WorldWideScience

Sample records for resistance management monitoring

  1. The antimicrobial resistance crisis: management through gene monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an acknowledged crisis for humanity. Its genetic origins and dire potential outcomes are increasingly well understood. However, diagnostic techniques for monitoring the crisis are currently largely limited to enumerating the increasing incidence of resistant pathogens. Being the end-stage of the evolutionary process that produces antimicrobial resistant pathogens, these measurements, while diagnostic, are not prognostic, and so are not optimal in managing this crisis. A better test is required. Here, using insights from an understanding of evolutionary processes ruling the changing abundance of genes under selective pressure, we suggest a predictive framework for the AMR crisis. We then discuss the likely progression of resistance for both existing and prospective antimicrobial therapies. Finally, we suggest that by the environmental monitoring of resistance gene frequency, resistance may be detected and tracked presumptively, and how this tool may be used to guide decision-making in the local and global use of antimicrobials. PMID:27831476

  2. Monitoring and managing antibiotic resistance in refugee children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltezou, Helena C; Elhadad, Dana; Glikman, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    The past decade the Middle East and Southeastern Europe have witnessed an enormous movement of refugees due to the Syrian war and conflicts in Asia and Africa. Although carriage of and infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens in refugees have been reported, pediatric data are scarce. Areas covered: MDR bacterial carriage and infections, and MDR-tuberculosis (TB) in refugee children from 2010. Expert commentary: High MDR carriage rates in refugee children are attributed to high pre-civil war MDR rates, war-damaged infrastructure and healthcare systems, and poor hygiene conditions. Currently there are no international guidelines about MDR screening in refugee children. Given the medical importance of MDRs, challenging therapeutics and risk of importation in non/low-endemic countries, we recommend routine screening and contact isolation upon hospitalization of refugees. TB, including MDR-TB, is highly-endemic in many Asian and African countries, however, current data in refugee children are lacking. TB Screening in refugees is widely implemented but there is no consensus on methods and target populations. Coordinated TB detection and treatment, use of rapid molecular tests and drug-susceptibility testing, better access to healthcare, cross border TB care collaboration, and protection from deportation while on treatment should be integrated parts of TB control and prevention.

  3. Managing Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, John W.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents some considerations and ideas for managing students' resistance. They are organized around four topics: the impact of context on behavior, the importance of being comprehensive and nonrestrictive in behavior, the adaptive function of resistant behavior, and the benefit of joining children in their frame of reference.…

  4. Resistance evolution to the first generation of genetically modified Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events by western corn rootworm: management and monitoring considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Yann; Meihls, Lisa N; Kiss, József; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2013-04-01

    Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera; WCR) is a major coleopteran maize pest in North America and the EU, and has traditionally been managed through crop rotation and broad-spectrum soil insecticides. Genetically modified Bt-maize offers an additional management tool for WCR and has been valuable in reducing insecticide use and increasing farm income. A concern is that the widespread, repeated, and exclusive deployment of the same Bt-maize transformation event will result in the rapid evolution of resistance in WCR. This publication explores the potential of WCR to evolve resistance to plant-produced Bt-toxins from the first generation of Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events (MON 863 and MON 88017, DAS-59122-7 and MIR604), and whether currently implemented risk management strategies to delay and monitor resistance evolution are appropriate. In twelve of the twelve artificial selection experiments reported, resistant WCR populations were yielded rapidly. Field-selected resistance of WCR to Cry3Bb1 is documented in some US maize growing areas, where an increasing number of cases of unexpected damage of WCR larvae to Bt-maize MON 88017 has been reported. Currently implemented insect resistance management measures for Bt-crops usually rely on the high dose/refuge (HDR) strategy. Evidence (including laboratory, greenhouse and field data) indicates that several conditions contributing to the success of the HDR strategy may not be met for the first generation of Bt-maize events and WCR: (1) the Bt-toxins are expressed heterogeneously at a low-to-moderate dose in roots; (2) resistance alleles may be present at a higher frequency than initially assumed; (3) WCR may mate in a non-random manner; (4) resistance traits could have non-recessive inheritance; and (5) fitness costs may not necessarily be associated with resistance evolution. However, caution must be exercised when extrapolating laboratory and greenhouse results to field conditions. Model predictions

  5. Monitoring and Management of Imidazolinone-Resistant Red Rice (Oryza sativa L., var. sylvatica in Clearfield® Italian Paddy Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scarabel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction in Italy of Clearfield® rice cultivars carrying imidazolinone-resistant traits provides an efficient option to control red rice, a conspecific weed of cultivated rice. However, despite the promulgation of specific guidelines for Clearfield® technology management, imazamox red rice survivors have been reported by farmers. Forty-two fields were monitored in 2010 and 2011 throughout the Piedmont and Lombardy regions and field cases were recorded of herbicides use and agronomic practices. Whole-plant sensitivity to imazamox was assessed and the resistance mechanism was determined by molecular analysis. Twenty-six red rice populations out of 42 were imazamox-resistant and plants of all the resistant populations possess a Ser to Asn substitution at locus 653 of the ALS gene determining the target-site resistance. Farmers frequently grow Clearfield® varieties for more than two consecutive years so increasing the selection pressure exerted by imazamox and favoring the evolution of resistant red rice. To maintain the sustainability of this new technology, a proper management based on crop rotation, utilization of certified seeds and strict control of red rice escapes has to be implemented. More generally, all stakeholders must increase their awareness that the selection pressure exerted by ALS inhibitors in rice cropping system should be reduced.

  6. Bioassays for monitoring insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Audra L E; Tindall, Kelly; Leonard, B Rogers

    2010-12-30

    Pest resistance to pesticides is an increasing problem because pesticides are an integral part of high-yielding production agriculture. When few products are labeled for an individual pest within a particular crop system, chemical control options are limited. Therefore, the same product(s) are used repeatedly and continual selection pressure is placed on the target pest. There are both financial and environmental costs associated with the development of resistant populations. The cost of pesticide resistance has been estimated at approximately $ 1.5 billion annually in the United States. This paper will describe protocols, currently used to monitor arthropod (specifically insects) populations for the development of resistance. The adult vial test is used to measure the toxicity to contact insecticides and a modification of this test is used for plant-systemic insecticides. In these bioassays, insects are exposed to technical grade insecticide and responses (mortality) recorded at a specific post-exposure interval. The mortality data are subjected to Log Dose probit analysis to generate estimates of a lethal concentration that provides mortality to 50% (LC(50) of the target populations and a series of confidence limits (CL's) as estimates of data variability. When these data are collected for a range of insecticide-susceptible populations, the LC(50) can be used as baseline data for future monitoring purposes. After populations have been exposed to products, the results can be compared to a previously determined LC(50) using the same methodology.

  7. Infrastructure monitoring data management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The primary objective of this project is to advance the development of a structural health monitoring : system (SHMS) for the Cut River Bridge. The scope includes performing an analysis from the fiber : optic strain gauge readings and making recommen...

  8. Bioassays for Monitoring Insecticide Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Audra L.E.; Tindall, Kelly; Leonard, B. Rogers

    2010-01-01

    Pest resistance to pesticides is an increasing problem because pesticides are an integral part of high-yielding production agriculture. When few products are labeled for an individual pest within a particular crop system, chemical control options are limited. Therefore, the same product(s) are used repeatedly and continual selection pressure is placed on the target pest. There are both financial and environmental costs associated with the development of resistant populations. The cost of pest...

  9. Monitoring Stormwater Management Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nationally, we are investing billions of dollars in green stormwater management but cannot provide assurances that the stormwater controls perform as intended in the long term. We need to develop a consistent set of measurements confirming that the stormwater management practice...

  10. Fleet management performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The principle goal of this project was to enhance and expand the analytical modeling methodology previously developed as part of the Fleet Management Criteria: Disposal Points and Utilization Rates project completed in 2010. The enhanced and ex...

  11. Insecticide Resistance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    thuringiensis var. membranes israeknsis A2 Bacillus sphaencus Inhibitocs of chitin biosynthesis type 0 15 Benzaylureas Diflubenzuron, triflnmuron...resources/ pdf /fsp/ir_manual/ir_cdc_bioassay_en.pdf 22 STEP 5: INTERPRETING RESULTS The time required for all susceptible mosquitoes to die in the...purchase by contacting: Dr Zairi Jaal, Tel: 604-6574776; zairi@usm.my http://www.who.int/whopes/resistance/en/WHO_CDS_CPE_PV C_2001.2. pdf 27

  12. Coke fouling monitoring by electrical resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombardelli, Clovis; Mari, Livia Assis; Kalinowski, Hypolito Jose [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica Industrial (CPGEI)

    2008-07-01

    An experimental method to simulate the growth of the coke fouling that occurs in the oil processing is proposed relating the thickness of the encrusted coke to its electrical resistivity. The authors suggest the use of the fouling electrical resistivity as a transducer element for determining its thickness. The sensor is basically two electrodes in an electrically isolated device where the inlay can happen in order to compose a purely resistive transducer. Such devices can be easily constructed in a simple and robust form with features capable to face the high temperatures and pressures found in relevant industrial processes. For validation, however, it is needed a relationship between the electrical resistivity and the fouling thickness, information not yet found in the literature. The present work experimentally simulates the growth of a layer of coke on an electrically insulating surface, equipped with electrodes at two extremities to measure the electrical resistivity during thermal cracking essays. The method is realized with a series of consecutive runs. The results correlate the mass of coke deposited and its electrical resistivity, and it can be used to validate the coke depositions monitoring employing the resistivity as a control parameter. (author)

  13. ARDA Dashboard Data Management Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, R; Andreeva, J; Saiz, P

    2007-01-01

    The Atlas DDM (Distributed Data Management) system is responsible for the management and distribution of data across the different grid sites. The data is generated at CERN and has to be made available as fast as possible in a large number of centres for production purposes, and later in many other sites for end-user analysis. Monitoring their data transfer activity and availability is an essential task for both site administrators and end users doing analysis in their local centres. Data management using the grid depends on a complex set of services. File catalogues for file and file location bookkeeping, transfer services for file movement, storage managers and others. In addition there are several flavours of each of these components, tens of sites each managing a distinct installation - over 100 at the present time - and in some organizations data is seen and moved in larger granularity than files - usually called datasets, which makes the successful usage of the standard grid monitoring tools a non strai...

  14. Built heritage monitoring conservation management

    CERN Document Server

    Boriani, Maurizio; Guidi, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, up-to-date overview on the most pressing issues in the conservation and management of archaeological, architectural, and urban landscapes. Multidisciplinary research is presented on a wide range of built heritage sites, from archaeological ruins and historic centers through to twentieth century and industrial architectural heritage. The role of ICT and new technologies, including those used for digital archiving, surveying, modeling, and monitoring, is extensively discussed, in recognition of their importance for professionals working in the field. Detailed attention is also paid to materials and treatments employed in preventive conservation and management. With contributions from leading experts, including university researchers, professionals, and policy makers, the book will be invaluable for all who seek to understand, and solve, the challenges faced in the protection and enhancement of the built heritage.

  15. Monitoring the agricultural landscape for insect resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joseph; Glaser, J. A.; Copenhaver, Ken

    Farmers in 25 countries on six continents are using plant biotechnology to solve difficult crop production challenges and conserve the environment. In fact, 13.3 million farmers, which include 90 percent of the farming in developing countries, choose to plant biotech crops. Over the past decade, farmers increased area planted in genetically modified (GM) crops by more than 10 percent each year, thus increasing their farm income by more than 44 billion US dollars (1996-2007), and achieved economic, environmental and social benefits in crops such as soybeans, canola, corn and cotton. To date, total acres of biotech crops harvested exceed more than 2 billion with a proven 13-year history of safe use. Over the next decade, expanded adoption combined with current research on 57 crops in 63 countries will broaden the advantages of genetically modified foods for growers, consumers and the environment. Genetically modified (GM) crops with the ability to produce toxins lethal to specific insect pests are covering a larger percentage of the agricultural landscape every year. The United States department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated that 63 percent of corn and 65 percent of cotton contained these specific genetic traits in 2009. The toxins could protect billions of dollars of loss from insect damage for crops valued at greater than 165 billion US dollars in 2008. The stable and efficient production of these crops has taken on even more importance in recent years with their use, not only as a food source, but now also a source of fuel. It is in the best interest of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to ensure the continued efficacy of toxin producing GM crops as their use reduces pesticides harmful to humans and animals. However, population genetics models have indicated the risk of insect pests developing resistance to these toxins if a high percentage of acreage is grown in these crops. The USEPA is developing methods to monitor the agricultural

  16. Pharmacist-managed dose adjustment feedback using therapeutic drug monitoring of vancomycin was useful for patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: a single institution experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirano R

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ryuichi Hirano,1 Yuichi Sakamoto,2 Junichi Kitazawa,2 Shoji Yamamoto,1 Naoki Tachibana2 1Department of Pharmacy, 2Laboratory Medicine and Blood Transfusion, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori-shi, Japan Background: Vancomycin (VCM requires dose adjustment based on therapeutic drug monitoring. At Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, physicians carried out VCM therapeutic drug monitoring based on their experience, because pharmacists did not participate in the dose adjustment. We evaluated the impact of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP on attaining target VCM trough concentrations and pharmacokinetics (PK/pharmacodynamics (PD parameters in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections. Materials and methods: The ASP was introduced in April 2012. We implemented a prospective audit of prescribed VCM dosages and provided feedback based on measured VCM trough concentrations. In a retrospective pre- and postcomparison study from April 2007 to December 2011 (preimplementation and from April 2012 to December 2014 (postimplementation, 79 patients were treated for MRSA infection with VCM, and trough concentrations were monitored (pre, n=28; post, n=51. In 65 patients (pre, n=15; post, n=50, 24-hour area under the ­concentration–time curve (AUC 0–24 h/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ratios were calculated. Results: Pharmacist feedback, which included recommendations for changing dose or using alternative anti-MRSA antibiotics, was highly accepted during postimplementation (88%, 29/33. The number of patients with serum VCM concentrations within the therapeutic range (10–20 μg/mL was significantly higher during postimplementation (84%, 43/51 than during preimplementation (39%, 11/28 (P<0.01. The percentage of patients who attained target PK/PD parameters (AUC 0–24 h/MIC >400 was significantly higher during postimplementation (84%, 42/50 than during preimplementation (53%, 8/15; P=0.013. There were

  17. Danish integrated antimicrobial in resistance monitoring and research program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette Marie; Heuer, Ole Eske; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe

    2007-01-01

    a systematic and continuous monitoring program of antimicrobial drug consumption and antimicrobial agent resistance in animals, food, and humans, the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program (DANMAP). Monitoring of antimicrobial drug resistance and a range of research......Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish...... activities related to DANMAP have contributed to restrictions or bans of use of several antimicrobial agents in food animals in Denmark and other European Union countries....

  18. The Skid Resistance Evaluation on the Longterm Monitored Road Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotek Peter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the skid resistance results measured at the long-term monitored road sections in Slovakia in perspective of the possibility of the deterioration functions determination for the purposes of the pavement management system. There were 11 road sections evaluated, on which have been surface characteristics measured since 1998. The focus was on the evaluation of the longitudinal friction coefficient Mu measured by device Skiddometer BV11, which is the property of the Slovak Road Administration. Beside the Mu parameter, the test conditions were observed and evaluated, as well (measured speed, air and surface temperature, type of asphalts of the wearing course, traffic load, and the season (spring, autumn, respectively in which the skid resistance measurements were performed. In conclusion, there was reviewed a presumption of the possibility to determine a deterioration functions for skid resistance in point of view the quality of the data, which have been collected on the Slovak long-term monitored road sections.

  19. The Skid Resistance Evaluation on the Longterm Monitored Road Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotek, Peter; Kováč, Matúš; Decký, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The article deals with the analysis of the skid resistance results measured at the long-term monitored road sections in Slovakia in perspective of the possibility of the deterioration functions determination for the purposes of the pavement management system. There were 11 road sections evaluated, on which have been surface characteristics measured since 1998. The focus was on the evaluation of the longitudinal friction coefficient Mu measured by device Skiddometer BV11, which is the property of the Slovak Road Administration. Beside the Mu parameter, the test conditions were observed and evaluated, as well (measured speed, air and surface temperature, type of asphalts of the wearing course, traffic load, and the season (spring, autumn, respectively) in which the skid resistance measurements were performed. In conclusion, there was reviewed a presumption of the possibility to determine a deterioration functions for skid resistance in point of view the quality of the data, which have been collected on the Slovak long-term monitored road sections.

  20. Storm Water Control Management & Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-30

    Temple and Villanova universities collected monitoring and assessment data along the I-95 corridor to evaluate the performance of current stormwater control design and maintenance practices. An extensive inventory was developed that ranks plants in t...

  1. 75 FR 16817 - 2010 Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System; Public Meeting; Request for... Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System.'' The topic to be discussed is the results from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) and related antimicrobial...

  2. 76 FR 37356 - 2011 Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ...] 2011 Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System; Public Meeting... Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System.'' The topic to be discussed is animal and retail sampling methods for the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS...

  3. 76 FR 16795 - The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System Strategic Plan 2011-2015; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ...] The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System Strategic Plan 2011-2015; Request for Comments..., FDA requested comments on a document for the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System....fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/SafetyHealth/AntimicrobialResistance/NationalAntimicrobialResistance...

  4. A data management infrastructure for bridge monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seongwoon; Byun, Jaewook; Kim, Daeyoung; Sohn, Hoon; Bae, In Hwan; Law, Kincho H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses a data management infrastructure framework for bridge monitoring applications. As sensor technologies mature and become economically affordable, their deployment for bridge monitoring will continue to grow. Data management becomes a critical issue not only for storing the sensor data but also for integrating with the bridge model to support other functions, such as management, maintenance and inspection. The focus of this study is on the effective data management of bridge information and sensor data, which is crucial to structural health monitoring and life cycle management of bridge structures. We review the state-of-the-art of bridge information modeling and sensor data management, and propose a data management framework for bridge monitoring based on NoSQL database technologies that have been shown useful in handling high volume, time-series data and to flexibly deal with unstructured data schema. Specifically, Apache Cassandra and Mongo DB are deployed for the prototype implementation of the framework. This paper describes the database design for an XML-based Bridge Information Modeling (BrIM) schema, and the representation of sensor data using Sensor Model Language (SensorML). The proposed prototype data management framework is validated using data collected from the Yeongjong Bridge in Incheon, Korea.

  5. Resistance evolution to the first generation of genetically modified Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events by western corn rootworm: management and monitoring considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera; WCR) is a major coleopteran maize pest in North America and the EU, and has traditionally been managed through crop rotation and broad-spectrum soil insecticides. Genetically modified (GM) Bt-maize offers an additional means of control against W...

  6. Clinical Management of HIV Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Karoll J.; Maldarelli, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection has resulted in profound reductions in viremia and is associated with marked improvements in morbidity and mortality. Therapy is not curative, however, and prolonged therapy is complicated by drug toxicity and the emergence of drug resistance. Management of clinical drug resistance requires in depth evaluation, and includes extensive history, physical examination and laboratory studies. Appropriate use of resistance testing provides valuable information useful in constructing regimens for treatment-experienced individuals with viremia during therapy. This review outlines the emergence of drug resistance in vivo, and describes clinical evaluation and therapeutic options of the individual with rebound viremia during therapy. PMID:21994737

  7. Management of treatment resistant schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    symptoms, cognitive deficits, excitement or aggression, co- morbidity such as depressive and anxiety symptoms, .... another domain of treatment resistance, cognitive deficits, risperidone and olanzapine may be more .... support, teaching the recognition of early warning signs and addressing issues of medication adherence ...

  8. Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1998-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1997, eleven constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from upgradient monitoring wells. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  9. Monitoring for resistance to organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides in varroa mite populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of resistance in Varroa mite populations is a serious threat to the beekeeping industry and crops that rely on the honey bee for pollination. Integrated pest management strategies for control of this pest include the judicious use of insecticides. To monitor field populations of Varro...

  10. Neural network monitoring of resistance welding processes

    OpenAIRE

    Quero Reboul, José Manuel; Millán Vázquez de la Torre, Rafael Luis; García Franquelo, Leopoldo; Cañas, J.

    1994-01-01

    Control of weld quality is one of the most important and complex processes to be carried out on production lines. Neural networks have shown good results in fields such as modelling and control of physical processes. It is suggested in this article that a neural classifier should be used to carry out non‐destructive on‐line analysis. This system has been developed and installed at resistance welding stations. Results confirm the validity of neural networks used for this type of application.

  11. Validity of Wearable Activity Monitors during Cycling and Resistance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Benjamin D; Hebert, Edward P; Hollander, Daniel B; Williams, Brian M; Cormier, Corinne L; Naquin, Mildred R; Gillan, Wynn W; Gusew, Emily E; Kraemer, Robert R

    2018-03-01

    The use of wearable activity monitors has seen rapid growth; however, the mode and intensity of exercise could affect the validity of heart rate (HR) and caloric (energy) expenditure (EE) readings. There is a lack of data regarding the validity of wearable activity monitors during graded cycling regimen and a standard resistance exercise. The present study determined the validity of eight monitors for HR compared with an ECG and seven monitors for EE compared with a metabolic analyzer during graded cycling and resistance exercise. Fifty subjects (28 women, 22 men) completed separate trials of graded cycling and three sets of four resistance exercises at a 10-repetition-maximum load. Monitors included the following: Apple Watch Series 2, Fitbit Blaze, Fitbit Charge 2, Polar H7, Polar A360, Garmin Vivosmart HR, TomTom Touch, and Bose SoundSport Pulse (BSP) headphones. HR was recorded after each cycling intensity and after each resistance exercise set. EE was recorded after both protocols. Validity was established as having a mean absolute percent error (MAPE) value of ≤10%. The Polar H7 and BSP were valid during both exercise modes (cycling: MAPE = 6.87%, R = 0.79; resistance exercise: MAPE = 6.31%, R = 0.83). During cycling, the Apple Watch Series 2 revealed the greatest HR validity (MAPE = 4.14%, R = 0.80). The BSP revealed the greatest HR accuracy during resistance exercise (MAPE = 6.24%, R = 0.86). Across all devices, as exercise intensity increased, there was greater underestimation of HR. No device was valid for EE during cycling or resistance exercise. HR from wearable devices differed at different exercise intensities; EE estimates from wearable devices were inaccurate. Wearable devices are not medical devices, and users should be cautious when using these devices for monitoring physiological responses to exercise.

  12. Wireless battery management control and monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumstein, James M.; Chang, John T.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Kovotsky, Jack; Lavietes, Anthony; Trebes, James Edward

    2018-01-16

    A battery management system using a sensor inside of the battery that sensor enables monitoring and detection of various events in the battery and transmission of a signal from the sensor through the battery casing to a control and data acquisition module by wireless transmission. The detection of threshold events in the battery enables remedial action to be taken to avoid catastrophic events.

  13. Value of monitoring in road network management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zouch, M.; Courage, W.; Napoles-Morales, O.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for road network management to assist road authorities in maintenance budget estimations and long-term maintenance strategies definition. Information about road conditions is obtained from monitoring. Available data are used to estimate and update prediction of degradation

  14. Monitoring and Managing Fatigue in Basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Edwards

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The sport of basketball exposes athletes to frequent high intensity movements including sprinting, jumping, accelerations, decelerations and changes of direction during training and competition which can lead to acute and accumulated chronic fatigue. Fatigue may affect the ability of the athlete to perform over the course of a lengthy season. The ability of practitioners to quantify the workload and subsequent fatigue in basketball athletes in order to monitor and manage fatigue levels may be beneficial in maintaining high levels of performance and preventing unfavorable physical and physiological training adaptations. There is currently limited research quantifying training or competition workload outside of time motion analysis in basketball. In addition, systematic research investigating methods to monitor and manage athlete fatigue in basketball throughout a season is scarce. To effectively optimize and maintain peak training and playing performance throughout a basketball season, potential workload and fatigue monitoring strategies need to be discussed.

  15. Chinese adolescents' reports of covert parental monitoring: Comparisons with overt monitoring and links with information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Skyler T

    2017-02-01

    This study compared Chinese adolescents' reports of covert parental monitoring with the overt strategies of solicitation and control. We investigated these behaviors in terms of unique associations with adolescents' perceived privacy invasion and the information management behaviors of disclosure and secrecy. High school students (N = 455, 61.5% female; M age  = 17.39, SD = 0.83) from a predominantly rural province of Mainland China reported a high incidence of covert monitoring (60.40%). Covert monitoring predicted privacy invasion more strongly than solicitation or control. Solicitation positively predicted disclosure, while covert monitoring negatively predicted disclosure and positively predicted secrecy. Privacy invasion fully mediated links between covert monitoring and information management. These latter effects were significantly stronger for girls than for boys. Similar to Western adolescents, Chinese youth might apply selective resistance when parents violate their personal domain. The findings suggest linkage between some parental monitoring behaviors and disruptions in Chinese family communication. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Monitoring antifolate resistance in intermittent preventive therapy for malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkatesan, Meera; Alifrangis, Michael; Roper, Cally

    2013-01-01

    control in children (SMC). SP-IPTp is being widely implemented in sub-Saharan Africa. SP-IPTi is recommended where the prevalence of SP-resistant malaria parasites is low, whereas SMC is recommended for areas of intense seasonal malaria transmission. The continuing success of these interventions depends...... largely on the prevalence of Pfdhfr and Pfdhps resistance mutations in the target population. Here we review the relationship between resistance mutations and SP-IPT within target populations in the context of monitoring and informing implementation of this intervention....

  17. Study on electrical monitoring of fill-up improvement. Utilization of resistivity data for soil compaction management; Hiteiko mitsudo kanri ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu. Moritsuchi seko kanri eno hiteiko yuko riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, N.; Hiramatsu, W. [Dai Nippon Construction, Gifu (Japan); Sugano, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    At present, measurement of wet density and water content by radio isotope (RI method) is used for filling management. It is supposed for filling in road construction that putting-out thickness of banking material reaches nearly 1m in the future rapid construction, however, use of RI method is difficult because of inserting and installing of a radiation source rod, large measuring apparatus, and the legal regulation on radioactivity intensity. Application of resistivity measurement was thus considered. Since resistivity has the same parameter as compaction curve, and monotonously decreases with an increase in water content by volume, it is applicable as construction management index. The management reference of resistivity (Rm) is set by plotting of a compaction curve and corresponding resistivity curve, determination of the reference resistivity (Ro) corresponding to a maximum dry density and optimum water content ratio, and setting of the allowance to Ro according to soil or application. It was clarified that Rm is applicable as set for every filling material. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. 76 FR 4120 - The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System Strategic Plan 2011-2015; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ...] The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System Strategic Plan 2011-2015; Request for Comments... National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) entitled ``NARMS Strategic Plan 2011-2015.../AntimicrobialResistance/NationalAntimicrobialResistanceMonitoringSystem/default.htm or http://www.regulations...

  19. Best Management Practices Monitoring Guide for Stream Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mesner, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Best Management Practices Monitoring Guide for Stream Systems provides guidance on establishing a water quality monitoring program that will demonstrate the effectiveness of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to reduce nonpoint source pollution in stream systems.

  20. 7 CFR 246.19 - Management evaluation and monitoring reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Monitoring and Review § 246.19 Management evaluation and monitoring reviews... education, participant services, civil rights compliance, accountability, financial management systems, and...

  1. Molecular monitoring of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genton Blaise

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs are recommended for use against uncomplicated malaria in areas of multi-drug resistant malaria, such as sub-Saharan Africa. However, their long-term usefulness in these high transmission areas remains unclear. It has been suggested that documentation of the S769N PfATPase6 mutations may indicate an emergence of artemisinin resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in the field. The present study assessed PfATPase6 mutations (S769N and A623E in 615 asymptomatic P. falciparum infections in Tanzania but no mutant genotype was detected. This observation suggests that resistance to artemisinin has not yet been selected in Tanzania, supporting the Ministry of Health's decision to adopt artemether+lumefantrine as first-line malaria treatment. The findings recommend further studies to assess PfATPase6 mutations in sentinel sites and verify their usefulness in monitoring emergency of ACT resistance.

  2. CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE MANAGEMENT OF RESISTANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Marius-Dan DALOTĂ

    2011-01-01

    The difficulty of organisational change is often exacerbated by the mismanagement of resistance derived from a simple set of assumptions that misunderstand resistance’s essential nature. It is suggested that management may greatly gain from techniques that carefully manage resistance to change by looking for ways of utilising it rather than overcoming it. Today, suggestions and prescriptions for managing resistance have left little room for utility in resistance. Traditionally, resistance has...

  3. Implementation of remote monitoring and managing switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Junmin; Fu, Guo

    2010-12-01

    In order to strengthen the safety performance of the network and provide the big convenience and efficiency for the operator and the manager, the system of remote monitoring and managing switches has been designed and achieved using the advanced network technology and present network resources. The fast speed Internet Protocol Cameras (FS IP Camera) is selected, which has 32-bit RSIC embedded processor and can support a number of protocols. An Optimal image compress algorithm Motion-JPEG is adopted so that high resolution images can be transmitted by narrow network bandwidth. The architecture of the whole monitoring and managing system is designed and implemented according to the current infrastructure of the network and switches. The control and administrative software is projected. The dynamical webpage Java Server Pages (JSP) development platform is utilized in the system. SQL (Structured Query Language) Server database is applied to save and access images information, network messages and users' data. The reliability and security of the system is further strengthened by the access control. The software in the system is made to be cross-platform so that multiple operating systems (UNIX, Linux and Windows operating systems) are supported. The application of the system can greatly reduce manpower cost, and can quickly find and solve problems.

  4. Results from two years of resistivity monitoring at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilt, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    Dipole-dipole resistivity measurements for the combined purposes of reservoir delineation and resistivity monitoring were first made at Cerro Prieto in 1978 and have continued on an annual basis since then. Two 20 km long dipole-dipole lines with permanently emplaced electrodes at one kilometer spacings were established over the field area; one of these lines is remeasured annually. Resistivity measurements are taken using a 25 kW generator capable of up to 80A output and a microprocessor controlled signal averaging receiver; this high power-low noise system is capable of highly accurate measurements even at large transmitter-receiver separations. Standard error calculations for collected data indicate errors less than 5% for all points, but 95% confidence intervals show error limits about 2 to 4 times higher. Analysis of collected data indicate little change in the apparent resistivity of the upper 300 m over the field production zone and that in this section measurements are relatively insensitive to the annual rainfall cycle. Apparent resistivity increases were observed over the older producing zone at Cerro Prieto at depths of 1 km and greater. Large zones of decreasing apparent resistivity were observed flanking the zone of increases on both sides. The increase in apparent resistivity in the production region may be due to an increasing fraction of steam in the reservoir resulting from a production related decline in reservoir pressure. Alternatively the increases may be the result of fresh water influx from the Colorado River. The zone of declining resistivity flanking the area of increase may be due to the movement of saline waters into the reservoir region as a result of the pressure decline. Quantitative modeling of observed changes is impractical owing to the high uncertainty in estimating apparent resistivity changes and the nonuniqueness of models.

  5. Global Aerospace Monitoring and Disaster Management

    CERN Document Server

    Menshikov, Valery A; Urlichich, Yuri M

    2012-01-01

    In this book, space systems are situated in the global processes of the 21st century’s information society and the role that space information systems could play in risk management is determined; methods of detecting and forecasting of both natural disasters and technogenic catastrophes and existing global and regional monitoring systems are described; and the IGMASS is introduced with its architecture and design concept and social and economic aspects and estimates of its creation, development, and utilization. Finally, results of the international symposium held in Limassol, Cyprus, in November 2009 in preparation of the IGMASS project’s submission to the United Nations are discussed.

  6. Future technologies for monitoring HIV drug resistance and cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Urvi M; McCormick, Kevin; van Zyl, Gert; Mellors, John W

    2017-03-01

    Sensitive, scalable and affordable assays are critically needed for monitoring the success of interventions for preventing, treating and attempting to cure HIV infection. This review evaluates current and emerging technologies that are applicable for both surveillance of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) and characterization of HIV reservoirs that persist despite antiretroviral therapy and are obstacles to curing HIV infection. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the potential to be adapted into high-throughput, cost-efficient approaches for HIVDR surveillance and monitoring during continued scale-up of antiretroviral therapy and rollout of preexposure prophylaxis. Similarly, improvements in PCR and NGS are resulting in higher throughput single genome sequencing to detect intact proviruses and to characterize HIV integration sites and clonal expansions of infected cells. Current population genotyping methods for resistance monitoring are high cost and low throughput. NGS, combined with simpler sample collection and storage matrices (e.g. dried blood spots), has considerable potential to broaden global surveillance and patient monitoring for HIVDR. Recent adaptions of NGS to identify integration sites of HIV in the human genome and to characterize the integrated HIV proviruses are likely to facilitate investigations of the impact of experimental 'curative' interventions on HIV reservoirs.

  7. Messages on "Resistance to change" in German change management approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Fassauer, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    "Resistance to change" is one of the most important topics of change management in organizations. The paper investigates the analytical framing of „resistance“ and the „resistant employee“ in established German literature on change management. The analysis reveals three main messages referring the characteristics of resistance and the resistant change recipient. These are 1) that resistance is a „natural“, nearly inevitable phenomenon in organizational change processes, 2) that every behavior...

  8. CHANGE RESISTANCE IN THE PROCESS OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Polat TUNÇER

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of this article the resistance to change of the employees in the process of organizational change, in terms of change management is to handle. Made of the literature on the subject, the concepts of change management and resistance to change are examined and focused on the causes to resist and prevention methods its. In addition, in order to manage change successfully, the prevention or elimination of resistance to organizational change, it is necessary matters were discussed. Operati...

  9. Three years of insecticide resistance monitoring in Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso: resistance on the rise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badolo Athanase

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and methods A longitudinal Anopheles gambiae s.l. insecticide-resistance monitoring programme was established in four sentinel sites in Burkina Faso. For three years, between 2008 and 2010, WHO diagnostic dose assays were used to measure the prevalence of resistance to all the major classes of insecticides at the beginning and end of the malaria transmission season. Species identification and genotyping for target site mutations was also performed and the sporozoite rate in adults determined. Results At the onset of the study, resistance to DDT and pyrethroids was already prevalent in An. gambiae s.l. from the south-west of the country but mosquitoes from the two sites in central Burkina Faso were largely susceptible. Within three years, DDT and permethrin resistance was established in all four sites. Carbamate and organophosphate resistance remains relatively rare and largely confined to the south-western areas although a small number of bendiocarb survivors were found in all sites by the final round of monitoring. The ace-1R target site resistance allele was present in all localities and its frequency exceeded 20% in 2010 in two of the sites. The frequency of the 1014F kdr mutation increased throughout the three years and by 2010, the frequency of 1014F in all sites combined was 0.02 in Anopheles arabiensis, 0.56 in An. gambiae M form and 0.96 in An. gambiae S form. This frequency did not differ significantly between the sites. The 1014S kdr allele was only found in An. arabiensis but its frequency increased significantly throughout the study (P = 0.0003 and in 2010 the 1014S allele frequency was 0.08 in An. arabiensis. Maximum sporozoite rates (12% were observed in Soumousso in 2009 and the difference between sites is significant for each year. Conclusion Pyrethroid and DDT resistance is now established in An. gambiae s.l. throughout Burkina Faso. Results from diagnostic dose assays are highly variable within and

  10. Smart Garbage Monitoring System for Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Yusof Norfadzlia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Piles of rubbish are one of the major problems faced by most people in Malaysia, especially those who live in flats, as the number of bins is limited and shared among all residents. It may cause pollutions, which may lead to sanitary issues and diseases. This project presents the development of a smart garbage monitoring system in order to measure waste level in the garbage bin in real-time and to alert the municipality, in particular cases, via SMS. The proposed system is consisted by the ultrasonic sensor to measure the waste level, the GSM module to send the SMS, and an Arduino Uno which controls the system operation. It supposes to generate and send the warning messages to the municipality via SMS when the waste bin is full or almost full, so the garbage can be collected immediately. Furthermore, it is expected to contribute to improving the efficiency of the solid waste disposal management.

  11. Managing Resistance: An Essential Consulting Skill for Learning Disabilities Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Marilyn; Bauwens, Jeanne

    1988-01-01

    The article explores characteristics of resistance by general educators to special education consultation programs. It offers teachers of learning disabled students strategies for managing specific types of resistance as well as a general plan for minimizing resistance as well as suggestions for evaluating the impact of resistance management…

  12. Resistance Monitoring for Eight Insecticides on the Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Yang, Xin; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun

    2017-04-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is an important pest of many crops worldwide. Because control of B. tabaci still depends on the application of insecticides in China, monitoring the insecticide resistance of B. tabaci populations is essential for achieving control and for managing resistance. In this study, field populations of B. tabaci on vegetables were collected in three regions of China in 2011, 2012, and 2013. The resistance of these populations (all of which were determined to belong to biotype Q) to eight insecticides (abamectin, spinetoram, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, nitenpyram, chlorpyrifos, and bifenthrin) was assessed by the leaf-dip method. No resistance to abamectin and spinetoram was detected. All of the B. tabaci populations exhibited resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides; the resistance was 3.6- to 125.0-fold greater than that of a susceptible reference strain. The traditional insecticides chlorpyrifos and bifenthrin had very low toxicity. Bemisia tabaci specimens in some regions exhibited annual differences in resistance to some of the insecticides. The data presented will be helpful for making decisions on the proper insecticide usage in the field. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Integration of structural health monitoring and asset management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This project investigated the feasibility and potential benefits of the integration of infrastructure monitoring systems into enterprise-scale transportation management systems. An infrastructure monitoring system designed for bridges was implemented...

  14. Recognition and Management of Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, Branko; Taler, Sandra J; Rahman, Mahboob; Fillaus, Jennifer A; Greco, Barbara A; Forman, John P; Reisin, Efrain; Cohen, Debbie L; Saklayen, Mohammad G; Hedayati, S Susan

    2017-03-07

    Despite improvements in hypertension awareness and treatment, 30%-60% of hypertensive patients do not achieve BP targets and subsequently remain at risk for target organ damage. This therapeutic gap is particularly important to nephrologists, who frequently encounter treatment-resistant hypertension in patients with CKD. Data are limited on how best to treat patients with CKD and resistant hypertension, because patients with CKD have historically been excluded from hypertension treatment trials. First, we propose a consistent definition of resistant hypertension as BP levels confirmed by both in-office and out-of-office measurements that exceed appropriate targets while the patient is receiving treatment with at least three antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic, at dosages optimized to provide maximum benefit in the absence of intolerable side effects. Second, we recommend that each patient undergo a standardized, stepwise evaluation to assess adherence to dietary and lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive medications to identify and reduce barriers and discontinue use of substances that may exacerbate hypertension. Patients in whom there is high clinical suspicion should be evaluated for potential secondary causes of hypertension. Evidence-based management of resistant hypertension is discussed with special considerations of the differences in approach to patients with and without CKD, including the specific roles of diuretics and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and the current place of emerging therapies, such as renal denervation and baroreceptor stimulation. We endorse use of such a systematic approach to improve recognition and care for this vulnerable patient group that is at high risk for future kidney and cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. Diagnosing resistance to change in the change management process

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzhda, Tetiana

    2016-01-01

    This article explains the change management process and resistance to organizational change through examining causes of resistance to change, diagnosing them, and finding the ways to deal with resistance to change. In business environment, the one thing any company can be assured of is change. If an organization experiences change it may also need to implement new business strategies, which can create resistance among employees. Managers need to know in which phase they have to expect unusual...

  16. Management of insecticide resistance in Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations from Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanga, Lambert H B; Pree, David J; van Lier, Jennifer L; Walker, Gerald M

    2003-08-01

    The development of resistance in the Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) to organophosphorus (OP) insecticides (azinphos-methyl and phosmet) is a serious threat to the tender fruit industry in Ontario (50% crop losses in 1994). Resistance to carbamate insecticides and increased survival of field-collected moths at diagnostic concentrations of pyrethroids were widespread. As a result, four different treatment regimes were tested to manage resistance in G molesta, and the changes in resistance frequencies under each treatment regime were monitored from 1996 to 1999. The data indicated that the levels of resistance were significantly influenced by the various treatment regimes. The seasonal pattern of resistance was similar for all treatment regimes, in that resistance peaked in mid-season and declined in the late season. Levels of resistance in G molesta to OPs decreased from 55% to 14% and that to pyrethroids declined from 30% to 10% from 1996 to 1999 under a treatment regime consisting of endosulfan-organophosphate-pyrethroid rotation. Similarly, under a treatment regime implemented in commercial orchards (organophosphate-pyrethroid rotation), resistance to OP insecticides declined from 50% to 12% and resistance to pyrethroids evolved to around 16%. The overall data indicated that resistance was unstable; a strategy based on rotation of insecticides by class for each generation of G molesta was successful in managing resistance to both OP and pyrethroid insecticides. The rotational strategy has been widely adopted by growers and is applied to ca 85% of the acreage.

  17. Using soil quality indicators for monitoring sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Burger; Garland Gray; D. Andrew Scott

    2010-01-01

    Most private and public forest land owners and managers are compelled to manage their forests sustainably, which means management that is economically viable,environmentally sound, and socially acceptable. To meet this mandate, the USDA Forest Service protects the productivity of our nation’s forest soils by monitoring and evaluating management activities to ensure...

  18. Motivational monitoring as management instrument for the personnel fluctuation

    OpenAIRE

    Дарченко, Наталія Дмитрівна

    2013-01-01

    The essence, tasks and basic directions of the motivational monitoring at an enterprise have been examined, its classification has been offered. The topicality of problem of personnel fluctuation at an enterprise and management possibility from application of the motivational monitoring have been proved. The methodical bases of monitoring the personnel fluctuation of an enterprise have been proposed.

  19. Managing Resistance: Remembering How to Fly a Kite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, John W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a technique for managing resistance in which adults alter their responses to fit a child's perspective. Offers a cognitive perspective of reality and ways in which to create rapport through mirroring, postural congruence, and crossover mirroring. Provides techniques for managing resistance, such as acknowledging pessimistic beliefs and…

  20. Preventing and managing antiretroviral drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuritzkes, Daniel R

    2004-05-01

    Development of resistance to antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) is a major impediment to optimum treatment of HIV-1 infection. Although resistance testing can help to select subsequent regimens when virologic failure occurs, cross-resistance, which affects all classes of ARVs, may make it more difficult to achieve optimum control of HIV. We have known for some time that our first choice of antiretroviral therapy offers the best chance to control HIV replication and that initial therapy should be selected with an eye on future options. Potency is the first line of defense against the development of resistance. Other factors that affect resistance development include: tolerability, potential for optimum adherence, and genetic and pharmacologic barriers to development of resistance. If resistance emerges, only a single drug may be affected initially, and a rapid change in ARVs may preserve the efficacy of other components. One cautionary note is that we can no longer assume that a patient's HIV is fully susceptible to all ARVs even in the initial regimen. Transmission of drug-resistant HIV means that the genetic composition may be that of an "experienced" virus with reduced susceptibility to ARVs. Resistance testing at the time of transmission is most likely to reveal this resistance, but over time the dominant genetic pattern may revert to wild-type, and be missed by resistance testing. Because "archived" resistant HIV may emerge quickly once treatment is initiated, we need to keep this in mind when selecting initial therapy.

  1. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae in Hawaii and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett. To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad.

  2. Integrating environmental monitoring with cumulative effects management and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronmiller, Joshua G; Noble, Bram F

    2018-05-01

    Cumulative effects (CE) monitoring is foundational to emerging regional and watershed CE management frameworks, yet monitoring is often poorly integrated with CE management and decision-making processes. The challenges are largely institutional and organizational, more so than scientific or technical. Calls for improved integration of monitoring with CE management and decision making are not new, but there has been limited research on how best to integrate environmental monitoring programs to ensure credible CE science and to deliver results that respond to the more immediate questions and needs of regulatory decision makers. This paper examines options for the integration of environmental monitoring with CE frameworks. Based on semistructured interviews with practitioners, regulators, and other experts in the Lower Athabasca, Alberta, Canada, 3 approaches to monitoring system design are presented. First, a distributed monitoring system, reflecting the current approach in the Lower Athabasca, where monitoring is delegated to different external programs and organizations; second, a 1-window system in which monitoring is undertaken by a single, in-house agency for the purpose of informing management and regulatory decision making; third, an independent system driven primarily by CE science and understanding causal relationships, with knowledge adopted for decision support where relevant to specific management questions. The strengths and limitations of each approach are presented. A hybrid approach may be optimal-an independent, nongovernment, 1-window model for CE science, monitoring, and information delivery-capitalizing on the strengths of distributed, 1-window, and independent monitoring systems while mitigating their weaknesses. If governments are committed to solving CE problems, they must invest in the long-term science needed to do so; at the same time, if science-based monitoring programs are to be sustainable over the long term, they must be responsive to

  3. Resistance Monitoring of Four Insecticides and a Description of an Artificial Diet Incorporation Method for Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuijin, Huang; Qiong, Chen; Wenjing, Qin; Yang, Sun; Houguo, Qin

    2017-12-05

    Chilo suppressalis (Walker; Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the most damaging rice pests in China. Insecticides play a major role in its management. We describe how we monitored the resistance of C. suppressalis to four insecticides in seven field populations from Jiangxi, Hubei, and Hunan Provinces, China, in 2014-2016. The topical application method for resistance monitoring was suitable for triazophos, monosultap, and abamectin. The conventional rice seedling dipping method proved ineffective for testing chlorantraniliprole so the new artificial diet incorporation method was substituted. This new method provided more consistent results than the other methods, once baseline toxicity data had been established. All populations had moderate to high resistance to triazophos from 2014 to 2016. Monosultap resistance in two populations increased from low in 2014 to moderate in 2016 and the other five populations showed moderate to high-level resistance throughout. Abamectin resistance in three populations increased from sensitive or low in 2014 to moderate in 2015-2016, and the other populations had moderate to high levels of resistance. Resistance to chlorantraniliprole increased from sensitive or low in 2014 to moderate to high in 2016. These results suggested that resistance management strategies should be developed according to the needs of a specific location. It was suggested that, in these localities, organophosphate insecticides should be prohibited, the application of nereistoxin, macrolide antibiotic, and diamide insecticides should be limited, and other insecticides, including spinetoram and methoxyfenozide, that exhibited no resistance should be used rationally and in rotation to delay resistance development. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. 24 CFR 50.22 - Environmental management and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental management and... and Urban Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY General Policy: Environmental Review Procedures § 50.22 Environmental management and monitoring. An Environmental Management and...

  5. Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative Project Achievements for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohman, E.H.; Lohrstorfer, C.L.; Venedam, R.J.; Weeks, S.J.; Fannin, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) project has been in existence since 2002. In this short time period, AMSI has successfully developed, tested and/or demonstrated over 30 advanced sensors and monitoring systems for applications in environmental restoration, waste management and other areas of national interest. This presentation summarizes the AMSI project, and gives examples of recent successes. The purpose of the presentation is to make Symposium attendees aware of AMSI's capabilities and experience, for possible use in the future. Example successes include the following: - Automated hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) monitoring in wells alongside the Columbia River; - Atmospheric chemical sensor array for remote, real-time plume tracking; - Wireless sensor platform for long-term monitoring of subsurface moisture; - Embedded piezo-resistive micro-cantilever (EPM) units for carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) detection; - 'iHistorian' for efficient, real-time data management of chemical releases. (authors)

  6. Obesity and Insulin Resistance: Management in Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Suhel Ashraff; Muhammad A. Siddiqui; Thomas E. Carline

    2013-01-01

    Obesity today, is a major public health problem across the world. The rapid increase in the incidence of obesity and associated co-morbidities presents a major challenge to health care globally. Insulin resistance is commonly associated with obesity and other life style diseases. However, much uncertainty remains about the mechanism regarding the association between insulin resistance and human disease mainly because of the difficulties of defining insulin resistance in clinical terms and of ...

  7. Resistant hypertension and sleep apnea: pathophysiologic insights and strategic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephen K; Ravenell, Joseph; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Zizi, Ferdinand; Underberg, James A; McFarlane, Samy I; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2011-02-01

    Resistant hypertension is common among adults with hypertension affecting up to 30% of patients. The treatment of resistant hypertension is important because suboptimal blood pressure control is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. A frequent comorbid condition in patients with resistant hypertension is obstructive sleep apnea. The pathophysiology of sleep apnea-associated hypertension is characterized by sustained adrenergic activation and volume retention often posing treatment challenges in patients with resistant hypertension. This review will address some of the epidemiologic data associating apnea with the pathogenesis of resistant hypertension. Diagnosis and management of apnea and its associated hypertension will also be considered.

  8. Motivational Monitoring as a Tool of Managing Fluctuation of Personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Darchenko Nataliya D.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in the study of a possibility to manage fluctuation of personnel at a modern enterprise through application of the motivational monitoring and in identification of some methodical aspects of formation of the system of monitoring the fluctuation of personnel. The article considers the essence, tasks and main directions of motivational monitoring at an enterprise and offers its classification. It proves urgency of the problem of fluctuation of personnel at enterpris...

