reversal Effects of Selected Chalcones

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, A. B.; Batovska, D. I.; Todorova, I. T.; Stamboliyska, B. A.; Serly, J.; Molnar, J.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the structure of three previously established lead compounds, fifteen selected chalcones were synthesized and evaluated for their multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity on mouse lymphoma cells. The most active chalcones were stronger revertants than the positive control, verapamil. In the model of combination chemotherapy, the interactions between the anticancer drug doxorubicin and two of the most effective compounds were measured in vitro, on human MDR1 gene transfected mouse...

  8. High frequency of a single nucleotide substitution (c.-6-180T>G) of the canine MDR1/ABCB1 gene associated with phenobarbital-resistant idiopathic epilepsy in Border Collie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Keijiro; Yabuki, Akira; Chang, Hye-Sook; Uddin, Mohammad Mejbah; Rahman, Mohammad Mahbubur; Kushida, Kazuya; Kohyama, Moeko; Yamato, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    A single nucleotide substitution (c.-6-180T>G) associated with resistance to phenobarbital therapy has been found in the canine MDR1/ABCB1 gene in Border Collies with idiopathic epilepsy. In the present study, a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was developed for genotyping this mutation, and a genotyping survey was carried out in a population of 472 Border Collies in Japan to determine the current allele frequency. The survey demonstrated the frequencies of the T/T wild type, T/G heterozygote, and G/G mutant homozygote to be 60.0%, 30.3%, and 9.8%, respectively, indicating that the frequency of the mutant G allele is extremely high (24.9%) in Border Collies. The results suggest that this high mutation frequency of the mutation is likely to cause a high prevalence of phenobarbital-resistant epilepsy in Border Collies.

  9. High Frequency of a Single Nucleotide Substitution (c.-6-180T>G of the Canine MDR1/ABCB1 Gene Associated with Phenobarbital-Resistant Idiopathic Epilepsy in Border Collie Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keijiro Mizukami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A single nucleotide substitution (c.-6-180T>G associated with resistance to phenobarbital therapy has been found in the canine MDR1/ABCB1 gene in Border Collies with idiopathic epilepsy. In the present study, a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was developed for genotyping this mutation, and a genotyping survey was carried out in a population of 472 Border Collies in Japan to determine the current allele frequency. The survey demonstrated the frequencies of the T/T wild type, T/G heterozygote, and G/G mutant homozygote to be 60.0%, 30.3%, and 9.8%, respectively, indicating that the frequency of the mutant G allele is extremely high (24.9% in Border Collies. The results suggest that this high mutation frequency of the mutation is likely to cause a high prevalence of phenobarbital-resistant epilepsy in Border Collies.

  10. Polymorphisms in the xenobiotic transporter Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1) and interaction with meat intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Østergaard, Mette; Christensen, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Background The xenobiotic transporters, Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1/ABCB1) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) may restrict intestinal absorption of various carcinogens, including heterocyclic amines (HCA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived...... prostaglandins promote gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, affecting angiogenesis, apoptosis, and invasiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in these genes were associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and to investigate possible interactions with lifestyle factors...... (rs5275) polymorphisms in the 3'-untranslated region. The polymorphisms were assessed together with lifestyle factors in a nested case-cohort study of 359 cases and a random cohort sample of 765 participants from the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer and Health study. Results Carriers of the variant...

  11. Phenotypic switching of Candida guilliermondii is associated with pseudohyphae formation and antifungal resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastauskienė, Eglė; Čeputytė, Jolita; Girkontaitė, Irutė; Zinkevičienė, Auksė

    2015-04-01

    Switching between two cell types in fungi is called phenotypic switching, and it is commonly observed in pathogenic yeast. Candida lusitaniae undergoes antifungal resistance-associated phenotypic switching and results in three colony colors: light brown, brown and dark brown. In this study, we included C. lusitaniae as control. This study had two objectives. First, we wanted to evaluate whether also a prevalent human pathogen C. guilliermondii can undergo phenotypic switching. Second, our aim was to determine whether switching can change yeasts susceptibility to antifungals. Yeast suspension (1 × 10(3)-5 × 10(3) c.f.u./ml) was plated on the YPD medium containing 1 mM CuSO4. Colonies exhibiting the original and variant phenotypes were counted and converted to percentage of the population. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of amphotericin B, formic acid and acetic acid for the cells from random colonies of the different phenotypes were determined by microdilution method. After 5 days of incubation, C. guilliermondii switched spontaneously and reversibly among two phenotypes distinguishable on CuSO4 containing agar, white and dark brown. Phenotypes occurred with greater frequency (10(-1)-10(-2)) than spontaneous mutations and were reversible, fulfilling the two phenotypic switching criteria. The study showed that phenotypic switching was associated with filamentation and affected antifungal resistance. Resistance to amphotericin B increased tenfold and was associated with C. lusitaniae dark brown phenotype. C. guilliermondii colonies with brown phenotype displayed 20 and 2 times higher resistance to amphotericin B and acetic acid, respectively.

  12. Reversal of multidrug resistance by small interfering RNA (siRNA) in doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönmez, Yaprak; Gündüz, Ufuk

    2011-03-01

    Resistance to anticancer drugs is a serious obstacle to cancer chemotherapy. A common form of multidrug resistance (MDR) is caused by the overexpression of transmembrane transporter proteins P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP1), encoded by MDR1 and MRP1 genes, respectively. These proteins lead to reduced intracellular drug concentration and decreased cytotoxicity by means of their ability to pump the drugs out of the cells. Breast cancer tumor resistance is mainly associated with overexpression of P-gp/MDR1. Although some chemical MDR modulators aim to overcome MDR by interfering functioning of P-gp, their toxicities limit their usage in clinics. Consequently, RNA interference mediated sequence specific inhibition of the expression of P-gp/MDR1 mRNA may be an efficient tool to reverse MDR phenotype and increase the success of chemotherapy. Aim of this study was resensitizing doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells to anticancer agent doxorubicin by selective downregulation of P-gp/MDR1 mRNA. The effect of the selected MDR1 siRNA, and MRP1 expression after MDR1 silencing was determined by qPCR analysis. Intracellular drug accumulation and localization was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy after treatment with MDR1 siRNA. XTT cell proliferation assay was performed to determine the effect of MDR1 silencing on doxorubicin sensitivity. The results demonstrated that approximately 90% gene silencing occurred by the selected siRNA targeting MDR1 mRNA. However, the level of MRP1 mRNA did not change after MDR1 downregulation. Silencing of P-gp encoding MDR1 gene resulted in almost complete restoration of the intracellular doxorubicin accumulation and relocalization of the drug in the nuclei. Introduction of siRNA resulted in about 70% resensitization to doxorubicin. Selected siRNA duplex was shown to effectively inhibit MDR1 gene expression, restore doxorubicin accumulation and localization, and enhance

  13. Unacceptable treatment outcomes and associated factors among India's initial cohorts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients under the revised national TB control programme (2007-2011): Evidence leading to policy enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Malik M; Sachdeva, Kuldeep Singh; Dewan, Puneet K; Rade, Kiran; Nair, Sreenivas A; Pant, Rashmi; Khaparde, Sunil D

    2018-01-01

    Globally, India has the world's highest burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Programmatic Management of Drug Resistant TB (PMDT) in India began in 2007 and nationwide coverage was achieved in early 2013. Poor initial microbiological outcomes under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) prompted detailed analysis. This is the first study on factors significantly associated with poor outcomes in MDR-TB patients treated under the RNTCP. To evaluate initial sputum culture conversion, culture reversion and final treatment outcomes among MDR-TB patients registered in India from 2007 to early 2011 who were treated with a standard 24-month regimen under daily-observed treatment. This is a retrospective cohort study. Clinical and microbiological data were abstracted from PMDT records. Initial sputum culture conversion, culture reversion and treatment outcomes were defined by country adaptation of the standard WHO definitions (2008). Cox proportional hazards modeling with logistic regression, multinomial logistic regression and adjusted odds ratio was used to evaluate factors associated with interim and final outcomes respectively, controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics. In the cohort of 3712 MDR-TB patients, 2735 (73.6%) had initial sputum culture conversion at 100 median days (IQR 92-125), of which 506 (18.5%) had culture reversion at 279 median days (IQR 202-381). Treatment outcomes were available for 2264 (60.9%) patients while 1448 (39.0%) patients were still on treatment or yet to have a definite outcome at the time of analysis. Of 2264 patients, 781 (34.5%) had treatment success, 644 (28.4%) died, 670 (29.6%) were lost to follow up, 169 (7.5%) experienced treatment failure or were changed to XDR-TB treatment. Factors significantly associated with either culture non-conversion, culture reversion and/or unfavorable treatment outcomes were baseline BMI TB patients, 62 (59.6%) had Ofloxacin resistance among whom only

  14. Cellular immune response in MDR-TB patients to different protein expression of MDR and susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Rv0147, a novel MDR-TB biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Alireza; Yari, Shamsi; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Tabarsi, Payam; Saeedfar, Kayvan; Yari, Fatemeh

    2018-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a crucial public health problem with prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR) rising. An accurate TB biomarker is urgently needed to monitor the response to treatment in patients with MDR tuberculosis. To analyze interaction between selected MDR-TB purified protein and immune cells, dendritic cells from MDR-TB patients and healthy subjects were stimulated by 55KDa protein fractions (Rv0147). The purified proteins identified by proteomic techniques (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry) and peptide sequences are known to bind a MHC class I alleles which are extracted from the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource database ( www.iedb.org ). T cells were isolated from PBMC by negative selection and cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 at 37 °C and 5% CO 2 . Cell culture was assayed for cytokine IL-10 and INF-γ by ELISA. We found that INF-γ production was significantly (335 ± 35.5 pg/ml, P ˂ 0.05) upregulated after protein candidate (Rv0147) stimulation by dendritic cells from MDR-TB patients, whereas IL-10 production was greatly reduced compared with production in healthy subjects (212 ± 9.94 pg/ml, P ˂ 0.05). In fact, the purified protein, Rv0147, stimulated dendritic cells from MDR-TB patients, failed to produce IL-10 and directly stimulates INF-γ production by T cells. These results suggest that the purified protein, Rv0147, may stimulate Th1 type protective cytokine response in MDR-TB patients but not in normal subjects. The production of INF-γ but not IL-10 in the presence of purified protein, Rv0147, may be shifted to Th1 responses in MDR-TB patients and supports its potential as protein vaccine candidates against TB.

  15. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated Multidrug Resistance (MDR) by N,N-bis(cyclohexanol)amine aryl esters: further restriction of molecular flexibility maintains high potency and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Cecilia; Dei, Silvia; Lambert, Catherine; Manetti, Dina; Orlandi, Francesca; Romanelli, Maria Novella; Scapecchi, Serena; Salerno, Milena; Teodori, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Conformational modulation of the aryl portion of a set of N,N-bis(cyclohexanol)amine aryl esters (1a-d) that are potent Pgp-dependent MDR inhibitors has been performed. Toward this end the trans-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acrylic acid present in set 1 was substituted with 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)propanoic and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)propiolic moieties to give sets 2 and 3, respectively. While the introduction of 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)propanoic moiety resulted in a definite drop in potency and efficacy, esterification with 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)propiolic acid gave four isomers (3a-d) that maintain high potency and possess optimal efficacy. These results are discussed in terms of conformational flexibility of the different sets of compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Silencage du gene MDR1 et resensibilisation des cellules MCF-7 MDR a la doxorubicine en utilisant les nanoparticules chitosane/MDR1-siARN

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ariss, Mohamad

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in Canada and is responsible for about 30% of all deaths in the country.[1] It is estimated that by 2015, one in four Canadians (24% women and 29% men) will die from cancer. In the world and only for 2012, 14 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths from the disease were reported.[2] The worst is yet to come because, according to World Health Organization, the number of new cases is expected to increase by about 70% over the next two decades. The high mortality associated with cancer is partly explained by the acquisition of drug resistance that make patients refractory to chemotherapy. In fact, cancer cells exposed to a cytotoxic agent during chemotherapy, may develop a resistance to this agent as well as various agents sharing structural or functional similarities. These cancer cells are known for multidrug resistance ("Multiple Drug resistant cells"). The development of resistance to chimiodrogues is a major public health problem that presents an obstacle for the development of new cancer treatments. MCF-7 MDR are established cell lines of human breast cancer that have developed resistance to chimiodrogues such as doxorubicin. MCF-7 MDR have the particularity to over-express P-gp protein that is responsible for the detoxification of cells by reflux of chimiodrogues. The purpose of this study was therefore to reduce the expression of P-gp, encoded by the MDR1 gene (also called gene ABCB1) in cancer cells MCF-7, and re-sensitize MCF-7 MDR cells to anti-cancer treatments. In order to modify MDR1 gene expression, we used small RNAi called siRNA that are specific to the MDR1 gene. In total, 4 duplexes of siRNA have been used: siRNA_1, siRNA_1M, siRNA_2 and siRNA_2M. Each of the duplexes strands is consists of 21 nucleic acids and has two protruding nucleic acids (overhangs) at the 3' end. siRNA_1 and siRNA_1M are complementary to the nucleic acid sequence (577-595 nucleic acids ) of the MDR1 gene, whereas siARN_2 and si

  17. The multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene polymorphism G-rs3789243-A is not associated with disease susceptibility in Norwegian patients with colorectal adenoma and colorectal cancer; a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, V.; Agerstjerne, L.; Jensen, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Smoking, dietary factors, and alcohol consumption are known life style factors contributing to gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Genetic variations in carcinogen handling may affect cancer risk. The multidrug resistance 1(MDR1/ABCB1) gene encodes the transport protein P-glycoprotein (a...... phase III xenobiotic transporter). P-glycoprotein is present in the intestinal mucosal lining and restricts absorption of certain carcinogens, among these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Moreover, P-glycoprotein transports various endogenous substrates such as cytokines and chemokines involved...... of colorectal carcinomas and adenomas in the Norwegian population was assessed in 167 carcinomas, 990 adenomas, and 400 controls. Genotypes were determined by allelic discrimination. Odds ratio (OR) and 95 confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated by binary logistic regression. Results: No association...

  18. Phenotypic Resistance to Disinfectants and Antibiotics in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espigares, E; Moreno Roldan, E; Espigares, M; Abreu, R; Castro, B; Dib, A L; Arias, Á

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the phenotypic resistances to disinfectants and antibiotics in strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) obtained from Canary black pigs. Analyses were performed on 54 strains of MRSA, isolated in Canary black pigs from the province of Tenerife (Spain); all of them carried the mecA gene. The strains were isolated by means of nasal swab samples of healthy pigs, collected under veterinarian supervision. Bactericidal activity of antiseptics and disinfectants was tested by means of the dilution-neutralization method. Susceptibility to the disinfectants glutaraldehyde, peracetic acid and silver nitrate was assessed, as well as to the antiseptics chlorhexidine, benzalkonium chloride and povidone iodine. Susceptibility to a wide array of antibiotics representing the main groups was determined by means of the disc diffusion method. All the strains demonstrated susceptibility to the disinfectants tested at the recommended concentration, and even to dilutions equal to or lesser than 1/16. The most effective antiseptic and disinfectant were, respectively, chlorhexidine and silver nitrate. With regard to the antibiotics, the strains proved to be multiresistant. All presented phenotypic resistance to the β-lactam antibiotics ampicillin, penicillin and cefoxitin, as well as to numerous aminoglycosides, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. It was also observed that 61.1% of the strains were carriers of plasmids. Our results underline that in the strains such as MRSA, which show multiple resistances to antibiotics, the antiseptics and disinfectants show great efficacy. Moreover, as other authors also suggest, for the treatment and prevention of infections caused by MRSA, the use of β-lactam and aminoglycoside antibiotics may be less effective. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Glyphosate resistance in Echinochloa colona: phenotypic characterisation and quantification of selection intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Sou Sheng; Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Busi, Roberto; Powles, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    A population of Echinochloa colona infesting agricultural fields in the northern region of Western Australia evolved glyphosate resistance after 10 years of glyphosate selection. This study identified two phenotypic (susceptible S versus resistant R) lines from within a segregating glyphosate-resistant population. Estimation of survival, growth and reproductive rates of the phenotypes in response to glyphosate selection helped to characterise the level of resistance, fitness and the selection intensity for glyphosate in this species. Estimations of LD(50) (lethal dose) and GR(50) (growth rate) showed an eightfold glyphosate resistance in this population. The resistant index based on the estimation of seed number (SY(n50)) showed a 13-fold resistance. As a result of linear combination of plant survival and fecundity rates, plant fitness values of 0.2 and 0.8 were estimated for the S and R phenotypes when exposed to the low dose of 270 g glyphosate ha(-1). At the recommended dose of 540 g glyphosate ha(-1) , fitness significantly decreased (fivefold) in S plants but remained markedly similar (0.7) in plants of the R phenotype. Thus, the calculated selection intensity (SI) at 540 g glyphosate ha(-1) was much greater (SI = 17) than at 270 g glyphosate ha(-1) (SI = 4). The assessment of plant survival and fecundity in response to glyphosate selection in the S and R phenotypes allowed a greater accuracy in the estimation of population fitness of both phenotypes and thus of glyphosate selection intensity in E. colona. The estimation of seed number or mass of phenotypes under herbicide selection is a true ecological measure of resistance with implications for herbicide resistance evolution. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Detection of clindamycin susceptibility in macrolide resistant phenotypes of Staphylococcus Aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal R

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at in vitro detection of macrolide resistant phenotypes of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and interpretation of susceptibility tests to guide therapy. The study included 25 MRSA strains that were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin, 25 MRSA strains that were sensitive to both erythromycin and clindamycin and 100 MRSA isolates which displayed erythromycin resistant but clindamycin susceptible phenotype. Erythromycin and clindamycin double disc susceptibility testing was done to detect inducible clindamycin resistance. Dilution susceptibility testing for clindamycin and erythromycin alone and in combination was performed for all 150 strains. Seventy-six strains showed blunting around clindamycin disc (inducible resistance. After induction with erythromycin, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of clindamycin was noticed to rise from atleast 16 to 256 g/mL in iMLSB phenotypes indicating inducible resistance. The detailed result analysis suggests the possible role of clindamycin in treatment of some of the erythromycin resistant isolates (non inducible, as there are multiplicity of resistance mechanisms and diversity of phenotypic expressions.

  1. Fungicide-driven evolution and molecular basis of multidrug resistance in field populations of the grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Kretschmer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea causes losses of commercially important fruits, vegetables and ornamentals worldwide. Fungicide treatments are effective for disease control, but bear the risk of resistance development. The major resistance mechanism in fungi is target protein modification resulting in reduced drug binding. Multiple drug resistance (MDR caused by increased efflux activity is common in human pathogenic microbes, but rarely described for plant pathogens. Annual monitoring for fungicide resistance in field isolates from fungicide-treated vineyards in France and Germany revealed a rapidly increasing appearance of B. cinerea field populations with three distinct MDR phenotypes. All MDR strains showed increased fungicide efflux activity and overexpression of efflux transporter genes. Similar to clinical MDR isolates of Candida yeasts that are due to transcription factor mutations, all MDR1 strains were shown to harbor activating mutations in a transcription factor (Mrr1 that controls the gene encoding ABC transporter AtrB. MDR2 strains had undergone a unique rearrangement in the promoter region of the major facilitator superfamily transporter gene mfsM2, induced by insertion of a retrotransposon-derived sequence. MDR2 strains carrying the same rearranged mfsM2 allele have probably migrated from French to German wine-growing regions. The roles of atrB, mrr1 and mfsM2 were proven by the phenotypes of knock-out and overexpression mutants. As confirmed by sexual crosses, combinations of mrr1 and mfsM2 mutations lead to MDR3 strains with higher broad-spectrum resistance. An MDR3 strain was shown in field experiments to be selected against sensitive strains by fungicide treatments. Our data document for the first time the rising prevalence, spread and molecular basis of MDR populations in a major plant pathogen in agricultural environments. These populations will increase the risk of grey mould rot and hamper the effectiveness of

  2. Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis Accurately Predicts Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes in Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S; Tyson, G H; Chen, Y; Li, C; Mukherjee, S; Young, S; Lam, C; Folster, J P; Whichard, J M; McDermott, P F

    2015-10-30

    The objectives of this study were to identify antimicrobial resistance genotypes for Campylobacter and to evaluate the correlation between resistance phenotypes and genotypes using in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). A total of 114 Campylobacter species isolates (82 C. coli and 32 C. jejuni) obtained from 2000 to 2013 from humans, retail meats, and cecal samples from food production animals in the United States as part of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System were selected for study. Resistance phenotypes were determined using broth microdilution of nine antimicrobials. Genomic DNA was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform, and resistance genotypes were identified using assembled WGS sequences through blastx analysis. Eighteen resistance genes, including tet(O), blaOXA-61, catA, lnu(C), aph(2″)-Ib, aph(2″)-Ic, aph(2')-If, aph(2″)-Ig, aph(2″)-Ih, aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia, aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-If, aac(6')-Im, aadE, sat4, ant(6'), aad9, aph(3')-Ic, and aph(3')-IIIa, and mutations in two housekeeping genes (gyrA and 23S rRNA) were identified. There was a high degree of correlation between phenotypic resistance to a given drug and the presence of one or more corresponding resistance genes. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation was 100% for tetracycline, ciprofloxacin/nalidixic acid, and erythromycin, and correlations ranged from 95.4% to 98.7% for gentamicin, azithromycin, clindamycin, and telithromycin. All isolates were susceptible to florfenicol, and no genes associated with florfenicol resistance were detected. There was a strong correlation (99.2%) between resistance genotypes and phenotypes, suggesting that WGS is a reliable indicator of resistance to the nine antimicrobial agents assayed in this study. WGS has the potential to be a powerful tool for antimicrobial resistance surveillance programs. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Context matters — the complex interplay between resistome genotypes and resistance phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantas, Gautam; Sommer, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Application of metagenomic functional selections to study antibiotic resistance genes is revealing a highly diverse and complex network of genetic exchange between bacterial pathogens and environmental reservoirs, which likely contributes significantly to increasing resistance levels in pathogens....... In some cases, clinically relevant resistance genes have been acquired from organisms where their native function is not antibiotic resistance, and which may not even confer a resistance phenotype in their native context. In this review, we attempt to distinguish the resistance phenotype from...... the resistome genotype, and we highlight examples of genes and their hosts where this distinction becomes important in order to understand the relevance of environmental niches that contribute most to clinical problems associated with antibiotic resistance....

  4. Dietary patterns and the insulin resistance phenotype among non-diabetic adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Information on the relation between dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis and insulin resistance is scarce. Objective: To compare insulin resistance phenotypes, including waist circumference, body mass index, fasting and 2-hour post-challenge insulin, insulin sensitivity index (I...

  5. Phenotypic Resistance and the Dynamics of Bacterial Escape from Phage Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, James J.; Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Schmerer, Matthew; Chaudhry, Waqas Nasir; Levin, Bruce R.

    2014-01-01

    The canonical view of phage - bacterial interactions in dense, liquid cultures is that the phage will eliminate most of the sensitive cells; genetic resistance will then ascend to restore high bacterial densities. Yet there are various mechanisms by which bacteria may remain sensitive to phages but still attain high densities in their presence – because bacteria enter a transient state of reduced adsorption. Importantly, these mechanisms may be cryptic and inapparent prior to the addition of phage yet result in a rapid rebound of bacterial density after phage are introduced. We describe mathematical models of these processes and suggest how different types of this ‘phenotypic’ resistance may be elucidated. We offer preliminary in vitro studies of a previously characterized E. coli model system and Campylobacter jejuni illustrating apparent phenotypic resistance. As phenotypic resistance may be specific to the receptors used by phages, awareness of its mechanisms may identify ways of improving the choice of phages for therapy. Phenotypic resistance can also explain several enigmas in the ecology of phage-bacterial dynamics. Phenotypic resistance does not preclude the evolution of genetic resistance and may often be an intermediate step to genetic resistance. PMID:24743264

  6. Relationship between Phenotypic and Genotypic Florfenicol Resistance in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Singer, Randall S.; Patterson, Sheila K.; Meier, Anne E.; Gibson, Jessica K.; Lee, Hannah L.; Maddox, Carol W.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between florfenicol resistance and flo genotypes in 1,987 Escherichia coli isolates from cattle. The flo gene was detected in 164 isolates, all of which expressed resistance to florfenicol at MICs of ≥256 μg/ml. The florfenicol MICs for all isolates that lacked flo were ≤16 μg/ml.

  7. Relationship between Phenotypic and Genotypic Florfenicol Resistance in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Randall S.; Patterson, Sheila K.; Meier, Anne E.; Gibson, Jessica K.; Lee, Hannah L.; Maddox, Carol W.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between florfenicol resistance and flo genotypes in 1,987 Escherichia coli isolates from cattle. The flo gene was detected in 164 isolates, all of which expressed resistance to florfenicol at MICs of ≥256 μg/ml. The florfenicol MICs for all isolates that lacked flo were ≤16 μg/ml. PMID:15388477

  8. Phenotypic and genetic characteristics of fluoroquinolone- and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Flores, Antonio; Potel-Alvarellos, Carmen; Otero-Fernández, Susana; Álvarez-Fernández, Maximiliano

    2017-07-20

    Fluoroquinolone resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has increased in recent years. The objective of this study was to characterise two MRSA populations, one susceptible to fluoroquinolones and other resistant identifying the clonal types and the differential characteristics of both MRSA populations. Molecular typing using PFGE, MLST, spa and SSCmec was performed on 192 MRSA strains isolated from 2009 to 2011, 49 only oxacillin-resistant (OX-R) and 143 oxacillin and levofloxacin-resistant (OX-R-LEV-R). Mutations that conferred resistance to fluoroquinolones, hypermutable phenotypes and the presence of eight microbial surface components recognising adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) were also studied. A statistically significant increase in the OX-R-LEV-R phenotype was observed (p<0.05). The most common clone of the OX-R isolates was sequence type (ST) 8 (32.6%), followed by ST72 (26.5%) and ST5 (26.5%). In the OX-R-LEV-R phenotype, the ST5 clone was the most common (65.7%), followed by ST72 (15.4%), and ST125 (12.6%). All isolates except the ST398 clone carried the SCCmecIVc. Clones ST5, ST72, ST125, and ST30 had hypermutable phenotypes. The ST72 clone and the ST30 clone in the OX-R phenotype harboured the highest number of MSCRAMMs. ST5 and ST72 clones were the most frequent clones identified in OX-R-LEV-R phenotype. Both clones showed a hypermutable phenotype that favours their selection as the fluoroquinolone resistant clones. The genetic relationships identified indicate that OX-R-LEV-R clones have evolved from OX-R MRSA clones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Vancomycin-resistance phenotypes, vancomycin-resistance genes, and resistance to antibiotics of enterococci isolated from food of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousia, Panagiota; Economou, Vangelis; Bozidis, Petros; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, 500 raw beef, pork, and chicken meat samples and 100 pooled egg samples were analyzed for the presence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci, vancomycin-resistance phenotypes, and resistance genes. Of 141 isolates of enterococci, 88 strains of Enterococcus faecium and 53 strains of E. faecalis were identified. The most prevalent species was E. faecium. Resistance to ampicillin (n = 93, 66%), ciprofloxacin (n = 74, 52.5%), erythromycin (n = 73, 51.8%), penicillin (n = 59, 41.8%) and tetracycline (n = 52, 36.9%) was observed, while 53.2% (n = 75) of the isolates were multiresistant and 15.6% (n = 22) were susceptible to all antibiotics. Resistance to vancomycin was exhibited in 34.1% (n = 30) of the E. faecium isolates (n = 88) and 1.9% (n = 1) of the E. faecalis isolates (n = 53) using the disc-diffusion test and the E-test. All isolates were tested for vanA and vanB using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multiplex PCR, and for vanC, vanD, vanE, vanG genes using multiplex PCR only. Among E. faecalis isolates, no resistance genes were identified. Among the E. faecium isolates, 28 carried the vanA gene when tested by multiplex PCR and 29 when tested with real-time PCR. No isolate carrying the vanC, vanD, vanE, or vanG genes was identified. Melting-curve analysis of the positive real-time PCR E. faecium isolates showed that 22 isolates carried the vanA gene only, 2 isolates the vanB2,3 genes only, and seven isolates carried both the vanA and vanB2,3 genes. Enterococci should be considered a significant zoonotic pathogen and a possible reservoir of genes encoding resistance potentially transferred to other bacterial species.

  10. Analysis of rpsL and rrs genes mutations related to streptomycin resistance in Mdr and Xdr clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjomandzadegan, Mohammad; Gravand, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    Streptomycin is a bactericidal and aminoglycoside antibiotic. It is one of the most effective drugs for treatment of multi-drug Tuberculosis disease. Incidence of resistance is increasingly reported. Its action mechanism is by inhibition of binding aminoacyl tRNA to position "A" in elongation phase, which finally it causes to stop bacterial protein synthesis. In this study, resistance rapid investigation to streptomycin was conducted in clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, among 105 strains of phlegm-positive and culture-positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 45 strains of resistant and sensitive to streptomycin were selected for possible mutations examination in genes rrs and rpsL. Specific primers that used for PCR were named rpsL 1, rpsL 2 and rrsR, Frrs. PCR products were sequenced. PCR Products represents 504 bp band for gene rpsL and 1027 bp for gene rrs that shows proper selection of primers and determining an amplification appropriate program. From 26 resistant strains to streptomycin 26 strain have mutation in rpsL gene and 1 strain have alteration in rrs gene. In this study 19 strains were sensitive to streptomycin that have no mutation in these gene. Streptomycin resistance is mainly related to mutation at codons 43 and 88 "rpsL" gene and to a lesser extent "rrs" that are the greatest cause of drug resistance to streptomycin.

  11. Identifying novel phenotypes of vulnerability and resistance to activity-based anorexia in adolescent female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C; Underwood, Mark D; Foltin, Richard W; Myers, Michael M; Walsh, B Timothy; Barrett, Jeffrey S; Marsteller, Douglas A

    2013-11-01

    Activity-based anorexia is a translational rodent model that results in severe weight loss, hyperactivity, and voluntary self-starvation. The goal of our investigation was to identify vulnerable and resistant phenotypes of activity-based anorexia in adolescent female rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained under conditions of restricted access to food (N = 64; or unlimited access, N = 16) until experimental exit, predefined as a target weight loss of 30-35% or meeting predefined criteria for animal health. Nonlinear mixed effects statistical modeling was used to describe wheel running behavior, time to event analysis was used to assess experimental exit, and a regressive partitioning algorithm was used to classify phenotypes. Objective criteria were identified for distinguishing novel phenotypes of activity-based anorexia, including a vulnerable phenotype that conferred maximal hyperactivity, minimal food intake, and the shortest time to experimental exit, and a resistant phenotype that conferred minimal activity and the longest time to experimental exit. The identification of objective criteria for defining vulnerable and resistant phenotypes of activity-based anorexia in adolescent female rats provides an important framework for studying the neural mechanisms that promote vulnerability to or protection against the development of self-starvation and hyperactivity during adolescence. Ultimately, future studies using these novel phenotypes may provide important translational insights into the mechanisms that promote these maladaptive behaviors characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Role of the Stringent Stress Response in the Antibiotic Resistance Phenotype of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedo, Sandra; Tomasz, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus(MRSA) requires the presence of an acquired genetic determinant,mecAormecC, which encode penicillin-binding protein PBP2A or PBP2A', respectively. Although all MRSA strains share a mechanism of resistance, the phenotypic expression of beta-lactam resistance shows considerable strain-to-strain variation. The stringent stress response, a stress response that results from nutrient limitation, was shown to play a key role in determining the resistance level of an MRSA strain. In the present study, we validated the impact of the stringent stress response on transcription and translation ofmecAin the MRSA clinical isolate strain N315, which also carries known regulatory genes (mecI/mecR1/mecR2andblaI/blaR1) formecAtranscription. We showed that the impact of the stringent stress response on the resistance level may be restricted to beta-lactam resistance based on a "foreign" determinant such asmecA, as opposed to resistance based on mutations in the nativeS. aureusdeterminantpbpB(encoding PBP2). Our observations demonstrate that high-level resistance mediated by the stringent stress response follows the current model of beta-lactam resistance in which the native PBP2 protein is also essential for expression of the resistance phenotype. We also show that theStaphylococcus sciuri pbpDgene (also calledmecAI), the putative evolutionary precursor ofmecA, confers oxacillin resistance in anS. aureusstrain, generating a heterogeneous phenotype that can be converted to high and homogenous resistance by induction of the stringent stress response in the bacteria. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. 8__Aisha_Detection ofMDR-TB

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Among the MDR-TB cases rifampicin resistance was associated with rpoB WT gene and rpoB MUT gene in 100% and 62% of the ... diagnosis of TB patients, and proper treatment and management of the infected cases to minimize the spread and ..... in an amino acid change and concluded that this is one of the reasons ...

  14. [In vitro selection and phenotyping of HIV-1 mutants resistant to azidothymidine and didanosine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, Ia Iu; Pliasunova, O A; Pokrovskaia, N V; Pokrovskiĭ, A G

    2005-01-01

    In vitro selection of HIV-1(EVK) variants resistant to highly effective nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), i.e. azidothymidine (AZT) and didanosine (ddI) was performed. In case of AZT resistant mutants, subcloning by limiting dilutions was used. The isolated AZT resistant mutants and subclones had a broad spectrum of phenotypic resistance (8, 25, 53, 80, 114, 160-fold). The ddI resistant mutant possessed 10-fold resistance. The AZT resistant mutants and subclones had a high level of cross-resistance to H-phosphonate of AZT (H-phAZT) and a moderate level of cross-resistance to d4T. Still, they were effectively inhibited by a new compound, i.e. phosphonate of d4T.

  15. Emergence of rifampicin, tigecycline, and colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Iran; spreading of MDR strains of novel International Clone variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahador, Abbas; Taheri, Mohammad; Pourakbari, Babak; Hashemizadeh, Zahra; Rostami, Hossein; Mansoori, Noormohamad; Raoofian, Reza

    2013-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections are serious challenges for clinicians because of A. baumannii propensity to acquire resistance to a wide spectrum of antimicrobial agents. In this study, 91 A. baumannii isolates from patients in tertiary intensive care units of three university hospitals in the north, central, and south of Iran were selected and tested for susceptibility to 22 antimicrobials; amplified restriction fragment polymorphism and multiplex polymerase chain reaction methods were used to determine genetic relationships and International Clone (IC) of A. baumannii isolates, respectively. Twenty-four genotypes were identified in A. baumannii isolates. About 91.2% of isolates categorized into 4 distinct clusters; one was more heterogeneous and observed across the three locations. A considerable number of the isolates (27.5%) belonged to the novel IC variant, sequence group 7 (SG7), which was geographically widespread in three locations. The drug resistance pattern showed that 14.2%, 20%, and 77% of the A. baumannii isolates were resistant to colistin, tigecycline, and rifampicin, respectively. Nine percent of isolates (8) showed simultaneous resistance to colistin, rifampicin, and tigecycline. Interestingly, all of them were susceptible to ampicillin-sulbactam and/or tobramycin. According to our results, SG7 could be considered as a pan-Iranian clone.

  16. Phenotypic Suppression of Streptomycin Resistance by Mutations in Multiple Components of the Translation Apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Jennifer F.; Lee, Hannah J.; Jaspers, Joshua B.; Dahlberg, Albert E.; Jogl, Gerwald; Gregory, Steven T.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial ribosome and its associated translation factors are frequent targets of antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance mutations have been found in a number of these components. Such mutations can potentially interact with one another in unpredictable ways, including the phenotypic suppression of one mutation by another. These phenotypic interactions can provide evidence of long-range functional interactions throughout the ribosome and its functional complexes and potentially give insig...

  17. Increased p38-MAPK is responsible for chemotherapy resistance in human gastric cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xianling; Zhang, Baihe; Wu, Mengchao; Wei, Lixin; Ma, Nannan; Wang, Jin; Song, Jianrui; Bu, Xinxin; Cheng, Yue; Sun, Kai; Xiong, Haiyan; Jiang, Guocheng

    2008-01-01

    Chemoresistance is one of the main obstacles to successful cancer therapy and is frequently associated with Multidrug resistance (MDR). Many different mechanisms have been suggested to explain the development of an MDR phenotype in cancer cells. One of the most studied mechanisms is the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which is a product of the MDR1 gene. Tumor cells often acquire the drug-resistance phenotype due to upregulation of the MDR1 gene. Overexpression of MDR1 gene has often been reported in primary gastric adenocarcinoma. This study investigated the role of p38-MAPK signal pathway in vincristine-resistant SGC7901/VCR cells. P-gp and MDR1 RNA were detected by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR amplification. Mitgen-activated protein kinases and function of P-gp were demonstrated by Western blot and FACS Aria cytometer analysis. Ap-1 activity and cell apoptosis were detected by Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay and annexin V-PI dual staining. The vincristine-resistant SGC7901/VCR cells with increased expression of the multidrug-resistance 1 (MDR1) gene were resistant to P-gp-related drug and P-gp-unrelated drugs. Constitutive increases of phosphorylated p38-MAPK and AP-1 activities were also found in the drug-resistant cells. Inhibition of p38-MAPK by SB202190 reduced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity and MDR1 expression levels and increased the sensitivity of SGC7901/VCR cells to chemotherapy. Activation of the p38-MAPK pathway might be responsible for the modulation of P-glycoprotein-mediated and P-glycoprotein-unmediated multidrug resistance in the SGC7901/VCR cell line

  18. Management of MDR-TB in HIV co-infected patients in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efsen, A M W; Schultze, A; Miller, R F

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Mortality among HIV patients with tuberculosis (TB) remains high in Eastern Europe (EE), but details of TB and HIV management remain scarce. METHODS: In this prospective study, we describe the TB treatment regimens of patients with multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB and use of antiretroviral...... therapy (ART). RESULTS: A total of 105 HIV-positive patients had MDR-TB (including 33 with extensive drug resistance) and 130 pan-susceptible TB. Adequate initial TB treatment was provided for 8% of patients with MDR-TB compared with 80% of those with pan-susceptible TB. By twelve months, an estimated 57.......3% (95%CI 41.5-74.1) of MDR-TB patients had started adequate treatment. While 67% received ART, HIV-RNA suppression was demonstrated in only 23%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that internationally recommended MDR-TB treatment regimens were infrequently used and that ART use and viral suppression was well...

  19. Autophagy facilitates multidrug resistance development through inhibition of apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W L; Lan, D; Gan, T Q; Cai, Z W

    2015-01-01

    Acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) is the main mechanism of chemotherapeutic drugs resistance. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of MDR are complex and still not very clear. Recently, including our previous study, several studies have revealed that macroautophagy (here referred to as autophagy) induced by anti-cancer drugs in breast cancer cells may facilitate the development of resistance to epirubicin (EPI), paclitaxel (PTX), tamoxifen or herceptin. Whereas there are a few studies on the relationship between autophagy and MDR, especially the studies designed directly employing induced resistant breast cancer cells. Based on previous study, we explored the relationship between autophagy and MDR. The results showed that induced EPI-resistant MCF-7er and SK-BR-3er cells were simultaneously resistant to PTX and vinorelbine (NVB), which demonstrated that the cells obtained MDR phenotype. Furthermore, PTX and NVB could also induce autophagy in MCF-7er and SK-BR-3er cells, and the induced autophagy protected the cells from apoptosis, which facilitated the development of resistance to PTX and NVB. Thus, autophagy promoted the development of MDR in breast cancer cells through inhibition of apoptosis. In addition, we found that P-glycoprotein (Pgp) was overexpressed in MCF-7er and SK-Br-3er cells. And we preliminarily investigated the relationship between autophagy and P-glycoprotein (Pgp). The results showed that the expression of the protein did not obviously change despite the inhibition of autophagy. Therefore, the role of Pgp in the development of MDR might be independent of autophahy. Also this finding implies that autophagy might be a target to overcome MDR in breast cancer cells, and clinical use autophagy inhibitors might be one of the important strategies for overcoming MDR in breast cancer therapy. Autophagy, apoptosis, multidrug resistance, breast cancer, chemotherapy.

  20. MDR1 transporter protects against paraquat-induced toxicity in human and mouse proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xia; Gibson, Christopher J; Yang, Ill; Buckley, Brian; Goedken, Michael J; Richardson, Jason R; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2014-10-01

    Paraquat is a herbicide that is highly toxic to the lungs and kidneys following acute exposures. Prior studies have demonstrated that the organic cation transporter 2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 contribute to the urinary secretion of paraquat in the kidneys. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1/Mdr1, ABCB1, or P-glycoprotein) also participates in the removal of paraquat from the kidneys and protects against renal injury. Paraquat transport and toxicity were quantified in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) that endogenously express MDR1, HEK293 cells overexpressing MDR1, and Mdr1a/1b knockout mice. In RPTEC cells, reduction of MDR1 activity using the antagonist PSC833 or siRNA transfection increased the cellular accumulation of paraquat by 50%. Reduced efflux of paraquat corresponded with enhanced cytotoxicity in PSC833-treated cells. Likewise, stable overexpression of the human MDR1 gene in HEK293 cells reduced intracellular levels of paraquat by 50%. In vivo studies assessed the renal accumulation and subsequent nephrotoxicity of paraquat (10 or 30 mg/kg ip) in wild-type and Mdr1a/1b knockout mice. At 4 h after paraquat treatment, renal concentrations of paraquat in the kidneys of Mdr1a/1b knockout mice were 750% higher than wild-type mice. By 72 h, paraquat-treated Mdr1a/1b knockout mice had more extensive tubular degeneration and significantly greater mRNA expression of kidney injury-responsive genes, including kidney injury molecule-1, lipocalin-2, and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, MDR1/Mdr1 participates in the elimination of paraquat from the kidneys and protects against subsequent toxicity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Expression of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance associated protein in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells after fractionated irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D; Maare, C; Eriksen, J

    2001-01-01

    activity was neither stimulated by vinblastine nor VER. CONCLUSION: Irradiation induced a multidrug-resistant phenotype in sensitive tumor cells. This phenotype was characterized by increased expression of Mrp1 mRNA, Mrp1, and PGP but decreased expression of mdr1a + b mRNA. The influence of irradiation...

  2. Phenotypic methods for determination of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus spp. from health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Aquino Rabelo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus spp. is an important healthcare-associated pathogen and the identification of methicillin-resistant strains in samples of colonization may provide data to assist in the antimicrobial therapy success. OBJECTIVES: To determine the occurrence of colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. (MRS, through the detection of the mecA gene and to evaluate different phenotypic methods for the presumptive detection of methicillin resistance in samples of the anterior nasal cavity and hands of the health care personnel of a university hospital in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: We selected the 28 isolates of Staphylococcus spp., which showed an intermediate or resistant phenotypic profile for oxacillin, detected by the Kirby Bauer technique. The methods used were disk-diffusion tests for cefoxitin, minimal inhibitory concentration by E-test for oxacillin, screening for oxacillin resistance and mecA gene detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: About the phenotypic methods utilized, only the E-test of oxacillin did not show a statistically significant difference in relation to PCR for the mecA gene detection, considered the gold standard. CONCLUSION: The E-test of oxacillin was the best of the phenotypic methods utilized. It is necessary to correctly detect MRS in healthy individuals, because they can act as carriers and can therefore be a potential source of microorganisms involved in hospital infections.

  3. Studying the Phenotypic and Genotypic Expression of Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni under Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimochkina, N R; Stetsenko, V V; Bykova, I V; Markova, Yu M; Polyanina, A S; Aleshkina, A I; Sheveleva, S A

    2018-03-01

    Specific features for the development of resistance in Campylobacter jejuni strains were studied after treatment with antibiotics of 6 pharmacological groups. Populations of 18 native strains of C. jejuni (isolated from raw poultry products) and their subcultures (obtained after 2-3-fold stress exposures to antimicrobial agents in subinhibitory doses) were examined to evaluate the expression of phenotypic antibiotic resistance. Genotypic properties of strains were studied by the PCR with primers that detect the presence of genes for resistance to aminoglycosides (aphA-1, aphA-3, and aphA-7), tetracyclines (tetO), and quinolones (GZgyrA). The majority of test strains of C. jejuni exhibited a high resistance to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline, which reached the maximum value after numerous passages. The expression of antibiotic resistance was greatest in the presence of nalidixic acid and tetracycline. Ciprofloxacin resistance of 33% strains, which were initially resistant to this antibiotic, was increased after 2-3-fold treatment. We revealed a high degree of correspondence between phenotypic and genotypic profiles of antibiotic resistance in food isolates of Campylobacter. One, two, or more genes of aphA were identified in 85% strains phenotypically resistant to aminoglycosides. The tetO gene was found nearly in all strains resistant to tetracycline. Studying the biofilm matrix in C. jejuni after culturing with antibiotics in subinhibitory doses showed that quinolones (particularly nalidixic acid) and tetracyclines potentiate the formation of biofilms and increase the tolerance of Campylobacter to stress exposures. The intensity of biofilm growth was shown to depend little on the effect of macrolides and aminoglycosides. Therefore, the presence of these agents in residual concentrations is associated with a lower risk for the development of antibiotic resistance in C. jejuni populations.

  4. Induction of Mdr1b expression by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rat liver cells is independent of p53 but requires NF-kappa B signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, J.E.; Schuetz, JD; Geuken, M; Streetz, K; Moshage, H; Kuipers, F; Manns, MP; Jansen, PLM; Trautwein, C; Muller, M

    The multidrug resistance protein Mdr1b in rats is upregulated during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy or after endotoxin treatment. We hypothesize that up-regulation of Mdr1b in these models is TNF-alpha -dependent. The mechanism of Mdr1b activation by TNF-alpha is unknown as TNF-alpha

  5. Induction of Mdr1b expression by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rat liver cells is independent of p53 but requires NF-kappaB signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, J. E.; Schuetz, J. D.; Geuken, M.; Streetz, K.; Moshage, H.; Kuipers, F.; Manns, M. P.; Jansen, P. L.; Trautwein, C.; Müller, M.

    2001-01-01

    The multidrug resistance protein Mdr1b in rats is up-regulated during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy or after endotoxin treatment. We hypothesize that up-regulation of Mdr1b in these models is TNF-alpha-dependent. The mechanism of Mdr1b activation by TNF-alpha is unknown as TNF-alpha

  6. Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance among Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Australian Food Production Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annaleise Wilson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current global crisis of antimicrobial resistance (AMR among important human bacterial pathogens has been amplified by an increased resistance prevalence. In recent years, a number of studies have reported higher resistance levels among Listeria monocytogenes isolates, which may have implications for treatment of listeriosis infection where resistance to key treatment antimicrobials is noted. This study examined the genotypic and phenotypic AMR patterns of 100 L. monocytogenes isolates originating from food production supplies in Australia and examined this in the context of global population trends. Low levels of resistance were noted to ciprofloxacin (2% and erythromycin (1%; however, no resistance was observed to penicillin G or tetracycline. Resistance to ciprofloxacin was associated with a mutation in the fepR gene in one isolate; however, no genetic basis for resistance in the other isolate was identified. Resistance to erythromycin was correlated with the presence of the ermB resistance gene. Both resistant isolates belonged to clonal complex 1 (CC1, and analysis of these in the context of global CC1 isolates suggested that they were more similar to isolates from India rather than the other CC1 isolates included in this study. This study provides baseline AMR data for L. monocytogenes isolated in Australia, identifies key genetic markers underlying this resistance, and highlights the need for global molecular surveillance of resistance patterns to maintain control over the potential dissemination of AMR isolates.

  7. Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance among Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Australian Food Production Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Annaleise; Gray, Jessica; Chandry, P Scott; Fox, Edward M

    2018-02-09

    The current global crisis of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among important human bacterial pathogens has been amplified by an increased resistance prevalence. In recent years, a number of studies have reported higher resistance levels among Listeria monocytogenes isolates, which may have implications for treatment of listeriosis infection where resistance to key treatment antimicrobials is noted. This study examined the genotypic and phenotypic AMR patterns of 100 L. monocytogenes isolates originating from food production supplies in Australia and examined this in the context of global population trends. Low levels of resistance were noted to ciprofloxacin (2%) and erythromycin (1%); however, no resistance was observed to penicillin G or tetracycline. Resistance to ciprofloxacin was associated with a mutation in the fepR gene in one isolate; however, no genetic basis for resistance in the other isolate was identified. Resistance to erythromycin was correlated with the presence of the ermB resistance gene. Both resistant isolates belonged to clonal complex 1 (CC1), and analysis of these in the context of global CC1 isolates suggested that they were more similar to isolates from India rather than the other CC1 isolates included in this study. This study provides baseline AMR data for L. monocytogenes isolated in Australia, identifies key genetic markers underlying this resistance, and highlights the need for global molecular surveillance of resistance patterns to maintain control over the potential dissemination of AMR isolates.