  9. Evaluation of Deep Subsurface Resistivity Imaging for Hydrofracture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Andrew [GroundMetrics, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Wilt, Michael [GroundMetrics, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-09-28

    This report describes the results of the first of its kind monitoring of a hydrofracture operation with electromagnetic measurements. The researchers teamed with oil and gas producer Encana Corporation to design and execute a borehole to surface monitoring of three fracture stages at a well pad in central Colorado. The field project consisted of an equipment upgrade, a survey design and modeling phase, several weeks of data collection, and data processing and interpretation. Existing Depth to Surface Resistivity (DSR) instrumentation was upgraded to allow for continuous high precision recording from downhole sources. The full system can now collect data continuously for up to 72 hours, which is sufficient to measure data for 10 frac stages. Next we used numerical modeling and frac treatment data supplied by Encana to design a field survey to detect EM signal from induced fractures. Prior to modeling we developed a novel technique for using well casing as an antenna for a downhole source. Modeling shows that 1) a measurable response for an induced fracture could be achieved if the facture fluid was of high salinity 2) an optimum fracture response is created when the primary source field is parallel to the well casing but perpendicular to the fracture direction. In mid-July, 2014 we installed an array of more than 100 surface sensors, distributed above the treatment wells and extending for approximately 1 km north and 750 m eastward. We applied a 0.6 Hz square wave signal to a downhole current electrode located in a horizontal well 200 m offset from the treatment well with a return electrode on the surface. The data were transmitted to a recording trailer via Wi-Fi where we monitored receiver and transmitter channels continuously in a 72-hour period which covered 7 frac stages, three of which were high salinity. Although the background conditions were very noisy we were able to extract a clear signal from the high salinity stages. Initial data interpretation attempts

  10. Resistance gene management: concepts and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. Mundt

    2012-01-01

    There is now a very long history of genetics/breeding for disease resistance in annual crops. These efforts have resulted in conceptual advances and frustrations, as well as practical successes and failures. This talk will review this history and its relevance to the genetics of resistance in forest species. All plant breeders and pathologists are familiar with boom-...

  11. Patterns of Resistance in Managing Assessment Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneen, Christopher; Boud, David

    2014-01-01

    Achieving change in assessment practices in higher education is difficult. One of the reasons for this is resistance among those responsible for teaching and assessing. This paper seeks to explore this resistance through an analysis of staff dialogue during a major attempt to change the assessment practices at one institution. An institution-wide…

  12. Management of treatment resistant schizophrenia | Jones | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article selectively reviews the literature treatment resistance in schizophrenia, and emphasises the importance of an holistic approach to individual patients. Keywords: schizophrenia, treatment resistance, antipsychotics, augmentation, psychosocial treatments. South African Psychiatry Review Vol. 9(1) 2006: 17-23 ...

  13. Monitoring instrumentation spent fuel management program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary monitoring system methodologies are identified as an input to the risk assessment of spent fuel management. Conceptual approaches to instrumentation for surveillance of canister position and orientation, vault deformation, spent fuel dissolution, temperature, and health physics conditions are presented. In future studies, the resolution, reliability, and uncertainty associated with these monitoring system methodologies will be evaluated

  14. Motivational Monitoring as a Tool of Managing Fluctuation of Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darchenko Nataliya D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of a possibility to manage fluctuation of personnel at a modern enterprise through application of the motivational monitoring and in identification of some methodical aspects of formation of the system of monitoring the fluctuation of personnel. The article considers the essence, tasks and main directions of motivational monitoring at an enterprise and offers its classification. It proves urgency of the problem of fluctuation of personnel at enterprises of the country and a possibility of its management through application of the motivational monitoring. It offers methodical principles of monitoring of fluctuation of personnel of an enterprise. It provides results of application of the motivational monitoring in managerial practice of a real enterprise for analysis and study of fluctuation of personnel, which show that monitoring of fluctuation of personnel, development and introduction on its basis of the programme of management of fluctuation of personnel, improvement of the motivational mechanism of management of an enterprise would allow increase of business efficiency, introduce the proactive practice with respect to the personnel, and become a more attractive employer in the labour market. The direction of further studies is development and improvement of organisational and technical aspects of the motivational monitoring and development of recommendations on application of its results with the aim of development of the motivational mechanism that exists at an enterprise.

  15. Monitoring Antimicrobial Use and Resistance: Comparison with a National Benchmark on Reducing Vancomycin Use and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci

    OpenAIRE

    Fridkin, Scott K.; Lawton, Rachel; Edwards, Jonathan R.; Tenover, Fred C.; McGowan, John E.; Gaynes, Robert P.

    2002-01-01

    To determine if local monitoring data on vancomycin use directed quality improvement and decreased vancomycin use or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), we analyzed data from 50 intensive-care units (ICUs) at 20 U.S. hospitals reporting data on antimicrobial-resistant organisms and antimicrobial agent use. We compared local data with national benchmark data (aggregated from all study hospitals). After data were adjusted for changes in prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aur...

  16. Condition Monitoring and Management from Acoustic Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik Bohl

    2005-01-01

    In the following, I will use technical terms without explanation as it gives the freedom to describe the project in a shorter form for those who already know. The thesis is about condition monitoring of large diesel engines from acoustic emission signals. The experiments have been focused...

  17. A monitoring system for gypsy moth management

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. William Ravlin; S. J. Fleischer; M. R. Carter; E. A. Roberts; M. L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Within the last ten years considerable research has been directed toward the development of a gypsy moth monitoring system for project planning at a regional level and for making control decisions at a local level. Pheromones and pheromone-baited traps have been developed and widely used and several egg mass sampling techniques have also been developed. Recently these...

  18. Monitoring and management of hypertension with obesity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkner B

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bonita Falkner Department of Medicine and Pediatrics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Largely due to the childhood obesity epidemic, there has been an increase in the prevalence of hypertension in children and adolescents. Obesity associated hypertension is the most common hypertension phenotype among adolescents. Approximately 30% of obese adolescents have elevated blood pressure (BP or hypertension. Updated definitions of elevated BP and hypertension in adolescents are now similar to definitions of BP status in adults. For adolescents ≥13 years of age, elevated BP is 120 to 129/<80 mm Hg. Hypertension, stage 1, is ≥130 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg, and hypertension, stage 2, is ≥140/90 mm Hg. BP measurements over separate clinic visits are necessary to verify the diagnosis of elevated BP or hypertension. Ambulatory BP monitoring, when available, provides confirmatory data on BP status. Causal mechanisms for obesity associated hypertension include increased sympathetic nervous system activity, increased renal sodium retention secondary to insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia, and obesity mediated inflammation. The primary treatment for obesity associated hypertension is weight reduction with lifestyle changes in diet and physical activity. Although difficult to achieve, even modest weight reduction can be beneficial. The diet should be rich in fruits, vegetables, fiber, and low-fat dairy with reduction in salt intake. When lifestyle changes are insufficient to achieve BP control, pharmacologic therapy is indicated to achieve a goal BP of <130/80 mm Hg or <90th percentile, whichever is lower. Regular BP monitoring is necessary for ongoing management of obesity associated hypertension in adolescents. Keywords: adolescents, obesity, blood pressure, hypertension

  19. The SysMan monitoring service and its management environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debski, Andrzej; Janas, Ekkehard

    1996-06-01

    Management of modern information systems is becoming more and more complex. There is a growing need for powerful, flexible and affordable management tools to assist system managers in maintaining such systems. It is at the same time evident that effective management should integrate network management, system management and application management in a uniform way. Object oriented OSI management architecture with its four basic modelling concepts (information, organization, communication and functional models) together with widely accepted distribution platforms such as ANSA/CORBA, constitutes a reliable and modern framework for the implementation of a management toolset. This paper focuses on the presentation of concepts and implementation results of an object oriented management toolset developed and implemented within the framework of the ESPRIT project 7026 SysMan. An overview is given of the implemented SysMan management services including the System Management Service, Monitoring Service, Network Management Service, Knowledge Service, Domain and Policy Service, and the User Interface. Special attention is paid to the Monitoring Service which incorporates the architectural key entity responsible for event management. Its architecture and building components, especially filters, are emphasized and presented in detail.

  20. Accounting for complementarity to maximize monitoring power for species management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Chadès, Iadine; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-10-01

    To choose among conservation actions that may benefit many species, managers need to monitor the consequences of those actions. Decisions about which species to monitor from a suite of different species being managed are hindered by natural variability in populations and uncertainty in several factors: the ability of the monitoring to detect a change, the likelihood of the management action being successful for a species, and how representative species are of one another. However, the literature provides little guidance about how to account for these uncertainties when deciding which species to monitor to determine whether the management actions are delivering outcomes. We devised an approach that applies decision science and selects the best complementary suite of species to monitor to meet specific conservation objectives. We created an index for indicator selection that accounts for the likelihood of successfully detecting a real trend due to a management action and whether that signal provides information about other species. We illustrated the benefit of our approach by analyzing a monitoring program for invasive predator management aimed at recovering 14 native Australian mammals of conservation concern. Our method selected the species that provided more monitoring power at lower cost relative to the current strategy and traditional approaches that consider only a subset of the important considerations. Our benefit function accounted for natural variability in species growth rates, uncertainty in the responses of species to the prescribed action, and how well species represent others. Monitoring programs that ignore uncertainty, likelihood of detecting change, and complementarity between species will be more costly and less efficient and may waste funding that could otherwise be used for management. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Uptake of resistant varieties and integrated management packages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    control measures to the BRR disease. All local varieties previously grown in the area were susceptible to the disease. Therefore, there was urgent need to avail. BRR resistant varieties and other management practices to the affected farming communities. Farmers in the area identified, resistant bean varieties, improved soil ...

  2. Advanced Pulse Oximetry System for Remote Monitoring and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Geon Pak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulse oximetry data such as saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2 and pulse rate are vital signals for early diagnosis of heart disease. Therefore, various pulse oximeters have been developed continuously. However, some of the existing pulse oximeters are not equipped with communication capabilities, and consequently, the continuous monitoring of patient health is restricted. Moreover, even though certain oximeters have been built as network models, they focus on exchanging only pulse oximetry data, and they do not provide sufficient device management functions. In this paper, we propose an advanced pulse oximetry system for remote monitoring and management. The system consists of a networked pulse oximeter and a personal monitoring server. The proposed pulse oximeter measures a patient’s pulse oximetry data and transmits the data to the personal monitoring server. The personal monitoring server then analyzes the received data and displays the results to the patient. Furthermore, for device management purposes, operational errors that occur in the pulse oximeter are reported to the personal monitoring server, and the system configurations of the pulse oximeter, such as thresholds and measurement targets, are modified by the server. We verify that the proposed pulse oximetry system operates efficiently and that it is appropriate for monitoring and managing a pulse oximeter in real time.

  3. Advanced Pulse Oximetry System for Remote Monitoring and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Ju Geon; Park, Kee Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Pulse oximetry data such as saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2) and pulse rate are vital signals for early diagnosis of heart disease. Therefore, various pulse oximeters have been developed continuously. However, some of the existing pulse oximeters are not equipped with communication capabilities, and consequently, the continuous monitoring of patient health is restricted. Moreover, even though certain oximeters have been built as network models, they focus on exchanging only pulse oximetry data, and they do not provide sufficient device management functions. In this paper, we propose an advanced pulse oximetry system for remote monitoring and management. The system consists of a networked pulse oximeter and a personal monitoring server. The proposed pulse oximeter measures a patient's pulse oximetry data and transmits the data to the personal monitoring server. The personal monitoring server then analyzes the received data and displays the results to the patient. Furthermore, for device management purposes, operational errors that occur in the pulse oximeter are reported to the personal monitoring server, and the system configurations of the pulse oximeter, such as thresholds and measurement targets, are modified by the server. We verify that the proposed pulse oximetry system operates efficiently and that it is appropriate for monitoring and managing a pulse oximeter in real time. PMID:22933841

  4. Skid resistance determination for pavement management and wet-weather road safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.F. Fwa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Road accidents during wet weather have been a topic of major concern of road engineers in regions of wet-tropical climate and in other parts of the world during the wet season of the year. Road safety studies indicate that approximately 20% of all road accidents occurred during wet weather, and that the skid resistance of wet pavements have a major influence on the occurrences of wet-weather accidents. Monitoring of wet pavement skid resistance has been an integral part of a typical pavement management system. However, because of the lack of prediction capability of pavement skid resistance under various rainfall intensities, the minimum skid resistance threshold for safe wet-weather driving has been specified by highway agencies based on either engineering judgement or past experience. It is shown in this paper that the single-point minimum skid resistance threshold is inadequate to offer a complete description of the skid resistance performance of the pavement sections in question for effective management of a road network. It is unable to assess the risk involved in an actual wet-weather condition where the pavement surface water-film thickness and vehicle speed are different from standard test conditions. This limitation of the current system of specifying a minimum skid resistance threshold can be overcome by adopting a theoretically sound approach to represent pavement skid resistance under different conditions of water-film thickness and vehicle speed. This paper describes the theoretical basis of the approach and the development of a mechanistically derived three-dimensional finite-element skid resistance simulation model to predict skid resistance. The application of the proposed approach and the skid resistance prediction procedure in pavement management system and wet-weather driving safety assessment is presented.

  5. Monitoring and information management system at the Underground Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, G.S.; Chernis, P.J.; Bushman, A.T.; Spinney, M.H.; Backer, R.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1996-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a customer oriented monitoring and information management system at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba. The system is used to monitor instruments and manage, process, and distribute data. It consists of signal conditioners and remote loggers, central schedule and control systems, computer aided design and drafting work centres, and the communications linking them. The monitoring and communications elements are designed to meet the harsh demands of underground conditions while providing accurate monitoring of sensitive instruments to rigorous quality assured specifications. These instruments are used for testing of the concept for the deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Many of the tests are done in situ and at full-scale. The monitoring and information management system services engineering, research, and support staff working to design, develop, and demonstrate and present the concept. Experience gained during development of the monitoring and information management system at the URL, can be directly applied at the final disposal site. (author)

  6. Monitoring and information management system at the Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, G.S.; Chernis, P.J.; Bushman, A.T.; Spinney, M.H.; Backer, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a customer oriented monitoring and information management system at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba. The system is used to monitor instruments and manage, process, and distribute data. It consists of signal conditioners and remote loggers, central schedule and control systems, computer aided design and drafting work centres, and the communications linking them. The monitoring and communications elements are designed to meet the harsh demands of underground conditions while providing accurate monitoring of sensitive instruments to rigorous quality assured specifications. These instruments are used for testing of the concept for the deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Many of the tests are done in situ and at full-scale. The monitoring and information management system services engineering, research, and support staff working to design, develop, and demonstrate and present the concept. Experience gained during development of the monitoring and information management system at the URL, can be directly applied at the final disposal site. (author)

  7. Monitoring as an information management task in hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentz, Bernhard

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity of information systems requires a systematic monitoring of the information system’s architecture, components, and operation within the strategic, tactical, and operational information management. While there exists a broad methodical assistance for information system’s planning and directing, the monitoring aspect suffers from lacking awareness of the problem on the part of the information manager and missing knowledge about appropriate methods. The paper emphasizes the need for systematic monitoring and gives an overview of the most important methods and tools to support systematic monitoring of the HIS and its components. The overview is presented according to the levels of information management. Basis were best practice approaches like ITIL and COBIT, economic science’s approaches like the Balanced Scorecard as well as appropriate information management’s literature.

  8. Packstock in wilderness: Use, impacts, monitoring, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchel P. McClaran; David N. Cole

    1993-01-01

    Information about packstock use in wilderness in summarized. The results of a survey of managers of all wilderness areas are presented. Sections describe: the amount and composition of packstock use in wilderness, impacts associated with packstock use, methods for monitoring impacts caused by packstock, techniques for managing packstock in wilderness, examples of...

  9. Radiation monitoring of nuclear census intelligent data management and mobile monitoring data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Libin; Zhong Zhijing; Zhou Yinhang; Guo Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    The system, employing advanced intelligent terminal, mobile applications, database technology, can achieve all kinds of field monitoring, mobile radiation monitoring data collected for laboratory analysis; employing GPS technology, can achieve the geographic information of the radiation monitoring data, time tagging and other anti-cheating measures; the system also established a mass database management system; the system is suitable for all types of nuclear-related units with special adaptive functions; system will be extended to GIS-based management capabilities of nuclear contamination distribution in latter stage. (authors)

  10. Antibiotic Resistance Among Ocular Pathogens in the United States: Five-Year Results From the Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganisms (ARMOR) Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbell, Penny A; Sanfilippo, Christine M; Pillar, Christopher M; DeCory, Heleen H; Sahm, Daniel F; Morris, Timothy W

    2015-12-01

    The Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganisms (ARMOR) study is the only ongoing nationwide antibiotic resistance surveillance program specific to ocular pathogens. To report resistance rates and trends among common ocular isolates collected during the first 5 years of the ARMOR study. This antibiotic resistance surveillance study was performed at an independent central laboratory. Clinical centers across the United States were invited to submit ocular isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Isolates were collected from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2013, and analyzed from January 16 to May 15, 2015. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for various antibiotic classes were determined by broth microdilution according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were interpreted as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant based on established break points. A total of 3237 ocular isolates (1169 S aureus, 992 CoNS, 330 S pneumoniae, 357 H influenzae, and 389 P aeruginosa) were collected from 72 centers. Methicillin resistance was found among 493 S aureus isolates (42.2%; 95% CI, 39.3%-45.1%) and 493 CoNS isolates (49.7%; 95% CI, 46.5%-52.9%), and methicillin-resistant (MR) isolates had a high probability of concurrent resistance to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, or macrolides (P < .001). Multidrug resistance to at least 3 additional antibiotic classes was found in 428 MR S aureus isolates (86.8%) and 381 MRCoNS isolates (77.3%). All staphylococcal isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Resistance among S pneumoniae isolates was highest for azithromycin (113 isolates [34.2%]) whereas resistance among P aeruginosa and H influenzae was low against the antibiotics tested. Staphylococcal isolates from elderly patients were more likely to be MR, as were S aureus isolates

  11. Managing resistance and negotiating co-design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yndigegn, Signe Louise

    work. The aim was to design services for senior citizens with the focus on social interaction – and with technology as a way to support the interaction among communities of elderlies. The dissertation is a retrospective reflection of the author’s experience with taking part and being heavily involved...... as participant in this project. This is done through a series of selected “moments” from the project and beyond, which in various ways are significant for what is happening in the project – and how the project is enacted. The dissertation contains of two research aims. The first is concerned with resistance...... as part of co-design and citizen involvement with the aim to reflect upon something that is rarely described or discussed within co-design and participatory design. The question is here how resistance is performed in practice, especially in the meetings between citizens and the project, and how resistance...

  12. Herbicide-Resistant Crops: Utilities and Limitations for Herbicide-Resistant Weed Management

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Jerry M.; Owen, Micheal D. K.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant (HR) crops, particularly glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, have transformed the tactics that corn, soybean, and cotton growers use to manage weeds. The use of GR crops continues to grow, but weeds are adapting to the common practice of using only glyphosate to control weeds. Growers using only a single mode of action to manage weeds need to change to a more diverse array of herbicidal, mechanical, and cultural practices to maintain the effec...

  13. Managing resistance with multiple pesticide tactics: theory, evidence, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnik, B E

    1989-10-01

    Sequences, mixtures, rotations, and mosaics are potential strategies for using more than one pesticide to manage pest populations and for slowing the evolution of pesticide resistance. Results from theoretical models suggest that, under certain conditions, mixtures might be especially effective for resistance management. The assumptions of such models, however, are probably not widely applicable. Potential disadvantages associated with mixtures that are usually not considered in modeling studies include disruption of biological control, promotion of resistance in secondary pests, and intense selection for cross-resistance. Results from limited experimental work suggest that pesticide combinations do not consistently suppress resistance development. More thorough evaluation of tactics that seek to optimize benefits of more than one insecticide will require rigorous experiments with the particular pest and pesticide combinations. Because of the difficulty in generalizing results across systems and the potential negative effects of multiple insecticide use, emphasis on minimizing insecticide use is recommended.

  14. Monitors Enable Medication Management in Patients' Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Glenn Research Center awarded SBIR funding to ZIN Technologies to develop a platform that could incorporate sensors quantifying an astronaut’s health status and then communicate with the ground. ZIN created a device, developed the system further, and then formed Cleveland-based FlexLife Health to commercialize the technology. Today it is part of an anti-coagulation management system for people with cardiovascular disease.

  15. Frequencies of decision making and monitoring in adaptive resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive management involves learning-oriented decision making in the presence of uncertainty about the responses of a resource system to management. It is implemented through an iterative sequence of decision making, monitoring and assessment of system responses, and incorporating what is learned into future decision making. Decision making at each point is informed by a value or objective function, for example total harvest anticipated over some time frame. The value function expresses the value associated with decisions, and it is influenced by system status as updated through monitoring. Often, decision making follows shortly after a monitoring event. However, it is certainly possible for the cadence of decision making to differ from that of monitoring. In this paper we consider different combinations of annual and biennial decision making, along with annual and biennial monitoring. With biennial decision making decisions are changed only every other year; with biennial monitoring field data are collected only every other year. Different cadences of decision making combine with annual and biennial monitoring to define 4 scenarios. Under each scenario we describe optimal valuations for active and passive adaptive decision making. We highlight patterns in valuation among scenarios, depending on the occurrence of monitoring and decision making events. Differences between years are tied to the fact that every other year a new decision can be made no matter what the scenario, and state information is available to inform that decision. In the subsequent year, however, in 3 of the 4 scenarios either a decision is repeated or monitoring does not occur (or both). There are substantive differences in optimal values among the scenarios, as well as the optimal policies producing those values. Especially noteworthy is the influence of monitoring cadence on valuation in some years. We highlight patterns in policy and valuation among the scenarios, and discuss management

  16. Framing the issues of resistance management in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean insect-pest complex consists of both long-established and new invasive pests. Management of these pests has been achieved by various means, but often relies heavily on the application of insecticides and the development of insect-resistant soybean varieties. Pest management practitione...

  17. Evaluation of stem borer resistance management strategies for Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... However, for successful management of a refugia strategy, strict stewardship is required from appropriate government or community institutions. Key words: Refugia, cost-benefit analysis, Bt-maize, insect pest resistance management. INTRODUCTION. Maize is the leading staple food in the world with two-.

  18. Management of treatment resistant schizophrenia | Jones | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whilst gains have been made in recent years in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia, a number of patients still have residual symptoms and disabilities, or simply do not show response to antipsychotic medications. For such 'treatment resistant' patients, there is little by way of randomised controlled data to ...

  19. INDICATORS SYSTEM FOR MONITORING INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT IN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru STRATAN,

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizations and companies with a high level of competitiveness had developed intellectualproperty management systems that aim at assuring information and indicators for decision-making.Furthermore, the systematization and monitoring of information on intellectual property managementcontributes to the improvement, reliability, quality and efficiency of managerial efficiency, offering, in theend, to the company an image of its competitive advantages, generated by the intellectual property. The purpose of this work is to identify a system of indicators (benchmarks that can be used formonitoring through self-evaluation of the intellectual property management as part of a methodic approachon researching the intellectual property management system in companies. The main results achieved following the investigations were the development of a set of indicators(benchmarks for monitoring the management of intellectual property in companies. Also, being based onthis group of indicators, an integrated indicator for assessing the effectiveness of the management systemof intellectual property in companies had been developed.

  20. Antiviral resistance in herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piret, Jocelyne; Boivin, Guy

    2016-12-01

    Aciclovir (ACV) is the first-line drug for the management of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections. Long-term administration of ACV for the treatment of severe infections in immunocompromised patients can lead to the development of drug resistance. Furthermore, the emergence of isolates resistant to ACV is increasingly recognized in immunocompetent individuals with herpetic keratitis. This review describes the mechanisms involved in drug resistance for HSV and VZV, the laboratory diagnosis and management of patients with infections refractory to ACV therapy. Genotypic testing is more frequently performed for the diagnosis of infections caused by drug-resistant HSV or VZV isolates. Molecular biology-based systems for the generation of recombinant viruses have been developed to link unknown mutations with their drug phenotypes. Fast and sensitive methods based on next-generation sequencing will improve the detection of heterogeneous viral populations of drug-resistant viruses and their temporal changes during antiviral therapy, which could allow better patient management. Novel promising compounds acting on targets that differ from the viral DNA polymerase are under clinical development. Antiviral drug resistance monitoring for HSV and VZV is required for a rational use of antiviral therapy in high-risk populations.

  1. Implications of Antibiotic Resistance in the Management of Helicobacter pylori Infection: Canadian Helicobacter Study Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RH Hunt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Eradication of Helicobacter pylori from the gastric and duodenal mucosa is an important clinical goal in the treatment of infected patients with peptic ulcer disease and other H pylori-associated conditions. Although several oral drug combination regimens are associated with eradication rates of approximately 85% in controlled trials, the success rate in patients infected with a resistant strain of H pylori is closer to 75%. Resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin, which are common components of combination treatment regimens, is of greatest concern. Reported rates of H pylori resistance to various antibiotics vary considerably. In Canada, the data documenting H pylori susceptibility are limited but suggest that resistance to these antibiotics varies geographically and within specific treatment groups. Although susceptibility testing is not a prerequisite for initial treatment of individual patients infected with H pylori, formal efforts to identify and monitor both the causes and prevalence of antibiotic resistance across Canada are a much needed step in the ongoing management of this important infection. Recommended treatment regimens may be useful, even for treating apparently resistant H pylori strains. However, it is important to understand the mechanisms of the development of resistant strains to manage patients with treatment failure better.

  2. Monitoring bacterial resistance to chloramphenicol and other antibiotics by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry using selected reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Anthony M; Medina, Audrie M; Royall, Ariel E; Herzog, Norbert K; Niesel, David W

    2013-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem worldwide. For this reason, clinical laboratories often determine the susceptibility of the bacterial isolate to a number of different antibiotics in order to establish the most effective antibiotic for treatment. Unfortunately, current susceptibility assays are time consuming. Antibiotic resistance often involves the chemical modification of an antibiotic to an inactive form by an enzyme expressed by the bacterium. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) has the ability to quickly monitor and identify these chemical changes in an unprecedented time scale. In this work, we used SRM as a technique to determine the susceptibility of several different antibiotics to the chemically modifying enzymes β-lactamase and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, enzymes used by bacteria to confer resistance to major classes of commonly used antibiotics. We also used this technique to directly monitor the effects of resistant bacteria grown in a broth containing a specific antibiotic. Because SRM is highly selective and can also identify chemical changes in a multitude of antibiotics in a single assay, SRM has the ability to detect organisms that are resistant to multiple antibiotics in a single assay. For these reasons, the use of SRM greatly reduces the time it takes to determine the susceptibility or resistance of an organism to a multitude of antibiotics by eliminating the time-consuming process found in other currently used methods. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Resistance to medical educational change: management and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsuen-Chiuan

    2007-01-01

    Medical education in Taiwan is currently undergoing active renovation. Reform and changes always bring resistance from the levels of individuals, institution and even the society. As an educational leader, to be able to manage resistance is a key to successful reform. This review article provides management strategies and communication skills to solve the resistance problem. The best solution to the problem is "to prevent" resistance from happening through identifying those who may be reluctant to change, and the reasons behind the potential resistance. Some of the reasons for resistance are threatening of self-interest and a loss of face, excess uncertainty, conservatism, fear of personal-worth declination in the organization, and different assessment or perception. The management and communication strategies are suggested to adjust to fit reform process, i.e., recognizing the needs for change, planning process, implementation, and institutionalization innovation. Finally, it is only with respect, empathy, sincerity and support that the resistance to changes can be resolved and difficulties can be overcome.

  4. Herbicide-resistant weed management: focus on glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckie, Hugh J

    2011-09-01

    This review focuses on proactive and reactive management of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. Glyphosate resistance in weeds has evolved under recurrent glyphosate usage, with little or no diversity in weed management practices. The main herbicide strategy for proactively or reactively managing GR weeds is to supplement glyphosate with herbicides of alternative modes of action and with soil-residual activity. These herbicides can be applied in sequences or mixtures. Proactive or reactive GR weed management can be aided by crop cultivars with alternative single or stacked herbicide-resistance traits, which will become increasingly available to growers in the future. Many growers with GR weeds continue to use glyphosate because of its economical broad-spectrum weed control. Government farm policies, pesticide regulatory policies and industry actions should encourage growers to adopt a more proactive approach to GR weed management by providing the best information and training on management practices, information on the benefits of proactive management and voluntary incentives, as appropriate. Results from recent surveys in the United States indicate that such a change in grower attitudes may be occurring because of enhanced awareness of the benefits of proactive management and the relative cost of the reactive management of GR weeds. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. How to measure and monitor antimicrobial consumption and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Santiago; Bou, Germán; Fondevilla, Esther; Nicolás, Jordi; Rodríguez-Maresca, Manuel; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2013-09-01

    Collateral damage caused by antibiotic use includes resistance, which could be reduced if the global inappropriate use of antibiotics, especially in low-income countries, could be prevented. Surveillance of antimicrobial consumption can identify and target practice areas for quality improvement, both in the community and in healthcare institutions. The defined daily dose, the usual adult dose of an antimicrobial for treating one patient for one day, has been considered useful for measuring antimicrobial prescribing trends within a hospital. Various denominators from hospital activity including beds, admissions and discharges have been used to obtain some standard ratios for comparing antibiotic consumption between hospitals and countries. Laboratory information systems in Clinical Microbiology Services are the primary resource for preparing cumulative reports on susceptibility testing results. This information is useful for planning empirical treatment and for adopting infection control measures. Among the supranational initiatives on resistance surveillance, the EARS-Net provides information about trends on antimicrobial resistance in Europe. Resistance is the consequence of the selective pressure of antibiotics, although in some cases these agents also promote resistance by favouring the emergence of mutations that are subsequently selected. Multiple studies have shown a relationship between antimicrobial use and emergence or resistance. While in some cases a decrease in antibiotic use was associated with a reduction in resistance rates, in many other situations this has not been the case, due to co-resistance and/or the low biological cost of the resistance mechanisms involved. New antimicrobial agents are urgently needed, which coupled with infection control measures will help to control the current problem of antimicrobial resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Early Warning Indicators for Population-Based Monitoring of HIV Drug Resistance in 6 African Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigaloff, Kim C. E.; Hamers, Raph L.; Menke, Jack; Labib, Moheb; Siwale, Margaret; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E.; Kityo, Cissy; Mandaliya, Kishor; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Geskus, Ronald B.; Stevens, Wendy S.; van Vugt, Michèle; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA testing and HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) testing are not routinely available for therapeutic monitoring of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. World Health Organization HIVDR early warning indicators (EWIs) assess ART

  7. A Weed Resistance Management Game: A Teaching Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvold, George B

    2018-04-15

    This article provides instructions and materials to moderate an interactive resistance management game. The game is designed to generate discussion about the challenges and possibilities of coordinating resistance management activities among groups of farmers. The game has been successfully applied in classroom settings, extension workshops, and at professional weed science meetings. Research has found farmers often perceive the success of their own resistance management may be thwarted if their neighbors are not adequately managing resistance as well. This can lead to negative "tragedy of the commons" outcomes. In past applications of the game exercise, participants have often responded in ways consistent with similar studies in experimental and behavioral economics. This includes dividing benefits evenly (even though this is not a requirement of the game) or treating one-time transactions as potentially repeated exchanges. Player behavior may also be greatly influenced by their attitudes toward monetary risks. The game allows participants to explore ways to overcome the tragedy of the commons and illustrates the roles of information sharing and economic incentives in finding solutions. It also allows participants to experiment with bottom-up voluntary approaches toward resistance management as an alternative to top-down regulatory approaches. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrating policy-based management and SLA performance monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzong-Jye; Lin, Chin-Yi; Chang, Shu-Hsin; Yen, Meng-Tzu

    2001-10-01

    Policy-based management system provides the configuration capability for the system administrators to focus on the requirements of customers. The service level agreement performance monitoring mechanism helps system administrators to verify the correctness of policies. However, it is difficult for a device to process the policies directly because the policies are the management concept. This paper proposes a mechanism to decompose a policy into rules that can be efficiently processed by a device. Thus, the device may process the rule and collect the performance statistics information efficiently; and the policy-based management system may collect these performance statistics information and report the service-level agreement performance monitoring information to the system administrator. The proposed policy-based management system achieves both the policy configuration and service-level agreement performance monitoring requirements. A policy consists of a condition part and an action part. The condition part is a Boolean expression of a source host IP group, a destination host IP group, etc. The action part is the parameters of services. We say that an address group is compact if it only consists of a range of IP address that can be denoted by a pair of IP address and corresponding IP mask. If the condition part of a policy only consists of the compact address group, we say that the policy is a rule. Since a device can efficiently process a compact address and a system administrator prefers to define a range of IP address, the policy-based management system has to translate policy into rules and supplements the gaps between policy and rules. The proposed policy-based management system builds the relationships between VPN and policies, policy and rules. Since the system administrator wants to monitor the system performance information of VPNs and policies, the proposed policy-based management system downloads the relationships among VPNs, policies and rules to the

  9. Affordable HIV drug-resistance testing for monitoring of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzaule, Seth C; Ondoa, Pascale; Peter, Trevor; Mugyenyi, Peter N; Stevens, Wendy S; de Wit, Tobias F Rinke; Hamers, Raph L

    2016-11-01

    Increased provision of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa has led to a growing number of patients with therapy failure and acquired drug-resistant HIV, driving the demand for more costly further lines of antiretroviral therapy. In conjunction with accelerated access to viral load monitoring, feasible and affordable technologies to detect drug-resistant HIV could help maximise the durability and rational use of available drug regimens. Potential low-cost technologies include in-house Sanger and next-generation sequencing in centralised laboratories, and point mutation assays and genotype-free systems that predict response to antiretroviral therapy at point-of-care. Strengthening of centralised high-throughput laboratories, including efficient systems for sample referral and results delivery, will increase economies-of-scale while reducing costs. Access barriers can be mitigated by standardisation of in-house assays into commercial kits, use of polyvalent instruments, and adopting price-reducing strategies. A stepwise rollout approach should improve feasibility, prioritising WHO-recommended population-based surveillance and management of complex patient categories, such as patients failing protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy. Implementation research, adaptations of existing WHO guidance, and political commitment, will be key to support the appropriate investments and policy changes. In this Personal View, we discuss the potential role of HIV drug resistance testing for population-based surveillance and individual patient management in sub-Saharan Africa. We review the strengths and challenges of promising low-cost technologies and how they can be implemented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of multidrug resistant bacterial endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahar, J-R; Lesprit, P

    2014-09-01

    The fight against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDRGNB), especially extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae, is about to be lost in our country. The emergence of new resistance mechanisms to carbapenems in these Enterobacteriaceae exposes patients to a risk of treatment failure without any other therapeutic options. This dramatic situation is paradoxical because we are well aware of the 2 major factors responsible for this situation: 1) MDRO cross-transmission, associated with a low compliance to standard precautions, especially hand hygiene, and 2) overexposure of patients to antibiotics. The implementation of a "search and isolate" policy, which was justified to control the spread of some MDRO that remained rare in the country, was not associated with a better adherence to standard precautions. The antibiotic policy and the measures implemented to control antibiotic consumptions have rarely been enforced and have shown inconsistent results. Notably, no significant decrease of antibiotic consumption has been observed. There is no excuse for these poor results, because some authors evaluating the effectiveness of programs for the control of MDRO have reported their positive effects on antimicrobial resistance without any detrimental effects. It is now urgent to deal with the 2 major factors by establishing an educational and persuasive program with quantified and opposable objectives. Firstly, we have to improve the observance of hand hygiene above 70%. Secondly, we have to define and reach a target for the reduction of antibiotic consumption both in community and in hospital settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Alberta biodiversity monitoring program - monitoring effectiveness of sustainable forest management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadt, J John; Schieck, Jim; Stelfox, Harry A

    2006-10-01

    A conceptual model of sustainable forest management is described based on three connected and necessary components: Policy/Strategic Planning, Operational Planning, and Effectiveness Monitoring/Science. Alberta's proposed Forest Management Planning Standard is described as an example of operational planning. The standard utilizes coarse and fine filter approaches to conserving biodiversity and sets requirements for implementation monitoring. The Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Program (ABMP) is described as an example of effectiveness monitoring supporting Operational Planning. The ABMP is a rigorous science-based initiative that is being developed to monitor and report on biodiversity status and trends throughout the province of Alberta, Canada. The basic survey design consists of 1656 sites, 20 km apart, evenly spaced on a grid pattern across Alberta. Sites will be sampled over a five-year period at a rate of 350 sites/year. Standardized sampling protocols will be used to cover a broad range of species and habitat elements within terrestrial and aquatic environments, as well as broader landscape-level features. Trends and associations detected by ABMP products will be validated through cause-effect research. ABMP focuses research on critical issues and informs both operational planning and the development of policy and strategic-level plans. The Alberta Forest Management Planning Standard and the ABMP are described as key components to implementing resource planning based on ecosystem management principles.

  12. INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES FOR MONITORING AND INTELLECTUAL ROAD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Belov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of automatic management of road traffic technologies in major cities of Ukraine is carried out in the given article. Priority directions of studies are determined for producing modern and perspective technologies in the given area. The facilities for monitoring and intelligence management of the road traffic on the basis of the programmed logical controller, using the device of fuzzy logic are considered.

  13. Emerging fluconazole resistance: Implications for the management of cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpoza, Edward; Rhein, Joshua; Abassi, Mahsa

    2018-03-01

    We present the case of an HIV-seropositive individual with cryptococcal meningitis who was found to have a fluconazole resistant strain of Cryptococcus neoformans . The individual required multiple rounds of amphotericin and fluconazole 800-1200 mg after several episodes of clinical relapse. Cerebrospinal fluid sterilization was achieved and maintained with high doses of fluconazole. This case demonstrates the emerging dilemma of increasing rates of fluconazole resistance in Cryptococcus and the clinical difficulties in meningitis management.

  14. Emerging fluconazole resistance: Implications for the management of cryptococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Mpoza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an HIV-seropositive individual with cryptococcal meningitis who was found to have a fluconazole resistant strain of Cryptococcus neoformans. The individual required multiple rounds of amphotericin and fluconazole 800–1200 mg after several episodes of clinical relapse. Cerebrospinal fluid sterilization was achieved and maintained with high doses of fluconazole. This case demonstrates the emerging dilemma of increasing rates of fluconazole resistance in Cryptococcus and the clinical difficulties in meningitis management.

  15. Self-monitoring and self-management of oral anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneghan, Carl J; Garcia-Alamino, Josep M; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Ward, Alison M; Perera, Rafael; Bankhead, Clare; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Fitzmaurice, David; Mahtani, Kamal R; Onakpoya, Igho J

    2016-07-05

    The introduction of point-of-care devices for the management of patients on oral anticoagulation allows self-testing by the patient at home. Patients who self-test can either adjust their medication according to a pre-determined dose-INR (international normalized ratio) schedule (self-management), or they can call a clinic to be told the appropriate dose adjustment (self-monitoring). Increasing evidence suggests self-testing of oral anticoagulant therapy is equal to or better than standard monitoring. This is an updated version of the original review published in 2010. To evaluate the effects on thrombotic events, major haemorrhages, and all-cause mortality of self-monitoring or self-management of oral anticoagulant therapy compared to standard monitoring. For this review update, we re-ran the searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), 2015, Issue 6, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to June week 4 2015), Embase (Ovid, 1980 to 2015 week 27) on 1 July 2015. We checked bibliographies and contacted manufacturers and authors of relevant studies. We did not apply any language restrictions . Outcomes analysed were thromboembolic events, mortality, major haemorrhage, minor haemorrhage, tests in therapeutic range, frequency of testing, and feasibility of self-monitoring and self-management. Review authors independently extracted data and we used a fixed-effect model with the Mantzel-Haenzel method to calculate the pooled risk ratio (RR) and Peto's method to verify the results for uncommon outcomes. We examined heterogeneity amongst studies with the Chi(2) and I(2) statistics and used GRADE methodology to assess the quality of evidence. We identified 28 randomised trials including 8950 participants (newly incorporated in this update: 10 trials including 4227 participants). The overall quality of the evidence was generally low to moderate. Pooled estimates showed a reduction in thromboembolic events (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.45 to 0

  16. Batch management based monitoring system: design, implement, and visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan Bowen; Shi Jingyan

    2012-01-01

    Torque, an efficient PBS (Portable Batch System)-based open source Resource Management system, was originally developed by Ames research center of NASA, which was designed to satisfy the computing requirements of heterogeneous network. With the development of distributed computing, Torque has been widely used in high performance computing cluster. However, because of the lack of a well designed monitoring system, it is difficult to monitor, record, and control, leading to low stability, reliability and manageability. To overcome those problems, this paper designs and implements an adaptive lightweight monitoring system for torque from five aspects. 1) A lightweight circulating filtration logging system is developed to obtain the real-time running status of torque; 2) One uniform interface was provided for administrators to define monitoring commands, which can query management resources of torque; 3) Storage strategy is designed to make monitoring information persistent; 4) One uniform interface is provided for users to customized alarms, which can submit exceptions and errors to users via emails and SMS in real time; 5) HTML5 technology is applied in the customizable visualization of the jobs' status in torque in real time. (authors)

  17. Towards virological monitoring of HIV-1 drug resistance in resource-limited settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aitken, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 treatment monitoring is important to ensure effective viral suppression and prevent the development of HIV-1 drug resistance. Commercial assays for HIV-1 treatment monitoring are generally costly and complex, and require plasma as a sample type for testing. The components of this thesis are

  18. Automatic high frequency monitoring for improved lake and reservoir management

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcé, R.; George, G.; Buscarinu, P.; Deidda, M.; Dunalska, J.; de Eyto, E.; Flaim, G.; Grossart, H. P.; Istvánovics, V.; Lenhardt, M.; Moreno-Ostos, E.; Obrador, B.; Ostrovsky, I.; Pierson, D. C.; Potužák, Jan; Poikane, S.; Rinke, K.; Rodríguez-Mozaz, S.; Staehr, P. A.; Šumberová, Kateřina; Waajen, G.; Weyhenmeyer, G. A.; Weathers, K. C.; Zion, M.; Ibelings, B. W.; Jennings, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 20 (2016), s. 10780-10794 ISSN 0013-936X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14045 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : monitoring of water resources * water reservoir management * sensors Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.198, year: 2016

  19. Perioperative management and monitoring of a super-obese patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Tommaso; Leykin, Yigal; Albano, Giovanni; Zannier, Gianfederico; Di Capua, Gabriella; Marzano, Bernardo; Gullo, Antonino

    2004-01-01

    Anesthetic management of super-obese patients is inferred from evidence which has been based on obese or morbidly obese patients. We present the perioperative management and monitoring of a 44-year-old 232-kg patient (BMI 70) admitted for laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery. Awake fiberoptic endotracheal intubation preceded induction with propofol and rocuronium. Anesthesia was maintained with desflurane and remifentanil. Desflurane was titrated on BIS values, whereas remifentanil was based on hemodynamic monitoring (invasive arterial pressure and HemoSonic). Rocuronium was administered based on ideal body weight and recovery of twitch tension. Safe and rapid extubation in the operating theatre was made possible by the use of short-acting agents coupled with continuous intraoperative monitoring. Recovery in the post-anesthesia care unit was uneventful, pain was managed with meperidine, and after 5 hours the patient was discharged to the surgical ward. Oxygen therapy and SpO2 monitoring were continued overnight. No desaturation episodes were recorded. Pain was managed with I.V. drip of ketorolac and tramadole.

  20. Herbicide-resistant crops: utilities and limitations for herbicide-resistant weed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerry M; Owen, Micheal D K

    2011-06-08

    Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant (HR) crops, particularly glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, have transformed the tactics that corn, soybean, and cotton growers use to manage weeds. The use of GR crops continues to grow, but weeds are adapting to the common practice of using only glyphosate to control weeds. Growers using only a single mode of action to manage weeds need to change to a more diverse array of herbicidal, mechanical, and cultural practices to maintain the effectiveness of glyphosate. Unfortunately, the introduction of GR crops and the high initial efficacy of glyphosate often lead to a decline in the use of other herbicide options and less investment by industry to discover new herbicide active ingredients. With some exceptions, most growers can still manage their weed problems with currently available selective and HR crop-enabled herbicides. However, current crop management systems are in jeopardy given the pace at which weed populations are evolving glyphosate resistance. New HR crop technologies will expand the utility of currently available herbicides and enable new interim solutions for growers to manage HR weeds, but will not replace the long-term need to diversify weed management tactics and discover herbicides with new modes of action. This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of anticipated weed management options and the best management practices that growers need to implement in HR crops to maximize the long-term benefits of current technologies and reduce weed shifts to difficult-to-control and HR weeds.

  1. Resistant starches for the management of metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindels, Laure B; Walter, Jens; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E

    2015-11-01

    Recent clinical trials and animal studies indicate that resistant starches may be beneficial therapeutic tools for the management of metabolic diseases. The purpose of this review is to summarize these findings and discuss the established and proposed mechanisms by which resistant starches exert their benefits. We also examine open questions regarding how resistant starches improve metabolism and propose future research directions for the field. Data from both humans and animal models clearly support a role for resistant starches in improving a variety of metabolic features; however, discrepancies do exist regarding specific effects. Concomitant improvements in both insulin levels and body fat depots are often reported in rodents fed resistant starches, whereas resistant starch feeding in humans improves insulin sensitivity without having a major impact on fat mass. These differences could be explained by the coexistence of several mechanisms (both gut microbiota-dependent and gut microbiota-independent) underpinning the metabolic benefits of resistant starches. Together, the studies presented in this review offer new insights into the potential pathways by which resistant starches enhance metabolic health, including modulation of the gut microbiota, gut peptides, circulating inflammatory mediators, innate immune cells, and the bile acid cycle.

  2. Change Management Employees’ Resistance Towards Organizational Change

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu Tudor

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study carried out using data from the AnticrisisManager platform, in order to identify the Romanian economy areas that offer the biggest opportunities for change. The model used in this study allows ranking the economic sectors on a scale from 1 (low variation/risk) to 10 (high variation/risk), each industry / sub-industry being correlated with a risk factor. Taking into consideration the high rate of failure for change projects, approx. 70% according to th...

  3. User guide to power management for PCs and monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordman, B.; Piette, M.A.; Kinney, K.; Webber, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.

    1997-01-01

    Power management of personal computers (PCs) and monitors has the potential to save significant amounts of electricity as well as deliver other economic and environmental benefits. The Environmental Protection Agency`s ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program has transformed the PC market so that equipment capable of power management is now widely available. However, previous studies have found that many Energy Star compliant computer systems are not accomplishing energy savings. The principal reasons for this are systems not being enabled for power management or a circumstance that prevents power management from operating. This guide is intended to provide information to computer support workers to increase the portion of systems that successfully power manage. The guide introduces power management concepts and the variety of benefits that power management can bring. It then explains how the parts of a computer system work together to enter and leave power management states. Several common computer system types are addressed, as well as the complications that networks bring to power management. Detailed instructions for checking and configuring several system types are provided, along with trouble shooting advice. The guide concludes with a discussion of how to purchase Energy Star compliant systems and future directions for power management of PCs and related equipment.

  4. Monitoring of drug resistance amplification and attenuation with the use of tetracycline-resistant bacteria during wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnisz, Monika; Korzeniewska, Ewa; Niestępski, Sebastian; Osińska, Adriana; Nalepa, Beata

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor changes (amplification or attenuation) in antibiotic resistance during wastewater treatment based on the ecology of tetracycline-resistant bacteria. The untreated and treated wastewater were collected in four seasons. Number of tetracycline-(TETR) and oxytetracycline-resistant (OTCR) bacteria, their qualitative composition, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), sensitivity to other antibiotics, and the presence of tet (A, B, C, D, E) resistance genes were determined. TETR and OTCR counts in untreated wastewater were 100 to 1000 higher than in treated effluent. OTCR bacterial counts were higher than TETR populations in both untreated and treated wastewater. TETR isolates were not dominated by a single bacterial genus or species, whereas Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria were the most common in OTCR isolates. The treatment process attenuated the drug resistance of TETR bacteria and amplified the resistance of OTCR bacteria. In both microbial groups, the frequency of tet(A) gene increased in effluent in comparison with untreated wastewater. Our results also indicate that treated wastewater is a reservoir of multiple drug-resistant bacteria as well as resistance determinants which may pose a health hazard for humans and animals when released to the natural environment.

  5. The Interplay between Forest Management Practices, Genetic Monitoring, and Other Long-Term Monitoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Kavaliauskas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of forests and forest genetic resources (FGR is a challenging task for scientists and foresters. Forest management practices can affect diversity on various levels: genetic, species, and ecosystem. Understanding past natural disturbance dynamics and their level of dependence on human disturbances and management practices is essential for the conservation and management of FGR, especially in the light of climate change. In this review, forest management practices and their impact on genetic composition are reviewed, synthesized, and interpreted in the light of existing national and international forest monitoring schemes and concepts from various European projects. There is a clear need and mandate for forest genetic monitoring (FGM, while the requirements thereof lack complementarity with existing forest monitoring. Due to certain obstacles (e.g., the lack of unified FGM implementation procedures across the countries, high implementation costs, large number of indicators and verifiers for FGM proposed in the past, merging FGM with existing forest monitoring is complicated. Nevertheless, FGM is of paramount importance for forestry and the natural environment in the future, regardless of the presence or existence of other monitoring systems, as it provides information no other monitoring system can yield. FGM can provide information related to adaptive and neutral genetic diversity changes over time, on a species and/or on a population basis and can serve as an early warning system for the detection of potentially harmful changes of forest adaptability. In addition, FGM offers knowledge on the adaptive potential of forests under the changing environment, which is important for the long-term conservation of FGR.

  6. Towards a durable management of genetic resistances to Leptosphaeria maculans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinochet Xavier

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Blackeg is the major disease of winter oilseed rape in France. For an efficient control of the disease several tools could be combined, but mainly plant breeding has been used to increase winter oilseed rape resistance to blackleg. A useful step was reached in the nineties, using a specific resistance gene (Rlm1. After being widely used this resistance was broken down by an increase of the virulent sub-populations of the fungus. Such a situation worried the different actors and raised the question of the promotion of a durable management of genetic resistances to Leptosphaeria. After a synthetic presentation of the state of the art in the fields of genetics of resistance, of Leptosphaeria populations and on agronomic practices able to control the pathogen, the promotion of a durable management of resistances is discussed. This target needs to precise the strategy, to improve methodologies to characterise genotypes, to promote proper agronomic practices, to follow Leptosphaeria population behaviour and to motivate economic actors.

  7. Molecular monitoring of resistant dhfr and dhps allelic haplotypes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The present study assesses the frequency of resistant dhfr and dhps alleles in Morogoro-Mvomero district in south eastern Tanzania and contrast their rate of change during 17 years of SP second line use against five years of SP first line use. Methodology: Cross sectional surveys of asymptomatic infections were ...