  8. High prevalence of multidrug resistance in bacterial uropathogens from Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baral Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary Tract Infection (UTI is one of the most common infectious diseases and people of all age-groups and geographical locations are affected. The impact of disease is even worst in low-resource developing countries due to unaware of the UTIs caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR pathogens and the possibility of transfer of MDR traits between them. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of MDR bacterial isolates from UTI patients, the antibiotic resistance pattern and the conjugational transfer of multidrug resistance phenotypes in Escherichia coli (E. coli. Results Two hundred and nineteen bacterial isolates were recovered from 710 urine samples at Kathmandu Model hospital during the study period. All samples and isolates were investigated by standard laboratory procedures. Among the significant bacterial growth (30.8%, 219 isolates, 41.1% isolates were MDR. The most prevailing organism, E. coli (81.3%, 178 isolates was 38.2% MDR, whereas second most common organism, Citrobacter spp. (5%, 11 isolates was found 72.7% MDR. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL production was detected in 55.2% of a subset of MDR E. coli isolates. Among the 29 MDR E. coli isolates, plasmids of size ranging 2-51 kb were obtained with different 15 profiles. The most common plasmid of size 32 kb was detected in all of the plasmid-harbored E. coli strains. The majority of E. coli isolates investigated for the multidrug resistance transfer were able to transfer plasmid-mediated MDR phenotypes along with ESBL pattern with a frequency ranging from 0.3 × 10-7 to 1.5 × 10-7 to an E. coli HB101 recipient strain by conjugation. Most of the donor and recipient strain showed high levels of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values for commonly-used antibiotics. Conclusions The high prevalence of multidrug resistance in bacterial uropathogens was observed. Particularly, resistance patterns were alarmingly higher for amoxycillin, co

  9. Fungicide resistance phenotypes in Botrytis cinerea populations from blueberries in California and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Understanding fungicide- resistant phenotypes of B. cinerea is important to the development of preharvest fungicide programs for contro...

  10. Colorectal cancer stem cells : regulation of the phenotype and implications for therapy resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Emmink, B.L.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis different aspects of cancer stem cells in colorectal cancer are discribed. We focus on the therapy resistance of cancer stem cells and the effect that reactive oxygen species and hypoxia have on the cancer stem cell phenotype. For this purpose a novel culture method to propagate cancer stem cells form resected tumor specimens was used.

  11. Phenotype switching : tumor cell plasticity as a resistance mechanism and target for therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, K.; de Goeje, P.L.; Peeper, D.S.; van Amerongen, R.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in BRAF are present in the majority of patients with melanoma, rendering these tumors sensitive to targeted therapy with BRAF and MEK inhibitors. Unfortunately, resistance almost invariably develops. Recently, a phenomenon called "phenotype switching" has been identified as an escape

  12. High-throughput phenotyping of plant resistance to aphids by automated video tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloth, K.J.; Broeke, ten C.J.M.; Thoen, H.P.M.; Hanhart-van den Brink, M.; Wiegers, G.L.; Krips, O.E.; Noldus, L.P.J.J.; Dicke, M.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Piercing-sucking insects are major vectors of plant viruses causing significant yield losses in crops.Functional genomics of plant resistance to these insects would greatly benefit from the availability of highthroughput, quantitative phenotyping methods. Results: We have developed an

  13. Prevalence of genetic determinants and phenotypic resistance to ciprofloxacin in Campylobacter jejuni from lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksomaitiene, Jurgita; Ramonaite, Sigita; Olsen, John E.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the number of reports on isolation of ciprofloxacin resistant Campylobacter jejuni has increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin and its genetic determinants among C. jejuni isolated from humans (n = 100), poultry products (n...... = 96) and wild birds (n = 96) in Lithuania. 91.4% of the C. jejuni isolates were phenotypically resistant to ciprofloxacin. DNA sequence analyses of the gyrA gene from 292 isolates revealed that a change in amino acid sequence, Thr86Ile, was the main substition conferring resistance to ciprofloxacin...... forty-five C. jejuni isolates showed one or more silent mutations, and 32.4% of examined isolates possessed six silent mutations. In addition to the ciprofloxacin resistant isolates harboring only Thr86Ile point mutation (110 isolates), the current study identified resistant isolates (n = 101) harboring...

  14. beta-lactam susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates from urinary tract infections exhibiting different resistance phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, M; Cebrián, L; Giménez, Mj; Coronel, P; Gimeno, M; Aguilar, L; García de Lomas, J

    2008-09-01

    Susceptibility to beta-lactams was determined in 203 recent Spanish E. coli isolates from urinary tract infections exhibiting different resistance phenotypes: a) susceptible (n = 60); b) quinolone-resistant (n = 45); c) penicillinase (n=64); d) hyperproduction of penicillinase (n=8); e) inhibitor resistant TEM (IRT) (n=18), and f) extended spectrum betalactamase (ESBL) (n=8).Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination by agar dilution and susceptibility tests for ESBL detection by macrodilution were performed following CLSI recommendations. All the beta-lactams tested showed high activity against susceptible and penicillinase phenotypes, with close to 100 % susceptibility. Hyperproduction of penicillinase increased MIC90 values for all antibiotics except for meropenem, with 100% resistance to cefuroxime and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and 100% susceptibility to cefotaxime, piperacillin/tazobactam and meropenem. All the antibiotics, except for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, exhibited high activity against IRT. Meropenem, cefminox and piperacillin/tazobactam exhibited the highest activity against ESBL, followed by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The most active compound among the parenteral antibiotics was meropenem, regardless of the resistance phenotype. Among the oral antibiotics, the most active compound was cefditoren with the exception of ESBL where amoxicillin/clavulanic acid where the MIC90 value was one dilution lower.

  15. Imaging multidrug resistance with 4-[18F]fluoropaclitaxel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdziel, Karen A.; Kalen, Joseph D.; Hirsch, Jerry I.; Wilson, John D.; Agarwal, Rakesh; Barrett, Daniel; Bear, Harry D.; McCumiskey, James F.

    2007-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a cause of treatment failure in many cancer patients. MDR refers to a phenotype whereby a tumor is resistant to a large number of natural chemotherapeutic drugs. Having prior knowledge of the presence of such resistance would decrease morbidity from unsuccessful therapy and allow for the selection of individuals who may benefit from the coadministration of MDR-inhibiting drugs. The Tc-99m-labeled single-photon-emitting radiotracers sestamibi and tetrofosmin have shown some predictive value. However, positron-emitting radiotracers, which allow for dynamic quantitative imaging, hold promise for a more accurate and specific identification of MDRtumors.MDR-expressing tumors are resistant to paclitaxel, which is commonly used as a chemotherapeutic agent. 4-[ 18 F]Fluoropaclitaxel (FPAC) is a PET-radiolabeled analogue of paclitaxel. Preclinical studies have shown the uptake of FPAC to be inversely proportional to tumor MDR expression. FPAC PET imaging in normal volunteers shows biodistribution to be similar to that in nonhuman primates. Imaging in a breast cancer patient showed FPAC localization in a primary tumor that responded to chemotherapy, while failure to localize in mediastinal disease corresponded with only partial response.FPAC PET imaging shows promise for the noninvasive pretreatment identification of MDR-expressing tumors. While much additional work is needed, this work represents a step toward image-guided personalized medicine

  16. Phenotypic resistance and the dynamics of bacterial escape from phage control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, James J.; Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Schmerer, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The canonical view of phage - bacterial interactions in dense, liquid cultures is that the phage will eliminate most of the sensitive cells; genetic resistance will then ascend to restore high bacterial densities. Yet there are various mechanisms by which bacteria may remain sensitive to phages...... be specific to the receptors used by phages, awareness of its mechanisms may identify ways of improving the choice of phages for therapy. Phenotypic resistance can also explain several enigmas in the ecology of phage-bacterial dynamics. Phenotypic resistance does not preclude the evolution of genetic...... but still attain high densities in their presence - because bacteria enter a transient state of reduced adsorption. Importantly, these mechanisms may be cryptic and inapparent prior to the addition of phage yet result in a rapid rebound of bacterial density after phage are introduced. We describe...

  17. Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Lebanese Patients: Phenotypes and Genotypes of Resistance, Clonality, and Determinants of Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdouh, Elias; Hajjar, Micheline; Suarez, Monica; Daoud, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen that usually affects critically ill patients. High mortality rates have been associated with MDR A. baumannii infections. Carbapenem resistance among these isolates is increasing worldwide and is associated with certain International Clones (ICs) and oxacillinases (OXAs). Moreover, this organism possesses a wide range of virulence factors, whose expression is not yet fully understood. In this study, clinical A. baumannii isolates are characterized in terms of antibiotic resistance, mechanisms of carbapenem resistance, clonality, and virulence. Materials and Methods: A. baumannii clinical isolates ( n = 90) where obtained from a tertiary care center in Beirut, Lebanon. API 20NE strips in addition to the amplification of bla OXA-51-like were used for identification. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by disk diffusion was then performed in addition to PCRs for the detection of the most commonly disseminated carbapenemases. Clonality was determined by tri-locus PCR typing and doubling times were determined for isolates with varying susceptibility profiles. Biofilm formation, hemolysis, siderophore production, proteolytic activity, and surface motility was then determined for all the isolates. Statistical analysis was then performed for the determination of associations. Results and Discussion: 81 (90%) of the isolates were resistant to carbapenems. These high rates are similar to other multi-center studies in the country suggesting the need of intervention on a national level. 74 (91.3%) of the carbapenem resistant isolates harbored bla OXA-23-like including two that also harbored bla OXA-24-like . 88.9% of the A. baumannii isolates pertained to ICII and three other international clones were detected, showing the wide dissemination of clones into geographically distinct locations. Virulence profiles were highly diverse and no specific pattern was observed. Nevertheless, an association between motility

  18. FAM-MDR: a flexible family-based multifactor dimensionality reduction technique to detect epistasis using related individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Cattaert

    Full Text Available We propose a novel multifactor dimensionality reduction method for epistasis detection in small or extended pedigrees, FAM-MDR. It combines features of the Genome-wide Rapid Association using Mixed Model And Regression approach (GRAMMAR with Model-Based MDR (MB-MDR. We focus on continuous traits, although the method is general and can be used for outcomes of any type, including binary and censored traits. When comparing FAM-MDR with Pedigree-based Generalized MDR (PGMDR, which is a generalization of Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR to continuous traits and related individuals, FAM-MDR was found to outperform PGMDR in terms of power, in most of the considered simulated scenarios. Additional simulations revealed that PGMDR does not appropriately deal with multiple testing and consequently gives rise to overly optimistic results. FAM-MDR adequately deals with multiple testing in epistasis screens and is in contrast rather conservative, by construction. Furthermore, simulations show that correcting for lower order (main effects is of utmost importance when claiming epistasis. As Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM is a complex phenotype likely influenced by gene-gene interactions, we applied FAM-MDR to examine data on glucose area-under-the-curve (GAUC, an endophenotype of T2DM for which multiple independent genetic associations have been observed, in the Amish Family Diabetes Study (AFDS. This application reveals that FAM-MDR makes more efficient use of the available data than PGMDR and can deal with multi-generational pedigrees more easily. In conclusion, we have validated FAM-MDR and compared it to PGMDR, the current state-of-the-art MDR method for family data, using both simulations and a practical dataset. FAM-MDR is found to outperform PGMDR in that it handles the multiple testing issue more correctly, has increased power, and efficiently uses all available information.

  19. FAM-MDR: a flexible family-based multifactor dimensionality reduction technique to detect epistasis using related individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaert, Tom; Urrea, Víctor; Naj, Adam C; De Lobel, Lizzy; De Wit, Vanessa; Fu, Mao; Mahachie John, Jestinah M; Shen, Haiqing; Calle, M Luz; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Edwards, Todd L; Van Steen, Kristel

    2010-04-22

    We propose a novel multifactor dimensionality reduction method for epistasis detection in small or extended pedigrees, FAM-MDR. It combines features of the Genome-wide Rapid Association using Mixed Model And Regression approach (GRAMMAR) with Model-Based MDR (MB-MDR). We focus on continuous traits, although the method is general and can be used for outcomes of any type, including binary and censored traits. When comparing FAM-MDR with Pedigree-based Generalized MDR (PGMDR), which is a generalization of Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) to continuous traits and related individuals, FAM-MDR was found to outperform PGMDR in terms of power, in most of the considered simulated scenarios. Additional simulations revealed that PGMDR does not appropriately deal with multiple testing and consequently gives rise to overly optimistic results. FAM-MDR adequately deals with multiple testing in epistasis screens and is in contrast rather conservative, by construction. Furthermore, simulations show that correcting for lower order (main) effects is of utmost importance when claiming epistasis. As Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a complex phenotype likely influenced by gene-gene interactions, we applied FAM-MDR to examine data on glucose area-under-the-curve (GAUC), an endophenotype of T2DM for which multiple independent genetic associations have been observed, in the Amish Family Diabetes Study (AFDS). This application reveals that FAM-MDR makes more efficient use of the available data than PGMDR and can deal with multi-generational pedigrees more easily. In conclusion, we have validated FAM-MDR and compared it to PGMDR, the current state-of-the-art MDR method for family data, using both simulations and a practical dataset. FAM-MDR is found to outperform PGMDR in that it handles the multiple testing issue more correctly, has increased power, and efficiently uses all available information.

  20. Rapid Phenotyping Adult Plant Resistance to Stem Rust in Wheat Grown under Controlled Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Adnan; T Hickey, Lee

    2017-01-01

    Stem rust (SR) or black rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the most common diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops globally. Among the various control measures, the most efficient and sustainable approach is the deployment of genetically resistant cultivars. Traditionally, wheat breeding programs deployed genetic resistance in cultivars, but unknowingly this is often underpinned by a single seedling resistance gene, which is readily overcome by the pathogen. Nowadays, adult plant resistance (APR) is a widely adopted form of rust resistance because more durable mechanisms often underpin it. However, only a handful of SR APR genes are available, so breeders currently strive to combine seedling and APR genes. Phenotyping adult wheat plants for resistance to SR typically involves evaluation in the field. But establishing a rust nursery can be challenging, and screening is limited to once a year. This slows down research efforts to isolate new APR genes and breeding of genetically resistant cultivars.In this study, we report a protocol for rapid evaluation of adult wheat plants for resistance to stem rust. We demonstrate the technique by evaluating a panel of 16 wheat genotypes consisting of near isogenic lines (NILs) for known Sr genes (i.e., Sr2, Sr33, Sr45, Sr50, Sr55, Sr57, and Sr58) and three landraces carrying uncharacterized APR from the N. I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR). The method can be completed in just 10 weeks and involves two inoculations: first conducted at seedling stage and a second at the adult stage (using the same plants). The technique can detect APR, such as that conferred by APR gene Sr2, along with pseudo-black chaff (the morphological marker). Phenotyping can be conducted throughout the year, and is fast and resource efficient. Further, the phenotyping method can be applied to screen breeding populations or germplasm accessions using local or exotic races of SR.

  1. MDR1 is Related to Intestinal Epithelial Injury Induced by Acetylsalicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munehiro Kugai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although the cytotoxicity of aspirin against the intestinal epithelium is a major clinical problem, little is known about its pathogenesis. We assessed the involvement of Multi Drug Resistance (MDR 1 in intestinal epithelial cell injury caused by aspirin using MDR1 gene-transfected Caco2 cells. Methods: Caco2 cells were treated with various concentrations of aspirin for 24 h. After treatment of Caco2 cells with verapamil, a specific inhibitor of MDR1, we assessed the extent of cell injury using a WST-8 assay at 24 h after aspirin-stimulation. We performed the same procedure in MDR1 gene-transfected Caco2 cells. To determine the function of MDR1 in the metabolism of aspirin, flux study was performed using 14C-labeled aspirin. Results: The level of aspirin-induced cell injury was higher in verapamil-treated Caco2 cells than in control cells and was less serious in MDR1-transfected Caco2 cells than in control vector-transfected cells. The efflux of 14C-labeled aspirin was higher in verapamil-treated Caco2 cells than in control cells. Conclusion: These data suggest that aspirin effux occurs through the MDR1 transporter and that the MDR1 transporter is involved in the pathogenesis of aspirin-induced cell injury.

  2. P-glycoprotein epitope mapping. II. The murine monoclonal antibody MM6.15 to human multidrug-resistant cells binds with three distinct loops in the MDR1-P-glycoprotein extracellular domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianfriglia, M; Romagnoli, G; Tombesi, M; Poloni, F; Falasca, G; Di Modugno, F; Castagna, M; Chersi, A

    1995-03-29

    A new murine monoclonal antibody (MAb), MM6.15, to human MDR1 P-glycoprotein was found to be reactive in ELISA with synthetic peptides selected from the predicted sequences of the first, fourth and sixth extracellular loop of MDR1-P-glycoprotein. In order to precisely define the MM6.15-binding site, a peptide library of overlapping 5- to 9-mer residues covering the entire sixth extracellular loop of both human and rodent class-1 P-glycoproteins was synthesized on polyethylene pins and tested for MAb binding. The results of this ELISA demonstrated that the MAb MM6.15 reacts only with human synthetic peptides and that the critical component of the MAb recognition is made up of the amino-acid sequence LVAHKL (residues 963-968 of the MDR1-P-glycoprotein) with histidine (H), lysine (K) and possibly leucine (L), key residues of this immunogenic domain.

  3. Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/snail signaling pathway contributes to epithelial-mesenchymal transition-induced multi-drug resistance to sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiejie Dong

    Full Text Available Sorafenib, an orally available kinase inhibitor, is the standard first-line systemic drug for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, and it exerts potent inhibitory activity against epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and multidrug resistance (MDR by inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling in HCC. However, after long-term exposure to sorafenib, HCC cells exhibit EMT and resistance to sorafenib. The activation of AKT by sorafenib is thought to be responsible for the development of these characteristics. The present study aims to examine the underlying mechanism and seek potential strategies to reverse this resistance and the progression to EMT. Sorafenib-resistant cells showed increased metastatic and invasive ability, with a higher expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, compared with the parental cells. This phenomenon was at least partially due to EMT and the appearance of MDR in sorafenib-resistant HCC cells. Moreover, MDR was a downstream molecular event of EMT. Silencing Snail with siRNA blocked EMT and partially reversed the MDR, thereby markedly abolishing invasion and metastasis in sorafenib-resistant HCC cells, but silencing of MDR1 had no effect on the EMT phenotype. Additionally, HCC parental cells that were stably transfected with pCDNA3.1-Snail exhibited EMT and MDR. Two sorafenib-resistant HCC cell lines, established from human HCC HepG2 and Huh7 cells, were refractory to sorafenib-induced growth inhibition but were sensitive to MK-2206, a novel allosteric AKT inhibitor. Thus, the combination of sorafenib and MK-2206 led to significant reversion of the EMT phenotype and P-gp-mediated MDR by downregulating phosphorylated AKT. These findings underscore the significance of EMT, MDR and enhanced PI3K/AKT signaling in sorafenib-resistant HCC cells.

  4. Phenotypic Suppression of Streptomycin Resistance by Mutations in Multiple Components of the Translation Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jennifer F; Lee, Hannah J; Jaspers, Joshua B; Dahlberg, Albert E; Jogl, Gerwald; Gregory, Steven T

    2015-09-01

    The bacterial ribosome and its associated translation factors are frequent targets of antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance mutations have been found in a number of these components. Such mutations can potentially interact with one another in unpredictable ways, including the phenotypic suppression of one mutation by another. These phenotypic interactions can provide evidence of long-range functional interactions throughout the ribosome and its functional complexes and potentially give insights into antibiotic resistance mechanisms. In this study, we used genetics and experimental evolution of the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus to examine the ability of mutations in various components of the protein synthesis apparatus to suppress the streptomycin resistance phenotypes of mutations in ribosomal protein S12, specifically those located distant from the streptomycin binding site. With genetic selections and strain constructions, we identified suppressor mutations in EF-Tu or in ribosomal protein L11. Using experimental evolution, we identified amino acid substitutions in EF-Tu or in ribosomal proteins S4, S5, L14, or L19, some of which were found to also relieve streptomycin resistance. The wide dispersal of these mutations is consistent with long-range functional interactions among components of the translational machinery and indicates that streptomycin resistance can result from the modulation of long-range conformational signals. The thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus has become a model system for high-resolution structural studies of macromolecular complexes, such as the ribosome, while its natural competence for transformation facilitates genetic approaches. Genetic studies of T. thermophilus ribosomes can take advantage of existing high-resolution crystallographic information to allow a structural interpretation of phenotypic interactions among mutations. Using a combination of genetic selections, strain constructions, and experimental

  5. Validating RNAi phenotypes in Drosophila using a synthetic RNAi-resistant transgene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Jonchere

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is a powerful and widely used approach to investigate gene function, but a major limitation of the approach is the high incidence of non-specific phenotypes that arise due to off-target effects. We previously showed that RNAi-mediated knock-down of pico, which encodes the only member of the MRL family of adapter proteins in Drosophila, resulted in reduction in cell number and size leading to reduced tissue growth. In contrast, a recent study reported that pico knockdown leads to tissue dysmorphology, pointing to an indirect role for pico in the control of wing size. To understand the cause of this disparity we have utilised a synthetic RNAi-resistant transgene, which bears minimal sequence homology to the predicted dsRNA but encodes wild type Pico protein, to reanalyse the RNAi lines used in the two studies. We find that the RNAi lines from different sources exhibit different effects, with one set of lines uniquely resulting in a tissue dysmorphology phenotype when expressed in the developing wing. Importantly, the loss of tissue morphology fails to be complemented by co-overexpression of RNAi-resistant pico suggesting that this phenotype is the result of an off-target effect. This highlights the importance of careful validation of RNAi-induced phenotypes, and shows the potential of synthetic transgenes for their experimental validation.

  6. Effects of a novel photoactivated photosensitizer on MDR1 over-expressing human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Jing; Liu, Shu-Ping; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Si-Cheng; Liu, Tian-Jun; Li, Xiang

    2017-06-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) was the main reason of cancer chemotherapy failure. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been applied to the treatment of tumor and considered as a strategy for the overcoming of MDR phenomenon. Present study focused on a novel porphyrin-based photosensitizer DTP (meso-5-[p-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-aminophenyl]-10,15,20-triphenyl-porphyrin)-mediated photocytotoxicity on MDR1 highly expressing human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/ADR (adriamycin resistant) and the parental MCF-7 cell line. Experimental results indicated that DTP-PDT induced significant photocytotoxicity on MDR1 highly expressing MCF-7/ADR cell line, in spite of slightly weaker than on MCF-7 cell line, which was due to the relatively lower level of intracellular DTP in resistant MCF-7/ADR cells. Furthermore, intracellular DTP level in resistant MCF-7/ADR cells could not be altered with a Pgp inhibitor, verapamil and this indicated that DTP was not a possible substrate for the multidrug transporter Pgp. More importantly, photoactivated DTP could significantly reduce the expression of MDR1 gene at all the levels of mRNA, protein and function. The combined treatment with DTP-PDT and adriamycin was found to be more effective than adriamycin or DTP-PDT alone. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that DTP probably will be a potential photosensitizer in combating MDR phenomenon during the treatment of human breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genotypic and phenotypic nevirapine resistance correlates with virological failure during salvage therapy including abacavir and nevirapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L.B.; Katzenstein, T.L.; Gerstoft, J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the development of resistance during 8 weeks of salvage therapy with abacavir and nevirapine in combination with other reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs). METHODS: Samples obtained at baseline and after 8 weeks of therapy from 16 heavily...... and after 2, 4 and 8 weeks of therapy. RESULTS: The majority of patients was genotypically and phenotypically resistant to lamivudine, abacavir, zidovudine and PIs, whereas 50% of the patients showed resistance to nevirapine at baseline in at least one of the methods used. After 8 weeks of salvage therapy...... higher transient reduction in viral load was observed in patients with nevirapine-sensitive HIV at baseline compared to patients with resistant HIV at baseline. CONCLUSION: The transient effect of salvage therapy including abacavir and nevirapine was due to the effect of nevirapine. The lack of effect...

  8. Identification of regions of Ail required for the invasion and serum resistance phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, V L; Beer, K B; Heusipp, G; Young, B M; Wachtel, M R

    2001-09-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is an enteric pathogen that has served as a model system for the study of microbial pathogenesis. Numerous virulence gene have been identified both on the virulence plasmid and on the chromosome. One of the chromosomal genes that is highly correlated with virulence is ail, a gene identified along with inv in a screen for Y. enterocolitica genes that could confer an invasive phenotype to Escherichia coli. Ail also promotes serum resistance in both E. coli and Y. enterocolitica. Several virulence factors homologous to Ail have been identified in other pathogens, yet very little is known about what constitutes the functional domain(s) of these proteins. Proteins in this family are predicted to consist of eight transmembrane beta-sheets and four cell surface-exposed loops. We constructed and characterized a number of insertion, deletion and point mutations in the regions of ail predicted to encode the cell surface loops. The results from the analysis of these mutants indicate that cell surface loops one and four do not directly promote invasion or serum resistance, whereas mutations in loop three appear to modulate both phenotypes. Analysis of mutations in loop 2 suggests that this surface-exposed loop contains sequences required for serum resistance and invasion. In addition, a peptide derived from the sequence of loop 2 was able specifically to inhibit Ail-mediated invasion in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that Ail directly promotes invasion and that loop 2 contains an active site, perhaps a receptor-binding domain. Analyses of the mutations also suggest that the serum resistance and invasion phenotypes may be separable, because there are numerous mutations that affect one phenotype but not the other.

  9. Viral phenotype, antiretroviral resistance and clinical evolution in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, M J; Cilleruelo, M J; Ortiz, M; Villota, J; García, M; Perez-Jurado, M L; Barreiro, G; Martín-Fontelos, P; Bernal, A

    1997-11-01

    The syncytium-inducing (SI) viral phenotype and the emergence of viral strains resistant to zidovudine have been described in persons infected with HIV, and in some cases they have been associated with poor prognosis. HIV isolates obtained from 37 HIV-infected children were analyzed to determine whether the SI viral phenotype and the mutation on the 215 position of the reverse transcriptase (M215) could be used as markers of disease progression. We performed peripheral blood coculture mononuclear cells, and we analyzed the induction of syncytia using the MT-2 cell line. The emergence of mutations on the 215 position was determined by PCR. We found a statistically significant association (P < 0.05) between SI viral phenotype and (1) recurrent serious bacterial infections, (2) absolute CD4+ cell counts <2 SD, (3) progression to AIDS and (4) death. Sixty percent of the children treated with zidovudine developed 215 mutant viral strains without statistically significant association with clinical or immunologic findings. The SI viral phenotype was statistically associated with the presence of the 215 mutation (P < 0.05). SI viral phenotype is a marker associated with a poor clinical and immunologic progression of the disease and it may facilitate the emergence of mutant strains in children treated with zidovudine.

  10. Intermittent hypoxia selects for genotypes and phenotypes that increase survival, invasion, and therapy resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Verduzco

    Full Text Available Hypoxia in tumors correlates with greater risk of metastases, increased invasiveness, and resistance to systemic and radiation therapy. The evolutionary dynamics that links specific adaptations to hypoxia with these observed tumor properties have not been well investigated. While some tumor populations may experience fixed hypoxia, cyclical and stochastic transitions from normoxia to hypoxia are commonly observed in vivo. Although some phenotypic adaptations to this cyclic hypoxia are likely reversible, we hypothesize that some adaptations may become fixed through mutations promoted by hypoxia-induced genomic instability. Here we seek to identify genetic alterations and corresponding stable phenotypes that emerge following cyclic hypoxia. Although these changes may originate as adaptations to this specific environmental stress, their fixation in the tumor genome may result in their observation in tumors from regions of normoxia, a condition known as pseudohypoxia. We exposed several epithelial cell lines to 50 cycles of hypoxia-normoxia, followed by culture in normoxia over a period of several months. Molecular analyses demonstrated permanent changes in expression of several oncogenes and tumor-suppressors, including p53, E-cadherin, and Hif-1α. These changes were associated with increased resistance to multiple cytotoxins, increased survival in hypoxia and increased anchorage-independent growth. These results suggest cycles of hypoxia encountered in early cancers can select for specific and stable genotypic and phenotypic properties that persist even in normoxic conditions, which may promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy.

  11. A Mutator Phenotype Promoting the Emergence of Spontaneous Oxidative Stress-Resistant Mutants in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Sahin, Orhan; Tang, Yizhi; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-12-15

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. As a microaerophilic organism, C. jejuni must be able to defend against oxidative stress encountered both in the host and in the environment. How Campylobacter utilizes a mutation-based mechanism for adaptation to oxidative stress is still unknown. Here we present a previously undescribed phenotypic and genetic mechanism that promotes the emergence of oxidative stress-resistant mutants. Specifically, we showed that a naturally occurring mutator phenotype, resulting from a loss of function mutation in the DNA repair enzyme MutY, increased oxidative stress resistance (OX R ) in C. jejuni We further demonstrated that MutY malfunction did not directly contribute to the OX R phenotype but increased the spontaneous mutation rate in the peroxide regulator gene perR , which functions as a repressor for multiple genes involved in oxidative stress resistance. Mutations in PerR resulted in loss of its DNA binding function and derepression of PerR-controlled oxidative stress defense genes, thereby conferring an OX R phenotype and facilitating Campylobacter survival under oxidative stress. These findings reveal a new mechanism that promotes the emergence of spontaneous OX R mutants in bacterial organisms. IMPORTANCE Although a mutator phenotype has been shown to promote antibiotic resistance in many bacterial species, little is known about its contribution to the emergence of OX R mutants. This work describes the link between a mutator phenotype and the enhanced emergence of OX R mutants as well as its underlying mechanism involving DNA repair and mutations in PerR. Since DNA repair systems and PerR are well conserved in many bacterial species, especially in Gram positives, the same mechanism may operate in multiple bacterial species. Additionally, we developed a novel method that allows for rapid quantification of spontaneous OX R mutants in a bacterial population. This method represents a technical

  12. Specificity of drug transport mediated by CaMDR1: a major facilitator ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    among these two tested drugs. Due to severe toxicity of these drugs to insect cells, further characterization of. CaMdr1p as a drug transporter could not be done with this system. Therefore, as an alternative, CaMdr1p and. Cdr1p, which is an ABC protein (ATP binding cassette) also involved in azole resistance in C. albicans, ...

  13. Novel Conserved Genotypes Correspond to Antibiotic Resistance Phenotypes of E. coli Clinical Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Swick

    Full Text Available Current efforts to understand antibiotic resistance on the whole genome scale tend to focus on known genes even as high throughput sequencing strategies uncover novel mechanisms. To identify genomic variations associated with antibiotic resistance, we employed a modified genome-wide association study; we sequenced genomic DNA from pools of E. coli clinical isolates with similar antibiotic resistance phenotypes using SOLiD technology to uncover single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs unanimously conserved in each pool. The multidrug-resistant pools were genotypically similar to SMS-3-5, a previously sequenced multidrug-resistant isolate from a polluted environment. The similarity was evenly spread across the entire genome and not limited to plasmid or pathogenicity island loci. Among the pools of clinical isolates, genomic variation was concentrated adjacent to previously reported inversion and duplication differences between the SMS-3-5 isolate and the drug-susceptible laboratory strain, DH10B. SNPs that result in non-synonymous changes in gyrA (encoding the well-known S83L allele associated with fluoroquinolone resistance, mutM, ligB, and recG were unanimously conserved in every fluoroquinolone-resistant pool. Alleles of the latter three genes are tightly linked among most sequenced E. coli genomes, and had not been implicated in antibiotic resistance previously. The changes in these genes map to amino acid positions in alpha helices that are involved in DNA binding. Plasmid-encoded complementation of null strains with either allelic variant of mutM or ligB resulted in variable responses to ultraviolet light or hydrogen peroxide treatment as markers of induced DNA damage, indicating their importance in DNA metabolism and revealing a potential mechanism for fluoroquinolone resistance. Our approach uncovered evidence that additional DNA binding enzymes may contribute to fluoroquinolone resistance and further implicate environmental bacteria as a

  14. Novel Conserved Genotypes Correspond to Antibiotic Resistance Phenotypes of E. coli Clinical Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Michelle C; Evangelista, Michael A; Bodine, Truston J; Easton-Marks, Jeremy R; Barth, Patrick; Shah, Minita J; Bormann Chung, Christina A; Stanley, Sarah; McLaughlin, Stephen F; Lee, Clarence C; Sheth, Vrunda; Doan, Quynh; Hamill, Richard J; Steffen, David; Becnel, Lauren B; Sucgang, Richard; Zechiedrich, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Current efforts to understand antibiotic resistance on the whole genome scale tend to focus on known genes even as high throughput sequencing strategies uncover novel mechanisms. To identify genomic variations associated with antibiotic resistance, we employed a modified genome-wide association study; we sequenced genomic DNA from pools of E. coli clinical isolates with similar antibiotic resistance phenotypes using SOLiD technology to uncover single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) unanimously conserved in each pool. The multidrug-resistant pools were genotypically similar to SMS-3-5, a previously sequenced multidrug-resistant isolate from a polluted environment. The similarity was evenly spread across the entire genome and not limited to plasmid or pathogenicity island loci. Among the pools of clinical isolates, genomic variation was concentrated adjacent to previously reported inversion and duplication differences between the SMS-3-5 isolate and the drug-susceptible laboratory strain, DH10B. SNPs that result in non-synonymous changes in gyrA (encoding the well-known S83L allele associated with fluoroquinolone resistance), mutM, ligB, and recG were unanimously conserved in every fluoroquinolone-resistant pool. Alleles of the latter three genes are tightly linked among most sequenced E. coli genomes, and had not been implicated in antibiotic resistance previously. The changes in these genes map to amino acid positions in alpha helices that are involved in DNA binding. Plasmid-encoded complementation of null strains with either allelic variant of mutM or ligB resulted in variable responses to ultraviolet light or hydrogen peroxide treatment as markers of induced DNA damage, indicating their importance in DNA metabolism and revealing a potential mechanism for fluoroquinolone resistance. Our approach uncovered evidence that additional DNA binding enzymes may contribute to fluoroquinolone resistance and further implicate environmental bacteria as a reservoir for

  15. Laboratory evaluation of phenotypic detection methods of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kali, Arunava; Stephen, Selvaraj; Umadevi, Sivaraman

    2014-01-01

    Although conventional antibiotic susceptibility tests are most commonly performed for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the results of these phenotypic tests are dependent on the standardization of the culture conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the conventional phenotypic screening tests in comparison to the mecA gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One hundred and two clinical isolates of MRSA identified by the oxacillin disk diffusion were subjected to PCR for the mecA gene and by the cefoxitin disk diffusion test and culture on oxacillin screen agar, mannitol salt agar, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Agar (MeReSA) selective medium, for MRSA. Although all 102 isolates were resistant in oxacillin and cefoxitin disk diffusion, 92 (90.1%) isolates were positive for the mecA gene. The sensitivities of the mannitol salt agar, MeReSA agar, and oxacillin screen agar were 89.13, 97.82, and 98.91%, respectively. The oxacillin screen agar may be recommended for confirming methicillin resistance in the disk diffusion test in resource-poor settings, where molecular methods are not available.

  16. Laboratory evaluation of phenotypic detection methods of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunava Kali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although conventional antibiotic susceptibility tests are most commonly performed for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, the results of these phenotypic tests are dependent on the standardization of the culture conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the conventional phenotypic screening tests in comparison to the mecA gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR. One hundred and two clinical isolates of MRSA identified by the oxacillin disk diffusion were subjected to PCR for the mecA gene and by the cefoxitin disk diffusion test and culture on oxacillin screen agar, mannitol salt agar, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Agar (MeReSA selective medium, for MRSA. Although all 102 isolates were resistant in oxacillin and cefoxitin disk diffusion, 92 (90.1% isolates were positive for the mecA gene. The sensitivities of the mannitol salt agar, MeReSA agar, and oxacillin screen agar were 89.13, 97.82, and 98.91%, respectively. The oxacillin screen agar may be recommended for confirming methicillin resistance in the disk diffusion test in resource-poor settings, where molecular methods are not available.

  17. Heterologously expressed bacterial and human multidrug resistance proteins confer cadmium resistance to Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achard-Joris, M; van Saparoea, HBV; Driessen, AJM; Bourdineaud, JP; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The human MDR1 gene is induced by cadmium exposure although no resistance to this metal is observed in human cells overexpressing hMDR1. To access the role of MDR proteins in cadmium resistance, human MDR1, Lactococcus lactis lmrA, and Oenococcus oeni omrA were expressed in an Escherichia coli tolC

  18. Culture and Next-generation sequencing-based drug susceptibility testing unveil high levels of drug-resistant-TB in Djibouti: results from the first national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliani, Elisa; Hassan, Mohamed Osman; Waberi, Yacine; De Filippo, Maria Rosaria; Falzon, Dennis; Dean, Anna; Zignol, Matteo; Supply, Philip; Abdoulkader, Mohamed Ali; Hassangue, Hawa; Cirillo, Daniela Maria

    2017-12-15

    Djibouti is a small country in the Horn of Africa with a high TB incidence (378/100,000 in 2015). Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and resistance to second-line agents have been previously identified in the country but the extent of the problem has yet to be quantified. A national survey was conducted to estimate the proportion of MDR-TB among a representative sample of TB patients. Sputum was tested using XpertMTB/RIF and samples positive for MTB and resistant to rifampicin underwent first line phenotypic susceptibility testing. The TB supranational reference laboratory in Milan, Italy, undertook external quality assurance, genotypic testing based on whole genome and targeted-deep sequencing and phylogenetic studies. 301 new and 66 previously treated TB cases were enrolled. MDR-TB was detected in 34 patients: 4.7% of new and 31% of previously treated cases. Resistance to pyrazinamide, aminoglycosides and capreomycin was detected in 68%, 18% and 29% of MDR-TB strains respectively, while resistance to fluoroquinolones was not detected. Cluster analysis identified transmission of MDR-TB as a critical factor fostering drug resistance in the country. Levels of MDR-TB in Djibouti are among the highest on the African continent. High prevalence of resistance to pyrazinamide and second-line injectable agents have important implications for treatment regimens.

  19. Toward understanding of the role of reversibility of phenotypic switching in the evolution of resistance to therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Denis; Brutovsky, Branislav

    2017-01-01

    Reversibility of state transitions is intensively studied topic in many scientific disciplines over many years. In cell biology, it plays an important role in epigenetic variation of phenotypes, known as phenotypic plasticity. More interestingly, the cell state reversibility is probably crucial in the adaptation of population phenotypic heterogeneity to environmental fluctuations by evolving bet-hedging strategy, which might confer to cancer cells resistance to therapy. In this article, we pr...

  20. A single-loop recombinant pseudotyped-virus-based assay to detect HIV-1 phenotypic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shouli; Yan, Pingping; Yan, Yansheng; Qiu, Lijun; Xie, Meirong

    2015-06-01

    HIV/AIDS is a leading public health concern throughout the world. Currently, treatment of HIV/AIDS still depends on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, there is increasing evidence showing the emergence of resistance to antiretroviral drugs in HIV-1 strains, making ART less effective over time. Intensive monitoring of HIV-1 drug resistance is therefore of great importance to evaluate the current sensitivity of antiretroviral agents and is urgently needed. The aim of this study was to develop a single-loop recombinant pseudotyped-virus-based assay to detect phenotypic resistance in clinical HIV-1 strains. HIV-1 RNA was extracted from HIV-1-infected human plasma samples, and an approximately 3-kb fragment containing p7/p1/p6 cleavage sites and full-length protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT), thermonuclease (TNase), and integrase (1-280 aa) genes was amplified by nested RT-PCR. A retroviral vector was constructed using the HIV-1 infectious molecular clone pLWJ to test antiretroviral drug susceptibility. pLWJ-SV40-Luc contained a luciferase expression cassette inserted within a deleted region of the envelope (env) gene as an indicator gene. Resistance test vectors (RTVs) were constructed by incorporating amplified target genes into pLWJ-SV40-Luc by using ApaI or AgeI and AarI restriction sites and conventional cloning methods. The virus stocks used for drug susceptibility test were produced by co-transfecting 293T cells with RTVs and a plasmid that provided vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G). Viral replication was monitored by measuring luciferase activity in infected target cells at approximately 48 h postinfection. A total of 35 clinical plasma samples from HIV-1-infected humans were tested, and target fragments were successfully amplified from 34 samples (97.1 %) and 33 RTVs were successfully constructed by directional cloning, with an overall success rate of 94.3 %. A clear-cut dose-dependent relationship was detected between

  1. Phenotypic characterization and colistin susceptibilities of carbapenem-resistant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Srujana; Maurya, Vijeta; Gaind, Rajni; Deb, Monorama

    2013-11-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobcter spp. are important nosocomial pathogens and carbapenem resistance is an emerging threat. Therapeutic options for infections with these isolates include colistin. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. bloodstream isolates, phenotypically characterize the resistance mechanisms and evaluate the in vitro activity of colistin. Consecutive 145 (95 P.aeruginosa and 50 Acinetobacter spp.) non-repeat isolates were included. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed per CLSI guidelines. MIC for carbapenems and colistin was performed using Etest. Isolates showing reduced susceptibility or resistance to the carbapenems were tested for metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production using imipenem-EDTA combined disk and MBL Etest. Carbapenem resistance was observed in 40% P. aeruginosa and 66.0% Acinetobacter spp. Carbapenem-resistant (CA-R) isolates were significantly (p carbapenem-susceptible isolates. Approximately half of the CA-R strains were multidrug-resistant, and 3.1-5.5% were resistant to all antibiotics tested. MBL was found in 76.3% and 69.7% of the P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., respectively. Colistin resistance was observed in three (6.0%) Acinetobacter isolates and eight (8.4%) P. aeruginosa. MIC50 for carbapenems were two to four times higher for MBL-positive compared to MBL-negative isolates, but no difference was seen in MIC for colistin. Carbapenem resistance was observed to be mediated by MBL in a considerable number of isolates. Colistin is an alternative for infections caused by CA-R isolates; however, MIC testing should be performed whenever clinical use of colistin is considered.

  2. Dioscin enhances methotrexate absorption by down-regulating MDR1 in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan, E-mail: jlwang1979@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Wang, Changyuan, E-mail: wangcyuan@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Peng, Jinyong, E-mail: jinyongpeng2005@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Liu, Qi, E-mail: llaqii@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Meng, Qiang, E-mail: mengq531@yahoo.cn [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Sun, Huijun, E-mail: sunhuijun@hotmail.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Huo, Xiaokui, E-mail: huoxiaokui@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China); and others

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the enhancing effect of dioscin on the absorption of methotrexate (MTX) and clarify the molecular mechanism involved in vivo and in vitro. Dioscin increased MTX chemosensitivity and transepithelial flux in the absorptive direction, significantly inhibiting multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) mRNA and protein expression and MDR1 promoter and nuclear factor κ-B (NF-κB) activities in Caco-2 cells. Moreover, inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α) degradation was inhibited by dioscin. Dioscin enhanced the intracellular concentration of MTX by down-regulating MDR1 expression through a mechanism that involves NF-κB signaling pathway inhibition in Caco-2 cells. Dioscin strengthened MTX absorption by inhibiting MDR1 expression in rat intestine. In addition, even though MTX is absorbed into the enterocytes, there was no increase in toxicity observed, and that, in fact, decreased toxicity was seen. - Highlights: • Dioscin raised MTX concentration by inhibiting MDR1 in Caco-2 cells. • Dioscin suppresses MDR1 by inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway in Caco-2 cells. • Dioscin can enhance MTX absorption via inhibiting MDR1 in vivo and in vitro. • Dioscin did not increase MTX-induced gastrointestinal mucosal toxicity.

  3. Bakteri Simbion Gastropoda Pleuroploca trapesium Dari Perairan Ternate, Sebagai Alternatif Antibakteri MDR (Bacterial Symbiont Gastropoda Pleuroploca trapezium from Ternate, as Alternative Antibacterial MDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delianis Pringgenies

    2014-03-01

    The bacteria resistant to some antibiotics are known as multi drug resistant (MDR. To overcome the problem, it is needed to search for a new antibiotic compounds more effectively and efficiently. This study aims to identify potential from symbionts of Pleuroploca trapezium as a source of antibacteria MDR and identifying the bacteria that were active against the MDR. Samples were collected from Ternate, Maluku. Isolation of symbiotic bacteria, screening for bacteria which producing secondary metabolites as anti-MDR bacteria, antibacterial test, isolation of clinical pathogenic bacteria of MDR. Conducting anti-bacterial sensitivity test,  sensitivity test for antibacterial,  DNA exctraction, DNA amplification based on PCR method, DNA sequencing.  Result of 16S r-DNA sequence was then analyzed and edited using GENETYX program and followed by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Screening of bacteria associated with P. trapezium resulted in 19 isolates with 5 active bacteria. Based on the size of the zone forming and the consistency of zone, so the best isolate is TPT 4.7. The identification shows that TPT 4.7 has a close relationship with the Paracoccus sp. MBIC4019 with homologi of 95%, which shows the relationship at the genus level. Its suggest that these results are very promising as a new antibacterial material. Keywords: antibacterial, symbiotic bacteria, Pleuroploca trapezium, multi drugs resistant

  4. Associations between resistance phenotype and gene expression in response to serial exposure to oxacillin and ciprofloxacin in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M J; Ahn, J

    2017-12-01

    This study was designed to delineate the relationship between resistance phenotypes and gene expression in wild-type (SA WT ), oxacillin-induced (SA OXA ), ciprofloxacin-induced (SA CIP ) and clinically acquired antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SA CA ) exposed to oxacillin (β-lactam) and ciprofloxacin (fluoroquinolone). The phenotypic response and gene expression were varied with the antibiotic exposure. SA WT was highly resistant to oxacillin (MIC = 8 μg ml -1 ) after serial exposure to oxacillin, while the oxacillin susceptibility was not changed in SA WT when exposed to ciprofloxacin (MIC = 0·25 μg ml -1 ). The clinical isolate, SA CA , was highly resistant to all classes of antibiotics used in this study. The increased resistance of SA OXA and SA CIP to penicillinase-labile penicillins was attributed to the production of β-lactamase, which is in good agreement with the overexpression of blaZ (>2-fold). The overexpression of efflux pump-related genes (norA, norB, norC, mdeA, mepR, mgrA and lmrS) was associated with the increased resistance of SA CIP and SA CA to aminoglycosides and quinolones. This study confirmed that the linkage between resistance phenotypes and molecular genotypes highly varied depending on intrinsic resistance profile, response to antibiotic exposure and genes conferring resistance. This study provides useful information for understanding the mechanisms of methicillin resistance in S. aureus in association with phenotypic and genotypic resistance determinants. The improvement in current standards is essential to accurately detect methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in consideration of various resistance phenotypes and genotypes. The varied and distinctive expression patterns of antibiotic resistance-related genes were observed in S. aureus exposed to oxacillin and ciprofloxacin. It is worth noting the relationship between resistance phenotype and resistance genotype in terms of MIC values and expression of

  5. Associations between anti-microbial resistance phenotypes, anti-microbial resistance genotypes and virulence genes of Escherichia coli isolates from Pakistan and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, M; Wang, L P; Wang, S; Hussain, S; Memon, J; Kashif, J; Lu, C-P

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between phenotypic resistance, genotypic resistance and virulence genes of Escherichia coli isolates in Jiangsu province, China and Punjab province Pakistan. A total of 62 E. coli isolates were characterized for phenotypic resistance, genotypic resistance and virulence factor genes. The anti-microbial resistance phenotype and genotypes in relation to virulence factor genes were assessed by statistical analysis. Of 20 tested virulence genes, twelve were found and eight were not found in any isolates. sitA and TspE4C2 were the most prevalent virulence genes. Of the 13 anti-microbial agents tested, resistance to ampicillin, sulphonamide and tetracycline was the most frequent. All isolates were multiresistant, and 74% were resistant to trimethoprim and sulphamethaxazole. Phenotypically, tetracycline-, cefotaxime- and trimethoprim-resistant isolates had increased virulence factors as compared with susceptible isolates. Genotypically, resistant genes Tem, ctx-M, Tet, Sul 1, dhfr1, Cat2 and flo-R showed the association with the virulence genes. Almost all classes of anti-microbial-resistant genes have a high association with virulence. Resistant isolates have more virulent genes than the susceptible isolates. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. High-throughput phenotyping of plant resistance to aphids by automated video tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloth, Karen J; Ten Broeke, Cindy Jm; Thoen, Manus Pm; Hanhart-van den Brink, Marianne; Wiegers, Gerrie L; Krips, Olga E; Noldus, Lucas Pjj; Dicke, Marcel; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2015-01-01

    Piercing-sucking insects are major vectors of plant viruses causing significant yield losses in crops. Functional genomics of plant resistance to these insects would greatly benefit from the availability of high-throughput, quantitative phenotyping methods. We have developed an automated video tracking platform that quantifies aphid feeding behaviour on leaf discs to assess the level of plant resistance. Through the analysis of aphid movement, the start and duration of plant penetrations by aphids were estimated. As a case study, video tracking confirmed the near-complete resistance of lettuce cultivar 'Corbana' against Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosely), biotype Nr:0, and revealed quantitative resistance in Arabidopsis accession Co-2 against Myzus persicae (Sulzer). The video tracking platform was benchmarked against Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) recordings and aphid population development assays. The use of leaf discs instead of intact plants reduced the intensity of the resistance effect in video tracking, but sufficiently replicated experiments resulted in similar conclusions as EPG recordings and aphid population assays. One video tracking platform could screen 100 samples in parallel. Automated video tracking can be used to screen large plant populations for resistance to aphids and other piercing-sucking insects.

  7. Identification of a Cryptic Bacterial Promoter in Mouse (mdr1a P-Glycoprotein cDNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M Pluchino

    Full Text Available The efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp is an important mediator of various pharmacokinetic parameters, being expressed at numerous physiological barriers and also in multidrug-resistant cancer cells. Molecular cloning of homologous cDNAs is an important tool for the characterization of functional differences in P-gp between species. However, plasmids containing mouse mdr1a cDNA display significant genetic instability during cloning in bacteria, indicating that mdr1a cDNA may be somehow toxic to bacteria, allowing only clones containing mutations that abrogate this toxicity to survive transformation. We demonstrate here the presence of a cryptic promoter in mouse mdr1a cDNA that causes mouse P-gp expression in bacteria. This expression may account for the observed toxicity of mdr1a DNA to bacteria. Sigma 70 binding site analysis and GFP reporter plasmids were used to identify sequences in the first 321 bps of mdr1a cDNA capable of initiating bacterial protein expression. An mdr1a M107L cDNA containing a single residue mutation at the proposed translational start site was shown to allow sub-cloning of mdr1a in E. coli while retaining transport properties similar to wild-type P-gp. This mutant mdr1a cDNA may prove useful for efficient cloning of mdr1a in E. coli.

  8. Simple method to determine beta-lactam resistance phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the disc agar diffusion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedel, G

    2005-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major opportunistic bacterial pathogen in nosocomial infections because of the increasing prevalence of resistance to many of the commonly used antibiotics. To ensure optimal efficiency of antibiotic treatment against this species, antibiotic susceptibility tests must be interpreted with caution. Most microbiologists now consider it essential to characterize the antibiotic resistance expressed by isolates. Particular resistance mechanisms may be suspected when the bacterium is resistant to several antibiotics in the same family (for example beta-lactam agents). Using the disc agar diffusion test, a simple method was developed to distinguish between the common beta-lactam resistance phenotypes of P. aeruginosa and, consequently, the possible resistance mechanism(s). Over a period of 5 years, we analysed 6300 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various pathological specimens collected from different wards of Cochin Port-Royal Hospital, and reference and collection strains. Each strain had the wild-type phenotype or an acquired resistance phenotype. Eight anti-pseudomonal beta-lactams (ticarcillin, cefotaxime or moxalactam, cefepime or cefpirome, imipenem, ceftazidime, aztreonam, cefsulodin and ticarcillin + clavulanic acid) were used as phenotypic markers. The following markers were sufficient to distinguish between the wild-type phenotype and the various acquired resistance phenotypes: beta-lactamase synthesis, reduced cell wall permeability and/or increased expression of efflux transporters (active efflux). Detection of resistance phenotypes allows 'interpretive reading' of antibiotic susceptibility tests. Clearly, improved interpretation of antibiotic susceptibility tests is important for a better appreciation of the effect of antimicrobial agents on bacteria such as P. aeruginosa.

  9. Distinctive Risk Factors and Phenotype of Younger Patients With Resistant Hypertension: Age Is Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Lama; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A; Lin, Chee Paul; Dudenbostel, Tanja

    2017-05-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure >140/90 mm Hg despite using ≥3 antihypertensive medications, is a well-recognized clinical entity. Patients with resistant hypertension are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those with more easily controlled hypertension. Coronary heart disease mortality rates of younger adults are stagnating or on the rise. The purpose of our study was to characterize the phenotype and risk factors of younger patients with resistant hypertension, given the dearth of data on cardiovascular risk profile in this cohort. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis with predefined age groups of a large, ethnically diverse cohort of 2170 patients referred to the Hypertension Clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Patients (n=2068) met the inclusion criteria and were classified by age groups, that is, ≤40 years (12.7% of total cohort), 41 to 55 years (32.1%), 56 to 70 years (36.1%), and ≥71 years (19.1%). Patients aged ≤40 years compared with those aged ≥71 years had significantly earlier onset of hypertension (24.7±7.4 versus 55.0±14.1 years; P hypertension, younger individuals have a distinct phenotype characterized by overlapping risk factors and comorbidities, including obesity, high aldosterone, and high dietary sodium intake compared with elderly. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Safety of fluralaner, a novel systemic antiparasitic drug, in MDR1(-/-) Collies after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Feli M; Paul, Allan J; Allan, Mark J; Roepke, Rainer K A; Nuernberger, Martin C

    2014-03-06

    Fluralaner is a novel systemic ectoparasiticide for dogs providing long-acting flea- and tick-control after a single oral dose. This study investigated the safety of oral administration of fluralaner at 3 times the highest expected clinical dose to Multi Drug Resistance Protein 1 (MDR1(-/-)) gene defect Collies. Sixteen Collies homozygous for the MDR1 deletion mutation were included in the study. Eight Collies received fluralaner chewable tablets once at a dose of 168 mg/kg; eight sham dosed Collies served as controls. All Collies were clinically observed until 28 days following treatment. No adverse events were observed subsequent to fluralaner treatment of MDR1(-/-) Collies at three times the highest expected clinical dose. Fluralaner chewable tablets are well tolerated in MDR1(-/-) Collies following oral administration.

  11. Radiosensitizer AK-2123 enhances sensitivity of mdr-tumors to mitomycin C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, S.A.; Raevskaya, T.A.; Konovalova, N.P.; Kagiya, V.T.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of the AK-2123 radiosensitizer, associated with the triazoles group, on the sensitivity of the mdr tumors to mitomycin C (MMC), etoposide and adriablastin is studied. It is shown, that the AK-2123 essentially increases the sensitivity of the R388 leucosis mdr strains to MMC. It is assumed, that the sensibilizer modulation effect is conditioned by its ability to change the calcium ions flows. The AK-2123 preparation dose not change the sensitivity of the R388 source strain to MMC; it is unable to overcome the cross-over stability of one of the mdr resistant strains, causing etoposide and adriablastin. The work may be of importance by studying the radiation sensitivity of the mdr-tumors [ru

  12. Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Metallo-beta-lactamases among Imipenem-Resistant Gram Negative Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Imipenem-resistant gram negative bacteria, resulting from metallo-beta-lactamase (MBLs-producing strains have been reported to be among the important causes of nosocomial infections and of serious therapeutic problem worldwide. Because of their broad range, potent carbapenemase activity and resistance to inhibitors, these enzymes can confer resistance to almost all beta-lactams. The prevalence of metallo-beta-lactamase among imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Enerobacteriaceae isolates is determined.Methods:   In this descriptive study 864 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae, were initially tested for imipenem susceptibility. The metallo-beta-lactamase production was detected using combined disk diffusion, double disk synergy test, and Hodge test. Then all imipenem resistant isolates were tested by PCR for imp, vim and ndm genes. Results:   Among 864 isolates, 62 (7.17 % were imipenem-resistant. Positive phonetypic test for metallo-beta-lactamase was 40 (64.5%, of which 24 (17.1% and 16 (9.2% isolates were Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp., respectively. By PCR method 30 (48.4% of imipenem resistant Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas isolates were positive for MBL-producing genes. None of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were positive for metallo-beta-lactamase activity. Conclusion:   The results of this study are indicative of the growing number of nosocomial infections associated with multidrug-resistant gram negative bacteria in this region leading to difficulties in antibiotic therapy. Thereby, using of phenotypic methods can be helpful for management of this problem.

  13. Proteomic profile of susceptible and multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae using label-free and immunoproteomic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Sandra; Aroso, Miguel; Roxo, Inês; Ferreira, Sónia; Cerveira, Frederico; Ramalheira, Elmano; Ferreira, Rita; Vitorino, Rui

    2017-04-01

    Infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae have exponentially increased in the past decade, and are a major concern in hospitals. In the first part of the work, we compared the proteome profile of MDR and susceptible clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in order to identify possible biological processes associated with drug resistance and susceptible phenotypes, using a label-free approach. In the second part, we used an immunoproteomics approach to identify immunoreactive proteins in the same isolates. A total of 388 and 377 proteins were identified in MDR and susceptible E. coli, respectively, evidencing that biological processes related to translation are upregulated in E. coli MDR, while there is an upregulation of processes related to catalytic activity in K. pneumoniae MDR. Both MDR strains show downregulation of processes related to amino acid activation and tRNA amino-acylation. Our data also suggest that MDR strains have higher immunoreactivity than the susceptible strains. The application of high-throughput mass spectrometry (MS) and bioinformatics to the study of modulation of biological processes might shed light on the characterization of multidrug resistance in bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Endoperoxide Drug Cross-Resistance Patterns for Plasmodium falciparum Exhibiting an Artemisinin Delayed-Clearance Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardana, A; Iyengar, K; Roepe, P D

    2016-11-01

    The ring-stage susceptibility assay was modified to quantify the susceptibilities of multiple strains of control and delayed-clearance phenotype (DCP) Plasmodium falciparum strains to seven endoperoxide antimalarial drugs. The susceptibility of all of the DCP lines to six of the drugs was lower than that of the controls. In contrast, DCP parasites did not show reduced susceptibility to the synthetic endoperoxide drug OZ439. These data show that it is possible to circumvent emerging artemisinin resistance with a modified endoperoxide drug. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of aminoglycoside-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauskenieks, Matiss; Pole, Ilva; Skenders, Girts; Jansone, Inta; Broka, Lonija; Nodieva, Anda; Ozere, Iveta; Kalvisa, Adrija; Ranka, Renate; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2015-03-01

    Mutations causing resistance to aminoglycosides, such as kanamycin (KAN), amikacin (AMK), and streptomycin, are not completely understood. In this study, polymorphisms of aminoglycoside resistance influencing genes such as rrs, eis, rpsL, and gidB in 41 drug-resistant and 17 pan-sensitive Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in Latvia were analyzed. Mutation A1400G in rrs gene was detected in 92% isolates with high resistance level to KAN and diverse MIC level to AMK. Mutations in promoter region of eis were detected in 80% isolates with low-level MIC of KAN. The association of K43R mutation in rpsL gene, a mutation in the rrs gene at position 513, and various polymorphisms in gidB gene with distinct genetic lineages of M. tuberculosis was observed. The results of this study suggest that association of different controversial mutations of M. tuberculosis genes to the drug resistance phenotype should be done in respect to genetic lineages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular Gymnastics: Mechanisms of HIV-1 Resistance to CCR5 Antagonists and Impact on Virus Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Michael; Borm, Katharina; Flynn, Jacqueline K; Lewin, Sharon R; Churchill, Melissa J; Gorry, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) enters host cells through the binding of its envelope glycoproteins (Env) to the host cell receptor CD4 and then subsequent binding to a chemokine coreceptor, either CCR5 or CXCR4. CCR5 antagonists are a relatively recent class addition to the armamentarium of anti-HIV-1 drugs. These compounds act by binding to a hydrophobic pocket formed by the transmembrane helices of CCR5 and altering the conformation of the extracellular domains, such that they are no longer recognized by Env. Maraviroc is the first drug within this class to be licenced for use in HIV-1 therapy regimens. HIV resistance to CCR5 antagonists occurs either through outgrowth of pre-existing CXCR4-using viruses, or through acquisition of the ability of CCR5-using HIV-1 to use the antagonist bound form of CCR5. In the latter scenario, the mechanism underlying resistance is through complex alterations in the way that resistant Envs engage CCR5. These significant changes are unlikely to occur without consequence to the viral entry phenotype and may also open up new avenues to target CCR5 antagonist resistant viruses. This review discusses the mechanism of action of CCR5 antagonists, how HIV resistance to CCR5 antagonists occurs, and the subsequent effects on Env function.

  17. Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of antimicrobial resistance in faecal bacteria from 30 Giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An-Yun; Wang, Hong-Ning; Tian, Guo-Bao; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Xin; Xia, Qing-Qing; Tang, Jun-Ni; Zou, Li-Kou

    2009-05-01

    To study the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in faecal bacteria from Giant pandas in China, 59 isolates were recovered from faecal pats of 30 Giant pandas. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates was performed by the standardised disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer). Of the 59 study isolates, 32.20% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial and 16.95% showed multidrug-resistant phenotypes. Thirteen drug resistance genes [aph(3')-IIa, aac(6')-Ib, ant(3'')-Ia, aac(3)-IIa, sul1, sul2, sul3, tetA, tetC, tetM, cat1, floR and cmlA] were analysed using four primer sets by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The detection frequency of the aph(3')-IIa gene was the highest (10.17%), followed by cmlA (8.47%). The genes aac(6')-Ib, sul2 and tetA were not detected. PCR products were confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. The results revealed that multidrug resistance was widely present in bacteria isolated from Giant pandas.

  18. Novel Regulatory Mechanisms of Pathogenicity and Virulence to Combat MDR in Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Hameed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous deployment of antifungals in treating infections caused by dimorphic opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans has led to the emergence of drug resistance resulting in cross-resistance to many unrelated drugs, a phenomenon termed multidrug resistance (MDR. Despite the current understanding of major factors which contribute to MDR mechanisms, there are many lines of evidence suggesting that it is a complex interplay of multiple factors which may be contributed by still unknown mechanisms. Coincidentally with the increased usage of antifungal drugs, the number of reports for antifungal drug resistance has also increased which further highlights the need for understanding novel molecular mechanisms which can be explored to combat MDR, namely, ROS, iron, hypoxia, lipids, morphogenesis, and transcriptional and signaling networks. Considering the worrying evolution of MDR and significance of C. albicans being the most prevalent human fungal pathogen, this review summarizes these new regulatory mechanisms which could be exploited to prevent MDR development in C. albicans as established from recent studies.

  19. Molecular diagnosis of MDR-TB using GenoType MTBDRplus 96 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    rifampicin; one (16.7%) showed mono-resistance to isoniazid while two (30.0%) were resistant to the two drugs. This study shows that MDR-TB is present in Ibadan. There is a need to make DST ... According to the World Health Organization (WHO) report, one third of the current world population is infected with TB (WHO, ...

  20. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacter spp. isolates from companion animals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Sato, Tomomi; Kajino, Akari; Usui, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka; Kimura, Yui; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Ohki, Asami; Kataoka, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacter spp., including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), is of great concern in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among 60 isolates of Enterobacter spp., including E. cloacae (n = 44), E. aerogenes (n = 10), and E. asburiae (n = 6), from clinical specimens of dogs and cats from 15 prefectures in Japan. Furthermore, we characterized the resistance mechanisms harbored by these isolates, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR); and assessed the genetic relatedness of ESC-resistant Enterobacter spp. strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated the resistance rates to ampicillin (93.3%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (93.3%), cefmetazole (93.3%), chloramphenicol (46.7%), ciprofloxacin (43.3%), tetracycline (40.0%), ceftazidime (33.3%), cefotaxime (33.3%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (28.3%), gentamicin (23.3%), and meropenem (0%). Phenotypic testing detected ESBLs in 16 of 18 ESC-resistant E. cloacae isolates but not in the other species. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (n = 8), followed by SHV-12 (n = 7), and CTX-M-3 (n = 1). As for AmpC β-lactamases, CMY-2 (n = 2) and DHA-1 (n = 2) were identified in ESC-resistant E. cloacae strains with or without ESBLs. All of the ESC-resistant E. cloacae strains also harbored one or two PMQRs, including qnrB (n = 15), aac(6')-Ib-cr (n = 8), and qnrS (n = 2). Based on MLST and PFGE analysis, E. cloacae clones of ST591-SHV-12, ST171-CTX-M-15, and ST121-CTX-M-15 were detected in one or several hospitals. These results suggested intra- and inter-hospital dissemination of E. cloacae clones co-harboring ESBLs and PMQRs among companion animals. This is the first report on the large-scale monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant isolates

  1. Antibacterial activity of herbal extracts against multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli recovered from retail chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Arfat Yousaf; Sheikh, Ali Ahmad; Rabbani, Masood; Aslam, Asim; Bibi, Tasra; Liaqat, Fakhra; Muhammad, Javed; Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima

    2015-07-01

    Increasing incidence rate of multiple drug resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) due to extensive uses of antibiotics is a serious challenge to disease treatment. Contaminated retail chicken meat is one of the major sources of spread of multi drug resistant (MDR) E. coli. Current study has been conducted to study the prevalence of MDR E. coli in retail chicken meat samples from Lahore city of Pakistan and it was found that 73.86% of E. coli isolates have MDR pattern. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude ethanolic extracts of six herbs against MDR E. coli phenotypes has revealed that clove and cinnamon have maximum zones of inhibition as compared to other herbal extracts. Mint and coriander gave the intermediate results while garlic and kalonji showed the least antibacterial activity against the MDR E. coli phenotypes using the agar well diffusion technique. Average Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) for clove, mint, cinnamon, coriander, kalonji and garlic extracts were 1.15, 1.38, 0.5, 1.99, 2.41, 8.60 mg/mL respectively using the broth micro dilution method. The results obtained in present study were revealed that crude ethanol extracts of selected herbs have had significant antibacterial activity. Hence they can be used as promising alternatives of antimicrobials against MDR E. coli species and can be used for cooked food preservation.

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates from two hospitals in Mexico: First detection of VanB phenotype-vanA genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Flores-Treviño, Samantha; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Llaca-Díaz, Jorge; Martínez-Landeros, Erik Alan; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Calzada-Güereca, Andrés; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor Jesús; Garza-González, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium has emerged as a multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen involved in outbreaks worldwide. Our aim was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, biofilm production, and clonal relatedness of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREF) clinical isolates from two hospitals in Mexico. Consecutive clinical isolates (n=56) were collected in two tertiary care hospitals in Mexico from 2011 to 2014. VREF isolates were characterized by phenotypic and molecular methods including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). VREF isolates were highly resistant to vancomycin, erythromycin, norfloxacin, high-level streptomycin, and teicoplanin, and showed lower resistance to tetracycline, nitrofurantoin and quinupristin-dalfopristin. None of the isolates were resistant to linezolid. The vanA gene was detected in all isolates. Two VanB phenotype-vanA genotype isolates, highly resistant to vancomycin and susceptible to teicoplanin, were detected. Furthermore, 17.9% of the isolates were classified as biofilm producers, and the espfm gene was found in 98.2% of the isolates. A total of 37 distinct PFGE patterns and 6 clones (25% of the isolates as clone A, 5.4% as clone B, and 3.6% each as clone C, D, E, and F) were detected. Clone A was detected in 5 different wards of the same hospital during 14 months of surveillance. The high resistance to most antimicrobial agents and the moderate cross-transmission of VREF detected accentuates the need for continuous surveillance of E. faecium in the hospital setting. This is also the first reported incidence of the E. faecium VanB phenotype-vanA genotype in the Americas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. A surge of MDR and XDR tuberculosis in France among patients born in the Former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C; Brossier, F; Sougakoff, W; Veziris, N; Frechet-Jachym, M; Metivier, N; Renvoisé, A; Robert, J; Jarlier, V

    2013-08-15

    A marked increase in the number of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) cases entirely related to patients born in the Former Soviet Union was observed in France in the last two years. Very few cases were clustered, suggesting it is a consequence of recent immigration of patients already infected in their country of origin. This major increase challenges the existing structures for management of MDR and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB).

  4. Resistance gene analogs involved in tolerant cassava--geminivirus interaction that shows a recovery phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Bengyella; Rey, Chrissie

    2015-12-01

    The current literature describes recovery from virus-induced symptoms as a RNA silencing defense, but immunity-related genes, including the structurally specific resistance gene analogs (RGAs) that may play a key role in tolerance and recovery is not yet reported. In this study, the transcriptome data of tolerant cassava TME3 (which exhibits a recovery phenotype) and susceptible cassava T200 infected with South African cassava mosaic virus were explored for RGAs. Putative resistance protein analogs (RPAs) with amide-like indole-3-acetic acid-Ile-Leu-Arg (IAA-ILR) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-kinase conserved domains were unique to TME3. Common responsive RPAs in TME3 and T200 were the dirigent-like protein, coil-coil nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and toll-interleukin-resistance, disease resistance zinc finger chromosome condensation-like protein (DZC), and NBS-apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment (ARC)-LRR domains. Mutations in RPAs in the MHD motif of the NBS-ARC2 subdomain associated with the recovery phase in TME3 were observed. Additionally, a cohort of 25 RGAs mined solely during the recovery process in TME3 was identified. Phylogenetic and expression analyses support that diverse RGAs are differentially expressed during tolerance and recovery. This study reveals that in cassava, a perennial crop, RGAs participate in tolerance and differentially accumulate during recovery as a complementary defense mechanism to natural occurring RNA silencing to impair viral replication.

  5. The multidrug-resistant phenotype associated with overexpression of the new ABC half-transporter, MXR (ABCG2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litman, Thomas; Brangi, M; Hudson, E

    2000-01-01

    Mechanisms of drug resistance other than P-glycoprotein are of increasing interest as the list of newly identified members of the ABC transport family has grown. We sought to characterize the phenotype of the newly discovered ABC transporter encoded by the mitoxantrone resistance gene, MXR, also...... that the ABC half-transporter, MXR, is a potent, new mechanism for conferring multiple drug resistance. Definition of its mechanism of transport and its role in clinical oncology is required....

  6. Use of phenotype microarrays to study the effect of acquisition of resistance to antimicrobials in bacterial physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reales-Calderon, Jose A; Blanco, Paula; Alcalde-Rico, Manuel; Corona, Fernando; Lira, Felipe; Hernando-Amado, Sara; Bernardini, Alejandra; Sánchez, María B; Martínez, José L

    It is widely accepted that the acquisition of resistance to antimicrobials confers a fitness cost. Different works have shown that the effect of acquiring resistance in bacterial physiology may be more specific than previously thought. Study of these specific changes may help to predict the outcome of resistant organisms in different ecosystems. In addition to changing bacterial physiology, acquisition of resistance either increases or reduces susceptibility to other antimicrobials. In the current article, we review recent information on the effect of acquiring resistance upon bacterial physiology, with a specific focus on studies using phenotype microarray technology. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Phenotypic and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Ekiti State, Nigeria

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    Olowe OA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Olugbenga Adekunle Olowe,1 Olayinka Oluwatoyin Kukoyi,2 Samuel Sunday Taiwo,1 Olusola Ojurongbe,1 Oluyinka Oladele Opaleye,1 Oloyede Samuel Bolaji,1 Abiodun Adebimpe Adegoke,1 Olufunmilola Bamidele Makanjuola,1 David Olusoga Ogbolu,3 Oyebode Terry Alli31Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria; 2Department of Microbiology, College of Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria; 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Lautech, Osogbo, NigeriaIntroduction: The characteristics and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Staphylococcus aureus differs according to geographical regions and in relation to antibiotic usage. The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical characteristics of the prevalent S. aureus from Ekiti State, Nigeria, and to evaluate three commonly used disk diffusion methods (cefoxitin, oxacillin, and methicillin for the detection of methicillin resistance in comparison with mecA gene detection by polymerase chain reaction.Materials and methods: A total of 208 isolates of S. aureus recovered from clinical specimens were included in this study. Standard microbiological procedures were employed in isolating the strains. Susceptibility of each isolate to methicillin (5 µg, oxacillin (1 µg, and cefoxitin (30 µg was carried out using the modified Kirby–Bauer/Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute disk diffusion technique. They were also tested against panels of antibiotics including vancomycin. The conventional polymerase chain reaction method was used to detect the presence of the mecA gene.Results: Phenotypic resistance to methicillin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin were 32.7%, 40.3%, and 46.5%, respectively. The mecA gene was detected in 40 isolates, giving a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA prevalence of 19.2%. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin (82.7% and tetracycline

  8. Mortality among MDR-TB cases: comparison with drug-susceptible tuberculosis and associated factors.

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    Kocfa Chung-Delgado

    Full Text Available An increase in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB cases is evident worldwide. Its management implies a complex treatment, high costs, more toxic anti-tuberculosis drug use, longer treatment time and increased treatment failure and mortality. The aims of this study were to compare mortality between MDR and drug-susceptible cases of tuberculosis, and to determine risk factors associated with mortality among MDR-TB cases.A retrospective cohort study was performed using data from clinical records of the National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in Lima, Peru. In the first objective, MDR-TB, compared to drug-susceptible cases, was the main exposure variable and time to death, censored at 180 days, the outcome of interest. For the second objective, different variables obtained from clinical records were assessed as potential risk factors for death among MDR-TB cases. Cox regression analysis was used to determine hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. A total of 1,232 patients were analyzed: mean age 30.9 ±14.0 years, 60.0% were males. 61 patients (5.0% died during treatment, whereas the MDR-TB prevalence was 19.2%. MDR-TB increased the risk of death during treatment (HR = 7.5; IC95%: 4.1-13.4 when compared to presumed drug-susceptible cases after controlling for potential confounders. Education level (p = 0.01, previous TB episodes (p<0.001, diabetes history (p<0.001 and HIV infection (p = 0.04 were factors associated with mortality among MDR-TB cases.MDR-TB is associated with an increased risk of death during treatment. Lower education, greater number of previous TB episodes, diabetes history, and HIV infection were independently associated with mortality among MDR-TB cases. New strategies for appropriate MDR-TB detection and management should be implemented, including drug sensitivity tests, diabetes and HIV screening, as well as guarantee for a complete adherence to therapy.

  9. Exploring the Genome and Phenotype of Multi-Drug Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae of Clinical Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anes, João; Hurley, Daniel; Martins, Marta; Fanning, Séamus

    2017-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important nosocomial pathogen with an extraordinary resistant phenotype due to a combination of acquired resistant-elements and efflux mechanisms. In this study a detailed molecular characterization of 11 K. pneumoniae isolates of clinical origin was carried out. Eleven clinical isolates were tested for their susceptibilities, by disk diffusion and broth microdilution and interpreted according to CLSI guidelines. Efflux activity was determined by measuring the extrusion of ethidium bromide and biofilm formation was assessed following static growth in Müeller-Hinton and minimal media M9 broths at two temperatures and time points. Template DNA from all 11 isolates was extracted and sequenced. The study collection was found to be resistant to several (extended-spectrum beta-lactam) ESBL-type compounds along with several (fluoro)quinolones (FQ). Resistance to tetracycline accounted for 55% of the study collection (n = 6) and three of the 11 isolates were resistance to carbapenems. Genotyping identified blaCTX-M-15 (82%), blaSHV-12 (55%), and blaTEM-1B (45%) ESBL encoding genes and FQ resistance was associated the presence of the oqxAB operon, identified in 10 of the 11 isolates and qnrB gene in one isolate. The polymorphisms detected in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) were associated with isolates of the clonal group CG15. Sequence types (ST) identified were representative of previously described clonal groups including CG258 (n = 7), CG15 (n = 3), and CG147 (n = 1). Plasmid replicon type databases were queried indicating the presence of IncFII and IncFIB replicon types in the majority of the isolates (91%), followed by IncFIA (45%), and IncR (45%). Two of the 11 isolates were found positive for yersiniabactin siderophore-encoding genes. No differences in the ability to efflux ethidium bromide were identified. Biofilm formation was stronger when the isolates were grown under stressed conditions at 37°C for a period up

  10. Prevalence of Genetic Determinants and Phenotypic Resistance to Ciprofloxacin in Campylobacter jejuni from Lithuania

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    Jurgita Aksomaitiene

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the number of reports on isolation of ciprofloxacin resistant Campylobacter jejuni has increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin and its genetic determinants among C. jejuni isolated from humans (n = 100, poultry products (n = 96 and wild birds (n = 96 in Lithuania. 91.4% of the C. jejuni isolates were phenotypically resistant to ciprofloxacin. DNA sequence analyses of the gyrA gene from 292 isolates revealed that a change in amino acid sequence, Thr86Ile, was the main substition conferring resistance to ciprofloxacin. This change was significantly associated with isolates from poultry products (P < 0.05 and humans (P < 0.05. A total of 26.7% of C. jejuni isolates from human (n = 47, poultry products (n = 30 and wild bird (n = 1, had a mutation from Ser at position 22, and six had an additional mutation from Ala at position 39. Eight isolates from poultry and two isolates from human, corresponding to 67.0% of isolates with MICs ≥128 μg/ml, showed missense mutations Thr86Ile (ACA → ATA and Ser22Gly (AGT → GGT together, whereas isolates without these mutations showed lower MIC values (from 4 to 64 μg/ml. Two hundred forty-five C. jejuni isolates showed one or more silent mutations, and 32.4% of examined isolates possessed six silent mutations. In addition to the ciprofloxacin resistant isolates harboring only Thr86Ile point mutation (110 isolates, the current study identified resistant isolates (n = 101 harboring additional point mutations (Ser22Gly, Ala39Ser, Arg48Lys, Thr85Ala Ala122Ser, Glu136Asp, Vall49Ile, and strains (n = 57 having only Glu136Asp point mutation. The study highlight the potential public health problem with elevated ciprofloxacin resistance in Campylobacters from poultry meat, wild birds and humans, and the need for extensive surveillance enabling to follow changes of antimicrobial resistance development in this species.

  11. Transient erythromycin resistance phenotype associated with peptidyl-tRNA drop-off on early UGG and GGG codons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macvanin, Mirjana; Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto I; Ardell, David H; Isaksson, Leif A

    2007-12-01

    Expression of minigenes encoding tetra- or pentapeptides MXLX or MXLXV (E peptides), where X is a nonpolar amino acid, renders cells erythromycin resistant whereas expression of minigenes encoding tripeptide MXL does not. By using a 3A' reporter gene system beginning with an E-peptide-encoding sequence, we asked whether the codons UGG and GGG, which are known to promote peptidyl-tRNA drop-off at early positions in mRNA, would result in a phenotype of erythromycin resistance if located after this sequence. We find that UGG or GGG, at either position +4 or +5, without a following stop codon, is associated with an erythromycin resistance phenotype upon gene induction. Our results suggest that, while a stop codon at +4 gives a tripeptide product (MIL) and erythromycin sensitivity, UGG or GGG codons at the same position give a tetrapeptide product (MILW or MILG) and phenotype of erythromycin resistance. Thus, the drop-off event on GGG or UGG codons occurs after incorporation of the corresponding amino acid into the growing peptide chain. Drop-off gives rise to a peptidyl-tRNA where the peptide moiety functionally mimics a minigene peptide product of the type previously associated with erythromycin resistance. Several genes in Escherichia coli fulfill the requirements of high mRNA expression and an E-peptide sequence followed by UGG or GGG at position +4 or +5 and should potentially be able to give an erythromycin resistance phenotype.

  12. Transient Erythromycin Resistance Phenotype Associated with Peptidyl-tRNA Drop-Off on Early UGG and GGG Codons▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mačvanin, Mirjana; Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto I.; Ardell, David H.; Isaksson, Leif A.

    2007-01-01

    Expression of minigenes encoding tetra- or pentapeptides MXLX or MXLXV (E peptides), where X is a nonpolar amino acid, renders cells erythromycin resistant whereas expression of minigenes encoding tripeptide MXL does not. By using a 3A′ reporter gene system beginning with an E-peptide-encoding sequence, we asked whether the codons UGG and GGG, which are known to promote peptidyl-tRNA drop-off at early positions in mRNA, would result in a phenotype of erythromycin resistance if located after this sequence. We find that UGG or GGG, at either position +4 or +5, without a following stop codon, is associated with an erythromycin resistance phenotype upon gene induction. Our results suggest that, while a stop codon at +4 gives a tripeptide product (MIL) and erythromycin sensitivity, UGG or GGG codons at the same position give a tetrapeptide product (MILW or MILG) and phenotype of erythromycin resistance. Thus, the drop-off event on GGG or UGG codons occurs after incorporation of the corresponding amino acid into the growing peptide chain. Drop-off gives rise to a peptidyl-tRNA where the peptide moiety functionally mimics a minigene peptide product of the type previously associated with erythromycin resistance. Several genes in Escherichia coli fulfill the requirements of high mRNA expression and an E-peptide sequence followed by UGG or GGG at position +4 or +5 and should potentially be able to give an erythromycin resistance phenotype. PMID:17951392

  13. Transit through the flea vector induces a pretransmission innate immunity resistance phenotype in Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveka Vadyvaloo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is transmitted to mammals by infected fleas. Y. pestis exhibits a distinct life stage in the flea, where it grows in the form of a cohesive biofilm that promotes transmission. After transmission, the temperature shift to 37 degrees C induces many known virulence factors of Y. pestis that confer resistance to innate immunity. These factors are not produced in the low-temperature environment of the flea, however, suggesting that Y. pestis is vulnerable to the initial encounter with innate immune cells at the flea bite site. In this study, we used whole-genome microarrays to compare the Y. pestis in vivo transcriptome in infective fleas to in vitro transcriptomes in temperature-matched biofilm and planktonic cultures, and to the previously characterized in vivo gene expression profile in the rat bubo. In addition to genes involved in metabolic adaptation to the flea gut and biofilm formation, several genes with known or predicted roles in resistance to innate immunity and pathogenicity in the mammal were upregulated in the flea. Y. pestis from infected fleas were more resistant to phagocytosis by macrophages than in vitro-grown bacteria, in part attributable to a cluster of insecticidal-like toxin genes that were highly expressed only in the flea. Our results suggest that transit through the flea vector induces a phenotype that enhances survival and dissemination of Y. pestis after transmission to the mammalian host.

  14. Resin glycosides from Ipomoea wolcottiana as modulators of the multidrug resistance phenotype in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Castañeda, Berenice; Rosas-Ramírez, Daniel; Castañeda-Gómez, Jhon; Aparicio-Cuevas, Manuel Alejandro; Fragoso-Serrano, Mabel; Figueroa-González, Gabriela; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio

    2016-03-01

    Recycling liquid chromatography was used for the isolation and purification of resin glycosides from the CHCl3-soluble extracts prepared using flowers of Ipomoea wolcottiana Rose var. wolcottiana. Bioassay-guided fractionation, using modulation of both antibiotic activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Gram-negative bacteria and vinblastine susceptibility in breast carcinoma cells, was used to isolate the active glycolipids as modulators of the multidrug resistance phenotype. An ester-type dimer, wolcottine I, one tetra- and three pentasaccharides, wolcottinosides I-IV, in addition to the known intrapilosin VII, were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In vitro assays established that none of these metabolites displayed antibacterial activity (MIC>512 μg/mL) against multidrug-resistant strains of Escherichia coli, and two nosocomial pathogens: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Shigella flexneri; however, when tested (25 μg/mL) in combination with tetracycline, kanamycin or chloramphenicol, they exerted a potentiation effect of the antibiotic susceptibility up to eightfold (64 μg/mL from 512 μg/mL). It was also determined that these non-cytotoxic (CI50>8.68 μM) agents modulated vinblastine susceptibility at 25 μg/mL in MFC-7/Vin(+) cells with a reversal factor (RFMCF-7/Vin(+)) of 2-130 fold. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of reference values for phenotypic tests to detect oxacillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Mello, Priscila L; Abraão, Ligia M; Corrente, José Eduardo; Lourdes Rs Cunha, Maria de

    2018-03-09

    To evaluate the adequacy of the disc-diffusion test and E-test ® compared with detection of mecA for coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from blood cultures, nasal swabs and wounds. Agreement between all techniques was observed in 65.7% of cases. The greatest discrepancy between mecA/susceptible E-test was observed for non-epidermidis species. A resistance breakpoint ≤19 mm using the oxacillin disc was found to best classify all coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates; Staphylococcus epidermidis, ≤19 mm (oxacillin) and ≤27 mm (cefoxitin); Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus capitis, ≤21 mm (oxacillin) and ≤18 mm (cefoxitin); Staphylococcus warneri, MICs ≥0.75 mg/l. Although no longer recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, we observed some cases in which only the oxacillin disc-diffusion test detected resistance. The discrepancy between phenotypic tests and mecA is probably due to heterogeneity and borderline resistance.

  16. Comparative analysis of phenotypic and genotypic detection of methicillin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulin Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Staphylococcus aureus is a common pathogen causing a wide range of infections ranging from mild skin and soft tissue infections to severe, life-threatening infections. Accuracy in the detection of methicillin resistance is important to avoid treatment failures. The aim of this study was to compare the results of phenotypic and genotypic test methods to detect methicillin resistance and also to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty-two S. aureus strains isolated from skin and soft tissue samples were analyzed for methicillin resistance using oxacillin and cefoxitin disk diffusion (DD, oxacillin screen agar test, cefoxitin E-test, and mecA gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: 77 of 242 S. aureus isolates were mecA positive. Oxacillin, cefoxitin DD, oxacillin screen agar test and cefoxitin E-test exhibited sensitivities as 98.7%, 98.7%, 100%, 100%, and specificities as 96.9%, 97.5%, 96.9%, 97.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Results of oxacillin screen agar and cefoxitin DD test were in concordance with mecA gene PCR. Thus, it is determined that especially cefoxitin test can be an alternative to PCR in routine.

  17. Stability and loss of a virus resistance phenotype over time in transgenic mosquitoes harbouring an antiviral effector gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, A W E; Sanchez-Vargas, I; Piper, J; Smith, M R; Khoo, C C H; James, A A; Olson, K E

    2009-10-01

    Transgenic Aedes aegypti were engineered to express a virus-derived, inverted repeat (IR) RNA in the mosquito midgut to trigger RNA interference (RNAi) and generate resistance to dengue virus type 2 (DENV2) in the vector. Here we characterize genotypic and phenotypic stabilities of one line, Carb77, between generations G(9) and G(17). The anti-DENV2 transgene was integrated at a single site within a noncoding region of the mosquito genome. The virus resistance phenotype was strong until G(13) and suppressed replication of different DENV2 genotypes. From G(14)-G(17) the resistance phenotype to DENV2 became weaker and eventually was lost. Although the sequence of the transgene was not mutated, expression of the IR effector RNA was not detected and the Carb77 G(17) mosquitoes lost their ability to silence the DENV2 genome.

  18. Multi drug resistant tuberculosis in Mosango, a rural area in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

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    Michel Kayomo Kaswa

    Full Text Available Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a serious threat which jeopardizes the worldwide efforts to control TB. The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC is one of 27 countries with a high burden of MDR-TB. Data on the magnitude, trends, and the distribution of MDR-TB in DRC are scanty. Kinshasa, the capital city of DRC which accounts for 20% of all TB cases nationwide, is notifying more than 80% of all MDR suspects. We report here a cluster of MDR-TB cases that was investigated in the Mosango health district, in the Bandundu south Province, DRC in 2008. Phenotypic Drug Sensitivity Testing and DNA sequencing were performed on 18 sputum specimens collected from 4 MDR-TB suspects and 5 household contacts. Sequencing data confirmed that the 4 suspects were indeed Rifampicin resistant cases. Sequencing of the rpoB gene showed that 3 cases (patients A, B and D had a single mutation encoding a substitution to 526Tyr, 531Trp and 526Leu respectively. Patient C had a double mutation encoding a change to 531Leu and 633Leu. Two of the investigated cases died within 4 months of a second-line treatment course. Results highlight the need to enhance adequate laboratory services within the country for both clinical as well as surveillance purposes.

  19. The different regulatory effects of p53 status on multidrug resistance are determined by autophagy in ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dejuan; Ma, Shumei; Liang, Bing; Yi, Heqing; Zhao, Yinlong; Xin, Rui; Cui, Li; Jia, Lili; Liu, Xin; Liu, Xiaodong

    2012-06-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) has become an obstacle for chemotherapy of cancer. p53 is reported to participate in the regulation of MDR, but the association between p53 status and MDR are complicated and conditional. It has been verified that apoptosis is not the only mechanism for MDR regulation by p53, the roles of autophagy in MDR is less studied. Human ovarian carcinoma cell lines SKOV3 and multidrug resistant phenotype SKVCR cells were used and wild-type p53 (wt p53) and mutant 175H constructs were introduced into cells to establish cell models with different p53 status by gene engineering, the sensitivity to vincristine (VCR), cisplatin (DDP), pirarubicin (THP) and etoposide (VP-16) were detected by MTT assay, Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR were used to detect the expression of protein and mRNA, especially, monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining was used for autophagy rate, Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide (PI) were used to assess apoptosis and necrosis. SKVCR cells induced by VCR shown overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and MDR, and also displayed an enhanced autophagy compared with parental SKOV3. Wt p53 and 175H has no influence on drug sensitivity in SKOV3, while both sensitized SKVCR cells to VCR, THP and VP-16, especially 175H. The introduction of wt p53-induced apoptosis only, while 175H trigged autophagic cell death, necrosis and apoptosis so as to reverse the MDR. The enhancement of autophagy in MDR cells allows to survive during chemotherapy stress, autophagy plays important role in wt p53 and mutant p53-immediated MDR. The different influence of p53 status on drug sensitivity hint the individual treatment strategies based on p53 status in patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Ubenimex suppresses Pim-3 kinase expression by targeting CD13 to reverse MDR in HCC cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qie; Sui, Zhong-Guo; Xu, Wen; Quan, Xiang-Hua; Sun, Jia-Lin; Li, Xiao; Ji, Hong-Yan; Jing, Fan-Bo

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most serious cancers, with rapid progression and high mortality. However, chemotherapy of HCC is hindered by multi-drug resistance (MDR). It is urgent, therefore, to explore new approaches for overcoming MDR of HCC cells. Ubenimex, an inhibitor of CD13, has been used as an immuno-enhancer for treating hematological neoplasms and other solid tumors. Here, we demonstrate that Ubenimex can also reverse MDR in the HCC cell lines HepG2/5-FU and Bel7402/5-FU. Ubenimex inhibits the expression of the proto-oncogene, Pim-3, which is accompanied by decreased expression of BCL-2 and BCL-XL, decreased phosphorylation of Bad, and increased tumor apoptosis. Moreover, Ubenimex decreases expression of the MDR-associated proteins P-gp, MRP3 and MRP2 to enhance intracellular accumulation of Cisplatin, for which down-regulation of Pim-3 is essential. Our results reveal a previously uncharacterized function of Ubenimex in mediating drug resistance in HCC, which suggests that Ubenimex may provide a new strategy to reverse MDR and improve HCC sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs via its effects on Pim-3. PMID:29069816

  1. Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-hua Hou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of healthcare-associated infections worldwide. Selective pressure, the extensive use of antibiotics, and the conjugational transmission of antibiotic resistance genes across bacterial species and genera facilitate the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR K. pneumoniae. Here, we examined the occurrence, phenotypes and genetic features of MDR K. pneumoniae isolated from patients in intensive care units (ICUs at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University in Xiamen, China, from January to December 2011. Thirty-eight MDR K. pneumoniae strains were collected. These MDR K. pneumoniae isolates possessed at least seven antibiotic resistance determinants, which contribute to the high-level resistance of these bacteria to aminoglycosides, macrolides, quinolones and β-lactams. Among these isolates, 24 strains were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producers, 2 strains were AmpC producers, and 12 strains were both ESBL and AmpC producers. The 38 MDR isolates also contained class I (28/38 and class II integrons (10/38. All 28 class I-positive isolates contained aacC1, aacC4, orfX, orfX’ and aadA1 genes. β-lactam resistance was conferred through blaSHV (22/38, blaTEM (10/38, and blaCTX-M (7/38. The highly conserved blaKPC-2 (37/38 and blaOXA-23(1/38 alleles were responsible for carbapenem resistance, and a gyrAsite mutation (27/38 and the plasmid-mediated qnrB gene (13/38 were responsible for quinolone resistance. Repetitive-sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR fingerprinting of these MDR strains revealed the presence of five groups and sixteen patterns. The MDR strains from unrelated groups showed different drug resistance patterns; however, some homologous strains also showed different drug resistance profiles. Therefore, REP-PCR-based analyses can provide information to evaluate the epidemic status of nosocomial infection caused by MDR K. pneumoniae; however, this test lacks the power to discriminate some

  2. Phenotypic Detection of Metallo-β-Lactamase in Imipenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Khosravi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbapenems are the primary choice of treatment for severe Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. However, the emergence of carbapenem resistance due to the production of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs is of global concern. In this study, 90 imipenem- (IPM- or IP- resistant P. aeruginosa (IRPA isolates, including 32 previously tested positive and genotyped for MBL genes by PCR, were subjected to double-disk synergy test (DDST, combined disk test (CDT, and imipenem/imipenem-inhibitor (IP/IPI E-test to evaluate their MBLs detection capability. All three methods were shown to have a sensitivity of 100%. However, DDST was the most specific of the three (96.6%, followed by IP/IPI E-test interpreted based on the single criteria of IP/IPI ≥8 as positive (62.1%, and CDT was the least specific (43.1%. Based on the data from this evaluation, we propose that only IRPA with IP MIC >16 μg/mL and IP/IPI ≥8 by IP/IPI E-test should be taken as positive for MBL activity. With the new dual interpretation criteria, the MBL IP/IPI E-test was shown to achieve 100% sensitivity as well as specificity for the IRPA in this study. Therefore, the IP/IPI E-test is a viable alternative phenotypic assay to detect MBL production in IRPA in our population in circumstances where PCR detection is not a feasible option.

  3. Genotypic and Phenotypic Markers of Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC9 in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Xiaohua; Wang, Xiaolin; Fan, Yanping; Peng, Yang; Li, Ling; Li, Shunming; Huang, Jingya; Yao, Zhenjiang; Chen, Sidong

    2016-01-01

    Use of antimicrobials in industrial food animal production is associated with the presence of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among animals and humans. The livestock-associated (LA) methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 9 (CC9) is associated with animals and related workers in Asia. This study aimed to explore the genotypic and phenotypic markers of LA-MRSA CC9 in humans. We conducted a cross-sectional study of livestock workers and controls in Guangdong, China. The ...

  4. Enhanced efflux of [3H]vinblastine from Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with a full-length complementary DNA clone for the mdr1 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, J.R.; Johnstone, R.M.; Gros, P.

    1989-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell clones stably transfected with, and overexpressing, the mouse mdr1 complementary DNA clone along with drug-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary control cells were characterized for their capacities to accumulate and retain [ 3 H]vinblastine. Multidrug-resistant mdr1 transfectants show a 3-4-fold decrease in [ 3 H]vinblastine accumulation, compared to their drug-sensitive counterparts. After ATP depletion, this difference in [ 3 H]vinblastine accumulation between mdr1 transfectants and control cells effectively disappears. This ATP-dependent decreased drug accumulation is paralleled in mdr1 transfectants by an enhanced capacity of these cells to extrude the drug in an ATP-dependent manner. In medium containing glucose and glutamine, the mdr1 transfectants release preloaded drug at a rate five times that of control, drug-sensitive cells. In ATP-depleted control and mdr1-transfected cells, there is little difference in the rate or extent of [ 3 H]vinblastine release. The observation that the mdr1 transfectants show a decreased [ 3 H]vinblastine accumulation and an increased vinblastine release, both of which are abolished when cellular ATP levels are reduced, provides a direct demonstration that the product of the transfected mdr1 gene is responsible for a mechanism controlling cellular drug levels in an ATP-dependent manner. However, attempts to establish competition for [ 3 H]vinblastine transport by vincristine, daunomycin, and actinomycin D were only partly successful in mdr1 transfectants

  5. Specificity of drug transport mediated by CaMDR1: a major facilitator ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This allowed a better comparison between the functionality of the two export pumps. We observed that while both FLC and MTX are effluxed by CaMdr1p, MTX appeared to be a poor substrate for Cdr1p. JG436 cells expressing Cdr1p thus conferred resistance to other antifungal drugs but remained hypersensitive to MTX.

  6. Coumpounds affecting cell membrane functions and integrity: MDR pumps and theit exploration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sigler, Karel; Gášková, D.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 24 (2002), s. 19-22 ISSN 0137-1398. [Uroczyste Seminarium z okazji urodzin Profesora Stanislawa Witka /70./. Wroclaw, 21.07.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5020202; GA MŠk ME 577 Keywords : xenobioticexporting * multidrug resistance * mdr pumps Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  7. Baseline sensitivity to fluopyram and fungicide resistance phenotypes of botrytis cinerea populations from table grapes in california

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of table grapes grown in the Central Valley of California. Understanding fungicide-resistant phenotypes of B. cinerea is important to the development of pre-harvest fungicide programs for control of postharvest gray mold. Baseline s...

  8. Population diversity of Listeria monocytogenes LO28: phenotypic and genotypic characterization of variants resistant to high hydrostatic pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeijen, van K.H.; Chavaroche, A.A.E.; Valderrama, W.B.; Moezelaar, R.; Zwietering, M.H.; Abee, T.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative phenotype analysis of 24 Listeria monocytogenes LO28 stress-resistant variants obtained after high-pressure treatment was performed to assess their robustness and growth performance under a range of food-relevant conditions. In addition, genetic analysis was conducted to characterize

  9. The culturable soil antibiotic resistome: a community of multi-drug resistant bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Walsh

    Full Text Available Understanding the soil bacterial resistome is essential to understanding the evolution and development of antibiotic resistance, and its spread between species and biomes. We have identified and characterized multi-drug resistance (MDR mechanisms in the culturable soil antibiotic resistome and linked the resistance profiles to bacterial species. We isolated 412 antibiotic resistant bacteria from agricultural, urban and pristine soils. All isolates were multi-drug resistant, of which greater than 80% were resistant to 16-23 antibiotics, comprising almost all classes of antibiotic. The mobile resistance genes investigated, (ESBL, bla NDM-1, and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR resistance genes were not responsible for the respective resistance phenotypes nor were they present in the extracted soil DNA. Efflux was demonstrated to play an important role in MDR and many resistance phenotypes. Clinically relevant Burkholderia species are intrinsically resistant to ciprofloxacin but the soil Burkholderia species were not intrinsically resistant to ciprofloxacin. Using a phenotypic enzyme assay we identified the antibiotic specific inactivation of trimethoprim in 21 bacteria from different soils. The results of this study identified the importance of the efflux mechanism in the soil resistome and variations between the intrinsic resistance profiles of clinical and soil bacteria of the same family.