  8. Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance among food animals: Principles and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2004-01-01

    Large amounts of antimicrobial agents are in the production of food animals used for therapy and prophylactics of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. The use of antimicrobial agents causes problems in the therapy of infections through the selection for resistance among bacteria pa...

  9. Control and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria in food-producing animals in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased antimicrobial resistance in bacteria that cause infections in humans is a threat to public health. The use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals in the form of veterinary medicine and feed additives may lead to the emergence or spread of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of animal origin. In Japan, the use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals is regulated by the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law and Feed Safety Law to minimise the risk of emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Since December 2003, all antimicrobials used in food-producing animals have been subjected to risk assessment by the Food Safety Commission. In addition, an antimicrobial resistance monitoring programme has been in place since 2000 to monitor the evolution of resistance to different antimicrobials in bacteria in food-producing animals.

  10. Continuous monitoring of the composition of liquid Pb-17Li eutectic using electrical resistivity methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubberstey, P.; Sample, T.; Barker, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    The composition of liquid Pb-17Li alloys has been continously determined, using an electrical resistivity monitor, during their interaction with nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and water vapour. The operation of the monitor depends on the fact that the resistivity of liquid Pb-Li alloys is dependent on their composition. Accurate resistivity-composition isotherms have been derived from resistivity-temperature data for 15 Pb-Li alloys (0 Li -8 Ω m (mol% Li) -1 at 725 K) is such that a change of 0.05 mol% Li in the alloy composition can be measured. The addition of oxygen and water vapour resulted in a decrease in the resistivity of the liquid alloy. Neither nitrogen nor hydrogen had any effect. The observed changes were shown to be consistent with Li 2 O formation. (orig.)

  11. Insecticide Resistance and Management Strategies in Urban Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased urbanization of a growing global population makes imperative the development of sustainable integrated pest management (IPM strategies for urban pest control. This emphasizes pests that are closely associated with the health and wellbeing of humans and domesticated animals. Concurrently there are regulatory requirements enforced to minimize inadvertent exposures to insecticides in the urban environment. Development of insecticide resistance management (IRM strategies in urban ecosystems involves understanding the status and mechanisms of insecticide resistance and reducing insecticide selection pressure by combining multiple chemical and non-chemical approaches. In this review, we will focus on the commonly used insecticides and molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance in six major urban insect pests: house fly, German cockroach, mosquitoes, red flour beetle, bed bugs and head louse. We will also discuss several strategies that may prove promising for future urban IPM programs.

  12. Gene pyramiding as a Bt resistance management strategy: How ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports on the emergence of insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis delta endotoxins have raised doubts on the sustainability of Bt-toxin based pest management technologies. Corporate industry has responded to this challenge with innovations that include gene pyramiding among others. Pyramiding entails stacking ...

  13. Uptake of resistant varieties and integrated management packages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Data were collected on BRR disease, resistant varieties and control management package adopted and factors including the adoption choice. Additional data were collected on the changes in bean yields, consumption, marketable surplus and household income as well as farmers' participation in the different promotional.

  14. Development of a resistance management strategy for ixodid ticks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strategy developed for managing resistance in ticks with the acaricidal products on the market was based on mode of action of the active ingredients. The strategy requires the rotaional use of the acaricidal products in ways that reduces the selection pressure of active ingredients of same chemistry on the target-site in ...

  15. HIV Drug-Resistant Patient Information Management, Analysis, and Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yashik; Mars, Maurice

    2012-06-07

    The science of information systems, management, and interpretation plays an important part in the continuity of care of patients. This is becoming more evident in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa. The high replication rates, selective pressure, and initial infection by resistant strains of HIV infer that drug resistance will inevitably become an important health care concern. This paper describes proposed research with the aim of developing a physician-administered, artificial intelligence-based decision support system tool to facilitate the management of patients on antiretroviral therapy. This tool will consist of (1) an artificial intelligence computer program that will determine HIV drug resistance information from genomic analysis; (2) a machine-learning algorithm that can predict future CD4 count information given a genomic sequence; and (3) the integration of these tools into an electronic medical record for storage and management. The aim of the project is to create an electronic tool that assists clinicians in managing and interpreting patient information in order to determine the optimal therapy for drug-resistant HIV patients.

  16. Management of treatment-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitner, Gabor I; Mansfield, Abigail K

    2012-03-01

    Given the limitations of evidence for treatment options that are consistently effective for TRD and the possibility that TRD is in fact a form of depression that has a low probability of resolving, how can clinicians help patients with TRD? Perhaps the most important conceptual shift that needs to take place before treatment can be helpful is to accept TRD as a chronic illness, an illness similar to many others, one that can be effectively managed but that is not, at our present level of knowledge, likely to be cured. An undue focus on remission or even a 50% diminution of symptoms sets unrealistic goals for both patients and therapists and may lead to overtreatment and demoralization. The focus should be less on eliminating depressive symptoms and more on making sense of and learning to function better in spite of them. It is important to acknowledge the difficult nature of the depressive illness, to remove blame from the patient and clinician for not achieving remission, to set realistic expectations, and to help promote better psychosocial functioning even in the face of persisting symptoms. The critical element when implementing such an approach is a judicious balance between maintaining hope for improvement without setting unrealistic expectations. It is important to reemphasize that following a disease management model with acceptance of the reality of a chronic illness is not nihilistic and does not mean the abandonment of hope for improvement. The first step in treating a patient with TRD is to perform a comprehensive assessment of the patient’s past and current treatment history to ensure that evidence-based treatment trials have in fact been undertaken, and if not, such treatment trials should be implemented. If the patient continues to have significant residual symptoms, it is important to determine the impact is of these symptoms on the patient’s quality of life and ability to function. It is also important to evaluate the factors that may be

  17. Remote sensing for environmental monitoring and resource management. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The subject of this volume is remote sensing for environmental monitoring and resource management. This session is divided in eight parts. First part is on general topics, methodology and meteorology. Second part is on geology, environment and land cover. Third part is on disaster monitoring. Fourth part is on operational status of remote sensing. Fifth part is on coastal zones and inland waters. Sixth and seventh parts are on forestry and agriculture. Eighth part is on instrumentation and systems. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  18. USING SESSION RPE TO MONITOR DIFFERENT METHODS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D. Egan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare session rating of perceived exertion for different resistance training techniques in the squat exercise. These techniques included traditional resistance training, super slow, and maximal power training. Fourteen college-age women (Mean ± SD; age = 22 ± 3 years; height = 1.68 ± 0. 07 m completed three experimental trials in a randomized crossover design. The traditional resistance training protocol consisted of 6 sets of 6 repetitions of squats using 80% of 1-RM. The super slow protocol consisted of 6 sets of 6 repetitions using 55% of 1-RM. The maximal power protocol consisted of 6 sets of 6 repetitions using 30% of 1-RM. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE measures were obtained following each set using Borg's CR-10 scale. In addition, a session RPE value was obtained 30 minutes following each exercise session. When comparing average RPE and session RPE, no significant difference was found. However, power training had significantly lower (p < 0.05 average and session RPE (4.50 ± 1.9 and 4.5 ± 2.1 compared to both super slow training (7.81 ± 1.75 and 7.43 ± 1.73 and traditional training (7.33 ± 1.52 and 7.13 ± 1.73. The results indicate that session RPE values are not significantly different from the more traditional methods of measuring RPE during exercise bouts. It does appear that the resistance training mode that is used results in differences in perceived exertion that does not relate directly to the loading that is used. Using session RPE provides practitioners with the same information about perceived exertion as the traditional RPE measures. Taking a single measure following a training session would appear to be much easier than using multiple measures of RPE throughout a resistance training workout. However, practitioners should also be aware that the RPE does not directly relate to the relative intensity used and appears to be dependent on the mode of resistance exercise that is used

  19. Novel AChE inhibitors for sustainable insecticide resistance management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoues Alout

    Full Text Available Resistance to insecticides has become a critical issue in pest management and it is particularly chronic in the control of human disease vectors. The gravity of this situation is being exacerbated since there has not been a new insecticide class produced for over twenty years. Reasoned strategies have been developed to limit resistance spread but have proven difficult to implement in the field. Here we propose a new conceptual strategy based on inhibitors that preferentially target mosquitoes already resistant to a currently used insecticide. Application of such inhibitors in rotation with the insecticide against which resistance has been selected initially is expected to restore vector control efficacy and reduce the odds of neo-resistance. We validated this strategy by screening for inhibitors of the G119S mutated acetylcholinesterase-1 (AChE1, which mediates insensitivity to the widely used organophosphates (OP and carbamates (CX insecticides. PyrimidineTrione Furan-substituted (PTF compounds came out as best hits, acting biochemically as reversible and competitive inhibitors of mosquito AChE1 and preferentially inhibiting the mutated form, insensitive to OP and CX. PTF application in bioassays preferentially killed OP-resistant Culex pipiens and Anopheles gambiae larvae as a consequence of AChE1 inhibition. Modeling the evolution of frequencies of wild type and OP-insensitive AChE1 alleles in PTF-treated populations using the selectivity parameters estimated from bioassays predicts a rapid rise in the wild type allele frequency. This study identifies the first compound class that preferentially targets OP-resistant mosquitoes, thus restoring OP-susceptibility, which validates a new prospect of sustainable insecticide resistance management.

  20. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System: Two Decades of Advancing Public Health Through Integrated Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Beth E; Tate, Heather; Plumblee, Jodie R; Dessai, Uday; Whichard, Jean M; Thacker, Eileen L; Hale, Kis Robertson; Wilson, Wanda; Friedman, Cindy R; Griffin, Patricia M; McDermott, Patrick F

    2017-10-01

    Drug-resistant bacterial infections pose a serious and growing public health threat globally. In this review, we describe the role of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) in providing data that help address the resistance problem and show how such a program can have broad positive impacts on public health. NARMS was formed two decades ago to help assess the consequences to human health arising from the use of antimicrobial drugs in food animal production in the United States. A collaboration among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the United States Department of Agriculture, and state and local health departments, NARMS uses an integrated "One Health" approach to monitor antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria from humans, retail meat, and food animals. NARMS has adapted to changing needs and threats by expanding surveillance catchment areas, examining new isolate sources, adding bacteria, adjusting sampling schemes, and modifying antimicrobial agents tested. NARMS data are not only essential for ensuring that antimicrobial drugs approved for food animals are used in ways that are safe for human health but they also help address broader food safety priorities. NARMS surveillance, applied research studies, and outbreak isolate testing provide data on the emergence of drug-resistant enteric bacteria; genetic mechanisms underlying resistance; movement of bacterial populations among humans, food, and food animals; and sources and outcomes of resistant and susceptible infections. These data can be used to guide and evaluate the impact of science-based policies, regulatory actions, antimicrobial stewardship initiatives, and other public health efforts aimed at preserving drug effectiveness, improving patient outcomes, and preventing infections. Many improvements have been made to NARMS over time and the program will continue to adapt to address emerging resistance threats, changes in

  1. The Development of a Remote Sensor System and Decision Support Systems Architecture to Monitor Resistance Development in Transgenic Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacas, Joseph; Glaser, John; Copenhaver, Kenneth; May, George; Stephens, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared that "significant benefits accrue to growers, the public, and the environment" from the use of transgenic pesticidal crops due to reductions in pesticide usage for crop pest management. Large increases in the global use of transgenic pesticidal crops has reduced the amounts of broad spectrum pesticides used to manage pest populations, improved yield and reduced the environmental impact of crop management. A significant threat to the continued use of this technology is the evolution of resistance in insect pest populations to the insecticidal Bt toxins expressed by the plants. Management of transgenic pesticidal crops with an emphasis on conservation of Bt toxicity in field populations of insect pests is important to the future of sustainable agriculture. A vital component of this transgenic pesticidal crop management is establishing the proof of concept basic understanding, situational awareness, and monitoring and decision support system tools for more than 133650 square kilometers (33 million acres) of bio-engineered corn and cotton for development of insect resistance . Early and recent joint NASA, US EPA and ITD remote imagery flights and ground based field experiments have provided very promising research results that will potentially address future requirements for crop management capabilities.

  2. Insecticide resistance monitoring and metabolic mechanism study of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Xu, Zhifeng; Shi, Li; Shen, Guangmao; He, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is one of the most important agricultural pests in China, which caused serious losses every year. For resistance monitoring, twelve populations of this pest were collected from tobacco field in Chongqing, China, and their sensitivities to 4 insecticides were tested. Results showed that only WL (RR=6.51) and FJ (RR=6.03) populations have developed minor resistance to imidacloprid, and the others still remained susceptible. One population (NC) has reached a high resistance level to cyhalothrin (RR=41.28), five populations showed medium level (10.36≤RR≤20.45), and the other six remained susceptible (0.39≤RR≤3.53). As regards carbosulfan, three populations have developed medium resistance, four populations showed only minor resistance, and the other five (0.81≤RR≤3.97) were still susceptible. Population SZ developed a medium level (RR=14.83) to phoxim, the other 11 were susceptible (0.29≤RR≤2.41). To analysis the potential resistance mechanism, inhibition effects of synergists and detoxifying enzyme activities were detected. The results indicated that the MFO was the most important detoxifying enzyme conferring imidacloprid resistance, and CarE was most important to cyhalothrin, carbosulfan and phoxim. Our study provided a comprehensive survey of insecticide resistance of M. persicae in Chongqing, and suggested that different counties should take corresponding management to delay the insecticide resistance development and prolong the usefulness of insecticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Managing the risk of glyphosate resistance in Australian glyphosate- resistant cotton production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Jeff A; Preston, Christopher; Taylor, Ian N; Charles, Graham W; Roberts, Grant N; Baker, Jeanine

    2008-04-01

    Glyphosate-resistant cotton varieties are an important tool for weed control in Australian cotton production systems. To increase the sustainability of this technology and to minimise the likelihood of resistance evolving through its use, weed scientists, together with herbicide regulators, industry representatives and the technology owners, have developed a framework that guides the use of the technology. Central to this framework is a crop management plan (CMP) and grower accreditation course. A simulation model that takes into account the characteristics of the weed species, initial gene frequencies and any associated fitness penalties was developed to ensure that the CMP was sufficiently robust to minimise resistance risks. The simulations showed that, when a combination of weed control options was employed in addition to glyphosate, resistance did not evolve over the 30 year period of the simulation. These simulations underline the importance of maintaining an integrated system for weed management to prevent the evolution of glyphosate resistance, prolonging the use of glyphosate-resistant cotton. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Climate Change, Carbon Dioxide, and Pest Biology: Monitor, Mitigate, Manage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziska, Lewis H; McConnell, Laura L

    2016-01-13

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and subsequent changes in climate, including temperature and precipitation extremes, are very likely to alter pest pressures in both managed and unmanaged plant communities. Such changes in pest pressures can be positive (migration from a region) or negative (new introductions), but are likely to be accompanied by significant economic and environmental consequences. Recent studies indicate the range of invasive weeds such as kudzu and insects such as mountain pine beetle have already expanded to more northern regions as temperatures have risen. To reduce these consequences, a better understanding of the link between CO2/climate and pest biology is needed in the context of existing and new strategies for pest management. This paper provides an overview of the probable biological links and the vulnerabilities of existing pest management (especially chemical control) and provides a preliminary synthesis of research needs that could potentially improve the ability to monitor, mitigate, and manage pest impacts.

  5. Quantitative resistance level (MIC) of Escherichia coli isolated from calves and pigs suffering from enteritis: national resistance monitoring by the BVL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröer, Ulrike; Kaspar, Heike; Wallmann, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    National Resistance Monitoring of the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL), which was put into service in 2001, has made it possible to implement a valid and representative database on the basis of which the resistance situation, development and spread in animal pathogens can be evaluated. Escherichia coil (E. coli) strains originating from calves and pigs suffering from enteritis were first included in the investigations in the 2004/2005 study. A total of 258 bovine and 492 porcine E. coli strains were tested using the broth microdilution method to determine the in vitro susceptibility (minimum inhibitory concentration) to 23 (fattening pigs) and 28 (calves, piglets, weaners) different antimicrobial substances. Considerable prevalences of resistance were found for some antimicrobials. The strains originating from both animal species displayed high prevalences of resistance for tetracycline, trimethoprim, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, doxycycline and ampicillin. Reduced susceptibility was detected particularly in the E. coli strains from calves. The data reveal that the resistance level of E. coli strains isolated from cases of enteric disease in calves and pigs is altogether higher than has so far been reported in pathogens causing different diseases and in other food-producing animal species. Based on the results presented, it is possible to assess the current resistance situation for E. coli strains in calves and pigs in Germany. This in turn helps to deduce the necessary management measures that can be taken in order to minimise resistance to antibiotics. Furthermore, the data help to decide on adequate therapy of E. coli infections of the intestinal tract in calves and pigs and encourage the responsible use of antibiotics in the interests of animal health and consumer protection.

  6. Slope monitoring by using 2-D resistivity method at Sungai Batu, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Muhamad Iqbal Mubarak Faharul; Yusof, Azim Hilmy Mohd; Ismail, Nur Azwin; Ismail, Noer El Hidayah

    2017-07-01

    Slope is a dynamic system of geo-environmental phenomena that related to the movement of the soil and rock masses. In Pulau Pinang, the occurrence of slope related phenomena such as landslide and rock fall has become a huge issue especially during rainy season as the government would have to invest more for the people safety. 2-D resistivity method is one of the geophysical methods that can be applied to overcome this issue thus prepare countermeasure actions. Monitoring is one of the common acquisition technique that has been used in solving such issue. This technique was applied to identify and monitor changes at the suspected area and thus, countermeasure steps can be taken accordingly and not blindfolded. Starting from August until November 2016, a 200 m survey line of 2-D resistivity survey had been conducted monthly at Sungai Batu, Pulau Pinang slope for monitoring purpose. Three resistivity ranges were able to detect within the subsurface. Resistivity value of 250 - 400 Ωm indicated the low resistivity value and interpreted as the weak zone located at distance of 90 - 120 m with depth of 10 m. Intermediate resistivity value was interpreted as weathered granite zone with resistivity value of 400 - 1500 Ωm was found at almost along survey line. High resistivity value was > 5000 Ωm and interpreted as granitic bedrock located at depth of > 20 m. Aside from weathered granite zone and weak zone, a fracture was found develop over time at distance of 130 - 140 m. The features found have the potential to be the cause for slope failure phenomena to occur. As a conclusion, monitoring slope using 2-D resistivity method is a success and indeed helpful in overcome landslide and rock fall issue as a pre-countermeasure action.

  7. Managing and monitoring tuberculosis using web-based tools in combination with traditional approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ann Ln; Darton, Thomas C; Foster, Rachel A

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health emergency. Ongoing challenges include the coordination of national and international control programs, high levels of drug resistance in many parts of the world, and availability of accurate and rapid diagnostic tests. The increasing availability and reliability of Internet access throughout both affluent and resource-limited countries brings new opportunities to improve TB management and control through the integration of web-based technologies with traditional approaches. In this review, we explore current and potential future use of web-based tools in the areas of TB diagnosis, treatment, epidemiology, service monitoring, and teaching and training.

  8. Environmental monitoring and cooperative resource management at the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This poster session by the Environmental Monitoring Section of the US DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is to demonstrate that the DOE is committed to sound environmental management. This WIPP poster session demonstrates radiological as well as nonradiological environmental monitoring activities conducted routinely at the WIPP. And how data collected prior to the WIPP being operational is used to establish a preoperational baseline for environmental studies in which the samples collected during the operational phase will be compared. Cooperative Resource Management is a relatively new concept for governments agencies. It allows two or more agencies the ability to jointly share in funding a program or project and yet both agencies can benefit from the outcome. These programs are usually a biological type study. The WIPP cooperative agreement between the US BLM, DOE and its contractors is to continue the ongoing documentation of the diversity of the Chihuahuan desert

  9. Configuration management and load monitoring procedures for nuclear plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, S.L.; Skaczylo, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a computer-aided engineering tool called the Load Monitoring System (LMS) that was proven effective for monitoring floor framing, loads, and structural integrity. The system links structural analysis, design investigation, and reporting and automated drafting programs with a Data Base Management System (DBMS). It provides design engineers with a powerful tool for quickly incorporating, tracking, and assessing load revisions and determining effects on steel floor framing members and connections, thereby helping to reduce design man-hours, minimize the impact of structural modifications, and maintain and document the design baseline. The major benefit to utilities are the reduction in engineering costs, assistance with plant configuration management, and assurance of structural safety throughout the operating life of a nuclear plant and at evaluation for license renewal. (orig./HP)

  10. Fundamentals and Catalytic Innovation: The Statistical and Data Management Center of the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvane, Jacqueline; Komarow, Lauren; Hill, Carol; Tran, Thuy Tien T; Pereira, Carol; Rosenkranz, Susan L; Finnemeyer, Matt; Earley, Michelle; Jiang, Hongyu Jeanne; Wang, Rui; Lok, Judith; Evans, Scott R

    2017-03-15

    The Statistical and Data Management Center (SDMC) provides the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) with statistical and data management expertise to advance the ARLG research agenda. The SDMC is active at all stages of a study, including design; data collection and monitoring; data analyses and archival; and publication of study results. The SDMC enhances the scientific integrity of ARLG studies through the development and implementation of innovative and practical statistical methodologies and by educating research colleagues regarding the application of clinical trial fundamentals. This article summarizes the challenges and roles, as well as the innovative contributions in the design, monitoring, and analyses of clinical trials and diagnostic studies, of the ARLG SDMC. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Wireless Sensing Node Network Management for Monitoring Landslide Disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, S; Akiyama, J; Fujiki, T; Mokhtar, N A B

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows the network management and operation to monitor landslide disaster at slop of mountain and hill. Natural disasters damage a measuring system easily. It is necessary for the measuring system to be flexible and robust. The measuring network proposed in this paper is the telemetry system consisted of host system (HS) and local sensing nodes network system (LSNNS). LSNNS operates autonomously and sometimes is controlled by commands from HS. HS collects data/information of landslide disaster from LSNNS, and controls LSNNS remotely. HS and LSNNS are communicated by using 'cloud' system. The dual communication is very effective and convenient to manage a network system operation

  12. Sedation Monitoring and Management during Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menekse Oksar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous endoscopic laser discectomy (PELD is a painful intervention that requires deep sedation and analgesia. However, sedation should be light at some point because cooperation by the patient during the procedure is required for successful surgical treatment. Light sedation poses a problem for endotracheal intubation, while patients placed in the prone position during percutaneous endoscopic discectomy pose a problem for airway management. Therefore, under these conditions, sedation should be not deeper than required. Here we report the sedation management of three cases that underwent PELD, with a focus on deep and safe sedation that was monitored using bispectral index score and observer’s assessment of alertness/sedation score.

  13. Monitoring antibiotic resistance in ocular microorganisms: results from the Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular micRorganisms (ARMOR) 2009 surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Wolfgang; Pillar, Chris M; Torres, Mohana; Morris, Timothy W; Sahm, Daniel F

    2011-10-01

    To determine the antibacterial susceptibility profile of bacterial pathogens from ocular infections against relevant aminoglycoside, β-lactam, cephalosporin, chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolone, glycopeptide, lincosamide, and macrolide antibacterial agents. Laboratory investigation. Isolates from patients with bacterial eye infections were collected prospectively by 34 institutions across the United States and were submitted to a central laboratory for inclusion in the Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular micRorganisms (ARMOR) study. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by microbroth dilution for 200 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), 144 coagulase-negative staphylococci, 75 Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), 73 Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae), and 100 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) isolates. A large proportion of S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates were resistant to oxacillin/methicillin, azithromycin, or fluoroquinolones; 46.5% of S. aureus, 58.3% of coagulase-negative staphylococci, 9.0% of P. aeruginosa, and 9.3% of pneumococcal isolates were nonsusceptible to 2 or more antibacterial drug classes. Only 2.7% of H. influenzae isolates were nonsusceptible to 1 of the agents tested. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci were statistically more likely (all P < .0038) also to be resistant to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and macrolides. Resistance to 1 or more antibiotics is prevalent among ocular bacterial pathogens. Current resistance trends should be considered before initiating empiric treatment of common eye infections. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. UAV MONITORING FOR ENVIROMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN GALAPAGOS ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ballaria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Galapagos Islands, where 97% of the territory is protected and ecosystem dynamics are highly vulnerable, timely and accurate information is key for decision making. An appropriate monitoring system must meet two key features: on one hand, being able to capture information in a systematic and regular basis, and on the other hand, to quickly gather information on demand for specific purposes. The lack of such a system for geographic information limits the ability of Galapagos Islands’ institutions to evaluate and act upon environmental threats such as invasive species spread and vegetation degradation. In this context, the use of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles for capturing georeferenced images is a promising technology for environmental monitoring and management. This paper explores the potential of UAV images for monitoring degradation of littoral vegetation in Puerto Villamil (Isabela Island, Galapagos, Ecuador. Imagery was captured using two camera types: Red Green Blue (RGB and Infrarred Red Green (NIR. First, vegetation presence was identified through NDVI. Second, object-based classification was carried out for characterization of vegetation vigor. Results demonstrates the feasibility of UAV technology for base-line studies and monitoring on the amount and vigorousness of littoral vegetation in the Galapagos Islands. It is also showed that UAV images are not only useful for visual interpretation and object delineation, but also to timely produce useful thematic information for environmental management.

  15. UAV Monitoring for Enviromental Management in Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballari, D.; Orellana, D.; Acosta, E.; Espinoza, A.; Morocho, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the Galapagos Islands, where 97% of the territory is protected and ecosystem dynamics are highly vulnerable, timely and accurate information is key for decision making. An appropriate monitoring system must meet two key features: on one hand, being able to capture information in a systematic and regular basis, and on the other hand, to quickly gather information on demand for specific purposes. The lack of such a system for geographic information limits the ability of Galapagos Islands' institutions to evaluate and act upon environmental threats such as invasive species spread and vegetation degradation. In this context, the use of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) for capturing georeferenced images is a promising technology for environmental monitoring and management. This paper explores the potential of UAV images for monitoring degradation of littoral vegetation in Puerto Villamil (Isabela Island, Galapagos, Ecuador). Imagery was captured using two camera types: Red Green Blue (RGB) and Infrarred Red Green (NIR). First, vegetation presence was identified through NDVI. Second, object-based classification was carried out for characterization of vegetation vigor. Results demonstrates the feasibility of UAV technology for base-line studies and monitoring on the amount and vigorousness of littoral vegetation in the Galapagos Islands. It is also showed that UAV images are not only useful for visual interpretation and object delineation, but also to timely produce useful thematic information for environmental management.

  16. Markov Networks of Collateral Resistance: National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System Surveillance Results from Escherichia coli Isolates, 2004-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Love

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR is an important component of public health. Antimicrobial drug use generates selective pressure that may lead to resistance against to the administered drug, and may also select for collateral resistances to other drugs. Analysis of AMR surveillance data has focused on resistance to individual drugs but joint distributions of resistance in bacterial populations are infrequently analyzed and reported. New methods are needed to characterize and communicate joint resistance distributions. Markov networks are a class of graphical models that define connections, or edges, between pairs of variables with non-zero partial correlations and are used here to describe AMR resistance relationships. The graphical least absolute shrinkage and selection operator is used to estimate sparse Markov networks from AMR surveillance data. The method is demonstrated using a subset of Escherichia coli isolates collected by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System between 2004 and 2012 which included AMR results for 16 drugs from 14418 isolates. Of the 119 possible unique edges, 33 unique edges were identified at least once during the study period and graphical density ranged from 16.2% to 24.8%. Two frequent dense subgraphs were noted, one containing the five β-lactam drugs and the other containing both sulfonamides, three aminoglycosides, and tetracycline. Density did not appear to change over time (p = 0.71. Unweighted modularity did not appear to change over time (p = 0.18, but a significant decreasing trend was noted in the modularity of the weighted networks (p < 0.005 indicating relationships between drugs of different classes tended to increase in strength and frequency over time compared to relationships between drugs of the same class. The current method provides a novel method to study the joint resistance distribution, but additional work is required to unite the underlying biological and genetic

  17. Resistant Atherosclerosis: The Need for Monitoring of Plaque Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J David; Solo, Karla

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that patients with lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) have greater regression of coronary plaque. In 2002, we found that carotid plaque progression doubled cardiovascular risk. In 2003, we therefore implemented a new approach, treating arteries instead of risk factors. Since then, we have seen many patients with carotid plaque progression despite very low levels of LDL-C, suggesting other causes of atherosclerosis. We studied the relationship of achieved LDL-C and change in LDL-C to progression/regression of atherosclerosis, before and after 2003. All 4512 patients in our clinic database with at least 2 measurements of LDL-C and carotid total plaque area approximately a year apart and complete data for analyses (n=2025 before and 2487 after December 31, 2003) were included in the study. Baseline total plaque area was significantly higher after 2003 (129.56±134.32 versus 113.33±121.52 mm 2 ; P atherosclerosis. Many patients have Resistant Atherosclerosis, failing to achieve regression of atherosclerosis despite low levels of LDL-C. Instead of relying on LDL-C, measuring plaque burden may be a more useful way of assessing individual response to therapy, particularly in resistant atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Monitoring glyphosate residues in transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, María C; Lenardón, Argelia; Sanchez, Daniel; Maitre, María I; Scotta, Roberto; Enrique, Susana

    2004-02-01

    The availability of Roundup Ready (RR) varieties of soybean has increased the use of glyphosate for weed control in Argentina. Glyphosate [(N-phosphonomethyl)glycine] is employed for the eradication of previous crop vegetation and for weed control during the soybean growing cycle. Its action is effective, and low environmental impact has been reported so far. No residues have been observed in soil or water, either of glyphosate or its metabolite, AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid). The objective of this work was to monitor glyphosate and AMPA residues in soybean plants and grains in field crops in Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Five sites were monitored in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Individual soybean plants were sampled from emergence to harvest, dried and ground. Analysis consisted in residue extraction with organic solvents and buffers, agitation, centrifugation, clean-up and HPLC with UV detection. In soybean leaves and stems, glyphosate residues ranged from 1.9 to 4.4 mg kg(-1) and from 0.1 to 1.8 mg kg(-1) in grains. Higher concentrations were detected when glyphosate was sprayed several times during the crop cycle, and when treatments approached the flowering stage. AMPA residues were also detected in leaves and in grains, indicating metabolism of the herbicide.

  19. Cry1F resistance among lepidopteran pests: a model for improved resistance management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Ana M; Vellichirammal, Neetha Nanoth; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Siegfried, Blair D

    2016-06-01

    The Cry1Fa protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is known for its potential to control lepidopteran pests, especially through transgenic expression in maize and cotton. The maize event TC1507 expressing the cry1Fa toxin gene became commercially available in the United States in 2003 for the management of key lepidopteran pests including the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. A high-dose/refuge strategy has been widely adopted to delay evolution of resistance to event TC1507 and other transgenic Bt crops. Efficacy of this strategy depends on the crops expressing a high dose of the Bt toxin to targeted pests and adjacent refuges of non-Bt host plants serving as a source of abundant susceptible insects. While this strategy has proved effective in delaying O. nubilalis resistance, field-evolved resistance to event TC1507 has been reported in S. frugiperda populations in Puerto Rico, Brazil, and the southeastern United States. This paper examines available information on resistance to Cry1Fa in O. nubilalis and S. frugiperda and discusses how this information identifies opportunities to refine resistance management recommendations for Bt maize. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Methicillin-Resistant Bacteria Inhabiting Surface Waters Monitored by mecA-Targeted Oligonucleotide Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedmonir, Elnaz; Yilmaz, Fadime; Icgen, Bulent

    2016-08-01

    Part of a 20-60 kb staphylococcal chromosome cassette called mecA encodes low-affinity penicillin-binding protein PBP2a and causes methicillin resistance. Among all methicillin-resistant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen and main concern worldwide. Although the origin of the mecA is not very well-defined, mecA homologues are also ubiquitous in methicillin-resistant non-staphylococcal bacteria. Due to the dissemination of methicillin resistance through the transmission of mecA gene among staphylococcal and non-staphylococcal bacteria inhabiting surface waters, there is a need to monitor mecA gene in these waters for public health safety. Therefore, this study aimed at monitoring mecA harboring bacteria inhabiting surface waters by using fluorescently labelled mecA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Under the hybridization conditions of 55 % formamide and 0.020 M NaCl at 46°C, the oligonucleotide probe used in the study showed high hybridization stringency to the mecA gene targeted. The strong linear relationships observed between the signal intensity and the target gene were used to assess the population dynamics of mecA harboring isolates over a 2-year-period. The results indicated that mecA-targeted oligonucleotide probes can be effectively used for in situ monitoring of methicillin resistant isolates inhabiting surface waters.

  1. Application of Risk Management for Control and Monitoring Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grau, S; Balda, F; Chouvelon, A

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the state of the art and new trends for risk management of safety-related control and monitoring systems, currently applied in the industry. These techniques not only enable to manage safety and reliability issues but they also help in the control of quality and economic factors affected by the availability and maintenance of the system. The method includes an unambiguous definition of the system in terms of functions and a systematic analysis of hazardous situations, undesired events and possible malfunctions. It also includes the identification and quantification of the risk associated to the system. The required risk reduction is specified in terms of safety integrity levels. The safety integrity level results in requirements, preventive measures, possible improvements and recommendations to assure the satisfactory management of the risk.

  2. Knowledge management for chronic patient control and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedreira, Nieves; Aguiar-Pulido, Vanessa; Dorado, Julián; Pazos, Alejandro; Pereira, Javier

    2014-10-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) can be seen as the process of capturing, developing, sharing, and effectively using organizational knowledge. In this context, the work presented here proposes a KM System to be used in the scope of chronic patient control and monitoring for distributed research projects. It was designed in order to enable communication between patient and doctors, as well as to be usedbythe researchers involved in the project for its management. The proposed model integrates all the information concerning every patient and project management tasks in the Institutional Memory of a KMSystem and uses an ontology to maintain the information and its categorization independently. Furthermore, taking the philosophy of intelligent agents, the system will interact with the user to show him the information according to his preferences and access rights. Finally, three different scenarios of application are described.

  3. Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason Itkin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air. An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based web application that provides real-time flight monitoring and management for UAVs. For each connected UAV, detailed UAV sensor readings from the accelerometer, GPS sensor, ultrasonic sensor and visual position cameras are provided along with status reports from the smaller internal components of UAVs (i.e., motor and battery. The dynamic map overlay visualizes active flight paths and current UAV locations, allowing the user to monitor all aircrafts easily. Our system detects and prevents potential collisions by automatically adjusting UAV flight paths and then alerting users to the change. We develop our proposed system and demonstrate its feasibility and performances through simulation.

  4. Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Mason; Kim, Mihui; Park, Younghee

    2016-11-15

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air). An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based web application that provides real-time flight monitoring and management for UAVs. For each connected UAV, detailed UAV sensor readings from the accelerometer, GPS sensor, ultrasonic sensor and visual position cameras are provided along with status reports from the smaller internal components of UAVs (i.e., motor and battery). The dynamic map overlay visualizes active flight paths and current UAV locations, allowing the user to monitor all aircrafts easily. Our system detects and prevents potential collisions by automatically adjusting UAV flight paths and then alerting users to the change. We develop our proposed system and demonstrate its feasibility and performances through simulation.

  5. Assessing hospitals' clinical risk management: Development of a monitoring instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeiffer Yvonne

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical risk management (CRM plays a crucial role in enabling hospitals to identify, contain, and manage risks related to patient safety. So far, no instruments are available to measure and monitor the level of implementation of CRM. Therefore, our objective was to develop an instrument for assessing CRM in hospitals. Methods The instrument was developed based on a literature review, which identified key elements of CRM. These elements were then discussed with a panel of patient safety experts. A theoretical model was used to describe the level to which CRM elements have been implemented within the organization. Interviews with CRM practitioners and a pilot evaluation were conducted to revise the instrument. The first nationwide application of the instrument (138 participating Swiss hospitals was complemented by in-depth interviews with 25 CRM practitioners in selected hospitals, for validation purposes. Results The monitoring instrument consists of 28 main questions organized in three sections: 1 Implementation and organizational integration of CRM, 2 Strategic objectives and operational implementation of CRM at hospital level, and 3 Overview of CRM in different services. The instrument is available in four languages (English, German, French, and Italian. It allows hospitals to gather comprehensive and systematic data on their CRM practice and to identify areas for further improvement. Conclusions We have developed an instrument for assessing development stages of CRM in hospitals that should be feasible for a continuous monitoring of developments in this important area of patient safety.

  6. Assessing hospitals' clinical risk management: Development of a monitoring instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, Matthias; Kessler, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Yvonne; Wehner, Theo; Manser, Tanja

    2010-12-13

    Clinical risk management (CRM) plays a crucial role in enabling hospitals to identify, contain, and manage risks related to patient safety. So far, no instruments are available to measure and monitor the level of implementation of CRM. Therefore, our objective was to develop an instrument for assessing CRM in hospitals. The instrument was developed based on a literature review, which identified key elements of CRM. These elements were then discussed with a panel of patient safety experts. A theoretical model was used to describe the level to which CRM elements have been implemented within the organization. Interviews with CRM practitioners and a pilot evaluation were conducted to revise the instrument. The first nationwide application of the instrument (138 participating Swiss hospitals) was complemented by in-depth interviews with 25 CRM practitioners in selected hospitals, for validation purposes. The monitoring instrument consists of 28 main questions organized in three sections: 1) Implementation and organizational integration of CRM, 2) Strategic objectives and operational implementation of CRM at hospital level, and 3) Overview of CRM in different services. The instrument is available in four languages (English, German, French, and Italian). It allows hospitals to gather comprehensive and systematic data on their CRM practice and to identify areas for further improvement. We have developed an instrument for assessing development stages of CRM in hospitals that should be feasible for a continuous monitoring of developments in this important area of patient safety.

  7. Development of Cloud-Based UAV Monitoring and Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Mason; Kim, Mihui; Park, Younghee

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize commercial industries and the public domain outside of the military. UAVs would be able to speed up rescue and recovery operations from natural disasters and can be used for autonomous delivery systems (e.g., Amazon Prime Air). An increase in the number of active UAV systems in dense urban areas is attributed to an influx of UAV hobbyists and commercial multi-UAV systems. As airspace for UAV flight becomes more limited, it is important to monitor and manage many UAV systems using modern collision avoidance techniques. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based web application that provides real-time flight monitoring and management for UAVs. For each connected UAV, detailed UAV sensor readings from the accelerometer, GPS sensor, ultrasonic sensor and visual position cameras are provided along with status reports from the smaller internal components of UAVs (i.e., motor and battery). The dynamic map overlay visualizes active flight paths and current UAV locations, allowing the user to monitor all aircrafts easily. Our system detects and prevents potential collisions by automatically adjusting UAV flight paths and then alerting users to the change. We develop our proposed system and demonstrate its feasibility and performances through simulation. PMID:27854267

  8. Resistance monitoring of human pathogenic bacteria in Germany, SWOT analysis and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Wolfgang

    2006-06-01

    Determination of antibiotic resistance has two main goals in clinical-microbiological diagnosis. One aspect is preservation of antibacterial chemotherapy. Furthermore, trends in resistance development should be monitored and should serve as an early warning-system for occurrence and spread of new and clinically important antibiotic resistances. Plenty of data on antibiotic resistance is gathered on a routine basis in medical-microbiological diagnosis and often it is stored in electronic databases that could be interlinked. The main reason that the available data is not being used for resistance monitoring in Germany is the widely used methodology of the agar diffusion test. It is the cheapest and by far the most inaccurate method of determining resistance. The test results are not always comparable with tests for all substance groups from national standards (also limited international comparability). Trend analysis of the resistance situation in Germany can therefore only be determined through individual studies. These studies are discussed according to a SWOT analysis (SWOT = Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats).

  9. Long-term dipole-dipole resistivity monitoring at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilt, M.; Goldstein, N.E.; Sasaki, Y.

    1984-04-01

    Dipole-dipole resistivity measurements for the combined purposes of reservoir delineation and reservoir monitoring were first made at Cerro Prieto in 1978 and have continued on approximately an annual basis since then. Two 20 km-long dipole-dipole lines with permanently emplaced electrodes at 1-km spacings were established over the field area. Resistivity remeasurements have been made on one line at 6- to 18-month intervals using a 25 kW generator capable of up to 80A output and a microprocessor-controlled signal-averaging receiver. This high-power, low-noise system provides highly accurate measurements even at large transmitter receiver separations. Standard error calculations for collected data indicate errors less than 5% for all points. Results from four years of monitoring (1979-1983) indicate a 5% average annual increase in apparent resistivity over the present production area, and larger decreases in apparent resistivity in the region to the east. The increase in resistivity in the production zone is most likely due to dilution of reservoir fluids with fresher water, as evidenced by a drop in chloride content of produced waters. The area of decreasing resistivity east of the reservoir is associated with a steeply dipping conductive body, a zone of higher thermal gradients and an increase in shale thickness in the section. Decreasing resistivity in this area may be caused by an influx of high temperature, saline water from depths of 3/sup +/ km through a sandy gap in the shales.

  10. Evaluation of an antimicrobial resistance monitoring program for campylobacter in poultry by simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regula, G.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Ledergerber, U.

    2005-01-01

    sampling points. Existing methods of sample size calculation can not be used to solve this problem, because sampling decisions do not only depend on the prevalence of resistance and sensitivity and specificity of resistance testing, but also on the prevalence of the bacteria, and test characteristics...... of isolation of these bacteria. Our aim was to develop a stochastic simulation model that optimized a national resistance monitoring program, taking multi-stage sampling, imperfect sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests, and cost-effectiveness considerations into account. The process of resistance...... testing were evaluated regarding the precision of the resulting prevalence estimate. Precision of the prevalence estimate was defined as the absolute difference between apparent and true prevalence of resistance. A partial budget approach was utilized to find the most cost-effective combination of samples...

  11. Challenges in monitoring and managing engineered slopes in a changing climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Paul N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geotechnical asset owners need to know which parts of their asset network are vulnerable to climate change induced failure in order to optimise future investment. Protecting these vulnerable slopes requires monitoring systems capable of identifying and alerting to asset operators changes in the internal conditions that precede failure. Current monitoring systems are heavily reliant on point sensors which can be difficult to interpret across slope scale. This paper presents challenges to producing such a system and research being carried out to address some of these using electrical resistance tomography (ERT. Experimental results show that whilst it is possible to measure soil water content indirectly via resistivity the relationship between resistivity and water content will change over time for a given slope. If geotechnical parameters such as pore water pressure are to be estimated using this method then ERT systems will require integrating with more conventional geotechnical instrumentation to ensure correct representative information is provided. The paper also presents examples of how such data can be processed and communicated to asset owners for the purposes of asset management.

  12. Monitoring asthma in childhood: management-related issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart L. Rottier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Management-related issues are an important aspect of monitoring asthma in children in clinical practice. This review summarises the literature on practical aspects of monitoring including adherence to treatment, inhalation technique, ongoing exposure to allergens and irritants, comorbid conditions and side-effects of treatment, as agreed by the European Respiratory Society Task Force on Monitoring Asthma in Childhood. The evidence indicates that it is important to discuss adherence to treatment in a non-confrontational way at every clinic visit, and take into account a patient's illness and medication beliefs. All task force members teach inhalation techniques at least twice when introducing a new inhalation device and then at least annually. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, combustion-derived air pollutants, house dust mites, fungal spores, pollens and pet dander deserve regular attention during follow-up according to most task force members. In addition, allergic rhinitis should be considered as a cause for poor asthma control. Task force members do not screen for gastro-oesophageal reflux and food allergy. Height and weight are generally measured at least annually to identify individuals who are susceptible to adrenal suppression and to calculate body mass index, even though causality between obesity and asthma has not been established. In cases of poor asthma control, before stepping up treatment the above aspects of monitoring deserve closer attention.

  13. Monitoring water distribution systems: understanding and managing sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Ediriweera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks are currently being trialed by the water distribution industry for monitoring complex distribution infrastructure. The paper presents an investigation in to the architecture and performance of a sensor system deployed for monitoring such a distribution network. The study reveals lapses in systems design and management, resulting in a fifth of the data being either missing or erroneous. Findings identify the importance of undertaking in-depth consideration of all aspects of a large sensor system with access to either expertise on every detail, or to reference manuals capable of transferring the knowledge to non-specialists. First steps towards defining a set of such guidelines are presented here, with supporting evidence.

  14. Monitoring and managing microbes in aquaculture - Towards a sustainable industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Sonnenschein, Eva; Gram, Lone

    2016-01-01

    communities to monitor water quality and to efficiently carry out ecosystem services within the aquaculture systems may only be a few years away. Initially, however, we need to thoroughly understand the microbiomes of both healthy and diseased aquaculture systems, and we need to determine how to successfully...... and that mortality of infected fish larvae can be reduced significantly by probiotic bacteria. However, the successful management of the aquaculture microbiota is currently hampered by our lack of knowledge of relevant microbial interactions and the overall ecology of these systems....... protect fish and larvae against disease. Hence, monitoring and manipulating the microbial communities in aquaculture environments hold great potential; both in terms of assessing and improving water quality, but also in terms of controlling the development of microbial infections. Using microbial...

  15. A tool for monitoring lecturers’ interactions with Learning Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cantabella

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning Management Systems’ (LMS interaction mechanisms are mainly focused on the improvement of students’ experiences and academic results. However, special attention should also be given to the interaction between these LMS and other actors involved in the educational process. This paper specifically targets the interaction of degree coordinators with LMS when monitoring lecturers’ performance, especially in an online mode. The methodology is guided by the following three objectives: (1 analysis of the limitations of monitoring lecturers in current LMS; (2 development of software program to overcome such limitations; and (3 empirical evaluation of the proposed program. The results show that this type of tool helps coordinators to intuitively and efficiently analyze the status of the subjects taught in their degree programs.

  16. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, lead, antimony, I,I-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, mercury, nickel, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226) exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents; 57 (49%) of the 116 monitored wells contained elevated tritium activities, and 21 (18%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations Sixty-one downgradient wells screened in Aquifer Zone IIB2 (Water Table), Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 2] (Barnwell/McBean), and Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) contained constituents that exceeded the PDWS during first quarter 1992. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and HSB 85A, BC, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Upgradient well BGO 2D contained elevated tritium.

  17. CLOUDCLOUD : general-purpose instrument monitoring and data managing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, António; Amorim, António; Tomé, António

    2016-04-01

    An effective experiment is dependent on the ability to store and deliver data and information to all participant parties regardless of their degree of involvement in the specific parts that make the experiment a whole. Having fast, efficient and ubiquitous access to data will increase visibility and discussion, such that the outcome will have already been reviewed several times, strengthening the conclusions. The CLOUD project aims at providing users with a general purpose data acquisition, management and instrument monitoring platform that is fast, easy to use, lightweight and accessible to all participants of an experiment. This work is now implemented in the CLOUD experiment at CERN and will be fully integrated with the experiment as of 2016. Despite being used in an experiment of the scale of CLOUD, this software can also be used in any size of experiment or monitoring station, from single computers to large networks of computers to monitor any sort of instrument output without influencing the individual instrument's DAQ. Instrument data and meta data is stored and accessed via a specially designed database architecture and any type of instrument output is accepted using our continuously growing parsing application. Multiple databases can be used to separate different data taking periods or a single database can be used if for instance an experiment is continuous. A simple web-based application gives the user total control over the monitored instruments and their data, allowing data visualization and download, upload of processed data and the ability to edit existing instruments or add new instruments to the experiment. When in a network, new computers are immediately recognized and added to the system and are able to monitor instruments connected to them. Automatic computer integration is achieved by a locally running python-based parsing agent that communicates with a main server application guaranteeing that all instruments assigned to that computer are

  18. Flame image monitoring and analysis in combustion management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, D. [CEZ, a.s. Elektrarna Detmarovice, Detmarovice (Czech Republic); Huttunen, A.J.; Nihtinen, J.J. [Imatran Voima Oy, IVO Technology Centre, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    When NO{sub x} emissions are reduced with new low-NO{sub x} burners and infurnace modifications in old pulverised fuel boilers, many changes in the firing conditions may occur. Depending on coal quality and the original furnace design, low-NO{sub x} burners, overtire air, low-excess-air firing and other primary modifications in various combinations may cause flame instability, increased slagging, increased minimum load and other difficulties in controlling the burning process. To find and solve these problems quicker, a new type of burner management system for pulverised fuel and oil-fired boilers was developed by Imatran Voima Oy. The DIMAC combustion management system monitors and analyses individually each burner or burner level. There are special software for wall and corner fired boilers. The DIMAC system is comprised of two functional subsystems: flame monitoring and flame analysis. The DIMAC enables the power plant operators to minimise NO{sub x} emissions and optimise the burning efficiency with varying coal qualities and boiler loads at the same time so that slagging, unburnt carbon in fly ash and flame stability stay in acceptable limits. It also guarantees that burners operate in good safety conditions in each burner level. The DIMAC system monitors perpendicularly each individual burner and evaluates flame parameters. Real-time flame monitoring and analysis allows the operator to directly see the effect of changing fuel distribution on flame pattern and flame stability. Based on data from the DIMAC references the system can improve boiler efficiency by 0.2 - 0.5 per cent unit as a result of more efficient control of the burning process. At the same time, the NO{sub x} formation can be reduced by 10 - 20 % 2 refs.