  10. Characterization of the multiple drug resistance phenotype expressed by tumour cells following in vitro exposure to fractionated X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, B.T.; McClean, S.; Hosking, L.; Shellard, S.; Dempke, W.; Whelan, R.

    1992-01-01

    The major clinical problem of the emergence of drug resistant tumor cell populations is recognized in patients previously treated with antitumor drugs and with radiotherapy. It is proposed that, although radiation-induced vascular fibrosis may limit drug delivery to the tumor, exposure to radiation may 'induce' or 'select for' drug resistance. This hypothesis was examined by establishing in vitro model systems to investigate the resistance phenotype of tumor cells following exposure to X-rays. Characteristically tumor cells surviving exposure to a series of fractions of X-irradiation are shown to have consistently expressed resistance to multiple drugs, including the Vinca alkaloids and the epipodophyllotoxins. Currently this research is aimed at determining whether distinctive resistance mechanisms operate depending on whether resistance results following drug or X-ray exposure. Initial results indicate that whilst some common mechanisms operate, drug resistant tumor cells identified following exposure to X-irradiation appear to exhibit a novel multidrug resistance phenotype. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab

  11. Disease control implications of India's changing multi-drug resistant tuberculosis epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze-Chuan Suen

    Full Text Available Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB is a major health challenge in India that is gaining increasing public attention, but the implications of India's evolving MDR TB epidemic are poorly understood. As India's MDR TB epidemic is transitioning from a treatment-generated to transmission-generated epidemic, we sought to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the following two disease control strategies on reducing the prevalence of MDR TB: a improving treatment of non-MDR TB; b shortening the infectious period between the activation of MDR TB and initiation of effective MDR treatment.We developed a dynamic transmission microsimulation model of TB in India. The model followed individuals by age, sex, TB status, drug resistance status, and treatment status and was calibrated to Indian demographic and epidemiologic TB time trends. The main effectiveness measure was reduction in the average prevalence reduction of MDR TB over the ten years after control strategy implementation. We find that improving non-MDR cure rates to avoid generating new MDR cases will provide substantial non-MDR TB benefits but will become less effective in reducing MDR TB prevalence over time because more cases will occur from direct transmission--by 2015, the model estimates 42% of new MDR cases are transmission-generated and this proportion continues to rise over time, assuming equal transmissibility of MDR and drug-susceptible TB. Strategies that disrupt MDR transmission by shortening the time between MDR activation and treatment are projected to provide greater reductions in MDR prevalence compared with improving non-MDR treatment quality: implementing MDR diagnostic improvements in 2017 is expected to reduce MDR prevalence by 39%, compared with 11% reduction from improving non-MDR treatment quality.As transmission-generated MDR TB becomes a larger driver of the MDR TB epidemic in India, rapid and accurate MDR TB diagnosis and treatment will become increasingly

  12. The multidrug-resistant phenotype associated with overexpression of the new ABC half-transporter, MXR (ABCG2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litman, Thomas; Brangi, M; Hudson, E

    2000-01-01

    known as ABCP1 or BCRP. The pharmacodynamics of mitoxantrone and 12 other fluorescent drugs were evaluated by confocal microscopy in four multidrug-resistant human colon (S1) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines. We utilized two sublines, MCF-7 AdVp3000 and S1-M1-80, and detected overexpression of MXR...... by PCR, immunoblot assay and immunohistochemistry. These MXR overexpressing sublines were compared to cell lines with P-glycoprotein- and MRP-mediated resistance. High levels of cross-resistance were observed for mitoxantrone, the anthracyclines, bisantrene and topotecan. Reduced levels of mitoxantrone......, the multidrug-resistant phenotype due to MXR expression is overlapping with, but distinct from, that due to P-glycoprotein. Further, cells that overexpress the MXR protein seem to be more resistant to mitoxantrone and topotecan than cells with P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance. Our studies suggest...

  13. Tannic acid affects the phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin by inhibition of efflux pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintino, Saulo R; Morais-Tintino, Cícera D; Campina, Fábia F; Costa, Maria do S; Menezes, Irwin R A; de Matos, Yedda Maria L S; Calixto-Júnior, João T; Pereira, Pedro S; Siqueira-Junior, José P; Leal-Balbino, Teresa C; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Balbino, Valdir Q

    2017-10-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics created selective pressure for the emergence of strains that would persist despite antibiotic toxicity. The bacterial resistance mechanisms are several, with efflux pumps being one of the main ones. These pumps are membrane proteins with the function of removing antibiotics from the cell cytoplasm. Due to this importance, the aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of tannic acid against efflux pumps expressed by the Staphylococcus aureus RN4220 and IS-58 strains. The efflux pump inhibition was assayed using a sub-inhibitory concentration of efflux pump standard inhibitors and tannic acid (MIC/8), observing their capacity to decrease the MIC of Ethidium bromide (EtBr) and antibiotics due the possible inhibitory effect of these substances. The MICs of EtBr and antibiotics were significantly different in the presence of tannic acid, indicating the inhibitory effect of this product against efflux pumps of both strains. These results indicate the possible usage of tannic acid asan inhibitor and an adjuvant in the antibiotic therapy against multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenotypic and genotypic profiling of antimicrobial resistance in enteric Escherichia coli communities isolated from finisher pigs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M G; Jordan, D; Gibson, J S; Cobbold, R N; Chapman, T A; Abraham, S; Trott, D J

    2016-10-01

    To assess herd-to-herd variation in antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and associated antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in faecal commensal Escherichia coli communities isolated from Australian slaughter-age pigs. Hydrophobic grid-membrane filtration (HGMF) was used to screen populations of E. coli isolated from faecal samples obtained from pigs prior to or at slaughter. Multiplex PCRs were applied to the pooled DNA extracted from the samples to identify specific ARGs. Pooled faecal samples from 30 finishers, from 72 different Australian pig farms, produced 5003 isolates for screening. HGMF techniques and image analysis were used to confirm E. coli resistance phenotypes to four antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, gentamicin, florfenicol and ceftiofur) using selective agars. Multiplex PCRs were performed on DNA from pooled samples for 35 ARGs associated with seven chemical classes. The prevalence of E. coli isolates showing no resistance to any of the drugs was 50.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 41.8-58.6%). Ceftiofur resistance was very low (1.8%; CI 0.8-3.9%) and no ARGs associated with 3rd-generation cephalosporin resistance were detected. By contrast, ampicillin (29.4%, CI 22.8-37.0%), florfenicol (24.3%, CI 17.8-32.3%) and gentamicin (CI 17.5%, 10.7-27.2%) resistance prevalence varied greatly between farms and associated ARGs were common. The most common combined resistance phenotype was ampicillin-florfenicol. The use of registered antimicrobials in Australian pigs leads to the enteric commensal populations acquiring associated ARGs. However, despite a high intensity of sampling, ARGs imparting resistance to the critically important 3rd-generation cephalosporins were not detected. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. A comparative proteomic study identified LRPPRC and MCM7 as putative actors in imatinib mesylate cross-resistance in Lucena cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa Stephany

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although chronic myeloid leukemia (CML treatment has improved since the introduction of imatinib mesylate (IM, cases of resistance have been reported. This resistance has been associated with the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR phenotype, as a BCR-ABL independent mechanism. The classic pathway studied in MDR promotion is ATP-binding cassette (ABC family transporters expression, but other mechanisms that drive drug resistance are largely unknown. To better understand IM therapy relapse due to the rise of MDR, we compared the proteomic profiles of K562 and Lucena (K562/VCR cells. Results The use of 2-DE coupled with a MS approach resulted in the identification of 36 differentially expressed proteins. Differential mRNA levels of leucine-rich PPR motif-containing (LRPPRC protein, minichromosome maintenance complex component 7 (MCM7 and ATP-binding cassette sub-family B (MDR/TAP member 1 (ABCB1 were capable of defining samples from CML patients as responsive or resistant to therapy. Conclusions Through the data presented in this work, we show the relevance of MDR to IM therapy. In addition, our proteomic approach identified candidate actors involved in resistance, which could lead to additional information on BCR-ABL-independent molecular mechanisms.

  16. Effects of a novel porphyrin-based photosensitizer on sensitive and multidrug-resistant human gastric cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; Mao, Lina; Liu, Shuping; Liang, Yanling; Wang, Sicheng; Wang, Yeyu; Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaojing; Che, Yanjun; Gao, Lijing; Liu, Tianjun

    2015-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been considered to be a possible candidate approach in combating multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon during the treatment of cancer. To investigate the photocytotoxicity of a novel porphyrin-based photosensitizer, meso-5-[ρ-DTPA-aminophenyl]-10, 15, 20-triphenyl-porhyrin (DTP) (Fig. 1A), on MDR cells, the intracellular DTP uptake, phototoxicity and subcellular DTP localization were studied by using a human gastric cancer MGC803 cell line and its paclitaxel selected subline MGC803/PA expressing MDR phenotype. No significant difference was observed in intracellular DTP accumulation between sensitive and resistant cell lines after exposure to 1.56 μM concentration for 6h. DTP-PDT induced significant photocytotoxicity on both MGC803 and MGC803/PA cell lines and the photokilling was greater in MGC803 cell line in comparison to MGC803/PA. The fluence that caused 50% cell death was 4.42 and 6.29 J/cm(2) in MGC803 and MGC803/PA cell lines, respectively. The presence of Pgp inhibitors verapamil and cyclosporin A could not modify the intracellular DTP level in MGC803/PA cell line and the phototoxic effects. DTP was localized at lysosomes of MGC803 cell line but at lysosomes and mitochondria of MGC803/PA. Our results indicated that DTP-mediated PDT could eradicate gastric cancer cells whether or not they express MDR although the efficacy is slightly reduced in the MDR cells. The photokilling in MDR cells could not be altered by MDR inhibitor verapamil. The slightly different photocytotoxicity between sensitive and resistant cell lines could not explained by classical Pgp MDR and might be attributed to the differential intracellular DTP localization sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Detekce polymorfismu v genu MDR1 u ovčáckých a honáckých psů

    OpenAIRE

    Staroveská, Marieta

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is focused on polymorphism of MDR1 gene and related drug resistance. Resistance is caused by deletion of four nucleotids, that resulting in a frame shift and synthesis of nonfunctional transport of P-glycoprotein. The text describes a polymorphism of MDR1 (ABCB1) gene, which results in reduced resistance to drugs belonging to the group of macrocyclic lactones. It also describes inheritance of this phenomenon and it deals with the detection of mutation using PCR (polymerase chain r...

  18. Determination of clinically relevant cutoffs for HIV-1 phenotypic resistance estimates through a combined analysis of clinical trial and cohort data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, Bart; Montaner, Julio; Harrigan, P. Richard; Gazzard, Brian; Pozniak, Anton; Miller, Michael D.; Emery, Sean; van Leth, Frank; Robinson, Patrick; Baxter, John D.; Perez-Elias, Marie; Castor, Delivette; Hammer, Scott; Rinehart, Alex; Vermeiren, Hans; van Craenenbroeck, Elke; Bacheler, Lee

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinically relevant cutoffs are needed for the interpretation of HIV-1 phenotypic resistance estimates as predicted by "virtual" phenotype HIV resistance analysis. METHODS: Using a clinical data set containing 2596 treatment change episodes in 2217 patients in 8 clinical trials and 2

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in equine faecal Escherichia coli isolates from North West England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Nicola J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli isolates of equine faecal origin were investigated for antibiotic resistance, resistance genes and their ability to perform horizontal transfer. Methods In total, 264 faecal samples were collected from 138 horses in hospital and community livery premises in northwest England, yielding 296 resistant E. coli isolates. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods in order to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC. PCR amplification was used to detect genes conferring resistance to: ampicillin (TEM and SHV beta-lactamase, chloramphenicol (catI, catII, catIII and cml, tetracycline (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tet E and tetG, and trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA9, dfrA12, dfrA13, dfr7, and dfr17. Results The proportion of antibiotic resistant isolates, and multidrug resistant isolates (MDR was significantly higher in hospital samples compared to livery samples (MDR: 48% of hospital isolates; 12% of livery isolates, p dfr, TEM beta-lactamase, tet and cat, conferring resistance to trimethoprim, ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, respectively. Within each antimicrobial resistance group, these genes occurred at frequencies of 93% (260/279, 91%, 86.8% and 73.5%, respectively; with 115/296 (38.8% found to be MDR isolates. Conjugation experiments were performed on selected isolates and MDR phenotypes were readily transferred. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that E. coli of equine faecal origin are commonly resistant to antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. Furthermore, our results suggest that most antibiotic resistance observed in equine E. coli is encoded by well-known and well-characterized resistant genes common to E. coli from man and domestic animals. These data support the ongoing concern about antimicrobial resistance, MDR, antimicrobial use in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic risk that horses could potentially pose to

  20. Phenotypic Assays to Determine Virulence Factors of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) Isolates and their Correlation with Antibiotic Resistance Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasi, Mohsen; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Habibi, Mehri; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-08-01

    Urinary tract infection caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains is one of the most important infections in the world. UPEC encode widespread virulence factors closely related with pathogenesis of the bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of different phenotypic virulence markers in UPEC isolates and determine their correlation with antibiotic resistance pattern. UPEC isolates from patients with different clinical symptoms of UTI were collected and screened for biofilm and hemolysin production, mannose resistant, and mannose sensitive hemagglutination (MRHA and MSHA, respectively). In addition, antimicrobial resistance pattern and ESBL-producing isolates were recorded. Of the 156 UPEC isolates, biofilm and hemolysin formation was seen in 133 (85.3%) and 53 (34%) isolates, respectively. Moreover, 98 (62.8%) and 58 (37.2%) isolates showed the presence of Types 1 fimbriae (MSHA) and P fimbriae (MRHA), respectively. Our results also showed a relationship between biofilm formation in UPEC isolated from acute cystitis patients and recurrent UTI cases. Occurrence of UTI was dramatically correlated with the patients' profiles. We observed that the difference in antimicrobial susceptibilities of the biofilm and nonbiofilm former isolates was statistically significant. The UPEC isolates showed the highest resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, and cotrimoxazole. Moreover, 26.9% of isolates were ESBL producers. This study indicated that there is a relationship between the phenotypic virulence traits of the UPEC isolates, patients' profiles, and antibiotic resistance. Detection of the phenotypic virulence factors could help to improve understanding of pathogenesis of UPEC isolates and better medical intervention.

  1. Transient erythromycin resistance phenotype associated with peptidyl-tRNA drop-off on early UGG and GGG codons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macvanin, Mirjana; Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto I; Ardell, David H

    2007-01-01

    Expression of minigenes encoding tetra- or pentapeptides MXLX or MXLXV (E peptides), where X is a nonpolar amino acid, renders cells erythromycin resistant whereas expression of minigenes encoding tripeptide MXL does not. By using a 3A' reporter gene system beginning with an E-peptide-encoding se......Expression of minigenes encoding tetra- or pentapeptides MXLX or MXLXV (E peptides), where X is a nonpolar amino acid, renders cells erythromycin resistant whereas expression of minigenes encoding tripeptide MXL does not. By using a 3A' reporter gene system beginning with an E......, is associated with an erythromycin resistance phenotype upon gene induction. Our results suggest that, while a stop codon at +4 gives a tripeptide product (MIL) and erythromycin sensitivity, UGG or GGG codons at the same position give a tetrapeptide product (MILW or MILG) and phenotype of erythromycin...... with erythromycin resistance. Several genes in Escherichia coli fulfill the requirements of high mRNA expression and an E-peptide sequence followed by UGG or GGG at position +4 or +5 and should potentially be able to give an erythromycin resistance phenotype....

  2. CD133+CD24lo defines a 5-Fluorouracil-resistant colon cancer stem cell-like phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Amy V.; Yang, Dafeng; Lu, Chunwan; Redd, Priscilla S.; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Heaton, Christopher M.; Lee, Jeffrey R.; Nayak-Kapoor, Asha; Liu, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    The chemotherapeutic agent 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the most commonly used drug for patients with advanced colon cancer. However, development of resistance to 5-FU is inevitable in almost all patients. The mechanism by which colon cancer develops 5-FU resistance is still unclear. One recently proposed theory is that cancer stem-like cells underlie colon cancer 5-FU resistance, but the phenotypes of 5-FU-resistant colon cancer stem cells are still controversial. We report here that 5-FU treatment selectively enriches a subset of CD133+ colon cancer cells in vitro. 5-FU chemotherapy also increases CD133+ tumor cells in human colon cancer patients. However, sorted CD133+ colon cancer cells exhibit no increased resistance to 5-FU, and CD133 levels exhibit no correlation with colon cancer patient survival or cancer recurrence. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression between sorted CD133+ colon cancer cells and 5-FU-selected colon cancer cells identifies 207 differentially expressed genes. CD24 is one of the genes whose expression level is lower in the CD133+ and 5-FU-resistant colon cancer cells as compared to CD133+ and 5-FU-sensitive colon cancer cells. Consequently, CD133+CD24lo cells exhibit decreased sensitivity to 5-FU. Therefore, we determine that CD133+CD24lo phenotype defines 5-FU-resistant human colon cancer stem cell-like cells. PMID:27659530

  3. Genotypic and phenotypic β-lactam resistance and presence of PVL gene in Staphylococci from dry bovine udder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasailam, Asok; Sasidharan, Suchithra; Kollannur, Justin Davis; Syam, Radhika

    2017-01-01

    Dairy cows affected with subclinical mastitis can be sources of virulent, antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococci to humans because of the excretion of the bacteria through their milk. This study focussed on the phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance patterns of Staphylococci isolated from dairy cows in early dry period. Among 96 isolates of Gram positive cocci from 157 cows, 76 were identified as Coagulase Negative Staphylococci and the remaining 20 were Staphylococcus aureus. Typical amplicons of coagulase gene were obtained for all 20 samples of S. aureus with three major coagulase types being identified as giving 627 bp (40%), 910 bp (35%) and 710 bp (25%) long PCR products. The groEL gene was amplified in PCR of all 76 isolates of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci, and incubation of PCR products with restriction enzyme PvuII yielded three distinct PCR-RFLP fragment patterns bearing resemblance to S. chromogenes and S. hyicus. Highest sensitivity of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci was noted for Azithromycin (92.5%) and the least to Tetracyclines (76.3%), whereas for S. aureus, it was Cefoperazone (95%) and Azithromycin (72.2%) respectively. Phenotypic resistance to Oxacillin (25 isolates), and Cefoxitin (11 isolates) was detected by dilution method with a commercial strip (Ezy MICTM). Genotypic resistance to β-Lactam antibiotics was found in 65 (34 with mecA gene and 31 with blaZ gene) isolates. Eighteen isolates possessed both the genes, with the PVL gene for virulence being detected in five of them. Nine isolates which had mecA gene were phenotypically susceptible to oxacillin while phenotypic resistance to oxacillin was observed in seven isolates that did not have either mecA or blaZ gene. This is the first report of persistent Staphylococcal infections possessing PVL gene and high level of genotypic resistance to β-Lactam antibiotics in small- holder dairy cattle from India. PMID:29091956

  4. Genotypic and phenotypic β-lactam resistance and presence of PVL gene in Staphylococci from dry bovine udder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodkumar Kulangara

    Full Text Available Dairy cows affected with subclinical mastitis can be sources of virulent, antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococci to humans because of the excretion of the bacteria through their milk. This study focussed on the phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance patterns of Staphylococci isolated from dairy cows in early dry period. Among 96 isolates of Gram positive cocci from 157 cows, 76 were identified as Coagulase Negative Staphylococci and the remaining 20 were Staphylococcus aureus. Typical amplicons of coagulase gene were obtained for all 20 samples of S. aureus with three major coagulase types being identified as giving 627 bp (40%, 910 bp (35% and 710 bp (25% long PCR products. The groEL gene was amplified in PCR of all 76 isolates of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci, and incubation of PCR products with restriction enzyme PvuII yielded three distinct PCR-RFLP fragment patterns bearing resemblance to S. chromogenes and S. hyicus. Highest sensitivity of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci was noted for Azithromycin (92.5% and the least to Tetracyclines (76.3%, whereas for S. aureus, it was Cefoperazone (95% and Azithromycin (72.2% respectively. Phenotypic resistance to Oxacillin (25 isolates, and Cefoxitin (11 isolates was detected by dilution method with a commercial strip (Ezy MICTM. Genotypic resistance to β-Lactam antibiotics was found in 65 (34 with mecA gene and 31 with blaZ gene isolates. Eighteen isolates possessed both the genes, with the PVL gene for virulence being detected in five of them. Nine isolates which had mecA gene were phenotypically susceptible to oxacillin while phenotypic resistance to oxacillin was observed in seven isolates that did not have either mecA or blaZ gene. This is the first report of persistent Staphylococcal infections possessing PVL gene and high level of genotypic resistance to β-Lactam antibiotics in small- holder dairy cattle from India.

  5. Genotypic and phenotypic β-lactam resistance and presence of PVL gene in Staphylococci from dry bovine udder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulangara, Vinodkumar; Nair, Neetha; Sivasailam, Asok; Sasidharan, Suchithra; Kollannur, Justin Davis; Syam, Radhika

    2017-01-01

    Dairy cows affected with subclinical mastitis can be sources of virulent, antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococci to humans because of the excretion of the bacteria through their milk. This study focussed on the phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance patterns of Staphylococci isolated from dairy cows in early dry period. Among 96 isolates of Gram positive cocci from 157 cows, 76 were identified as Coagulase Negative Staphylococci and the remaining 20 were Staphylococcus aureus. Typical amplicons of coagulase gene were obtained for all 20 samples of S. aureus with three major coagulase types being identified as giving 627 bp (40%), 910 bp (35%) and 710 bp (25%) long PCR products. The groEL gene was amplified in PCR of all 76 isolates of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci, and incubation of PCR products with restriction enzyme PvuII yielded three distinct PCR-RFLP fragment patterns bearing resemblance to S. chromogenes and S. hyicus. Highest sensitivity of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci was noted for Azithromycin (92.5%) and the least to Tetracyclines (76.3%), whereas for S. aureus, it was Cefoperazone (95%) and Azithromycin (72.2%) respectively. Phenotypic resistance to Oxacillin (25 isolates), and Cefoxitin (11 isolates) was detected by dilution method with a commercial strip (Ezy MICTM). Genotypic resistance to β-Lactam antibiotics was found in 65 (34 with mecA gene and 31 with blaZ gene) isolates. Eighteen isolates possessed both the genes, with the PVL gene for virulence being detected in five of them. Nine isolates which had mecA gene were phenotypically susceptible to oxacillin while phenotypic resistance to oxacillin was observed in seven isolates that did not have either mecA or blaZ gene. This is the first report of persistent Staphylococcal infections possessing PVL gene and high level of genotypic resistance to β-Lactam antibiotics in small- holder dairy cattle from India.

  6. Genetic Gain from Phenotypic and Genomic Selection for Quantitative Resistance to Stem Rust of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rutkoski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust of wheat ( L. caused by f. sp. Eriks. and E. Henn. is a globally important disease that can cause severe yield loss. Breeding for quantitative stem rust resistance (QSRR is important for developing cultivars with durable resistance. Genomic selection (GS could increase rates of genetic gain for quantitative traits, but few experiments comparing GS and phenotypic selection (PS have been conducted. Our objectives were to (i compare realized gain from GS based on markers only with that of PS for QSRR in spring wheat using equal selection intensities; (ii determine if gains agree with theoretical expectations; and (iii compare the impact of GS and PS on inbreeding, genetic variance, and correlated response for pseudo-black chaff (PBC, a correlated trait. Over 2 yr, two cycles of GS were performed in parallel with one cycle of PS, with each method replicated twice. For GS, markers were generated using genotyping-by-sequencing, the prediction model was initially trained using historical data, and the model was updated before the second GS cycle. Overall, GS and PS led to a 31 ± 11 and 42 ± 12% increase in QSRR and a 138 ± 22 and 180 ± 70% increase in PBC, respectively. Genetic gains were not significant but were in agreement with expectations. Per year, gains from GS and PS were equal, but GS led to significantly lower genetic variance. This shows that while GS and PS can lead to equal rates of short-term gains, GS can reduce genetic variance more rapidly. Further work to develop efficient GS implementation strategies in spring wheat is warranted.

  7. Conserved hydrogen bonds and water molecules in MDR HIV-1 protease substrate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhigang [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Harbor Hospital Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, Yong [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Yedidi, Ravikiran S. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Dewdney, Tamaria G. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Reiter, Samuel J. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Brunzelle, Joseph S. [Northwestern Univ. Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Kovari, Iulia A. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Kovari, Ladislau C. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)

    2012-12-19

    Success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in anti-HIV therapy is severely compromised by the rapidly developing drug resistance. HIV-1 protease inhibitors, part of HAART, are losing their potency and efficacy in inhibiting the target. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) 769 HIV-1 protease (resistant mutations at residues 10, 36, 46, 54, 62, 63, 71, 82, 84, 90) was selected for the present study to understand the binding to its natural substrates. The nine crystal structures of MDR769 HIV-1 protease substrate hepta-peptide complexes were analyzed in order to reveal the conserved structural elements for the purpose of drug design against MDR HIV-1 protease. Our structural studies demonstrated that highly conserved hydrogen bonds between the protease and substrate peptides, together with the conserved crystallographic water molecules, played a crucial role in the substrate recognition, substrate stabilization and protease stabilization. Additionally, the absence of the key flap-ligand bridging water molecule might imply a different catalytic mechanism of MDR769 HIV-1 protease compared to that of wild type (WT) HIV-1 protease.

  8. From multidrug-resistant to extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in Lisbon, Portugal: the stepwise mode of resistance acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, João; Macedo, Rita; Silva, Carla; Machado, Diana; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Jordao, Luisa; Portugal, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The development and transmission of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) constitutes a serious threat to the effective control of TB in several countries. Here, in an attempt to further elucidate the dynamics of the acquisition of resistance to second-line drugs and investigate an eventual role for eis promoter mutations in aminoglycoside resistance, we have studied a set of multidrug-resistant (MDR)/XDR-TB isolates circulating in Lisbon, Portugal. Forty-four MDR-TB or XDR-TB isolates were genotyped and screened for mutations in genes associated with second-line drug resistance, namely tlyA, gyrA, rrs and eis. The most prevalent mutations found in each gene were Ins755GT in tlyA, A1401G in rrs, G-10A in eis and S91P in gyrA. Additionally, two genetic clusters were found in this study: Lisboa3 and Q1. The characteristic mutational profile found among recent XDR-TB circulating in Lisbon was also found in MDR-TB strains isolated in the 1990s. Also investigated was the resistance level conferred by eis G-10A mutations, revealing that eis G-10A mutations may result in amikacin resistance undetectable by widely used phenotypic assays. The analysis of the distribution of the mutations found by genetic clustering showed that in the Q1 cluster, two mutations, gyrA D94A and rrs A1401G, were enough to ensure development of XDR-TB from an MDR strain. Moreover, in the Lisboa3 cluster it was possible to elaborate a model in which the development of low-level kanamycin resistance was at the origin of the emergence of XDR-TB strains that can be discriminated by tlyA mutations.

  9. Phenotypic and Genotypic Resistance of Salmonella Isolates from Healthy and Diseased Pigs in China During 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu, Yueguang; Zhu, Shun; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Sun, Mengzhen; Zou, Geng; Meng, Xianrong; Wu, Bin; Zhou, Rui; Li, Shaowen

    2017-07-01

    The antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella strains is rapidly increasing worldwide, which poses significant threats to animal and public health. In this study, a total of 249 porcine Salmonella isolates collected in China during 2008-2015 were examined, including 155 clinical isolates from diseased pigs and 94 nonclinical isolates from healthy pigs. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration of seven antimicrobial agents, 96.4% of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the tested antibiotics and 81.0% of them showed multidrug resistance. The highest antimicrobial resistance was observed for tetracycline (85.9%), and the lowest was found for cefotaxime (13.3%). The isolates from diseased pigs exhibited significantly higher levels of antimicrobial resistance than those from healthy pigs. Twenty-two isolates from healthy pigs were resistant to ciprofloxacin, which may inhibit the curative effectiveness of fluoroquinolones on bacterial food-borne poisoning and infections in humans caused by contaminated food. Moreover, cefotaxime resistance of the strains isolated from diseased pigs during 2013-2015 was significantly higher compared with the strains isolated during 2008-2010. Further study showed that the correlation between phenotypic and genotypic resistance varied among the isolates from different sources, and in many cases, the presence of resistance genes was not consistent with the resistance to the corresponding antimicrobials. These results are very significant for veterinary practice and public health.

  10. Correlation between ability of biofilm formation with their responsible genes and MDR patterns in clinical and environmental Acinetobacter baumannii isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardbari, Ali Mohammadi; Arabestani, Mohammad Reza; Karami, Manoochehr; Keramat, Fariba; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Bagheri, Kamran Pooshang

    2017-07-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii potential to form biofilm and exhibit multiple antibiotic resistances may be responsible in its survival in hospital environment. Accordingly, our study was aimed to determine the correlation between ability of biofilm formation and the frequency of biofilm related genes with antibiotic resistance phenotypes, and also the categorization of their patterns in clinical and environmental isolates. A total of 75 clinical and 32 environmental strains of the A. baumannii were collected and identified via API 20NE. Antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated by disk diffusion and microdilution broth methods. Biofilm formation assay was performed by microtiter plate method. OXA types and biofilm related genes including Bla OXA-51 , Bla OXA-23 , Bla OXA-24 , Bla OXA-58 , bap, bla PER-1 , and ompA were amplified by PCR. The rate of MDR A. baumannii in clinical isolates (100%) was higher than environmental (81.2%) isolates (p baumannii isolates was associated with biofilm formation. There was a significant correlation between multiple drug resistance and biofilm formation. The clinical isolates had a higher ability to form strong biofilms compared to the environmental samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of wild birds as carriers of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Escherichia vulneris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y.; Abo-Amer, Aly E.

    2014-01-01

    Emergence and distribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in environments pose a risk to human and animal health. A total of 82 isolates of Escherichia spp. were recovered from cloacal swabs of migrating and non-migrating wild birds. All bacterial isolates were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. 72% and 50% of isolates recovered from non-migrating and migrating birds, respectively, showed positive congo red dye binding (a virulence factor). Also, hemolysin production (a virulence factor) was showed in 8% of isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and 75% of isolates recovered from migrating birds. All isolates recovered from non-migrating birds were found resistant to Oxacillin while all isolates recovered from migrating birds demonstrated resistance to Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline and Lincomycin. Some bacterial isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and migrating birds exhibited MDR phenotype. The MDR isolates were further characterized by API 20E and 16S rRNA as E. coli and E. vulneris. MDR Escherichia isolates contain ~1–5 plasmids of high-molecular weights. Accordingly, wild birds could create a potential threat to human and animal health by transmitting MDR bacteria to water streams and other environmental sources through their faecal residues, and to remote regions by migration. PMID:25763023

  12. Carbapenem-resistant and cephalosporin-susceptible: a worrisome phenotype among Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloiza Helena Campana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms involved in the uncommon resistance phenotype, carbapenem resistance and broad-spectrum cephalosporin susceptibility, were investigated in 25 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates that exhibited this phenotype, which were recovered from three different hospitals located in São Paulo, Brazil. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined by CLSI broth microdilution. β-lactamase-encoding genes were investigated by PCR followed by DNA sequencing. Carbapenem hydrolysis activity was investigated by spectrophotometer and MALDI-TOF assays. The mRNA transcription level of oprD was assessed by qRT-PCR and the outer membrane proteins profile was evaluated by SDS-PAGE. Genetic relationship among P. aeruginosa isolates was assessed by PFGE. Carbapenems hydrolysis was not detected by carbapenemase assay in the carbapenem-resistant and cephalosporin-susceptible P. aueruginosa clinical isolates. OprD decreased expression was observed in all P. aeruginosa isolates by qRT-PCR. The outer membrane protein profile by SDS-PAGE suggested a change in the expression of the 46 kDa porin that could correspond to OprD porin. The isolates were clustered into 17 genotypes without predominance of a specific PFGE pattern. These results emphasize the involvement of multiple chromosomal mechanisms in carbapenem-resistance among clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, alert for adaptation of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates under antimicrobial selective pressure and make aware of the emergence of an uncommon phenotype among P. aeruginosa clinical isolates.

  13. Isolation and in vitro evaluation of bacteriophages against MDR-bacterial isolates from septic wound infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavali, Roja Rani; Degati, Vijaya Lakshmi; Lomada, Dakshayani; Reddy, Madhava C; Durbaka, Vijaya Raghava Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance has become a major problem for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. The use of bacteriophages is an attractive approach to overcome the problem of drug resistance in several pathogens that cause fatal diseases. Our study aimed to isolate multi drug resistant bacteria from patients with septic wounds and then isolate and apply bacteriophages in vitro as alternative therapeutic agents. Pus samples were aseptically collected from Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Science (RIMS), Kadapa, A.P., and samples were analyzed by gram staining, evaluating morphological characteristics, and biochemical methods. MDR-bacterial strains were collected using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against a variety of antibiotics. Bacteriophages were collected and tested in vitro for lytic activity against MDR-bacterial isolates. Analysis of the pus swab samples revealed that the most of the isolates detected had Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the predominant bacterium, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Our results suggested that gram-negative bacteria were more predominant than gram-positive bacteria in septic wounds; most of these isolates were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, vancomycin and tetracycline. All the gram-positive isolates (100%) were multi-drug resistant, whereas 86% of the gram-negative isolates had a drug resistant nature. Further bacteriophages isolated from sewage demonstrated perfect lytic activity against the multi-drug resistant bacteria causing septic wounds. In vitro analysis of the isolated bacteriophages demonstrated perfect lysis against the corresponding MDR-bacteria, and these isolated phages may be promising as a first choice for prophylaxis against wound sepsis, Moreover, phage therapy does not enhance multi-drug resistance in bacteria and could work simultaneously on a wide variety of MDR-bacteria when used in a bacteriophage cocktail. Hence, our results suggest

  14. Isolation and in vitro evaluation of bacteriophages against MDR-bacterial isolates from septic wound infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roja Rani Pallavali

    Full Text Available Multi-drug resistance has become a major problem for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. The use of bacteriophages is an attractive approach to overcome the problem of drug resistance in several pathogens that cause fatal diseases. Our study aimed to isolate multi drug resistant bacteria from patients with septic wounds and then isolate and apply bacteriophages in vitro as alternative therapeutic agents. Pus samples were aseptically collected from Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Science (RIMS, Kadapa, A.P., and samples were analyzed by gram staining, evaluating morphological characteristics, and biochemical methods. MDR-bacterial strains were collected using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against a variety of antibiotics. Bacteriophages were collected and tested in vitro for lytic activity against MDR-bacterial isolates. Analysis of the pus swab samples revealed that the most of the isolates detected had Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the predominant bacterium, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Our results suggested that gram-negative bacteria were more predominant than gram-positive bacteria in septic wounds; most of these isolates were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, vancomycin and tetracycline. All the gram-positive isolates (100% were multi-drug resistant, whereas 86% of the gram-negative isolates had a drug resistant nature. Further bacteriophages isolated from sewage demonstrated perfect lytic activity against the multi-drug resistant bacteria causing septic wounds. In vitro analysis of the isolated bacteriophages demonstrated perfect lysis against the corresponding MDR-bacteria, and these isolated phages may be promising as a first choice for prophylaxis against wound sepsis, Moreover, phage therapy does not enhance multi-drug resistance in bacteria and could work simultaneously on a wide variety of MDR-bacteria when used in a bacteriophage cocktail. Hence

  15. Co-ordinate loss of protein kinase C and multidrug resistance gene expression in revertant MCF-7/Adr breast carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budworth, J; Gant, T W; Gescher, A

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the link between protein kinase C (PKC) and multidrug resistance (mdr) phenotype. The expression of both was studied in doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7/Adr cells as they reverted to the wild-type phenotype when cultured in the absence of drug. The following parameters were measured in cells 4, 10, 15, 20 and 24 weeks after removal of doxorubicin; (1) sensitivity of the cells towards doxorubicin; (2) levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and MDR1 mRNA; (3) levels and cellular localization of PKC isoenzyme proteins alpha, theta and epsilon; and (4) gene copy number of PKC-alpha and MDR1 genes. Cells lost their resistance gradually with time, so that by week 24 they had almost completely regained the drug sensitivity seen in wild-type MCF-7 cells. P-gp levels measured by Western blot mirrored the change in doxorubicin sensitivity. By week 20, P-gp had decreased to 18% of P-gp protein levels at the outset, and P-gp was not detectable at week 24. Similarly, MDR1 mRNA levels had disappeared by week 24. MCF-7/Adr cells expressed more PKCs-alpha and -theta than wild-type cells and possessed a different cellular localization of PKC-epsilon. The expression and distribution pattern of these PKCs did not change for up to 20 weeks, but reverted back to that seen in wild-type cells by week 24. MDR1 gene amplification remained unchanged until week 20, but then was lost precipitously between weeks 20 and 24. The PKC-alpha gene was not amplified in MCF-7/Adr cells. The results suggest that MCF-7/Adr cells lose MDR1 gene expression and PKC activity in a co-ordinate fashion, consistent with the existence of a mechanistic link between MDR1 and certain PKC isoenzymes.

  16. Role of integrated cancer nanomedicine in overcoming drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Arun K; Singh, Amit; Ganta, Srinivas; Amiji, Mansoor M

    2013-11-01

    Cancer remains a major killer of mankind. Failure of conventional chemotherapy has resulted in recurrence and development of virulent multi drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes adding to the complexity and diversity of this deadly disease. Apart from displaying classical physiological abnormalities and aberrant blood flow behavior, MDR cancers exhibit several distinctive features such as higher apoptotic threshold, aerobic glycolysis, regions of hypoxia, and elevated activity of drug-efflux transporters. MDR transporters play a pivotal role in protecting the cancer stem cells (CSCs) from chemotherapy. It is speculated that CSCs are instrumental in reviving tumors after the chemo and radiotherapy. In this regard, multifunctional nanoparticles that can integrate various key components such as drugs, genes, imaging agents and targeting ligands using unique delivery platforms would be more efficient in treating MDR cancers. This review presents some of the important principles involved in development of MDR and novel methods of treating cancers using multifunctional-targeted nanoparticles. Illustrative examples of nanoparticles engineered for drug/gene combination delivery and stimuli responsive nanoparticle systems for cancer therapy are also discussed. © 2013.

  17. The Burden of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea: Results of a Large Population-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aia

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates of the burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB are crucial for effective control and prevention of tuberculosis (TB. Papua New Guinea (PNG is a high TB burden country with limited information on the magnitude of the MDR-TB problem.A cross-sectional study was conducted in four PNG provinces: Madang, Morobe, National Capital District and Western Province. Patient sputum samples were tested for rifampicin resistance by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and those showing the presence of resistance underwent phenotypic susceptibility testing to first- and second-line anti-TB drugs including streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, ofloxacin, amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin.Among 1,182 TB patients enrolled in the study, MDR-TB was detected in 20 new (2.7%; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.1-4.3% and 24 previously treated (19.1%; 95%CI: 8.5-29.8% TB cases. No case of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB was detected. Thirty percent (6/20 of new and 33.3% (8/24 of previously treated cases with MDR-TB were detected in a single cluster in Western Province.In PNG the proportion of MDR-TB in new cases is slightly lower than the regional average of 4.4% (95%CI: 2.6-6.3%. A large proportion of MDR-TB cases were identified from a single hospital in Western Province, suggesting that the prevalence of MDR-TB across the country is heterogeneous. Future surveys should further explore this finding. The survey also helped strengthening the use of smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF testing as diagnostic tools for TB in the country.

  18. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Europe, 2010-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther, Gunar; van Leth, Frank; Alexandru, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is challenging elimination of tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated risk factors for TB and levels of second-line drug resistance in M. tuberculosis in patients in Europe with multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. A total of 380 patients with MDR TB and 376 patients...... with non-MDR TB were enrolled at 23 centers in 16 countries in Europe during 2010-2011. A total of 52.4% of MDR TB patients had never been treated for TB, which suggests primary transmission of MDR M. tuberculosis. At initiation of treatment for MDR TB, 59.7% of M. tuberculosis strains tested were...

  19. Outcomes of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with discordant phenotypic isoniazid resistance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sukyeon; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Lee, Nam Yong; Jeong, Byeong-Ho

    2017-12-01

    The discrepancy rates of drug susceptibility testing (DST) results between solid and liquid media have been reported to range from 2.4 to 7.4% for isoniazid. Most isolate with isoniazid DST discrepancies between solid and liquid media test as susceptible on solid medium and resistant in liquid medium, however, the optimal management of patients with discordant testing is unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of treatment regimen on treatment outcomes when patients with rifampicin-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis have isoniazid resistance (INH-R) in liquid medium but isoniazid susceptibility (INH-S) on solid medium. This study was retrospectively conducted by reviewing patient medical records on the liquid compared to solid culture based phenotypic testing at Samsung Medical Center between January 2009 and December 2015. The study population which have INH-R in liquid medium and INH-S on solid medium was divided into two groups: group A (n = 30), which included patients treated for INH-S tuberculosis by discontinuing pyrazinamide (and ethambutol), and group B (n = 56), which included patients treated for INH-R tuberculosis by continuing pyrazinamide and/or adding fluoroquinolone. Unfavorable outcomes included treatment failure and relapse. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups including demographic data, comorbidities, radiologic data, and treatment duration. However, baseline smear positive rates were more frequent in group A (19/30, 63.3%) than in group B (22/56, 39.3%; P = 0.033). Only three patients had unfavorable outcomes; one was bacteriologically proven treatment failure and the other two were clinically judged as unfavorable outcomes. All of them were in the group A (3/30, 10%); no unfavorable outcomes occurred in the group B (0/56, 0%; P = 0.040). Unfavorable outcomes were less frequent in the group B than in the group A, indicating that treatment regimen modification according to DST

  20. In vitro susceptibility and resistance phenotypes in contemporary Enterobacter isolates in a university hospital in Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, Sofia; Vardakas, Konstantinos Z; Samonis, George; Perdikis, Dimitrios; Mavromanolaki, Viktoria Eirini; Kofteridis, Diamantis P; Falagas, Matthew E

    2017-06-01

    To study the evolution in the susceptibility of Enterobacter spp. in Crete, Greece from 2010 to 2015. Non-duplicate isolates were studied using automated systems. Phenotypic confirmatory tests were applied. A total of 939 Enterobacter isolates were included. Colistin was the most active antibiotic (97.9%) followed by imipenem (96.1%), gentamicin (95.7%), tigecycline (91.8%), cefepime (89.4%), chloramphenicol (85.8%), fosfomycin (85.5%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (83.3%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (73.3%). Antibiotic resistance did not increase during the study period for most antibiotics. Lower susceptibility was observed among multidrug-resistant strains and carbapenem-nonsusceptible isolates. AmpC was the most common resistant mechanism (21%); carbapenemases (3.7%) and aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (6.5%) were also detected. A significant proportion of Enterobacter spp. was resistant to several antibiotics, most notably β-lactams.

  1. Breed distribution of the nt230(del4) MDR1 mutation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramer, Irina; Leidolf, Regina; Döring, Barbara; Klintzsch, Stefanie; Krämer, Eva-Maria; Yalcin, Ebru; Petzinger, Ernst; Geyer, Joachim

    2011-07-01

    A 4-bp deletion mutation associated with multiple drug sensitivity exists in the canine multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene. This mutation has been detected in more than 10 purebred dog breeds as well as in mixed breed dogs. To evaluate the breed distribution of this mutation in Germany, 7378 dogs were screened, including 6999 purebred and 379 mixed breed dogs. The study included dog breeds that show close genetic relationship or share breeding history with one of the predisposed breeds but in which the occurrence of the MDR1 mutation has not been reported. The breeds comprised Bearded Collies, Anatolian Shepherd Dog, Greyhound, Belgian Tervuren, Kelpie, Borzoi, Australian Cattle Dog and the Irish Wolfhound. The MDR1 mutation was not detected is any of these breeds, although it was found as expected in the Collie, Longhaired Whippet, Shetland Sheepdog, Miniature Australian Shepherd, Australian Shepherd, Wäller, White Swiss Shepherd, Old English Sheepdog and Border Collie with varying allelic frequencies for the mutant MDR1 allele of 59%, 45%, 30%, 24%, 22%, 17%, 14%, 4% and 1%, respectively. Allelic frequencies of 8% and 2% were determined in herding breed mixes and unclassified mixed breeds, respectively. Because of its widespread breed distribution and occurrence in many mixed breed dogs, it is difficult for veterinarians and dog owners to recognise whether MDR1-related drug sensitivity is relevant for an individual animal. This study provides a comprehensive overview of all affected dog breeds and many dog breeds that are probably unaffected on the basis of ∼15,000 worldwide MDR1 genotyping data. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular Basis of Substrate Polyspecificity of the Candida albicans Mdr1p Multidrug/H+Antiporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhu, Archana Kumari; Banerjee, Atanu; Shah, Abdul Haseeb; Moreno, Alexis; Rawal, Manpreet Kaur; Nair, Remya; Falson, Pierre; Prasad, Rajendra

    2018-03-02

    The molecular basis of polyspecificity of Mdr1p, a major drug/H + antiporter of Candida albicans, is not elucidated. We have probed the nature of the drug-binding pocket by performing systematic mutagenesis of the 12 transmembrane segments. Replacement of the 252 amino acid residues with alanine or glycine yielded 2/3 neutral mutations while 1/3 led to the complete or selective loss of resistance to drugs or substrates transported by the pump. Using the GlpT-based 3D-model of Mdr1p, we roughly categorized these critical residues depending on their type and localization, 1°/ main structural impact ("S" group), 2°/ exposure to the lipid interface ("L" group), 3°/ buried but not facing the main central pocket, inferred as critical for the overall H + /drug antiport mechanism ("M" group) and finally 4°/ buried and facing the main central pocket ("B" group). Among "B" category, 13 residues were essential for the large majority of drugs/substrates, while 5 residues were much substrate-specific, suggesting a role in governing polyspecificity (P group). 3D superposition of the substrate-specific MFS Glut1 and XylE with the MDR substrate-polyspecific MdfA and Mdr1p revealed that the B group forms a common substrate interaction core while the P group is only found in the 2 MDR MFS transporters, distributed into 3 areas around the B core. This specific pattern has let us to propose that the structural basis for polyspecificity of MDR MFS transporters is the extended capacity brought by residues located at the periphery of a binding core to accomodate compounds differing in size and type. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Global DNA hypermethylation-associated cancer chemotherapy resistance and its reversion with the demethylating agent hydralazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benitez-Bribiesca Luis

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy continues to be a major obstacle for successful anticancer therapy. It has been shown that cells exposed to toxic concentrations of commonly used cancer chemotherapy agents develop DNA hypermetylation. Hence, demethylating agents could play a role in overcoming drug resistance. Methods MCF-7 cells were rendered adriamycin-resistant by weekly treatment with adriamycin. Wild-type and the resulting MCF-7/Adr cells were analyzed for global DNA methylation. DNA methyltransferase activity and DNA methyltransferase (dnmt gene expression were also determined. MCF-7/Adr cells were then subjected to antisense targeting of dnmt1, -3a, and -b genes and to treatment with the DNA methylation inhibitor hydralazine to investigate whether DNA demethylation restores sensitivity to adriamycin. Results MCF-7/Adr cells exhibited the multi-drug resistant phenotype as demonstrated by adriamycin resistance, mdr1 gene over-expression, decreased intracellular accumulation of adriamycin, and cross-resistance to paclitaxel. The mdr phenotype was accompanied by global DNA hypermetylation, over-expression of dnmt genes, and increased DNA methyltransferase activity as compared with wild-type MCF-7 cells. DNA demethylation through antisense targeting of dnmts or hydralazine restored adriamycin sensitivity of MCF-7/Adr cells to a greater extent than verapamil, a known inhibitor of mdr protein, suggesting that DNA demethylation interferes with the epigenetic reprogramming that participates in the drug-resistant phenotype. Conclusion We provide evidence that DNA hypermethylation is at least partly responsible for development of the multidrug-resistant phenotype in the MCF-7/Adr model and that hydralazine, a known DNA demethylating agent, can revert the resistant phenotype.

  4. Mutation in the Sodium Channel Gene Corresponds With Phenotypic Resistance of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) to Pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klafke, G M; Miller, R J; Tidwell, J; Barreto, R; Guerrero, F D; Kaufman, P E; Pérez de León, A A

    2017-11-07

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille), is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and vector of pathogens that kill humans and animals. Pyrethroids represent a class of synthetic acaricides that have been used intensely to try to control the brown dog tick and mitigate the risk of tick-borne disease transmission. However, acaricide resistance is an emerging problem in the management of the brown dog tick. Understanding the mechanism of resistance to acaricides, including pyrethroids, is important to adapt brown dog tick control strategies. The main objective of this study was to determine if target-site mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in other pests could be associated with phenotypic resistance detected in a brown dog tick population from Florida. We amplified segment 6 of the domain III of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel protein, using cDNAs synthesized from pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant tick strains. A single nucleotide point mutation (SNP) identified in a highly conserved region of domain III S6 in the resistant ticks resulted in an amino acid change from phenylalanine to leucine. This mutation is characteristic of resistance phenotypes in other tick species, and is the first report of this mutation in R. sanguineus. Molecular assays based on this knowledge could be developed to diagnose the risk for pyrethroid resistance, and to inform decisions on integrated brown dog tick management practices. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from farm-raised diarrheic sika deer in Northeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    Full Text Available In China, overuse and/or abuse of antimicrobials are common in stockbreeding, which possess high risks of antimicrobial-resistant contaminations. The serogroups, major virulence genes, and antimicrobial resistant patterns of the antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli were investigated in the feces of diarrheic farm-raised sika deer from 50 farms in three Northeastern provinces of China. A total of 220 E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized. Twenty-eight O serogroups were identified from the obtained E. coli isolates with O2, O26, O128, O142 and O154 being dominant. Nearly all the isolates were resistant to at least four of the tested antimicrobials. More than 90% of the E. coli isolates carried at least one of the tested virulence genes. About 85% of the E. coli isolates carried one or more antimicrobial-resistant genes responsible for resistant phenotypes of sulfonamides, streptomycin/spectionomycin or tetracycline. The antimicrobial resistant level and pathogenic group occurrences of the obtained E. coli isolates were higher than that of livestock and wild animals reported in some developed countries. Thus, the fecal-carrying antimicrobial-resistant E. coli from the farm-raised sika deer is potentially a significant contamination source for freshwater systems and food chain, and may pose great health risks for human and animals in Northeastern China.

  6. [Changes of resistant phenotype and CRISPR/Cas system of fourShigellastrains passaged for 90 times without antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B; Hong, L J; Duan, G C; Liang, W J; Yang, H Y; Xi, Y L

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To explore the stability of resistant phenotypes and changes of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) gene system on four Shigella strains in the absence of antibiotics. Methods: Four clinical isolated Shigella strains that resistant to different antibiotics were consecutive passaged for 90 times without antibiotics. Agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of Shigella strains. After sequence analysis with PCR, CRISPR Finder and Clustal X 2.1 were applied to identify the changes of CRISPR loci in the Shigella strains. Results: After the consecutive transfer of 90 generations, sensitivity to certain antibiotics of four Shigella strains with different drug resistant spectrums increased. Mel-sf1998024/zz resistance to ampicillin, cephalexin, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol decreased, mel-s2014026/sx resistance to norfloxacin, trimethoprim decreased, mel-sf2004004/sx drug resistance to ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim decreased and mel-sf2013004/bj resistance to chloramphenicol decreased. The spacer of which matched gene codes Cas and its upstream repeat in 3'end of CRISPR3 got lost in mel-sf1998024/zz and mel-sf2013004/bj. Conclusions: Shigella strains could reduce or lose their resistance to some antibiotics after consecutive transfers, without the interference of antibiotics. CRISPR3 locus had dynamic spacers in Shigella strains while CRISPR3 locus and cas genes might have been co-evolved.

  7. In vitro activity of Tedizolid phosphate against multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jin Yang; Kang, Cheol-In; Kim, So Hyun; Ko, Kwan Soo; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; So, Thomas Man-Kit; Lee, Nam Yong; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is a second-generation oxazolidinone prodrug that is potential activity against a wide range of Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, penicillin-resistant streptococci, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. The in vitro activity of tedizolid and other comparator agents against multidrug-resistant (MDR) pneumococci from various Asian countries were evaluated. Of the S. pneumoniae clinical pneumonia isolates collected during 2008 and 2009 from 8 Asian countries (Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Malaysia, Philippines, and Sri Lanka), 104 isolates of MDR pneumococci were included in this study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for 18 antimicrobial agents was performed by broth microdilution method. Tedizolid was highly active against pneumococci. All isolates tested were inhibited at a tedizolid minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of ≤0.25μg/ml (ranged from ≤0.03μg/ml to 0.25μg/ml). The MIC50 and MIC90 of tedizolid against MDR pneumococci were both 0.12μg/ml, while MIC50 and MIC90 of linezolid were 0.5μg/ml and 1μg/ml, respectively. In addition, tedizolid maintained the activity against S. pneumoniae regardless of the extensively drug-resistant (XDR) phenotype of the isolates. The activity of tedizolid was excellent against all types of MDR pneumococci, exhibiting and maintaining at least 4-fold-greater potency compared to linezolid, regardless of resistance phenotypes to other commonly utilized agents. Tedizolid has the potential to be an agent to treat infections caused by MDR pneumococci in the Asia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Overview of the improvement of the ring-stage survival assay – a novel phenotypic assay for the detection of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum

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    Jie Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum threatens the remarkable efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies worldwide. Thus, greater insight into the resistance mechanism using monitoring tools is essential. The ring-stage survival assay is used for phenotyping artemisinin-resistance or decreased artemisinin sensitivity. Here, we review the progress of this measurement assay and explore its limitations and potential applications.

  9. Treatment outcomes of MDR-tuberculosis patients in Brazil: a retrospective cohort analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Lisboa Bastos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a threat for the global TB epidemic control. Despite existing evidence that individualized treatment of MDR-TB is superior to standardized regimens, the latter are recommended in Brazil, mainly because drug-susceptibility tests (DST are often restricted to first-line drugs in public laboratories. We compared treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients using standardized versus individualized regimens in Brazil, a high TB-burden, low resistance setting. Methods The 2007–2013 cohort of the national electronic database (SITE-TB, which records all special treatments including drug-resistance, was analysed. Patients classified as MDR-TB in SITE-TB were eligible. Treatment outcomes were classified as successful (cure/treatment completed or unsuccessful (failure/relapse/death/loss to follow-up. The odds for successful treatment according to type of regimen were controlled for demographic and clinical variables. Results Out of 4029 registered patients, we included 1972 recorded from 2010 to 2012, who had more complete outcome data. The overall success proportion was 60%. Success was more likely in non-HIV patients, sputum-negative at baseline, with unilateral disease and without prior DR-TB. Adjusted for these variables, those receiving standardized regimens had 2.7-fold odds of success compared to those receiving individualized treatments when failure/relapse were considered, and 1.4-fold odds of success when death was included as an unsuccessful outcome. When loss to follow-up was added, no difference between types of treatment was observed. Patients who used levofloxacin instead of ofloxacin had 1.5-fold odds of success. Conclusion In this large cohort of MDR-TB patients with a low proportion of successful outcomes, standardized regimens had superior efficacy than individualized regimens, when adjusted for relevant variables. In addition to the limitations of any retrospective observational

  10. Full-Genome Sequencing Identifies in the Genetic Background Several Determinants That Modulate the Resistance Phenotype in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Carrying the NovelmecCGene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milheiriço, Catarina; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Tomasz, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Most methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics due to the presence of the mecA gene, encoding an extra penicillin-binding protein (PBP2A) that has low affinity for virtually all beta-lactam antibiotics. Recently, a new resistance determinant-the mecC gene-was identified in S. aureus isolates recovered from humans and dairy cattle. Although having typically low MICs to beta-lactam antibiotics, MRSA strains with the mecC determinant are also capable of expressing high levels of oxacillin resistance when in an optimal genetic background. In order to test the impact of extensive beta-lactam selection on the emergence of mecC -carrying strains with high levels of antibiotic resistance, we exposed the prototype mecC -carrying MRSA strain, LGA251, to increasing concentrations of oxacillin. LGA251 was able to rapidly adapt to high concentrations of oxacillin in growth medium. In such laboratory mutants with increased levels of oxacillin resistance, we identified mutations in genes with no relationship to the mecC regulatory system, indicating that the genetic background plays an important role in the establishment of the levels of oxacillin resistance. Our data also indicate that the stringent stress response plays a critical role in the beta-lactam antibiotic resistance phenotype of MRSA strains carrying the mecC determinant. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Resistance phenotypes and genotypes among multiple-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis strains isolated between 2008 and 2012 from slaughter pigs in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matayoshi, Masanao; Kitano, Takashi; Sasaki, Tetsu; Nakamura, Masaji

    2015-06-01

    A total of 349 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) strains, which were isolated between 2008 and 2012 from 349 pigs at two slaughterhouses in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. All isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial agents for which isolates showed a high incidence of resistance were as follows: ampicillin (100%) and streptomycin (100%), followed by gentamicin (99.7%), oxytetracycline (99.7%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (99.4%), nalidixic acid (40.1%) and oxolinic acid (40.1%). All isolates were sensitive to cefuroxime, ceftiofur, colistin, fosfomycin, enrofloxacin, orbifloxacin and danofloxacin. The predominant resistance phenotypes and genotypes were: resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (58.5%, 204/349) and blaTEM-strA-strB-aadA1-aadA2-aacC2-tet (B)-sul1-sul2-dhfrXII-dhfrXIII (36.1%, 126/349). The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE of the quinolone-resistant isolates (n=12) showed amino acid substitutions of Ser-83→Phe or Asp-87→Tyr in GyrA and Ser-107→Ala in ParC. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance among S. Choleraesuis strains in Japan.

  12. Ecdysteroids Sensitize MDR and Non-MDR Cancer Cell Lines to Doxorubicin, Paclitaxel, and Vincristine but Tend to Protect Them from Cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Martins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecdysteroids, analogs of the insect molting hormone, are known for their various mild, nonhormonal bioactivities in mammals. Previously, we reported that less-polar ecdysteroids can modulate the doxorubicin resistance of a multidrug resistant (MDR mouse lymphoma cell line expressing the human ABCB1 transporter. Here, we describe the ability of 20-hydroxyecdysone (1 and its mono- (2 and diacetonide (3 derivatives to sensitize various MDR and non-MDR cancer cell lines towards doxorubicin, paclitaxel, vincristine, or cisplatin. Drug IC50 values with or without ecdysteroid were determined by MTT assay. Compound 3 significantly sensitized all cell lines to each chemotherapeutic except for cisplatin, whose activity was decreased. In order to overcome solubility and stability issues for the future in vivo administration of compound 3, liposomal formulations were developed. By means of their combination index values obtained via checkerboard microplate method, a formulation showed superior activity to that of compound 3 alone. Because ecdysteroids act also on non-ABCB1 expressing (sensitive cell lines, our results demonstrate that they do not or not exclusively exert their adjuvant anticancer activity as ABCB1 inhibitors, but other mechanisms must be involved, and they opened the way towards their in vivo bioactivity testing against various cancer xenografts.

  13. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Provides Insight into the Evolution and Genetic Composition of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, Kurt R; Desjardins, Christopher A; Zalutskaya, Aksana; Slodovnikova, Vervara; Oler, Andrew J; Quiñones, Mariam; Abeel, Thomas; Chapman, Sinead B; Tartakovsky, Michael; Gabrielian, Andrei; Hoffner, Sven; Skrahin, Aliaksandr; Birren, Bruce W; Rosenthal, Alexander; Skrahina, Alena; Earl, Ashlee M

    2017-02-01

    The emergence and spread of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (DR-TB) are critical global health issues. Eastern Europe has some of the highest incidences of DR-TB, particularly multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB. To better understand the genetic composition and evolution of MDR- and XDR-TB in the region, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 138 M. tuberculosis isolates from 97 patients sampled between 2010 and 2013 in Minsk, Belarus. MDR and XDR-TB isolates were significantly more likely to belong to the Beijing lineage than to the Euro-American lineage, and known resistance-conferring loci accounted for the majority of phenotypic resistance to first- and second-line drugs in MDR and XDR-TB. Using a phylogenomic approach, we estimated that the majority of MDR-TB was due to the recent transmission of already-resistant M. tuberculosis strains rather than repeated de novo evolution of resistance within patients, while XDR-TB was acquired through both routes. Longitudinal sampling of M. tuberculosis from 34 patients with treatment failure showed that most strains persisted genetically unchanged during treatment or acquired resistance to fluoroquinolones. HIV+ patients were significantly more likely to have multiple infections over time than HIV- patients, highlighting a specific need for careful infection control in these patients. These data provide a better understanding of the genomic composition, transmission, and evolution of MDR- and XDR-TB in Belarus and will enable improved diagnostics, treatment protocols, and prognostic decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Wollenberg et al.

  14. L-type calcium channel blockers reverse docetaxel and vincristine-induced multidrug resistance independent of ABCB1 expression in human lung cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ling-Yen; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Lee, Yi-Ju; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Tee, Yi-Torng; Sheu, Gwo-Tarng

    2010-02-15

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells to cytotoxic drugs significantly impedes chemotherapeutic treatment. The purpose of this study is to characterize docetaxel (DOC) or vincristine (VCR) selected A549 and H1299 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) sublines that exhibit MDR phenotypes and followed by re-sensitization study. Although all drug resistant sublines showed cross-resistance to DOC, VCR, and doxorubicin (DXR), the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter B1 (ABCB1) gene was found to be strongly induced in DOC but not in VCR resistant A549 sublines by quantitative reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In DOC and VCR resistant H1299 sublines, moderate expression of ABCB1 was detected. The levels of ABCB1 protein and efflux activities were further examined by immunoblotting and rhodamin-123 staining assay. The results showed that both ABC and non-ABC mediated MDR are existed. Furthermore, verapamil (VER), an inhibitor of ABCB1 and an L-type calcium channel blocker, is capable of reversing the resistance in all drug-resistant sublines independent of ABCB1 expression. Importantly, VER only sensitizes resistant sublines but has no effect on parental cancer cells. Other L-type calcium channel blockers, such as diltiazem (DIL) and nifedipine (NIF), also sensitize MDR sublines without interfering with ABCB1 activity but with lower efficacy than VER. Our data showed that in addition to ABCB1, calcium channel activity may play a crucial role in DOC- and VCR-acquired MDR. Therefore, inhibition of calcium influx may provide a new target to modulate MDR in chemotherapy. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor-α in hepatitis-B-virus X protein-mediated MDR1 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Hyo-Kyung; Han, Chang Yeob; Cheon, Eun-Pa; Lee, Jaewon; Kang, Keon Wook

    2007-01-01

    The transition from chemotherapy-responsive cancer cells to chemotherapy-resistant cancer cells is mainly accompanied by the increased expression of multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1). We found that hepatitis-B-virus X protein (HBx) increases the transcriptional activity and protein level of MDR1 in a hepatoma cell line, H4IIE. In addition, HBx overexpression made H4IIE cells more resistant to verapamil-uptake. HBx stabilized hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and induced the nuclear translocation of C/EBPβ. Reporter gene analyses showed that HBx increased the reporter activity in the cells transfected with the reporter containing MDR1 gene promoter. Moreover, the luciferase reporter gene activity was significantly inhibited by HIF-1α siRNA but not by overexpression of C/EBP dominant negative mutant. These results imply that HBx increases the MDR1 transporter activity through the transcriptional activation of the MDR1 gene with HIF-1α activation, and suggest HIF-1α for the therapeutic target of HBV-mediated chemoresistance

  16. Comparison of bacteriological conversion and treatment outcomes among MDR-TB patients with and without diabetes in Mexico: Preliminary data

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Torrico, M.; Caminero Luna, J.; Migliori, G.B.; D’Ambrosio, L.; Carrillo-Alduenda, J.L.; Villareal-Velarde, H.; Torres-Cruz, A.; Flores-Ergara, H.; Martínez-Mendoza, D.; García-Sancho, C.; Centis, R.; Salazar-Lezama, M.Á.; Pérez-Padilla, R.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). However, it is not known to what extent DM affects the outcome in patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) treated with second-line anti-TB drugs.The objective of this study was to compare the microbiological evolution (sputum smear and culture conversion) and final outcomes of MDR/XDR-TB patients with and without DM, managed at the national TB reference centre in Mexico City...

  17. Genotypic and Phenotypic Markers of Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC9 in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaohua; Wang, Xiaolin; Fan, Yanping; Peng, Yang; Li, Ling; Li, Shunming; Huang, Jingya; Yao, Zhenjiang; Chen, Sidong

    2016-07-01

    Use of antimicrobials in industrial food animal production is associated with the presence of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among animals and humans. The livestock-associated (LA) methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 9 (CC9) is associated with animals and related workers in Asia. This study aimed to explore the genotypic and phenotypic markers of LA-MRSA CC9 in humans. We conducted a cross-sectional study of livestock workers and controls in Guangdong, China. The study participants responded to a questionnaire and provided a nasal swab for S. aureus analysis. The resulting isolates were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, multilocus sequence type, and immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes. Livestock workers had significantly higher rates of S. aureus CC9 (odds ratio [OR] = 30.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.06 to 236.39) and tetracycline-resistant S. aureus (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 2.12 to 5.00) carriage than controls. All 19 S. aureus CC9 isolates from livestock workers were MRSA isolates and also exhibited the characteristics of resistance to several classes of antibiotics and absence of the IEC genes. Notably, the interaction analyses indicated phenotype-phenotype (OR = 525.7; 95% CI, 60.0 to 4,602.1) and gene-environment (OR = 232.3; 95% CI, 28.7 to 1,876.7) interactions associated with increased risk for livestock-associated S. aureus CC9 carriage. These findings suggest that livestock-associated S. aureus and MRSA (CC9, IEC negative, and tetracycline resistant) in humans are associated with occupational livestock contact, raising questions about the potential for occupational exposure to opportunistic S. aureus This study adds to existing knowledge by giving insight into the genotypic and phenotypic markers of LA-MRSA. Our findings suggest that livestock-associated S. aureus and MRSA (CC9, IEC negative, and tetracycline resistant) in humans are associated with occupational livestock contact. Future studies should direct more

  18. Molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli of healthy dogs after enrofloxacin or amoxicillin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Sherine A; Debavalya, Nipattra; Suh, Sang-Jin; Oryazabal, Omar A; Boothe, Dawn M

    2012-11-01

    Escherichia coli respond to selective pressure of antimicrobial therapy by developing resistance through a variety of mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in fecal E. coli after the routine use of 2 popular antimicrobials. Fourteen resistant E. coli isolates, representing predominant clones that emerged in healthy dogs' feces after treatment with either amoxicillin (11 E. coli isolates) or enrofloxacin (3 E. coli isolates), were tested for mutations in DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and in topoisomerase IV (parC) and for the presence of β-lactamases (bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(PSE-1) and bla(CTX-M)) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib, and qepA), by polymerase chain reaction. Escherichia coli isolates cultured following amoxicillin therapy only expressed single-drug resistance to β-lactams, while the isolates cultured from dogs receiving enrofloxacin therapy expressed multidrug resistance (MDR). The use of RND efflux pump inhibitors increased the susceptibility of the 3 MDR E. coli isolates to doxycycline, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, which indicates a role of the efflux pump in the acquisition of the MDR phenotype. Amplification and sequencing of AcrAB efflux pump regulators (soxR, soxS, marR, and acrR) revealed only the presence of a single mutation in soxS in the 3 MDR isolates.

  19. Independent Emergence of Resistance to Seven Chemical Classes of Fungicides in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ortuño, Dolores; Grabke, Anja; Li, Xingpeng; Schnabel, Guido

    2015-04-01

    Gray mold, caused by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, is one of the most destructive diseases of small fruit crops and control is largely dependent on the application of fungicides. As part of a region-wide resistance-monitoring program that investigated 1,890 B. cinerea isolates from 189 fields in 10 states of the United States, we identified seven isolates (0.4%) from five locations in four different states with unprecedented resistance to all seven Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) codes with single-site modes of action including FRAC 1, 2, 7, 9, 11, 12, and 17 registered in the United States for gray mold control. Resistance to thiophanate-methyl, iprodione, boscalid, pyraclostrobin, and fenhexamid was based on target gene mutations that conferred E198A and F200Y in β-tubulin, I365N/S in Bos1, H272R/Y in SdhB, G143A in Cytb, and T63I and F412S in Erg27. Isolates were grouped into MDR1 and MDR1h phenotypes based on sensitivity to fludioxonil and variations in transcription factor mrr1. MDR1h isolates had a previously described 3-bp deletion at position 497 in mrr1. Expression of ABC transporter atrB was increased in MDR1 isolates but highest in MDR1h isolates. None of the isolates with seven single resistances (SR) had identical nucleotide variations in target genes, indicating that they emerged independently. Multifungicide resistance phenotypes did not exhibit significant fitness penalties for the parameters used in this study, but MDR1h isolates produced more sclerotia at low temperatures and exhibited increased sensitivity to salt stress. In this study we show that current resistance management strategies have not been able to prevent the geographically independent development of resistance to all seven site-specific fungicides currently registered for gray mold control in the United States and document the presence of MDR1h in North America.

  20. Resveratrol as MDR reversion molecule in breast cancer: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamolhodaei, Nafiseh Sadat; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Ramezani, Mohammad; Hayes, A Wallace; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2017-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide; therefore, a strategy to defeat breast cancer is an extremely important medical issue. One of the major challenges in this regard is multidrug resistance (MDR). Resveratrol, a well-known phytoestrogen, may be helpful as part of an overall strategy to defeat breast cancer. The mixed agonist and antagonist role of resveratrol for the estrogen receptor makes it a controversial but interesting molecule in cancer therapy, especially in hormone dependent cancers. Several in vitro investigations have suggested that resveratrol can reverse multidrug resistance. However, poor bioavailability of resveratrol is a potential limitation for resveratrol treatment and cancer outcome in vivo. Fortunately, combination therapy with other selected compounds improves resveratrol's bioavailability and/or a delay in its metabolism. This review summaries the available published literature dealing with the effects of resveratrol on multidrug resistance in cancer and more specifically, breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbapenem-resistant and cephalosporin-susceptible: a worrisome phenotype among Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Eloiza Helena; Xavier, Danilo Elias; Petrolini, Fernanda Villas-Boas; Cordeiro-Moura, Jhonatha Rodrigo; Araujo, Maria Rita Elmor de; Gales, Ana Cristina

    The mechanisms involved in the uncommon resistance phenotype, carbapenem resistance and broad-spectrum cephalosporin susceptibility, were investigated in 25 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates that exhibited this phenotype, which were recovered from three different hospitals located in São Paulo, Brazil. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined by CLSI broth microdilution. β-lactamase-encoding genes were investigated by PCR followed by DNA sequencing. Carbapenem hydrolysis activity was investigated by spectrophotometer and MALDI-TOF assays. The mRNA transcription level of oprD was assessed by qRT-PCR and the outer membrane proteins profile was evaluated by SDS-PAGE. Genetic relationship among P. aeruginosa isolates was assessed by PFGE. Carbapenems hydrolysis was not detected by carbapenemase assay in the carbapenem-resistant and cephalosporin-susceptible P. aueruginosa clinical isolates. OprD decreased expression was observed in all P. aeruginosa isolates by qRT-PCR. The outer membrane protein profile by SDS-PAGE suggested a change in the expression of the 46kDa porin that could correspond to OprD porin. The isolates were clustered into 17 genotypes without predominance of a specific PFGE pattern. These results emphasize the involvement of multiple chromosomal mechanisms in carbapenem-resistance among clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, alert for adaptation of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates under antimicrobial selective pressure and make aware of the emergence of an uncommon phenotype among P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Copper-coated textiles: armor against MDR nosocomial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irene, Galani; Georgios, Priniotakis; Ioannis, Chronis; Anastasios, Tzerachoglou; Diamantis, Plachouras; Marianthi, Chatzikonstantinou; Philippe, Westbroek; Maria, Souli

    2016-06-01

    Soft surfaces in the health-care setting harbor potentially pathogenic bacteria and fungi that can be transferred to patients and personnel. We evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of two types of innovative copper-coated textiles against a variety of nosocomial multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens. Five isolates each of MDR Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterococcus faecium as well as three Candida parapsilosis were tested. The antimicrobial activity of copper-coated para-aramide and copper-coated polyester swatches was compared to that of non-copper coated controls using a quantitative method. Reduction of viable colonies by >3log10 from starting inoculum was characterized as bactericidal activity. No viable colonies of S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. faecium and C. parapsilosis were recovered after the first hour of contact while for A. baumannii, no viable colonies were recovered after only 15min of contact with either type of copper-coated textiles. Copper-coated para-aramide exhibited a bactericidal effect at 15min of contact with A. baumannii, at 1h with S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. faecium and C. parapsilosis and at 3h with K. pneumoniae. Copper-coated polyester was bactericidal at 15min of contact for A. baumannii and at 1h for the other species tested. Both copper-coated textiles exhibited a rapid and significant antimicrobial effect. Antimicrobial textiles may have a role in the arsenal of strategies aiming to reduce environmental contamination in the health-care setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibacterial and antibiotic-potentiation activities of the methanol extract of some cameroonian spices against Gram-negative multi-drug resistant phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voukeng Igor K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present work was designed to evaluate the antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts of eleven selected Cameroonian spices on multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR, and their ability to potentiate the effect of some common antibiotics used in therapy. Results The extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and AG100 strains showed the best activities, with the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 64 μg/ml. The extract of Dorstenia psilurus was the most active when tested in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor, phenylalanine Arginine-β- Naphtylamide (PAβN, a synergistic effect being observed in 56.25 % of the tested bacteria when it was combined with Erythromycin (ERY. Conclusion The present work evidently provides information on the role of some Cameroonian spices in the fight against multi-resistant bacteria.

  4. Genotype to phenotype, the molecular and physiological dimensions of resistance in arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feyereisen, R.; Dermauw, W.; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2015-01-01

    The recent accumulation of molecular studies on mutations in insects, ticks and mites conferring resistance to insecticides, acaricides and biopesticides is reviewed. Resistance is traditionally classified by physiological and biochemical criteria, such as target-site insensitivity and metabolic

  5. Phenotypic and Genotypic Mupirocin Resistance among Staphylococci Causing Prosthetic Joint Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rotger, Margalida; Trampuz, Andrej; Piper, Kerryl E.; Steckelberg, James M.; Patel, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Mupirocin MICs and mupA presence were determined in 108 staphylococci causing prosthetic joint infection. Zero of 35 isolates (0%) of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, 4/15 (27%) methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates, 3/16 (19%) methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci, and 11/42 (26%) methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci were mupirocin resistant. mupA was detected in all five high-level mupirocin-resistant staphylococci and one mupirocin-susc...

  6. Syndrome of extreme insulin resistance (Rabson-Mendenhall phenotype) with atrial septal defect: clinical presentation and treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Deep; Maisnam, Indira; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2013-01-01

    Syndrome of extreme insulin resistance (SEIR) is a rare spectrum disorder with a primary defect in insulin receptor signalling, noted primarily in children, and is often difficult to diagnose due to the clinical heterogeneity.SEIR was diagnosed in an adolescent girl with facial dysmorphism,exuberant scalp and body hair, severe acanthosis, lipoatrophy, dental abnormalities, and short stature (Rabson-Mendenhall phenotype). She had elevated fasting (422.95 pmol/L) and post-glucose insulin levels(>2083 pmol/L). Total body fat was decreased (11%; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Basal growth hormone (GH) was increased (7.9 μg/L)with normal insuline-like growth factor 1 (37.6 nmol/L) suggestive of GH resistance. She had fatty liver and polycystic ovaries. Echocardiography revealed ostium secundum type atrial septal defect (ASD). Blood glucose normalized with pioglitazone (30 mg/day). Delayed development, severe insulin resistance, mild hyperglycemia, absence of ketosis, and remarkable response of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia to pioglitazone which persisted even after 1 year of diagnosis are some of the notable features of this patient. This is perhaps the first report of occurrence of congenital heart disease (ASD) in a patient of SEIR (Rabson-Mendenhall phenotype). This report highlights the clinical features of SEIR and the role of insulin sensitizers like pioglitazone in the management of such patients.

  7. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antibiotic resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from hospital food

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    Farhad Safarpoor Dehkordi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogenic biotypes of the Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains are considered to be one of the major cause of food-borne diseases in hospitals. The present investigation was done to study the pattern of antibiotic resistance and prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes of different biotypes of the MRSA strains isolated from various types of hospital food samples. Methods Four-hundred and eighty-five raw and cooked hospital food samples were cultured and MRSA strains were identified using the oxacillin and cefoxitin disk diffusion tests and mecA-based PCR amplification. Isolated strains were subjected to biotyping and their antibiotic resistance patterns were analyzed using the disk diffusion and PCR methods. Results Prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA were 9.69 and 7.62%, respectively. Meat and chicken barbecues had the highest prevalence of MRSA. Prevalence of bovine, ovine, poultry and human-based biotypes in the MRSA strains were 8.10, 8.10, 32.43 and 48.64%, respectively. All of the MRSA strains recovered from soup, salad and rice samples were related to human-based biotypes. MRSA strains harbored the highest prevalence of resistance against penicillin (100%, ceftaroline (100%, tetracycline (100%, erythromycin (89.18% and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (83.78%. TetK (72.97%, ermA (72.97%, msrA (64.86% and aacA-D (62.16% were the most commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes. Conclusions Pattern of antibiotic resistance and also distribution of antibiotic resistance genes were related to the biotype of MRSA strains. Presence of multi-drug resistance and also simultaneous presence of several antibiotic resistance genes in some MRSA isolates showed an important public health issue Further researches are required to found additional epidemiological aspects of the MRSA strains in hospital food samples.

  8. Presence of the resistance genes vanC1 and pbp5 in phenotypically vancomycin and ampicillin susceptible Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Karin; Bauer, Johann; Hörmansdorfer, Stefan; Mölle, Gabriele; Preikschat, Petra; Kämpf, Peter; Bauer-Unkauf, Ilse; Bischoff, Meike; Hölzel, Christina

    2012-08-01

    Ampicillin and vancomycin are important antibiotics for the therapy of Enterococcus faecalis infections. The ampicillin resistance gene pbp5 is intrinsic in Enterococcus faecium. The vanC1 gene confers resistance to vancomycin and serves as a species marker for Enterococcus gallinarum. Both genes are chromosomally located. Resistance to ampicillin and vancomycin was determined in 484 E. faecalis of human and porcine origin by microdilution. Since E. faecalis are highly skilled to acquire resistance genes, all strains were investigated for the presence of pbp5 (and, in positive strains, for the penicillin-binding protein synthesis repressor gene psr) and vanC1 (and, in positive strains, for vanXYc and vanT) by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One porcine and one human isolate were phenotypically resistant to ampicillin; no strain was vancomycin resistant. Four E. faecalis (3/1 of porcine/human origin) carried pbp5 (MIC=1 mg/L), and four porcine strains were vanC1 positive (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]=1 mg/L). Real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR revealed that the genes were not expressed. The psr gene was absent in the four pbp5-positive strains; the vanXYc gene was absent in the four vanC1-positive strains. However, vanT of the vanC gene cluster was detected in two vanC1-positive strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of pbp5, identical with the "E. faecium pbp5 gene," and of vanC1/vanT in E. faecalis. Even if resistance is not expressed in these strains, this study shows that E. faecalis have a strong ability to acquire resistance genes-and potentially to spread them to other bacteria. Therefore, close monitoring of this species should be continued.

  9. Exploring a natural MDR reversal agent: potential of medicinal food supplement Nerium oleander leaf distillate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kars, Meltem Demirel; Gündüz, Ufuk; Üney, Kamil; Baş, Ahmet Levent

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular effects of Nerium oleander leaf distillate on paclitaxel and vincristine resistant (MCF-7/Pac and MCF-7/Vinc) cells and sensitive (MCF-7/S) cell lines. Methods Nerium oleander (N. oleander) leaf extract was obtained by hydrodistillation method. The toxicological effects of N. oleander distillate, previously suggested as medicinal food supplement, on drug resistant cells were evaluated by XTT tests. MDR modulation potential of the plant material was evaluated by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Paclitaxel and vincristine were applied to the sublines in combination with N. oleander distillate. Results Fractional inhibitory indices show that N. oleander distillate did not increase the antiproliferative effects of anticancer drugs. N. oleander treatment in to MCF-7/Pac and MCF-7/Vinc did not inhibit P-gp activity and MDR1 gene expression level. Conclusions As a result it may be suggested that although N. oleander distillate has some medicinal effects as food supplement it may not be suitable as an MDR modulator for drug resistant breast cancer cells. PMID:23905023

  10. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of antibiotic resistance of commensal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy pigs

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    Mazurek Justyna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the characteristics of the resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from healthy pigs from three farms in Western Poland. The sensitivity to 13 antimicrobial agents was tested by a disk diffusion method, and the presence of 13 resistance genes was determined by PCR. The majority of the isolates were multi-resistant. The most common multi-resistance patterns were streptomycin, trimethoprim, sulfisoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline. Although some resistance genes, such as strA/strB, blaTEM, sul1, sul2, and tetA, were equally represented in isolates from each farm, differences in the distribution of tetB and tetC, hfrV, dhfrXII, and sul1 resistance genes were observed among the isolates from different farms. Approximately one-third (35.9% of the isolates possessed a class 1 integron. The four major different variable regions of the class 1 integron contained streptomycin (aadA1, aadA2, and aadA5 and/or trimethoprim (dhfrI, dhfrV and dhfrXVII, and/or sulphonamides (sul1 resistance genes. The results of this study emphasise that uncontrolled use of antibiotics causes the development of resistance and provides the evidence of frequent occurrence of more than one gene encoding the resistance to the same antimicrobial agent in the multi-resistant strains.

  11. Persistence of Escherichia coli clones and phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance in recurrent urinary tract infections in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kõljalg, Siiri; Truusalu, Kai; Vainumäe, Inga

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the clonality of consecutive Escherichia coli isolates during the course of recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) in childhood in order to compare clonality with phenotypic antibiotic resistance patterns, the presence of integrons, and the presence of the sul1, sul2, and sul3 genes....... Altogether, 78 urinary E. coli isolates from 27 children, who experienced recurrences during a 1-year follow-up after the first attack of acute pyelonephritis, were investigated. The MICs of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and gentamicin...

  12. Oral Fosfomycin for the Treatment of Acute and Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli

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    George G. Zhanel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis in outpatients is commonly treated with oral fluoroquinolones; however, the worldwide dissemination of multidrug-resistant (MDR Escherichia coli has resulted in therapeutic failures with fluoroquinolones. We reviewed the literature regarding the use of oral fosfomycin in the treatment of acute and chronic prostatitis caused by MDR E. coli. All English-language references on PubMed from 1986 to June 2017, inclusive, were reviewed from the search “fosfomycin prostatitis.” Fosfomycin demonstrates potent in vitro activity against a variety of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli genotypes/phenotypes including ciprofloxacin-resistant, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant, extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL- producing, and MDR isolates. Fosfomycin attains therapeutic concentrations (≥4 μg/g in uninflamed prostatic tissue and maintains a high prostate/plasma ratio up to 17 hours after oral administration. Oral fosfomycin’s clinical cure rates in the treatment of bacterial prostatitis caused by antimicrobial-resistant E. coli ranged from 50 to 77% with microbiological eradication rates of >50%. An oral regimen of fosfomycin tromethamine of 3 g·q 24 h for one week followed by 3 g·q 48 h for a total treatment duration of 6–12 weeks appeared to be effective. Oral fosfomycin may represent an efficacious and safe treatment for acute and chronic prostatitis caused by MDR E. coli.

  13. Risk factors for poor treatment outcomes in patients with MDR-TB and XDR-TB in China: retrospective multi-center investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shenjie; Tan, Shouyong; Yao, Lan; Li, Fujian; Li, Li; Guo, Xinzhi; Liu, Yidian; Hao, Xiaohui; Li, Yanqiong; Ding, Xiuxiu; Zhang, Zhanjun; Tong, Li; Huang, Jianan

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of patients with MDR- and XDR-TB is usually more complex, toxic and costly and less effective than treatment of other forms of TB. However, there is little information available on risk factors for poor outcomes in patients with MDR- and XDR-TB in China. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records of HIV-negative TB Patients with culture-proven MDR- or XDR-TB who were registered from July 2006 to June 2011 at five large-scale Tuberculosis Specialized Hospitals in China. Among 1662 HIV-seronegative TB cases which were culture-positive for M. tuberculosis complex and had positive sputum-smear microscopy results, 965 cases (58.1%) were DR-TB, and 586 cases (35.3%) were classified as having MDR-TB, accounting for 60.7% of DR-TB. 169 cases (10.2%) were XDR-TB, accounting for 17.5% of DR-TB, 28.8% of MDR-TB. The MDR-TB patients were divided into XDR-TB group (n=169) and other MDR-TB group (non-XDR MDR-TB) (n=417). In total, 240 patients (40.95%) had treatment success, and 346 (59.05%) had poor treatment outcomes. The treatment success rate in other MDR-TB group was 52.2%, significantly higher than that in the XDR-TB group (13%, PChina.The presence of extensive drug resistance, low BMI, hypoalbuminemia, comorbidity, cavitary disease and previous anti-TB treatment are independent prognostic factors for poor outcome in patients with MDR-TB.

  14. Phenotypical and Genotypical Antimicrobial Resistance of Coagulase-negative staphylococci Isolated from Cow Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimiene, I; Virgailis, M; Pavilonis, A; Siugzdiniene, R; Mockeliunas, R; Ruzauskas, M

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from dairy cows with subclinical mastitis. Antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci were evaluated by breakpoint values specific to the species (EU-CAST). The presence of resistance-encoding genes was detected by multiplex PCR. A total of 191 CNS isolates were obtained. The CNS isolates were typically resistant to penicillin (67.4%), tetracyc-line (18.9%), and erythromycin (13.7%). CNS isolates (78.0%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial compound, and 22.0% were multiresistant. The multiresistant isolates were predominantly Staphylococcus chromogenes (28.6%), Staphylococcus warneri (19%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (14.3%). According to MIC pattern data, multiresistant isolates showed the highest resistance (pchromogenes (9.5%), S. haemolyticus (4.8%), and S. capitis ss capitis (2.4%) strains were resistant to methicillin; their resistance to oxacillin and penicillin was more than 8 mg/l. A high rate of resistance to penicillin was linked to a blaZ gene found in 66.6% of the isolated multiresistant CNS strains. Resistance to tetracycline via the tetK (38.1%) gene and penicillin via the mecA (23.8%) gene were detected less frequently. Gene msrAB was responsible for macrolides and lincosamides resistance and detected in 28.6% of the CNS isolates. Antimicrobial resistance genes were identified more frequently in S. epidermidis, S. chromogenes, and S. warneri.

  15. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones with high-level mupirocin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, María; Seral, Cristina; Potel, Carmen; Sáenz, Yolanda; Álvarez, Maximiliano; Torres, Carmen; Castillo, Francisco Javier

    2016-06-01

    A high proportion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered in one year period showed high-level mupirocin-resistance (HLMUPR-MRSA) in our environment (27.2%). HLMUPR-MRSA isolates were mainly collected from skin and soft tissue samples, and diabetes was the main related comorbidity condition. These isolates were more frequently found in vascular surgery. HLMUPR-MRSA was more resistant to aminoglycosides than mupirocin-susceptible MRSA, linked to the presence of bifunctional and/or nucleotidyltransferase enzymes with/without macrolide resistance associated with the msr(A) gene. Most of HLMUPR-MRSA isolates belonged to ST125/t067. Nine IS257-ileS2 amplification patterns (p3 was the most frequent) were observed in HLMUPR-MRSA isolates, suggesting the presence of several mupirocin-resistance-carrying plasmids in our environment and promoting the emergence of mupirocin resistance. The presence of the same IS257-ileS2 amplification pattern p3 in 65% of HLMUPR-MRSA, all of them ST125/t067, suggests a clonal spread in our hospital and community environment which could explain the high prevalence of HLMUPR-MRSA during the study period. An outbreak situation or an increase in mupirocin consumption was not observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DETERMINATION OF THE SPECTRUM OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE GENES HAVE PHENOTYPIC RESISTANT STRAINS OF PARIETAL INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA IN RATS BY RT-PCR

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    Bukina Y.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The problem of formation of bacterial resistance to glycopeptides and beta-lactam antibiotics (cephalosporins and carbapenems are used worldwide for the treatment of severe community acquired and nosocomial infections, especially caused by polymicrobial flora has become global and is a major factor limiting the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. In this regard, the study of genetic microbial resistance determinants allows not only to carry out an effective antibiotic therapy, but also to identify two main processes leading to the development of epidemiologically significant events: the introduction of the agent in the risk population from the outside and in situ pathogen (spontaneous genetic drift targeted restructuring of the population. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the resistance genes to carbapenems, cephalosporins, glycopeptides have clinically important phenotype of resistant strains of microorganisms families Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Enterococcaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae. Materials and methods. As a material for PCR studies 712 phenotypically resistant strains of microorganisms isolated from 80 rats "Wistar" line in microbiological study microflora of the wall were used. During the investigation 474 isolates of bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 39 - Pseudomonadaceae, 71 - Bacteroidaceae, 96 - Enterococcaceae, 32 - Peptostreptococcaceae were studied. Isolation of DNA from bacteria in the study was performed using reagents "DNA-Express" ("Litekh", Russia. For the detection of resistance genes by PCR in real time (RT-PCR reagent kits "FLUOROPOL-RV" ("Litekh", Russia were used. During the experiment, the VIM genes, OXA-48, NDM, KPC, responsible for the resistance of microorganisms to carbapenems, CTX-M - resistance to cephalosporins, as well as genes Van A and van B, the development of resistance to glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin were determined. Analysis

  17. Similar changes in muscle fiber phenotype with differentiated consequences for rate of force development: endurance versus resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farup, Jean; Sørensen, Henrik; Kjølhede, Tue

    2014-04-01

    Resistance training has been shown to positively affect the rate of force development (RFD) whereas there is currently no data on the effect of endurance training on RFD. Subjects completed ten weeks of either resistance training (RT, n=7) or endurance cycling (END, n=7). Pre and post measurements included biopsies obtained from m. vastus lateralis to quantify fiber phenotype and fiber area and isokinetic dynamometer tests to quantify maximal torque (Nm) and RFD (Nm/s) at 0-30, 0-50, 0-100 and 0-200ms during maximal isometric contraction for both knee extensors and flexors. Both groups increased the area percentage of type IIa fibers (presistance training may be very important for maintaining RFD, whereas endurance training may negatively impact RFD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Glucocorticoids promote a glioma stem cell-like phenotype and resistance to chemotherapy in human glioblastoma primary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostopoulou, Ourania N; Mohammad, Abdul-Aleem; Bartek, Jiri

    2018-01-01

    -driven changes in cell morphology, proliferation, migration, gene expression, secretory activity and growth as neurospheres. Dexamethasone treatment of GBM cells appeared to promote the development of a GSC-like phenotype and conferred resistance to physiological stress and chemotherapy. We also analyzed......Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are glioblastoma (GBM) cells that are resistant to therapy and can give rise to recurrent tumors. The identification of patient-related factors that support GSCs is thus necessary to design effective therapies for GBM patients. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used to treat GBM......-associated edema. However, glucocorticoids participate in the physiological response to psychosocial stress, which has been linked to poor cancer prognosis. This raises concern that glucocorticoids affect the tumor and GSCs. Here, we treated primary human GBM cells with dexamethasone and evaluated GC...

  19. Assessment of the In Vitro Activity of Ceftazidime-Avibactam against Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella spp. Collected in the INFORM Global Surveillance Study, 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Meredith; Kazmierczak, Krystyna M; Hoban, Daryl J; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Bouchillon, Samuel K; de Jonge, Boudewijn L M; Stone, Gregory G

    2016-08-01

    Increasing resistance in Gram-negative bacilli, including Klebsiella spp., has reduced the utility of broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Avibactam, a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor, protects β-lactams from hydrolysis by Gram-negative bacteria that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and serine carbapenemases, including Ambler class A and/or class C and some class D enzymes. In this analysis, we report the in vitro activity of ceftazidime-avibactam and comparators against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella spp. from the 2012-2014 INFORM surveillance study. Isolates collected from 176 sites were sent to a central laboratory for confirmatory identification and tested for susceptibility to ceftazidime-avibactam and comparator agents, including ceftazidime alone. A total of 2,821 of 10,998 (25.7%) Klebsiella species isolates were classified as MDR, based on resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobials. Among the MDR isolates, 99.4% had an ESBL screen-positive phenotype, and 27.4% were not susceptible to meropenem as an example of a carbapenem. Ceftazidime-avibactam was highly active against MDR isolates, including ESBL-positive and serine carbapenemase-producing isolates, with MIC50/90 values of 0.5/2 μg/ml and 96.6% of all MDR isolates and ESBL-positive MDR isolates inhibited at the FDA breakpoint (MIC value of ≤8 μg/ml). Ceftazidime-avibactam did not inhibit isolates producing class B enzymes (metallo-β-lactamases) either alone or in combination with other enzymes. These in vitro results support the continued investigation of ceftazidime-avibactam for the treatment of MDR Klebsiella species infections. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Sestamibi is a substrate for MDR1 and MDR2 P-glycoprotein genes

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    Joseph, Brigid; Malhi, Harmeet; Gupta, Sanjeev [Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Ullmann 625, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, NY 10461, Bronx (United States); Bhargava, Kuldeep K.; Palestro, Christopher J. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New York (United States); Schilsky, Michael L. [Division of Liver Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York (United States); Jain, Diwakar [Division of Nuclear Cardiology, MCP-Hahnemann University School of Medicine, Philadephia (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Technetium-99m sestamibi has attracted interest for assessment of the function of P-glycoproteins, which are well expressed in the liver and have roles in biliary transport and the removal of chemotherapeutic drugs. To further examine the cross-reactivity of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi for P-glycoprotein family members, we conducted studies in animals. Hepatobiliary secretion of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi was determined in normal FVB/N mice, mutant mice with specific P-glycoprotein deficiencies in the FVB/N background, normal Long-Evans Agouti (LEA) rats, and Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats with abnormal copper transport and liver disease but intact P-glycoprotein expression. After intrasplenic injection, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi was rapidly incorporated in the mouse and rat liver, with maximal accumulation after 102{+-}31 and 109{+-}16 s, respectively (P=NS). In normal mice and rats, 55%{+-}11% and 55%{+-}6%, respectively, of the maximal sestamibi activity was retained in the liver after 1 h (P=NS). In double knockout mice lacking both mdr1a and mdr1b homologs of the human MDR1 (ABCB1) gene, 88%{+-}11% of maximal sestamibi activity was retained in the liver after 1 h (P<0.001). In knockout mice deficient in either mdr1a gene or mdr2 (ABCB4) gene, biliary sestamibi excretion was also impaired, although this impairment was relatively less pronounced in ABCB4-deficient mice than in double knockout mice lacking both ABCB1 gene homologs (P<0.03). Hepatobiliary sestamibi excretion in LEC rats was not different from that in control normal rats, despite the presence of significant liver disease in the former. Hepatobiliary sestamibi excretion requires P-glycoproteins and is unperturbed in chronic liver disease. Sestamibi appears to be a substrate for both ABCB1 and ABCB4 genes, although the former utilizes it far more efficiently. Assessment of P-glycoprotein activity with sestamibi should consider how regulation of ABCB1 and related family members might modulate sestamibi incorporation

  1. Characterization of variant Salmonella genomic island 1 multidrug resistance regions from serovars Typhimurium DT104 and Agona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, David; Cloeckaert, Axel; Chaslus-Dancla, Elisabeth; Mulvey, Michael R

    2002-06-01

    Strains of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (DT104) and S. enterica serovar Agona (Agona) have been found to harbor Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1), a 43-kb genomic region that contains many of the drug resistance genes. Such strains are resistant to ampicillin (pse-1), chloramphenicol/florfenicol (floR), streptomycin/spectinomycin (aadA2), sulfonamides (sul1), and tetracycline [tet(G)] (commonly called the ACSSuT phenotype). All five resistance genes are found in a 13-kb multidrug resistance (MDR) region consisting of an unusual class I integron structure related to In4. We examined DT104 and Agona strains that exhibited other resistance phenotypes to determine if the resistance genes were associated with variant SGI1 MDR regions. All strains were found to harbor variant SGI1-like elements by using a combination of Southern hybridization, PCR mapping, and sequencing. Variant SGI1-like elements were found with MDR regions consisting of (i) an integron consisting of the SGI1 MDR region with the addition of a region containing a putative transposase gene (orf513) and dfrA10 located between duplicated qacEDelta1/sulI genes (SGI1-A; ACSSuTTm); (ii) an integron with either an aadA2 (SSu) or a pse-1 (ASu) cassette (SGI1-C and SGI1-B, respectively); (iii) an integron consisting of the SGI1-C MDR region plus an orf513/dfrA10 region as in SGI1-A (SGI1-D; ASSuTm; ampicillin resistance due to a TEM beta-lactamase); and (iv) an integron related to that in SGI1 but which contains a 10-kb inversion between two copies of IS6100, one which is inserted in floR (SGI1-E; ASSuT). We hypothesize that the MDR of SGI1 is subject to recombinational events that lead to the various resistance phenotypes in the Salmonella strains in which it is found.