  19. Morning blood pressure monitoring in the management of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Guang; Kario, Kazuomi; Park, Jeong-Bae; Chen, Chen-Huan

    2017-08-01

    : The aim of the current article is to review the current evidence on the role of morning blood pressure (BP) in the management of hypertension. Morning BP surge had been and will continue to be a hot topic of hypertension research. However, more evidence is needed to prove its clinical usefulness in the management of hypertension. Masked morning hypertension, as the other forms of masked hypertension, requires more research. The concept of morning BP monitoring could be clinically relevant in the therapeutic management of hypertension and in the prevention of cardiovascular complications by defining and treating morning hypertension. Antihypertensive medication is usually taken in the morning. The presence of uncontrolled morning BP during trough effect hours could be a hallmark of inadequate antihypertensive regimen, such as, for instance, the use of short-acting or intermediate-acting drugs, under dosing of drugs, or no or low use of combination therapy. To improve the management of hypertension in general and morning hypertension in particular, long-acting antihypertensive drugs should be used in appropriate often full dosages and in proper combinations. The clinical usefulness of antihypertensive drugs of specific mechanisms against morning BP or split or timed dosing of long-acting drugs in controlling morning BP remains under investigation. In conclusion, there is some evidence that morning BP is critical in the incidence of cardiovascular complications. However, proving its clinical usefulness in the management of hypertension requires further research.

  20. Selection for high levamisole resistance in Haemonchus contortus monitored with an egg-hatch assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Roos, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of selection for levamisole resistance in Haemonchus contortus, the consecutive nematode generations of an in vivo selection were monitored with a newly developed egg-hatch assay. The in vivo selection was started with a population not previously exposed to any

  1. Series Resistance Monitoring for Photovoltaic Modules in the Vicinity of MPP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso

    2010-01-01

    the time period with reduced power production. This paper focuses on the estimation of series resistance of flat silicone PV panels or arrays during operation, in the vicinity of their MPP. The method presented in this paper helps to detect failures by monitoring changes in the panel’s or array’s series...

  2. G-REALM: A lake/reservoir monitoring tool for drought monitoring and water resources management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, C. M.; Ricko, M.; Beckley, B. D.; Yang, X.; Tetrault, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    G-REALM is a NASA/USDA funded operational program offering water-level products for lakes and reservoirs and these are currently derived from the NASA/CNES Topex/Jason series of satellite radar altimeters. The main stakeholder is the USDA/Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) though many other end-users utilize the products for a variety of interdisciplinary science and operational programs. The FAS utilize the products within their CropExplorer Decision Support System (DSS) to help assess irrigation potential, and to monitor both short-term (agricultural) and longer-term (hydrological) drought conditions. There is increasing demand for a more global monitoring service that in particular, captures the variations in the smallest (1 to 100km2) reservoirs and water holdings in arid and semi-arid regions. Here, water resources are critical to both agriculture and regional security. A recent G-REALM 10-day resolution product upgrade and expansion has allowed for more accurate lake level products to be released and for a greater number of water bodies to be monitored. The next program phase focuses on the exploration of the enhanced radar altimeter data sets from the Cryosat-2 and Sentinel-3 missions with their improved spatial resolution, and the expansion of the system to the monitoring of 1,000 water bodies across the globe. In addition, a new element, the monitoring of surface water levels in wetland zones, is also being introduced. This aims to satisfy research and stakeholder requirements with respect to programs examining the links between inland fisheries catch potential and declining water levels, and to those monitoring the delicate balance between water resources, agriculture, and fisheries management in arid basins.

  3. An electrical resistivity monitor for the detection of composition changes in Pb-17Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubberstey, P.; Barker, M.G.; Sample, T.

    1991-01-01

    An electrical resistivity monitor for the detection of composition changes in the lithium-lead eutectic alloy, Pb-17Li, has been developed. A miniature electromagnetic pump is used to sample alloy continuously from a pool or loop system and force it through a capillary section, within which the necessary resistance measurements are made, prior to its return to the bulk source. To calibrate the monitor, detailed resistivity-temperature and resistivity-composition data have been determined for Pb-Li alloys at temperatures from 600 to 800K and compositions from 0 to 20.5 at% Li. The resistivity increases with both temperature and composition; for Pb-17li at 723 K, dρ/dT=0.054x10 -8 ΩmK -1 , and dρ/d[Li]=1.27x10 -8 Ωm(at% Li) -1 . The sensitivity of the monitor is such that changes in composition of as little as ±0.05 at% Li can be detected and its response time is limited soley by the rate of sampling. (orig.)

  4. Tank monitor and control system (TMACS) software configuration management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GLASSCOCK, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) describes the methodology for control of computer software developed and supported by the Systems Development and Integration (SD and I) organization of Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. (LMSI) for the Tank Monitor and Control System (TMACS). This plan controls changes to the software and configuration files used by TMACS. The controlled software includes the Gensym software package, Gensym knowledge base files developed for TMACS, C-language programs used by TMACS, the operating system on the production machine, language compilers, and all Windows NT commands and functions which affect the operating environment. The configuration files controlled include the files downloaded to the Acromag and Westronic field instruments

  5. Simultaneous On-State Voltage and Bond-Wire Resistance Monitoring of Silicon Carbide MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Baker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In fast switching power semiconductors, the use of a fourth terminal to provide the reference potential for the gate signal—known as a kelvin-source terminal—is becoming common. The introduction of this terminal presents opportunities for condition monitoring systems. This article demonstrates how the voltage between the kelvin-source and power-source can be used to specifically monitor bond-wire degradation. Meanwhile, the drain to kelvin-source voltage can be monitored to track defects in the semiconductor die or gate driver. Through an accelerated aging test on 20 A Silicon Carbide Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs, it is shown that there are opposing trends in the evolution of the on-state resistances of both the bond-wires and the MOSFET die. In summary, after 50,000 temperature cycles, the resistance of the bond-wires increased by up to 2 mΩ, while the on-state resistance of the MOSFET dies decreased by approximately 1 mΩ. The conventional failure precursor (monitoring a single forward voltage cannot distinguish between semiconductor die or bond-wire degradation. Therefore, the ability to monitor both these parameters due to the presence of an auxiliary-source terminal can provide more detailed information regarding the aging process of a device.

  6. Towards mechanisms-guided resistivity-based monitoring of damage evolution in laminated composites

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles

    2013-04-05

    A convenient health monitoring technique for detecting degradation in laminated composite is to monitor the change of electrical resistance along multiple conduction paths within the structure. Yet, the relations between the global modification of resistivity and the exact underlying damage map is still unclear that makes diffcult to interpret these nondestructive-testing results. The challenge is then to be able to reconstruct from these global observation the underlying damage map. This is even more diffcult due to the numerous underlying damage mechanisms that can take place either at the inter laminar of intra laminar level. This paper intends to provide some preliminary insights about strategies to recover the damage state based only on global measurements. We focus here on transverse cracking detection. We introduce the homogenization process that defines at the meso scale an equivalent homogeneous ply that is energetically equivalent to the cracked one. This can be used as a first tool to reconstruct damage maps based on global resistivity measurements.

  7. Spatial scan statistics to assess sampling strategy of antimicrobial resistance monitoring programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Antonio; Houe, Hans; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2009-01-01

    Pie collection and analysis of data on antimicrobial resistance in human and animal Populations are important for establishing a baseline of the occurrence of resistance and for determining trends over time. In animals, targeted monitoring with a stratified sampling plan is normally used. However...... sampled by the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP), by identifying spatial Clusters of samples and detecting areas with significantly high or low sampling rates. These analyses were performed for each year and for the total 5-year study period for all...... collected and Susceptibility tested pig samples in Denmark between 2002 and 2006. For the yearly analysis, both high and low sampling rates areas were significant, with two clusters in 2002 (relative risk [RR]: 2.91, p

  8. Estimation of Recharge from Long-Term Monitoring of Saline Tracer Transport Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarder, Eline Bojsen; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Binley, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The movement of a saline tracer added to the soil surface was monitored in the unsaturated zone using cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and subjected to natural rainfall conditions. The ERT data were inverted and corrected for subsurface temperature changes, and spatial moment...... methods. In September 2011, a saline tracer was added across a 142-m2 area at the surface at an application rate mimicking natural infiltration. The movement of the saline tracer front was monitored using cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT); data were collected on a daily to weekly...... located only meters away from the cross-borehole ERT array. This suggests that long-term automated ERT monitoring of a surface-applied tracer is a promising technique for estimating groundwater recharge....

  9. Nevada Test 1999 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 radioactive waste management sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvonne Townsend

    2000-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels, whereas radon concentrations are not above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 1999 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 3.9 inches at the Area 3 RWMS (61 percent of average) and 3.8 inches at the Area 5 RWMS (75 percent of average). Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 1999 rainfall infiltrated less than one foot before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium data indicate very slow migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were insignificant. All 1999 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing as expected at isolating buried waste

  10. Fast flux test facility performance monitoring management information, July 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newland, D J

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide management with performance data on key performance indicators selected from the FFTF Early Warning System performance indicators. This report contains the results for key performance indicators divided into two categories of ``overall`` and ``other.`` The ``overall`` performance indicators, when considered in the aggregate, provide one means of monitoring overall plant performance. The data should be used in conjunction with the results of other management assessment activities to focus improvement efforts. Use of these key performance indicators as a group is stressed, since focusing on a single indicator or a narrow set of indicators can be counterproductive both to safety and to long-term performance improvement.

  11. Electrical resistivity monitoring of the thermomechanical heater test in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.; Buettner, M.; LaBrecque, L

    1996-01-01

    A test is being conducted in the densely welded Topopah Springs tuff within Yucca Mountain, Nevada to study the thermomechanical and hydrological behavior of this horizon when it is heated. A single 4 kW heater, placed in a horizontal borehole, was turned on August, 1996 and will continue to heat the rockmass until April 1997. Of the several thermal, mechanical and hydrological measurements being used to monitor the rockmass response, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is being used to monitor the movement of liquid water with a special interest in the movement of condensate out of the system. Four boreholes, containing a total of 30 ERT electrodes, were drilled to form the sides of a 30 foot square with the heater at the center and perpendicular to the plane. Images of resistivity change were calculated using data collected before and during the heating episode. The changes recovered show a region of decreasing resistivity approximately centered around the heater. The size this region grows with time and -the resistivity decreases become stronger. The changes in resistivity are caused by both temperature and saturation changes. The observed resistivity changes suggest that the rock adjacent to the heater dries as heating progresses. This dry region is surrounded by a region of increased saturation where steam recondenses and imbibes into the rock

  12. Electrical resistivity monitoring of the thermomechanical heater test in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.; Buettner, M.

    1997-01-01

    A test is being conducted in the densely welded Topopah Springs tuff within Yucca Mountain, Nevada to study the thermomechanical and hydrological behavior of this horizon when it is headed. A single 4 kW heater, placed in a horizontal borehole, was turned on August, 1996 and will continue to heat the rockmass until April 1997. Of the several thermal, mechanical and hydrological measurements being used to monitor the rockmass response, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is being used to monitor the movement of liquid water with a special interest in the movement of condensate out of the system. Four boreholes, containing a total of 30 ERT electrodes, were drilled to form the sides of a 30 foot square with the heater at the center and perpendicular to the plane. Images of resistivity change were calculated using data collected before and during the heating episode. The changes recovered show a region of decreasing resistivity approximately centered around the heater. The size this region grows with time and the resistivity decreases become stronger. The changes in resistivity are caused by both temperature and saturation changes. The observed resistivity changes suggest that the rock adjacent to the heater dries as heating progresses. This dry region is surrounded by a region of increased saturation where steam recondenses and imbibes into the rock

  13. Blended Refuge and Insect Resistance Management for Insecticidal Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Andre L B; Pan, Zaiqi; Crain, Philip R; Thompson, Stephen D; Pilcher, Clinton D; Sethi, Amit

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In this review, we evaluate the intentional mixing or blending of insecticidal seed with refuge seed for managing resistance by insects to insecticidal corn (Zea mays). We first describe the pest biology and farming practices that will contribute to weighing trade-offs between using block refuges and blended refuges. Case studies are presented to demonstrate how the trade-offs will differ in different systems. We compare biological aspects of several abstract models to guide the reader through the history of modeling, which has played a key role in the promotion or denigration of blending in various scientific debates about insect resistance management for insecticidal crops. We conclude that the use of blended refuge should be considered on a case-by-case basis after evaluation of insect biology, environment, and farmer behavior. For Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, Ostrinia nubilalis, and Helicoverpa zea in the United States, blended refuge provides similar, if not longer, delays in the evolution of resistance compared to separate block refuges. PMID:29220481

  14. Blended Refuge and Insect Resistance Management for Insecticidal Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, David W; Crespo, Andre L B; Pan, Zaiqi; Crain, Philip R; Thompson, Stephen D; Pilcher, Clinton D; Sethi, Amit

    2018-02-08

    In this review, we evaluate the intentional mixing or blending of insecticidal seed with refuge seed for managing resistance by insects to insecticidal corn (Zea mays). We first describe the pest biology and farming practices that will contribute to weighing trade-offs between using block refuges and blended refuges. Case studies are presented to demonstrate how the trade-offs will differ in different systems. We compare biological aspects of several abstract models to guide the reader through the history of modeling, which has played a key role in the promotion or denigration of blending in various scientific debates about insect resistance management for insecticidal crops. We conclude that the use of blended refuge should be considered on a case-by-case basis after evaluation of insect biology, environment, and farmer behavior. For Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, Ostrinia nubilalis, and Helicoverpa zea in the United States, blended refuge provides similar, if not longer, delays in the evolution of resistance compared to separate block refuges. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  15. Managed PACS operation with an automatic monitoring tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Han, Ruolin; Wu, Dongqing; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhuang, Jun; Feng, Jie; Wang, Mingpeng; Zhang, Guozhen; Wang, Cuanfu

    2002-05-01

    Huadong hospital in Shanghai with 800 beds provides health care services for inpatients and outpatients, as well as special senior and VIP patients. In order to move to digital imaging based radiology practice, and also provide better intra-hospital consultation services for senior and VIP patients, we started to implement PACS for hospital wide services from 1999, and also designed and developed an automatic monitoring system (AMS) to monitor and control PACS operation and dataflow to decrease the total cost of ownership for PACS operation. We installed the AMS on top of the Huadong Hospital PACS in the May of 2001. The installation was painless, did not interrupt the normal PACS operation, and took only one month. The PACS administrators with the AMS can now monitor and control the entire PACS operation in real time, and also track patient and image data flow automatically. These features make administrators take proper action even before user's complaint if any failure happened in any PACS component or process, they reduce the size of the management team, and decrease total cost of PACS ownership.

  16. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, nine constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Fifty-seven (48%) of the 120 monitoring wells, contained elevated tritium activities, and 23 (19%) contained elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Total alpha-emitting radium, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, cadmium, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, or nonvolatile beta levels exceeded standards in one or more wells. During 1992, elevated levels of 13 constituents were found in one or more of 80 of the 120 groundwater monitoring wells (67%) at the MWMF and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene exceeded their final PDWS more frequently and more consistently than did other constituents. Tritium activity exceeded its final PDWS m 67 wells and trichloroethylene was. elevated in 28 wells. Lead, tetrachloroethylene, total alpha-emitting radium, gross alpha, cadmium, chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene 1,2-dichloroethane, mercury, or nitrate exceeded standards in one or more wells during the year. Nonvolatile beta exceeded its drinking water screening level in 3 wells during the year

  17. MONITORING OF ENGINEERING BUILDINGS BEHAVIOUR WITHIN THE DISASTER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Oku Topal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Disaster management aims to prevent events that result in disaster or to reduce their losses. Monitoring of engineering buildings, identification of unusual movements and taking the necessary precautions are very crucial for determination of the disaster risk so possible prevention could be taken to reduce big loss. Improving technology, increasing population due to increased construction and these areas largest economy lead to offer damage detection strategies. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM is the most effective of these strategies. SHM research is very important to maintain all this structuring safely. The purpose of structural monitoring is determining in advance of possible accidents and taking necessary precaution. In this paper, determining the behaviour of construction using Global Positioning System (GPS is investigated. For this purpose shaking table tests were performed. Shaking table was moved at different amplitude and frequency aiming to determine these movement with a GPS measuring system. The obtained data were evaluated by analysis of time series and Fast Fourier Transformation techniques and the frequency and amplitude values are calculated. By examining the results of the tests made, it will be determined whether the GPS measurement method can accurately detect the movements of the engineering structures.

  18. CrossVit: Enhancing Canopy Monitoring Management Practices in Viticulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Matese

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new wireless sensor network (WSN, called CrossVit, and based on MEMSIC products, has been tested for two growing seasons in two vineyards in Italy. The aims are to evaluate the monitoring performances of the new WSN directly in the vineyard and collect air temperature, air humidity and solar radiation data to support vineyard management practices. The WSN consists of various levels: the Master/Gateway level coordinates the WSN and performs data aggregation; the Farm/Server level takes care of storing data on a server, data processing and graphic rendering; Nodes level is based on a network of peripheral nodes consisting of a MDA300 sensor board and Iris module and equipped with thermistors for air temperature, photodiodes for global and diffuse solar radiation, and an HTM2500LF sensor for relative humidity. The communication levels are: WSN links between gateways and sensor nodes by ZigBee, and long-range GSM/GPRS links between gateways and the server farm level. The system was able to monitor the agrometeorological parameters in the vineyard: solar radiation, air temperature and air humidity, detecting the differences between the canopy treatments applied. The performance of CrossVit, in terms of monitoring and reliability of the system, have been evaluated considering: its handiness, cost-effective, non-invasive dimensions and low power consumption.

  19. Post design evaluation (ageing mechanisms, effects, management, monitoring, PSR, ISI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Toshio

    2001-01-01

    Although the nuclear plant was designed for the purpose of the 30-year life the early stages of construction, it also already has the plant abolished by passing in 30 years. There is a plant under operation and a plant that is employed variously, extends the original life and continues operation now, and the plant that is going to be abolished politically is before a life. By using a nuclear plant for a long period of time, damage. by the influence of irradiation, wear of slipping, corrosion, etc. appears. When this degradation is left, the serious accident is caused. In this lecture, refer to Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety, Oct. 1999 of IAEA. A point of view from guide is introduced about management of the mechanism in the secular degradation mode expected by operating for a long period of time, the influence of secular degradation, and influence, monitoring technology, periodical safe evaluation, and a periodic inspection. And raises and explains the correspondence situation of secular degradation, and the example of evaluation of PSR and ISI equipment. The aging mechanism for reactor vessel internal components considered are related to embrittlement, fatigue, corrosion, radiation induced creep, relaxation and swelling, and mechanical wear. This lecture includes; monitoring methods, a description of periodic safety reviews and a sample of seismic design periodic safety report for the reactor internals

  20. An approach to diagnosis and management of resistant hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh C Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a key determinant of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality, directly accounting for approximately 10% of deaths in India. There is a causal association between the magnitude of blood pressure (BP elevation and adverse cardiovascular event rate, which provides the rationale for implementing BP reduction in routine clinical practice. However, an estimated 30-50% of the hypertensive population remain uncontrolled with a BP >140/90 mmHg, of whom a subgroup fulfill the diagnostic criteria for resistant hypertension. This cohort lies at the extreme end of the cardiovascular risk spectrum, and hence stands to benefit most from specialist input to optimize BP control. This review summarizes a management approach in patients with resistant hypertension, focusing on accurate diagnosis and evidence-based treatments.

  1. Application of column tests and electrical resistivity methods for leachate transport monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wychowaniak Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of the human civilization leads to the pollution of environment. One of the contamination which are a real threat to soil and groundwater are leachates from landfills. In this paper the solute transport through soil was considered. For this purpose, the laboratory column tests of chlorides tracer and leachates transport on two soil samples have been carried out. Furthermore, the electrical resistivity method was applied as auxiliary tool to follow the movements of solute through the soil column what allowed to compare between the results obtained with column test method and electrical resistivity measurements. Breakthrough curves obtained by conductivity and resistivity methods represents similar trends which leads to the conclusion about the suitability of electrical resistivity methods for contamination transport monitoring in soil-water systems.

  2. A sampling and metagenomic sequencing-based methodology for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in swine herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Patrick; Dalhoff Andersen, Vibe; de Knegt, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Reliable methods for monitoring antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and other reservoirs are essential to understand the trends, transmission and importance of agricultural resistance. Quantification of AMR is mostly done using culture-based techniques, but metagenomic read...... on known antimicrobial consumption in 10 Danish integrated slaughter pig herds. In addition, we evaluated whether fresh or manure floor samples constitute suitable proxies for intestinal sampling, using cfu counting, qPCR and metagenomic shotgun sequencing. Results Metagenomic read-mapping outperformed...... cultivation-based techniques in terms of predicting expected tetracycline resistance based on antimicrobial consumption. Our metagenomic approach had sufficient resolution to detect antimicrobial-induced changes to individual resistance gene abundances. Pen floor manure samples were found to represent rectal...

  3. Sustainability of insect resistance management strategies for transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, John A; Matten, Sharlene R

    2003-12-01

    Increasing interest in the responsible management of technology in the industrial and agricultural sectors of the economy has been met thorough the development of broadly applicable tools to assess the "sustainability" of new technologies. An arena ripe for application of such analysis is the deployment of transgenic crops. The new transgenic pesticidal or plant-incorporated protectant (PIP) crops have seen widespread application in the United States based on the features of higher yield, lower applications of insecticides, and control of mycotoxin content. However, open rejection of these new crops in Europe and in other countries has been a surprising message and has limited their worldwide acceptance. The US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) has worked on the development and analysis of insect resistance management (IRM) strategies and has mandated specific IRM requirements for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops since 1995 under the Food, Fungicide, Insecticide, and Rodenticide Act. Improvement of data quality and sustainability of IRM strategies have been targeted in an ongoing partnership between the USEPA Office of Research and Development and the Office of Pesticide Programs that will further enhance the agency's ability to develop sustainable insect resistance management strategies for transgenic field corn (Bt corn) producing B. thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins.

  4. Monitoring of Resistance to New Chemistry Insecticides in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Mehmood, Rashid

    2015-06-01

    The armyworm Spodoptera litura (F.) is a very serious pest of many crops, vegetables, and ornamentals. Due to persistent application of insecticides, this pest has developed resistance to conventional as well as new chemistries. The present studies investigated the level of resistance to new chemistry insecticides, having novel modes of action, in the Pakistani field populations of S. litura during 1997-2010 by using a leaf-dip bioassay. Generally, a low to moderate resistance was recorded to indoxacarb, abamectin, fipronil, and methoxyfenozide; along with a very low resistance to spinosad. Resistance to emamectin benzoate, chlorfenapyr, and lufenuron was none or very low, in spite of their intensive use against S. litura. The insecticides, showing no or very low resistance, can be used in rotation in conjunction with other integrated pest management tactics to manage insecticide resistance in S. litura. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Monitoring and managing responses to climate change at the retreating range edge of forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Alistair S; Cavin, Liam; Hunter, Peter D

    2010-10-06

    Rising temperatures and increasing drought severity linked to global climate change are negatively impacting forest growth and function at the equatorial range edge of species distributions. Rapid dieback and range retractions are predicted to occur in many areas as temperatures continue to rise. Despite widespread negative impacts at the ecosystem level, equatorial range edges are not well studied, and their responses to climate change are poorly understood. Effective monitoring of tree responses to climate in these regions is of critical importance in order to predict and manage threats to populations. Remote sensing of impacts on forests can be combined with ground-based assessment of environmental and ecological changes to identify populations most at risk. Modelling may be useful as a 'first-filter' to identify populations of concern but, together with many remote sensing methods, often lacks adequate resolution for application at the range edge. A multidisciplinary approach, combining remote observation with targeted ground-based monitoring of local susceptible and resistant populations, is therefore required. Once at-risk regions have been identified, management can be adapted to reduce immediate risks in priority populations, and promote long-term adaptation to change. However, management to protect forest ecosystem function may be preferable where the maintenance of historical species assemblages is no longer viable.

  6. A computational model to monitor and predict trends in bacterial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawieh, Ali; Sabra, Zahraa; Bizri, Abdul Rahman; Davies, Christopher; White, Roger; Zaraket, Fadi A

    2015-09-01

    Current concern over the emergence of multidrug-resistant superbugs has renewed interest in approaches that can monitor existing trends in bacterial resistance and make predictions of future trends. Recent advances in bacterial surveillance and the development of online repositories of susceptibility tests across wide geographical areas provide an important new resource, yet there are only limited computational tools for its exploitation. Here we propose a hybrid computational model called BARDmaps for automated analysis of antibacterial susceptibility tests from surveillance records and for performing future predictions. BARDmaps was designed to include a structural computational model that can detect patterns among bacterial resistance changes as well as a behavioural computational model that can use the detected patterns to predict future changes in bacterial resistance. Data from the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net) were used to validate and apply the model. BARDmaps was compared with standard curve-fitting approaches used in epidemiological research. Here we show that BARDmaps can reliably predict future trends in bacterial resistance across Europe. BARDmaps performed better than other curve-fitting approaches for predicting future resistance levels. In addition, BARDmaps was also able to detect abrupt changes in bacterial resistance in response to outbreaks and interventions as well as to compare bacterial behaviour across countries and drugs. In conclusion, BARDmaps is a reliable tool to automatically predict and analyse changes in bacterial resistance across Europe. We anticipate that BARDmaps will become an invaluable tool both for clinical providers and governmental agencies to help combat the threat posed by antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  7. Electrical resistivity monitoring of the single heater test in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.

    1997-10-01

    Of the several thermal, mechanical and hydrological measurements being used to monitor the rockmass response in the Single Heater Test, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is being used to monitor the movement of liquid water with a special interest in the movement of condensate out of the system. Images of resistivity change were calculated using data collected before, during and after the heating episode. This report will concentrate on the results obtained after heating ceased; previous reports discuss the results obtained during the heating phase. The changes recovered show a region of increasing resistivity approximately centered around the heater as the rock mass cooled. The size of this region grows with time and the resistivity increases become stronger. The increases in resistivity are caused by both temperature and saturation changes. The Waxman Smits model has been used to calculate rock saturation after accounting for temperature effects. The saturation estimates suggest that during the heating phase, a region of drying forms around the heater. During the cooling phase, the dry region has remained relatively stable. Wetter rock regions which developed below the heater during the heating phase, are slowly becoming smaller in size during the cooling phase. The last set of images indicate that some rewetting of the dry zone may be occurring. The accuracy of the saturation estimates depends on several factors that are only partly understood

  8. Mapping and monitoring nuclear waste repositories with subsurface electrical resistivity arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asch, T.; Morrison, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    The siting and future integrity of nuclear waste repositories is critically dependent on the local ground water regime. Electrical methods seem particularly promising in mapping and monitoring this regime since the electrical conductivity of rocks depends almost entirely on the fluid saturation, salinity and distribution. The most important recent developments in resistivity include the use of numerical modeling and resistivity mapping using subsurface electrodes. The latter yields far greater accuracy and resolution than can be obtained with surface arrays. To illustrate the power of subsurface-surface arrays the authors studied an idealized two dimensional model of a nuclear repository. Since they are interested in emphasizing the anomaly caused by the repository, or subsequent changes over time in its vicinity, the authors discovered that it is very useful to express the apparent resistivity results as percentage differences from either the background (for surface arrays) or from the apparent resistivities observed at a particular depth of the current source (for subsurface arrays). Percent differencing with respect to data at the repository depth dramatically reduce near-surface and topographic effects that usually confound quantitative interpretation of surface surveys. Thus, dc resistivity appears to have great potential for nuclear waste repository mapping and monitoring

  9. Jointly reconstructing ground motion and resistivity for ERT-based slope stability monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Alistair; Wilkinson, Paul B.; Chambers, Jonathan E.; Meldrum, Philip I.; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Adler, Andy

    2018-02-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is increasingly being used to investigate unstable slopes and monitor the hydrogeological processes within. But movement of electrodes or incorrect placement of electrodes with respect to an assumed model can introduce significant resistivity artefacts into the reconstruction. In this work, we demonstrate a joint resistivity and electrode movement reconstruction algorithm within an iterative Gauss-Newton framework. We apply this to ERT monitoring data from an active slow-moving landslide in the UK. Results show fewer resistivity artefacts and suggest that electrode movement and resistivity can be reconstructed at the same time under certain conditions. A new 2.5-D formulation for the electrode position Jacobian is developed and is shown to give accurate numerical solutions when compared to the adjoint method on 3-D models. On large finite element meshes, the calculation time of the newly developed approach was also proven to be orders of magnitude faster than the 3-D adjoint method and addressed modelling errors in the 2-D perturbation and adjoint electrode position Jacobian.

  10. Understanding genetic variation in in vivo tolerance to artesunate: implications for treatment efficacy and resistance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, Laura C; Sim, Derek; Salathé, Rahel; Read, Andrew F

    2015-03-01

    Artemisinin-based drugs are the front-line weapon in the treatment of human malaria cases, but there is concern that recent reports of slow clearing infections may signal developing resistance to treatment. In the absence of molecular markers for resistance, current efforts to monitor drug efficacy are based on the rate at which parasites are cleared from infections. However, some knowledge of the standing variation in parasite susceptibility is needed to identify a meaningful increase in infection half-life. Here, we show that five previously unexposed genotypes of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi differ substantially in their in vivo response to treatment. Slower clearance rates were not linked to parasite virulence or growth rate, going against the suggestion that drug treatment will drive the evolution of virulence in this system. The level of variation observed here in a relatively small number of genotypes suggests existing 'resistant' parasites could be present in the population and therefore, increased parasite clearance rates could represent selection on pre-existing variation rather than de novo resistance events. This has implications for resistance monitoring as susceptibility may depend on evolved traits unrelated to drug exposure.

  11. Remote Monitoring for Chronic Disease Management: Atrial Fibrillation and Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Maki; Varma, Niraj

    2018-03-01

    This review aims to cover the latest evidence of remote monitoring of cardiac implantable electronic devices for the management of atrial fibrillation and heart failure. Remote monitoring is useful for early detection for device-detected atrial fibrillation, which increases the risk of thromboembolic events. Early anticoagulation based on remote monitoring potentially reduces the risk of stroke, but optimal alert setting needs to be clarified. Multiparameter monitoring with automatic transmission is useful for heart failure management. Improved adherence to remote monitoring and an optimal algorithm for transmitted alerts and their management are warranted in the management of heart failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Challenges and opportunities with standardized monitoring for management decison-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of monitoring for adaptive management of rangelands has been well established. However, the actual use of monitoring data in rangeland management decisions has been modest despite extensive efforts to develop and implement monitoring programs from local to national scales. More effect...

  13. Evaluation of atmospheric corrosion on electroplated zinc and zinc nickel coatings by Electrical Resistance (ER) Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per

    2013-01-01

    ER (Electrical Resistance) probes provide a measurement of metal loss, measured at any time when a metal is exposed to the real environment. The precise electrical resistance monitoring system can evaluate the corrosion to the level of nanometers, if the conductivity is compensated for temperature...... and magnetic fields. With this technique very important information about the durability of a new conversion coatings for aluminum, zinc and zinc alloys exposed to unknown atmospheric conditions can be gathered. This is expected to have a major impact on a number of industrial segments, such as test cars...

  14. Long-term autonomous resistivity monitoring of oil-contaminated sediments from the Deepwater Horizon spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenan, J. W.; Slater, L. D.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ross, C.; Nolan, J. T.; Atekwana, E. A.; Werkema, D. D.; Fathepure, B.

    2012-12-01

    outside of the contaminated location exhibit relatively uniform resistivity or show clear evidence of seasonal effect. Temperature-corrected resistivity changes show no direct correlation with pore fluid specific conductance changes, suggesting that specific conductance changes (e.g. due to tides) have little influence on imaged resistivity structure. Microbial data suggest that resistivity changes within the contaminated location resulted from biodegradation, showing the presence of native populations capable of degrading aromatic hydrocarbons at salinities ranging from 6 to 15 % NaCl within the contaminated location. Aqueous geochemical measurements performed on samples from the site further indicate that at depth intervals coincident with the resistivity anomaly, marked increases in the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were observed suggesting biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon although other DIC generating processes such as organic matter degradation coupled to sulfate and iron reduction were also prominent. This experiment demonstrates the potential viability of long-term autonomous electrical monitoring as a means of decreasing the frequency of more costly and invasive chemical analysis of natural attenuation.

  15. Managing head lice in an era of increasing resistance to insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Anthony M R

    2004-01-01

    Head lice are present in all age groups, however, the peak age for infestation is 7-8 years and the incidence varies throughout the year with higher incidence during the winter. Different insecticides have been used over the past 60 years to manage this condition. There is now strong evidence of insecticide resistance established in many countries to such an extent that some of these chemicals have become obsolete. Resistance to some pediculicides can vary from country to country and region to region within a country. The lack of a local monitoring system of resistance patterns means that parents and pupils are hampered in making an informed decision regarding how to treat head lice. One should no longer assume that treatment failure is due to poor treatment compliance or re-infestation. Clear treatment guidelines drawn up by healthcare professionals with an interest in head lice and taking into account regional/national resistance patterns should be implemented. These guidelines should combine chemical and non-chemical approaches to treatment and be coordinated and regularly reviewed by local public health departments. Drug companies should be made to provide up-to-date efficacy of their products.

  16. 2002 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2003-06-01

    Environmental, subsidence, and meteorological monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)(refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater,meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorological data indicate that 2002 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 26 mm (1.0 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 38 mm (1.5 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2002 rainfall infiltrated less than 30 cm (1 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. Special investigations conducted in 2002 included: a comparison between waste cover water contents measured by neutron probe and coring; and a comparison of four methods for measuring radon concentrations in air. All 2002 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility Performance Assessments (PAs).

  17. Evaluation of atmospheric corrosion on electroplated zinc and zinc nickel coatings by Electrical Resistance (ER) Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per

    2013-01-01

    ER (Electrical Resistance) probes provide a measurement of metal loss, measured at any time when a metal is exposed to the real environment. The precise electrical resistance monitoring system can evaluate the corrosion to the level of nanometers, if the conductivity is compensated for temperature...... and magnetic fields. With this technique very important information about the durability of a new conversion coatings for aluminum, zinc and zinc alloys exposed to unknown atmospheric conditions can be gathered. This is expected to have a major impact on a number of industrial segments, such as test cars...... for the automotive industry, off-shore construction or component and devices used in harsh industrial environments. The ER monitoring makes it possible to study the corrosion rate on-line in remote locations as a function of temperature, relative humidity and changes in the composition of the atmosphere. Different...

  18. Prototype equipment status monitor for plant operational configuration management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVerno, M.; Trask, D.; Groom, S.

    1998-01-01

    CANDU plants, such as the Point Lepreau GS, have tens of thousands of operable devices. The status of each operable device must be immediately available to plan and execute future changes to the plant. Historically, changes to the plant's operational configuration have been controlled using manual and administrative methods where the status of each operable device is maintained on operational flowsheets located in the work control area of the main control room. The operational flowsheets are used to plan and develop Operating Orders (OOs) or Order-to-Operate (OTOs) and the control centre work processes are used to manage their execution. After performing each OO procedure, the operational flowsheets are updated to reflect the new plant configuration. This process can be very time consuming, and due to the manual processes, can lead to the potential for time lags and errors in the recording of the current plant configuration. Through a cooperative research and development program, Canadian CANDU utilities and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, the design organization, have applied modern information technologies to develop a prototype Equipment Status Monitor (ESM) to address processes and information flow for efficient operational configuration management. The ESM integrates electronic operational flowsheets, equipment databases, engineering and work management systems, and computerized procedures to assess, plan, execute, track, and record changes to the plant's operational configuration. This directly leads to improved change control, more timely and accurate plant status information, fewer errors, and better decision making regarding future changes. These improvements to managing the plant's operational configuration are essential to increasing plant safety, achieving a high plant availability, and maintaining high capability and capacity factors. (author)

  19. Monitoring and data management strategies for nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Since the accident at Chernobyl in 1986, many countries have intensified their efforts in nuclear emergency planning, preparedness and management. Experience from the NEA nuclear emergency exercises (INEX 1 and INEX 2) indicated a need to improve the international system of communication and information in case of a radiological emergency. To address this need, research was carried out by three NEA working groups, the findings of which are synthesised in the present report. This report defines emergency monitoring and modelling needs, and proposes strategies which will assist decision makers by improving the selection of data that is transmitted, and the way in which data and information are transmitted and received. Modern communication methods, such as the Internet, are a key part of the strategies described. (author)

  20. Land Cover Monitoring for Water Resources Management in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Irina; Navarro, Ana; Rolim, Joao; Catalao, Joao; Silva, Joel; Painho, Marco; Vekerdy, Zoltan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of improved temporal resolution and multi-source satellite data (SAR and optical) on land cover mapping and monitoring for efficient water resources management. For that purpose, we developed an integrated approach based on image classification and on NDVI and SAR backscattering (VV and VH) time series for land cover mapping and crop's irrigation requirements computation. We analysed 28 SPOT-5 Take-5 images with high temporal revisiting time (5 days), 9 Sentinel-1 dual polarization GRD images and in-situ data acquired during the crop growing season. Results show that the combination of images from different sources provides the best information to map agricultural areas. The increase of the images temporal resolution allows the improvement of the estimation of the crop parameters, and then, to calculate of the crop's irrigation requirements. However, this aspect was not fully exploited due to the lack of EO data for the complete growing season.

  1. Ecologically Significant Monitoring Strategies for Watershed Managers and Applied Ecohydrologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, B. P.; Walter, T.

    2007-12-01

    Upper Klamath Lake in Southern Oregon is home to a unique and increasingly rare strain of redband rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii). Populations connected to perennial lake systems such as the Upper Klamath have evolved adfluvial life histories and may possess unique adaptations that underscore their importance as units of conservation. Anthropogenic disturbance including stream channelization, timber harvest, livestock grazing and irrigation diversion have resulted in a 41 percent reduction in the redband's historic habitat and the disappearance of 11 redband trout populations throughout Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. In an effort to actively conserve this sensitive subspecies, a stream creation project was undertaken with the goal of increasing viable spawning and rearing habitat in Crooked Creek, a tributary to Upper Klamath Lake. A combination of analogue, empirical and analytical techniques were employed in the design of the created channel morphology (i.e. channel planform, profile, and cross-section), the sizing of bed substrate and spawning gravels and the design of in-stream habitat and scour structures. The project, completed in the fall of 1996, was qualitatively judged a success (e.g. trout were observed actively spawning and young-of-the-year were collected during unsystematic surveys). Unfortunately, as is often the case in the stream enhancement/restoration field, funding and personnel time were lacking for the implementation of a robust post-construction monitoring plan. Thus, project success was ascertained through cursory analyses and anecdotal reports. An opportunity to implement a similar stream creation project in a nearby watershed has afforded us the chance to return to the project site and conduct a more comprehensive, quantitative analysis of the project's success. A discussion of the original design methods and a review of several state of the art monitoring strategies are provided to assist watershed managers and applied

  2. Management of the Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi; Perry, Jay; Howard, David

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Exploration Systems Program's Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project is working to further optimize atmosphere revitalization and environmental monitoring system architectures. This paper discusses project management strategies that tap into skill sets across multiple engineering disciplines, projects, field centers, and industry to achieve the project success. It is the project's objective to contribute to system advances that will enable sustained exploration missions beyond Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) and improve affordability by focusing on the primary goals of achieving high reliability, improving efficiency, and reducing dependence on ground-based logistics resupply. Technology demonstrations are achieved by infusing new technologies and concepts with existing developmental hardware and operating in a controlled environment simulating various crewed habitat scenarios. The ARREM project's strengths include access to a vast array of existing developmental hardware that perform all the vital atmosphere revitalization functions, exceptional test facilities to fully evaluate system performance, and a well-coordinated partnering effort among the NASA field centers and industry partners to provide the innovative expertise necessary to succeed.

  3. Two-dimensional inversion of resistivity monitoring data from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N.E.; Sasaki, Y.; Wilt, M.J.

    1985-03-01

    Two-dimensional iterative, least-squares inversions were performed on dc resistivity data obtained over the Cerro Prieto geothermal field at five successive times during the 1979-1983 period. The data were taken on a 20-km-long control line centered over the production region. Inversions were performed on the apparent resistivities after they were converted to percent changes in apparent resistivity relative to the base year data of 1979. The resulting solutions gave the percent change in resistivity within each of 47 rectangular blocks representing the reservoir and recharge regions. These changes are compared to and found consistent with hydrogeologic and recharge models proposed by other workers on the basis of geophysical well logs, well cuttings, well production, geochemical and reservoir engineering data. The solutions support the model of a reservoir that is being recharged mainly by cooler, less saline water, causing changes in both pore fluid resistivity and the extent of boiling near the wells. There may be a component of high-temperature recharge from below and to the east, but flow may be impeded by a two-phase zone. Notwithstanding the various sources of error and uncertainty in the data acquisition and 2-D inversions, repetitive, high precision dc resistivity monitoring seems to be a useful method for assessing reservoir conditions when used in conjunction with production and reservoir engineering data and analyses. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Surgical management of cavernous malformations coursing with drug resistant epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Arturo Alonso-Vanegas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral cavernous malformations (CM are dynamic lesions characterized by continuous size changes and repeated bleeding. When involving cortical tissue, CM pose a significant risk for the development of drug-resistant epilepsy, which is thought to be result of an altered neuronal network caused by the lesion itself and its blood degradation products. Preoperative evaluation should comprise a complete seizure history, neurological examination, epilepsy-oriented MRI, EEG, video-EEG, completed with SPECT, PET, functional MRI and/or invasive monitoring as needed. Radiosurgery shows variable rates of seizure freedom and a high incidence of complications, thus microsurgical resection remains the optimal treatment for CM coursing with drug-resistant epilepsy.Two thirds of patients reach Engel I class at three-year follow-up, regardless of lobar location. Those with secondarily generalized seizures, a higher seizure frequency, and generalized abnormalities on preoperative or postoperative EEG, show poorer outcomes, while factors such as gender, duration of epilepsy, lesion size, age, bleeding at the time of surgery, do not correlate consistently with seizure outcome. Electrocorticography and a meticulous removal of all cortical hemosiderin –beyond pure lesionectomy– reduce the risk of symptomatic recurrences.

  5. Biological monitoring and assessment of rivers as a basis for identifying and prioritising river management options

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, DJ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The output of monitoring programmes such as the National Aquatic Ecosystem Bio monitoring Programme must be used in the management of aquatic ecosystems. To achieve this, collected data must, through a systematic framework, be linked to measurable...

  6. Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-29

    During fourth quarter 1998, ten constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells.

  7. Management Options For Reducing The Release Of Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance Genes To The Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water - 77 environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. 78 Objective: To identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and 79 antibiotic resist...

  8. Western flower thrips resistance to insecticides: detection, mechanisms, and management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insecticide resistance continues to be one of the most important issues facing agricultural production. The challenges in insecticide resistance and its management are exemplified by the situation with the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). This ...

  9. Environmental Monitoring Of Leaks Using Time Lapsed Long Electrode Electrical Resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker, D.F.; Fink, J.B.; Loke, M.H.; Myers, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Highly industrialized areas pose significant challenges for surface based electrical resistivity characterization and monitoring due to the high degree of metallic infrastructure. The infrastructure is typically several orders of magnitude more conductive than the desired targets, preventing the geophysicist from obtaining a clear picture of the subsurface. These challenges may be minimized if steel-cased wells are used as long electrodes. We demonstrate a method of using long electrodes in a complex nuclear waste facility to monitor a simulated leak from an underground storage tank. The leak was simulated by injecting high conductivity fluid in a perforated well and the resistivity measurements were made before and after the leak test. The data were processed in four dimensions, where a regularization procedure was applied in both the time and space domains. The results showed a lowered resistivity feature develop south of the injection site. The time lapsed regularization parameter had a strong influence on the differences in inverted resistivity between the pre and post datasets, potentially making calibration of the results to specific hydrogeologic parameters difficult.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF LEAKS USING TIME LAPSED LONG ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.; Rucker, D.F.; Fink, J.B.; Loke, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Highly industrialized areas pose challenges for surface electrical resistivity characterization due to metallic infrastructure. The infrastructure is typically more conductive than the desired targets and will mask the deeper subsurface information. These challenges may be minimized if steel-cased wells are used as long electrodes in the area near the target. We demonstrate a method of using long electrodes to electrically monitor a simulated leak from an underground storage tank with both synthetic examples and a field demonstration. The synthetic examples place a simple target of varying electrical properties beneath a very low resistivity layer. The layer is meant to replicate the effects of infrastructure. Both surface and long electrodes are tested on the synthetic domain. The leak demonstration for the field experiment is simulated by injecting a high conductivity fluid in a perforated well within the S tank farm at Hanford, and the resistivity measurements are made before and after the leak test. All data are processed in four dimensions, where a regularization procedure is applied in both the time and space domains. The synthetic test case shows that the long electrode ERM could detect relative changes in resistivity that are commensurate with the differing target properties. The surface electrodes, on the other hand, had a more difficult time matching the original target's footprint. The field results shows a lowered resistivity feature develop south of the injection site after cessation of the injections. The time lapsed regularization parameter has a strong influence on the differences in inverted resistivity between the pre and post injection datasets, but the interpretation of the target is consistent across all values of the parameter. The long electrode ERM method may provide a tool for near real-time monitoring of leaking underground storage tanks.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF LEAKS USING TIME LAPSED LONG ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS DA; RUCKER DF; FINK JB; LOKE MH

    2009-12-16

    Highly industrialized areas pose challenges for surface electrical resistivity characterization due to metallic infrastructure. The infrastructure is typically more conductive than the desired targets and will mask the deeper subsurface information. These challenges may be minimized if steel-cased wells are used as long electrodes in the area near the target. We demonstrate a method of using long electrodes to electrically monitor a simulated leak from an underground storage tank with both synthetic examples and a field demonstration. The synthetic examples place a simple target of varying electrical properties beneath a very low resistivity layer. The layer is meant to replicate the effects of infrastructure. Both surface and long electrodes are tested on the synthetic domain. The leak demonstration for the field experiment is simulated by injecting a high conductivity fluid in a perforated well within the S tank farm at Hanford, and the resistivity measurements are made before and after the leak test. All data are processed in four dimensions, where a regularization procedure is applied in both the time and space domains. The synthetic test case shows that the long electrode ERM could detect relative changes in resistivity that are commensurate with the differing target properties. The surface electrodes, on the other hand, had a more difficult time matching the original target's footprint. The field results shows a lowered resistivity feature develop south of the injection site after cessation of the injections. The time lapsed regularization parameter has a strong influence on the differences in inverted resistivity between the pre and post injection datasets, but the interpretation of the target is consistent across all values of the parameter. The long electrode ERM method may provide a tool for near real-time monitoring of leaking underground storage tanks.

  12. Monitoring and Hardware Management for Critical Fusion Plasma Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Paulo F.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled nuclear fusion aims to obtain energy by particles collision confined inside a nuclear reactor (Tokamak. These ionized particles, heavier isotopes of hydrogen, are the main elements inside of plasma that is kept at high temperatures (millions of Celsius degrees. Due to high temperatures and magnetic confinement, plasma is exposed to several sources of instabilities which require a set of procedures by the control and data acquisition systems throughout fusion experiments processes. Control and data acquisition systems often used in nuclear fusion experiments are based on the Advanced Telecommunication Computer Architecture (AdvancedTCA® standard introduced by the Peripheral Component Interconnect Industrial Manufacturers Group (PICMG®, to meet the demands of telecommunications that require large amount of data (TB transportation at high transfer rates (Gb/s, to ensure high availability including features such as reliability, serviceability and redundancy. For efficient plasma control, systems are required to collect large amounts of data, process it, store for later analysis, make critical decisions in real time and provide status reports either from the experience itself or the electronic instrumentation involved. Moreover, systems should also ensure the correct handling of detected anomalies and identified faults, notify the system operator of occurred events, decisions taken to acknowledge and implemented changes. Therefore, for everything to work in compliance with specifications it is required that the instrumentation includes hardware management and monitoring mechanisms for both hardware and software. These mechanisms should check the system status by reading sensors, manage events, update inventory databases with hardware system components in use and maintenance, store collected information, update firmware and installed software modules, configure and handle alarms to detect possible system failures and prevent emergency

  13. Monitoring and Hardware Management for Critical Fusion Plasma Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Paulo F.; Santos, Bruno; Correia, Miguel; Combo, Álvaro M.; Rodrigues, AntÓnio P.; Pereira, Rita C.; Fernandes, Ana; Cruz, Nuno; Sousa, Jorge; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Batista, AntÓnio J. N.; Correia, Carlos M. B. A.; Gonçalves, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Controlled nuclear fusion aims to obtain energy by particles collision confined inside a nuclear reactor (Tokamak). These ionized particles, heavier isotopes of hydrogen, are the main elements inside of plasma that is kept at high temperatures (millions of Celsius degrees). Due to high temperatures and magnetic confinement, plasma is exposed to several sources of instabilities which require a set of procedures by the control and data acquisition systems throughout fusion experiments processes. Control and data acquisition systems often used in nuclear fusion experiments are based on the Advanced Telecommunication Computer Architecture (AdvancedTCA®) standard introduced by the Peripheral Component Interconnect Industrial Manufacturers Group (PICMG®), to meet the demands of telecommunications that require large amount of data (TB) transportation at high transfer rates (Gb/s), to ensure high availability including features such as reliability, serviceability and redundancy. For efficient plasma control, systems are required to collect large amounts of data, process it, store for later analysis, make critical decisions in real time and provide status reports either from the experience itself or the electronic instrumentation involved. Moreover, systems should also ensure the correct handling of detected anomalies and identified faults, notify the system operator of occurred events, decisions taken to acknowledge and implemented changes. Therefore, for everything to work in compliance with specifications it is required that the instrumentation includes hardware management and monitoring mechanisms for both hardware and software. These mechanisms should check the system status by reading sensors, manage events, update inventory databases with hardware system components in use and maintenance, store collected information, update firmware and installed software modules, configure and handle alarms to detect possible system failures and prevent emergency scenarios

  14. Managing and monitoring tuberculosis using web-based tools in combination with traditional approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman AL

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ann LN Chapman,1 Thomas C Darton,2 Rachel A Foster11Department of Infection and Tropical Medicine, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, 2Oxford Vaccine Group, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UKAbstract: Tuberculosis (TB remains a global health emergency. Ongoing challenges include the coordination of national and international control programs, high levels of drug resistance in many parts of the world, and availability of accurate and rapid diagnostic tests. The increasing availability and reliability of Internet access throughout both affluent and resource-limited countries brings new opportunities to improve TB management and control through the integration of web-based technologies with traditional approaches. In this review, we explore current and potential future use of web-based tools in the areas of TB diagnosis, treatment, epidemiology, service monitoring, and teaching and training.Keywords: tuberculosis, information communication technology, Internet

  15. Web-based monitoring tools for Resistive Plate Chambers in the CMS experiment at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. S.; Ban, Y.; Cai, J.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Qian, S.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, F.; Choi, Y.; Kim, D.; Goh, J.; Choi, S.; Hong, B.; Kang, J. W.; Kang, M.; Kwon, J. H.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. K.; Park, S. K.; Pant, L. M.; Mohanty, A. K.; Chudasama, R.; Singh, J. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Mehta, A.; Kumar, R.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Costantini, S.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Ocampo, A.; Poyraz, D.; Salva, S.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Doninck, W. V.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro, L.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Avila, C.; Ahmad, A.; Muhammad, S.; Shoaib, M.; Hoorani, H.; Awan, I.; Ali, I.; Ahmed, W.; Asghar, M. I.; Shahzad, H.; Sayed, A.; Ibrahim, A.; Aly, S.; Assran, Y.; Radi, A.; Elkafrawy, T.; Sharma, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Paolucci, P.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Merola, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, O. M.; Braghieri, A.; Montagna, P.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vitulo, P.; Vai, I.; Magnani, A.; Dimitrov, A.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Stoykova, S.; Hadjiiska, R.; Ibargüen, H. S.; Morales, M. I. P.; Bernardino, S. C.; Bagaturia, I.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Crotty, I.

    2014-10-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) are used in the CMS experiment at the trigger level and also in the standard offline muon reconstruction. In order to guarantee the quality of the data collected and to monitor online the detector performance, a set of tools has been developed in CMS which is heavily used in the RPC system. The Web-based monitoring (WBM) is a set of java servlets that allows users to check the performance of the hardware during data taking, providing distributions and history plots of all the parameters. The functionalities of the RPC WBM monitoring tools are presented along with studies of the detector performance as a function of growing luminosity and environmental conditions that are tracked over time.

  16. Web-based monitoring tools for Resistive Plate Chambers in the CMS experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Min Suk

    2014-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) are used in the CMS experiment at the trigger level and also in the standard offline muon reconstruction. In order to guarantee the quality of the data collected and to monitor online the detector performance, a set of tools has been developed in CMS which is heavily used in the RPC system. The Web-based monitoring (WBM) is a set of java servlets that allows users to check the performance of the hardware during data taking, providing distributions and history plots of all the parameters. The functionalities of the RPC WBM monitoring tools are presented along with studies of the detector performance as a function of growing luminosity and environmental conditions that are tracked over time.

  17. Web-based monitoring tools for Resistive Plate Chambers in the CMS experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.S.; Ban, Y.; Cai, J.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Qian, S.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, F.; Choi, Y.; Kim, D.; Goh, J.; Choi, S.; Hong, B.; Kang, J.W.; Kang, M.; Kwon, J.H.; Lee, K.S.; Lee, S.K.; Park, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) are used in the CMS experiment at the trigger level and also in the standard offline muon reconstruction. In order to guarantee the quality of the data collected and to monitor online the detector performance, a set of tools has been developed in CMS which is heavily used in the RPC system. The Web-based monitoring (WBM) is a set of java servlets that allows users to check the performance of the hardware during data taking, providing distributions and history plots of all the parameters. The functionalities of the RPC WBM monitoring tools are presented along with studies of the detector performance as a function of growing luminosity and environmental conditions that are tracked over time

  18. Very High Frequency Monitoring System for Engine Gearbox and Generator Health Management (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watson, Matthew J; Byington, Carl S; Behbahani, Alireza

    2007-01-01

    .... These gas turbine engine vibration monitoring technologies will address existing operation and maintenance goals for current military system and prognostics health management algorithms for advanced engines...

  19. Improving management of resistant hypertension: Rationale and protocol for a cluster randomized trial addressing physician managers in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltermann, Birgitta; Viehmann, Anja; Kersting, Christine

    2016-03-01

    Resistant hypertension (RH) is defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) despite ≥3 antihypertensive agents. It is estimated to account for 12-28% of all hypertensive patients. Despite a higher risk of cardiovascular events, hypertension therapy in these patients is often insufficient. In a previous study we successfully tested an evidence-based, physician manager-centered hypertension management. For this cluster randomized trial (CRT), a random sample of 102 German primary care practices will be randomized into two study arms (1:1). Physician managers and practice assistants of the intervention arm will participate in three-session medical education on hypertension management to implement 1) standardized diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for RH patients, 2) structured recall of patients with uncontrolled BP, and 3) teaching and supervision of RH patients on BP self-measurements. Practice tools are provided to facilitate implementation, e.g., how to distinguish true from pseudo RH and guideline-based medication selection. Physicians will specify guideline-algorithms for their practice to manage RH. A secured web-based peer-group exchange with hypertension specialists is offered to both professional groups. Physicians of both study arms will consecutively recruit patients with RH. BP will be measured by ambulatory BP monitoring at baseline and after 12 months. The primary endpoint is defined as treatment success with either normalized BP (24h<130/80 mmHg) and/or a reduction by ≥20 mmHg systolic and/or ≥10 mmHg diastolic. Secondary analyses will focus on changes in physicians' knowledge and practice routines. This CRT will determine the effectiveness of a physician manager-centered intervention on treatment success in high-risk patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Hai-Tao; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-06-03

    This review paper presents an overview of individual monitoring, as well as the national dose register and dose record management of radiation workers in China. Progress has recently been made on the individual monitoring of radiation workers. A critical analysis of current status and problems in individual monitoring is also presented and necessary future research on individual monitoring, such as the monitoring technology in the form of the ring dosimeters and eye lens dosimeters, is suggested.

  1. An analysis of resistivity monitoring data on the sea dike, Teaan, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, S. Y.; Nam, M. J.; Cho, S. O.; Lim, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    Many coastal levees have been constructed within the peninsula of the South Korea to prevent tidal waves from overflowing. For a proper maintenance of the levees, it is important to monitor the embankments from being deteriorated. For the monitoring, this study make a feasibility study on the application of time-lapse (TL) electrical resistivity surveys. The survey can detect anomalies within the embankments, which are possibly generated by defects of facilities or seawater intrusion. Among coastal levees in Korea, we made TL surveys over the Iwon dike located on the Taean-gun, Chungcheongnam-do in the south-west of the South Korea in April 2015. Since visible seepage of the seewater was observed nearby the dike, we conducted monitoring in this area. TL resistivity surveys had been made 11 times for the duration of nine days along a survey line, which located 10 m away from the crest and parallel to the dike. For the analysis and interpretation of the TL data, we first analysed the effects of sea-level variation on the TL electrical resistivity data through numerical simulation. The simulation of TL data are made using dipole-dipole array with an electrode spacing of 3 m along a survey line longer than 100 m. Numerical test showed that it can be difficult to analyse effects of seawater on the dike in single data. So we conducted 4D DC inversion of TL data to analyse spatial distribution of seawater to detect possible seepage region. For the improvement of inversion resolution, we considered a spatial regularization properly representing the characteristics of levees whose major seepage occur across the embankment in order to improve the resolution. In making 4D inversion, we chose several TL data sets which are obtained at a similar conditions, e.g., similar sea level or similar time of a day. From this 4D inversion, we could analyse weak zone to be necessary to monitor continuously.

  2. Managing Multi-center Flow Cytometry Data for Immune Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Scott; Laske, Karoline; Welters, Marij Jp; Bidmon, Nicole; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Britten, Cedrik M; Enzor, Jennifer; Staats, Janet; Weinhold, Kent J; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Chan, Cliburn

    2014-01-01

    With the recent results of promising cancer vaccines and immunotherapy1-5, immune monitoring has become increasingly relevant for measuring treatment-induced effects on T cells, and an essential tool for shedding light on the mechanisms responsible for a successful treatment. Flow cytometry is the canonical multi-parameter assay for the fine characterization of single cells in solution, and is ubiquitously used in pre-clinical tumor immunology and in cancer immunotherapy trials. Current state-of-the-art polychromatic flow cytometry involves multi-step, multi-reagent assays followed by sample acquisition on sophisticated instruments capable of capturing up to 20 parameters per cell at a rate of tens of thousands of cells per second. Given the complexity of flow cytometry assays, reproducibility is a major concern, especially for multi-center studies. A promising approach for improving reproducibility is the use of automated analysis borrowing from statistics, machine learning and information visualization21-23, as these methods directly address the subjectivity, operator-dependence, labor-intensive and low fidelity of manual analysis. However, it is quite time-consuming to investigate and test new automated analysis techniques on large data sets without some centralized information management system. For large-scale automated analysis to be practical, the presence of consistent and high-quality data linked to the raw FCS files is indispensable. In particular, the use of machine-readable standard vocabularies to characterize channel metadata is essential when constructing analytic pipelines to avoid errors in processing, analysis and interpretation of results. For automation, this high-quality metadata needs to be programmatically accessible, implying the need for a consistent Application Programming Interface (API). In this manuscript, we propose that upfront time spent normalizing flow cytometry data to conform to carefully designed data models enables automated

  3. Establishment of Diagnostic Doses of Five Pyrethroids for Monitoring Physiological Resistance in Aedes Albopictus in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanispong, Kanutcharee; Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Malaithong, Naritsara; Bangs, Michael J; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring insecticide resistance of Aedes albopictus is required for implementing effective dengue and chikungunya vector control in Thailand. The World Health Organization standard susceptibility test for adult mosquitoes was used to determine the baseline susceptibility of a pyrethroid-susceptible laboratory strain of Ae. albopictus to 5 different pyrethroids (deltamethrin, permethrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, and α-cypermethrin). Subsequently, the respective established diagnostic doses (0.026% deltamethrin, 1.024% permethrin, 0.570% bifenthrin, 0.237% cypermethrin, and 0.035% α-cypermethrin) were used to test field-collected Ae. albopictus from Rayong, Koh Chang, and Pong Nom Ron. As expected, the laboratory strain was completely susceptible to all pyrethroid insecticides at the established concentrations. Rayong mosquitoes were found to be highly susceptible to bifenthrin, cypermethrin, and α-cypermethrin. Koh Chang mosquitoes were susceptible to only deltamethrin and permethrin. Pong Nom Ron mosquitoes were resistant to all pyrethroids tested. Routine assessment of these baseline results should guide future resistance monitoring to pyrethroid insecticides in Ae. albopictus in Thailand.

  4. Electrical resistivity monitoring of the drift scale test in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.

    1997-01-01

    Of the several thermal, mechanical and hydrological measurements being used to monitor the rockmass response, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is being used to monitor the movement of liquid water with a special interest in the movement of condensate out of the system. Eight boreholes, containing a total of 140 ERT electrodes, were drilled above and below the Heated Drift (HD) to form vertical planes parallel to the drift. In addition, 4 boreholes, containing 60 electrodes, drilled from the Access Observation Drift (AOD) form vertical planes at right angles to the HD. Four ERT surveys, three before and one after heating began, were conducted during the first quarter of FY 98. Tomographic images of absolute electrical resistivity have been calculated using these data and are presented in this report. The report also presents the coordinates of the electrodes used for the ERT surveys. Future reports will include images of electrical resistivity change calculated using data collected before and during the heating episode. The changes to be recovered will then be used in combination with temperature maps of the region to calculate maps of saturation change around the HD

  5. Monitoring Freeze Thaw Transitions in Arctic Soils using Complex Resistivity Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.; Ulrich, C.; Dafflon, B.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Arctic region, which is a sensitive system that has emerged as a focal point for climate change studies, is characterized by a large amount of stored carbon and a rapidly changing landscape. Seasonal freeze-thaw transitions in the Arctic alter subsurface biogeochemical processes that control greenhouse gas fluxes from the subsurface. Our ability to monitor freeze thaw cycles and associated biogeochemical transformations is critical to the development of process rich ecosystem models, which are in turn important for gaining a predictive understanding of Arctic terrestrial system evolution and feedbacks with climate. In this study, we conducted both laboratory and field investigations to explore the use of the complex resistivity method to monitor freeze thaw transitions of arctic soil in Barrow, AK. In the lab studies, freeze thaw transitions were induced on soil samples having different average carbon content through exposing the arctic soil to temperature controlled environments at +4 oC and -20 oC. Complex resistivity and temperature measurements were collected using electrical and temperature sensors installed along the soil columns. During the laboratory experiments, resistivity gradually changed over two orders of magnitude as the temperature was increased or decreased between -20 oC and 0 oC. Electrical phase responses at 1 Hz showed a dramatic and immediate response to the onset of freeze and thaw. Unlike the resistivity response, the phase response was found to be exclusively related to unfrozen water in the soil matrix, suggesting that this geophysical attribute can be used as a proxy for the monitoring of the onset and progression of the freeze-thaw transitions. Spectral electrical responses contained additional information about the controls of soil grain size distribution on the freeze thaw dynamics. Based on the demonstrated sensitivity of complex resistivity signals to the freeze thaw transitions, field complex resistivity data were collected over

  6. Insecticide resistance management strategies against the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza, Pablo

    2008-11-01

    Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an economically important pest of a wide range of crops grown throughout the world. Insecticide resistance has been documented in many populations of WFT. Biological and behavioural characteristics and pest management practices that promote insecticide resistance are discussed. In addition, an overview is provided of the development of insecticide resistance in F. occidentalis populations and the resistance mechanisms involved. Owing to widespread resistance to most conventional insecticides, a new approach to insecticide resistance management (IRM) of F. occidentalis is needed. The IRM strategy proposed consists of two parts. Firstly, a general strategy to minimise the use of insecticides in order to reduce selection pressure. Secondly, a strategy designed to avoid selection of resistance mechanisms, considering cross-resistance patterns and resistance mechanisms. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. ReTrust: attack-resistant and lightweight trust management for medical sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Daojing; Chen, Chun; Chan, Sammy; Bu, Jiajun; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2012-07-01

    Wireless medical sensor networks (MSNs) enable ubiquitous health monitoring of users during their everyday lives, at health sites, without restricting their freedom. Establishing trust among distributed network entities has been recognized as a powerful tool to improve the security and performance of distributed networks such as mobile ad hoc networks and sensor networks. However, most existing trust systems are not well suited for MSNs due to the unique operational and security requirements of MSNs. Moreover, similar to most security schemes, trust management methods themselves can be vulnerable to attacks. Unfortunately, this issue is often ignored in existing trust systems. In this paper, we identify the security and performance challenges facing a sensor network for wireless medical monitoring and suggest it should follow a two-tier architecture. Based on such an architecture, we develop an attack-resistant and lightweight trust management scheme named ReTrust. This paper also reports the experimental results of the Collection Tree Protocol using our proposed system in a network of TelosB motes, which show that ReTrust not only can efficiently detect malicious/faulty behaviors, but can also significantly improve the network performance in practice.

  8. Monitoring the Impacts of Forest Management on Snowpack Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, T.; Tyler, S.; Gaffney, R.; Pai, H.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal snowpack constitutes a significant portion of the hydrologic budget in mountain watersheds and influences dynamic (e.g., runoff magnitude and timing, soil moisture availability) and energetic processes (e.g., surface-atmosphere energy fluxes, ground temperature). Altered forest structure can affect snow accumulation and ablation. As part of a long-term monitoring project, this work examines the impact of forest management practices on snow cover in Lassen National Forest, California. We deployed a fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) cable and multiple meteorological stations in thinned, clear-cut, and untreated areas of forest. The DTS data was collected at 1 meter spatial intervals every 4 hours from February to May 2017. To determine snow cover, daily temperature variations were examined along locations of the DTS cable associated with our areas of interest. Between the various treatments, snow duration was greater in both clear-cut and untreated forest compared to the thinned area. However, snow duration varied by only six days. We also investigated other meteorological forcings, such as average winter temperature and precipitation, which coupled with forest modifications could explain snow duration in our study.

  9. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.'s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East's (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies

  10. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from 18 groundwater monitoring wells of the AMB series at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria during the quarter. The results for fourth quarter 1992 are fairly consistent with the rest of the year's data. Tetrachloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS in well AMB 4D only two of the four quarters; in the other three wells in which it was elevated, it was present at similar levels throughout the year. Trichloroethylene consistently exceeded its PDWS in wells AMB 4A, 4B, 4D, 5, and 7A during the year. Trichloroethylene was elevated in well AMB 6 only during third and fourth quarters and in well AMB 7 only during fourth quarter. Total alpha-emitting radium was above the final PDWS for total radium in well AMB 5 at similar levels throughout the year and exceeded the PDWS during one of the three quarters it was analyzed for (third quarter 1992) in well AMB 10B.

  11. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from 18 groundwater monitoring wells of the AMB series at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria during the quarter. The results for fourth quarter 1992 are fairly consistent with the rest of the year's data. Tetrachloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS in well AMB 4D only two of the four quarters; in the other three wells in which it was elevated, it was present at similar levels throughout the year. Trichloroethylene consistently exceeded its PDWS in wells AMB 4A, 4B, 4D, 5, and 7A during the year. Trichloroethylene was elevated in well AMB 6 only during third and fourth quarters and in well AMB 7 only during fourth quarter. Total alpha-emitting radium was above the final PDWS for total radium in well AMB 5 at similar levels throughout the year and exceeded the PDWS during one of the three quarters it was analyzed for (third quarter 1992) in well AMB 10B

  12. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.`s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East`s (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies.

  13. A managed multidisciplinary programme on multi-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Danish university hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Ejdrup; Knudsen, Inge Jenny Dahl

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacteria-producing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes are resistant to commonly used antimicrobials. In 2008, routine monitoring revealed a clonal hospital outbreak of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP). METHODS: At a 510-bed Danish university hospital......, a multidisciplinary change project inspired by Kotter's Eight Steps of Change was designed. In addition to revision of antimicrobial guidelines and restriction of selected antimicrobials, the complex, managed, multi-faceted intervention comprised training and education, enhanced isolation precautions, and a series...... of actions to improve the infection control measures and standardise procedures across the hospital. A prospective interrupted time series design was used to analyse data collected at hospital level from January 2008 through December 2011. RESULTS: Though overall antimicrobial consumption remained unaffected...

  14. Analysis of the Factors Affecting Resistance to Changes in Management Accounting Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Angonese; Carlos Eduardo Facin Lavarda

    2014-01-01

    Despite changes in the environment and management accounting practices, studies indicate that management accounting systems do not change or change at a much slower rate than expected. The stability of the management accounting systems used by companies may relate to resistance to changing these systems. This study analyzes the factors that contribute to resistance to implementing an integrated management system from the perspective of institutional theory, grounded in the old institutional e...

  15. 36 CFR 219.11 - Monitoring and evaluation for adaptive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning The Framework for Planning § 219.11 Monitoring and evaluation for adaptive management. (a) Plan monitoring strategy... national, regional, and local supply and demand for products, services, and values. Special consideration...

  16. The application and development on radiation monitoring microcomputer management system in design of a certain project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongyou

    1993-01-01

    A scheme of a radiation monitoring system with a RMMMS (Radiation Monitoring Microcomputer Management System) has been designed for the first time in the radiation protection design of a certain nuclear projection undertaken by the BINE (Beijing Institute of Nuclear Engineering). Meanwhile, we accepted the research task of the RMMMS that can manage 40 monitoring channel. The key factors of radiation monitors, microcomputer, information management and systematic design method are considered in the development of the RMMMS. This paper presents briefly the scheme and functions of the RMMMS

  17. The development and validation of using inertial sensors to monitor postural change in resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleadhill, Sam; Lee, James Bruce; James, Daniel

    2016-05-03

    This research presented and validated a method of assessing postural changes during resistance exercise using inertial sensors. A simple lifting task was broken down to a series of well-defined tasks, which could be examined and measured in a controlled environment. The purpose of this research was to determine whether timing measures obtained from inertial sensor accelerometer outputs are able to provide accurate, quantifiable information of resistance exercise movement patterns. The aim was to complete a timing measure validation of inertial sensor outputs. Eleven participants completed five repetitions of 15 different deadlift variations. Participants were monitored with inertial sensors and an infrared three dimensional motion capture system. Validation was undertaken using a Will Hopkins Typical Error of the Estimate, with a Pearson׳s correlation and a Bland Altman Limits of Agreement analysis. Statistical validation measured the timing agreement during deadlifts, from inertial sensor outputs and the motion capture system. Timing validation results demonstrated a Pearson׳s correlation of 0.9997, with trivial standardised error (0.026) and standardised bias (0.002). Inertial sensors can now be used in practical settings with as much confidence as motion capture systems, for accelerometer timing measurements of resistance exercise. This research provides foundations for inertial sensors to be applied for qualitative activity recognition of resistance exercise and safe lifting practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Label-free longitudinal monitoring of melanogenesis in the evolution of melanoma treatment resistance (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osseiran, Sam; Wang, Hequn; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Garraway, Levi A.; Evans, Conor L.

    2017-02-01

    While melanoma is not the most common form of skin cancer, it represents the vast majority of skin cancer-related deaths. Indeed, while combination therapies such as Dabrafenib and Trametinib have shown great promise in clinical trials for treating metastatic disease, some melanoma subtypes nevertheless develop resistances to front-line treatments. Under in vitro conditions, some metastatic human melanoma cell lines have been observed to evolve resistance to treatment while simultaneously changing color under brightfield microscopy, hinting at perturbations in pigment synthesis. The process known as melanogenesis gives rise to the two forms of melanin found in mammals: eumelanin, a dark brown/black pigment, and pheomelanin, a much more pale red/blond pigment. Interestingly, pheomelanin has been shown to contribute to the onset and development of melanoma in an ultraviolet-radiation-independent manner through a mechanism of oxidative stress. Eumelanin, on the other hand, is a known antioxidant whose chemical properties seem to shield cells against oxidative damage. To study these pigments in closer detail, nonlinear optical microscopy including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) was used for the specific visualization and quantification of the relative abundance of pheomelanin and eumelanin within these treatment resistant cell lines. These microscopy toolkits provide a means to monitor changes in pigmentation in a noninvasive and non-destructive manner without the use of exogenous dyes to better understand the molecular basis of treatment resistance.

  19. 3-D time-lapse electrical resistivity monitoring of injected CO2 in a shallow aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, Joseph A. J.A.; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of potable groundwater by leaking CO2 is a potential risk of carbon sequestration. With the help of a field experiment, we investigate if surface electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can detect dissolved CO2 in a shallow aquifer. For this purpose, we injected CO2 at a depth of 5...... inversion reveals the geology at the site consisting of aeolian sands near the surface and glacial sands below 5 m depth. Time-lapse inversions clearly image the dissolved CO2 plume with decreased electrical resistivity values. We can follow the CO2 plume as it spreads and moves with the groundwater...... and 10 m and monitored its migration using 320 surface electrodes on a 126 m × 20 m grid. A fully automated acquisition system continuously collected data and uploaded it into an online database. The large amount of data allows for time-series analysis for data quality and noise estimation. A baseline...

  20. Quality management status of national radiation environmental monitoring network and strategy for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Renjie; Zhang Rongsuo; Ni Shiying; Shen Gang

    2009-01-01

    During the period of 10th five-year plan, MEP has constructed a national radiation environmental monitoring network. In the running of the network, quality management on monitoring data is of vital importance. So all the members of the radiation environmental monitoring network are required to ensure the quality of monitoring method, equipment, reagent,quality of personnel, data processing and information management and so on. Thus the monitoring result would be typical and accuracy in science. The article introduced in detail the quality management status of the National Radiation Environmental Monitoring Network and put forward the strategy for development from the institutionalized and large-scale point of view of radioactive environmental monitoring work. (authors)

  1. Electrical Resistivity Tomography monitoring reveals groundwater storage in a karst vadose zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watlet, A.; Kaufmann, O.; Van Camp, M. J.; Triantafyllou, A.; Cisse, M. F.; Quinif, Y.; Meldrum, P.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Chambers, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Karst systems are among the most difficult aquifers to characterize, due to their high heterogeneity. In particular, temporary groundwater storage that occurs in the unsaturated zone and the discharge to deeper layers are difficult processes to identify and estimate with in-situ measurements. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) monitoring is meant to track changes in the electrical properties of the subsurface and has proved to be applicable to evidence and quantify hydrological processes in several types of environments. Applied to karst systems, it has particularly highlighted the challenges in linking electrical resistivity changes to groundwater content with usual approaches of petrophysical relationships, given the high heterogeneity of the subsurface. However, taking up the challenge, we undertook an ERT monitoring at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (Belgium) lasting from Spring 2014 to Winter 2016. This includes 3 main periods of several months with daily measurements, from which seasonal groundwater content changes in the first meters of the vadose zone were successfully imaged. The monitoring concentrates on a 48 electrodes profile that goes from a limestone plateau to the bottom of a sinkhole. 3D UAV photoscans of the surveyed sinkhole and of the main chamber of the nearby cave were performed. Combined with lithological observations from a borehole drilled next to the ERT profile, the 3D information made it possible to project karstified layers visible in the cave to the surface and assess their potential locations along the ERT profile. Overall, this helped determining more realistic local petrophysical properties in the surveyed area, and improving the ERT data inversion by adding structural constraints. Given a strong air temperature gradient in the sinkhole, we also developed a new approach of temperature correction of the raw ERT data. This goes through the solving (using pyGIMLI package) of the 2D ground temperature field and its temporal

  2. Dried blood spot analysis for therapeutic drug monitoring of linezolid in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu, D H; Bolhuis, M S; Koster, R A; Greijdanus, B; de Lange, W C M; van Altena, R; Brouwers, J R B J; Uges, D R A; Alffenaar, J W C

    2012-01-01

    Linezolid is a promising antimicrobial agent for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), but its use is limited by toxicity. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may help to minimize toxicity while adequate drug exposure is maintained. Conventional plasma sampling and monitoring

  3. Monitoring response and resistance to the novel arsenical darinaparsin in an AML patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Holm eNielsen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML with inversion of chromosome 3 is characterized by overexpression of EVI1 and carries a dismal prognosis. Arsenic-containing compounds have been described to be efficacious in malignancies overexpressing EVI1. Here we describe a case of AML with inv(3(q21q26.2 treated with the organic arsenical darinaparsin. Using a personalized medicine approach, different arsenicals were screened for anti-leukemic effect against the patient’s cells ex vivo. The most promising compound, darinaparsin, was selected for in vivo treatment. Clinical effect was almost immediate, with a normalization of temperature, a stabilization of white blood cell (WBC counts and an increased quality of life. Longitudinal monitoring of patient response and resistance incorporating significant correlative studies on patient derived blood samples over the two cycles of darinaparsin given to this patient allowed us to evaluate potential mechanisms of response and resistance. The anti-leukemic effects of darinaparsin correlated with inhibition of the alternative NF-κB pathway and production of the inflammatory cytokine IL-8. Emergence of resistance was suspected during treatment cycle 2 and supported by xenograft studies in nude mice. Darinaparsin resistance correlated with an attenuation of the effect of treatment on the alternative NF-κB pathway. The results from this patient indicate that darinaparsin may be a good treatment option for inv(3 AML and that inhibition of the alternative NF-κB pathway may be predictive of response. Longitudinal monitoring of disease response as well as several correlative parameters allowed for the generation of novel correlations and predictors of response to experimental therapy in a heavily pretreated patient.

  4. Report: EPA Needs Better Data, Plans and Tools to Manage Insect Resistance to Genetically Engineered Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #16-P-0194, June 1, 2016. Bt crops have reduced insecticide applications by 123 million pounds. The EPA can preserve this significant public benefit through enhanced monitoring and preparation to address insect resistance in Bt corn.

  5. Monitoring the southwestern Wyoming landscape—A foundation for management and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, Daniel J.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Assal, Timothy J.; Chong, Geneva W.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2017-08-29

    Natural resource monitoring involves repeated collections of resource condition data and analyses to detect possible changes and identify underlying causes of changes. For natural resource agencies, monitoring provides the foundation for management and science. Specifically, analyses of monitoring data allow managers to better understand effects of land-use and other changes on important natural resources and to achieve their conservation and management goals. Examples of natural resources monitored on public lands include wildlife habitats, plant productivity, animal movements and population trends, soil chemistry, and water quality and quantity. Broader definitions of monitoring also recognize the need for scientifically valid data to help support planning efforts and informed decisions, to develop adaptive management strategies, and to provide the means for evaluating management outcomes.

  6. Kdr mutations in Triatoma infestans from the Gran Chaco are distributed in two differentiated foci: Implications for pyrethroid resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Ivana; Capriotti, Natalia; Fronza, Georgina; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Ons, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    Point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, the primary target of pyrethroid insecticides, have been associated with the resistance in Triatoma infestans, an important vector of Chagas' disease. Hence, the sustainability of vector control programs requires the implementation of resistance management strategies. We determined the sensitivity of the molecular assays previously designed for early resistance detection to be used in pooled samples from a wide area of the endemic region, and validated them for their routine use in control campaigns for the monitoring of insecticide resistance in T. infestans. Consequently, we used these methods to examine the distribution of resistance-associated mutations in the sodium channel gene in populations of T. infestans from the Argentinean and Bolivian Gran Chaco. The PASA and REA assays tested proved sensitive enough to detect kdr SNPs in pooled samples, indicating these assays are suitable for routine screening in insecticide resistance surveillance. Two geographically differentiated foci were detected in T. infestans populations from the Argentinean and Bolivian Gran Chaco, with populations on the Bolivian-Argentinean border carrying L1014F mutation, and those from the Argentinean Chaco carrying L925I mutation. In all highly resistant populations analyzed, one of both kdr mutations was present, and toxicological assays determined that all pyrethroid resistant populations analyzed herein were sensitive to fenitrothion. The principal cause of pyrethroid resistance in T. infestans from the Gran Chaco ecoregion is kdr mutations in the sodium channel. Different levels of resistance occur in different populations carrying identical mutation, suggesting the existence of contributory mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Register of Microorganisms as a Tool for Automated Antibiotics Consumption Planning and Monitoring of Antibiotic Resistance in Intensive Care Units and Specilized Hospital Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Karpov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to assess the possibility of managing the antibiotic resistance level and consumption of antimicrobial agents in a hospital based on the analysis of the drug resistance index.Material and methods. The antibiotic consumption planning system was employed at the multidisciplinary surgical hospital based on the unified Registry of microorganisms (ROM. ROM included data on 25.581 strains obtained from patients with infections admitted to the intensive care units (ICU and specialized departments. Protocols of empiric antimicrobial therapy and perioperative antibiotic prevention were developed. The ROMbased system allowed automated calculation of drug resistance indices for nosocomial microor ganisms. Data obtained during the preintervention period (2012 and intervention period, (2014—2015 were compared. Results. Decreases in the drug resistance indices for Pseudomonas aeruginosa from 0.721 in 2012 to 0.596 in 2015, Acinetobacter baumannii from 0.96 in 2012 to 0.889 in 2015, Klebsiella pneumoniae from 0.728 in 2012 to 0.595 in 2015 were achieved due to reduction of antimicrobial resistance, reduced consumption of III—IV generation cephalosporins and antipseudomonal carbapenems, and more frequent use of ertapenem for treatment of infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. There was an increase in the drug resistance index of Escherichia coli from 0.325 in 2012 to 0.382 in 2015 due to increased consumption of protected penicillins and first generation cephalosporins for prevention in abdominal surgery and urology and increased pathogen resistance to these antibiotics.Conclusion. A development of a unified hospital ROM and application of the drug resistance index for math ematical modeling of the pathogens resistance level allows to perform timely monitoring of changes in antibiotic resistance of nosocomial microorganisms in ICU setting and other hospital departments and proper managinge the

  8. Self managing monitoring for highly elastic large scale Cloud deployments

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Jonathan Stuart; Barker, Adam David

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure as a Service computing exhibits a number of properties, which are not found in conventional server deployments. Elasticity is among the most significant of these properties which has wide reaching implications for applications deployed in cloud hosted VMs. Among the applications affected by elasticity is monitoring. In this paper we investigate the challenges of monitoring large cloud deployments and how these challenges differ from previous monitoring problems. In order to mee...

  9. Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Supply Chain and Its Implications for FDA Policy Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawack, Kelson; Li, Min; Booth, James G; Love, Will; Lanzas, Cristina; Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2016-09-01

    In response to concerning increases in antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has decided to increase veterinary oversight requirements for antimicrobials and restrict their use in growth promotion. Given the high stakes of this policy for the food supply, economy, and human and veterinary health, it is important to rigorously assess the effects of this policy. We have undertaken a detailed analysis of data provided by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). We examined the trends in both AMR proportion and MIC between 2004 and 2012 at slaughter and retail stages. We investigated the makeup of variation in these data and estimated the sample and effect size requirements necessary to distinguish an effect of the policy change. Finally, we applied our approach to take a detailed look at the 2005 withdrawal of approval for the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin in poultry water. Slaughter and retail showed similar trends. Both AMR proportion and MIC were valuable in assessing AMR, capturing different information. Most variation was within years, not between years, and accounting for geographic location explained little additional variation. At current rates of data collection, a 1-fold change in MIC should be detectable in 5 years and a 6% decrease in percent resistance could be detected in 6 years following establishment of a new resistance rate. Analysis of the enrofloxacin policy change showed the complexities of the AMR policy with no statistically significant change in resistance of both Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to ciprofloxacin, another second-generation fluoroquinolone. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Application research of Ganglia in Hadoop monitoring and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Ding, Jing; Zhou, Lixia; Yang, Yi; Liu, Lei; Wang, Xiaolei

    2017-03-01

    There are many applications of Hadoop System in the field of large data, cloud computing. The test bench of storage and application in seismic network at Earthquake Administration of Tianjin use with Hadoop system, which is used the open source software of Ganglia to operate and monitor. This paper reviews the function, installation and configuration process, application effect of operating and monitoring in Hadoop system of the Ganglia system. It briefly introduces the idea and effect of Nagios software monitoring Hadoop system. It is valuable for the industry in the monitoring system of cloud computing platform.

  11. The antimicrobial resistance crisis: causes, consequences and management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Anne Michael

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR crisis is the increasing global incidence of infectious diseases affecting the human population, which are untreatable with any known antimicrobial agent. This crisis will have a devastating cost on human society as both debilitating and lethal diseases increase in frequency and scope. Three major factors determine this crisis: 1/ The increasing frequency of AMR phenotypes amongst microbes is an evolutionary response to the widespread use of antimicrobials. 2/ The large and globally connected human population allows pathogens in any environment access to all of humanity. 3/ The extensive and often unnecessary use of antimicrobials by humanity provides the strong selective pressure that is driving the evolutionary response in the microbial world. Of these factors, the size of the human population is least amenable to rapid change. In contrast the remaining two factors may be affected, so offering a means of managing the crisis: The rate at which AMR, as well as virulence factors evolve in microbial world may be slowed by reducing the applied selective pressure. This may be accomplished by radically reducing the global use of current and prospective antimicrobials. Current management measures to legislate the use of antimicrobials and to educate the healthcare world in the issues, while useful, have not comprehensively addressed the problem of achieving an overall reduction in the human use of antimicrobials. We propose that in addition to current measures and increased research into new antimicrobials and diagnostics, a comprehensive education programme will be required to change the public paradigm of antimicrobial usage from that of a first line treatment to that of a last resort when all other therapeutic options have failed.

  12. The antimicrobial resistance crisis: causes, consequences, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Carolyn Anne; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Labbate, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis is the increasing global incidence of infectious diseases affecting the human population, which are untreatable with any known antimicrobial agent. This crisis will have a devastating cost on human society as both debilitating and lethal diseases increase in frequency and scope. Three major factors determine this crisis: (1) the increasing frequency of AMR phenotypes among microbes is an evolutionary response to the widespread use of antimicrobials; (2) the large and globally connected human population allows pathogens in any environment access to all of humanity; and (3) the extensive and often unnecessary use of antimicrobials by humanity provides the strong selective pressure that is driving the evolutionary response in the microbial world. Of these factors, the size of the human population is least amenable to rapid change. In contrast, the remaining two factors may be affected, so offering a means of managing the crisis: the rate at which AMR, as well as virulence factors evolve in microbial world may be slowed by reducing the applied selective pressure. This may be accomplished by radically reducing the global use of current and prospective antimicrobials. Current management measures to legislate the use of antimicrobials and to educate the healthcare world in the issues, while useful, have not comprehensively addressed the problem of achieving an overall reduction in the human use of antimicrobials. We propose that in addition to current measures and increased research into new antimicrobials and diagnostics, a comprehensive education program will be required to change the public paradigm of antimicrobial usage from that of a first line treatment to that of a last resort when all other therapeutic options have failed.

  13. Monitoring of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) resistance to cyantraniliprole in the south of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruimin; He, Shiyu; Chen, Jiahua

    2014-06-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a globally important economic insect pest that has evolved resistance to various types of insecticides. Cyantraniliprole (DuPont Cyazypyr) is a new anthranilic diamide insecticide registered to control lepidopteran and sucking insects. The susceptibility of field-collected populations of B. dorsalis to cyantraniliprole was assessed via a diet incorporation bioassay in adults. Based on the obtained LC50 values (ranging from 3.29 to 15.83 microg/g), all the testing populations, including ZZ (Fujian province), HH (Yunnan province), JM (Guangdong province), SY (Hainan province), HZ (Zhejiang province), YL (Guangxi province), SH (Shanghai), WH (Hubei province), and CS (Hunan province), were susceptible to cyantraniliprole, with the samples of WH (Hubei province) being the most tolerant (by 4.80-fold). Two (SY, Hainan province; CS, Hunan province) of the nine field-collected populations of B. dorsalis showed a similar susceptibility to cyantraniliprole, while the remaining populations displayed narrow variations in tolerance compared with the laboratory strain. Synergist assays were performed to determine the potential detoxification mechanisms. Piperonyl butoxide showed significant synergism effects in lab, CS, and resistant strain. S,S,S-tributylphorotrithioate and diethyl maleate also showed obvious synergism effects in resistant strain. A 19.44-fold increase in resistance to cyantraniliprole was observed after 14 generations of selection in the laboratory. The present work clarifies the baseline susceptibility and primary mechanisms of B. dorsalis to cyantraniliprole in the south China and established a cyantraniliprole-resistant strain as well. A sound resistance management strategy is also discussed in relation to the risk of susceptibility.

  14. An education management information system with simultaneous monitoring of stress stimulators for students Mental Health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimaran, S; Jayakumar, S; Lakshmi, K Bhagya

    2016-11-14

    Education Management Information System (EMIS) is a widely acceptable and developing technology within the Information Technology field. The advancement in technology in this century is being collaborated with scientific invention or explorer and information strengthening or development. This paper presents the results and experiences gained from applying students oriented EMIS for monitoring and managing mental health. The Mental Health of students depends on the acquiring adequate knowledge on basic concepts within a time period or academic schedule. It's obviously significance to evaluate and appraise the stress stimulators as a challenge or threat. The theoretical framework for the study was designed for analyzing the stress stimulators, academic performance and EMIS accessibility. The sample examined in this study was stratified random sample from 75 students specifically all engineering college in Dindigul District of Tamilnadu. The primary factor is the academic stress stimulators that form one module of EMIS for each of the key variable such as curriculum & instruction related stressors, placement related, teamwork related and assessment related. The Mental Health related stress stimulators namely curriculum & syllabus, placement related, assessment related and team work related have a significant influence on academic performance by students in various institution. The important factor leading to the EMIS application in monitoring stress stimulators is curriculum & syllabus related and assessment related.

  15. Genetic monitoring as a promising tool for conservation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Schwartz; Gordon Luikart; Robin S. Waples

    2007-01-01

    In response to ever-increasing anthropogenic changes to natural ecosystems, regional, national and international organizations have established guidelines for monitoring biological diversity. Most monitoring programs, however, do not take full advantage of the potential afforded by molecular genetic markers, which can provide information relevant to both ecological and...

  16. 2016 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data include direct radiation exposure, as well as radiation from the air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2016 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports, developed by National Security Technologies, LLC Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show that tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. During 2016, precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS was 8% below average, and precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS was 8% above average. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation as measured from the bare-soil weighing lysimeter. Vadose zone monitoring on Area 5 and Area 3 RWMS cell covers shows no evidence of precipitation percolating through the covers

  17. Monitoring and management of recreation in protected areas: the contributions and limitations of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole

    2004-01-01

    Scientists assist protected area managers by developing information and knowledge that can be used to better monitor and manage recreation use and its impacts. Most recreation management decisions have both a descriptive and an evaluative component. There is widespread consensus that science is well suited to discovering, synthesizing and applying descriptive...

  18. Monitoring bacterial growth using tunable resistive pulse sensing with a pore-based technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Allen C S; Loo, Jacky F C; Yu, Samuel; Kong, S K; Chan, Ting-Fung

    2014-01-01

    A novel bacterial growth monitoring method using a tunable resistive pulse sensor (TRPS) system is introduced in this study for accurate and sensitive measurement of cell size and cell concentration simultaneously. Two model bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis str.168 (BSU168) and Escherichia coli str.DH5α (DH5α), were chosen for benchmarking the growth-monitoring performance of the system. Results showed that the technique of TRPS is sensitive and accurate relative to widely used methods, with a lower detection limit of cell concentration measurement of 5 × 10⁵ cells/ml; at the same time, the mean coefficient of variation from TRPS was within 2 %. The growth of BSU168 and DH5α in liquid cultures was studied by TRPS, optical density (OD), and colony plating. Compared to OD measurement, TRPS-measured concentration correlates better with colony plating (R = 0.85 vs. R = 0.72), which is often regarded as the gold standard of cell concentration determination. General agreement was also observed by comparing TRPS-derived cell volume measurements and those determined from microscopy. We have demonstrated that TRPS is a reliable method for bacterial growth monitoring, where the study of both cell volume and cell concentration are needed to provide further details about the physical aspects of cell dynamics in real time.

  19. Study on diesel vertical migration characteristics and mechanism in water-bearing sand stratum using an automated resistivity monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuying; Jia, Yonggang; Wang, Yuhua; Xia, Xin; Guo, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Oil spills frequently occur on both land and sea. Petroleum in mobile phase will cause serious pollution in the sediment and can form a secondary pollution source. Therefore, it is very important to study the migration of petroleum in sediments ideally in a rapid and simplified approach. The release of diesel was simulated using fine beach sand to construct a model aquifer, and dynamic monitoring was carried out using an automated monitoring system including a resistivity probe originally developed by our research group. The mobile phase migration fronts were determined accurately using wavelet analysis method combined with resistivity curve method. Then, a relationship between resistivity and the joint oil-water content was established. The main conclusions were as follows. The seepage velocity of the diesel with high mobility at the initial stage of infiltration was faster, followed by a period when gravity seepage was dominant, and finally a redistribution period at the later stage, which was mainly an oil-water displacement process. The resistivity trends for diesel infiltration in different water-saturated soil layers varied with depth. The resistivity in the vadose zone fluctuated significantly, increasing initially and later decreasing. The resistivity change in the capillary zone was relatively small and constant in the initial stage; then, it increased and subsequently decreased. The resistivity in the saturated zone was basically unchanged with depth, and the value became slightly larger than the background value over time. Overall, for a large volume of mobile phase diesel leakage, the arrival migration fronts can be detected by wavelet analysis combined with resistivity curves. The thickness of the oil slick in the capillary zone can be estimated by resistivity changes. The relationships between resistivity and both the moisture content and oil-water joint saturation are in agreement with the linear models. The research results provide basic data and a

  20. Combination of restriction endonuclease digestion with the ΔΔCt method in real-time PCR to monitor etoxazole resistance allele frequency in the two-spotted spider mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakabe, Masahiro; Imamura, Tsuyoshi; Nakano, Ryohei; Kamikawa, Satoshi; Tadatsu, Misono; Kunimoto, Yoshinori; Doi, Makoto

    2017-06-01

    Monitoring resistance allele frequency at the early stage of resistance development is important for the successful acaricide resistance management. Etoxazole is a mite growth inhibitor to which resistance is conferred by an amino acid substitution in the chitin synthase 1 (CHS1; I1017F) in T. urticae. If the susceptible allele can be specifically digested by restriction endonuclease, the ΔΔCt method using real-time PCR for genomic DNA (RED-ΔΔCt method) may be available for monitoring the resistance allele frequency. We tested whether the etoxazole resistance allele frequency in a pooled sample was accurately measured by the RED-ΔΔCt method and validated whether the resistance variant frequency was correlated with etoxazole resistance phenotype in a bioassay. Finally, we performed a pilot test using field populations. Strong linearity of the measures by the RED-ΔΔCt method with practical resistance allele frequencies; resistance allele frequency in the range between 0.5% to at least 0.75% was strictly represented. The strong linear relationship between hatchability of haploid male eggs after the etoxazole treatments (phenotype) and resistance allele frequencies in their mothers provided direct evidence that I1017F is a primary resistance factor to etoxazole in the strains used for experiments. The pilot test revealed a significant correlation between egg hatchability (including both diploid female eggs and haploid male eggs) and estimators in field populations. Consequently, we concluded that the RED-ΔΔCt method is a powerful tool for monitoring a resistance allele in a pooled sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Putting Adaptive Management into Monitoring: Retrospective and Prospective Views of Northwest Forest Plan Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Busch; Jon R. Martin

    2006-01-01

    Based on ten years of Northwest Forest Plan implementation, we focus on key scientifically-oriented questions relating to improving Plan monitoring. The questions, which fall into groups concerning issues of scale, integration, and efficiency, have applicability to monitoring programs being designed and implemented throughout the world. Progress toward answering such...

  2. Considerations of the Principles of Resistance Training in Exercise Studies for the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshull, Claire; Gleeson, Nigel

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the methodologic quality of resistance training interventions for the management of knee osteoarthritis. A search of the literature for studies published up to August 10, 2015, was performed on MEDLINE (OVID platform), PubMed, Embase, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database databases. Search terms associated with osteoarthritis, knee, and muscle resistance exercise were used. Studies were included in the review if they were published in the English language and met the following criteria: (1) muscle resistance training was the primary intervention; (2) randomized controlled trial design; (3) treatment arms included at least a muscle conditioning intervention and a nonexercise group; and (4) participants had osteoarthritis of the knee. Studies using preoperative (joint replacement) interventions with only postoperative outcomes were excluded. The search yielded 1574 results. The inclusion criteria were met by 34 studies. Two reviewers independently screened the articles for eligibility. Critical appraisal of the methodology was assessed according to the principles of resistance training and separately for the reporting of adherence using a specially designed scoring system. A rating for each article was assigned. There were 34 studies that described a strength training focus of the intervention; however, the principles of resistance training were inconsistently applied and inadequately reported across all. Methods for adherence monitoring were incorporated into the design of 28 of the studies, but only 13 reported sufficient detail to estimate average dose of exercise. These findings affect the interpretation of the efficacy of muscle resistance exercise in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Clinicians and health care professionals cannot be confident whether nonsignificant findings are because of the lack of efficacy of muscle resistance interventions, or occur through limitations in treatment prescription and patient adherence. Future research that

  3. Management options for reducing the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes to the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruden, Amy; Larsson, D.G. Joakim; Amézquita, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Objective: Our aim in this study was to identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance...... of management strategies is also highlighted. Finally, we describe a case study in Sweden that illustrates the critical role of communication to engage stakeholders and promote action. Conclusions: Environmental releases of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can in many cases be reduced at little...... associated with antibiotic resistance strongly indicate the need for action....

  4. A monitoring sensor management system for grid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, Brian; Crowley, Brian; Gunter, Dan; Lee, Jason; Thompson, Mary

    2001-06-01

    Large distributed systems, such as computational grids,require a large amount of monitoring data be collected for a variety oftasks, such as fault detection, performance analysis, performance tuning,performance prediction and scheduling. Ensuring that all necessarymonitoring is turned on and that the data is being collected can be avery tedious and error-prone task. We have developed an agent-basedsystem to automate the execution of monitoring sensors and the collectionof event data.

  5. Wireless data management system for environmental monitoring in livestock buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gray

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of air quality on the health, welfare and productivity of livestock needs to be considered, especially when livestock are kept in enclosed buildings. The monitoring of such environmental factors allows for the development of appropriate strategies to reduce detrimental effects of sub-optimal air quality on the respiratory health of both livestock and farmers. In 2009, an environmental monitoring system was designed, developed and tested that allowed for the monitoring of a number of airborne pollutants. One limitation of the system was the manual collection of logged data from each unit. This paper identifies limitations of the current environmental monitoring system and suggests a range of networking technologies that can be used to increase usability. Consideration is taken for the networking of environmental monitoring units, as well as the collection of recorded data. Furthermore, the design and development of a software system that is used to collate and store recorded environmental data from multiple farms is explored. In order to design such a system, simplified software engineering processes and methodologies have been utilised. The main steps taken in order to complete the project were requirements elicitation with clients, requirements analysis, system design, implementation and finally testing. The outcome of the project provided a potential prototype for improving the environmental monitoring system and analysis informing the benefit of the implementation.

  6. Multi drug resistant tuberculosis: a challenge in the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) will not usually respond to short course chemotherapy. Unless the individual infected with this bug is treated appropriately, they can continue spreading resistant strains in the community and further fuel the tuberculosis epidemic. Diagnosis requires drug sensitivity testing and the ...

  7. Managing Resistance to Instructional Modifications in Mainstreamed Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Howard; McGettigan, James

    1988-01-01

    Classroom teachers serving handicapped students in the mainstream often need to make instructional modifications. This article discusses reasons for teacher resistance to instructional modifications and provides strategies that consultative staff can use to prevent or reduce resistance. Expectancy theory is used to provide a framework for…

  8. Herbicide-resistant weeds: Management strategies and upcoming technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicides have contributed to substantial increase in crop yields over the past seven decades. Over reliance on herbicides for weed control has led to rapid evolution of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds. Increased awareness of herbicide resistance and adoption of diversified weed control tactics by f...