  2. Epithelial Plasticity in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Biology of the Lethal Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Translational Medicine, 2012, 4(126). 4. Kirschmann, D.A., et al. Molecular Pathways: Vasculogenic Mimicry in Tumor Cells: Diagnostic and Therapeutic...cells with features of vasculogenic mimicry .4 • Fluorescence in situ hybridization for cell ploidy, TMPRSS2-ERG status, PTEN loss, and AR...molecular signatures. In adult animals , epithelial and mesenchymal cells usually remain in one phenotypic state; that is, epithelial cells do not change

  3. Extending Injury- and Disease-Resistant CNS Phenotypes by Repetitive Epigenetic Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Gidday

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant reductions in the extent of acute injury in the CNS can be achieved by exposure to different preconditioning stimuli, but the duration of the induced protective phenotype is typically short-lasting, and thus is deemed as limiting its clinical applicability. Extending the period over which such adaptive epigenetic changes persist – in effect, expanding conditioning’s therapeutic window – would significantly broaden the potential applications of such a treatment approach in patients. The frequency of the conditioning stimulus may hold the key. While transient (1-3 days protection against CNS ischemic injury is well established preclinically following a single preconditioning stimulus, repetitively presenting preconditioning stimuli extends the duration of ischemic tolerance by many weeks. Moreover, repetitive intermittent postconditioning enhances postischemic recovery metrics and improves long-term survival. Intermittent conditioning is also efficacious for preventing or delaying injury in preclinical models of chronic neurodegenerative disease, and for promoting long-lasting functional improvements in a number of other pathologies as well. Although the detailed mechanisms underlying these protracted kinds of neuroplasticity remain largely unstudied, accumulating empirical evidence supports the contention that all of these adaptive phenotypes are epigenetically mediated. Going forward, additional preclinical demonstrations of the ability to induce sustained beneficial phenotypes that reduce the burden of acute and chronic neurodegeneration, and experimental interrogations of the regulatory constructs responsible for these epigenetic responses, will accelerate the identification of not only efficacious, but practical, adaptive epigenetics-based treatments for individuals with neurological disease.

  4. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from veterinary hospitals in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Bo Youn; Youn, Jung-Ho; Shin, Sook; Hwang, Sun Young; Park, Yong Ho

    2012-05-01

    Staphylococci were isolated from veterinary staff, hospitalized animals, and medical equipment from 2 major tertiary veterinary hospitals in South Korea to investigate antimicrobial resistance and genetic relatedness. The detection rate for staphylococci was 55.2% (111/201 samples), and 11 species were identified among the collected staphylococcal strains. The most prevalent species were Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (52/111, 46.8%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (21/111, 18.9%), and Staphylococcus aureus (19/111, 17.1%). The methicillin-resistance rates of staphylococci isolated from veterinary staff and medical equipment were higher than those from hospitalized animals. The genotype of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains in the current study was sequence type (ST)72-SCCmec IVc-t324, which is similar to the genotype of prevalent MRSA strains in human beings and food animals in South Korea. Among the mecA-positive S. pseudintermedius isolates, SCCmec V was most prevalent in strains originating from both veterinary staff and hospitalized animals. SCCmec IVa was detected in methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis, whereas SCCmec IVc was found in other methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci. The SCCmec typing, antimicrobial susceptibility tests, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis results showed that methicillin-resistant staphylococci dissemination between hospitalized animals and veterinary staff is possible in South Korean veterinary hospitals.

  5. Structure-function aspects of PstS in multi-drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zaborina

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa among critically ill humans is of significant concern. In the current study, we show that MDR clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa representing three distinct genotypes that display high virulence against intestinal epithelial cells, form novel appendage-like structures on their cell surfaces. These appendages contain PstS, an extracellular phosphate binding protein. Using anti-PstS antibodies, we determined that the PstS-rich appendages in MDR strains are involved in adherence to and disruption of the integrity of cultured intestinal epithelial cell monolayers. The outer surface-expressed PstS protein was also identified to be present in P. aeruginosa MPAO1, although to a lesser degree, and its role in conferring an adhesive and barrier disruptive phenotype against intestinal epithelial cells was confirmed using an isogenic DeltaPstS mutant. Formation of the PstS rich appendages was induced during phosphate limitation and completely suppressed in phosphate-rich media. Injection of MDR strains directly into the intestinal tract of surgically injured mice, a known model of phosphate limitation, caused high mortality rates (60%-100%. Repletion of intestinal phosphate in this model completely prevented mortality. Finally, significantly less outer surface PstS was observed in the MPAO1 mutant DeltaHxcR thus establishing a role for the alternative type II secretion system Hxc in outer surface PstS expression. Gene expression analysis performed by RT-PCR confirmed this finding and further demonstrated abundant expression of pstS analogous to pa5369, pstS analogous to pa0688/pa14-55410, and hxcX in MDR strains. Taken together, these studies provide evidence that outer surface PstS expression confers a highly virulent phenotype of MDR isolates against the intestinal epithelium that alters their adhesive and barrier disrupting properties against the intestinal

  6. Staphylococcal phenotypes induced by naturally occurring and synthetic membrane-interactive polyphenolic β-lactam resistance modifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Palacios

    Full Text Available Galloyl catechins, in particular (--epicatechin gallate (ECg, have the capacity to abrogate β-lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; they also prevent biofilm formation, reduce the secretion of a large proportion of the exoproteome and induce profound changes to cell morphology. Current evidence suggests that these reversible phenotypic traits result from their intercalation into the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. We have endeavoured to potentiate the capacity of ECg to modify the MRSA phenotype by stepwise removal of hydroxyl groups from the B-ring pharmacophore and the A:C fused ring system of the naturally occurring molecule. ECg binds rapidly to the membrane, inducing up-regulation of genes responsible for protection against cell wall stress and maintenance of membrane integrity and function. Studies with artificial membranes modelled on the lipid composition of the staphylococcal bilayer indicated that ECg adopts a position deep within the lipid palisade, eliciting major alterations in the thermotropic behaviour of the bilayer. The non-galloylated homolog (--epicatechin enhanced ECg-mediated effects by facilitating entry of ECg molecules into the membrane. ECg analogs with unnatural B-ring hydroxylation patterns induced higher levels of gene expression and more profound changes to MRSA membrane fluidity than ECg but adopted a more superficial location within the bilayer. ECg possessed a high affinity for the positively charged staphylococcal membrane and induced changes to the biophysical properties of the bilayer that are likely to account for its capacity to disperse the cell wall biosynthetic machinery responsible for β-lactam resistance. The ability to enhance these properties by chemical modification of ECg raises the possibility that more potent analogs could be developed for clinical evaluation.

  7. Staphylococcal Phenotypes Induced by Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Membrane-Interactive Polyphenolic β-Lactam Resistance Modifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Lucia; Rosado, Helena; Micol, Vicente; Rosato, Adriana E.; Bernal, Patricia; Arroyo, Raquel; Grounds, Helen; Anderson, James C.; Stabler, Richard A.; Taylor, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Galloyl catechins, in particular (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECg), have the capacity to abrogate β-lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); they also prevent biofilm formation, reduce the secretion of a large proportion of the exoproteome and induce profound changes to cell morphology. Current evidence suggests that these reversible phenotypic traits result from their intercalation into the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. We have endeavoured to potentiate the capacity of ECg to modify the MRSA phenotype by stepwise removal of hydroxyl groups from the B-ring pharmacophore and the A:C fused ring system of the naturally occurring molecule. ECg binds rapidly to the membrane, inducing up-regulation of genes responsible for protection against cell wall stress and maintenance of membrane integrity and function. Studies with artificial membranes modelled on the lipid composition of the staphylococcal bilayer indicated that ECg adopts a position deep within the lipid palisade, eliciting major alterations in the thermotropic behaviour of the bilayer. The non-galloylated homolog (-)-epicatechin enhanced ECg-mediated effects by facilitating entry of ECg molecules into the membrane. ECg analogs with unnatural B-ring hydroxylation patterns induced higher levels of gene expression and more profound changes to MRSA membrane fluidity than ECg but adopted a more superficial location within the bilayer. ECg possessed a high affinity for the positively charged staphylococcal membrane and induced changes to the biophysical properties of the bilayer that are likely to account for its capacity to disperse the cell wall biosynthetic machinery responsible for β-lactam resistance. The ability to enhance these properties by chemical modification of ECg raises the possibility that more potent analogs could be developed for clinical evaluation. PMID:24699700

  8. Multidrug resistance in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Hendrik

    1996-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) was initially recongnized as the major cause of the failure of the drug-based treatment of human cancers. It has become increasingly clear that MDR occurs in mammalian cells but also in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. The appearance of multiple antibiotic resistant

  9. Anti-tumor compound RY10-4 suppresses multidrug resistance in MCF-7/ADR cells by inhibiting PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofan; Ding, Yufeng; Xiao, Miao; Liu, Xin; Ruan, Jinlan; Xue, Pingping

    2017-12-25

    RY10-4, an anti-tumor agent, exerts cytotoxicity to various human cancer cell lines. However, few studies reported the effect of combined application of RY10-4 and chemotherapeutic drugs against cancer cells with multidrug resistance (MDR). In this study, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which is reported to mediate MDR to anti-cancer drugs, was proved to be overexpressed in the adriamycin (ADR)-resistant human breast cancer cells, namely MCF-7/ADR cells. Furthermore, RY10-4 application resulted in a downregulation of P-gp in MCF-7/ADR cells, thus leading to higher chemosensitivity to ADR. Our study further demonstrated that the MDR phenomenon was under the control of the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway, which was suppressed by RY10-4, leading to MDR reversal effects in MCF-7/ADR cells. In vivo, MCF-7/ADR cells were effectively suppressed by the combined ADR/RY10-4 treatment compared with the ADR-alone treatment. Taken together, these results demonstrated that RY10-4 reverses the MDR phenotype in MCF-7/ADR cells by suppressing the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Slow Cycling Phenotype: A Growing Problem for Treatment Resistance in Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Antonio; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Eccles, Michael R

    2017-06-01

    Treatment resistance in metastatic melanoma is a longstanding issue. Current targeted therapy regimes in melanoma largely target the proliferating cancer population, leaving slow-cycling cancer cells undamaged. Consequently, slow-cycling cells are enriched upon drug therapy and can remain in the body for years until acquiring proliferative potential that triggers cancer relapse. Here we overview the molecular mechanisms of slow-cycling cells that underlie treatment resistance in melanoma. Three main areas of molecular reprogramming are discussed that mediate slow cycling and treatment resistance. First, a low microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) dedifferentiated state activates various signaling pathways. This includes WNT5A, EGFR, as well as other signaling activators, such as AXL and NF-κB. Second, the chromatin-remodeling factor Jumonji/ARID domain-containing protein 1B (JARID1B, KDM5B ) orchestrates and maintains slow cycling and treatment resistance in a small subpopulation of melanoma cells. Finally, a shift in metabolic state toward oxidative phosphorylation has been demonstrated to regulate treatment resistance in slow-cycling cells. Elucidation of the underlying processes of slow cycling and its utilization by melanoma cells may reveal new vulnerable characteristics as therapeutic targets. Moreover, combining current therapies with targeting slow-cycling subpopulations of melanoma cells may allow for more durable and greater treatment responses. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(6); 1002-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Genotype to phenotype, the molecular and physiological dimensions of resistance in arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyereisen, René; Dermauw, Wannes; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    The recent accumulation of molecular studies on mutations in insects, ticks and mites conferring resistance to insecticides, acaricides and biopesticides is reviewed. Resistance is traditionally classified by physiological and biochemical criteria, such as target-site insensitivity and metabolic resistance. However, mutations are discrete molecular changes that differ in their intrinsic frequency, effects on gene dosage and fitness consequences. These attributes in turn impact the population genetics of resistance and resistance management strategies, thus calling for a molecular genetic classification. Mutations in structural genes remain the most abundantly described, mostly in genes coding for target proteins. These provide the most compelling examples of parallel mutations in response to selection. Mutations causing upregulation and downregulation of genes, both in cis (in the gene itself) and in trans (in regulatory processes) remain difficult to characterize precisely. Gene duplications and gene disruption are increasingly reported. Gene disruption appears prevalent in the case of multiple, hetero-oligomeric or redundant targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenotypic and Genotypic Antimicrobial Resistance of Lactococcus Sp. Strains Isolated from Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ture Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A current profile of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid of 29 Lactococcus garvieae and one Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss from farms throughout Turkey were investigated. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin G (90%, ampicillin (86.7%, florfenicol (83.3%, amoxicillin (80.1%, and tetracycline (73.4%, and resistant to trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole (86.6% and gentamycin (46.6% by disc diffusion method. Twenty-eight (93% isolates had two to seven antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs determined by PCR. The most prevalent ARGs were tetracycline (tetB, erythromycin (ereB, and β-lactam (blaTEM. Bacterial strains were also screened for plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis and two strains harboured plasmids, with sizes ranging from 3 to 9 kb.

  13. Several Virulence Factors of Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates From Hospitalized Patients in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmajid Ghasemian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biofilm formation plays an important role in resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates; especially multidrug-resistant isolates are a threat to healthcare settings. Objectives: The aims of this study were to detect biofilm formation and presence of several related genes among multidrug-resistant (MDR isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Patients and Methods: A total Of 209 S. aureus strains were isolated from patients and identified by conventional diagnostic tests. The multidrug-resistant MRSA isolates were detected by antibiotic susceptibility test. The phenotypic biofilm formation was detected by micro-titre tissue plate assay. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed to detect the mecA, Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec types, accessory gene regulatory (agr genes, the icaADBC and several genes encoding staphylococcal surface proteins including clfAB, fnbAB, fib, eno, can, ebps and bbp genes with specific primers. Results: Sixty-four (30.6% isolates were methicillin-resistant, among which thirty-six (56.2% were MDR. These isolates were resistant to amoxicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (except to 6 isolates. All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. All the MDR-MRSA harbored SCCmec type III. All the MDR- MRSA isolates were strong biofilm producers in the phenotypic test. The majority of MDR- MRSA was belonged to agrI (67%, n = 24, followed by agr II (17%, n = 6, agrIV (11%, n = 4 and agrIII (5.5%, n = 2. The frequency of icaADBC genes were 75% (n = 27, 61% (n = 22, 72% (n = 26 and 72% (n = 26, respectively. Furthermore, the prevalence of clfA, clfB, fnbA, fnbB, fib, can, eno, ebps and bbp genes was 100%, 100%, 67%, 56%, 80%, 63%, 78%, 7% and 0%, respectively. Furthermore, approximately all the MRSA was strong biofilm producers. Conclusions: Multidrug-resistant isolates produced biofilm strongly and the majority harbored most

  14. Analysis of phenotype, genotype and serotype distribution in erythromycin-resistant group B streptococci isolated from vaginal flora in Southern Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, R A

    2010-02-01

    The screening of 2000 women of childbearing age in Cork between 2004 and 2006 produced 37 erythromycin-resistant group B streptococcus (GBS) isolates. PCR analysis was performed to determine the basis for erythromycin resistance. The ermTR gene was most frequently expressed (n = 19), followed by the ermB gene (n = 8). Four isolates harboured the mefA gene. Six isolates yielded no PCR products. Some phenotype-genotype correlation was observed. All isolates expressing the mefA gene displayed the M phenotype whilst all those expressing ermB displayed the constitutive macrolide resistance (cMLS(B)) phenotype. Of 19 isolates that expressed the ermTR gene, 16 displayed the inducible macrolide resistance (iMLS(B)) phenotype. Serotype analysis revealed that serotypes III and V predominated in these isolates. The identification of two erythromycin-resistant serotype VIII isolates among this collection represents the first reported finding of erythromycin resistance in this serotype. A single isolate was non-typable using two latex agglutination serotyping kits.

  15. Common phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance patterns found in a case study of multiresistant E. coli from cohabitant pets, humans, and household surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Liliana Raquel Leite; Pina, Susana Maria Rocha; Simões, Romeo Luís Rocha; de Matos, Augusto José Ferreira; Rodrigues, Pedro; da Costa, Paulo Martins Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this article was to characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles among E. coli strains isolated from cohabitant pets and humans, evaluating the concurrent colonization of pets, owners, and home surfaces by bacteria carrying the same antimicrobial-resistant genes. The authors also intended to assess whether household surfaces and objects could contribute to the within-household antimicrobial-resistant gene diffusion between human and animal cohabitants. A total of 124 E. coli strains were isolated displaying 24 different phenotypic patterns with a remarkable percentage of multiresistant ones. The same resistance patterns were isolated from the dog's urine, mouth, the laundry floor, the refrigerator door, and the dog's food bowl. Some other multiresistant phenotypes, as long as resistant genes, were found repeatedly in different inhabitants and surfaces of the house. Direct, close contact between all the cohabitants and the touch of contaminated household surfaces and objects could be an explanation for these observations.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in clinical Escherichia coli isolated from companion animals in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Sugiyono; Jordan, David; Mitchell, Tahlia; Wong, Hui San; Abraham, Rebecca J; Kidsley, Amanda; Turnidge, John; Trott, Darren J; Abraham, Sam

    2017-11-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli have become a major public health concern to both humans and animal health. While the frequency of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in clinical E. coli is monitored regularly in human medicine, current frequency of AMR in companion animals remains unknown in Australia. In this study we conducted antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and where possible, determined potential risk factors for MDR infection among 883 clinical Escherichia coli isolated from dogs (n=514), cats (n=341) and horses (n=28). AST was undertaken for 15 antimicrobial agents according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines and interpreted using epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs) as well as CLSI veterinary and human clinical breakpoints. The AST revealed complete absence of resistance to carbapenems while resistance to amikacin was observed at a low level in isolates from dogs (1.6%) and cats (1.5%) compared to horses (10.7%). Among dog isolates, resistance to fluoroquinolones ranged from 9.1%-9.3% whereas among cat isolates, it ranged from 3.2%-5%. Among dog isolates, the proportion showing a 3rd generation cephalosporin (3GC) non-wild type phenotype was significantly higher (Presistance was 18.1%, 11.7% and 42.9% in dog, cat and horse isolates, respectively. Risk factor analysis revealed that MDR E. coli isolated from UTI were positively associated with chronicity of infection and previous antimicrobial treatment. Dogs and cats with chronic UTI that had been previously treated with antimicrobials were eight times and six times more likely to be infected with MDR E. coli compared to dogs and cats with non-chronic UTI, and no history of antimicrobial treatment, respectively. This study revealed that pre-existing disease condition and prior antimicrobial use were the major risks associated with UTI with MDR E. coli in companion animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profile of isolates causing clinical mastitis in dairy animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Ceniti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is the most frequent and costly disease of lactating animals and is associated with a significant reduction in milk yield, increased cost and culling. Early and specific antibiotic based treatment reduces the severity of the disease. Over the years the extensive use of antimicrobials has led to increase antimicrobial resistance. The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence of microorganisms responsible for mastitis and their antimicrobial resistance pattern. A total of 282 milk samples were collected from different animal species (sheep, cows and goats with clinical mastitis. Antimicrobial resistance was evaluated for Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. In cow samples Streptococcus spp. represented the most frequently isolated genus (33.84%, while Staphylococcus spp. was the most prevalent genus in sheep and goat samples (44.4 and 73.86%, respectively. Gentamicin and chloramphenicol were found to be the most effective drugs against the tested isolates, while the highest resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

  18. Genetic and phenotypic resistance in lodgepole pine to attack by mountain pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin Yanchuk; Kimberly Wallin

    2007-01-01

    The recent outbreak of mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in British Columbia provided an opportunity to examine genetic variation of differential attack and resistance in a 20-year old lodgepole pine open-pollinated (OP) family trial. Approximately 2,500 individuals from 180 OP parent-tree collections (~14 trees per parent), from...

  19. Alterations in Outer Membrane Permeability Favor Drug-Resistant Phenotype of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pulzová, L.; Navrátilová, Lucie; Comor, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2017), s. 413-420 ISSN 1076-6294 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : drug resistance * efflux pumps * influx * Klebsiella * porin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.306, year: 2016

  20. Phenotypic evaluation of biofilm producing ability in Methicillin resistant Staphylococ¬cus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Moori-Bakhtiari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Like genomic changes, the ability for biofilm production is considered as one of the antibiotic resistant factors in bacteria which can cause recurrent infections. The infection resulted from Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus is the most common form of such complications manifested as recurrent infections. The aim of this study was to investigate biofilm production ability among isolated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in patients with different types of clinical infection. Material and Methods: Fifty Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from different specimens and identified by biochemical and species-specific PCR tests. Methicillin- resistance specificity of isolates was confirmed by disk diffusion method and mecA gene presence; the biofilm- forming ability was evaluated by crystal violet microtiter plate assay and Congo red agar (CRA. Results: Using turbidimetry with no acetic acid, the ability for biofim production was seen at 550 and 492 nm in 34 (68% and 28 isolates (56%, respectively. In both methods, the most of isolates were weak biofilm producers. In CRA, 94% of isolates were biofilm producers which most (72.3% of them were moderate producers. Conclusions: While with the consideration of three studied methods high percentages of isolates were biofilm producers and despite the significant correlation seen between their results, there was a higher correlation coefficient between the results obtained from crystalviolet-treated microtiter plates with two reading methods.

  1. (MDR) Bacterial Activity of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MDR) bacterial potential of culturable endophytes from A. corniculatum in Beibu Gulf, China. Methods: The plant parts were collected from healthy-looking A. corniculatum. The endophytes were isolated and identified by colonial morphology and ...

  2. Phenotypic, fermentation characterization, and resistance mechanism analysis of bacteriophage-resistant mutants of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus isolated from traditional Chinese dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kaibo; Fang, Wei; Zheng, Baodong; Miao, Song; Huo, Guicheng

    2018-03-01

    Bacteriophage infection is a large factor in dairy industrial production failure on the basis of pure inoculation fermentation, and developing good commercial starter cultures from wild dairy products and improving the environmental vigor of starter cultures by enhancing their phage resistance are still the most effective solutions. Here we used a spontaneous isolation method to obtain bacteriophage-resistant mutants of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains that are used in traditional Chinese fermented dairy products. We analyzed their phenotypes, fermentation characteristics, and resistance mechanisms. The results showed that bacteriophage-insensitive mutants (BIM) BIM8 and BIM12 had high bacteriophage resistance while exhibiting fermentation and coagulation attributes that were as satisfying as those of their respective parent strains KLDS1.1016 and KLDS1.1028. According to the attachment receptor detection, mutants BIM8 and BIM12 exhibited reduced absorption to bacteriophage phiLdb compared with their respective bacteriophage-sensitive parent strains because of changes to the polysaccharides or teichoic acids connected to their peptidoglycan layer. Additionally, genes, including HSDR, HSDM, and HSDS, encoding 3 subunits of a type I restriction-modification system were identified in their respective parent strains. We also discovered that HSDR and HSDM were highly conserved but that HSDS was variable because it is responsible for the DNA specificity of the complex. The late lysis that occurred only in strain KLDS1.1016 and not in strain KLDS1.1028 suggests that the former and its mutant BIM8 also may have an activatable restriction-modification mechanism. We conclude that the L. bulgaricus BIM8 and BIM12 mutants have great potential in the dairy industry as starter cultures, and their phage-resistance mechanism was effective mainly due to the adsorption interference and restriction-modification system. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science

  3. Management of MDR-TB in HIV co-infected patients in Eastern Europe: Results from the TB:HIV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efsen, A M W; Schultze, A; Miller, R F; Panteleev, A; Skrahin, A; Podlekareva, D N; Miro, J M; Girardi, E; Furrer, H; Losso, M H; Toibaro, J; Caylà, J A; Mocroft, A; Lundgren, J D; Post, F A; Kirk, O

    2018-01-01

    Mortality among HIV patients with tuberculosis (TB) remains high in Eastern Europe (EE), but details of TB and HIV management remain scarce. In this prospective study, we describe the TB treatment regimens of patients with multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). A total of 105 HIV-positive patients had MDR-TB (including 33 with extensive drug resistance) and 130 pan-susceptible TB. Adequate initial TB treatment was provided for 8% of patients with MDR-TB compared with 80% of those with pan-susceptible TB. By twelve months, an estimated 57.3% (95%CI 41.5-74.1) of MDR-TB patients had started adequate treatment. While 67% received ART, HIV-RNA suppression was demonstrated in only 23%. Our results show that internationally recommended MDR-TB treatment regimens were infrequently used and that ART use and viral suppression was well below the target of 90%, reflecting the challenging patient population and the environment in which health care is provided. Urgent improvement of management of patients with TB/HIV in EE, in particular for those with MDR-TB, is needed and includes widespread access to rapid TB diagnostics, better access to and use of second-line TB drugs, timely ART initiation with viral load monitoring, and integration of TB/HIV care. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Role of Oxidative Stress in the Longevity and Insecticide Resistance Phenotype of the Major Malaria Vectors Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shüné V Oliver

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays numerous biological roles, both functional and pathological. The role of oxidative stress in various epidemiologically relevant biological traits in Anopheles mosquitoes is not well established. In this study, the effects of oxidative stress on the longevity and insecticide resistance phenotype in the major malaria vector species An. arabiensis and An. funestus were examined. Responses to dietary copper sulphate and hydrogen peroxide were used as proxies for the oxidative stress phenotype by determining the effect of copper on longevity and hydrogen peroxide lethal dose. Glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were determined colorimetrically. Oxidative burden was quantified as protein carbonyl content. Changes in insecticide resistance phenotype were monitored by WHO bioassay. Insecticide resistant individuals showed an increased capacity for coping with oxidative stress, mediated by increased glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity. This effect was observed in both species, as well as in laboratory strains and F1 individuals derived from wild-caught An. funestus mothers. Phenotypic capacity for coping with oxidative stress was greatest in strains with elevated Cytochrome P450 activity. Synergism of oxidative stress defence enzymes by dietary supplementation with haematin, 3-Amino-1, 2, 4-triazole and Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate significantly increased pyrethroid-induced mortality in An. arabiensis and An. funestus. It is therefore concluded that defence against oxidative stress underlies the augmentation of the insecticide resistance phenotype associated with multiple blood-feeding. This is because multiple blood-feeding ultimately leads to a reduction of oxidative stress in insecticide resistant females, and also reduces the oxidative burden induced by DDT and pyrethroids, by inducing increased glutathione peroxidase activity. This study highlights the importance of oxidative stress in the longevity and

  5. Infective endocarditis due to multidrug resistant gram-negative bacilli: single centre experience over 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Andini, Roberto; Agrusta, Federica; Iossa, Domenico; Mattucci, Irene; Bernardo, Mariano; Utili, Riccardo

    2014-09-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) due to gram-negative (GN) bacilli is uncommon. Although multi- and extensively-drug resistant (MDR/XDR) GN infections are emerging, very few data are available on IE due to these microrganisms. In this study, we describe the clinical characteristics, course and outcome of five contemporary, definite, MDR/XDR GNIE cases seen at our centre. All patients had been admitted to a hospital during the 6months before IE onset, 2 were on hemodialysis and 3 on intravenous medications. Three of the 5 cases were hospital-acquired. Intracardiac prosthetic devices were present in all cases (3 central venous lines, 2 prosthetic heart valves, 2 pacemakers). Mean Charlson comorbidity index was 5.8. Causative pathogens were XDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2 cases), XDR Acinetobacter baumannii, MDR Burkolderia cepacia and MDR Escherichia coli (1 case each). Concomitant pathogens with a MDR/XDR phenotype were isolated in 4 patients. Both valves and intracardiac devices and left and right sides of the heart were involved. The rate of complications was high. Antibiotic treatment hinged on the use of colistin, a carbapenem or both. Cardiovascular surgical procedures were performed in 3 patients. Despite aggressive therapeutic regimens, outcomes were poor. Clearance of bacteremia was obtained in 3 patients, in-hospital death occurred in 3 patients, only 1 patient survived during follow up. MDR/XDR GN are emerging as a cause of IE in carriers of intracardiac prostheses with extensive healthcare contacts and multiple comorbidities. Resistant GNIE has a complicated course and shows a dismal prognosis. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of mutations conferring streptomycin resistance in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Li; Liu, Hai-Can; Sun, Qing; Xiao, Tong-Yang; Zhao, Xiu-Qin; Li, Gui-Lian; Zeng, Chun-Yan; Wan, Kang-Lin

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the spectrum and frequency of mutations in rpsL, rrs, and gidB among 140 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) clinical isolates from China. The association between mutations and different genotypes was also analyzed. Our data revealed that 65.7% of MDR-TB were resistant to streptomycin (STR), and 90.2% of STR-resistant isolates were Beijing strains. STR resistance was correlated with Beijing family (P=0.00). Compared with phenotypic data, detection of mutations for the combination of these 3 genes exhibited 94.6% sensitivity, 91.7% specificity, and 93.6% accuracy. The most common mutations in STR-resistant isolates were rpsL128, 262, and rrs514, of which rpsL128 showed association with Beijing lineage (P=0.00). A combination of these 3 mutations can serve as the reliable predictors for STR resistance, showing the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 85.9%, 97.9%, and 90.0%, respectively. Furthermore, gidBA276C, not A615G, was Beijing lineage specific. These findings are useful to develop rapid molecular diagnostic methods for STR resistance in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Phenotypic and Genome-Wide Analysis of an Antibiotic-Resistant Small Colony Variant (SCV) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qing; Tarighi, Saeed; Dötsch, Andreas; Häussler, Susanne; Müsken, Mathias; Wright, Victoria J.; Cámara, Miguel; Williams, Paul; Haenen, Steven; Boerjan, Bart; Bogaerts, Annelies; Vierstraete, Evy; Verleyen, Peter; Schoofs, Liliane; Willaert, Ronnie; De Groote, Valérie N.; Michiels, Jan; Vercammen, Ken; Crabbé, Aurélie; Cornelis, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Background Small colony variants (SCVs) are slow-growing bacteria, which often show increased resistance to antibiotics and cause latent or recurrent infections. It is therefore important to understand the mechanisms at the basis of this phenotypic switch. Methodology/Principal Findings One SCV (termed PAO-SCV) was isolated, showing high resistance to gentamicin and to the cephalosporine cefotaxime. PAO-SCV was prone to reversion as evidenced by emergence of large colonies with a frequency of 10−5 on media without antibiotics while it was stably maintained in presence of gentamicin. PAO-SCV showed a delayed growth, defective motility, and strongly reduced levels of the quorum sensing Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). Whole genome expression analysis further suggested a multi-layered antibiotic resistance mechanism, including simultaneous over-expression of two drug efflux pumps (MexAB-OprM, MexXY-OprM), the LPS modification operon arnBCADTEF, and the PhoP-PhoQ two-component system. Conversely, the genes for the synthesis of PQS were strongly down-regulated in PAO-SCV. Finally, genomic analysis revealed the presence of mutations in phoP and phoQ genes as well as in the mexZ gene encoding a repressor of the mexXY and mexAB-oprM genes. Only one mutation occurred only in REV, at nucleotide 1020 of the tufA gene, a paralog of tufB, both encoding the elongation factor Tu, causing a change of the rarely used aspartic acid codon GAU to the more common GAC, possibly causing an increase of tufA mRNA translation. High expression of phoP and phoQ was confirmed for the SCV variant while the revertant showed expression levels reduced to wild-type levels. Conclusions By combining data coming from phenotypic, gene expression and proteome analysis, we could demonstrate that resistance to aminoglycosides in one SCV mutant is multifactorial including overexpression of efflux mechanisms, LPS modification and is accompanied by a drastic down-regulation of the Pseudomonas quinolone

  8. Phenotypic and genome-wide analysis of an antibiotic-resistant small colony variant (SCV of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wei

    Full Text Available Small colony variants (SCVs are slow-growing bacteria, which often show increased resistance to antibiotics and cause latent or recurrent infections. It is therefore important to understand the mechanisms at the basis of this phenotypic switch.One SCV (termed PAO-SCV was isolated, showing high resistance to gentamicin and to the cephalosporine cefotaxime. PAO-SCV was prone to reversion as evidenced by emergence of large colonies with a frequency of 10(-5 on media without antibiotics while it was stably maintained in presence of gentamicin. PAO-SCV showed a delayed growth, defective motility, and strongly reduced levels of the quorum sensing Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS. Whole genome expression analysis further suggested a multi-layered antibiotic resistance mechanism, including simultaneous over-expression of two drug efflux pumps (MexAB-OprM, MexXY-OprM, the LPS modification operon arnBCADTEF, and the PhoP-PhoQ two-component system. Conversely, the genes for the synthesis of PQS were strongly down-regulated in PAO-SCV. Finally, genomic analysis revealed the presence of mutations in phoP and phoQ genes as well as in the mexZ gene encoding a repressor of the mexXY and mexAB-oprM genes. Only one mutation occurred only in REV, at nucleotide 1020 of the tufA gene, a paralog of tufB, both encoding the elongation factor Tu, causing a change of the rarely used aspartic acid codon GAU to the more common GAC, possibly causing an increase of tufA mRNA translation. High expression of phoP and phoQ was confirmed for the SCV variant while the revertant showed expression levels reduced to wild-type levels.By combining data coming from phenotypic, gene expression and proteome analysis, we could demonstrate that resistance to aminoglycosides in one SCV mutant is multifactorial including overexpression of efflux mechanisms, LPS modification and is accompanied by a drastic down-regulation of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal quorum sensing system.

  9. Epithelial Plasticity in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Biology of the Lethal Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    mesenchymal tran- 585 sitions. J Clin Invest 2009;119:1429–37. 3.586 Acloque H, Adams MS, Fishwick K, Bronner- Fraser M, Nieto MA. 587 Epithelial-mesenchymal...resistance and metastatic progression, hallmarks of malig- nancy .2,3 Indeed, induction of EMT in breast cancer model systems generates properties of self...expression signature [0080] AT3-T cells sometimes formed tight clusters resembling protospheres. While sphere formation is not an exclusive

  10. Correlation between Genotype and Phenotypic Categorization of Staphylococci Based on Methicillin Susceptibility and Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradelski, Elizabeth; Valera, Lourdes; Aleksunes, Lauren; Bonner, Daniel; Fung-Tomc, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Positive correlation between methicillin and oxacillin susceptibility test results and the detection of the mecA gene was observed for Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. haemolyticus as well as among mecA+ strains of other species of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). However, at least 50% of the mecA-negative strains of these other species of CNS were falsely classified as methicillin and oxacillin resistant. PMID:11474022

  11. New Roads Leading to Old Destinations: Efflux Pumps as Targets to Reverse Multidrug Resistance in Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Spengler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR has appeared in response to selective pressures resulting from the incorrect use of antibiotics and other antimicrobials. This inappropriate application and mismanagement of antibiotics have led to serious problems in the therapy of infectious diseases. Bacteria can develop resistance by various mechanisms and one of the most important factors resulting in MDR is efflux pump-mediated resistance. Because of the importance of the efflux-related multidrug resistance the development of new therapeutic approaches aiming to inhibit bacterial efflux pumps is a promising way to combat bacteria having over-expressed MDR efflux systems. The definition of an efflux pump inhibitor (EPI includes the ability to render the bacterium increasingly more sensitive to a given antibiotic or even reverse the multidrug resistant phenotype. In the recent years numerous EPIs have been developed, although so far their clinical application has not yet been achieved due to their in vivo toxicity and side effects. In this review, we aim to give a short overview of efflux mediated resistance in bacteria, EPI compounds of plant and synthetic origin, and the possible methods to investigate and screen EPI compounds in bacterial systems.

  12. Celastraceae sesquiterpenes as a new class of modulators that bind specifically to human P-glycoprotein and reverse cellular multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Martínez, Francisco; Lu, Peihua; Cortés-Selva, Fernando; Pérez-Victoria, José María; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Ravelo, Angel G; Sharom, Frances J; Gamarro, Francisco; Castanys, Santiago

    2004-10-01

    Overexpression of ABCB1 (MDR1) P-glycoprotein, a multidrug efflux pump, is one mechanism by which tumor cells may develop multidrug resistance (MDR), preventing the successful chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer. Sesquiterpenes from Celastraceae family are natural compounds shown previously to reverse MDR in several human cancer cell lines and Leishmania strains. However, their molecular mechanism of reversion has not been characterized. In the present work, we have studied the ability of 28 dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes to reverse the P-glycoprotein-dependent MDR phenotype and elucidated their molecular mechanism of action. Cytotoxicity assays using human MDR1-transfected NIH-3T3 cells allowed us to select the most potent sesquiterpenes reversing the in vitro resistance to daunomycin and vinblastine. Flow cytometry experiments showed that the above active compounds specifically inhibited drug transport activity of P-glycoprotein in a saturable, concentration-dependent manner (K(i) down to 0.24 +/- 0.01 micromol/L) but not that of ABCC1 (multidrug resistance protein 1; MRP1), ABCC2 (MRP2), and ABCG2 (breast cancer resistance protein; BCRP) transporters. Moreover, sesquiterpenes inhibited at submicromolar concentrations the P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of [(3)H]colchicine and tetramethylrosamine in plasma membrane from CH(R)B30 cells and P-glycoprotein-enriched proteoliposomes, supporting that P-glycoprotein is their molecular target. Photoaffinity labeling in plasma membrane and fluorescence spectroscopy experiments with purified protein suggested that sesquiterpenes interact with transmembrane domains of P-glycoprotein. Finally, sesquiterpenes modulated P-glycoprotein ATPase-activity in a biphasic, concentration-dependent manner: they stimulated at very low concentrations but inhibited ATPase activity as noncompetitive inhibitors at higher concentrations. Sesquiterpenes from Celastraceae are promising P-glycoprotein modulators with potential

  13. Effect of pO2 on antitumor drug cytotoxicity on MDR and non-MDR variants selected from the LoVo metastatic colon carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelong-Rebel, Isabelle; Brisson, Christine; Fabre, Michel; Bergerat, Jean-Pierre; Rebel, Gérard

    2008-01-01

    Two chemosensitive cell lines, LoVo-fusoid (LoVo-f) and LoVo-small cells (LoVo-sc) were derived from the original LoVo cell line. These two variants and the multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell line LoVo-Dox were screened for various properties. In non-permeabilized cells, only LoVo-sc showed mucin-2 staining whereas labelling was positive in all permeabilized cell lines. As shown by electron microscopy screening and by relative resistance to trypsin detachment, only LoVo-sc cells showed strong mucus secretion. All three cell lines displayed strong staining for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and lung-resistance-related protein (LRP) in different locations according to the drug resistance state. The three cell lines showed intracellular labelling of LRP and MRP. The sensitive cells showed P-gp in a large perinuclear ring and in the cytoplasm, but little (LoVo-sc cells) or no staining (LoVo-f cells) was shown at the plasma membrane level. For the Lovo-Dox cells, P-gp was located in the plasma membrane, in cellular anchorages and in the cytoplasm as well. Cell resistance against antineoplastic agents often results from mobilization of various factors, the modulation of which is linked to the culture conditions. As most of the protocols utilize cells growing in (air + 5-10% CO2) atmosphere e.g. 20% O2, balance of the respective participants in the MDR multi-modal mechanism may not be representative of the in vivo situation and may lead to erratic pharmacological response. Indeed, cells within solid tumours were exposed to low pO2, most of them being under hypoxic condition (0.1-5% O2). In the absence of anticancer drugs, all LoVo cell lines grew notably faster at 20% O2 than at 5% O2. Moreover, respective sensitivities of both non-MDR variants to doxorubicin were altered according the pO2. Whatever the pO2 was, virtually none of the antioxidants tested affected the cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin for the three cell lines. By contrast

  14. Phenotypic evaluation of the resistance in F1 carnation populations to vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi

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    Johana Carolina Soto-Sedano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important phytosanitary problems of the carnation crops in Colombia and in the entire world is vascular wilting produced by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. Currently, an effective treatment against the pathogen does not exist; the search for resistant varieties has been the most successful method for control of this disease. Breeding programs are vital to solving the problem of the carnation fusariosis. The objective of this research was the phenotypic evaluation of carnation F1 populations, products of contrasting crossing, resistant per susceptible to F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, in order to determine if the resistance is inherited in the lines. This information will contribute to the selection of material and to the successful introduction of the resistant characteristic, whose expression is commercially acceptable, to the gene pool. The methodology adopted was a phenotypic evaluation of the response to the parasite in the population (450 individuals and in the parental. This evaluation estimated the area under the curve (AU DPC, using a scale of symptoms reported for carnation vascular wilt. Three different phenotypes were established with this evaluation. The moderately susceptible one is the predominant phenotype and an analysis of phenotypic frequencies was carried out on it. The results show that the individuals of the evaluated F1 population were distributed between two extreme ranges, resistant and susceptible; this shows that there is segregation for the trait resistant to F. oxysporum f.sp dianthi. We did not observe clearly differentiated classes, i.e. with complete absence or presence of the disease, indicating a possible control of the resistance in the evaluated carnation material, governed by more than one gene and with a possible additive genetic action

  15. Risk factors associated with multidrug resistant tuberculosis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains is an important public health problem in developing world. We conducted this study to determine risk factors associated with MDR-TB and drug susceptibility pattern to second line drug among MDR TB patients in Tanzania. Methods: Unmatched case control ...

  16. Multi-Drug Resistance 1 Genetic Polymorphisms Gene Expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although anthracycline-based chemotherapy is a crucial treatment for breast cancer, its outcome is limited by the multidrug resistance MDR. Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a transmembrane active efflux transporter of various drugs and carcinogenic substrate, may result in MDR. The impact of MDR1 ...

  17. EDITORIAL Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB): Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A South African Health Systems Trust report indicated that despite a global ... less financial resources performed better. ... Healthcare providers need to be better trained at our various nursing colleges and medical schools on how to manage TB, with regular and intense follow-up in-service training sessions. In addition ...

  18. Cultivation-dependent and high-throughput sequencing approaches studying the co-occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal sewage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An-Dong; Ma, Liping; Jiang, Xiao-Tao; Zhang, Tong

    2017-11-01

    During the past years, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) leading for the spreading of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) became a global problem, especially multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are considered the prime culprit of antibiotic resistance. However, the correlation between the antibiotic-resistant phenotype and the ARG profiles remains poorly understood. In the present study, metagenomic functional screening and metagenomic analysis of coliforms were combined to explore the phenotype and genotype of the ARBs from municipal sewage. Our results showed that the ARG co-occurrence was widespread in the municipal sewage. The present study also highlighted the high abundance of ARGs from antibiotic resistance coliforms especially the MDR coliforms with ARG level of 33.8 ± 4.2 copies per cell. The ARG profiles and the antibiotic resistance phenotypes of the isolated antibiotic resistant coliforms were also correlated and indicated that the resistance to the related antibiotic (ampicillin, kanamycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline) was mostly contributed by the ARGs belonging to the subtypes of β-lactamase, aminoglycoside 3-phosphotransferase, phosphotransferase type 2, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, tetA, etc.

  19. Role of MRP-1 and GST-Pi in MDR and their inhibition by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: MDR continues to be a major challenge to effective chemotherapeutic interventions against cancer. Defining major factor contributing to MDR and inhibiting their action may thus be used for reversing MDR. Aim: This work aimed to evaluate the role played by MRP-1 and GST-Pi in MDR, and to explore the ...

  20. Frequency of the cancer-resistant phenotype in SR/CR mice and the effect of litter seriation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Janne; Boschian, Anna; Hau, Jann

    2008-01-01

    /CR phenotype was recorded. The phenotype frequency in the first-born litters was similar to that recorded in the founder colony in the US. There was no significant difference in the frequency of the SR/CR phenotype between the two genders, but the overall frequency of the SR/CR phenotype was significantly...

  1. Nanolipoparticles-mediated MDR1 siRNA delivery: preparation, characterization and cellular uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Nourbakhsh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Lipid-based nanoparticles (NLP are PEGylated carriers composed of lipids and encapsulated nucleic acids with a diameter less than 100 nm. The presence of PEG in the NLP formulation improves the particle pharmacokinetic behavior. The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize NLPs containing MDR1 siRNA and evaluate their cytotoxicity and cellular uptake. MDR1 siRNA could be used in multidrug resistance reversal in cancer therapy. Materials and Methods: siRNAs were encapsulated into NLPs consisted of mPEG-DSPE/DOTAP/DOPE (10:50:40 molar ratio by the detergent dialysis method. The particle diameters of NLPs and their surface charge were measured using dynamic light scattering. siRNA encapsulation efficiency was determined by an indirect method via filtration and free siRNA concentration determination. NLPs cytotoxicity was investigated by MTT assay. The ability of NLPs for siRNA delivery checked in two human cell lines (MCF-7/ADR and EPP85-181/RDB by fluorescence microscopy and compared with oligofectamine. Results: NLPs containing MDR1 siRNA were prepared with the stable size of 80-90 nm and the zeta potential near to neutral. The siRNA encapsulation efficacy was more than 80%. These properties are suitable for in vivo siRNA delivery. NLPs cytotoxicity studies demonstrated they were non-toxic at the doses used. NLPs improved siRNA localization in both cell lines. Conclusion: NLPs containing MDR1 siRNA can be a good candidate for in vivo siRNA delivery studies.

  2. In search of natural substrates and inhibitors of MDR pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K

    2001-04-01

    The function of microbial MDRs remains a hotly debated subject. Given the very broad substrate specificities of some MDRs, like the RND pumps that can extrude all classes of amphipathic compounds (cationic, neutral, and anionic), it seems difficult to develop a rationale for pinpointing possible natural substrates of these translocases. At the same time, several clues can be used to guide our search for natural MDR substrates. One is the fact that amphipathic cations appear to be the preferred substrates of MDRs. These substances are extruded by MDRs of all 5 known families and are the almost exclusive substrates of SMR and MF family MDRs. The universal nature of amphipathic cations as MDR substrates suggests that these were the substances that fueled the evolution of MDR pumps. Two factors apparently favored this particular class of molecules for the role of original MDR substrates--need and opportunity. Unlike other substances, amphipathic cations accumulate in the cell driven by the membrane potential, which makes cations potentially the most dangerous toxins. At the same time, amphipathic cations are highly hydrated and do not permeate the membrane as readily as neutral compounds, making it feasible to design a defense based on an efflux pump. The paucity of known cationic (non-basic) antimicrobials might be a result of using MDR-expressing microbial cells for antibiotic discovery. Plant amphipathic cations, the berberine alkaloids, are good MDR substrates. The Berberis plants produce 5'-methoxyhydnocarpin-D, an MDR inhibitor that potentiates the action of berberine. It is suggested that the further evolution of MDR pumps was determined largely by the barrier function of the membrane they reside in. Thus Gram negative bacteria have an outer membrane barrier that slows the penetration of virtually all amphipathic molecules, and transenvelope MDRs of the RND and EmrAB-type extrude their substrates across this barrier. A low permeability of the cytoplasmic

  3. MDR1 and ERCC1 Expression Predict Outcome of Patients with Locally Advanced Bladder Cancer Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy

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    Andreas-Claudius Hoffmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced bladder cancer still remains to be defined. We hypothesized that assessing the gene expression of the chemotherapy response modifiers multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1 and excision repair crosscomplementing 1 (ERCC1 may help identify the group of patients benefiting from cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 108 patients with locally advanced bladder cancer, who had been enrolled in AUO-AB05/95, a phase 3trial randomizing a maximum of three courses of adjuvant cisplatin and methotrexate (CM versus methotrexate, vinblastine, epirubicin, and cisplatin (M VEC, were included in the study. Tumor cells were retrieved by laser-captured microdissection and analyzed for MDR1 and ERCC1 expression using a quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. Gene expression levels were correlated with clinical outcomes by multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: Expressions of MDR1 and ERCC1 were independently associated with overall progression-free survival (P = .001, relative risk = 2.9 and P = .01, relative risk = 2.24, respectively. The correlation of high MDR1 expression with inferior outcome was stronger in patients receiving M-VEC, whereas ERCC1 analysis performed equally in the CM and M-VEC groups. CONCLUSIONS: High MDR1 and ERCC1 gene expressions are associated with inferior outcome after cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced bladder cancer. Prospective studies are warranted to define a role for MDR1 and ERCC1 analysis in individualizing multimodality treatment in locally advanced bladder cancer.

  4. Cytotoxicity of methanol extracts of Annona muricata, Passiflora edulis and nine other Cameroonian medicinal plants towards multi-factorial drug-resistant cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Kuete, Victor; Dzotam, Joachim K.; Voukeng, Igor K.; Fankam, Aim? G.; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer cells rapidly acquire resistance leading to treatment failures. In the present study, we have evaluated the cytotoxicity of 17 methanol extracts from 11 Cameroonian medicinal plants against the sensitive leukemia CCRF?CEM cells and the best ones were further tested on a panel of 8 other human cancer cell lines, including various MDR phenotypes as well as against the normal AML12 hepatocytes. Methods The cytotoxicity of the extracts was determined using a resazurin reduction ...

  5. African Flora Has the Potential to Fight Multidrug Resistance of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Continuous efforts from scientists of diverse fields are necessary not only to better understand the mechanism by which multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer cells occur, but also to boost the discovery of new cytotoxic compounds to fight MDR phenotypes. Objectives. The present review reports on the contribution of African flora in the discovery of potential cytotoxic phytochemicals against MDR cancer cells. Methodology. Scientific databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Knowledge were used to retrieve publications related to African plants, isolated compounds, and drug resistant cancer cells. The data were analyzed to highlight cytotoxicity and the modes of actions of extracts and compounds of the most prominent African plants. Also, thresholds and cutoff points for the cytotoxicity and modes of action of phytochemicals have been provided. Results. Most published data related to the antiproliferative potential of African medicinal plants were from Cameroon, Egypt, Nigeria, or Madagascar. The cytotoxicity of phenolic compounds isolated in African plants was generally much better documented than that of terpenoids and alkaloids. Conclusion. African flora represents an enormous resource for novel cytotoxic compounds. To unravel the full potential, efforts should be strengthened throughout the continent, to meet the challenge of a successful fight against MDR cancers. PMID:25961047

  6. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Treatment and Outcomes of 93 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Brode

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB remains a leading cause of death worldwide and the emergence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB poses a threat to its control. There is scanty evidence regarding optimal management of MDR TB. The majority of Canadian cases of MDR TB are diagnosed in Ontario; most are managed by the Tuberculosis Service at West Park Healthcare Centre in Toronto. The authors reviewed 93 cases of MDR TB admitted from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2011.

  7. MDR-TB Outbreak among HIV-Negative Tunisian Patients followed during 11 Years.

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    Naira Dekhil

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB outbreaks that evolve, from the outset, in a context strictly negative for HIV infection deserve special consideration since they reflect the true intrinsic epidemic potential of the causative strain. To our knowledge, the long-term evolution of such exceptional outbreaks and the treatment outcomes for the involved patients has never been reported hitherto. Here we provide a thorough description, over an 11-year period, of an MDR-TB outbreak that emerged and expanded in an HIV-negative context, Northern Tunisia.From October 2001 to June 2011, the MDR-TB outbreak involved 48 HIV-negative individuals that are mainly young (mean age 31.09 yrs; 89.6% male and noninstitutionalized. Drug susceptibility testing coupled to mutational analysis revealed that initial transmission involved an isolate that was simultaneously resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and streptomycin. The causative Haarlem3-ST50 outbreak strain expanded mainly as an 11-banded IS6110 RFLP profile (77.1%, from which a 12-banded subclone evolved. After undergoing a 2-year treatment with second-line drugs, 22 (45.8% patients were cured and 3 (6.2% completed treatment, thus yielding an overall treatment success rate of 52.1%. Among the patients that experienced unfavorable treatment outcomes, 10 (20.8% failed treatment, 3 (6.2% were lost to follow-up, 5 (10.4% died, and 5 (10.4% could not be evaluated. Poor adherence to treatment was found to be the main independent predictor of unfavorable outcomes (HR: 9.15; 95% CI 1.72-48.73; P = 0.014. Intriguingly, the evolved 12-banded subclone proved significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes (HR: 4.90; 95% CI 1.04-23.04, P = 0.044. High rate of fatality and relapse was further demonstrated at the long-term, since 70% of those whose treatment failed have died, and 24% among those deemed successfully treated have relapsed.Taken together, the data obtained in this study indicate that MDR

  8. Phenotypic and genotypic detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hunting dogs in Maiduguri metropolitan, Borno State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Muhammad; Bukar-Kolo, Yachilla Maryam; Geidam, Yaqub Ahmed; Gulani, Isa Adamu

    2016-05-01

    To determine the presence of MRSA in hunting dogs in Maiduguri metropolitan. Phenotypic methods used includes microscopic technique, colony morphology study, catalase-coagulase tests, and the use of mannitol salt agar test, oxacillin resistance screening agar base, and antibiotic susceptibility testing methods. Genotypic approach was used for deoxyribonucleic acid extraction, and the presence of nuc and mecA gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Examination of 416 swab samples from nasal and perineal region of dogs revealed a total of 79.5% of S. aureus, where 62.5% of the isolates were MRSA. Molecular analysis revealed that 7nuc genes specific for S. aureus from 20 presumptive MRSA assay were all mecA PCR negative. The isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin but proved resistant to cefoxitin and oxacillin. High isolation rate of MRSA was found in hunting dogs. Significant level (p<0.05) of MRSA was isolated in the nasal cavity of hunting dogs than its perineum. Only nuc genes were detected from the MRSA isolates.

  9. Phenotypic and genotypic detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hunting dogs in Maiduguri metropolitan, Borno State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mustapha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the presence of MRSA in hunting dogs in Maiduguri metropolitan. Materials and Methods: Phenotypic methods used includes microscopic technique, colony morphology study, catalase-coagulase tests, and the use of mannitol salt agar test, oxacillin resistance screening agar base, and antibiotic susceptibility testing methods. Genotypic approach was used for deoxyribonucleic acid extraction, and the presence of nuc and mecA gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. Results: Examination of 416 swab samples from nasal and perineal region of dogs revealed a total of 79.5% of S. aureus, where 62.5% of the isolates were MRSA. Molecular analysis revealed that 7nuc genes specific for S. aureus from 20 presumptive MRSA assay were all mecA PCR negative. The isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin but proved resistant to cefoxitin and oxacillin. Conclusion: High isolation rate of MRSA was found in hunting dogs. Significant level (p<0.05 of MRSA was isolated in the nasal cavity of hunting dogs than its perineum. Only nuc genes were detected from the MRSA isolates.

  10. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and type B streptogramin of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus spp. of a university hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jussyêgles Niedja da Paz; Rabelo, Marcelle Aquino; Lima, Jailton Lobo da Costa; Neto, Armando Monteiro Bezerra; Lopes, Ana Catarina de Souza; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira

    2016-01-01

    There is a mechanism of macrolide resistance in Staphylococcus spp. which also affects the lincosamides and type B streptogramins characterizing the so-called MLSB resistance, whose expression can be constitutive (cMLSB) or inducible (iMLSB) and is encoded mainly by ermA and ermC genes. The cMLSB resistance is easily detected by susceptibility testing used in the laboratory routine, but iMLSB resistance is not. Therapy with clindamycin in cases of infection with isolated iMLSB resistance may fail. To characterize the phenotypic (occurrence of cMLSB and iMLSB phenotypes) and molecular (occurrence of ermA and ermC genes) profiles of MLSB resistance of clinical isolates of susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and CNS (coagulase-negative Staphylococcus) from patients of a university hospital, in Pernambuco. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 103 isolates was determined by the disk diffusion technique in Mueller-Hinton agar followed by oxacillin screening. The iMLSB phenotype was detected by D test. Isolates with cMLSB and iMLSB phenotypes were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of ermA and ermC genes. The cMLSB and iMLSB phenotypes were respectively identified in 39 (37.9%) and five (4.9%) isolates. The iMLSB phenotype was found only in four (10.8%) methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and one (4.5%) methicillin-resistant S. aureus. In the 44 isolates subjected to PCR, four (9.1%) only ermA gene was detected, a lower frequency when compared to only ermC 17 (38.6%) gene and to one (2.3%) isolate presenting both genes. In the Staphylococcus spp. analyzed, the ermC gene was found more often than the ermA, although the iMLSB phenotype had been less frequent than the cMLSB. It was important to perform the D test for its detection to guide therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of the Drug Resistance Profiles of Patients Infected with CRF07_BC Using Phenotypic Assay and Ultra-Deep Pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Wei Huang

    Full Text Available The usefulness of ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS for the diagnosis of HIV-1 drug resistance (DR remains to be determined. Previously, we reported an explosive outbreak of HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF 07_BC among injection drug users (IDUs in Taiwan in 2004. The goal of this study was to characterize the DR of CRF07_BC strains using different assays including UDPS. Seven CRF07_BC isolates including 4 from early epidemic (collected in 2004-2005 and 3 from late epidemic (collected in 2008 were obtained from treatment-naïve patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Viral RNA was extracted directly from patient's plasma or from cultural supernatant and the pol sequences were determined using RT-PCR sequencing or UDPS. For comparison, phenotypic drug susceptibility assay using MAGIC-5 cells (in-house phenotypic assay and Antivirogram were performed. In-house phenotypic assay showed that all the early epidemic and none of the late epidemic CRF07_BC isolates were resistant to most protease inhibitors (PIs (4.4-47.3 fold. Neither genotypic assay nor Antivirogram detected any DR mutations. UDPS showed that early epidemic isolates contained 0.01-0.08% of PI DR major mutations. Furthermore, the combinations of major and accessory PI DR mutations significantly correlated with the phenotypic DR. The in-house phenotypic assay is superior to other conventional phenotypic assays in the detection of DR variants with a frequency as low as 0.01%.

  12. The Attenuation Phenotype of a Ribavirin-Resistant Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Is Maintained during Sequential Passages in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Amina; Shabir, Nadeem; Seo, Byoung-Joo; Kim, Bum-Seok; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a previous study, ribavirin-resistant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) mutants (RVRp13 and RVRp22) were selected, and their resistance against random mutation was shown in cultured cells. In the present study, these ribavirin-resistant mutants were evaluated in terms of their genetic and phenotypic stability during three pig-to-pig passages in comparison with modified live virus (MLV) (Ingelvac PRRS MLV). Pigs challenged with RVRp22 had significantly lower (P PRRS; however, there have been serious concerns regarding the use of MLV as a vaccine virus due to the rapid reversion to virulence during replication in pigs. As previously reported, ribavirin is an effective antiviral drug against many RNA viruses. Ribavirin-resistant mutants reemerged by escaping lethal mutagenesis when the treatment concentration was sublethal, and those mutants were genetically more stable than parental viruses. In a previous study, two ribavirin-resistant PRRSV mutants (RVRp13 and RVRp22) were selected, and their higher genetic stability was shown in vitro. Consequently, in the present study, both of the ribavirin-resistant mutants were evaluated in terms of their genetic and phenotypic stability in vivo. RVRp22 was found to exhibit higher genetic and phenotypic stability than MLV, and nine unique mutations were identified in the RVRp22 genome based on a full-length sequence comparison with the RVRp13, VR2332, and MLV genomes. PMID:26889041

  13. Comparison of bacteriological conversion and treatment outcomes among MDR-TB patients with and without diabetes in Mexico: Preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muñoz-Torrico

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB. However, it is not known to what extent DM affects the outcome in patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB treated with second-line anti-TB drugs.The objective of this study was to compare the microbiological evolution (sputum smear and culture conversion and final outcomes of MDR/XDR-TB patients with and without DM, managed at the national TB reference centre in Mexico City. Results: Ninety patients were enrolled between 2010 and 2015: 73 with MDR-TB (81.1%, 11 with pre-XDR-TB (e.g. MDR-TB with additional resistance to one injectable drug or a fluoroquinolone, 12.2% and 6 (6.7% with XDR-TB. Out of these, 49 (54.4% had DM and 42 (86% were undergoing insulin treatment.No statistically significant differences were found in treatment outcomes comparing DM vs. non-DM MDR-TB cases: 18/32 (56.3% of DM cases and 19/24 (79.2% non DM patients achieved treatment success (p = 0.07. The time to sputum smear and culture conversion was longer (although not statistically in patients without DM, as follows: the mean (±SD time to sputum smear conversion was 53.9 (±31.4 days in DM patients and 65.2 (±34.8 days in non-DM ones (p = 0.15, while the time to culture conversion was 66.2 (±27.6 days for DM and 81.4 (±37.7 days for non-DM MDR-TB cases (p = 0.06. Conclusions: The study results support the Mexican National TB programme to strengthen its collaboration with the DM programme, as an entry point for TB (and latent TB infection screening and management. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Delay, Sputum and culture conversion, MDR-TB, High treatment adherence

  14. A European multi-centre External Quality Assessment (EQA) study on phenotypic and genotypic methods used for Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) drug resistance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Baharak; Bibby, David F; Piorkowska, Renata; Ohemeng-Kumi, Natasha; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela; Gillemot, Sarah; Morfin, Florence; Frobert, Emilie; Burrel, Sonia; Boutolleau, David; Crowley, Brendan; Mbisa, Jean L

    2017-11-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) drug resistance is a significant public health concern among immunocompromised individuals. Phenotypic assays are considered the gold standard method for detecting HSV drug resistance. However, plaque reduction assays (PRAs) are technically demanding, often with long turnaround times of up to four weeks. In contrast, genotypic tests can be performed within a few days. The development and coordination of the first European External Quality Assessment (EQA) study to evaluate phenotypic and genotypic methods used for HSV drug resistance testing in specialised reference laboratories. Four HSV-1 or HSV-2 strains with different antiviral susceptibility profiles were isolated from clinical samples. Isolates were quantified by qPCR, and aliquoted in culture medium. One isolate was distributed at two dilutions to help assess assay sensitivity. The panel was distributed to five European centres with a six-week deadline for the return of phenotypic and genotypic results, together with clinical reports. Four out of five participating labs returned results by the deadline. Limited results were later available from the fifth lab. Phenotypic and genotypic data were largely, but not completely, concordant. An unusual resistance profile shown by one of the samples was explained by the detection of a mixed virus population after extensive further investigation by one of the centres. Discordant clinical outputs reflecting the diversity of phenotypic methodologies demonstrated the utility of this exercise. With emerging genotypic technologies looking to supplant phenotyping, there is a need for curated public databases, accessible interpretation tools and standardised control materials for quality management. By establishing a network of testing laboratories, we hope that this EQA scheme will facilitate ongoing progress in this area. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Modulation of Multidrug Resistance Gene Expression by Coumarin Derivatives in Human Leukemic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrak, Tomasz; Bogucki, Jacek; Galkowski, Dariusz; Kaczmarczyk, Robert; Feldo, Marcin; Cioch, Maria; Kocki, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    The presence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells is considered as the major cause of failure of cancer chemotherapy. The mechanism responsible for the phenomenon of multidrug resistance is explained, among others, as overexpression of membrane transporters primarily from the ABC family which actively remove cytostatics from the tumor cell. The effect of 20 coumarin derivatives on the cytotoxicity and expression of MDR1, MRP1, BCRP, and LRP genes (encoding proteins responsible for multidrug resistance) in cancer cells was analyzed in the study. The aim of this research included determination of IC10 and IC50 values of selected coumarin derivatives in the presence and absence of mitoxantrone in leukemia cells and analysis of changes in the expression of genes involved in multidrug resistance: MDR1, MRP, LRP, and BCRP after 24-hour exposure of the investigated cell lines to selected coumarins in the presence and absence of mitoxantrone in IC10 and IC50 concentrations. The designed research was conducted on 5 cell lines derived from the human hematopoietic system: CCRF/CEM, CEM/C1, HL-60, HL-60/MX1, and HL-60/MX2. Cell lines CEM/C1, HL-60/MX1, and HL-60/MX2 exhibit a multidrug resistance phenotype. PMID:29387293

  16. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Neutrophils Have a Distinct Phenotype and Are Resistant to Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juss, Jatinder K; House, David; Amour, Augustin; Begg, Malcolm; Herre, Jurgen; Storisteanu, Daniel M L; Hoenderdos, Kim; Bradley, Glyn; Lennon, Mark; Summers, Charlotte; Hessel, Edith M; Condliffe, Alison; Chilvers, Edwin R

    2016-10-15

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is refractory to pharmacological intervention. Inappropriate activation of alveolar neutrophils is believed to underpin this disease's complex pathophysiology, yet these cells have been little studied. To examine the functional and transcriptional profiles of patient blood and alveolar neutrophils compared with healthy volunteer cells, and to define their sensitivity to phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibition. Twenty-three ventilated patients underwent bronchoalveolar lavage. Alveolar and blood neutrophil apoptosis, phagocytosis, and adhesion molecules were quantified by flow cytometry, and oxidase responses were quantified by chemiluminescence. Cytokine and transcriptional profiling were used in multiplex and GeneChip arrays. Patient blood and alveolar neutrophils were distinct from healthy circulating cells, with increased CD11b and reduced CD62L expression, delayed constitutive apoptosis, and primed oxidase responses. Incubating control cells with disease bronchoalveolar lavage recapitulated the aberrant functional phenotype, and this could be reversed by phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors. In contrast, the prosurvival phenotype of patient cells was resistant to phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibition. RNA transcriptomic analysis revealed modified immune, cytoskeletal, and cell death pathways in patient cells, aligning closely to sepsis and burns datasets but not to phosphoinositide 3-kinase signatures. Acute respiratory distress syndrome blood and alveolar neutrophils display a distinct primed prosurvival profile and transcriptional signature. The enhanced respiratory burst was phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent but delayed apoptosis and the altered transcriptional profile were not. These unexpected findings cast doubt over the utility of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibition in acute respiratory distress syndrome and highlight the importance of evaluating novel therapeutic strategies in patient-derived cells.

  17. Phenotypic changes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus during vancomycin therapy for persistent bacteraemia and related clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T; Kim, E S; Park, S Y; Sung, H; Kim, M-N; Kim, S-H; Lee, S-O; Choi, S-H; Jeong, J-Y; Woo, J H; Chong, Y P; Kim, Y S

    2017-08-01

    Persistent bacteraemia (PB) due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that fails to respond to glycopeptide therapy is a well-documented clinical problem. There are limited data on changes in agr functionality, vancomycin susceptibility and heteroresistance during MRSA PB. Thus, the frequency of these changes and their clinical significance remain unclear. Only patients with MRSA PB (≥7 days) from a prospective cohort of S. aureus bacteraemia were included. We collected isogenic paired strains and compared vancomycin MIC, vancomycin heteroresistance, and agr functionality between initial and final blood isolates. We also assessed the clinical outcome. A total of 49 patients had MRSA PB over 22 months. Bacteraemia persisted for a median of 13 days and most patients (98%) received glycopeptide as initial therapy. Among 49 isogenic pairs, only one pair showed a vancomycin MIC increase ≥2-fold by broth microdilution method, and only seven (14%) by E-test. Significant portions of initial isolates had vancomycin heteroresistance (49%) and agr dysfunction (76%). Development of vancomycin heteroresistance during PB occurred in four (16%) among 25 initial vancomycin-susceptible isolates, and acquisition of agr dysfunction occurred in two (16%) among 12 initial agr-functional isolates. Changes in the opposite direction occasionally occurred. These phenotypic changes during PB were not associated with mortality, whereas agr dysfunction of the initial isolates was significantly associated with mortality. During MRSA PB, phenotypic changes of MRSA isolates occurred occasionally under prolonged vancomycin exposure but were not significantly associated with clinical outcome. In contrast, initial agr dysfunction could be a predictor for mortality in MRSA PB.

  18. A mutation within the extended X loop abolished substrate-induced ATPase activity of the human liver ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter MDR3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, Marianne; Stindt, Jan; Dröge, Carola; Linnemann, Doris; Kubitz, Ralf; Schmitt, Lutz

    2015-02-20

    The human multidrug resistance protein 3 (MDR3/ABCB4) belongs to the ubiquitous family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and is located in the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. There it flops the phospholipids of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) family from the inner to the outer leaflet. Here, we report the characterization of wild type MDR3 and the Q1174E mutant, which was identified previously in a patient with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 (PFIC-3). We expressed different variants of MDR3 in the yeast Pichia pastoris, purified the proteins via tandem affinity chromatography, and determined MDR3-specific ATPase activity in the presence or absence of phospholipids. The ATPase activity of wild type MDR3 was stimulated 2-fold by liver PC or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. Furthermore, the cross-linking of MDR3 with a thiol-reactive fluorophore blocked ATP hydrolysis and exhibited no PC stimulation. Similarly, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin lipids did not induce an increase of wild type MDR3 ATPase activity. The phosphate analogues beryllium fluoride and aluminum fluoride led to complete inhibition of ATPase activity, whereas orthovanadate inhibited exclusively the PC-stimulated ATPase activity of MDR3. The Q1174E mutation is located in the nucleotide-binding domain in direct proximity of the leucine of the ABC signature motif and extended the X loop, which is found in ABC exporters. Our data on the Q1174E mutant demonstrated basal ATPase activity, but PC lipids were incapable of stimulating ATPase activity highlighting the role of the extended X loop in the cross-talk of the nucleotide-binding domain and the transmembrane domain. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Adverse events in the treatment of MDR-TB patients within and outside the NTP in Pham Ngoc Thach hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Nguyen Binh; Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Khanh, Pham Huyen; Hai, Nguyen Viet; Quyen, Bui Thi Tu

    2015-12-22

    Treatment outcomes of a high proportion of inpatients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) were not reported to the Vietnamese National Tuberculosis Program because they received treatment outside of the green light committee (GLC) program. The study aimed (1) to describe the strengths and weaknesses of treatment of GLC and non-GLC MDR-TB patients as well as the factors influencing treatment completion and (2) to determine the incidence of adverse drug reactions. This cross-sectional study comprised two elements: (1) in-depth interviews with clinical doctors, hospital pharmacists; and focus group discussions with MDR-TB patients; and (2) a review of the charts of all GLC and non-GLC MDR-TB patients in 2010. A total of 282 MDR-TB patients were recruited, including 79(28%) MDR-TB patients treated through the GLC program and 203(72%) MDR-TB patients treated outside of the GLC program. The main strengths of GLC treatment were the supply of quality assured second line TB drugs, routine monitoring and clinical evaluation, free diagnostic tests and close clinical monitoring. The greatest barriers to patients treated outside of the GLC program was difficulty paying for second line TB drugs and other treatment costs. There was no significant difference between the incidence of adverse events among GLC (46.8%) and non-GLC treated patients (52.2%; p = 0.417). Among 143 patients who reported 226 adverse reaction events, arthralgia/joint pain (35.8%), gastrointestinal (14.2%), ototoxicity (8.4%), cutaneous (6.6%), and giddiness (5.8%) were the most common. The non-GLC MDR-TB patients face substantial barriers to treatment, and require greater support if they are to complete treatment and improve disease outcomes. Staff training about the management of adverse drug reactions is needed.

  20. Correlation between genotypic and phenotypic testing for resistance to rifampin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in Haiti: investigation of cases with discrepant susceptibility results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Ocheretina

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization has recommended use of molecular-based tests MTBDRplus and GeneXpert MTB/RIF to diagnose multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in developing and high-burden countries. Both tests are based on detection of mutations in the Rifampin (RIF Resistance-Determining Region of DNA-dependent RNA Polymerase gene (rpoB. Such mutations are found in 95-98% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains determined to be RIF-resistant by the "gold standard" culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST. We report the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of 153 consecutive clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains diagnosed as RIF-resistant by molecular tests in our laboratory in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 133 isolates (86.9% were resistant to both RIF and Isoniazid and 4 isolates (2.6% were RIF mono-resistant in MGIT SIRE liquid culture-based DST. However the remaining 16 isolates (10.5% tested RIF-sensitive by the assay. Five strains with discordant genotypic and phenotypic susceptibility results had RIF minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC close to the cut-off value of 1 µg/ml used in phenotypic susceptibility assays and were confirmed as resistant by DST on solid media. Nine strains had sub-critical RIF MICs ranging from 0.063 to 0.5 µg/ml. Finally two strains were pan-susceptible and harbored a silent rpoB mutation. Our data indicate that not only detection of the presence but also identification of the nature of rpoB mutation is needed to accurately diagnose resistance to RIF in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Observed clinical significance of low-level resistance to RIF supports the re-evaluation of the present critical concentration of the drug used in culture-based DST assays.

  1. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of multidrug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Kentucky strains recovered from chicken carcasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana Tasmin

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium is the leading cause of human non-typhoidal gastroenteritis in the US. S. Kentucky is one the most commonly recovered serovars from commercially processed poultry carcasses. This study compared the genotypic and phenotypic properties of two Salmonella enterica strains Typhimurium (ST221_31B and Kentucky (SK222_32B recovered from commercially processed chicken carcasses using whole genome sequencing, phenotype characterizations and an intracellular killing assay. Illumina MiSeq platform was used for sequencing of two Salmonella genomes. Phylogenetic analysis employing homologous alignment of a 1,185 non-duplicated protein-coding gene in the Salmonella core genome demonstrated fully resolved bifurcating patterns with varying levels of diversity that separated ST221_31B and SK222_32B genomes into distinct monophyletic serovar clades. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis identified 2,432 (ST19 SNPs within 13 Typhimurium genomes including ST221_31B representing Sequence Type ST19 and 650 (ST152 SNPs were detected within 13 Kentucky genomes including SK222_32B representing Sequence Type ST152. In addition to serovar-specific conserved coding sequences, the genomes of ST221_31B and SK222_32B harbor several genomic regions with significant genetic differences. These included phage and phage-like elements, carbon utilization or transport operons, fimbriae operons, putative membrane associated protein-encoding genes, antibiotic resistance genes, siderophore operons, and numerous hypothetical protein-encoding genes. Phenotype microarray results demonstrated that ST221_31B is capable of utilizing certain carbon compounds more efficiently as compared to SK222_3B; namely, 1,2-propanediol, M-inositol, L-threonine, α-D-lactose, D-tagatose, adonitol, formic acid, acetoacetic acid, and L-tartaric acid. ST221_31B survived for 48 h in macrophages, while SK222_32B was mostly eliminated. Further, a 3-fold growth of ST221_31B was

  2. Multidrug- and Extensively Drug-Resistant UropathogenicEscherichia coliClinical Strains: Phylogenetic Groups Widely Associated with Integrons Maintain High Genetic Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Sara A; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Luna-Pineda, Victor M; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan P; Cázares-Domínguez, Vicenta; Escalona, Gerardo; Sepúlveda-González, Ma Eugenia; López-Montiel, Fernanda; Arellano-Galindo, José; López-Martínez, Briceida; Parra-Ortega, Israel; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; de la Rosa-Zamboni, Daniela; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, an increase of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains with Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and Extensively Drug-resistant (XDR) profiles that complicate therapy for urinary tract infections (UTIs) has been observed and has directly impacted costs and extended hospital stays. The aim of this study was to determine MDR- and XDR-UPEC clinical strains, their virulence genes, their phylogenetic groups and to ascertain their relationship with integrons and genetic diversity. From a collection of 500 UPEC strains, 103 were selected with MDR and XDR characteristics. MDR-UPEC strains were mainly associated with phylogenetic groups D (54.87%) and B2 (39.02%) with a high percentage (≥70%) of several fimbrial genes ( ecpA, fimH, csgA , and papG II), an iron uptake gene ( chuA ), and a toxin gene ( hlyA ). In addition, a moderate frequency (40-70%) of other genes ( iutD, tosA , and bcs A) was observed. XDR-UPEC strains were predominantly associated with phylogenetic groups B2 (47.61%) and D (42.85%), which grouped with ≥80 virulence genes, including ecpA, fimH, csgA, papG II, iutD , and chuA . A moderate frequency (40-70%) of the tosA and hlyA genes was observed. The class 1 and 2 integrons that were identified in the MDR- and XDR-UPEC strains were associated with phylogenetic groups D, B2, and A, while the XDR-UPEC strains that were associated with phylogenetic groups B2, D, and A showed an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype. The modifying enzymes ( aad A1, aad B, aac C, ant 1, dfr A1, dfr A17, and aad A4) that were identified in the variable region of class 1 and 2 integrons from the MDR strains showed resistance to gentamycin (56.25 and 66.66%, respectively) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (84.61 and 66.66%, respectively). The MDR- and XDR-UPEC strains were distributed into seven clusters and were closely related to phylogenic groups B2 and D. The diversity analysis by PFGE showed 42.68% of clones of MDR-UPEC and no clonal association

  3. Syzygium jambos Displayed Antibacterial and Antibiotic-Modulating Activities against Resistant Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice E. N. Wamba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of methanol extracts of bark and leaves of Syzygium jambos, as well as their synergistic effects with selected antibiotics against drug-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The crude extracts were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening; broth microdilution method was used for antibacterial assays. Phytochemical studies indicate that leaves and bark extracts contained polyphenols, anthraquinones, tannins, and steroids. Extract of the leaves was active against all the 26 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and all the 21 strains of Gram-negative bacteria tested, within the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC range of 32–512 μg/mL. The lowest MIC value of 32 μg/mL was obtained with extract of the leaves against Staphylococcus aureus MRSA9 strain. In Gram-negative bacteria, the lowest MIC value of 64 μg/mL was also obtained against Enterobacter aerogenes EA294 and Klebsiella pneumoniae K24 strains. Against S. aureus strains, antibiotic-modulating activity of extracts at MIC/2 towards more than 70% of the tested strains was obtained when leaves and bark extracts were tested in association with chloramphenicol (CHL. This was also the case when leaves extract was combined with CHL, kanamycin (KAN, tetracycline (TET, and erythromycin (ERY and when bark extract was combined with ciprofloxacin (CIP, TET, and ERY against Gram-negative bacteria. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that Syzygium jambos has antibacterial and antibiotic-modulating activities.

  4. A deletion mutation in nfxB of in vitro-induced moxifloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa confers multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Van Chi; Pham, Hoang Vy; Nguyen, Duc Nhat Minh; Lambert, Peter; Nguyen, Thi Thu Hoai

    2017-09-01

    The modulation of efflux pump functions under fluoroquinolone (FQ) exposure is of great concern as it could result in occurrence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains. In this study, MDR mechanism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced via moxifloxacin (MOX) pressure was investigated. After serial MOX [concentration of 0.5 × the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)] exposure, the fully susceptible P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain has increased its MIC not only toward MOX (1→128 mg/L) but also to other antibiotics. Furthermore, this MOX-exposed strain did not revert to antibiotic-sensitive phenotype when being cultured in antibiotic-free medium for 12 days. No mutation was observed for FQ-target (gyrA and parC) or most investigated efflux regulatory genes (mexT, mexR, and nalC) except nfxB in which a 100-bp deletion was found. This associated with the elevated expression of multidrug efflux pump operon (mexCD-oprJ) which could directly result in MDR phenotype.

  5. A Public Platform for the Verification of the Phenotypic Effect of Candidate Genes for Resistance to Aflatoxin Accumulation and Aspergillus flavus Infection in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyan Shan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A public candidate gene testing pipeline for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation or Aspergillus flavus infection in maize is presented here. The pipeline consists of steps for identifying, testing, and verifying the association of selected maize gene sequences with resistance under field conditions. Resources include a database of genetic and protein sequences associated with the reduction in aflatoxin contamination from previous studies; eight diverse inbred maize lines for polymorphism identification within any maize gene sequence; four Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL mapping populations and one association mapping panel, all phenotyped for aflatoxin accumulation resistance and associated phenotypes; and capacity for Insertion/Deletion (InDel and SNP genotyping in the population(s for mapping. To date, ten genes have been identified as possible candidate genes and put through the candidate gene testing pipeline, and results are presented here to demonstrate the utility of the pipeline.

  6. Antibacterial and antibiotic resistance modulatory activities of leaves and bark extracts of Recinodindron heudelotii (Euphorbiaceae) against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankam, Aimé Gabriel; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Kuete, Victor

    2017-03-24

    Recinodindron heudelotii (Euphorbiaceae) is a plant used in Africa, particularly in Cameroon to treat various ailments including bacterial infections. In this study, we evaluated the extracts of the leaves (RHL) and bark (RHB) of R. heudelotii for their antibacterial and antibiotic resistance modulating activities against 29 Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes. The broth micro-dilution assay was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity, and the antibiotic resistance modulating effects of the plant extracts. RHL displayed the most important spectrum of activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) values ranging from 256 to 1024 μg/mL against 75.86% of the 29 tested bacteria strains while RHB was not active. RHL also showed killing effects with minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) ranging from 256 to 1024 μg/mL. The activities of tetracycline and kanamycin associated with RHL were improved on 88.89% and 77.78% of the tested MDR bacteria, at MIC/2 at MIC/4 respectively, with 2 to 16-folds decreasing of MIC. This suggests the antibiotic resistance modulating effects of these antibiotics. The present study provides data indicating a possible use of the leaves extract of Recinodindron heudelotii alone or in association with common antibiotics in the fight against bacterial infections including those involving MDR bacteria.

  7. Multidrug resistant to extensively drug resistant tuberculosis: What is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    major anti tuberculosis drugs; Isoniazid and Rifampicin with or without resistance to other anti-TB drugs has been termed. MDR-TB. MDR-TB is more difficult to treat than drug- susceptible TB, requiring the use of less effective second line anti tubercular drugs (SLDs) which are often associated with major side effects. 2.

  8. The yeast ABC transporter Pdr18 (ORF YNR070w) controls plasma membrane sterol composition, playing a role in multidrug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrito, Tânia R.; Teixeira, Miguel C.; Singh, Ashutosh; Prasad, Rajendra; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    The action of multidrug efflux pumps in MDR (multidrug resistance) acquisition has been proposed to partially depend on the transport of physiological substrates which may indirectly affect drug partition and transport across cell membranes. In the present study, the PDR18 gene [ORF (open reading frame) YNR070w], encoding a putative PDR (pleiotropic drug resistance) transporter of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, was found to mediate plasma membrane sterol incorporation in yeast. The physiological role of Pdr18 is demonstrated to affect plasma membrane potential and is proposed to underlie its action as a MDR determinant, conferring resistance to the herbicide 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). The action of Pdr18 in yeast tolerance to 2,4-D, which was found to contribute to reduce [14C]2,4-D intracellular accumulation, may be indirect, given the observation that 2,4-D exposure deeply affects the sterol plasma membrane composition, this effect being much stronger in a Δpdr18 background. PDR18 activation under 2,4-D stress is regulated by the transcription factors Nrg1, controlling carbon source availability and the stress response, and, less significantly, Yap1, involved in oxidative stress and MDR, and Pdr3, a key regulator of the yeast PDR network, consistent with a broad role in stress defence. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that Pdr18 plays a role in plasma membrane sterol incorporation, this physiological trait contributing to an MDR phenotype. PMID:21831043

  9. Detection of Class I and II integrons for the assessment of antibiotic and multidrug resistance among Escherichia coli isolates from agricultural irrigation waters in Bulacan, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraoan, Cielo Emar M; Rivera, Windell L; Vital, Pierangeli G

    2017-05-04

    Contaminated irrigation water may greatly affect not only the quality of produce but also the people exposed to it. In this study, agricultural irrigation waters in Bulacan, Philippines were assessed and found to be contaminated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) ranging from 0.58 to 4.51 log 10 CFU/mL. A total of 79 isolates of E. coli were confirmed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying the uidA gene and were tested for phenotypic resistance using 10 antimicrobials through the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Forty-six isolates (58.22%) were noted to be multidrug resistant (MDR) with high resistance rate to cephalothin, tetracycline, streptomycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, and chloramphenicol. Moreover, this study also examined the prevalence of Class I and II integrons accounting to 67.39% and 17.39%, respectively, of the MDR E. coli strains using multiplex PCR. The results imply that the agricultural water used in Bulacan is contaminated with the fecal material of man or other animals present in the area, and the presence of MDR bacteria, which pose a potential threat to individuals in these areas, is alarming. In addition, detection of integrons could be a good marker for the identification of MDR isolates. Lastly, this study could develop strategies for the proper management of farming sites leading to the detection of food-borne pathogens and prevention of infectious diseases.

  10. [Experimental study on phenotypic conversion of clinical chloromycetin-resistant strains of E. coli to drug-sensitive strains by using EGS technique in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mei-ying; Chen, Ru; Liu, Shou-gui; Feng, Jiang-nan

    2004-08-02

    To explore the possibility of phenotypic conversion of clinical chloromycetin (Cm)-resistant isolates of E.coli to drug-sensitive ones with external guide sequences (EGS) in vitro. Recombinant EGS plasmids directed against Cm acetyl transferase (cat) and containing kanamycin (Km) drug-resistance gene and control plasmids only containing kanamycin-resistance gene without EGS were constructed. By using CaCl(2) method, the recombinant plasmids were introduced into the clinically isolated Cm-resistant E.coli strains. Extraction of plasmids and PCR were applied to identify the EGS positive clones; The growth rate in liquid broth culture of Cm-resistant bacteria after EGS containing plasmid transformation was determined by spectrophotometer A(600). Drug sensitivity was tested in solid culture by using KB method. Transformation studies were carried out on 16 clinically isolated Cm-resistant E.coli strains with pEGFP-C1-EGS + cat1 + cat2 recombinant plasmid. Transformants were screened on LB-agar plates containing Km after transformation using EGS. In 4 tested strains of them, transformants with specific EGS plasmid showed growth inhibition when grown in liquid broth culture containing 100 approximately 200 micro g/ml of Cm. They were sensitive to Cm on LB-agar plates containing 100 approximately 200 micro g/ml of Cm in drug-sensitivity test. Extraction of plasmids showed the existence of EGS bands. PCR amplified products of EGS. The above facts indicated that the 4 strains out of the 16 clinical isolates had been converted to drug-sensitive phenotype, and Cm-resistant clinically isolated E. coli resumed sensitivity to Cm. EGS has the capability of converting the phenotype of clinical drug-resistant isolates to drug sensitivity.

  11. Characterization of a Novel 99mTc-Carbonyl Complex as a Functional Probe of MDR1 P-Glycoprotein Transport Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Dyszlewski

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR mediated by overexpression of MDR1 P-glycoprotein (Pgp is one of the best characterized barriers to chemotherapy in cancer patients. Furthermore, the protective function of Pgp-mediated efflux of xenobiotics in various organs has a profound effect on the bioavailability of drugs in general. Thus, there is an expanding requirement to noninvasively interrogate Pgp transport activity in vivo. We herein report the Pgp recognition properties of a novel 99mTc(I-tricarbonyl complex, [99mTc(CO3(MIBI3] + (Tc-CO-MIBI. Tc-CO-MIBI showed 60-fold higher accumulation in drug-sensitive KB 3–1 cells compared to colchicine-selected drug-resistant KB 8-5 cells. In KB 8-5 cells, tracer enhancement was observed with the potent MDR modulator LY335979 (EC50 = 62 nM. Similar behavior was observed using drug-sensitive MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells and MCF-7/MDR1 stable transfectants, confirming that Tc-CO-MIBI is specifically excluded by overexpression of MDR1 Pgp. By comparison, net accumulation in control H69 lung tumor cells was 9-fold higher than in MDR-associated protein (MRP1-expressing H69AR cells, indicating only modest transport by MRP1. Biodistribution analysis following tail vein injection of Tc-CO-MIBI showed delayed liver clearance as well as enhanced brain uptake and retention in mdr1a/1b(−/− gene deleted mice versus wild-type mice, directly demonstrating that Tc-CO-MIBI is a functional probe of Pgp transport activity in vivo.

  12. Initial drug resistance in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Initial drug resistance in India. There is gradual increase in primary MDR all over India : Pondi= Pondicherry 1985; Bangalore =1986; Jaipur = 1991; Jaipur =2000. Overall the MDR is less than 3% (TRC studies).

  13. Saikosaponin-d: A potential chemotherapeutics in castration resistant prostate cancer by suppressing cancer metastases and cancer stem cell phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Di; Zhang, Hui-Jian; Jiang, Yao-Dong; Wu, Peng; Qi, Huan; Cai, Chao; Zheng, Shao-Bin; Dang, Qiang

    2016-06-10

    Androgen deprivation therapy is the gold standard regimen for advanced Prostate cancer (PCa) patients, nevertheless, patients eventually develop into castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Currently only a few chemotherapeutics are available for CRPC. Therefore, it is critical for identifying a new drug. In this study, we will explore a new agent, Saikosaponin-d (SSd), for CRPC therapy based on its mechanism of action. DU145 and CWR22Rv1 cells representing CRPC were employed in this study. A series of cell, biochemical, and molecular biologic assays such as Immunofluorescence, Zymography, Sphere formation, Colony formation, and MTT were used. Finally, we find SSd can significantly inhibit the growth of PCa cells in both dose- and time-dependent and suppress the colony formation during a long-term drug administration, it also can inhibit their migration and invasion abilities, which was accompanied by reverse the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and suppress MMP2/9 expression as well as activities. Furthermore, SSd can suppress cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotypes such as self-renewal ability. Mechanistically, SSd blocks Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by decreasing GSK3β phosphorylation to affect EMT and CSC. These findings demonstrate the mechanism of anti-cancer activity of SSd in targeting EMT and CSC, suggesting SSd can be a potent agent for CRPC therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Canine Mammary Cancer Stem Cells are Radio- and Chemo-Resistant and Exhibit an Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Lisa Y., E-mail: lisa.pang@ed.ac.uk; Cervantes-Arias, Alejandro; Else, Rod W.; Argyle, David J. [Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and Roslin Institute, The University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, EH25 9RG (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-30

    Canine mammary carcinoma is the most common cancer among female dogs and is often fatal due to the development of distant metastases. In humans, solid tumors are made up of heterogeneous cell populations, which perform different roles in the tumor economy. A small subset of tumor cells can hold or acquire stem cell characteristics, enabling them to drive tumor growth, recurrence and metastasis. In veterinary medicine, the molecular drivers of canine mammary carcinoma are as yet undefined. Here we report that putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) can be isolated form a canine mammary carcinoma cell line, REM134. We show that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres, a characteristic of stem cells, and that they express embryonic stem cell markers associated with pluripotency. Moreover, canine CSCs are relatively resistant to the cytotoxic effects of common chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiation, indicating that failure of clinical therapy to eradicate canine mammary cancer may be due to the survival of CSCs. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with cancer invasion, metastasis, and the acquisition of stem cell characteristics. Our results show that canine CSCs predominantly express mesenchymal markers and are more invasive than parental cells, indicating that these cells have a mesenchymal phenotype. Furthermore, we show that canine mammary cancer cells can be induced to undergo EMT by TGFβ and that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres. Our findings indicate that EMT induction can enrich for cells with CSC properties, and provide further insight into canine CSC biology.

  15. Canine Mammary Cancer Stem Cells are Radio- and Chemo-Resistant and Exhibit an Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Lisa Y.; Cervantes-Arias, Alejandro; Else, Rod W.; Argyle, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Canine mammary carcinoma is the most common cancer among female dogs and is often fatal due to the development of distant metastases. In humans, solid tumors are made up of heterogeneous cell populations, which perform different roles in the tumor economy. A small subset of tumor cells can hold or acquire stem cell characteristics, enabling them to drive tumor growth, recurrence and metastasis. In veterinary medicine, the molecular drivers of canine mammary carcinoma are as yet undefined. Here we report that putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) can be isolated form a canine mammary carcinoma cell line, REM134. We show that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres, a characteristic of stem cells, and that they express embryonic stem cell markers associated with pluripotency. Moreover, canine CSCs are relatively resistant to the cytotoxic effects of common chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiation, indicating that failure of clinical therapy to eradicate canine mammary cancer may be due to the survival of CSCs. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with cancer invasion, metastasis, and the acquisition of stem cell characteristics. Our results show that canine CSCs predominantly express mesenchymal markers and are more invasive than parental cells, indicating that these cells have a mesenchymal phenotype. Furthermore, we show that canine mammary cancer cells can be induced to undergo EMT by TGFβ and that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres. Our findings indicate that EMT induction can enrich for cells with CSC properties, and provide further insight into canine CSC biology

  16. Resistance to DNA Damaging Agents Produced Invasive Phenotype of Rat Glioma Cells—Characterization of a New in Vivo Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Stojković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemoresistance and invasion properties are severe limitations to efficient glioma therapy. Therefore, development of glioma in vivo models that more accurately resemble the situation observed in patients emerges. Previously, we established RC6 rat glioma cell line resistant to DNA damaging agents including antiglioma approved therapies such as 3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU and temozolomide (TMZ. Herein, we evaluated the invasiveness of RC6 cells in vitro and in a new orthotopic animal model. For comparison, we used C6 cells from which RC6 cells originated. Differences in cell growth properties were assessed by real-time cell analyzer. Cells’ invasive potential in vitro was studied in fluorescently labeled gelatin and by formation of multicellular spheroids in hydrogel. For animal studies, fluorescently labeled cells were inoculated into adult male Wistar rat brains. Consecutive coronal and sagittal brain sections were analyzed 10 and 25 days post-inoculation, while rats’ behavior was recorded during three days in the open field test starting from 25th day post-inoculation. We demonstrated that development of chemoresistance induced invasive phenotype of RC6 cells with significant behavioral impediments implying usefulness of orthotopic RC6 glioma allograft in preclinical studies for the examination of new approaches to counteract both chemoresistance and invasion of glioma cells.

  17. Sorafenib modulates the gene expression of multi-drug resistance mediating ATP-binding cassette proteins in experimental hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Katrin; Franz, Clemens; Xiao, Zhi; Mohr, Elvira; Serba, Susanne; Büchler, Markus W; Schemmer, Peter

    2010-11-01

    High ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein expression leads to intrinsic drug resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the potential chemosensitizing effects of sorafenib on the multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotype. The ABC-protein gene expression and the cellular survival were determined by RT-PCR analysis and MTT assay in HUH7 cells. Sorafenib inhibits MDR. The ABC-protein mRNA expression decreased by up to 51% (p ≤ 0.01). Addition of sorafenib to conventional chemotherapy restored the chemosensitivity. Combination of gemcitabine plus sorafenib decreased the ABC-protein mRNA levels by up to 77%, compared to gemcitabine monotherapy (p ≤ 0.001). Doxorubicin plus sorafenib decreased the ABC-protein mRNA levels up to 74% compared to doxorubicin monotherapy (p ≤ 0.001). This study provides evidence that the MDR phenotype of HCC cells can be modulated by the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib and consequentially may lead towards personalized therapies in patients with highly resistant tumors.

  18. The effect of multiple blood-feeding on the longevity and insecticide resistant phenotype in the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Shüné V; Brooke, Basil D

    2014-08-23

    Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector in Africa. Adult females are likely to imbibe multiple blood meals during their lifetime. This results in regular exposure to potential toxins and blood-meal induced oxidative stress. Defence responses to these stressors may affect other factors of epidemiological significance, such as insecticide resistance and longevity. The aims of this study were to examine the effect of multiple blood-feeding on insecticide tolerance/resistance with increasing age, to assess the underlying biochemical mechanisms for the responses recorded, and to assess the effect of multiple blood-feeding on the life histories of adult females drawn from insecticide resistant and susceptible laboratory reared An. arabiensis. Laboratory reared An. arabiensis females from an insecticide resistant and an insecticide susceptible colony were offered either a single blood meal or multiple blood meals at 3-day intervals. Their tolerance or resistance to insecticide was then monitored by WHO bioassay four hours post blood-feeding. The biochemical basis of the phenotypic response was assessed by examining the effect of blood on detoxification enzyme activity and the effect of blood-meals on detoxification enzyme activity in ageing mosquitoes. Control cohorts that were not offered any blood meals showed steadily decreasing levels of insecticide tolerance/resistance with age, whereas a single blood meal significantly increased tolerance/resistance primarily at the age of three days. The expression of resistance/tolerance in those cohorts fed multiple blood meals generally showed the least variation with age. These results were consistent following exposure to DDT and pyrethroids but not to malathion. Multiple blood-meals also maintained the DDT and permethrin resistant phenotype, even after treatment females had stopped taking blood-meals. Biochemical analysis suggests that this phenotypic effect in resistant females may be mediated by the maintenance of

  19. Analysis of mdr1-1Δ mutation of MDR1 gene in the “Cimarron Uruguayo” dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Gagliardi B.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this paper is to analyze the frequency of the mdr1-1D mutation of the MDR1 gene in a dog sample of the Uruguayan Cimarron breed with the objective of increasing the knowledge of this breed’s genome. Materials and methods. Thirty-six animals of this breed were analyzed. The MDR1 gene region, which includes the location where the mutation would be present, was amplified by PCR. Results. The mutation was not detected in any of the analyzed Uruguayan Cimarron. Conclusions. The lack of described ivermectin intoxication cases in veterinary clinic in this breed is explained by the lack of the mutation object of this study. The sequence studied in Cimarron dogs is kept compared to other breeds, except Collies and related breeds (Border Collie, Bearded Collie, Old English sheepdog.