  9. Insights from agriculture for the management of insecticide resistance in disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Thomas, Matthew B

    2018-04-01

    Key to contemporary management of diseases such as malaria, dengue, and filariasis is control of the insect vectors responsible for transmission. Insecticide-based interventions have contributed to declines in disease burdens in many areas, but this progress could be threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance in vector populations. Insecticide resistance is likewise a major concern in agriculture, where insect pests can cause substantial yield losses. Here, we explore overlaps between understanding and managing insecticide resistance in agriculture and in public health. We have used the Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management in malaria vectors, developed under the auspices of the World Health Organization Global Malaria Program, as a framework for this exploration because it serves as one of the few cohesive documents for managing a global insecticide resistance crisis. Generally, this comparison highlights some fundamental differences between insect control in agriculture and in public health. Moreover, we emphasize that the success of insecticide resistance management strategies is strongly dependent on the biological specifics of each system. We suggest that the biological, operational, and regulatory differences between agriculture and public health limit the wholesale transfer of knowledge and practices from one system to the other. Nonetheless, there are some valuable insights from agriculture that could assist in advancing the existing Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management framework.

  10. Management and utilization of monitoring data of EDF dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Electricite de France (EdF) exploits about 475 dams over the whole French territory, the monitoring of which depends on the risks: natural risks, risks linked with the constructive works, and risks linked with the exploitation of the dam. Real situations are in general a combination of several type of risks. The monitoring of dams is based on visual inspection, sounding (measurements) and periodical tests of safety systems. The monitoring activity is placed under a quality assurance procedure. Two levels of redundant continuous monitoring are considered, one performed by the operator and the other by specialists. Monitoring devices are chosen according to their reliability, their stability, their simpleness and their robustness. The measured data are not numerous and well defined. Integrating phenomena are preferred. The statistical analysis of chronological series of data is performed periodically through simple, robust and general models allowing to determine the dam responses to stresses (reversible effects), and to obtain data in 'identical conditions' for a measurement of the evolution of the dam with time. The general trend is an increase of safety requirements with legislative changes, leading to more rigorous studies of dam risks. (J.S.)

  11. Electrical resistance tomography to monitor unsaturated moisture flow in cementitious materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallaji, Milad [Department of Civil Construction and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Seppänen, Aku [Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Pour-Ghaz, Mohammad, E-mail: mpourghaz@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil Construction and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Traditionally the electrically-based assessment of the moisture flow in cement-based materials relies on two- or four-point measurements. In this paper, imaging of moisture distribution with electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is considered. Especially, the aim is to study whether ERT could give information on unsaturated moisture flows in cases where the flow is non-uniform. In the experiment, the specimens are monitored with ERT during the water ingress. The ERT reconstructions are compared with neutron radiographs, which provide high resolution information on the 2D distribution of the moisture. The results indicate that ERT is able to detect the moisture movement and to show approximately the shape and position of the water front even if the flow is nonuniform.

  12. Use of information system data of jet crushing acoustic monitoring for the process management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Bulanaya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The graphic interpretation of amplitude and frequency of acoustic signals of loose material jet grinding process are resulted. Criteria of process management is determined on the basis of the acoustic monitoring data of jet mill acting.

  13. Stormwater best management practices in an ultra-urban setting : selection and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    This report builds on recent FHWA manuals by expanding and presenting additional data, design criteria, and monitoring study results on : stormwater best management practices (BMPs) implemented in ultra-urban areas. An extensive literature search was...

  14. ''RESURS'' - The Russian scientific-technical programme for NPP equipment lifetime monitoring, estimation, prediction and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emelyanov, V.

    1994-01-01

    RESURS programme is described implementation of which will allow to work out regulatory-methodological basis providing legal and technical solution of NPP equipment lifetime management, prediction, monitoring and estimation problems

  15. [The Development of Information Centralization and Management Integration System for Monitors Based on Wireless Sensor Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiu; Zhang, Honglei; Li, Yiming; Li, Bin

    2015-07-01

    Developed the information centralization and management integration system for monitors of different brands and models with wireless sensor network technologies such as wireless location and wireless communication, based on the existing wireless network. With adaptive implementation and low cost, the system which possesses the advantages of real-time, efficiency and elaboration is able to collect status and data of the monitors, locate the monitors, and provide services with web server, video server and locating server via local network. Using an intranet computer, the clinical and device management staffs can access the status and parameters of monitors. Applications of this system provide convenience and save human resource for clinical departments, as well as promote the efficiency, accuracy and elaboration for the device management. The successful achievement of this system provides solution for integrated and elaborated management of the mobile devices including ventilator and infusion pump.

  16. The monitoring and managing application of cloud computing based on Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shiliang; Ren, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Cloud computing and the Internet of Things are the two hot points in the Internet application field. The application of the two new technologies is in hot discussion and research, but quite less on the field of medical monitoring and managing application. Thus, in this paper, we study and analyze the application of cloud computing and the Internet of Things on the medical field. And we manage to make a combination of the two techniques in the medical monitoring and managing field. The model architecture for remote monitoring cloud platform of healthcare information (RMCPHI) was established firstly. Then the RMCPHI architecture was analyzed. Finally an efficient PSOSAA algorithm was proposed for the medical monitoring and managing application of cloud computing. Simulation results showed that our proposed scheme can improve the efficiency about 50%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of monitoring data to support conservation management and policy decisions in Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montambault, Jensen Reitz; Wongbusarakum, Supin; Leberer, Trina; Joseph, Eugene; Andrew, Wayne; Castro, Fran; Nevitt, Brooke; Golbuu, Yimnang; Oldiais, Noelle W; Groves, Craig R; Kostka, Willy; Houk, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive management implies a continuous knowledge-based decision-making process in conservation. Yet, the coupling of scientific monitoring and management frameworks remains rare in practice because formal and informal communication pathways are lacking. We examined 4 cases in Micronesia where conservation practitioners are using new knowledge in the form of monitoring data to advance marine conservation. These cases were drawn from projects in Micronesia Challenge jurisdictions that received funding for coupled monitoring-to-management frameworks and encompassed all segments of adaptive management. Monitoring in Helen Reef, Republic of Palau, was catalyzed by coral bleaching and revealed evidence of overfishing that led to increased enforcement and outreach. In Nimpal Channel, Yap, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), monitoring the recovery of marine food resources after customary restrictions were put in place led to new, more effective enforcement approaches. Monitoring in Laolao Bay, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, was catalyzed by observable sediment loads from poor land-use practices and resulted in actions that reduced land-based threats, particularly littering and illegal burning, and revealed additional threats from overfishing. Pohnpei (FSM) began monitoring after observed declines in grouper spawning aggregations. This data led to adjusting marine conservation area boundaries and implementing market-based size class restrictions. Two themes emerged from these cases. First, in each case monitoring was conducted in a manner relevant to the social and ecological systems and integrated into the decision-making process. Second, conservation practitioners and scientists in these cases integrated culturally appropriate stakeholder engagement throughout all phases of the adaptive management cycle. More broadly, our study suggests, when describing adaptive management, providing more details on how monitoring and management activities are

  18. Antibiotic resistance of staphylococci from humans, food and different animal species according to data of the Hungarian resistance monitoring system in 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszanyitzky, Eva J; Jánosi, Sz; Egyed, Zsuzsanna; Agost, Gizella; Semjén, G

    2003-01-01

    Based on data of the Hungarian resistance monitoring system the antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus strains of human and animal origin was studied. No methicillin-resistant staphylococci harbouring mecA gene were isolated from animals in 2001. Penicillin resistance, mediated by penicillinase production, was the most frequent among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from humans (96%), from bovine mastitis (55%), from foods (45%) and from dogs. In staphylococci isolated from animals low resistance percentages to aminoglycosides (0-2%), fluoroquinolones (0.5-3%) and sulphonamides (0.5-4%) were found but in strains isolated humans these figures were higher (1-14%, 5-18% and 3-31%, respectively). The most frequent antibiotic resistance profiles of strains isolated from animals and food were penicillin/tetracycline, penicillin/lincomycin and penicillin/lincomycin/tetracycline. Penicillin/tetracycline resistance was exhibited by strains from mastitis (3), samples from the meat industry (31), poultry flocks (1), poultry industry (1), noodle (1) and horses (2). Penicillin/lincomycin resistance was found in 10 Staphylococcus strains from mastitis, 1 from the dairy industry, 1 from the meat industry and 6 from dogs. Isolates from mastitis (2), from the dairy industry (2), from pigs (1), from the meat industry (1) and from poultry (1) harboured penicillin/lincomycin/tetracycline resistance pattern. Multiresistant strains were usually isolated only from one and sometimes from two animal species; therefore, the spread of defined resistant strains (clones) among different animal species could not be demonstrated. These results also suggest that the transfer of antibiotic resistance of S. aureus from animals to humans probably occurs less frequently than is generally assumed.

  19. Geophysical monitoring of simulated graves with resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, conductivity and GPR in Colombia, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Carlos Martin; Pringle, Jamie K; Saumett, Miguel; Evans, Gethin T

    2016-04-01

    In most Latin American countries there are significant numbers of both missing people and forced disappearances, ∼71,000 Colombia alone. Successful detection of buried human remains by forensic search teams can be difficult in varying terrain and climates. Three clandestine burials were simulated at two different depths commonly encountered in Latin America. In order to gain critical knowledge of optimum geophysical detection techniques, burials were monitored using: ground penetrating radar, magnetic susceptibility, bulk ground conductivity and electrical resistivity up to twenty-two months post-burial. Radar survey results showed good detection of modern 1/2 clothed pig cadavers throughout the survey period on 2D profiles, with the 250MHz antennae judged optimal. Both skeletonised and decapitated and burnt human remains were poorly imaged on 2D profiles with loss in signal continuity observed throughout the survey period. Horizontal radar time slices showed good anomalies observed over targets, but these decreased in amplitude over the post-burial time. These were judged due to detecting disturbed grave soil rather than just the buried targets. Magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity were successful at target detection in contrast to bulk ground conductivity surveys which were unsuccessful. Deeper burials were all harder to image than shallower ones. Forensic geophysical surveys should be undertaken at suspected burial sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. TSN Database Australia, a new tool to monitor antimicrobial resistance in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnidge, John; McCarthy, Laurence R; Master, Ronald N; Kepner, Douglas E; Weslock, James

    2003-01-01

    An electronic network of Australian microbiology laboratories was established to monitor the emergence and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among clinically relevant bacteria. It is believed that the data network collected approximately 42 per cent of all antibacterial susceptibility test results generated by Australian laboratories. The network comprised 94 hospitals and 9 private commercial laboratories. Selected data elements were extracted and electronically transmitted to a central location. Upon receipt, all data were first normalised and thereafter examined for errors. Duplicate results for the same patient were identified to prevent skewing of the data toward resistance. All data passing quality assessment was staged for release of a new database release that occurred monthly. Unusual test results were first validated prior to their inclusion into the database. Using an Internet-based query tool, individual institutions could query their own data, but could only query aggregated data for other regional or national analyses. Individual patient results could be examined nor could the results of any individual institution other than their own. As of March 2002, TSN Database Australia contained 14,648,752 test results, from 2,000,394 strains (453 different taxa) and 1,213,605 patients. Since the same database concept has been established in 10 other countries (United States of America, Europe, and Canada), observations made in Australia may be compared to those observed elsewhere in the world. This article will describe TSN in greater detail, describe the query tool and some of the analyses that are possible.

  1. Monitoring in vitro antibacterial efficacy of 26 Indian spices against multidrug resistant urinary tract infecting bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Sibanarayan; Padhy, Rabindra N

    2014-09-01

    To screen methanolic extracts of 26 commonly used Indian spices against nine species of uropathogenic bacteria ( Enterococcus faecalis , Staphylococcus aureus , Acinetobacter baumannii , Citrobacter freundii , Enterobacter aerogenes , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Proteus mirabilis , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ), isolated from clinical samples of a tertiary care hospital for antibacterial activity. Bacterial strains were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity testing by Kirby-Bauer's disc diffusion method. Monitoring antibacterial potentiality of spice extracts was done by the agar-well diffusion method with multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of nine uropathogens. The Gram-positive (GP) bacteria E. faecalis and S. aureus were resistant to 16 of the 21 antibiotics used. Among the Gram-negative (GN) bacteria, resistant patterns were A. baumannii and E. aerogenes to 12, C. freundii to 14, E. coli to 12, K. pneumoniae to 10, P. mirabilis to 11, and P. aeruginosa to 15 antibiotics of the 18 antibiotics used. The most effective 15 spices, having at least 25-29 mm as the size of the zone of inhibition, were Allium cepa , Brassica juncea , Cinnamomum tamala , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Coriandrum sativum , Cuminum cyminum , Curcuma longa , Mentha spicata , Murraya koenigii , Nigella sativa , Papaver somniferum , Piper nigrum , S. aromaticum , Trachyspermum ammi , and Trigonella foenum for at least one of the GP or GN MDR bacterial strains used. Moderate control capacity was registered by nine spices, Curcuma amada , Foeniculum vulgare , Illicium verum , Mentha spicata , Papaver somniferum , Syzygium aromaticum , Trachyspermum ammi , Trigonella foenum , and Zingiber officinale . However, the best two spices for controlling all the pathogens used were C. zeylanicum and C. longa , with the highest value of 29 mm as the inhibition zone size. The most effective and unique 16 spice plants recorded for the in vitro control of MDR uropathogens could further be pursued for

  2. Monitoring in vitro efficacy of Holarrhena antidysenterica against multidrug resistant enteropathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakti Rath

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess antibacterial activities of leaf and bark extracts of Holarrhena antidysenterica (H. antidysenterica, used by an Indian aborigine for ailments of human gastrointestinal tract, against eight extended spectrum β-lactamase producing multidrug resistant enteropathogens. Methods: Antibacterial activities of eight solvent-extracts of the plant were monitored by the agar-well diffusion method on lawns of all bacteria. Further, minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the best three solvent extracts were determined by the micro-broth dilution method. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the active leaf and bark extracts were carried out. Results: It was found that Enterobacter aerogenes was resistant to 14 of 16 antibiotics, likewise, Escherichia coli to 13, Klebsiella sp. to 14, Salmonella paratyphi to 7, Salmonella typhi to 15, Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella sonnei to 14, Vibrio cholerae to 4 of 16 antibiotics. It was found that plant-extracts with petroleum ether and n-hexane had the least antibacterial activity. Extracts of leaves with chloroform, methanol, and water registered moderate antibacterial activity, whereas bark-extracts with ethyl acetate, acetone, and ethanol had a comparatively higher antibacterial activity on all these strains. Maximum sizes of zone of inhibition due to leaf extracts with ethyl acetate, acetone, and ethanol, and on the other hand, bark extracts with ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol were recorded against these bacteria; minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of specifically these extracts were determined. Phytochemical analysis of the methanolic bark extract of H. antidysenterica confirmed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, reducing sugars, tannins, and flavonoids. Conclusions: Data analysis revealed that leaves and bark of H. antidysenterica could serve as complementary/supplementary drugs along with suitable

  3. Offline monitoring and data quality of the ATLAS Resistive Plate Chambers at CERN Tier0 facility

    CERN Document Server

    Guida, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) were installed in the barrel region of ATLAS detector to provide the muon trigger (and a coarse measure of the “non-bending” phi coordinate) in the region || < 1.05. The RPC are gaseous detector which measure the muon trajectory with 3 cm strips in the bending plane (r-z) and in the orthogonal direction (r-phi) with few nanoseconds time resolution. The trigger is done in both projections and has a programmable threshold from about 5 to 20 GeV transverse momentum. A total of 596 RPC chambers were installed, arranged in three cylindrical layers. They cover an area of 3650 square meters and are equipped with 368000 read-out electronic channels. The monitoring and the control of such a large subsystem is crucial to maximize the physics reach of the experiment. A dedicated tool was developed to perform the offline monitoring, to evaluate the quality of the RPC data and the detector performance. This tool is executed together with the reconstruction process at “Tier-0” ...

  4. Southern African Treatment Resistance Network (SATuRN) RegaDB HIV drug resistance and clinical management database: supporting patient management, surveillance and research in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasa, Justen; Lessells, Richard; Rossouw, Theresa; Naidu, Kevindra; Van Vuuren, Cloete; Goedhals, Dominique; van Zyl, Gert; Bester, Armand; Skingsley, Andrew; Stott, Katharine; Danaviah, Siva; Chetty, Terusha; Singh, Lavanya; Moodley, Pravi; Iwuji, Collins; McGrath, Nuala; Seebregts, Christopher J; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2014-01-01

    Substantial amounts of data have been generated from patient management and academic exercises designed to better understand the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and design interventions to control it. A number of specialized databases have been designed to manage huge data sets from HIV cohort, vaccine, host genomic and drug resistance studies. Besides databases from cohort studies, most of the online databases contain limited curated data and are thus sequence repositories. HIV drug resistance has been shown to have a great potential to derail the progress made thus far through antiretroviral therapy. Thus, a lot of resources have been invested in generating drug resistance data for patient management and surveillance purposes. Unfortunately, most of the data currently available relate to subtype B even though >60% of the epidemic is caused by HIV-1 subtype C. A consortium of clinicians, scientists, public health experts and policy markers working in southern Africa came together and formed a network, the Southern African Treatment and Resistance Network (SATuRN), with the aim of increasing curated HIV-1 subtype C and tuberculosis drug resistance data. This article describes the HIV-1 data curation process using the SATuRN Rega database. The data curation is a manual and time-consuming process done by clinical, laboratory and data curation specialists. Access to the highly curated data sets is through applications that are reviewed by the SATuRN executive committee. Examples of research outputs from the analysis of the curated data include trends in the level of transmitted drug resistance in South Africa, analysis of the levels of acquired resistance among patients failing therapy and factors associated with the absence of genotypic evidence of drug resistance among patients failing therapy. All these studies have been important for informing first- and second-line therapy. This database is a free password-protected open source database available on

  5. Monitoring of high temperature area by resistivity tomography during in-situ heating test in sedimentary soft rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kenji; Suzuki, Koichi; Ikenoya, Takafumi; Takakura, Nozomu; Tani, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    One of the major issues in disposal of nuclear waste is that the long term behaviors of sedimentary soft rocks can be affected by various environmental factors such as temperature, mechanical conditions or hydraulic conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a method for evaluating the long term stability of caverns in sedimentary soft rocks as subjected to changes of environment. We have conducted in-situ heating test to evaluate the influence of high temperature to the surrounding rock mass at a depth of 50 m. The well with a diameter of 30 cm and 60 cm of height, was drilled and filled with groundwater. The heater was installed in the well for heating the surrounding rock mass. During the heating, temperature and deformation around the well were measured. To evaluate the influence of heating on sedimentary soft rocks, it is important to monitor the extent of heated area. Resistivity monitoring is thought to be effective to map the extent of the high temperature area. So we have conducted resistivity tomography during the heating test. The results demonstrated that the resistivity of the rock mass around the heating well decreased and this area was gradually expanded from the heated area during the heating. The decreasing rate of resistivity on temperature is correlated to that of laboratory experimental result and existing empirical formula between aqueous solution resistivity and temperature. Resistivity is changed by many other factors, but it is expected that resistivity change by other factors is very few in this test. This suggests that high temperature area is detected and spatial distribution of temperature can be mapped by resistivity tomography. So resistivity tomography is expected to be one of the promising methods to monitor the area heated by nuclear waste. (author)

  6. Temperature-modulated graphene oxide resistive humidity sensor for indoor air quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, A.; Santra, S.; Ghosh, R.; Ali, S. Z.; Gardner, J. W.; Guha, P. K.; Udrea, F.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present a temperature-modulated graphene oxide (GO) resistive humidity sensor that employs complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) micro-hotplate technology for the monitoring and control of indoor air quality (IAQ). GO powder is obtained by chemical exfoliation, dispersed in water and deposited via ink-jet printing onto a low power micro-hotplate. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show the typical layered and wrinkled morphology of the GO. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy indicate that the GO flakes possess a significant number of oxygen containing functional groups (epoxy, carbonyl, hydroxyl) extremely attractive for humidity detection. Electro-thermal characterisation of the micro-hotplates shows a thermal efficiency of 0.11 mW per °C, resulting in a sensor DC power consumption of only 2.75 mW at 50 °C. When operated in an isothermal mode, the sensor response is detrimentally affected by significant drift, hysteretic behaviour, slow response/recovery times and hence poor RH level discrimination. Conversely, a temperature modulation technique coupled with a differential readout methodology results in a significant reduction of the sensor drift, improved linear response with a sensitivity of 0.14 mV per %, resolution below 5%, and a maximum hysteresis of +/-5% response and recovery times equal to 189 +/- 49 s and 89 +/- 5 s, respectively. These performance parameters satisfy current IAQ monitoring requirements. We have thus demonstrated the effectiveness of integrating GO on a micro-hotplate CMOS-compatible platform enabling temperature modulation schemes to be easily applied in order to achieve compact, low power, low cost humidity IAQ monitoring.In this paper we present a temperature-modulated graphene oxide (GO) resistive humidity sensor that employs complementary

  7. Notification: Evaluation of Office of Pesticide Programs’ Genetically Engineered Corn Insect Resistance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY15-0055, July 09, 2015. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the EPA's ability to manage and prevent increased insect resistance to genetically engineered Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn.

  8. Notification: Evaluation of EPA's Management of Resistance Issues Related to Herbicide Tolerant Genetically Engineered Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY16-0023, March 25, 2016. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research to assess the EPA's management and oversight of resistance issues related to herbicide tolerant genetically engineered crops.

  9. Data management for urban tree monitoring -- software requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. ​Boyer; Lara A. Roman; Jason G. Henning; Matthew McFarland; Dana Dentice; Sarah C. Low; Casey Thomas; Glen. Abrams

    2016-01-01

    The creation of this report was organized by the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society (PHS) and the USDA Forest Service Philadelphia Field Station to explore how technology could be used to support the longterm systematic monitoring of urban trees by trained professionals, student interns and volunteers; assist with tree planting and maintenance data processes; and...

  10. What engages the interest of land managers in rangeland monitoring?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The approaches which have been developed may tacitly be assumed to be useful to local land users, because they cater for the public interest at scales from local to national, but we are not convinced that they are always as useful as is supposed. We discuss our monitoring experiences on freehold land, protected areas ...

  11. Managing troubled waters: the role of marine environmental monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    ... Monitoring Marine Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1990 i Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesetting-specific created from the as publication files other XML and from th...

  12. Monitoring processes and measuring the effectiveness of the management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailescu, A.; Costea, D.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the way which the 8th principle of the quality management system 'Process approach' is applied, the principle that is identified and used by international standard ISO 9000. In order to understand the evolution of the management system requirements, as used today in different activities namely, industry, services, and nuclear activities, the authors present an evolution of the quality concept and its traceability to different standards, applicable in time. There are described the requirements of ISO 9001 standard, that represents the most widely spread model for modern organization management and the IAEA concerns related to integration of the above standard requirements into the most recent safety IAEA standard 'The Management System for facilities and activities'. The IAEA Safety Standard GS-R-3 describes a management model considering both the evolution of the quality requirements into the modern management and the recovery of the experience gained by nuclear activities. The authors pleads for applying of the 8th principle as a means and a model, easy to use to ensure the achievement of management objectives. (authors)

  13. Use of structured decision making to identify monitoring variables and management priorities for salt marsh ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckles, Hilary A.; Lyons, James E.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Shriver, W. Gregory; Adamowicz, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Most salt marshes in the USA have been degraded by human activities, and coastal managers are faced with complex choices among possible actions to restore or enhance ecosystem integrity. We applied structured decision making (SDM) to guide selection of monitoring variables and management priorities for salt marshes within the National Wildlife Refuge System in the northeastern USA. In general, SDM is a systematic process for decomposing a decision into its essential elements. We first engaged stakeholders in clarifying regional salt marsh decision problems, defining objectives and attributes to evaluate whether objectives are achieved, and developing a pool of alternative management actions for achieving objectives. Through this process, we identified salt marsh attributes that were applicable to monitoring National Wildlife Refuges on a regional scale and that targeted management needs. We then analyzed management decisions within three salt marsh units at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, coastal Delaware, as a case example of prioritizing management alternatives. Values for salt marsh attributes were estimated from 2 years of baseline monitoring data and expert opinion. We used linear value modeling to aggregate multiple attributes into a single performance score for each alternative, constrained optimization to identify alternatives that maximized total management benefits subject to refuge-wide cost constraints, and used graphical analysis to identify the optimal set of alternatives for the refuge. SDM offers an efficient, transparent approach for integrating monitoring into management practice and improving the quality of management decisions.

  14. Relative permeability of fractured wellbore cement: an experimental investigation using electrical resistivity monitoring for moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, W.; Rod, K. A.; Strickland, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    Permeability is a critical parameter needed to understand flow in subsurface environments; it is particularly important in deep subsurface reservoirs where multiphase fluid flow is common, such as carbon sequestration and geothermal reservoirs. Cement is used in the annulus of wellbores due to its low permeable properties to seal aquifers, reducing leaks to adjacent strata. Extreme subsurface environments of CO2 storage and geothermal production conditions will eventually reduce the cement integrity, propagating fracture networks and increasing the permeability for air and/or water. To date, there have been no reproducible experimental investigations of relative permeability in fractured wellbore cement published. To address this gap, we conducted a series of experiments using fractured Portland cement monoliths with increasing fracture networks. The monolith cylinder sides were jacketed with heavy-duty moisture-seal heat-shrink tubing, then fractured using shear force applied via a hydraulic press. Fractures were generated with different severity for each of three monoliths. Stainless steel endcaps were fixed to the monoliths using the same shrink-wrapped jacket. Fracture characteristics were determined using X-ray microtomography and image analysis. Flow controllers were used to control flow of water and air to supply continuous water or water plus air, both of which were delivered through the influent end cap. Effluent air flow was monitored using a flow meter, and water flow was measured gravimetrically. To monitor the effective saturation of the fractures, a RCON2 concrete bulk electrical resistivity test device was attached across both endcaps and a 0.1M NaNO3 brine was used as the transport fluid to improve resistivity measurements. Water content correlated to resistivity measurements with a r2 > 0.96. Data from the experiments was evaluated using two relative permeability models, the Corey-curve, often used for modeling relative permeability in porous media

  15. Harnessing Resistance: Using the Theory of Constraints To Assist Change Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabin, Victoria J.; Forgeson, Steve; Green, Lawrence

    2001-01-01

    Applies the Theory of Constraints, which views resistance to change as a necessary, positive force, to a case study of a bank merger. For each resistance factor, the theory provides tools for using it and managing change successfully. (Contains 46 references.) (SK)

  16. Challenges of drug resistance in the management of pancreatic cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheikh, Rizwan

    2012-02-01

    The current treatment of choice for metastatic pancreatic cancer involves single-agent gemcitabine or a combination of gemcitabine with capecitabine or erlotinib (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor). Only 25–30% of patients respond to this treatment and patients who do respond initially ultimately exhibit disease progression. Median survival for pancreatic cancer patients has reached a plateau due to inherent and acquired resistance to these agents. Key molecular factors implicated in this resistance include: deficiencies in drug uptake, alteration of drug targets, activation of DNA repair pathways, resistance to apoptosis and the contribution of the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, for newer agents including tyrosine kinase inhibitors, overexpression of signaling proteins, mutations in kinase domains, activation of alternative pathways, mutations of genes downstream of the target and\\/or amplification of the target represent key challenges for treatment efficacy. Here we will review the contribution of known mechanisms and markers of resistance to key pancreatic cancer drug treatments.

  17. Treatment-resistant panic disorder: clinical significance, concept and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2016-10-03

    Panic disorder is commonly prevalent in the population, but the treatment response for panic disorder in clinical practice is much less effective than that in our imagination. Increasing evidence suggested existence of a chronic or remitting-relapsing clinical course in panic disorder. In this systematic review, we re-examine the definition of treatment-resistant panic disorder, and present the potential risk factors related to the treatment resistance, including the characteristics of panic disorder, other psychiatric and physical comorbidities, and psychosocial stresses. Furthermore, we summarize the potential pathophysiologies, such as genetic susceptibility, altered brain functioning, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and long-term inflammation, to explain the treatment resistance. Finally, we conclude the current therapeutic strategies for treating treatment-resistant panic disorder from pharmacological and non-pharmacological views. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: biology, epidemiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Elizabeth; Adler, Amos; Lerner, Anat; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2014-09-01

    Introduced in the 1980s, carbapenem antibiotics have served as the last line of defense against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms. Over the last decade, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have emerged as a significant public health threat. This review summarizes the molecular genetics, natural history, and epidemiology of CRE and discusses approaches to prevention and treatment. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Recent advances in the management of resistant hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Manolis, Athanasios J.; Kallistratos, Manolis S.; Doumas, Michalis; Pagoni, Stamatina; Poulimenos, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    And suddenly, following the preliminary results of renal denervation and carotid baroreceptor stimulation, a big interest in resistant hypertension rose, and all interventionists, many of them with no previous experience with hypertension, fell in love with hypertension and especially resistant hypertension. In the European Society of Hypertension/International Society of Hypertension (ESH/ISH) 2014 Joint Hypertension meeting in Athens, there were no more than four to five sessions related to...

  20. The Power to Resist: Irrigation Management Transfer in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhardiman, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades, international donors have promoted Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) as an international remedy to management problems in government irrigation systems in many developing countries. This article analyses the political processes that shape IMT policy formulation and

  1. Monitoring water flows with time-lapse Electrical Resistivity Tomography on the Super-Sauze landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gance, J.; Sailhac, P.; Malet, J.-P.; Grandjean, G.; Supper, R.; Jochum, B.; Ottowitz, D.

    2012-04-01

    This work presents results of a permanent hydro-geophysical monitoring of an active landslide developed in clay-shales. Hydrology has been proved to be a major factor controlling the Super-Sauze earthflow behavior, but it knowledge still limited mainly because of the importance of spatial heterogeneities. The geometry of the bedrock creates internal crests and gullies that can guide waterflows or create a lock and engender an excess of pore water pressure; the soil surface characteristics plays also a large role in the surface hydraulic conductivity, and therefore, on the infiltration pattern. To understand in detail these processes, it is therefore important to monitor spatially at large scale (with high resolution) those phenomena and to overcome the monitoring difficulties inherent to a fast-moving clayey earthflow. The objectives of the survey are to identify and characterize spatially and temporarily the water flow circulation within the landslide body over a period of one year. The studied profile measures 114 m long and is surveyed with 93 electrodes spaced from 0.5, 1 or 2 meter according the soil surface cracking. Four resistivity datasets of 4300 measurements are acquired each day using a gradient array since May 2011. The monitoring is performed with the GEOMON4D system, developed by the Geological Survey of Austria. To facilitate the interpretation, humidity, conductivity, temperature, and piezometer sensors are placed along the profile. Two dGPS antenna placed upstream and downstream the profile allow to correlate the results with soil displacement. Lefranc tests and granulometry results realized on several samples have shown the important heterogeneities of the near surface. The objective of this work is to present the data processing strategy for the analysis of long periods time-lapse ERT survey of natural rain events taking into account changes through time of the position of the electrodes, changes in the soil surface state and important changes

  2. Harvesting-Aware Energy Management for Environmental Monitoring WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Rodway

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks can be used to collect data in remote locations, especially when energy harvesting is used to extend the lifetime of individual nodes. However, in order to use the collected energy most effectively, its consumption must be managed. In this work, forecasts of diurnal solar energies were made based on measurements of atmospheric pressure. These forecasts were used as part of an adaptive duty cycling scheme for node level energy management. This management was realized with a fuzzy logic controller that has been tuned using differential evolution. Controllers were created using one and two days of energy forecasts, then simulated in software. These controllers outperformed a human-created reference controller by taking more measurements while using less reserve energy during the simulated period. The energy forecasts were comparable to other available methods, while the method of tuning the fuzzy controller improved overall node performance. The combination of the two is a promising method of energy management.

  3. Alternative approaches to condition monitoring in freeway management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In response to growing concerns over traffic congestion, traffic management systems have been built in large urban areas in an effort to improve the efficiency and safety of the transportation network. This research effort developed an automated cond...

  4. Monitoring, modelling and managing Canada's forest carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents information concerning the management of carbon stocks both globally and in Canada, with reference to the fact that forests may contribute to carbon emissions problems. Global fossil carbon emissions statistics were provided, as well as data of forest area per capita in Canada and various countries. Details of forest management options and carbon accounting with reference to the Kyoto Protocol were reviewed. An explanation of forest management credits in national accounts was provided. An explanation of carbon sinks and carbon sources was also presented, along with details of stand level carbon dynamics. A model for calculating landscape level carbon stocks was presented, with reference to increasing and decreasing disturbances. A hypothetical landscape example was provided. It was concluded that age-class structure affect the amount of carbon stored in landscape; age-class structure also affect carbon dynamics; and responses reflect the change in disturbance regimes. An overview of international reporting requirements was presented. Canadian harvests equal 54,000 tonnes of carbon per year. It was recommended that managed forests could increase carbon in forests while also managing carbon harvests to meet society's needs. A chart presenting forest management details was presented, along with a hypothetical landscape example and a forecast for cumulative changes after 50 years, The benefits and challenges of forest management were reviewed as well as options regarding salvaging and deforestation avoidance. A carbon budget model was presented. It was concluded that forests in Canada could be used in a greenhouse gas management strategy. However, changes in disturbance may mean the difference between net source or net sink. Details of biomass were presented and multi-mode combustion facilities. The feasibility of biomass as a fuel source was discussed, with reference to hydrogen fuel. Gas composition profiles were provided, as well as details of

  5. The need for continued monitoring of antibiotic resistance patterns in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from London and Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Easmon Sue

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotic resistance is an increasing problem in isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus worldwide. In 2001 The National Health Service in the UK introduced a mandatory bacteraemia surveillance scheme for the reporting of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. This surveillance initiative reports on the percentage of isolates that are methicillin resistant. However, resistance to other antibiotics is not currently reported and therefore the scale of emerging resistance is currently unclear in the UK. In this study, multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR profiles against fourteen antimicrobial drugs were investigated for 705 isolates of S. aureus collected from two European study sites in the UK (London and Malta. Results All isolates were susceptible to linezolid, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Multiple antibiotic resistance profiles from both countries were determined, a total of forty-two and forty-five profiles were seen in the UK cohort (MRSA and MSSA respectively and comparatively, sixty-two and fifty-two profiles were shown in the Maltese group. The largest MAR profile contained six antibiotics (penicillin G, methicillin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin and clarithromycin and was observed in the MRSA isolates in both the UK and Maltese cohorts. Conclusion The data presented here suggests that the monitoring of changing resistance profiles locally in maintaining treatment efficacy to resistant pathogens.

  6. The monitoring of unstable rock masses applied to risk management

    OpenAIRE

    POTHERAT, Pierre; DURANTHON, Jean Paul

    2010-01-01

    Rock mass fall case studies presented in this paper show that rupture occur after a more or less long preparation stage which is link to different parameters such as the rate of displacement or the volume and the morphology of the unstable mass. In all sites efficient safety decision could have been taken early enough, with an appropriate monitoring system, even in the case of cliff collapses that are generally considered as sudden movements impossible to anticipate. Kinematics criteria that ...

  7. Agriculture and land management: the landscape monitoring system in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Marinai

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the reduced weight in the Gross National Product (GDP and the continuous decrease in manpower which has been recorded in the last decades, an important role is recognized to the rural sector in the current developmetn model which justify the heavy financial committment of Europe and Italy to sustain european agriculture.Within this role, land preservation has an important role for the sector competitiveness, the rural space quality and the citizen’s life quality, and this role is nowadays recognized even by the politics for landscape defined for the Piano strategico nazionale 2007-20131. Both action definitions and planning and development of landscape resources firstly require to define landscape monitoring systems pointing out trends, and critical and strength points represented by the great historical and environmental differences of Italian landscapes. This study is a synthesis of the results from a 5 year project aimed to the definition of a landscape monitoring system in Tuscany, ranging from 1800 and 2000 and based on study areas covering around 1% of the regional territory, which will soon be implemented. The first recorded results show a strong decrease of landscape diversity (40-50% in the investigated time period. This study want to be an example for the implementation of the future monitoring system of this resource.

  8. Increasing conservation management action by involving local people in natural resource monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Finn; Mendoza, Marlynn M; Tagtag, Anson; Alviola, Phillip A; Balete, Danilo S; Jensen, Arne E; Enghoff, Martin; Poulsen, Michael K

    2007-11-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of the status of the environment. At the same time, concerns have been raised regarding alienation of the local populace from environmental decisions. One proposed solution is participatory environmental monitoring. When evaluating the usefulness of environmental monitoring, the focus may be on accuracy, as is usually done by scientists, or on efficiency in terms of conservation impact. To test whether investment in participatory biodiversity monitoring makes economic sense for obtaining data for management decisions, we compared the cost efficiency of participatory and conventional biodiversity monitoring methods in Philippine parks. We found that, from a government perspective, investment in monitoring that combines scientific with participatory methods is strikingly more effective than a similar level of investment in conventional scientific methods alone in generating conservation management interventions. Moreover, the local populace seemed to benefit from more secure de facto user rights over land and other resources. Participatory biodiversity monitoring not only represents a cost-effective alternative when conventional monitoring is impossible, but it is also an unexpectedly powerful complementary approach, capable of generating a much higher level of conservation management intervention, where conventional monitoring already takes place.

  9. 24 CFR 990.310 - Purpose-General policy on financial management, monitoring and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose-General policy on financial... HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT THE PUBLIC HOUSING OPERATING FUND PROGRAM Financial Management Systems, Monitoring, and Reporting § 990.310 Purpose—General policy on financial management...

  10. Communication and Monitoring- Necessary Processes for Managing and Measuring Conflicts, Absenteeism, Fluctuation and Work Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Tănăsescu Dorina Antoneta; Florea Nicoleta Valentina; Tănăsescu Irina Antoaneta

    2015-01-01

    In any organizations, between employees, between employees and management are inevitabily appearing conflicts, absenteeism, personnel fluctuation and work accidents (CAFA factors). To diminish the impact of these social dysfunctions, organizations must pay attention to the effective managing and monitoring using performance indicators and an effective communication process and implementing a good plan of evaluation.

  11. Communication and Monitoring- Necessary Processes for Managing and Measuring Conflicts, Absenteeism, Fluctuation and Work Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tănăsescu Dorina Antoneta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In any organizations, between employees, between employees and management are inevitabily appearing conflicts, absenteeism, personnel fluctuation and work accidents (CAFA factors. To diminish the impact of these social dysfunctions, organizations must pay attention to the effective managing and monitoring using performance indicators and an effective communication process and implementing a good plan of evaluation.

  12. Object-oriented Approach to High-level Network Monitoring and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    2000-01-01

    An absolute prerequisite for the management of large investigating methods to build high-level monitoring computer networks is the ability to measure their systems that are built on top of existing monitoring performance. Unless we monitor a system, we cannot tools. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the hope to manage and control its performance. In this underlying systems at NASA Langley Research Center, paper, we describe a network monitoring system that we use an object-oriented approach for the design, we are currently designing and implementing. Keeping, first, we use UML (Unified Modeling Language) to in mind the complexity of the task and the required model users' requirements. Second, we identify the flexibility for future changes, we use an object-oriented existing capabilities of the underlying monitoring design methodology. The system is built using the system. Third, we try to map the former with the latter. APIs offered by the HP OpenView system.

  13. Analysis of the Factors Affecting Resistance to Changes in Management Accounting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Angonese

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite changes in the environment and management accounting practices, studies indicate that management accounting systems do not change or change at a much slower rate than expected. The stability of the management accounting systems used by companies may relate to resistance to changing these systems. This study analyzes the factors that contribute to resistance to implementing an integrated management system from the perspective of institutional theory, grounded in the old institutional economics. Methodologically, this study provides a qualitative assessment of the problem and a descriptive analysis of the resistance factors through a case-study approach. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed through content analysis. Two companies were selected for this study due to their differing characteristics. The following seven factors were analyzed for resistance to implementing integrated management systems: institutional power, ontological insecurity, trust, inertia, lack of knowledge, acceptance of routines and decoupling. However, there was no evidence to characterize hierarchical power. The research findings indicate that changing management accounting systems, through the implementation of an integrated management system, faces internal resistance in these organizations. Each factor varies in intensity but is permanently present in these companies, such as ontological insecurity, trust, inertia, lack of knowledge, acceptance of routines and decoupling. These factors are awakened when the change process begins and, if they gather enough force, can stop the change.

  14. Impact of monitoring surgical prophylactic antibiotics and a computerized decision support system on antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Kyungmin; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Park, Hyo Jung; Kim, Min-Ji; Lee, Nam Yong; Ha, Young Eun; Kang, Cheol-In; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring of performance indicators and implementation of a computerized decision support system (CDSS) have been suggested as effective measures to improve quality of care. We conducted this study to evaluate the effect of monitoring of surgical prophylactic antibiotics (SPAs) and the CDSS on the antimicrobial use and resistance rate of major nosocomial pathogens. An interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis in 3 periods (preintervention, SPAs monitoring, and CDSS) was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Immediate change and change in trends of antimicrobial use density, resistance rate of nosocomial pathogens, and cost of antibiotics in each intervention period were compared with those of the preintervention period. Compared with the preintervention period, the change in the slope of the total use of antibiotics was -8.71 defined daily dose (DDD) per 1,000 patient days per month (95% confidence interval [CI], -11.43 to -5.98; P resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have been reversed or decreased in slope in the CDSS period. Length of hospital stay also showed a negative change in slope in the CDSS period. Monitoring of SPAs and implementation of the CDSS can be effective measures for antimicrobial stewardship. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Credit Monitoring – a Core of Credit Risk Management: Theory and Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Jurevičienė

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Purpose of the article is to identify credit monitoring as a keystone of credit risk management in banks. CRM is widely discussed in scientific literature and in reports of institutions undertaking credit risk or supervisory bodies. However majority of such investigations are based on implementation of numerous quantitative or qualitative methods used for credit risk assessment before granting a loan or for credit portfolio risk management. There is a lack of information or investigations made on estimation of the need of credit monitoring in credit risk management process. Scientific aim: Scientific aim is to structure the early warning signs that reflect the condition of credits. Methodology/methods: The paper is based on analysis and resumption of various scientific and professional articles related to organization of credit process in banks. It combines results of assessments of credit monitoring importance in credit risk management process made by theoretical studies as well as investigation of experts. Findings: Finding of the article is presentation of credit monitoring tools that should be applied for corporate (and individual clients via modification of original credit agreement. Conclusions: (limits, implications etc Conclusion of the article is that credit monitoring is a keystone in credit risk management process. The purpose of credit monitoring is to detect in time possible worsening of the loan and to react (make changes in loan agreement. The simplest tool for credit monitoring is to identify early warning signs in time that could be assorted into four groups: EWS of business environment; EWS with regard to management, EWS regarding collateral, EWS in financial analysis. Limitation of investigation is impossibility of evaluation of importance of monitoring process in practice except investigation of experts (employees directly responsible for credit business.

  16. Monitoring of livestock grazing effects on Bureau of Land Management land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Casazza, Michael L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Farinha, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Public land management agencies, such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), are charged with managing rangelands throughout the western United States for multiple uses, such as livestock grazing and conservation of sensitive species and their habitats. Monitoring of condition and trends of these rangelands, particularly with respect to effects of livestock grazing, provides critical information for effective management of these multiuse landscapes. We therefore investigated the availability of livestock grazing-related quantitative monitoring data and qualitative region-specific Land Health Standards (LHS) data across BLM grazing allotments in the western United States. We then queried university and federal rangeland science experts about how best to prioritize rangeland monitoring activities. We found that the most commonly available monitoring data were permittee-reported livestock numbers and season-of-use data (71% of allotments) followed by repeat photo points (58%), estimates of forage utilization (52%), and, finally, quantitative vegetation measurements (37%). Of the 57% of allotments in which LHS had been evaluated as of 2007, the BLM indicated 15% had failed to meet LHS due to livestock grazing. A full complement of all types of monitoring data, however, existed for only 27% of those 15%. Our data inspections, as well as conversations with rangeland experts, indicated a need for greater emphasis on collection of grazing-related monitoring data, particularly ground cover. Prioritization of where monitoring activities should be focused, along with creation of regional monitoring teams, may help improve monitoring. Overall, increased emphasis on monitoring of BLM rangelands will require commitment at multiple institutional levels.

  17. The role of leadership perception as a mediator between managers' self-monitoring and subordinate attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özalp Türetgen, Ilknur; Unsal, Pinar; Dural, Uzay

    2017-01-01

    Although the role of social cognition in leadership perception has been emphasized frequently in recent years, research using this approach in an organizational context is rare. This study investigated subordinates' perceptions of their managers as leaders (that is, to what extent they perceive their manager as a leader) as a potential mediating factor explaining the relationship between managers' self-monitoring and their subordinates' attitudes toward their organizations. The study was carried out with middle-level managers (N = 64) and their subordinates (N = 210) from various business organizations in Turkey. Results indicate that subordinates' leadership perceptions of their managers mediate the relationship between managers' self-monitoring and their subordinates' affective and normative organizational commitment. These results provide insight into some of the antecedents and outcomes of leadership perception.

  18. Annual Report for 2008 - 2009 Detection Monitoring at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker J.R.

    2010-03-01

    This annual Environmental Monitoring Report (EMR) presents results of environmental monitoring performed during fiscal year (FY) 2009 (October 1, 2008 - September 30, 2009) at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). The EMWMF is an operating state-of-the-art hazardous waste landfill located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Appendix A, Fig. A.1). Opened in 2002 and operated by a DOE prime contractor, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC), the EMWMF was built specifically to accommodate disposal of acceptable solid wastes generated from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial actions for former waste sites and buildings that have been impacted by past DOE operations on the ORR and at DOE sites off the ORR within the state of Tennessee. Environmental monitoring at the EMWMF is performed to detect and monitor the impact of facility operations on groundwater, surface water, stormwater, and air quality and to determine compliance with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) specified in governing CERCLA decision documents. Annually, the EMR presents an evaluation of the groundwater, surface water, stormwater, and air monitoring data with respect to the applicable EMWMF performance standards. The purpose of the evaluation is to: (1) identify monitoring results that indicate evidence of a contaminant release from the EMWMF to groundwater, surface water, stormwater, or air, and (2) recommend appropriate changes to the associated sampling and analysis requirements, including sampling locations, methods, and frequencies; field measurements; or laboratory analytes that may be warranted in response to the monitoring data. Sect. 2 of this annual EMR provides background information relevant to environmental monitoring at the landfill, including

  19. LANDMON a new integrated system for the management of landslide monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesniak, Aleksandra; Giordan, Daniele; Allasia, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Over the last decades, technological development has strongly increased the number of instruments that can be used to monitor landslide phenomena. Robotized Total Stations, GB-InSAR and GPS are only few examples of the devices that can be adapted to monitor the topographic changes due to mass movements. They are often organized in a complex network, aimed at controlling physical parameters related to the evolution of landslide activity. The level of complexity of these monitoring networks increases with the number of new available monitoring devices and this could generate a paradox: the source of data is so numerous and difficult to interpret that a full understanding of the phenomenon could be hampered. The Geohazard Monitoring Group (GMG) of Italian National Research Council (CNR) has a long experience in landslide monitoring. Over the years, GMG has developed a multidisciplinary approach for landslide management strategy called LANDMON (LANDslide MOnitoring Network). It is an automatic hybrid system focused not only on capturing and elaborating data from monitored site but also on web applications and on publishing bulletins aimed to disseminate monitoring results and to support decision makers. LANDMON is currently active in many landslide sites distributed in several areas in Italy and in Europe. LANDMON is derived from the previously developed systems like ADVICE (ADVanced dIsplaCement monitoring system for Early warning) and 3DA (three-dimensional Displacement Analysis). These systems are aimed to collect and to process monitoring dataset, to manage early warning application based on pre-defined thresholds, and to publish three-dimensional displacement maps in near real time. In addition, LANDMON integrates several new features, such as WebGIS application, modelling using inverse velocity method, and management of webcam monitoring system, meteorological parameters and borehole inclinometric data. Moreover, LANDMON is a communication strategy that focuses

  20. MANET Network Management and Performance Monitoring for NHDP and OLSRv2

    OpenAIRE

    Herberg, Ulrich; Clausen, Thomas Heide; Robert, Cole

    2010-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc NETworks (MANETs) are generally thought of as infrastructureless and largely ``un-managed'' network deployments, capable of accommodating highly dynamic network topologies. Yet, while the network infrastructure may be ``un-managed'', monitoring the network performance and setting configuration parameters once deployed, remains important in order to ensure proper ``tuning'' and maintenance of a MANET. This memorandum describes a management framework for the MANET routing protocol...

  1. A Framework for Effective Software Monitoring in Project Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developed software for project management rely heavily on collecting metrics to provide the progress feedback necessary to allow control of the project. However, interpretation of this data is very difficult and sometimes cumbersome. This paper addressed the need of a software implementation progress model that is ...

  2. Network resiliency through memory health monitoring and proactive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Costa, Carlos H.; Cher, Chen-Yong; Park, Yoonho; Rosenburg, Bryan S.; Ryu, Kyung D.

    2017-11-21

    A method for managing a network queue memory includes receiving sensor information about the network queue memory, predicting a memory failure in the network queue memory based on the sensor information, and outputting a notification through a plurality of nodes forming a network and using the network queue memory, the notification configuring communications between the nodes.

  3. Environmental Monitoring and the Gas Industry: Program Manager Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory D. Gillispie

    1997-12-01

    This document has been developed for the nontechnical gas industry manager who has the responsibility for the development of waste or potentially contaminated soil and groundwater data or must make decisions based on such data for the management or remediation of these materials. It explores the pse of common analytical chemistry instrumentation and associated techniques for identification of environmentally hazardous materials. Sufficient detail is given to familiarize the nontechnical reader with the principles behind the operation of each technique. The scope and realm of the techniques and their constituent variations are portrayed through a discussion of crucial details and, where appropriate, the depiction of real-life data. It is the author's intention to provide an easily understood handbook for gas industry management. Techniques which determine the presence, composition, and quantification of gas industry wastes are discussed. Greater focus is given to traditional techniques which have been the mainstay of modem analytical benchwork. However, with the continual advancement of instrumental principles and design, several techniques have been included which are likely to receive greater attention in fiture considerations for waste-related detection. Definitions and concepts inherent to a thorough understanding of the principles common to analytical chemistry are discussed. It is also crucial that gas industry managers understand the effects of the various actions which take place before, during, and after the actual sampling step. When a series of sample collection, storage, and transport activities occur, new or inexperienced project managers may overlook or misunderstand the importance of the sequence. Each step has an impact on the final results of the measurement process; errors in judgment or decision making can be costly. Specific techniques and methodologies for the collection, storage, and transport of environmental media samples are not

  4. Simulation and monitoring tools to protect disaster management facilities against earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Taiki

    2017-10-01

    The earthquakes that hit Kumamoto Prefecture in Japan on April 14 and 16, 2016 severely damaged over 180,000 houses, including over 8,000 that were completely destroyed and others that were partially damaged according to the Cabinet Office's report as of November 14, 2016 [1]. Following these earthquakes, other parts of the world have been struck by earthquakes including Italy and New Zealand as well as the central part of Tottori Prefecture in October, where the earthquake-induced collapse of buildings has led to severe damage and casualties. The earthquakes in Kumamoto Prefecture, in fact, damaged various disaster management facilities including Uto City Hall, which significantly hindered the city's evacuation and recovery operations. One of the most crucial issues in times of disaster is securing the functions of disaster management facilities such as city halls, hospitals and fire stations. To address this issue, seismic simulations are conducted on the East and the West buildings of Toyohashi City Hall using the analysis tool developed by the author, STERA_3D, with the data of the ground motion waveform prediction for the Nankai Trough earthquake provided by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. As the result, it was found that the buildings have sufficient earthquake resistance. It turned out, however, that the west building is at risk for wall cracks or ceiling panel's collapse while in the east building, people would not be able to stand through the strong quakes of 7 on the seismic intensity scale and cabinets not secured to the floors or walls would fall over. Additionally, three IT strong-motion seismometers were installed in the city hall to continuously monitor vibrations. Every five minutes, the vibration data obtained by the seismometers are sent to the computers in Toyohashi University of Technology via the Internet for the analysis tools to run simulations in the cloud. If an earthquake strikes, it is able to use the results

  5. No Solutions: Resisting Certainty in Water Supply Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerill, K.; Armstrong, M.; Richter, J.; Okie, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    Although most scholars and water managers implicitly understand that managing water resources is an ongoing need, both popular and academic literature routinely use the words `solution' and `solve' in discussing water management concerns. The word `solution' reflects a quest for certainty, stability, permanence. A focus on `solving' creates a simplistic expectation that some person or institution is responsible for implementing a solution and that once `solved' the issue no longer requires attention. The reality, however, is water management is a wicked problem, meaning it is amorphous, involves multiple definitions, is embedded in complex systems, and hence is intractable. By definition, wicked problems defy solution. Our interdisciplinary project integrates research from across a broad spectrum of biological, physical, and social sciences. We find that framing a problem in terms of `solving' affects how people think, feel, behave toward the problem. Further, our work suggests that the prevalence of solution- based language has simultaneously generated expectations that science / scientists can predict and control biophysical systems and that science is not to be trusted because it has failed to deliver on previous promises to permanently `solve' events like floods or droughts. Hydrologic systems, are, of course highly uncertain. Hence, reiterating a simplistic insistence on `solving' water management concerns may result in decreased public attention to or support for more complex policy discussions that could provide long-term management strategies. Using the language of `solutions' with expectations of certainty sets hydrologic researchers and water managers up to fail. Managing water is a social responsibility and it will require consistent attention in the future, just as it has throughout human history. Scientists have a key role to play in explaining how various hydrologic systems function, but they should not be expected to `solve' pressing water management

  6. Six Strategies for Breaking Out of Another HRD Box--Management's Resistance to Change Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Robert; Mok, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Many human resources development (HRD) people play out self-fulfilling roles of incongruency with top management, but when management resistance to change is real, the six strategies offered in the article can be used by HRD specialists to help themselves and their companies. (Author/AJ)

  7. Monitoring functions in managed microbial systems by cytometric bar coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christin; Fetzer, Ingo; Schmidt, Thomas; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Susann

    2013-02-05

    Cytometric monitoring of microbial community dynamics can be used to estimate stability of technical microbial processes like biogas production by analysis of segregated cell abundance changes. In this study, structure variations of a biogas community were cytometrically recorded over 9 months and found to be of diagnostic value for process details. The reactor regime was intentionally disturbed with regard to substrate overload or H(2)S accumulation. A single-cell based approach called cytometric bar coding (CyBar) for fast identification of reactive subcommunities was used. Functionality of specific subcommunities was uncovered by processing CyBar data with abiotic reactor parameters using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Twenty subcommunities showed a discrete and divergent behavior. For example, a 4-fold substrate overload increased the cell number of two acidogenic index subcommunities to 176 and 193% within three days. Supplementary analyses were done using DNA fingerprinting, cloning, and sequencing. Bioreactor perturbations were shown to create cell abundance changes in subcommunities rather than variations in their phylogenetic composition. The used workflow and macros are ready-to-use tools and allow on-site monitoring and interpretation of variation in microbial community functions within a few hours.

  8. Current concepts in the management of resistant hypertension: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Resistant hypertension is defined as uncontrolled hypertension above the target goal despite treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive agents, one of which is a diuretic, at optimum and best tolerated doses. The target blood pressure is defined as < 140/90 mmHg in most people and < 130/80 mmHg in those ...

  9. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: epidemiology and management challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dheda, Keertan; Warren, Robin M.; Zumla, Alimuddin; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    Widespread global use of rifampin for 2 decades preceded the emergence of clinically significant multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the early 1990s. The prevalence of MDR-TB has gradually increased such that it accounts for approximately 5% of the global case burden of disease

  10. Evaluation of stem borer resistance management strategies for Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem borers are the major insect pests of maize in Kenya. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) technology is an effective way of controlling lepidopteran pests. However, the likelihood of development of resistance to the Bt toxins by the target stem borer species is a concern. Forages, sorghum and maize varieties were ...

  11. Evaluation of stem borer resistance management strategies for Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... Stem borers are the major insect pests of maize in Kenya. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) technology is an effective way of controlling lepidopteran pests. However, the likelihood of development of resistance to the Bt toxins by the target stem borer species is a concern. Forages, sorghum and maize ...

  12. 5 Development of a resistance management.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Koney E. M. B. and Nipah G. (2000). Amblyomma variegatum resistance to acaricides in the Accra plains of Ghana. Ghana J. Sci. 40:39-49. Morrow A. N., Arnott J. L., Heron I. D., Koney E. M. B. and Walker A. R. (1993). The effect of tick control on the prevalence of dermatophilosis on indigenous cattle in Ghana. Revue Elev.

  13. 40 CFR Table 11 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units 11 Table 11 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment... and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units To comply with Inspection or monitoring...

  14. Remote Monitoring of Near-Surface Soil Moisture Dynamics In Unstable Slopes Using a Low-Power Autonomous Resistivity Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J. E.; Meldrum, P.; Gunn, D.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Uhlemann, S.; Swift, R. T.; Kuras, O.; Inauen, C.; Hutchinson, D.; Butler, S.

    2016-12-01

    ERT monitoring has been demonstrated in numerous studies as an effective means of imaging near surface processes for applications as diverse as permafrost studies and contaminated land assessment. A limiting factor in applying time-lapse ERT for long-term studies in remote locations has been the availability of cost-effective ERT measurement systems designed specifically for monitoring applications. Typically, monitoring is undertaken using repeated manual data collection, or by building conventional survey instruments into a monitoring setup. The latter often requires high power and is therefore difficult to operate remotely without access to mains electricity. We describe the development of a low-power resistivity imaging system designed specifically for remote monitoring, taking advantage of, e.g., solar power and data telemetry. Here, we present the results of two field deployments. The system has been installed on an active railway cutting to provide insights into the effect of vegetation on the moisture dynamics in unstable infrastructure slopes and to gather subsurface information for pro-active remediation measures. The system, comprising 255 electrodes, acquires 4596 reciprocal measurement pairs twice daily during standard operation. In case of severe weather events, the measurement schedule is reactively changed, to gather high temporal resolution data to image rainfall infiltration processes. The system has also been installed along a leaking and marginally stable canal embankment; a less favourable location for remote monitoring, with limited solar power and poor mobile reception. Nevertheless, the acquired data indicated the effectiveness of remedial actions on the canal. The ERT results showed that one leak was caused by the canal and fixed during remediation, while two other "leaks" were shown to be effects of groundwater dynamics. The availability of cost-effective, low-power ERT monitoring instrumentation, combined with an automated workflow of

  15. Nevada Test Site 2001 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report[ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants[NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2001 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 150 mm (5.9 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 120 mm (4.7 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2001 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2001 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility performance assessments

  16. Nevada Test Site 2001 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2001 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 150 mm (5.9 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 120 mm (4.7 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2001 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2001 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility performance assessments

  17. Nevada Test Site 2000 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvonne Townsend

    2001-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels, whereas radon concentrations are not above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2000 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 167 mm (6.6 in) at the Area 3 RWMS (annual average is 156 mm [6.5 in]) and 123 mm (4.8 in) at the Area 5 RWMS (annual average is 127 mm [5.0 in]). Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2000 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2000 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing well at isolating buried waste

  18. Integrating modeling, monitoring, and management to reduce critical uncertainties in water resource decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James T; Freeman, Mary C

    2016-12-01

    Stream ecosystems provide multiple, valued services to society, including water supply, waste assimilation, recreation, and habitat for diverse and productive biological communities. Managers striving to sustain these services in the face of changing climate, land uses, and water demands need tools to assess the potential effectiveness of alternative management actions, and often, the resulting tradeoffs between competing objectives. Integrating predictive modeling with monitoring data in an adaptive management framework provides a process by which managers can reduce model uncertainties and thus improve the scientific bases for subsequent decisions. We demonstrate an integration of monitoring data with a dynamic, metapopulation model developed to assess effects of streamflow alteration on fish occupancy in a southeastern US stream system. Although not extensive (collected over three years at nine sites), the monitoring data allowed us to assess and update support for alternative population dynamic models using model probabilities and Bayes rule. We then use the updated model weights to estimate the effects of water withdrawal on stream fish communities and demonstrate how feedback in the form of monitoring data can be used to improve water resource decision making. We conclude that investment in more strategic monitoring, guided by a priori model predictions under alternative hypotheses and an adaptive sampling design, could substantially improve the information available to guide decision-making and management for ecosystem services from lotic systems. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Regional Cumulative Effects Groundwater Management Associated with Large Resource Development Projects: Integrating Adaptive Management with Monitoring and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, J.; Fennell, J.; Scott, M.

    2011-12-01

    We will present a systematic approach to cumulative effects groundwater management predicated on an integration of traditional tools and the necessary intimate connection between modelling, monitoring and adaptive management, which includes an inventory and gap analysis of available data, consideration for system dynamics in the context of climate variability and change, an assessment of aquifer vulnerability, and consideration for potential future development and overall associated risk to groundwater resources and connected receptors. In our experience, a systematic approach to cumulative effects groundwater management is key to addressing complex challenges associated with large resource development projects, with effects of these projects to aquifer systems often occurring at regional scales and possibly enduring over long time horizons. The principal goal for the groundwater management framework is to manage groundwater resources in a sustainable manner and protect it from over-use. However, proper balances with economic and community objectives need to be taken into account, emphasizing the need for stakeholder engagement in the overall process. Through an understanding of inter-relationships between natural resource and other objectives, legislation, policies and programs across various sectors goals can be developed to achieve the best overall long-term benefits for society and the environment, while minimizing conflicts. The principal goal of monitoring is to evaluate past and current conditions and address data gaps. Long-term monitoring can also be used to improve the hydrogeologic conceptualization of a region. The role of numerical modelling is to quantify the understanding of groundwater flow systems in a region, address uncertainty in this understanding, to quantify potential regional cumulative impacts of current and future development, to provide recommendations for future monitoring locations and targets and for assessing the effectiveness of

  20. Ground water monitoring waste water management - a risk based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, K.A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), a twelve year, $400 million remedial action project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, has installed numerous ground water monitoring wells over the past several years which it routinely samples. The problem of disposal of water removed during well development and purging prior to sampling was recently identified. Numerous alternatives were evaluated and a solution formulated. The solution consists of classifying the water using risk-based criteria and handling the two classes of water as appropriate using the facilities currently available. The approach presented in this manuscript is currently being reviewed by the Environmental Protection Agency and the State of Missouri. The methods and concepts used in developing this process may be applicable to other sites

  1. Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S; Hammad, Waleed S

    2008-12-01

    Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress.

  2. Responding to the challenge of antimalarial drug resistance by routine monitoring to update national malaria treatment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Lasse S; Ringwald, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    additional information about changing patterns of resistance. However, some of the tests are technically demanding, and thus there is a need for more resources for training and capacity building in endemic countries to be able to adequately respond to the challenge of drug resistance....... of rational and updated malaria treatment policies, but defining and updating such policies requires a sufficient volume of high-quality drug-resistance data collected at national and regional levels. Three main tools are used for drug resistance monitoring, including therapeutic efficacy tests, in vitro...... tests, and analyses of molecular markers. Data obtained with the therapeutic efficacy test conducted according to the standard protocol of the World Health Organization are most useful for updating national treatment policies, while the in vitro test and molecular markers can provide important...

  3. Monitoring Antibiotic Residues and Corresponding Antibiotic Resistance Genes in an Agroecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser M. Awad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs have been commonly reported due to the overuse worldwide of antibiotics. Antibiotic overuse disturbs the environment and threatens public human health. The objective of this study was to measure the residual concentrations of veterinary antibiotics in the tetracycline group (TCs, including tetracycline (TC and chlortetracycline (CTC, as well as those in the sulfonamide group (SAs, including sulfamethazine (SMT, sulfamethoxazole (SMX, and sulfathiazole (STZ. We also isolated the corresponding ARGs in the agroecosystem. Four sediment samples and two rice paddy soil samples were collected from sites near a swine composting facility along the Naerincheon River in Hongcheon, Korea. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS was employed with a solid-phase extraction method to measure the concentration of each antibiotic. ARGs were identified by the qualitative polymerase chain-reaction using synthetic primers. SAs and their corresponding ARGs were highly detected in sediment samples whereas TCs were not detected except for sediments sample #1. ARGs for TCs and SAs were detected in rice paddy soils, while ARGs for TCs were only found in sediment #2 and #4. Continuous monitoring of antibiotic residue and its comprehensive impact on the environment is needed to ensure environmental health.

  4. Electrical Resistance and Acoustic Emission Measurements for Monitoring the Structural Behavior of CFRP Laminate

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Wei

    2015-07-12

    Electrical resistance and acoustic emission (AE) measurement are jointly used to monitor the degradation in CFRP laminates subjected to tensile tests. The objective of this thesis is to perform a synergertic analysis between a passive and an active methods to better access how these perform when used for Structural Health Moni- toring (SHM). Laminates with three different stacking sequences: [0]4, [02/902]s and [+45/ − 45]2s are subjected to monotonic and cyclic tensile tests. In each laminate, we carefully investigate which mechanisms of degradation can or cannot be detect- ed by each technique. It is shown that most often, that acoustic emission signals start before any electrical detection is possible. This is is explained based on the redundance of the electrical network that makes it less sensitive to localized damages. Based on in depth study of AE signals clustering, a new classification is proposed to recognize the different damage mechanims based on only two parameters: the RA (rise time/amplitude) and the duration of the signal.

  5. Water monitoring and its information management system in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu monitoring to joho kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, H.

    1996-01-10

    This paper summarizes the water monitoring system (WMS) in China applied mainly to surface water and operated within the competence of the Environmental Protection Agency. The WMS consists of a national water monitoring network and a water information system that monitors surface water periodically. The WMS comprises water monitoring stations classified from class 1 to class 4, which are located in 2,222 locations. Stations from class 1 to class 3 are operated by using computers, but class 4 stations are still incapable to use floppy disks to perform information transmission. When an information management system is completed at the China-Japan Friendship Environmental Protection Center being constructed by gratis assistance from the Japanese Government, transmission of water quality data will become possible by means of the cable line system in addition to the table system and the floppy system. The water quality data are published to general people in the forms of Chinese gazette for the environmental conditions, the environment yearbook, and the reports on environmental quality. However, the more important is to publish more publications to make people aware of the actual state of water pollution and have them cooperate in environment preservation. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Monitoring and evaluation of spatially managed areas: A generic framework for implementation of ecosystem based marine management and its application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelzenmüller, Vanessa; Breen, Patricia; Stamford, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a framework for the monitoring and evaluation of spatially managed areas (SMAs), which is currently being tested by nine European case studies. The framework provides guidance on the selection, mapping, and assessment of ecosystem components and human pressures, the evaluati...

  7. Hypertension management and microvascular insulin resistance in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seung-Hyun; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2010-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is in essence a vascular disease and is frequently associated with hypertension, macrovascular events, and microvascular complications. Microvascular dysfunction, including impaired recruitment and capillary rarefaction, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Microvascular insulin resistance and renin-angiotensin system upregulation are present in diabetes, and each contributes to the development of hypertension and microvascular dysfunction. In the insulin-sensitive state, insulin increases microvascular perfusion by increasing endothelial nitric oxide production, but this effect is abolished by insulin resistance. Angiotensin II, acting via the type 1 receptors, induces inflammation and oxidative stress, leading to impaired insulin signaling, reduced nitric oxide availability, and vasoconstriction. Conversely, it acts on the type 2 receptors to cause vasodilatation. Because substrate and hormonal exchanges occur in the microvasculature, antihypertensive agents targeted to improve microvascular insulin sensitivity and function may have beneficial effects beyond their capacity to lower blood pressure in patients with diabetes.

  8. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE AND ERP IMPLEMENTATION SUCCESS: THE MODERATING ROLE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar U. Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP is a useful tool that builds strong capabilities, improves performance, supports better decision making, and provides competitive advantage for businesses. ERP aims to help the management by setting better business practices and equipping them with the right information to take timely decision. In any new technology implementation, one of the issues that need to be addressed is the resistance to change. Many implementations have failed due to strong resistance from the end users. Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to test the impact of resistance to change on ERP's implementation success and how change management initiatives acts in the capacity of a moderating role. Using data collected from 69 manufacturing organizations through a mail survey, it was found that resistance to change is negatively related to achievement of predetermined goals (b = –0.930, p < 0.01 and usersatisfaction (b = –0.952, p < 0.01. Further, change management initiatives did not moderate the relationship between resistance and predetermined goals but it moderated the relationship between resistance and user satisfaction. In addition, change management initiatives have a direct positive impact on user satisfaction. This research concludes that the human factor is very important in ERP's implementation.

  9. Surgical management of cavernous malformations coursing with drug resistant epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Arturo Alonso-Vanegas; Jose Miguel eCisneros-Franco; Taisuke eOtsuki

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CM) are dynamic lesions characterized by continuous size changes and repeated bleeding. When involving cortical tissue, CM pose a significant risk for the development of drug-resistant epilepsy, which is thought to be result of an altered neuronal network caused by the lesion itself and its blood degradation products. Preoperative evaluation should comprise a complete seizure history, neurological examination, epilepsy-oriented MRI, EEG, video-EEG, completed ...

  10. Picture this: Managed change and resistance in business network settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Hanne; Andersen, Poul Houman

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses change management in networks. The literature on business networks tends to downplay the role of managerial initiative in network change. The change management literature addresses such initiative, but with its single-firm perspective it overlooks the interdependence of network...... actors. In exploring the void between these two streams of literature, we deploy the concept of network pictures to discuss managed change in network settings. We analyze a change project from the furniture industry and address the consequences of attempting to manage change activities in a network...... context characterized by limited managerial authority over these activities. Our analysis suggests that change efforts unfold as a negotiated process during which the change project is re-negotiated to fit the multiple actor constituencies. The degree of overlap in the co-existing network pictures...

  11. Role of monitoring network in the control management of air quality. An industrial case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbo, G. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Merceology; Fabiano, B.; Ferraiolo, A.; Solisio, C.; Ruaro, R.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality control by a system of monitoring station is indispensable for the environmental protection. Moreover, a monitoring network have not to be only a mere data collection a good air quality control is possible only if the network management allows to prevent unacceptable pollutants level. In other terms, elaboration and interpretation data are fundamental in order to make monitoring system really able for regulations of corrective measures as, for example, the reduction of local emissions. The case of monitoring network run from the Industrial Society CIPA of Siracusa (Italy) is discussed. The management of the data obtained from a continuous survey allows to keep pollutants level below the current limits set down by the Italian law. Furthermore, elaboration of the data allows useful evaluations about atmospheric dispersion phenomena. (author)

  12. Developing an effective adaptive monitoring network to support integrated coastal management in a multiuser nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pim Vugteveen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We elaborate the necessary conceptual and strategic elements for developing an effective adaptive monitoring network to support Integrated Coastal Management (ICM in a multiuser nature reserve in the Dutch Wadden Sea Region. We discuss quality criteria and enabling actions essential to accomplish and sustain monitoring excellence to support ICM. The Wadden Sea Long-Term Ecosystem Research project (WaLTER was initiated to develop an adaptive monitoring network and online data portal to better understand and support ICM in the Dutch Wadden Sea Region. Our comprehensive approach integrates ecological and socioeconomic data and links research-driven and policy-driven monitoring for system analysis using indicators of pressures, state, benefits, and responses. The approach and concepts we elaborated are transferable to other coastal regions to accomplish ICM in complex social-ecological systems in which scientists, multisectoral stakeholders, resource managers, and governmental representatives seek to balance long-term ecological, economic, and social objectives within natural limits.

  13. The Power to Resist: Irrigation Management Transfer in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Suhardiman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, international donors have promoted Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT as an international remedy to management problems in government irrigation systems in many developing countries. This article analyses the political processes that shape IMT policy formulation and implementation in Indonesia. It links IMT with the issue of bureaucratic reform and argues that its potential to address current problems in government irrigation systems cannot be achieved if the irrigation agency is not convinced about the need for management transfer. IMT’s significance cannot be measured only through IMT outcomes and impacts, without linking these with how the irrigation agency perceives the idea of management transfer in the first place, how this perception (redefines the agency’s position in IMT, and how it shapes the agency’s action and strategy in the policy formulation and implementation. I illustrate how the irrigation agency contested the idea of management transfer by referring to IMT policy adoption in 1987 and its renewal in 1999. The article concludes that for management transfer to be meaningful it is pertinent that the issue of bureaucratic reform is incorporated into current policy discussions.

  14. Management and monitoring of haemodynamic complications in acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspromonte, Nadia; Cruz, Dinna N; Valle, Roberto; Ronco, Claudio

    2011-11-01

    The pathophysiology of acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS), defined as a change or worsening in heart failure symptoms and signs, is complex. The variety of adverse neurohormonal adaptations includes increased levels of plasma renin, aldosterone and angiotensin II, all responsible for cardio-renal dysfunction. In fact, such alterations result in an array of clinical changes that include abnormal haemodynamics, altered ventricular filling pressures, pathological neurohormonal responses, leading to fluid overload, congestion and ultimately heart failure symptoms. Clinical pictures can be various: in spite of a usual improvement in dyspnoea, little weight change and significant morbidity are generally observed during hospitalization. Short-term outcomes are characterized by a high 60-day re-hospitalization and high mortality rates; apparently, both can be predicted from pre-discharge characteristics. The most frequently used treatments for AHF care include diuretics, inotropic agents, and vasodilator/vasoactive agents; however, the final therapeutic strategy is often individualized. Diuretics are currently the most used agents, but resistance to diuretic therapy is common. In addition, several studies have demonstrated that aggressive diuresis can contribute to reduced renal function, and high doses of diuretics have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Many patients with AHFS also suffer from acute or from chronic renal dysfunction (cardio-renal syndromes type 1 and 2, respectively), which further complicate the outcomes and treatment strategies. A personalized patient evaluation of the combined heart and kidney functions is advised to implement the best possible multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

  15. Quantum Bayesian perspective for intelligence reservoir characterization, monitoring and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada Aguilar, Miguel Ángel; Khrennikov, Andrei; Oleschko, Klaudia; de Jesús Correa, María

    2017-10-01

    The paper starts with a brief review of the literature about uncertainty in geological, geophysical and petrophysical data. In particular, we present the viewpoints of experts in geophysics on the application of Bayesian inference and subjective probability. Then we present arguments that the use of classical probability theory (CP) does not match completely the structure of geophysical data. We emphasize that such data are characterized by contextuality and non-Kolmogorovness (the impossibility to use the CP model), incompleteness as well as incompatibility of some geophysical measurements. These characteristics of geophysical data are similar to the characteristics of quantum physical data. Notwithstanding all this, contextuality can be seen as a major deviation of quantum theory from classical physics. In particular, the contextual probability viewpoint is the essence of the Växjö interpretation of quantum mechanics. We propose to use quantum probability (QP) for decision-making during the characterization, modelling, exploring and management of the intelligent hydrocarbon reservoir. Quantum Bayesianism (QBism), one of the recently developed information interpretations of quantum theory, can be used as the interpretational basis for such QP decision-making in geology, geophysics and petroleum projects design and management. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  16. Quantum Bayesian perspective for intelligence reservoir characterization, monitoring and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada Aguilar, Miguel Ángel; Khrennikov, Andrei; Oleschko, Klaudia; de Jesús Correa, María

    2017-11-13

    The paper starts with a brief review of the literature about uncertainty in geological, geophysical and petrophysical data. In particular, we present the viewpoints of experts in geophysics on the application of Bayesian inference and subjective probability. Then we present arguments that the use of classical probability theory (CP) does not match completely the structure of geophysical data. We emphasize that such data are characterized by contextuality and non-Kolmogorovness (the impossibility to use the CP model), incompleteness as well as incompatibility of some geophysical measurements. These characteristics of geophysical data are similar to the characteristics of quantum physical data. Notwithstanding all this, contextuality can be seen as a major deviation of quantum theory from classical physics. In particular, the contextual probability viewpoint is the essence of the Växjö interpretation of quantum mechanics. We propose to use quantum probability (QP) for decision-making during the characterization, modelling, exploring and management of the intelligent hydrocarbon reservoir Quantum Bayesianism (QBism), one of the recently developed information interpretations of quantum theory, can be used as the interpretational basis for such QP decision-making in geology, geophysics and petroleum projects design and management.This article is part of the themed issue 'Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. The influence of prescription monitoring programs on chronic pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Christo, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Abuse of prescribed controlled substance has become a serious social as well as health care issue over the past decade. A particularly alarming trend exists among patients aged 12 to 17. Common abuse behaviors include doctor shopping, drug theft, feigned pain symptoms to gain health care access, drug sharing, prescription forgery, and improper prescription practices. In response to this epidemic of abuse, many states have adopted prescription monitoring programs (PMPs). Such programs first originated in the early twentieth century. As of 2006, 38 states had such programs, many of which are supported by federal grants. As PMPs become more widespread, they have also increased in sophistication. By keeping a record of the prescription and dispensing of narcotics, these programs are able to build a comprehensive data network for tracking prescription medications. These databases aid law enforcement agencies in investigations of narcotic trafficking; they also help state regulatory boards to monitor improper prescription practices. This manuscript examines the basic structure of a PMP, including the way the data are collected and the way these data are stored and used. It also looks at the organizational differences amongst state programs. NASPER and Harold Rogers are two federal programs that provide funding to the state PMPs, and the current study examines the differences as well as similarities between these 2 programs. This study also compares the results of 2 reports: the U.S. General Accounting Office Study and the Twillman study.& Both studies have evaluated the efficiency of the PMPs. The U.S. General Accounting Office Study showed that while considerable differences exist among the state PMPs, these programs not only reduce the time and effort for law enforcement agencies to conduct investigations, but also cut the supply of prescription medications. However, the Twillman report suggests that prescription programs caused a shift in prescription practice, while

  18. Monitoring and management of tritium from the nuclear power plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoe; Liu, Ting; Yang, Lili; Meng, De; Song, Dahu

    2018-01-01

    It is important to regulate tritium nuclides from the nuclear power plant effluent, the paper briefly analyzes the main source of tritium, and the regulatory requirements associated with tritium in our country and the United States. The monitoring methods of tritium from the nuclear power plant effluent are described, and the purpose to give some advice to our national nuclear power plant about the effluent of tritium monitoring and management.

  19. A statistically rigorous sampling design to integrate avian monitoring and management within Bird Conservation Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlacky, David C; Lukacs, Paul M; Blakesley, Jennifer A; Skorkowsky, Robert C; Klute, David S; Hahn, Beth A; Dreitz, Victoria J; George, T Luke; Hanni, David J

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring is an essential component of wildlife management and conservation. However, the usefulness of monitoring data is often undermined by the lack of 1) coordination across organizations and regions, 2) meaningful management and conservation objectives, and 3) rigorous sampling designs. Although many improvements to avian monitoring have been discussed, the recommendations have been slow to emerge in large-scale programs. We introduce the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR) program designed to overcome the above limitations. Our objectives are to outline the development of a statistically defensible sampling design to increase the value of large-scale monitoring data and provide example applications to demonstrate the ability of the design to meet multiple conservation and management objectives. We outline the sampling process for the IMBCR program with a focus on the Badlands and Prairies Bird Conservation Region (BCR 17). We provide two examples for the Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri) in BCR 17 demonstrating the ability of the design to 1) determine hierarchical population responses to landscape change and 2) estimate hierarchical habitat relationships to predict the response of the Brewer's sparrow to conservation efforts at multiple spatial scales. The collaboration across organizations and regions provided economy of scale by leveraging a common data platform over large spatial scales to promote the efficient use of monitoring resources. We designed the IMBCR program to address the information needs and core conservation and management objectives of the participating partner organizations. Although it has been argued that probabilistic sampling designs are not practical for large-scale monitoring, the IMBCR program provides a precedent for implementing a statistically defensible sampling design from local to bioregional scales. We demonstrate that integrating conservation and management objectives with rigorous statistical

  20. A statistically rigorous sampling design to integrate avian monitoring and management within Bird Conservation Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Pavlacky

    Full Text Available Monitoring is an essential component of wildlife management and conservation. However, the usefulness of monitoring data is often undermined by the lack of 1 coordination across organizations and regions, 2 meaningful management and conservation objectives, and 3 rigorous sampling designs. Although many improvements to avian monitoring have been discussed, the recommendations have been slow to emerge in large-scale programs. We introduce the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR program designed to overcome the above limitations. Our objectives are to outline the development of a statistically defensible sampling design to increase the value of large-scale monitoring data and provide example applications to demonstrate the ability of the design to meet multiple conservation and management objectives. We outline the sampling process for the IMBCR program with a focus on the Badlands and Prairies Bird Conservation Region (BCR 17. We provide two examples for the Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri in BCR 17 demonstrating the ability of the design to 1 determine hierarchical population responses to landscape change and 2 estimate hierarchical habitat relationships to predict the response of the Brewer's sparrow to conservation efforts at multiple spatial scales. The collaboration across organizations and regions provided economy of scale by leveraging a common data platform over large spatial scales to promote the efficient use of monitoring resources. We designed the IMBCR program to address the information needs and core conservation and management objectives of the participating partner organizations. Although it has been argued that probabilistic sampling designs are not practical for large-scale monitoring, the IMBCR program provides a precedent for implementing a statistically defensible sampling design from local to bioregional scales. We demonstrate that integrating conservation and management objectives with rigorous

  1. Monitoring resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in the field by performing bioassays with each Cry toxin separately

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Tetreau

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti is increasingly used worldwide for mosquito control and is the only larvicide used in the French Rhône-Alpes region since decades. The artificial selection of mosquitoes with field-persistent Bti collected in breeding sites from this region led to a moderate level of resistance to Bti, but to relatively high levels of resistance to individual Bti Cry toxins. Based on this observation, we developed a bioassay procedure using each Bti Cry toxin separately to detect cryptic Bti-resistance evolving in field mosquito populations. Although no resistance to Bti was detected in none of the three mosquito species tested (Aedes rusticus, Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans, an increased tolerance to Cry4Aa (3.5-fold and Cry11Aa toxins (8-fold was found in one Ae. sticticus population compared to other populations of the same species, suggesting that resistance to Bti may be arising in this population. This study confirms previous works showing a lack of Bti resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with this bioinsecticide. It also provides a first panorama of their susceptibility status to individual Bti Cry toxins. In combination with bioassays with Bti, bioassays with separate Cry toxins allow a more sensitive monitoring of Bti-resistance in the field.

  2. Simulations reveal the power and peril of artificial breeding sites for monitoring and managing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Christopher J W; Pauli, Benjamin P; Heath, Julie A

    2017-06-01

    Despite common use, the efficacy of artificial breeding sites (e.g., nest boxes, bat houses, artificial burrows) as tools for monitoring and managing animals depends on the demography of target populations and availability of natural sites. Yet, the conditions enabling artificial breeding sites to be useful or informative have yet to be articulated. We use a stochastic simulation model to determine situations where artificial breeding sites are either useful or disadvantageous for monitoring and managing animals. Artificial breeding sites are a convenient tool for monitoring animals and therefore occupancy of artificial breeding sites is often used as an index of population levels. However, systematic changes in availability of sites that are not monitored might induce trends in occupancy of monitored sites, a situation rarely considered by monitoring programs. We therefore examine how systematic changes in unmonitored sites could bias inference from trends in the occupancy of monitored sites. Our model also allows us to examine effects on population levels if artificial breeding sites either increase or decrease population vital rates (survival and fecundity). We demonstrate that trends in occupancy of monitored sites are misleading if the number of unmonitored sites changes over time. Further, breeding site fidelity can cause an initial lag in occupancy of newly installed sites that could be misinterpreted as an increasing population, even when the population has been continuously declining. Importantly, provisioning of artificial breeding sites only benefits populations if breeding sites are limiting or if artificial sites increase vital rates. There are many situations where installation of artificial breeding sites, and their use in monitoring, can have unintended consequences. Managers should therefore not assume that provision of artificial breeding sites will necessarily benefit populations. Further, trends in occupancy of artificial breeding sites should

  3. The role of population monitoring in the management of North American waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Williams, B.K.; Johnson, F.A.

    2000-01-01

    Despite the effort and expense devoted to large-scale monitoring programs, few existing programs have been designed with specific objectives in mind and few permit strong inferences about the dynamics of monitored systems. The waterfowl population monitoring programs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Canadian Wildlife Service and state and provincial agencies provide a nice example with respect to program objectives, design and implementation. The May Breeding Grounds Survey provides an estimate of system state (population size) that serves two primary purposes in the adaptive management process: identifying the appropriate time-specific management actions and updating the information state (model weights) by providing a basis for evaluating predictions of competing models. Other waterfowl monitoring programs (e.g., banding program, hunter questionnaire survey, parts collection survey, winter survey) provide estimates of vital rates (rates of survival, reproduction and movement) associated with system dynamics and variables associated with management objectives (e.g., harvest). The reliability of estimates resulting from monitoring programs depends strongly on whether considerations about spatial variation and detection probability have been adequately incorporated into program design and implementation. Certain waterfowl surveys again provide nice examples of monitoring programs that incorporate these considerations.

  4. Maximizing the utility of monitoring to the adaptive management of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, William L.; Moore, Clinton T.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Licht, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Data collection is an important step in any investigation about the structure or processes related to a natural system. In a purely scientific investigation (experiments, quasi-experiments, observational studies), data collection is part of the scientific method, preceded by the identification of hypotheses and the design of any manipulations of the system to test those hypotheses. Data collection and the manipulations that precede it are ideally designed to maximize the information that is derived from the study. That is, such investigations should be designed for maximum power to evaluate the relative validity of the hypotheses posed. When data collection is intended to inform the management of ecological systems, we call it monitoring. Note that our definition of monitoring encompasses a broader range of data-collection efforts than some alternative definitions – e.g. Chapter 3. The purpose of monitoring as we use the term can vary, from surveillance or “thumb on the pulse” monitoring (see Nichols and Williams 2006), intended to detect changes in a system due to any non-specified source (e.g. the North American Breeding Bird Survey), to very specific and targeted monitoring of the results of specific management actions (e.g. banding and aerial survey efforts related to North American waterfowl harvest management). Although a role of surveillance monitoring is to detect unanticipated changes in a system, the same result is possible from a collection of targeted monitoring programs distributed across the same spatial range (Box 4.1). In the face of limited budgets and many specific management questions, tying monitoring as closely as possible to management needs is warranted (Nichols and Williams 2006). Adaptive resource management (ARM; Walters 1986, Williams 1997, Kendall 2001, Moore and Conroy 2006, McCarthy and Possingham 2007, Conroy et al. 2008a) provides a context and specific purpose for monitoring: to evaluate decisions with respect to achievement

  5. Evaluating success criteria and project monitoring in river enhancement within an adaptive management framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, T Kevin; Galat, David L

    2008-01-01

    Objective setting, performance measures, and accountability are important components of an adaptive-management approach to river-enhancement programs. Few lessons learned by river-enhancement practitioners in the United States have been documented and disseminated relative to the number of projects implemented. We conducted scripted telephone surveys with river-enhancement project managers and practitioners within the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) to determine the extent of setting project success criteria, monitoring, evaluation of monitoring data, and data dissemination. Investigation of these elements enabled a determination of those that inhibited adaptive management. Seventy river enhancement projects were surveyed. Only 34% of projects surveyed incorporated a quantified measure of project success. Managers most often relied on geophysical attributes of rivers when setting project success criteria, followed by biological communities. Ninety-one percent of projects that performed monitoring included biologic variables, but the lack of data collection before and after project completion and lack of field-based reference or control sites will make future assessments of ecologic success difficult. Twenty percent of projects that performed monitoring evaluated >or=1 variable but did not disseminate their evaluations outside their organization. Results suggest greater incentives may be required to advance the science of river enhancement. Future river-enhancement programs within the UMRB and elsewhere can increase knowledge gained from individual projects by offering better guidance on setting success criteria before project initiation and evaluation through established monitoring protocols.

  6. Patients' use of self-monitored readings for managing everyday life with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huniche, Lotte; Dinesen, Birthe; Nielsen, Carl

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Effects of self-monitoring depend on how patients engage with readings and how this engagement is used for managing chronic disease. This article reports on a study of how chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients made use of readings during 16 weeks of self-monitoring....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 COPD patients three times each: at the beginning, halfway through, and after the monitoring device was collected. Spouses of nine interviewees were present during one or more interviews. The analysis of how patients used self-monitored...... exercise and other health behavior. Self-monitoring can produce a sense of security as readings provide grounds for explaining symptoms and widen the scope of possibilities for taking action. Patients experienced readings as encouraging, reassuring, depressing, worrisome, and at times disturbing. A few...

  7. Smart integrated energy monitoring and management system for standalone photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elnour, Ali; Murad, Fahd S.; Al-Tayasna, Ibrahim S.; Abo-Elnor, Ossama

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, a computer based smart integrated energy monitoring and management system for standalone photovoltaic systems is designed and implemented. Monitoring, controlling, and recording features are fully obtained in the present system using an efficient programming environment. All required data are monitored as real-time data therefore the system status is continuously evaluated and decisions are made to take immediate actions. The energy consumption of different appliances are automatically controlled and optimized using a hierarchical self adaptive algorithm based on input data and real-time information provided by the system sensors. The proposed system is successfully implemented for photovoltaic modules under realistic operating conditions.

  8. Effect of a Nurse-Managed Telemetry Discontinuation Protocol on Monitoring Duration, Alarm Frequency, and Adverse Patient Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Keisha; Ernst, Neysa; Nelson, Terry; Sawyer, Melinda; Pfoh, Elizabeth; Cvach, Maria

    Telemetry monitoring is a limited resource. This quality improvement project describes a nurse-managed telemetry discontinuation protocol aimed at stopping telemetry monitoring when it is no longer indicated. After implementing the protocol, data were collected for 6 months and compared with a preintervention time frame. There was a mean decrease in telemetry monitor usage and a decreased likelihood of remaining on a telemetry monitor until discharge. A nurse-managed telemetry discontinuation protocol was effective in decreasing overmonitoring and ensuring telemetry availability.

  9. A risk-based monitoring framework for the long term management of used fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garisto, N.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization has a mandate from the Government of Canada to consult with the public and to recommend an approach for managing Canada's used nuclear fuel. Three main fuel management methods are being explored and evaluated by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization: disposal in a Deep Geological Repository (DGR); reactor-site extended storage (RES); and centralized extended storage (CES), either above ground or below ground. The used nuclear fuel management system, whether a DGR or an extended storage system will require monitoring. In this study, a risk-based monitoring framework was developed for the used fuel management program. The proposed approach addresses the unique challenges of used fuel management being implemented in a multi-stakeholder process, including: (i) the complexity of the facilities; (ii) the need to consider both science-based risk and perceived risk in the monitoring plans; and (iii) the difficulty in conducting 'invasive' measurements of sealed systems, particularly over a very long time frame. (author)

  10. Dashboard Task Monitor for Managing ATLAS User Analysis on the Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, L.; Andreeva, J.; Jha, M.; Karavakis, E.; Kokoszkiewicz, L.; Saiz, P.; Schovancova, J.; Tuckett, D.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The organization of the distributed user analysis on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) infrastructure is one of the most challenging tasks among the computing activities at the Large Hadron Collider. The Experiment Dashboard offers a solution that not only monitors but also manages (kill, resubmit) user tasks and jobs via a web interface. The ATLAS Dashboard Task Monitor provides analysis users with a tool that is independent of the operating system and Grid environment. This contribution describes the functionality of the application and its implementation details, in particular authentication, authorization and audit of the management operations.

  11. Dashboard task monitor for managing ATLAS user analysis on the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsyan, L; Andreeva, J; Karavakis, E; Saiz, P; Tuckett, D; Jha, M; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Schovancova, J

    2014-01-01

    The organization of the distributed user analysis on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) infrastructure is one of the most challenging tasks among the computing activities at the Large Hadron Collider. The Experiment Dashboard offers a solution that not only monitors but also manages (kill, resubmit) user tasks and jobs via a web interface. The ATLAS Dashboard Task Monitor provides analysis users with a tool that is independent of the operating system and Grid environment. This contribution describes the functionality of the application and its implementation details, in particular authentication, authorization and audit of the management operations.

  12. Time-lapse downhole electrical resistivity monitoring of subsurface CO2 storage at the Maguelone shallow experimental site (Languedoc, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denchik, Nataliya; Pezard, Philippe; Lofi, Johanna; Perroud, Hervé; Neyens, Denis; Luquot, Linda

    2015-04-01

    A shallow field experimental site for CO2 injection was established at Maguelone (Languedoc,France), in order to test in an integrated manner a suite of surface and downhole hydrogeophysical monitoring methods. The objective is to improve our understanding of gas transport in the shallow subsurface and to determine the sensitivity of CO2 monitoring systems for leakage detection. The site offers a natural laboratory to study the processes associated with CO2 injection in a clastic and clay-rich context saturated with saline fluids. Prior to CO2injection, three nitrogen (N2) injections were undertaken in 2012 to measure the site response to neutral gas injection. In 2013, a volume of 111 m3 of CO2 was injected during 3.5 hours at 15 meter depth. During each experiment, the gas plumes were successfully detected from pressure monitoring, time-lapse induction logging and downhole resistivity monitoring with downhole dipole-dipole arrays. Increases in resistivity are attributed to free gas propagation (either N2 or CO2) whereas decreases in resistivity correlate with CO2 dissolution in the pore fluid. Chemical analyses confirm this hypothesis with a decrease in pH and an increase in the concentration of dissolved species in the later case. The next stage of the project will be performing the CO2 injection experiments with improved monitoring schema using results of the present study. In perspective, besides of improving our understanding of gas transport in the shallow subsurface, the additional issues could not just show a capability of used geophysical and geochemical techniques to monitor the CO2 plume and to detect near-surface CO2 migration pathways, but to help quantifying potential CO2 migration.

  13. Integrated System of Structural Health Monitoring and Intelligent Management for a Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to construct structural health monitoring systems for large important bridges. Zhijiang Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge that was built recently over the Hangzhou Qiantang River (the largest river in Zhejiang Province. The length of Zhijiang Bridge is 478 m, which comprises an arched twin-tower space and a twin-cable plane structure. As an example, the present study describes the integrated system of structural health monitoring and intelligent management for Zhijiang Bridge, which comprises an information acquisition system, data management system, evaluation and decision-making system, and application service system. The monitoring components include the working environment of the bridge and various factors that affect bridge safety, such as the stress and strain of the main bridge structure, vibration, cable force, temperature, and wind speed. In addition, the integrated system includes a forecasting and decision-making module for real-time online evaluation, which provides warnings and makes decisions based on the monitoring information. From this, the monitoring information, evaluation results, maintenance decisions, and warning information can be input simultaneously into the bridge monitoring center and traffic emergency center to share the monitoring data, thereby facilitating evaluations and decision making using the system.

  14. Integrated system of structural health monitoring and intelligent management for a cable-stayed bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Wang, Xu; Sun, Dezhang; Xie, Xu

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to construct structural health monitoring systems for large important bridges. Zhijiang Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge that was built recently over the Hangzhou Qiantang River (the largest river in Zhejiang Province). The length of Zhijiang Bridge is 478 m, which comprises an arched twin-tower space and a twin-cable plane structure. As an example, the present study describes the integrated system of structural health monitoring and intelligent management for Zhijiang Bridge, which comprises an information acquisition system, data management system, evaluation and decision-making system, and application service system. The monitoring components include the working environment of the bridge and various factors that affect bridge safety, such as the stress and strain of the main bridge structure, vibration, cable force, temperature, and wind speed. In addition, the integrated system includes a forecasting and decision-making module for real-time online evaluation, which provides warnings and makes decisions based on the monitoring information. From this, the monitoring information, evaluation results, maintenance decisions, and warning information can be input simultaneously into the bridge monitoring center and traffic emergency center to share the monitoring data, thereby facilitating evaluations and decision making using the system.

  15. Potential shortfall of pyramided transgenic cotton for insect resistance management

    OpenAIRE

    Brévault, Thierry; Heuberger, Shannon; Zhang, Min; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Ni, Xinzhi; Masson, Luke; Li, Xianchiun; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2013-01-01

    To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the “pyramid” strategy uses plants that produce two or more toxins that kill the same pest. In the United States, this strategy has been adopted widely, with two-toxin Bt cotton replacing one-toxin Bt cotton. Although two-toxin plants are likely to be more durable than one-toxin plants, the extent of this advantage depends on several conditions. One key assumption favori...

  16. Elicitors and soil management to induce resistance against fungal plant diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Tamm, L.; Thürig, B.; Fließbach, A.; Goltlieb, A. E.; Karavani, S.; Cohen, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Air-borne foliar diseases as well as soil-borne diseases can cause substantial losses in agricultural production systems. One of the strategies to overcome production losses caused by plant diseases is the targeted use of disease defence mechanisms that are inherent to plants. In this paper, the potential to enhance the plant’s health status either by inducing resistance through optimized soil management techniques or by foliar application of inducers of resistance is explored on the basis of...

  17. On-line monitoring of resistance of aqueous solutions at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shilin; Zhang Pingzhu; Shang Weiguo

    1999-01-01

    The coulostatic measurement is a fast speed electrochemical test method. By this technology, analyzing Δ E(t)- T curves recorded under coulostatic perturbation, the solution resistance R l , resistance of coated film R f , capacity of coated film C f , Polarization resistance R p and double layer capacity C d are obtained. The resistance variety of 0.05N KCl is measured from room temperature up to 255 deg. C under saturation steam pressure. (author)

  18. National Levee Database: monitoring, vulnerability assessment and management in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbetta, Silvia; Camici, Stefania; Maccioni, Pamela; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2015-04-01

    Italian levees and historical breach failures to be exploited in the framework of an operational procedure addressed to the seepage vulnerability assessment of river reaches where the levee system is an important structural measure against flooding. For its structure, INLED is a dynamic geospatial database with ongoing efforts to add levee data from authorities with the charge of hydraulic risk mitigation. In particular, the database is aimed to provide the available information about: i) location and condition of levees; ii) morphological and geometrical properties; iii) photographic documentation; iv) historical levee failures; v) assessment of vulnerability to overtopping and seepage carried out through a procedure based on simple vulnerability indexes (Camici et al. 2014); vi) management, control and maintenance; vii)flood hazard maps developed by assuming the levee system undamaged/damaged during the flood event. Currently, INLED contains data of levees that are mostly located in the Tiber basin, Central Italy. References Apel H., Merz B. & Thieken A.H. Quantification of uncertainties in flood risk assessments. Int J River Basin Manag 2008, 6, (2), 149-162. Camici S,, Barbetta S., Moramarco T., Levee body vulnerability to seepage: the case study of the levee failure along the Foenna stream on 1st January 2006 (central Italy)", Journal of Flood Risk Management, in press. Colleselli F. Geotechnical problems related to river and channel embankments. Rotterdam, the Netherlands: Springer, 1994. H. R.Wallingford Consultants (HRWC). Risk assessment for flood and coastal defence for strategic planning: high level methodology technical report, London, 2003. Mazzoleni M., Bacchi B., Barontini S., Di Baldassarre G., Pilotti M. & Ranzi R. Flooding hazard mapping in floodplain areas affected by piping breaches in the Po River, Italy. J Hydrol Eng 2014, 19, (4), 717-731.