  20. A Comprehensive Investigation on Common Polymorphisms in the MDR1/ABCB1 Transporter Gene and Susceptibility to Colorectal Cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campa, D.; Sainz, J.; Pardini, Barbara; Vodičková, Ludmila; Naccarati, Alessio; Rudolph, A.; Novotný, J.; Försti, A.; Buch, S.; von Schönfels, W.; Schafmayer, C.; Völzke, H.; Hoffmeister, M.; Frank, B.; Barale, R.; Hemminki, K.; Hampe, J.; Chang-Claude, J.; Brenner, H.; Vodička, Pavel; Canzian, F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2012), e32784 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : single-nucleotide polymorphisms * resistance 1 mdr1 * p-glycoprotein Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  1. Utility of Phenotypic and Genotypic Testing in the Study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Resistance to First-Line Anti-Tuberculosis drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba Álvarez, Luz María; García García, José María; Pérez Hernández, M Dolores; Martínez González, Susana; Palacios Gutiérrez, Juan José

    2017-04-01

    To determine the utility of molecular techniques in the diagnosis of resistance and the extent of resistance to first-line drugs in our region. From 2004 to 2013, 1,889 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated in Asturias, Spain, were studied using phenotypic (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines) and molecular (INNOLiPA RIF-TB © ; GenotypeMDRplus © ; GenotypeMDRsl © ) sensitivity tests. 1,759 strains (94.52%) were sensitive to all first-line drugs, and 102 strains (5.48%) showed some resistance: 81 strains (4.35%) were resistant to 1 single drug, 14 (0.75%) were polyresistant, and 7 (0.37%) were multiresistant (resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid). In total, 137 resistances were identified: 60 to isoniazid (3.22%), 7 to rifampicin (0.37%), 9 to pyrazinamide (0.48%), 11 to ethambutol (0.59%), and 50 to streptomycin (2.68%). Of the mutations detected, 75.9% (63/83) correlated with resistance, while 24.09% of mutations detected (20/83) were not associated with resistance; 16 of these involved a silent mutation at codon 514 of the rpoB gene. Between 0 and 90% of strains, depending on the drug under consideration, were resistant even when no gene mutations were detected using marketed systems. Molecular techniques are very useful, particularly for obtaining rapid results, but these must be confirmed with standard phenotypic sensitivity testing. The rate of resistance in our region is low and multi-drug resistantcases (0.37%) are sporadic. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Leishmania donovani isolates with antimony-resistant but not -sensitive phenotype inhibit sodium antimony gluconate-induced dendritic cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Haldar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The inability of sodium antimony gluconate (SAG-unresponsive kala-azar patients to clear Leishmania donovani (LD infection despite SAG therapy is partly due to an ill-defined immune-dysfunction. Since dendritic cells (DCs typically initiate anti-leishmanial immunity, a role for DCs in aberrant LD clearance was investigated. Accordingly, regulation of SAG-induced activation of murine DCs following infection with LD isolates exhibiting two distinct phenotypes such as antimony-resistant (Sb(RLD and antimony-sensitive (Sb(SLD was compared in vitro. Unlike Sb(SLD, infection of DCs with Sb(RLD induced more IL-10 production and inhibited SAG-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and leishmanicidal effects. Sb(RLD inhibited these effects of SAG by blocking activation of PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB pathways. In contrast, Sb(SLD failed to block activation of SAG (20 microg/ml-induced PI3K/AKT pathway; which continued to stimulate NF-kappaB signaling, induce leishmanicidal effects and promote DC activation. Notably, prolonged incubation of DCs with Sb(SLD also inhibited SAG (20 microg/ml-induced activation of PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB pathways and leishmanicidal effects, which was restored by increasing the dose of SAG to 40 microg/ml. In contrast, Sb(RLD inhibited these SAG-induced events regardless of duration of DC exposure to Sb(RLD or dose of SAG. Interestingly, the inhibitory effects of isogenic Sb(SLD expressing ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter MRPA on SAG-induced leishmanicidal effects mimicked that of Sb(RLD to some extent, although antimony resistance in clinical LD isolates is known to be multifactorial. Furthermore, NF-kappaB was found to transcriptionally regulate expression of murine gammaglutamylcysteine synthetase heavy-chain (mgammaGCS(hc gene, presumably an important regulator of antimony resistance. Importantly, Sb(RLD but not Sb(SLD blocked SAG-induced mgammaGCS expression in DCs by

  3. WGS accurately predicts antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Gregory H; McDermott, Patrick F; Li, Cong; Chen, Yuansha; Tadesse, Daniel A; Mukherjee, Sampa; Bodeis-Jones, Sonya; Kabera, Claudine; Gaines, Stuart A; Loneragan, Guy H; Edrington, Tom S; Torrence, Mary; Harhay, Dayna M; Zhao, Shaohua

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of WGS in identifying resistance genotypes of MDR Escherichia coli and whether these correlate with observed phenotypes. Seventy-six E. coli strains were isolated from farm cattle and measured for phenotypic resistance to 15 antimicrobials with the Sensititre(®) system. Isolates with resistance to at least four antimicrobials in three classes were selected for WGS using an Illumina MiSeq. Genotypic analysis was conducted with in-house Perl scripts using BLAST analysis to identify known genes and mutations associated with clinical resistance. Over 30 resistance genes and a number of resistance mutations were identified among the E. coli isolates. Resistance genotypes correlated with 97.8% specificity and 99.6% sensitivity to the identified phenotypes. The majority of discordant results were attributable to the aminoglycoside streptomycin, whereas there was a perfect genotype-phenotype correlation for most antibiotic classes such as tetracyclines, quinolones and phenicols. WGS also revealed information about rare resistance mechanisms, such as structural mutations in chromosomal copies of ampC conferring third-generation cephalosporin resistance. WGS can provide comprehensive resistance genotypes and is capable of accurately predicting resistance phenotypes, making it a valuable tool for surveillance. Moreover, the data presented here showing the ability to accurately predict resistance suggest that WGS may be used as a screening tool in selecting anti-infective therapy, especially as costs drop and methods improve. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance genes in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica isolated from animals, retail meats, and humans in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica is a prevalent foodborne pathogen which can carry multi-drug resistance (MDR) and pose a threat to human health. Identifying the genetic elements associated with MDR in Salmonella isolated from animals, foods, and humans can help determine the sources of MDR in food animals and t...

  5. Development of a Resistance-like Phenotype to Sorafenib by Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Is Reversible and Can Be Delayed by Metronomic UFT Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence C. Tang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Acquired resistance to antiangiogenic drugs, such as sorafenib, is a major clinical problem. We studied development of a resistance to sorafenib in new preclinical models of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC along with a strategy to delay such resistance—combination with metronomic chemotherapy. Three different xenograft models were studied using human Hep3B HCC cells, which are highly responsive to sorafenib, namely, orthotopic and subcutaneous transplant in severe combined immunodeficient mice, and an orthotopic transplant in nude mice. The complementary DNA for the β-subunit of human choriogonadotropin was transfected into HCC cells, and urine levels of the protein were monitored as a surrogate of tumor burden. Extended daily treatments, sometimes interrupted by a break period of 3 to 7 days to allow recovery from toxicity at sorafenib doses of 30 to 60 mg/kg, were maintained until and after evidence of tumor relapse. Initially responsive tumors seemed to develop a resistance-like phenotype after long-term daily treatment (e.g., >42 days at doses of 30 to 60 mg/kg. Transplantation of cell lines established from progressing tumors into new hosts showed that the resistant phenotype was not propagated. Furthermore, a regimen of daily metronomic uracil + tegafur (UFT, an oral 5-fluorouracil prodrug chemotherapy with a less toxic regimen of sorafenib (15 mg/kg per day significantly delayed the onset of resistance (>91 days. In conclusion, development of a resistance-like phenotype to sorafenib is reversible, and metronomic UFT plus sorafenib may be a promising and well-tolerated treatment for increasing efficacy by delaying emergence of such resistance.

  6. Equine infectious anemia virus envelope evolution in vivo during persistent infection progressively increases resistance to in vitro serum antibody neutralization as a dominant phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Laryssa; Leroux, Caroline; Issel, Charles J; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2002-11-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection of horses is characterized by well-defined waves of viremia associated with the sequential evolution of distinct viral populations displaying extensive envelope gp90 variation; however, a correlation of in vivo envelope evolution with in vitro serum neutralization phenotype remains undefined. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to utilize a previously defined panel of natural variant EIAV envelope isolates from sequential febrile episodes to characterize the effects of envelope variation during persistent infection on viral neutralization phenotypes and to define the determinants of EIAV envelope neutralization specificity. To assess the neutralization phenotypes of the sequential EIAV envelope variants, we determined the sensitivity of five variant envelopes to neutralization by a longitudinal panel of immune serum from the source infected pony. The results indicated that the evolution of the EIAV envelope sequences observed during sequential febrile episodes produced an increasingly neutralization-resistant phenotype. To further define the envelope determinants of EIAV neutralization specificity, we examined the neutralization properties of a panel of chimeric envelope constructs derived from reciprocal envelope domain exchanges between selected neutralization-sensitive and neutralization-resistant envelope variants. These results indicated that the EIAV gp90 V3 and V4 domains individually conferred serum neutralization resistance while other envelope segments in addition to V3 and V4 were evidently required for conferring total serum neutralization sensitivity. These data clearly demonstrate for the first time the influence of sequential gp90 variation during persistent infection in increasing envelope neutralization resistance, identify the gp90 V3 and V4 domains as the principal determinants of antibody neutralization resistance, and indicate distinct complex cooperative envelope domain interactions in

  7. MDR1 Gene C3435T and C1236T Polymorphisms among Patients with Pharmacoresistant Epilepsy and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodira M. Tuychibaeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available MDR1 gene C3435T and C1236T single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been studied in 59 Uzbek patients with epilepsy aged from 1 to 40 years. The patients were resistant to anticonvulsant drugs in therapeutic doses with no remission attained. The disease duration was about two years. The DNA samples were isolated from peripheral blood of patients and healthy individuals. The study found a statistically significant difference in the frequency of the ТТ genotype of the MDR1 gene С3435Т polymorphism, which was associated both with rapid and slow drug metabolism. In the TT genotype group, the share of the patients resistant to the therapy was almost 4.8 times higher than in the control group. Despite high OR=1.9, there were statistically insignificant differences in the frequency of С1236Т SNP. The 3435C – 1236T haplotype of MDR1 gene was associated with an increase the risk of drug-resistance development in epileptic patients.

  8. JNK signaling maintains the mesenchymal properties of multi-drug resistant human epidermoid carcinoma KB cells through snail and twist1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Xia; Feng, Xiaobing; Kong, Ying; Chen, Yi; Tan, Wenfu

    2013-01-01

    In addition to possess cross drug resistance characteristic, emerging evidences have shown that multiple-drug resistance (MDR) cancer cells exhibit aberrant metastatic capacity when compared to parental cells. In this study, we explored the contribution of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) signaling to the mesenchymal phenotypes and the aberrant motile capacity of MDR cells utilizing a well characterized MDR cell line KB/VCR, which is established from KB human epidermoid carcinoma cells by vincristine (VCR), and its parental cell line KB. Taking advantage of experimental strategies including pharmacological tool and gene knockdown, we showed here that interference with JNK signaling pathway by targeting JNK1/2 or c-Jun reversed the mesenchymal properties of KB/VCR cells to epithelial phenotypes and suppressed the motile capacity of KB/VCR cells, such as migration and invasion. These observations support a critical role of JNK signaling in maintaining the mesenchymal properties of KB/VCR cells. Furthermore, we observed that JNK signaling may control the expression of both snail and twist1 in KB/VCR cells, indicating that both snail and twist1 are involved in controlling the mesenchymal characteristics of KB/VCR cells by JNK signaling. JNK signaling is required for maintaining the mesenchymal phenotype of KB/VCR cells; and JNK signaling may maintain the mesenchymal characteristics of KB/VCR cells potentially through snail and twist1

  9. Genomic and Transcriptomic Associations Identify a New Insecticide Resistance Phenotype for the Selective Sweep at the Cyp6g1 Locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Battlay

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Scans of the Drosophila melanogaster genome have identified organophosphate resistance loci among those with the most pronounced signature of positive selection. In this study, the molecular basis of resistance to the organophosphate insecticide azinphos-methyl was investigated using the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, and genome-wide association. Recently released full transcriptome data were used to extend the utility of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel resource beyond traditional genome-wide association studies to allow systems genetics analyses of phenotypes. We found that both genomic and transcriptomic associations independently identified Cyp6g1, a gene involved in resistance to DDT and neonicotinoid insecticides, as the top candidate for azinphos-methyl resistance. This was verified by transgenically overexpressing Cyp6g1 using natural regulatory elements from a resistant allele, resulting in a 6.5-fold increase in resistance. We also identified four novel candidate genes associated with azinphos-methyl resistance, all of which are involved in either regulation of fat storage, or nervous system development. In Cyp6g1, we find a demonstrable resistance locus, a verification that transcriptome data can be used to identify variants associated with insecticide resistance, and an overlap between peaks of a genome-wide association study, and a genome-wide selective sweep analysis.

  10. Genomic and Transcriptomic Associations Identify a New Insecticide Resistance Phenotype for the Selective Sweep at the Cyp6g1 Locus of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battlay, Paul; Schmidt, Joshua M; Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Robin, Charles

    2016-08-09

    Scans of the Drosophila melanogaster genome have identified organophosphate resistance loci among those with the most pronounced signature of positive selection. In this study, the molecular basis of resistance to the organophosphate insecticide azinphos-methyl was investigated using the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, and genome-wide association. Recently released full transcriptome data were used to extend the utility of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel resource beyond traditional genome-wide association studies to allow systems genetics analyses of phenotypes. We found that both genomic and transcriptomic associations independently identified Cyp6g1, a gene involved in resistance to DDT and neonicotinoid insecticides, as the top candidate for azinphos-methyl resistance. This was verified by transgenically overexpressing Cyp6g1 using natural regulatory elements from a resistant allele, resulting in a 6.5-fold increase in resistance. We also identified four novel candidate genes associated with azinphos-methyl resistance, all of which are involved in either regulation of fat storage, or nervous system development. In Cyp6g1, we find a demonstrable resistance locus, a verification that transcriptome data can be used to identify variants associated with insecticide resistance, and an overlap between peaks of a genome-wide association study, and a genome-wide selective sweep analysis. Copyright © 2016 Battlay et al.

  11. In vitro detection of mdr1 mRNA in murine leukemia cells with 111In-labeled oligonucleotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Jingming; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Kinuya, Seigo; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Matsushita, Ryo; Nomura, Masaaki

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of intracellular mdr1 mRNA expression detection with radiolabeled antisense oligonucleotide (ODN) was investigated in the murine leukemia cell line, P388/S, and its subclonal, adriamycin-resistant cell line, P388/R. The expression level of mdr1 mRNA was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Existence of the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon was assessed via cellular uptake of 99m Tc-sestamibi (MIBI), a known substrate for P-glycoprotein. A 15-mer phosphorothioate antisense ODN complementary to the sequences located at -1 to 14 of mdr1 mRNA and its corresponding sense ODN were conjugated with the cyclic anhydride of diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (cDTPA) via an amino group linked to the terminal phosphate at the 5' end at pH 8-9. The DTPA-ODN complexes at concentrations of 0.1-17.4 μMwere reacted with 111 InCl 3 at pH 5 for 1 h. The hybridization affinity of labeled ODN was evaluated with size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography following incubation with the complementary sequence. Cellular uptake of labeled ODN was examined in vitro. Furthermore, enhancing effects of synthetic lipid carriers (Transfast) on transmembrane delivery of ODN were assessed. P388/R cells displayed intense mdr1 mRNA expression in comparison with P388/S cells. 99m Tc-MIBI uptake in P388/S cells was higher than that in P388/R cells. Specific radioactivity up to 1,634 MBq/nmol was achieved via elevation of added radioactivity relative to ODN molar amount. The hybridization affinity of antisense 111 In-ODN was preserved at approximately 85% irrespective of specific activity. Cellular uptake of antisense 111 In-ODN did not differ from that of sense 111 In-ODN in either P388/S cells or P388/R cells. However, lipid carrier incorporation significantly increased transmembrane delivery of 111 In-ODN; moreover, specific uptake of antisense 111 In-ODN was demonstrated in P388/R cells. Radiolabeling of ODN at high specific

  12. Localization of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins PfMRP1, PfMRP2, and PfMDR5 at the Plasmodium falciparum plasma membrane.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavishe, R.A.; Heuvel, J.M.W. van den; Vegte-Bolmer, M.G. van de; Luty, A.J.F.; Russel, F.G.M.; Koenderink, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The spread of drug resistance has been a major obstacle to the control of malaria. The mechanisms underlying drug resistance in malaria seem to be complex and multigenic. The current literature on multiple drug resistance against anti-malarials has documented PfMDR1, an ATP-binding

  13. Multidrug-resistant TB in Zambia: review of national data from 2000 to 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapata, Nathan; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Cobelens, Frank; Grobusch, Martin P.; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is posing a great threat to global TB control. The burden in Zambia is not well defined because routine surveillance data are scarce. We reviewed national MDR-TB data for the last decade to inform future public health policy with respect to MDR-TB in Zambia.

  14. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of linezolid containing regimens in treating MDR-TB and XDR-TB : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotgiu, Giovanni; Centis, Rosella; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Alffenaar, Jan-William C.; Anger, Holly A.; Caminero, Jose A.; Castiglia, Paolo; De Lorenzo, Saverio; Ferrara, Giovanni; Koh, Won-Jung; Schecter, Giesela F.; Shim, Tae S.; Singla, Rupak; Skrahina, Alena; Spanevello, Antonio; Udwadia, Zarir F.; Villar, Miquel; Zampogna, Elisabetta; Zellweger, Jean-Pierre; Zumla, Alimuddin; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2012-01-01

    Linezolid is used off-label to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in absence of systematic evidence. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on efficacy, safety and tolerability of linezolid-containing regimes based on individual data analysis. 12 studies (11 countries from

  15. Phenotypic and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in slaughterhouse pig-related workers and control workers in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X L; Li, L; Li, S M; Huang, J Y; Fan, Y P; Yao, Z J; Ye, X H; Chen, S D

    2017-07-01

    Pig farmers and veterinarians have high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) due to the occupational livestock exposure, while few reported this association on slaughterhouse workers. We conducted this cross-sectional study to explore the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of S. aureus and MRSA in slaughterhouse pig-related workers and control workers in Guangdong Province, China. Participants were interviewed and provided two nasal swabs. Swabs were tested for S. aureus, and isolates were further tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence genes and multi-locus sequence typing. Compared with control workers, pig-related workers have significantly higher prevalence of MRSA carriage (adjusted odd ratio (aOR) 3·70, 95% CI 1·63-8·40). The proportions of MRSA resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline or chloromycetin were significantly higher in pig-related workers than in control workers. The predominant phenotypes of S. aureus were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. Three MRSA CC9 isolates with livestock-associated characteristics (resistance to tetracycline and absence of immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes) were detected in pig-related workers but not in control workers. For human-associated CCs (CC7, CC59, CC6, and CC188), there was no significant difference in IEC profile or antimicrobial resistance between the groups. These findings reveal that there may be a potential risk for livestock-to-human transmission of LA-MRSA and human-to-human transmission of human-associated MRSA.

  16. Cell-penetrating, guanidinium-rich molecular transporters for overcoming efflux-mediated multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Jessica R; Stanzl, Erika Geihe; Teng, Nelson N H; Wender, Paul A

    2014-08-04

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major cause of chemotherapy failure in the clinic. Drugs that were once effective against naïve disease subsequently prove ineffective against recurrent disease, which often exhibits an MDR phenotype. MDR can be attributed to many factors; often dominating among these is the ability of a cell to suppress or block drug entry through upregulation of membrane-bound drug efflux pumps. Efflux pumps exhibit polyspecificity, recognizing and exporting many different types of drugs, especially those whose lipophilic nature contributes to residence in the membrane. We have developed a general strategy to overcome efflux-based resistance. This strategy involves conjugating a known drug that succumbs to efflux-mediated resistance to a cell-penetrating molecular transporter, specifically, the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP), d-octaarginine. The resultant conjugates are discrete single entities (not particle mixtures) and highly water-soluble. They rapidly enter cells, are not substrates for efflux pumps, and release the free drug only after cellular entry at a rate controlled by linker design and favored by target cell chemistry. This general strategy can be applied to many classes of drugs and allows for an exceptionally rapid advance to clinical testing, especially of drugs that succumb to resistance. The efficacy of this strategy has been successfully demonstrated with Taxol in cellular and animal models of resistant cancer and with ex vivo samples from patients with ovarian cancer. Next generation efforts in this area will involve the extension of this strategy to other chemotherapeutics and other MDR-susceptible diseases.

  17. Detergent screening and purification of the human liver ABC transporters BSEP (ABCB11 and MDR3 (ABCB4 expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Ellinger

    Full Text Available The human liver ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11 and the multidrug resistance protein 3 (MDR3/ABCB4 fulfill the translocation of bile salts and phosphatidylcholine across the apical membrane of hepatocytes. In concert with ABCG5/G8, these two transporters are responsible for the formation of bile and mutations within these transporters can lead to severe hereditary diseases. In this study, we report the heterologous overexpression and purification of human BSEP and MDR3 as well as the expression of the corresponding C-terminal GFP-fusion proteins in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that BSEP-GFP and MDR3-GFP are localized in the plasma membrane of P. pastoris. Furthermore, we demonstrate the first purification of human BSEP and MDR3 yielding ∼1 mg and ∼6 mg per 100 g of wet cell weight, respectively. By screening over 100 detergents using a dot blot technique, we found that only zwitterionic, lipid-like detergents such as Fos-cholines or Cyclofos were able to extract both transporters in sufficient amounts for subsequent functional analysis. For MDR3, fluorescence-detection size exclusion chromatography (FSEC screens revealed that increasing the acyl chain length of Fos-Cholines improved monodispersity. BSEP purified in n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside or Cymal-5 after solubilization with Fos-choline 16 from P. pastoris membranes showed binding to ATP-agarose. Furthermore, detergent-solubilized and purified MDR3 showed a substrate-inducible ATPase activity upon addition of phosphatidylcholine lipids. These results form the basis for further biochemical analysis of human BSEP and MDR3 to elucidate the function of these clinically relevant ABC transporters.

  18. Detergent Screening and Purification of the Human Liver ABC Transporters BSEP (ABCB11) and MDR3 (ABCB4) Expressed in the Yeast Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stindt, Jan; Smits, Sander H. J.; Schmitt, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    The human liver ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) and the multidrug resistance protein 3 (MDR3/ABCB4) fulfill the translocation of bile salts and phosphatidylcholine across the apical membrane of hepatocytes. In concert with ABCG5/G8, these two transporters are responsible for the formation of bile and mutations within these transporters can lead to severe hereditary diseases. In this study, we report the heterologous overexpression and purification of human BSEP and MDR3 as well as the expression of the corresponding C-terminal GFP-fusion proteins in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that BSEP-GFP and MDR3-GFP are localized in the plasma membrane of P. pastoris. Furthermore, we demonstrate the first purification of human BSEP and MDR3 yielding ∼1 mg and ∼6 mg per 100 g of wet cell weight, respectively. By screening over 100 detergents using a dot blot technique, we found that only zwitterionic, lipid-like detergents such as Fos-cholines or Cyclofos were able to extract both transporters in sufficient amounts for subsequent functional analysis. For MDR3, fluorescence-detection size exclusion chromatography (FSEC) screens revealed that increasing the acyl chain length of Fos-Cholines improved monodispersity. BSEP purified in n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside or Cymal-5 after solubilization with Fos-choline 16 from P. pastoris membranes showed binding to ATP-agarose. Furthermore, detergent-solubilized and purified MDR3 showed a substrate-inducible ATPase activity upon addition of phosphatidylcholine lipids. These results form the basis for further biochemical analysis of human BSEP and MDR3 to elucidate the function of these clinically relevant ABC transporters. PMID:23593265

  19. Is it the resistance training itself or the combined associated weight loss that improves the metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyluk O

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ozlem Soyluk,1 Gulistan Bahat21Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Capa, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Capa, Istanbul, TurkeyWe read the article entitled “Resistance training improves isokinetic strength and metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women” by Oliveira et al1 with great interest. In the study, the authors examined the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT on metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women. They reported that total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, blood glucose, basal insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were all significantly reduced with RT (P<0.01. Accordingly, they concluded that a 12-week progressive RT program induces beneficial alterations on metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women. View original paper by Oliveira and colleagues.

  20. Dioscin strengthens the efficiency of adriamycin in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells through autophagy induction: More than just down-regulation of MDR1

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Changyuan; Huo, Xiaokui; Wang, Lijuan; Meng, Qiang; Liu, Zhihao; Liu, Qi; Sun, Huijun; Sun, Pengyuan; Peng, Jinyong; Liu, Kexin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to investigate the effect of dioscin on activity of adriamycin (ADR) in ADR-sensitive (MCF-7) and ADR-resistant (MCF-7/ADR) human breast cancer cells and to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved. Antiproliferation effect of ADR was enhanced by dioscin in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells. Dioscin significantly inhibited MDR1 mRNA and protein expression and MDR1 promoter and nuclear factor ?-B (NF-?B) activity in MCF-7/ADR cells. Additionally, inhibitor ?B-? (I?B-?...

  1. Peripheral neuropathy in mice transgenic for a human MDR3 P-glycoprotein mini-gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J. J.; Baas, F.; Hoogendijk, J. E.; Jansen, G. H.; van der Valk, M. A.; Schinkel, A. H.; Berns, A. J.; Acton, D.; Nooter, K.; Burger, H.; Smith, S. J.; Borst, P.

    1996-01-01

    We have generated mice transgenic for a human MDR3 mini-gene, under control of a hamster vimentin promoter. Expression of the MDR3 transgene was found in mesenchymal tissues, peripheral nerves, and the eye lens. These MDR3 transgenic mice have a slowed motor nerve conduction and dysmyelination of

  2. The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli populations isolated from farm animals with different exposure to antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Justyna; Pusz, Paweł; Bok, Ewa; Stosik, Michał; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the presence or the absence of antibiotic input on the emergence and maintenance of resistance in commensal bacteria from food producing animals. The research material constituted E. coli isolates from two animal species: swine at different age from one conventional pig farm with antibiotic input in young pigs and from beef and dairy cattle originated from organic breeding farm. The sensitivity to 16 antimicrobial agents was tested, and the presence of 15 resistance genes was examined. In E. coli from swine, the most prevalent resistance was resistance to streptomycin (88.3%), co-trimoxazole (78.8%), tetracycline (57.3%) ampicillin (49.3%) and doxycycline (44.9%) with multiple resistance in the majority. The most commonly observed resistance genes were: bla(TEM) (45.2%), tetA (35.8%), aadA1 (35.0%), sul3 (29.5%), dfrA1 (20.4%). Differences in phenotypes and genotypes of E. coli between young swine undergoing prevention program and the older ones without the antibiotic pressure occurred. A disparate resistance was found in E. coli from cattle: cephalothin (36.9%), cefuroxime (18.9%), doxycycline (8.2%), nitrofurantoin (7.7%), and concerned mainly dairy cows. Among isolates from cattle, multidrug resistance was outnumbered by resistance to one or two antibiotics and the only found gene markers were: bla(SHV), (3.4%), tetA (1.29%), bla(TEM) (0.43%) and tetC (0.43%). The presented outcomes provide evidence that antimicrobial pressure contributes to resistance development, and enteric microflora constitutes an essential reservoir of resistance genes.

  3. Whole Genome Sequencing and Plasmid Genomics of Antimicrobial Resistance – Salmonella’s mobile genetic elements and the antimicrobial resistance genes they carry

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR), multidrug resistance (MDR), and carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), the specter of widespread untreatable bacterial infections threatens human and animal health. The ability of these emerging resistances to transfer between bacteria on mob...

  4. Invasive breast cancer induces laminin-332 upregulation and integrin β4 neoexpression in myofibroblasts to confer an anoikis-resistant phenotype during tissue remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Baek Gil; Gao, Ming-Qing; Choi, Yoon Pyo; Kang, Suki; Park, Haeng Ran; Kang, Kyu Sub; Cho, Nam Hoon

    2012-06-06

    Although development of anoikis-resistant myofibroblasts during tissue remodeling is known to be associated with tumor invasion, the mechanism by which myofibroblasts become resistant to anoikis is unknown. We previously demonstrated laminin-332 upregulation in the fibrosis around invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Because laminin-332 promotes cell survival through binding to integrins, we hypothesized that invasive breast cancer cells confer an anoikis-resistant phenotype on myofibroblasts by upregulating laminin-332 expression during tissue remodeling. Here, we demonstrate that invasive breast cancer cells induce laminin-332 upregulation and integrin β4 neoexpression in myofibroblasts to confer an anoikis-resistant phenotype. Three types of fibroblasts were isolated from the tumor burden, the fibrosis, and normal tissue of patients with early stage IDC (less than 10 mm diameter), designated cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), interface fibroblasts (InFs), and normal breast fibroblasts (NBFs), respectively. To investigate direct and indirect crosstalk with tumor cells, fibroblasts were co-cultured with invasive MDA-MB-231 or noninvasive MCF7 cells or in conditioned medium. Anoikis resistance of fibroblasts was measured by cell viability and caspase-3 activity after incubation on poly-HEMA coated plates for 72 hours. Involvement of laminin-332/integrin α3β1 or α6β4 signaling in anoikis resistance was confirmed by treatment with purified laminin-332 or blocking antibodies against laminin-332, integrin β1, or integrin β4. MDA-MB-231 cells induced laminin-332 upregulation and integrin β4 neoexpression in fibroblasts, leading to anoikis resistance. InFs showed a higher endogenous level of laminin-332 than did CAFs and NBFs. After stimulation with MDA-MB-231-conditioned medium, laminin-332 expression of InFs was dramatically increased and maintained under anoikis conditions. Laminin-332 upregulation was also observed in CAFs and NBFs, but at a lower level than

  5. Drug resistance and population structure of M.tuberculosis isolates from prisons and communities in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Solomon; Beckert, Patrick; Haileamlak, Abraham; Wieser, Andreas; Pritsch, Michael; Heinrich, Norbert; Löscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Niemann, Stefan; Rachow, Andrea

    2016-11-21

    The population structure and drug resistance pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates in Ethiopian prisons and some communities is still unknown. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted on 126 MTBC strains isolated from prisons and communities in southwestern, southern and eastern Ethiopia. Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing was performed with the MGIT960 system. Combined 24-loci Mycobacterium interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat and spacer oligonucleotide typing methods were used to study the MTBC population structure. The obtained data from prisons and communities were compared using statistical tests and regression analysis. A diverse population structure with 11 different lineages and sub-lineages was identified. The predominant strains were the recently described Ethiopia_H37Rv like (27.52%) and Ethiopia_3 (16.51%) with equal lineage distribution between prisons and communities. 28.57% of prison strains and 31.82% of community strains shared the identical genotype with at least one other strain. The multidrug-resistance (MDR) prevalence of the community was 2.27% whereas that of prisons was 9.52%. The highest mono resistance was seen against streptomycin (15.89%). Tuberculosis in communities and prisons is caused by a variety of MTBC lineages with predominance of local Ethiopian lineages. The increasing prevalence of MDR MTBC strains is alarming. These findings suggest the need for new approaches for control of MDR tuberculosis in Ethiopia.

  6. Epitope mapping of the monoclonal antibody MM12.10 to external MDR1 P-glycoprotein domain by synthetic peptide scanning and phage display technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, G; Poloni, F; Flego, M; Moretti, F; Di Modugno, F; Chersi, A; Falasca, G; Signoretti, C; Castagna, M; Cianfriglia, M

    1999-05-01

    Epitope mapping of MDR1-P-glycoprotein using specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) may help in delineating P-glycoprotein topology and hence in elucidating the relationship between its structural organization and drug-efflux pump function. In this work, by using synthetic peptide scanning and phage display technologies, the binding sites of the mAb MM12.10, a novel antibody to intact human multidrug resistant (MDR) cells, were studied. The results we obtained confirm that two regions localized on the predicted fourth and sixth loops are indeed external and that MDR1 peptides covering the inner domain of the current 12 transmembrane segment (TMs) model of P-glycoprotein could form part of the MM12.10 epitope.

  7. Clinical and programmatic considerations in the treatment of MDR-TB in children: a series of 16 patients from Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, J S; Joseph, J K; Rich, M L; Shin, S S; Furin, J J; Seung, K J; Sloutsky, A; Socci, A R; Vanderwarker, C; Vasquez, L; Palacios, E; Guerra, D; Viru, F A; Farmer, P; Del Castillo, H E

    2003-07-01

    Since 2000, the directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) strategy has been expanded in several countries to include treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). This strategy is known as DOTS-Plus. Tuberculosis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality for children throughout the developing world. Children may also be infected with MDR-TB, yet most developing countries do not specifically address pediatric MDR-TB. To present the intermediate outcomes of the first 16 children enrolled in the Peruvian DOTS-Plus program and to demonstrate the tolerability of second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Three children completed therapy and are cured, one child had bacteriologic and clinical failure after 12 months of therapy and died of respiratory insufficiency, and 12 have intermediate outcomes demonstrating favorable clinical, bacteriologic, and radiographic evidence of improvement after 9-19 months of therapy. Of the 16 pediatric DOTS-Plus patients, 15 have tolerated therapy well and have had favorable clinical evolution. However, the diagnosis of pediatric MDR-TB is often extremely delayed due to reliance on the adult case definition and should be changed to prevent progressive, chronic illness in such children. Programmatic changes could facilitate earlier diagnosis and treatment of pediatric MDR-TB in Peru and in other DOTS-Plus programs.

  8. Development of an immunochromatographic assay for the rapid detection of AAC(6')-Iae-producing multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitao, Tomoe; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Shimada, Kayo; Tanaka, Masashi; Narahara, Kenji; Saito, Nobuko; Kirikae, Teruo

    2010-07-01

    To develop an easy-to-use method for the rapid detection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Here, a new immunochromatographic assay specific for aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase AAC(6')-Iae was designed. AAC(6')-Iae is a significant marker molecule for multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Japan. Monoclonal antibodies specific for AAC(6')-Iae were used to construct the assay. The assessment of the assay was performed using 116 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates obtained from hospitals in the Kanto area of Japan where little was known about AAC(6')-Iae producers. PCR analyses of the aac(6')-Iae and class 1 integron, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and PFGE analysis were performed to characterize positive strains. The detection limit of the assay was 1.0 x 10(5) cfu. Of 116 clinical isolates, 60 were positive for AAC(6')-Iae using the assay. The results of assessment with clinical isolates were fully consistent with those of aac(6')-Iae PCR analyses, showing no false positives or negatives. All positive strains detected by the assay showed MDR phenotypes that were resistant to several classes of antibiotic. PFGE analysis showed that 59 of 60 positive strains tightly clustered, and these included clonal expansions. The developed assay is an easy-to-use and reliable detection method for AAC(6')-Iae-producing MDR P. aeruginosa. This approach may be applicable for screening and investigation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria as an alternative to PCR analysis.

  9. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines exhibit multidrug resistance unrelated to MRD1 gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, D W; Lu, Y G; Chin, K V; Pastan, I; Gottesman, M M

    1991-03-01

    Multidrug resistance of human cancer cells may result from expression of P-glycoprotein, the product of the MRD1 gene, acting as an energy-dependent drug efflux pump. However, direct evidence that expression of the MDR1 gene contributes to the multidrug resistance of human liver carcinomas has not been established. In this study, we tested five cell lines derived from human hepatocellular carcinomas for sensitivity to a variety of drugs used widely as anticancer agents; these included vinblastine, doxorubicin, actinomycin D, mitomycin C, 5-fluorouracil, 6-mercaptopurine, melphalan, methotrexate, cis-platinum and etoposide (VP-16). All five hepatoma cell lines were resistant at different levels to these chemicals compared to human KB cells. Although it has been demonstrated that resistance to vinblastine, colchicine, doxorubicin and actinomycin D in human multidrug-resistant cells is associated with overexpression of P-glycoprotein, very little expression of P-glycoprotein was found in these human hepatoma cells. Neither verapamil nor quinidine, inhibitors of the drug efflux pump, were able to overcome multidrug resistance in hepatoma cells. These results indicate that the multidrug resistance phenotype in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells cannot be attributed to expression of the MDR1 gene, but that novel mechanisms may account for the resistance of these cancer cells.

  10. A CD44high/EGFRlow subpopulation within head and neck cancer cell lines shows an epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype and resistance to treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea La Fleur

    Full Text Available Mortality in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is high due to emergence of therapy resistance which results in local and regional recurrences that may have their origin in resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs or cells with an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT phenotype. In the present study, we investigate the possibility of using the cell surface expression of CD44 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, both of which have been used as stem cell markers, to identify subpopulations within HNSCC cell lines that differ with respect to phenotype and treatment sensitivity. Three subpopulations, consisting of CD44(high/EGFR(low, CD44(high/EGFR(high and CD44(low cells, respectively, were collected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The CD44(high/EGFR(low population showed a spindle-shaped EMT-like morphology, while the CD44(low population was dominated by cobblestone-shaped cells. The CD44(high/EGFR(low population was enriched with cells in G0/G1 and showed a relatively low proliferation rate and a high plating efficiency. Using a real time PCR array, 27 genes, of which 14 were related to an EMT phenotype and two with stemness, were found to be differentially expressed in CD44(high/EGFR(low cells in comparison to CD44(low cells. Moreover, CD44(high/EGFR(low cells showed a low sensitivity to radiation, cisplatin, cetuximab and gefitinib, and a high sensitivity to dasatinib relative to its CD44(high/EGFR(high and CD44(low counterparts. In conclusion, our results show that the combination of CD44 (high and EGFR (low cell surface expression can be used to identify a treatment resistant subpopulation with an EMT phenotype in HNSCC cell lines.

  11. Effects of Withania somnifera and Tinospora cordifolia extracts on the side population phenotype of human epithelial cancer cells: toward targeting multidrug resistance in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliyakkal, Naseer; Appadath Beeran, Asmy; Balaji, Sai A; Udupa, Nayanabhirama; Ranganath Pai, Sreedhara; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2015-03-01

    Recent reports suggest the existence of a subpopulation of stem-like cancer cells, termed as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which bear functional and phenotypic resemblance with the adult, tissue-resident stem cells. Side population (SP) assay based on differential efflux of Hoechst 33342 has been effectively used for the isolation of CSCs. The drug resistance properties of SP cells are typically due to the increased expression of ABC transporters leading to drug efflux. Conventionally used chemotherapeutic drugs may often leads to an enrichment of SP, revealing their inability to target the drug-resistant SP and CSCs. Thus, identification of agents that can reduce the SP phenotype is currently in vogue in cancer therapeutics. Withania somnifera (WS) and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) have been used in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, including cancer. In the current study, we have investigated the effects of ethanolic (ET) extracts of WS and TC on the cancer SP phenotype. Interestingly, we found significant decrease in SP on treatment with TC-ET, but not with WS-ET. The SP-inhibitory TC-ET was further fractionated into petroleum ether (TC-PET), dichloromethane (TC-DCM), and n-butyl alcohol (TC-nBT) fractions using bioactivity-guided fractionation. Our data revealed that TC-PET and TC-DCM, but not TC-nBT, significantly inhibited SP in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, flow cytometry-based functional assays revealed that TC-PET and TC-DCM significantly inhibited ABC-B1 and ABC-G2 transporters and sensitized cancer cells toward chemotherapeutic drug-mediated cytotoxicity. Thus, the TC-PET and TC-DCM may harbor phytochemicals with the potential to reverse the drug-resistant phenotype, thus improving the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. High risk and rapid appearance of multidrug resistance during tuberculosis treatment in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Helen E; Crudu, Valeriu; Soltan, Viorel; Ciobanu, Ana; Domente, Liliana; Cohen, Ted

    2014-04-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a serious problem in the former Soviet Union and may appear during TB treatment. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of, timing of and factors associated with MDR-TB diagnosis during TB treatment in Moldova, which was part of the former Soviet Union. We analysed data on 3 754 confirmed non-MDR-TB cases (between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2010) in the Moldovan TB surveillance database, where patients provided sputum specimens for drug-susceptibility testing, multiple times, during treatment. We estimated the percentage of individuals with confirmed baseline non-MDR-TB that were diagnosed with MDR-TB during treatment, documented the time at which MDR-TB was diagnosed, and used a failure-time model to identify factors associated with MDR-TB diagnosis. Between 7.2% and 9.2% of initially non-MDR-TB cases were diagnosed with MDR-TB during treatment. Half of these MDR-TB diagnoses occurred with 3 months of the initial diagnosis. An increased MDR-TB risk during treatment was associated with baseline resistance to first-line TB drugs (linear increase in risk per additional drug), previous incarceration and HIV co-infection. MDR can appear rapidly during TB treatment. Policy considerations should emphasise management during early treatment by increasing ambulatory TB treatment to prevent nosocomial transmission, and ensuring universal rapid diagnostics access to prevent acquisition and transmission of drug resistance.

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic properties of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Norway in 2009: antimicrobial resistance warrants an immediate change in national management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmevoll, S O; Golparian, D; Dedi, L; Skutlaberg, D H; Haarr, E; Christensen, A; Jørgensen, S; Nilsen, Ø J; Unemo, M; Skogen, V

    2012-06-01

    Despite rapidly diminishing treatment options for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and high levels of ciprofloxacin resistance worldwide, Norwegian guidelines still recommend ciprofloxacin as empirical treatment for gonorrhea. The present study aimed to characterize phenotypical and genotypical properties of N. gonorrhoeae isolates in Norway in 2009. All viable N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 114) from six university hospitals in Norway (2009) were collected, representing 42% of all notified gonorrhea cases. Epidemiological data were collected from the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases and linked to phenotypical and genotypical characteristics for each N. gonorrhoeae isolate. Resistance levels to the antimicrobials examined were: ciprofloxacin 78%, azithromycin 11%, cefixime 3.5%, ceftriaxone 1.8%, and spectinomycin 0%. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin varied from 1.5 to 8 mg/L. Forty-one (36%) of the isolates were β-lactamase-producing, 17 displayed penA mosaic alleles, and 72 different N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence types (ST; 37 novel) were identified. The most common ST was ST1407 (n = 11), containing penA mosaic allele. Four of these isolates displayed intermediate susceptibility/resistance to cefixime. The N. gonorrhoeae strains circulating in Norway were highly diverse. The level of ciprofloxacin resistance was high and the Norwegian management guidelines should promptly exclude ciprofloxacin as an empirical treatment option for gonorrhea.

  14. Characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with MDR and XDR tuberculosis in a TB referral hospital in Beijing: a 13-year experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Hua Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on treatment outcomes among hospitalized patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB are scarce in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted this retrospective study to analyze the characteristics and treatment outcomes in MDR- and XDR-TB patients in the 309 Hospital in Beijing, China during 1996-2009. Socio-demographic and clinical data were retrieved from medical records and analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with poor treatment outcomes and Cox proportional hazards regression model was further used to determine risk factors associated with death in TB patients. Among the 3,551 non-repetitive hospitalized TB patients who had drug susceptibility testing (DST results, 716 (20.2% had MDR-TB and 51 (1.4% had XDR-TB. A total of 3,270 patients who had medical records available were used for further analyses. Treatment success rates (cured and treatment completed were 90.9%, 53.4% and 29.2% for patients with non-MDR-TB, patients with MDR-TB excluding XDR-TB and patients with XDR-TB, respectively. Independent risk factors associated with poor treatment outcomes in MDR-TB patients included being a migrant (adjusted OR = 1.77, smear-positivity at treatment onset (adjusted OR = 1.94 and not receiving 3 or more potentially effective drugs (adjusted OR = 3.87. Independent risk factors associated with poor treatment outcomes in XDR-TB patients were smear-positivity at treatment onset (adjusted OR = 10.42 and not receiving 3 or more potentially effective drugs (adjusted OR = 14.90. The independent risk factors associated with death in TB patients were having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (adjusted HR = 5.25 and having hypertension (adjusted HR = 4.31. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While overall satisfactory treatment success for non-MDR-TB patients was achieved, more intensive

  15. Metabolic parameters linked by Phenotype MicroArray to acid resistance profiles of poultry-associated Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenotype microarrays were analyzed for 51 datasets derived from Salmonella enterica. The top 4 serovars associated with poultry products and one associated with turkey, respectively Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Infantis and Senftenberg, were represented. Datasets were clustered into two ...

  16. The Transient Multidrug Resistance Phenotype ofSalmonella entericaSwarming Cells Is Abolished by Sub-inhibitory Concentrations of Antimicrobial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irazoki, Oihane; Campoy, Susana; Barbé, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Swarming motility is the rapid and coordinated multicellular migration of bacteria across a moist surface. During swarming, bacterial cells exhibit increased resistance to multiple antibiotics, a phenomenon described as adaptive or transient resistance. In this study, we demonstrate that sub-inhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, or chloramphenicol, but not that of amikacin, colistin, kanamycin or tetracycline, impair Salmonella enterica swarming. Chloramphenicol-treated S. enterica cells exhibited a clear decrease in their flagellar content, while treatment with other antibiotics that reduced swarming (cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim) inhibited polar chemoreceptor array assembly. Moreover, the increased resistance phenotype acquired by swarming cells was abolished by the presence of these antimicrobials. The same occurred in cells treated with these antimicrobial agents in combination with others that had no effect on swarming motility. Our results reveal the potential of inhibiting swarming ability to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of antimicrobial agents.

  17. Emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii producing OXA-23 Carbapenemase in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Rolain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to describe the molecular support of carbapenem resistance from randomly selected clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant (MDR Acinetobacter baumannii as a pilot study from the Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC, Qatar. Results of our report will be used to study carbapenemases using molecular techniques in all isolated MDR A. baumannii. Forty-eight MDR A. baumannii were randomly selected from isolates preserved at HMC. Identification of all isolates was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Antibiotic resistance was tested phenotypically by Phoenix and confirmed by Etest. The molecular support of carbapenemases (blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaNDM was investigated by real-time PCR. The epidemiologic relatedness of the isolates was verified by phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of CsuE and blaOXA-51 genes. All 48 isolates were identified as A. baumannii and were confirmed to be resistant to most antibiotics, especially meropenem, imipenems, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin and most of the β-lactams; they were sensitive to colistin. All the isolates were positive for blaOXA-23 and negative for the other tested carbapenemase genes. Clonality analysis demonstrated that different lineages were actually circulating in Qatar; and we suggest that an outbreak occurred in the medical intensive care unit of HMC between 2011 and 2012. Here we report the emergence of MDR A. baumannii producing the carbapenemase OXA-23 in Qatar.

  18. Virulence and antimicrobial resistance determinants of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) and of multidrug-resistant E. coli from foods of animal origin illegally imported to the EU by flight passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, B; Szmolka, A; Smole Možina, S; Kovač, J; Strauss, A; Schlager, S; Beutlich, J; Appel, B; Lušicky, M; Aprikian, P; Pászti, J; Tóth, I; Kugler, R; Wagner, M

    2015-09-16

    The aim of this study was to reveal phenotype/genotype characteristics of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) and multidrug resistant E. coli in food products of animal origin confiscated as illegal import at Austrian, German and Slovenian airports. VTEC isolates were obtained by using ISO guidelines 16654:2001 for O157 VTEC or ISO/ TS13136:2012 for non-O157 VTEC, with additional use of the RIDASCREEN® Verotoxin immunoassay. The testing of 1526 samples resulted in 15 VTEC isolates (1.0%) primarily isolated from hard cheese from Turkey and Balkan countries. Genotyping for virulence by using a miniaturized microarray identified a wide range of virulence determinants. One VTEC isolate (O26:H46) possessing intimin (eae) and all other essential genes of Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) was designated as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). None of the other VTEC strains belonged to serogroups O157, O145, O111, O104 or O103. VTEC strains harbored either stx(1) (variants stx1(a) or stx(1c)) or st(x2) (variants stx(2a), stx(2b), stx(2a/d) or stx(2c/d)) genes. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) demonstrated high genetic diversity and identified three new sequence types (STs): 4505, 4506 and 4507. Food samples collected from the Vienna airport were also tested for E. coli quantities using the ISO 16649:2001, and for detection of multidrug resistant phenotypes and genotypes. The resulting 113 commensal E. coli isolates were first tested in a pre-screening against 6 selected antimicrobials to demonstrate multidrug resistance. The resulting 14 multidrug resistant (MDR) E. coli isolates, representing 0.9% of the samples, were subjected to further resistance phenotyping and to microarray analyses targeting genetic markers of antimicrobial resistance and virulence. Genotyping revealed various combinations of resistance determinants as well as the presence of class 1, class 2 integrons. The isolates harbored 6 to 11 antibiotic

  19. Genetic Polymorphisms and Phenotypic Profiles of Sulfadiazine-Resistant and Sensitive Toxoplasma gondii Isolates Obtained from Newborns with Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Letícia Azevedo; Reis-Cunha, João Luís; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Vítor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Previous Toxoplasma gondii studies revealed that mutations in the dhps (dihydropteroate synthase) gene are associated with resistance to sulfonamides. Although Brazilian strains are genotypically different, very limited data are available regarding the susceptibility of strains obtained from human to sulfonamides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sulfadiazine (SDZ) against Brazilian isolates of T. gondii and verify whether isolates present polymorphisms in the dhps gene. We also investigated whether the virulence-phenotype and/or genotype were associated with the profile of susceptibility to SDZ. Five T. gondii isolates obtained from newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis were used to verify susceptibility. Mice were infected with 104 tachyzoites and orally treated with different doses of SDZ. The mortality curve was evaluated by the Log-rank test. The presence of polymorphisms in the dhps gene was verified using sequencing. A descriptive analysis for 11 Brazilian isolates was used to assess the association between susceptibility, genotype, and virulence-phenotype. Statistical analysis showed that TgCTBr03, 07, 08, and 16 isolates were susceptible to SDZ, whereas TgCTBr11 isolate presented a profile of resistance to SDZ. Nineteen polymorphisms were identified in dhps exons. Seven polymorphisms corresponded to non-synonymous mutations, with four being new mutations, described for the first time in this study. No association was found between the profile of susceptibility and the virulence-phenotype or genotype of the parasite. There is a high variability in the susceptibilities of Brazilian T. gondii strains to SDZ, with evidence of drug resistance. Despite the large number of polymorphisms identified, the profile of susceptibility to SDZ was not associated with any of the dhps variants identified in this study. Other genetic factors, not yet determined, may be associated with the resistance to SDZ; thus, further studies are needed as a basis

  20. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Europe, 2010–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Gunar; van Leth, Frank; Alexandru, Sofia; Altet, Neus; Avsar, Korkut; Bang, Didi; Barbuta, Raisa; Bothamley, Graham; Ciobanu, Ana; Crudu, Valeriu; Davilovits, Manfred; Dedicoat, Martin; Duarte, Raquel; Gualano, Gina; Kunst, Heinke; de Lange, Wiel; Leimane, Vaira; Magis-Escurra, Cecile; McLaughlin, Anne-Marie; Muylle, Inge; Polcová, Veronika; Pontali, Emanuele; Popa, Christina; Rumetshofer, Rudolf; Skrahina, Alena; Solodovnikova, Varvara; Spinu, Victor; Tiberi, Simon; Viiklepp, Piret

    2015-01-01

    Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is challenging elimination of tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated risk factors for TB and levels of second-line drug resistance in M. tuberculosis in patients in Europe with multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. A total of 380 patients with MDR TB and 376 patients with non–MDR TB were enrolled at 23 centers in 16 countries in Europe during 2010–2011. A total of 52.4% of MDR TB patients had never been treated for TB, which suggests primary transmission of MDR M. tuberculosis. At initiation of treatment for MDR TB, 59.7% of M. tuberculosis strains tested were resistant to pyrazinamide, 51.1% were resistant to ≥1 second-line drug, 26.6% were resistant to second-line injectable drugs, 17.6% were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and 6.8% were extensively drug resistant. Previous treatment for TB was the strongest risk factor for MDR TB. High levels of primary transmission and advanced resistance to second-line drugs characterize MDR TB cases in Europe. PMID:25693485