  19. Anthelmintic resistance: Management of parasite refugia for Haemonchus contortus through the replacement of resistant with susceptible populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchiut, Sebastián Manuel; Fernández, Alicia Silvina; Steffan, Pedro Eduardo; Riva, Eliana; Fiel, César Alberto

    2018-04-30

    Sheep production in tropical and temperate regions is hampered by the presence of Haemonchus contortus, the blood-sucking nematode that is the major cause of economic losses in small ruminant enterprises. The most limiting factor in the control of this parasitic disease is the steady progress of anthelmintic resistance worldwide. The search for control strategies that minimise the use of anthelmintics is therefore central to various efforts worldwide. One strategy is the introduction of susceptible parasites in refugia when these refugia are at low levels. This strategy could lead to a renewed possibility anthelmintics being effective. At farm level, this management practice could recover the use of anthelmintics in flocks with high levels of resistance. This review explores the possibility of replacing resistant H. contortus populations with susceptible ones through refugia management and. highlights the experiences of on-farm research attempts carried out in different geographical areas, reaching various degrees of success. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Electronic hand hygiene monitoring as a tool for reducing health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J William; Blackhurst, Dawn; McAtee, Wendy; Steed, Connie

    2016-08-01

    Electronic monitoring of hand hygiene compliance using the World Health Organization's My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene is a new innovation that has not yet been shown to reduce hospital infections. We analyzed existing data from 23 inpatient units over a 33-month period and found a significant correlation between unit-specific improvements in electronic monitoring compliance and reductions in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection rates (r = -0.37, P < .001). Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct current (DC) resistivity and induced polarization (IP) monitoring of active layer dynamics at high temporal resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, Joseph; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Christiansen, Anders V.

    2015-01-01

    With permafrost thawing and changes in active layer dynamics induced by climate change, interactions between biogeochemical and thermal processes in the ground are of great importance. Here, active layer dynamics have been monitored using direct current (DC) resistivity and induced polarization (IP...... and subsurface temperatures supplemented the DC-IP measurements. A time-lapse DC-IP monitoring system has been acquiring at least six datasets per day on a 42-electrode profile with 0.5. m electrode spacing since July 2013. Remote control of the data acquisition system enables interactive adaptation...

  2. Soil management effect on soil penetration resistance in the vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Catania

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In environments characterized by steep slopes or arranged in terraces, among the shallow tillage systems, rototilling is extensively used. However, the effect of the repeated use of rototilling has a considerable influence on soil characteristics; it appears finely powdered, soft and without structure. In order to limit these inconveniences, an innovative self-propelled machine equipped with working tools as a spade, to be used in steep slopes or arranged in terraces areas, was designed by the Mechanics Section of the SAF (Scienze Agrarie e Forestali Department of the University of Palermo in cooperation with Agrotec company, Padua, Italy. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of three machines for shallow tillage: a chisel plough (CP, a rototilling (RT and a spading machine (SM on penetration resistance in semi-arid environments of the Mediterranean basin. No tillage was also included. Penetration resistance (PR was surveyed for all the treatments to a depth of 300 mm with an electronic dynamometer. The treatments consisted in the execution of a shallow tillage to a depth of 150 mm. SP treatment allowed us to obtain PR lower values throughout the tillage profile than RT, CP and NT. It follows that the type of machine used influences soil PR, and then the soil water storage capacity, key factor for the agricultural productions in semi-arid environments as in Sicily.

  3. Mechanisms and management of diuretic resistance in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyne, L K M

    2003-05-01

    Diuretic drugs are used almost universally in patients with congestive heart failure, most frequently the potent loop diuretics. Despite their unproven effect on survival, their indisputable efficacy in relieving congestive symptoms makes them first line therapy for most patients. In the treatment of more advanced stages of heart failure diuretics may fail to control salt and water retention despite the use of appropriate doses. Diuretic resistance may be caused by decreased renal function and reduced and delayed peak concentrations of loop diuretics in the tubular fluid, but it can also be observed in the absence of these pharmacokinetic abnormalities. When the effect of a short acting diuretic has worn off, postdiuretic salt retention will occur during the rest of the day. Chronic treatment with a loop diuretic results in compensatory hypertrophy of epithelial cells downstream from the thick ascending limb and consequently its diuretic effect will be blunted. Strategies to overcome diuretic resistance include restriction of sodium intake, changes in dose, changes in timing, and combination diuretic therapy.

  4. An Autopsy Checklist: A Monitor of Safety and Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkrum, Michael James; Kent, Jessica

    2016-09-01

    Any autopsy has safety and risk management issues, which can arise in the preautopsy, autopsy, and postautopsy phases. The London Health Sciences Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Autopsy Checklist was developed to address these issues. The current study assessed 1 measure of autopsy safety: the effectiveness of the checklist in documenting pathologists' communication of the actual or potential risk of blood-borne infections to support staff. Autopsy checklists for cases done in 2012 and 2013 were reviewed. The frequency of communication, as recorded in checklists, by pathologists to staff of previously diagnosed blood-borne infections (hepatitis B/C and human immunodeficiency virus) or the risk of infection based on lifestyle (eg, intravenous drug abuse) was tabulated. These data were compared with medical histories of the deceased and circumstances of their deaths described in the final autopsy reports. Information about blood-borne infections was recorded less frequently in the checklists compared with the final reports. Of 4 known human immunodeficiency virus cases, there was no checklist documentation in 3. All 11 hand injuries were documented. None of these cases had known infectious risks. The Autopsy Checklist is a standardized means of documenting safety and risk issues arising during the autopsy process, but its effectiveness relies on accurate completion.

  5. Manual on SFR R and D and Technology Monitoring System Based on Enterprise Project Management Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Uk; Lee, Yong Bum; Won, Byung Chool; Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee

    2008-04-15

    This report is a manual on enterprise project management solution for R and D and technology monitoring system that is applicable for managing the generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor development. The prime goal of this system is to provide project manager with reliable and accurate information of status of progress, performance and resource allocation, and attain traceability and visibility of project implementation for effective project management. This report is composed of the three part. The first part is an introduction on microsoft project professional software that was used to monitor the progress, evaluate the results and analyze the resource distribution of the activities. The second makes a description of project plan and control, and the third part describes on collaboration and teamwork.

  6. Manual on SFR R and D and Technology Monitoring System Based on Enterprise Project Management Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Uk; Lee, Yong Bum; Won, Byung Chool; Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee

    2008-04-01

    This report is a manual on enterprise project management solution for R and D and technology monitoring system that is applicable for managing the generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor development. The prime goal of this system is to provide project manager with reliable and accurate information of status of progress, performance and resource allocation, and attain traceability and visibility of project implementation for effective project management. This report is composed of the three part. The first part is an introduction on microsoft project professional software that was used to monitor the progress, evaluate the results and analyze the resource distribution of the activities. The second makes a description of project plan and control, and the third part describes on collaboration and teamwork

  7. Development of database management system for monitoring of radiation workers for actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyane, G.N.; Mishra, L.; Nadar, M.Y.; Singh, I.S.; Rao, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Annually around 500 radiation workers are monitored for estimation of lung activities and internal dose due to Pu/Am and U from various divisions of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (Trombay) and from PREFRE and A3F facilities (Tarapur) in lung counting laboratory located at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre hospital under Routine and Special monitoring program. A 20 cm diameter phoswich and an array of HPGe detector were used for this purpose. In case of positive contamination, workers are followed up and monitored using both the detection systems in different geometries. Management of this huge data becomes difficult and therefore an easily retrievable database system containing all the relevant data of the monitored radiation workers. Materials and methods: The database management system comprises of three main modules integrated together: 1) Apache server installed on a Windows (XP) platform (Apache version 2.2.17) 2) MySQL database management system (MySQL version 5.5.8) 3) PHP (Preformatted Hypertext) programming language (PHP version 5.3.5). All the 3 modules work together seamlessly as a single software program. The front end user interaction is through an user friendly and interactive local web page where internet connection is not required. This front page has hyperlinks to many other pages, which have different utilities for the user. The user has to log in using username and password. Results and Conclusions: Database management system is used for entering, updating and management of lung monitoring data of radiation workers, The program is having following utilities: bio-data entry of new subjects, editing of bio-data of old subjects (only one subject at a time), entry of counting data of that day's lung monitoring, retrieval of old records based on a number of parameters and filters like date of counting, employee number, division, counts fulfilling a given criterion, etc. and calculation of MEQ CWT (Muscle Equivalent Chest Wall Thickness), energy

  8. Antimicrobial resistance in Helicobacter pylori: current situation and management strategy in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Trung Nam; Tran, Van Huy; Tran, Thi Nhu Hoa; Le, Van An; Santona, Antonella; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-07-04

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance to key antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori has become a main cause of treatment failures in many countries, including Vietnam. For this reason it is advisable to perform antimicrobial sensitivity tests to provide more focused regimens for H. pylori eradication. However, this approach is generally unavailable for H. pylori in Vietnam and the selection of treatment regimens is mainly based on the trend of antibiotic use in the population, resistance development in the region, and history of H. pylori eradication of patients. The aim of this review is to examine the current situation of antimicrobial resistance in Vietnam and suggest management strategies for treatment selection.

  9. Project management metrics, KPIs, and dashboards a guide to measuring and monitoring project performance

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Today, with the growth of complex projects, stakeholder involvement in projects, advances in computer technology for dashboard designs, metrics, and key performance indicators for project management have become an important focus. This Second Edition of the bestselling book walks readers through everything from the basics of project management metrics and key performance indicators to establishing targets and using dashboards to monitor performance. The content is aligned with PMI's PMBOK Guide and stresses "value" as the main focal point.

  10. Complex data management for landslide monitoring in emergency conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrieri, Emanuele; Bardi, Federica; Fanti, Riccardo; Gigli, Giovanni; Fidolini, Francesco; Casagli, Nicola; Costanzo, Sandra; Raffo, Antonio; Di Massa, Giuseppe; Versace, Pasquale

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization, especially in mountain areas, can be considered a major cause for high landslide risk because of the increased exposure of elements at risk. Among the elements at risk, important communication routes such as highways, can be classified as critical infrastructures, since their rupture can cause deaths and chain effects with catastrophic damages on society. The resiliency policy involves prevention activities but also, and more importantly, those activities needed to maintain functionality after disruption and promptly alert incoming catastrophes. To tackle these issues, early warning systems are increasingly employed. However, a gap exists between the ever more technologically advanced instruments and the actual capability of exploiting their full potential. This is due to several factors such as the limited internet connectivity with respect to big data transfers, or the impossibility for operators to check a continuous flow of real time information. A ground-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar was installed along the A16 highway (Campania Region, Southern Italy) to monitor an unstable slope threatening this infrastructure. The installation was in an area where the only internet connection available was 3G, with a limit of 2 gigabyte data transfer per month. On the other hand interferometric data are complex numbers organized in a matrix where each pixel contains both phase and amplitude information of the backscattered signal. The radar employed produced a 1001x1001 complex matrix (corresponding to 7 megabytes) every 5 minutes. Therefore there was the need to reduce the massive data flow produced by the radar. For this reason data were locally and automatically elaborated in order to produce, from a complex matrix, a simple ASCII grid containing only the pixel by pixel displacement value, which is derived from the phase information. Then, since interferometry only measures the displacement component projected along the radar line of sight

  11. The management of insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teede, Helena J; Hutchison, Samantha K; Zoungas, Sophia

    2007-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has reproductive and metabolic implications. Insulin resistance (IR), secondary to genetic and lifestyle factors, is integral in the pathogenesis, metabolic, clinical features and the long-term sequelae in the majority of people with PCOS. Therapeutic strategies targeting IR in PCOS ameliorate clinical features and might reduce long-term sequelae including diabetes. The mainstay for improving IR is lifestyle change; however, feasibility and sustainability remain concerns. In PCOS, metformin reduces IR, improves ovarian function, regulates cycles, lowers androgens, improves clinical hyperandrogenism and potentially improves fertility. Metformin is also likely to delay diabetes onset and has a role in PCOS in those at high risk of diabetes; however, further research is needed to clarify specific target subgroups and clinical indications.

  12. Management of patients with resistant hypertension: current treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nilay Kumar,1 David A Calhoun,2 Tanja Dudenbostel21Department of Medicine, 2Division of Cardiovascular Disease, Hypertension and Vascular Biology Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: Resistant hypertension (RHTN is an increasingly common clinical problem that is often heterogeneous in etiology, risk factors, and comorbidities. It is defined as uncontrolled blood pressure on optimal doses of three antihypertensive agents, ideally one being a diuretic. The definition also includes controlled hypertension with use of four or more antihypertensive agents. Recent observational studies have advanced the characterization of patients with RHTN. Patients with RHTN have higher rates of cardiovascular events and mortality compared with patients with more easily controlled hypertension. Secondary causes of hypertension, including obstructive sleep apnea, primary aldosteronism, renovascular disease, are common in patients with RHTN and often coexist in the same patient. In addition, RHTN is often complicated by metabolic abnormalities. Patients with RHTN require a thorough evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and optimize treatment, which typically includes a combination of lifestyle adjustments, and pharmacologic and interventional treatment. Combination therapy including a diuretic, a long-acting calcium channel blocker, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, a beta blocker, and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist where warranted is the classic regimen for patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists like spironolactone or eplerenone have been shown to be efficacious in patients with RHTN, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and primary aldosteronism. Novel interventional therapies, including baroreflex activation and renal denervation, have shown that both of these methods may be used to lower blood pressure safely, thereby providing exciting and promising new

  13. Management of Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : This disorder, also known by terms such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, upper airway sleep disorder and snoring. Snoring has also been identified as a possible risk factor for hyper tension, ischemic heart disease and stroke. The role of dentistry in sleep disorders is becoming more significant, especially in co- managing patients with simple snoring and mild to moderate OSA. The practicing dental professional has the opportunity to assist patients at a variety of levels, starting with the recognition of a sleep -related disorder, referring patients to a physician for evaluation and assisting in the management of sleep disorders. The first and simplest option would be behaviour modification, followed by insertion of oral devices suited to the patient, especially in those with mild to moderate OSA. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP and surgic al options are chosen for patients with moderate to severe OSA.

  14. Using a cell phone-based glucose monitoring system for adolescent diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Aaron E; DiMeglio, Linda A; Stein, Stephanie; Marrero, David G

    2011-01-01

    Mobile technology may be useful in addressing several issues in adolescent diabetes management. To assess the feasibility and acceptability of a cell phone glucose monitoring system for adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents. The authors recruited patients with type 1 diabetes who had been diagnosed for at least 1 year. Each adolescent used the system for 6 months, filling out surveys every 3 months to measure their usability and satisfaction with the cell phone glucose monitoring system, as well as how use of the system might affect quality of family functioning and diabetes management. Adolescents reported positive feelings about the technology and the service, even though a concerning number of them had significant technical issues that affected continued use of the device. Nearly all thought that the clinic involvement in monitoring testing behavior was quite acceptable. The use of the Glucophone™ did not, however, significantly change the quality of life of the adolescents, their level of conflict with their parents, their reported self-management of diabetes, or their average glycemic control within the short time frame of the study. As a feasibility study of the technology, this work was successful in demonstrating that cell phone glucose monitoring technology can be used in an adolescent population to track and assist in self-monitoring behavior. The authors speculate that explicitly attempting to change behavior, perhaps with the use of behavioral contracts, would enhance the technology's ability to improve outcomes.

  15. Incorporating genetic sampling in long-term monitoring and adaptive management in the San Diego County Management Strategic Plan Area, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergast, Amy G.

    2017-06-02

    Habitat and species conservation plans usually rely on monitoring to assess progress towards conservation goals. Southern California, USA, is a hotspot of biodiversity and home to many federally endangered and threatened species. Here, several regional multi-species conservation plans have been implemented to balance development and conservation goals, including in San Diego County. In the San Diego County Management Strategic Plan Area (MSPA), a monitoring framework for the preserve system has been developed with a focus on species monitoring, vegetation monitoring, threats monitoring and abiotic monitoring. Genetic sampling over time (genetic monitoring) has proven useful in gathering species presence and abundance data and detecting population trends, particularly related to species and threats monitoring objectives. This report reviews genetic concepts and techniques of genetics that relate to monitoring goals and outlines components of a genetic monitoring scheme that could be applied in San Diego or in other monitoring frameworks throughout the Nation.

  16. Direct current (DC) resistivity and Induced Polarization (IP) monitoring of active layer dynamics at high temporal resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, J.; Fiandaca, G.; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    With permafrost thawing and changes in active layer dynamics induced by climate change, interactions between biogeochemical and thermal processes in the ground are of great importance. Here, active layer dynamics have been monitored using direct current (DC) resistivity and induced polarization (...... non-intrusively and reliably image freezing patterns and their lateral variation on a 10-100 m scale that is difficult to sample by point measurements.......) measurements at high temporal resolution at a heath tundra site on Disko Island on the west coast of Greenland (69°N). Borehole sediment characteristics and subsurface temperatures supplemented the DC-IP measurements. Data acquired during the freezing period of October 2013 – February 2014 clearly image...... the soil freezing as a strong increase in resistivity. While the freezing horizon generally moves deeper with time, some variations in the freezing depth are observed along the profile. Comparison with depth-specific soil temperature indicates an exponential relationship between resistivity and below-freezing...

  17. Self-monitoring and self-management: new interventions to improve blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, David E; McManus, Richard J

    2016-11-01

    This article reviews recent developments in self-monitoring and self-management of hypertension aimed at the improvement of blood pressure (BP) control. There is an increasing body of evidence examining the effects of self-monitoring on BP control. Several landmark studies in recent years have demonstrated clinically relevant benefit from self-monitoring based interventions. Self-management of BP with self-titration has shown particular promise, as has self-monitoring combined with intensive health-care led support. There is a lack of evidence on the benefits of self-monitoring for those with important comorbidity such as coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, diabetes and previous stroke, and future research should be directed towards this. There is a growing body of evidence supporting the use of self-monitoring along with additional intervention including telemonitoring and self-titration in improving BP control. Further research is needed to understand which patients are likely to benefit most and how this is best integrated with routine care.

  18. Positive and normative modeling for Palmer amaranth control and herbicide resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvold, George B; Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V; Norsworthy, Jason K

    2017-06-01

    Dynamic optimization models are normative; they solve for what growers 'ought to do' to maximize some objective, such as long-run profits. While valuable for research, such models are difficult to solve computationally, limiting their applicability to grower resistance management education. While discussing properties of normative models in general, this study presents results of a specific positive model of herbicide resistance management, applied to Palmer amaranth control on a representative cotton farm. This positive model compares a proactive resistance management strategy to a reactive strategy with lower short-run costs, but greater risk of herbicide resistance developing. The proactive strategy can pay for itself within 1-4 years, with a yield advantage of 4% or less if the yield advantage begins within 1-2 years of adoption. Whether the proactive strategy is preferable is sensitive to resistance onset and yield losses, but less sensitive to cotton prices or baseline yields. Industry rebates to encourage residual herbicide use (to delay resistance to post-emergence treatments) may be too small to alter grower behavior or they may be paid to growers who would have used residuals anyway. Rebates change grower behavior over a relatively narrow range of model parameters. The size of rebates needed to induce a grower to adopt the proactive strategy declines significantly if growers extend their planning horizon from 1 year to 3-4 years. Whether proactive resistance management is more profitable than a reactive strategy is more sensitive to biological parameters than economic ones. Simulation results suggest growers with longer time horizons (perhaps younger ones) would be more responsive to rebate programs. More empirical work is needed to determine how much rebates increase residual use above what would occur without them. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Design and implementation of monitoring and evaluation of healthcare organization management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampos, Platis; Emmanouil, Zoulias; Dimitrios, Iracleous; Lappa, Evaggelia

    2017-09-01

    The management of a healthcare organization is monitored using a suitably designed questionnaire to 271 nurses operating in Greek hospital. The data are fed to an automatic data mining system to obtain a suitable series of models to analyse, visualise and study the obtained information. Hidden patterns, correlations and interdependencies are investigated and the results are analytically presented.

  20. Does it work? Monitoring the effectiveness of stream management practices in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    The condition of aquatic habitat and the health of aquatic species, particularly salmon, are a significant concern in the Pacific Northwest. Land management agencies use fish and riparian guidelines intended to maintain or improve aquatic habitat. Gauging whether or not those guidelines are effectively meeting their objectives requires careful monitoring of stream...

  1. Biodiversity in School Grounds: Auditing, Monitoring and Managing an Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The idea of using site biodiversity action plans to introduce biodiversity management initiatives into school grounds is outlined. Selected parts of a case study, involving the use of such an action plan to record, monitor and plan for biodiversity on a university campus, are described and ideas for applying a similar plan to a school setting are…

  2. A Successful Replication of the River Visitor Inventory and Monitoring Process for Capacity Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth Chilman; James Vogel; Greg Brown; John H. Burde

    2004-01-01

    This paper has 3 purposes: to discuss 1. case study research and its utility for recreation management decisionmaking, 2. the recreation visitor inventory and monitoring process developed from case study research, and 3. a successful replication of the process in a large-scale, multi-year application. Although case study research is discussed in research textbooks as...

  3. Continuous EEG monitoring in the intensive care unit: beta scientific and management scientific aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, P.M.H.; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria; Jarm, T.; Kramar, P.; Zupanic, A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to various technological advances, it is now possible to continuously monitor critically ill patients using EEG, including the extraction of various quantitative features. In this study, several beta scientific and management scientific aspects of the implementation and use of cEEg on the ICU

  4. Monitoring and Evaluation of an Early Childhood Development Programme: Implications for Leadership and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Sarah; Papatheodorou, Theodora; James, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to discuss preliminary findings from a participatory monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework, used in a community-based early childhood development (ECD) programme in KwaZulu-Natal South Africa, and their implications for leadership and management. The purposes of the M&E were for LETCEE, the implementing organization,…

  5. System Configuration Management Implementation Procedure for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Monitoring and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANGLESEY, M.O.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish the System Configuration Management Implementation Procedure (SCMIP) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Monitoring and Control System (MCS). This procedure provides configuration management for the process control system. The process control system consists of equipment hardware and software that controls and monitors the instrumentation and equipment associated with the CVDF processes. Refer to SNF-3090, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Monitoring and Control System Design Description, HNF-3553, Annex B, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, and AP-CM-6-037-00, SNF Project Process Automation Software and Equipment Configuration. This SCMIP identifies and defines the system configuration items in the control system, provides configuration control throughout the system life cycle, provides configuration status accounting, physical protection and control, and verifies the completeness and correctness of these items

  6. Environmental auditing: Capabilities and management utility of recreation impact monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    A recreation impact monitoring system was developed and applied in 1984?1986 and in 1991 to all backcountry river-accessed campsites within Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Results suggest that actions implemented by park managers in response to problems identified by the initial survey were highly effective in reducing resource degradation caused by camping. In particular, the elimination of some designated campsites and installation of anchored firegrates reduced the total area of disturbance by 50%. Firegrate installation provided a focal point that increased the concentration of camping activities, allowing peripheral areas to recover. As suggested by predictive models, additional resource degradation caused by increased camping intensities is more than offset by improvements in the condition of areas where use is eliminated. The capabilities and management utility of recreation impact monitoring programs, illustrated by the Delaware Water Gap monitoring program, are also presented and discussed.

  7. Development of intergrated accident management assessment technology; development of interface modules of risk-monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S. K.; Park, S. K.; Seok, H.; Kim, D. K.; Han, J. K.; Park, B. R. [KOPEC, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Based on the development of interface modules with FORTE.- DynaRM can quantify risk model very fast (Very frequent risk model quantification is needed for configuration risk management).- risk monitoring system technology transfer to foreign NPPs. Contribution to component failure and maintenance control automation with the development of Tagging control System. On-Line risk monitoring system development by joint team between Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and KOPEC is a request by KEPCO. The softwares developed in this study is easily implemented at domestic NPPs without extra study or cost. Economic benefit and Software export to foreign NPPs are expected because of the development of technology related to risk monitoring system and its management. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  8. Skid resistance determination for pavement management and wet-weather road safety

    OpenAIRE

    T.F. Fwa

    2017-01-01

    Road accidents during wet weather have been a topic of major concern of road engineers in regions of wet-tropical climate and in other parts of the world during the wet season of the year. Road safety studies indicate that approximately 20% of all road accidents occurred during wet weather, and that the skid resistance of wet pavements have a major influence on the occurrences of wet-weather accidents. Monitoring of wet pavement skid resistance has been an integral part of a typical pavement ...

  9. Sampling strategies in antimicrobial resistance monitoring: evaluating how precision and sensitivity vary with the number of animals sampled per farm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehisa Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Because antimicrobial resistance in food-producing animals is a major public health concern, many countries have implemented antimicrobial monitoring systems at a national level. When designing a sampling scheme for antimicrobial resistance monitoring, it is necessary to consider both cost effectiveness and statistical plausibility. In this study, we examined how sampling scheme precision and sensitivity can vary with the number of animals sampled from each farm, while keeping the overall sample size constant to avoid additional sampling costs. Five sampling strategies were investigated. These employed 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 animal samples per farm, with a total of 12 animals sampled in each strategy. A total of 1,500 Escherichia coli isolates from 300 fattening pigs on 30 farms were tested for resistance against 12 antimicrobials. The performance of each sampling strategy was evaluated by bootstrap resampling from the observational data. In the bootstrapping procedure, farms, animals, and isolates were selected randomly with replacement, and a total of 10,000 replications were conducted. For each antimicrobial, we observed that the standard deviation and 2.5-97.5 percentile interval of resistance prevalence were smallest in the sampling strategy that employed 1 animal per farm. The proportion of bootstrap samples that included at least 1 isolate with resistance was also evaluated as an indicator of the sensitivity of the sampling strategy to previously unidentified antimicrobial resistance. The proportion was greatest with 1 sample per farm and decreased with larger samples per farm. We concluded that when the total number of samples is pre-specified, the most precise and sensitive sampling strategy involves collecting 1 sample per farm.

  10. Management Information System (MIS: Tool for Monitoring the Waste Management Health Service (RSS and Cost of Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Elisabete Schneider

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges of solid waste management has been improve and deploy systems that perform monitoring and control of management processes of health service’s waste (HSW. This study aims to evaluate the total cost per category of HSW/day and active bed/day with the handling of HSW in a teaching hospital in northeastern area of Brazil`s Rio Grande do Sul state and identify contributions of a management information system (MIS in the management process, especially considering the generation and segregation of waste. Utilized methodology was developed in two stages: data collection about the management of the HSW and proposition, implementation and feed of a MIS for recording and processing of data related to waste characterization. Results show that whether the management system of the hospital in this study were 100% right, the monthly savings for the treatment of infectious waste would be 18.4% of the costs and 5.83% of costs of chemical waste. The implementation of MIS becomes an essential tool in the evaluation of the management process of HSW since it makes possible to raise issues of fundamental importance to the implementation and evaluation of strategies contained in the HSW management plan. The MIS also represents a tool of easy reference and of great importance to evaluate generation of HSW as it helps to promote the surveillance, identification of sectors that have the biggest problems with segregation, as well as ways to minimize costs and impacts.

  11. Antimicrobial Resistance: Its Surveillance, Impact, and Alternative Management Strategies in Dairy Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Rokana, Namita; Chandra, Mudit; Singh, Brij Pal; Gulhane, Rohini Devidas; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh; Ray, Pallab; Puniya, Anil Kumar; Panwar, Harsh

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), one among the most common priority areas identified by both national and international agencies, is mushrooming as a silent pandemic. The advancement in public health care through introduction of antibiotics against infectious agents is now being threatened by global development of multidrug-resistant strains. These strains are product of both continuous evolution and un-checked antimicrobial usage (AMU). Though antibiotic application in livestock has largely contributed toward health and productivity, it has also played significant role in evolution of resistant strains. Although, a significant emphasis has been given to AMR in humans, trends in animals, on other hand, are not much emphasized. Dairy farming involves surplus use of antibiotics as prophylactic and growth promoting agents. This non-therapeutic application of antibiotics, their dosage, and withdrawal period needs to be re-evaluated and rationally defined. A dairy animal also poses a serious risk of transmission of resistant strains to humans and environment. Outlining the scope of the problem is necessary for formulating and monitoring an active response to AMR. Effective and commendably connected surveillance programs at multidisciplinary level can contribute to better understand and minimize the emergence of resistance. Besides, it requires a renewed emphasis on investments into research for finding alternate, safe, cost effective, and innovative strategies, parallel to discovery of new antibiotics. Nevertheless, numerous direct or indirect novel approaches based on host–microbial interaction and molecular mechanisms of pathogens are also being developed and corroborated by researchers to combat the threat of resistance. This review places a concerted effort to club the current outline of AMU and AMR in dairy animals; ongoing global surveillance and monitoring programs; its impact at animal human interface; and strategies for combating resistance with an extensive

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance: Its Surveillance, Impact, and Alternative Management Strategies in Dairy Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance (AMR, one among the most common priority areas identified by both national and international agencies, is mushrooming as a silent pandemic. The advancement in public health care through introduction of antibiotics against infectious agents is now being threatened by global development of multidrug-resistant strains. These strains are product of both continuous evolution and un-checked antimicrobial usage (AMU. Though antibiotic application in livestock has largely contributed toward health and productivity, it has also played significant role in evolution of resistant strains. Although, a significant emphasis has been given to AMR in humans, trends in animals, on other hand, are not much emphasized. Dairy farming involves surplus use of antibiotics as prophylactic and growth promoting agents. This non-therapeutic application of antibiotics, their dosage, and withdrawal period needs to be re-evaluated and rationally defined. A dairy animal also poses a serious risk of transmission of resistant strains to humans and environment. Outlining the scope of the problem is necessary for formulating and monitoring an active response to AMR. Effective and commendably connected surveillance programs at multidisciplinary level can contribute to better understand and minimize the emergence of resistance. Besides, it requires a renewed emphasis on investments into research for finding alternate, safe, cost effective, and innovative strategies, parallel to discovery of new antibiotics. Nevertheless, numerous direct or indirect novel approaches based on host–microbial interaction and molecular mechanisms of pathogens are also being developed and corroborated by researchers to combat the threat of resistance. This review places a concerted effort to club the current outline of AMU and AMR in dairy animals; ongoing global surveillance and monitoring programs; its impact at animal human interface; and strategies for combating resistance

  13. Long-term biological monitoring of an impaired stream: synthesis and environmental management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark J; Efroymson, Rebecca A; Adams, S Marshall

    2011-06-01

    The long-term ecological recovery of an impaired stream in response to an industrial facility's pollution abatement actions and the implications of the biological monitoring effort to environmental management is the subject of this special issue of Environmental Management. This final article focuses on the synthesis of the biological monitoring program's components and methods, the efficacy of various biological monitoring techniques to environmental management, and the lessons learned from the program that might be applicable to the design and application of other programs. The focus of the 25-year program has been on East Fork Poplar Creek, an ecologically impaired stream in Oak Ridge, Tennessee with varied and complex stressors from a Department of Energy facility in its headwaters. Major components of the long-term program included testing and monitoring of invertebrate and fish toxicity, bioindicators of fish health, fish contaminant accumulation, and instream communities (including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish). Key parallel components of the program include water chemistry sampling and data management. Multiple lines of evidence suggested positive ecological responses during three major pollution abatement periods. Based on this case study and the related literature, effective environmental management of impaired streams starts with program design that is consistent across space and time, but also adaptable to changing conditions. The biological monitoring approaches used for the program provided a strong basis for assessments of recovery from remedial actions, and the likely causes of impairment. This case study provides a unique application of multidisciplinary and quantitative techniques to address multiple and complex regulatory and programmatic goals, environmental stressors, and remedial actions.

  14. eHealth in the future of medications management: personalisation, monitoring and adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Car, Josip; Tan, Woan Shin; Huang, Zhilian; Sloot, Peter; Franklin, Bryony Dean

    2017-04-05

    Globally, healthcare systems face major challenges with medicines management and medication adherence. Medication adherence determines medication effectiveness and can be the single most effective intervention for improving health outcomes. In anticipation of growth in eHealth interventions worldwide, we explore the role of eHealth in the patients' medicines management journey in primary care, focusing on personalisation and intelligent monitoring for greater adherence. eHealth offers opportunities to transform every step of the patient's medicines management journey. From booking appointments, consultation with a healthcare professional, decision-making, medication dispensing, carer support, information acquisition and monitoring, to learning about medicines and their management in daily life. It has the potential to support personalisation and monitoring and thus lead to better adherence. For some of these dimensions, such as supporting decision-making and providing reminders and prompts, evidence is stronger, but for many others more rigorous research is urgently needed. Given the potential benefits and barriers to eHealth in medicines management, a fine balance needs to be established between evidence-based integration of technologies and constructive experimentation that could lead to a game-changing breakthrough. A concerted, transdisciplinary approach adapted to different contexts, including low- and middle-income contries is required to realise the benefits of eHealth at scale.

  15. Project monitoring and evaluation: an enhancing method for health research system management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Owlia, Parviz; Malekafzali, Hossein; Ghanei, Mostafa; Babamahmoodi, Abdolreza; Peykari, Niloofar

    2014-04-01

    Planning, organizing, staffing, leading and monitoring are the basic functional component of management. In present article, we aim to define the project monitoring and evaluation in health research system (HRS) considering its success and challenges based on our national experience. IN THIS STUDY BASED ON THE INFORMATION OF ANNUAL MEDICAL SCIENCE UNIVERSITIES EVALUATION DURING THE LAST DECADE THE HRS INDICATORS HAVE BEEN SCORED IN THREE AXES BASED ON HRS FUNCTIONS: Stewardship, capacity building and knowledge production. In this article, we will focus on the results of HRS evaluation from 2002 to 2010, also on its success and challenges. In an overall view, the main results are the experiences of the designing and implantation of such process after pre-project preparation, all parts followed under the whole supervision of the aims of the HRS evaluation. Project management light the way of practical application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques for better HRS evaluation and management. We concluded that; although monitoring and evaluation as an essential part of HRS Management light the improvement ahead way but we still need to advantage of the new project management advances.

  16. Near Real-Time Monitoring of Global Evapotranspiration and its Application to Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, G. H.; Fisher, J.; Jewell, L. A.; Moore, G.; Verma, M.; McDonald, T.; Kim, S.; Muniz, A.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity and its impact on agriculture is a pressing world concern. At the heart of this crisis is the balance of water exchange between the land and the atmosphere. The ability to monitor evapotranspiration provides a solution by enabling sustainable irrigation practices. The Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory model of evapotranspiration has been implemented to meet this need as a daily MODIS product with 1 to 5 km resolution. An automated data pipeline for this model implementation provides daily data with global coverage and near real-time latency using the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library. An interactive map providing on-demand statistical analysis enables water resource managers to monitor rates of water loss. To demonstrate the application of remotely-sensed evapotranspiration to water resource management, a partnership has been arranged with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer (NMOSE). The online water research management tool was developed to meet the specifications of NMOSE using the Leaflet, GeoServer, and Django frameworks. NMOSE will utilize this tool to monitor drought and fire risk and manage irrigation. Through this test-case, it is hoped that real-time, user-friendly remote sensing tools will be adopted globally to make resource management decisions informed by the NASA Earth Observation System.

  17. Using mass-release of engineered insects to manage insecticide resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alphey, Nina; Coleman, Paul G.; Donnelly, Christl A.

    2006-01-01

    Transgenic crops expressing insecticidal toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used to control insect pests. The benefits of such crops would be lost if resistance to the toxins spread to a significant proportion of the pest population. The main resistance management method, mandatory in the US, is the high-dose/refuge strategy, requiring nearby refuges of toxin-free crops, and the use of toxin doses sufficiently high to kill not only wild type insects but also insects heterozygous for a resistance allele, thereby rendering the resistance functionally recessive. We propose that mass-release of harmless toxin-sensitive insects could substantially delay or even reverse the spread of resistance. Mass-release of such insects is an integral part of RIDL, a genetics-based method of pest control related to the Sterile Insect Technique. We used a population genetic mathematical model to analyze the effects of releasing male insects homozygous for a female-specific dominant lethal genetic construct, and concluded that this RIDL strategy could form an effective component of a resistance management scheme for insecticidal plants and other toxins. (author)

  18. Using mass-release of engineered insects to manage insecticide resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphey, Nina [University of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Zoology; Alphey, Luke [Oxitec Limited, Oxford (United Kingdom); Coleman, Paul G. [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (United Kingdom). Dept. of Infectious and Tropical Diseases; Donnelly, Christl A. [Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Infectious Disease Epidemiology

    2006-07-01

    Transgenic crops expressing insecticidal toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used to control insect pests. The benefits of such crops would be lost if resistance to the toxins spread to a significant proportion of the pest population. The main resistance management method, mandatory in the US, is the high-dose/refuge strategy, requiring nearby refuges of toxin-free crops, and the use of toxin doses sufficiently high to kill not only wild type insects but also insects heterozygous for a resistance allele, thereby rendering the resistance functionally recessive. We propose that mass-release of harmless toxin-sensitive insects could substantially delay or even reverse the spread of resistance. Mass-release of such insects is an integral part of RIDL, a genetics-based method of pest control related to the Sterile Insect Technique. We used a population genetic mathematical model to analyze the effects of releasing male insects homozygous for a female-specific dominant lethal genetic construct, and concluded that this RIDL strategy could form an effective component of a resistance management scheme for insecticidal plants and other toxins. (author)

  19. Active waste disposal monitoring at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes an active waste disposal monitoring system proposed to be installed beneath the low-level radioactive disposal site at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. The monitoring instruments will be installed while the waste is being disposed. Instruments will be located adjacent to and immediately beneath the disposal area within the unsaturated zone to provide early warning of contaminant movement before contaminants reach the Snake River Plain Aquifer. This study determined the optimum sampling techniques using existing monitoring equipment. Monitoring devices were chosen that provide long-term data for moisture content, movement of gamma-emitting nuclides, and gas concentrations in the waste. The devices will allow leachate collection, pore-water collection, collection of gasses, and access for drilling through and beneath the waste at a later time. The optimum monitoring design includes gas sampling devices above, within, and below the waste. Samples will be collected for methane, tritium, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and volatile organic compounds. Access tubes will be utilized to define the redistribution of radionuclides within, above, and below the waste over time and to define moisture content changes within the waste using spectral and neutron logging, respectively. Tracers will be placed within the cover material and within waste containers to estimate transport times by conservative chemical tracers. Monitoring the vadose zone below, within, and adjacent to waste while it is being buried is a viable monitoring option. 12 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  20. The use of energy management and control systems to monitor the energy performance of commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeier, Kristin Elizabeth [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Architecture

    1994-12-01

    Monitored data play a very important part in the implementation and evaluation of energy conservation technologies and programs. However, these data can be expensive to collect, so there is a need for lower-cost alternatives. In many situations, using the computerized Energy Management and Control Systems (EMCSs)--already installed in many buildings--to collect these commercial building performance data has advantages over more conventional methods. This method provides data without installing incremental hardware, and the large amounts of available operational data can be a very rich resource for understanding building performance. This dissertation addresses several of these issues. One specific objective is to describe a monitoring-project planning process that includes definition of objectives, constraints, resources and approaches for the monitoring. The choice of tools is an important part of this process. The dissertation goes on to demonstrate, through eight case studies, that EMCS monitoring is possible, and to identify and categorize the problems and issues that can be encountered. These issues lead to the creation, use, and testing of a set of methods for evaluation of EMCS monitoring, in the form of guidelines. Finally, EMCS monitoring is demonstrated and compared with conventional monitoring more methodically in a detailed case study.

  1. Advances in Intracranial Pressure Monitoring and Its Significance in Managing Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawoos, Usmah; McCarron, Richard M.; Auker, Charles R.; Chavko, Mikulas

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) measurements are essential in evaluation and treatment of neurological disorders such as subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, hydrocephalus, meningitis/encephalitis, and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The techniques of ICP monitoring have evolved from invasive to non-invasive—with both limitations and advantages. Some limitations of the invasive methods include short-term monitoring, risk of infection, restricted mobility of the subject, etc. The invasiveness of a method limits the frequency of ICP evaluation in neurological conditions like hydrocephalus, thus hampering the long-term care of patients with compromised ICP. Thus, there has been substantial interest in developing noninvasive techniques for assessment of ICP. Several approaches were reported, although none seem to provide a complete solution due to inaccuracy. ICP measurements are fundamental for immediate care of TBI patients in the acute stages of severe TBI injury. In severe TBI, elevated ICP is associated with mortality or poor clinical outcome. ICP monitoring in conjunction with other neurological monitoring can aid in understanding the pathophysiology of brain damage. This review article presents: (a) the significance of ICP monitoring; (b) ICP monitoring methods (invasive and non-invasive); and (c) the role of ICP monitoring in the management of brain damage, especially TBI. PMID:26690122

  2. National environmental radiation monitoring program: towards formulating policy on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukiman Sarmani

    2002-01-01

    Though Malaysia has no nuclear power station, but the management of its low level radioactive waste generated from industrial activities involves most of the same issues that must be considered in countries with nuclear power. These include public consultation at all stages, an open approach, high level scientific and engineering input and political decision by the Government. A carefully planned approach, which involves the public and gives time to build trust and confidence, is necessary for success. It is also pertinent to establish accurate and reliable data on environmental radiation to accurately assess possible risk. This is where a national monitoring program on environmental radiation is very important. While accurate data will help formulate sound policy on radioactive waste management, it should also be readily available to the public to gain support and acceptance. This paper presents arguments on the importance of a national monitoring program for environmental radiation as an input for formulating a policy on radioactive waste management in Malaysia. (Author)

  3. Monitoring and controlling ATLAS data management: The Rucio web user interface

    CERN Document Server

    Lassnig, Mario; The ATLAS collaboration; Vigne, Ralph; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Garonne, Vincent; Serfon, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    The monitoring and controlling interfaces of the previous data management system DQ2 followed the evolutionary requirements and needs of the ATLAS collaboration. The new data management system, Rucio, has put in place a redesigned web-based interface based upon the lessons learnt from DQ2, and the increased volume of managed information. This interface encompasses both a monitoring and controlling component, and allows easy integration for user-generated views. The interface follows three design principles. First, the collection and storage of data from internal and external systems is asynchronous to reduce latency. This includes the use of technologies like ActiveMQ or Nagios. Second, analysis of the data into information is done massively parallel due to its volume, using a combined approach with an Oracle database and Hadoop MapReduce. Third, sharing of the information does not distinguish between human or programmatic access, making it easy to access selective parts of the information both in constrained...

  4. Overcoming resistance against managed care - insights from a bargaining model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Andree; Wein, Thomas; Zweifel, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Recent healthcare reforms have sought to increase efficiency by introducing managed care (MC) while respecting consumer preferences by admitting choice between MC and conventional care. This article proposes an institutional change designed to let German consumers choose between the two settings through directing payments from the Federal Health Fund to social health insurers (SHIs) or to specialized MC organizations (MCOs). To gauge the chance of success of this reform, a game involving a SHI, a MCO, and a representative insured (RI) is analyzed. In a "three-player/three-cake" game the coalitions {SHI, MCO}, {MCO, RI}, and {SHI, RI} can form. Players' possibility to switch between coalitions creates new outside options, causing the conventional bilateral Nash bargaining solution to be replaced by the so-called von Neumann-Morgenstern triple. These triples are compared to the status quo (where the RI has no threat potential) and related to institutional conditions characterizing Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland.

  5. Complex Interactions between Fungal Avirulence Genes and Their Corresponding Plant Resistance Genes and Consequences for Disease Resistance Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann Petit-Houdenot

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During infection, pathogens secrete an arsenal of molecules, collectively called effectors, key elements of pathogenesis which modulate innate immunity of the plant and facilitate infection. Some of these effectors can be recognized directly or indirectly by resistance (R proteins from the plant and are then called avirulence (AVR proteins. This recognition usually triggers defense responses including the hypersensitive response and results in resistance of the plant. R—AVR gene interactions are frequently exploited in the field to control diseases. Recently, the availability of fungal genomes has accelerated the identification of AVR genes in plant pathogenic fungi, including in fungi infecting agronomically important crops. While single AVR genes recognized by their corresponding R gene were identified, more and more complex interactions between AVR and R genes are reported (e.g., AVR genes recognized by several R genes, R genes recognizing several AVR genes in distinct organisms, one AVR gene suppressing recognition of another AVR gene by its corresponding R gene, two cooperating R genes both necessary to recognize an AVR gene. These complex interactions were particularly reported in pathosystems showing a long co-evolution with their host plant but could also result from the way agronomic crops were obtained and improved (e.g., through interspecific hybridization or introgression of resistance genes from wild related species into cultivated crops. In this review, we describe some complex R—AVR interactions between plants and fungi that were recently reported and discuss their implications for AVR gene evolution and R gene management.

  6. Managing the Risk of European Corn Borer Resistance to Transgenic Corn: An Assessment of Refuge Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Terrance M. Hurley; Silvia Secchi; Bruce A. Babcock

    1999-01-01

    The use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in agriculture has been on the rise since 1995. Scientists have been working to develop a high-dose refuge management plan that can effectively delay European corn borer resistance to pesticidal GMO corn. This paper develops a stochastic agricultural production model to assess and provide insight into the reasons why refuge recommendations remain controversial.

  7. Resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems: Implications for state and transition models and management treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Richard F. Miller; David I. Board; David A. Pyke; Bruce A. Roundy; James B. Grace; Eugene W. Schupp; Robin J. Tausch

    2014-01-01

    In sagebrush ecosystems invasion of annual exotics and expansion of pinon (Pinus monophylla Torr. and Frem.) and juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook., J. osteosperma [Torr.] Little) are altering fire regimes and resulting in large-scale ecosystem transformations. Management treatments aim to increase resilience to disturbance and enhance resistance to invasive species...

  8. FARMER DEMAND FOR CORN ROOTWORM BT CORN: DO INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES MATTER?

    OpenAIRE

    Langrock, Ines; Hurley, Terrance M.; Ostlie, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Farmer adoption of Bt corn and compliance with insect resistance management (IRM) regulations will influence the success of these regulations. The purpose of this paper is to use farmer survey data to estimate the demand for new corn rootworm Bt corn and the cost of complying with proposed IRM regulations.

  9. Monitoring is not enough: on the need for a model-based approach to migratory bird management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Bonney, Rick; Pashley, David N.; Cooper, Robert; Niles, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Informed management requires information about system state and about effects of potential management actions on system state. Population monitoring can provide the needed information about system state, as well as information that can be used to investigate effects of management actions. Three methods for investigating effects of management on bird populations are (1) retrospective analysis, (2) formal experimentation and constrained-design studies, and (3) adaptive management. Retrospective analyses provide weak inferences, regardless of the quality of the monitoring data. The active use of monitoring data in experimental or constrained-design studies or in adaptive management is recommended. Under both approaches, learning occurs via the comparison of estimates from the monitoring program with predictions from competing management models.

  10. Ez-response as a monitor of a Baikal rift fault electrical resistivity: 3D modelling studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Trofimov

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D numerical studies have shown that the vertical voltage above the Baikal deep-water fault is detectable and that respective transfer functions, Ez-responses, are sensitive to the electrical resistivity changes of the fault, i.e. these functions appear actually informative with respect to the resistivity «breath» of the fault. It means that if the fault resistivity changed, conventional electromagnetic instruments would be able to detect this fact by measurement of the vertical electric field, Ez, or the vertical electric voltage just above the fault as well as horizontal magnetic field on the shore. Other electromagnetic field components (Ex, Ey, Hz do not seem to be sensitive to the resistivity changes in such a thin fault (as wide as 500 m. On the other hand, such changes are thought to be able to indicate a change of a stress state in the earthquake preparation zone. Besides, the vertical profile at the bottom of Lake Baikal is suitable for electromagnetic monitoring of the fault electrical resistivity changes. Altogether, the vertical voltage above the deep-water fault might be one of earthquake precursors.

  11. RIMS (real-time imprint monitoring by scattering of light) study of pressure, temperature and resist effects on nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhaoning; Gao He; Chou, Stephen Y

    2007-01-01

    To optimize nanoimprint lithography (NIL), it is essential to be able to characterize and control the NIL process in situ and in real time. Recently we have developed a real-time imprint monitoring by the scattering-of-light (RIMS) approach, which allows us to detect the degree of resist deformation and the duration of resist penetration by a mould during the imprint process in real time. In this paper we report the performances of RIMS under a broad range of working conditions. RIMS data shows that the resist penetration is facilitated by increasing processing temperature, pressure and the resist film thickness; a prolonged pre-NIL resist baking step, on the other hand, has the effect of slowing it down. Our results provide further demonstration of the effectiveness of this method under different working conditions. RIMS measurements show not only how long an imprint takes to complete, but also how an imprint progresses with time and how it is affected by differences in processing parameters. These measurements provide information crucial for a better understanding and process optimization in NIL

  12. Using epidemiological principles to explain fungicide resistance management tactics: why do mixtures outperform alternations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderfield, James A; Lopez Ruiz, Fran; van den Bosch, Frank; Cunniffe, Nik J

    2018-01-29

    Whether fungicide resistance management is optimised by spraying chemicals with different modes of action as a mixture (i.e. simultaneously) or in alternation (i.e. sequentially) has been studied by experimenters and modellers for decades. However results have been inconclusive. We use previously-parameterised and validated mathematical models of wheat septoria leaf blotch and grapevine powdery mildew to test which tactic provides better resistance management, using the total yield before resistance causes disease control to become economically-ineffective ("lifetime yield") to measure effectiveness. We focus on tactics involving the combination of a low-risk and a high-risk fungicide, and the case in which resistance to the high-risk chemical is complete (i.e. in which there is no partial resistance). Lifetime yield is then optimised by spraying as much low-risk fungicide as is permitted, combined with slightly more high-risk fungicide than needed for acceptable initial disease control, applying these fungicides as a mixture. That mixture rather than alternation gives better performance is invariant to model parameterisation and structure, as well as the pathosystem in question. However if comparison focuses on other metrics, e.g. lifetime yield at full label dose, either mixture or alternation can be optimal. Our work shows how epidemiological principles can explain the evolution of fungicide resistance, and also highlights a theoretical framework to address the question of whether mixture or alternation provides better resistance management. It also demonstrates that precisely how spray tactics are compared must be given careful consideration.

  13. Best management practices plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan has been developed as part of the environmental monitoring program at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. The BMP Plan describes the requirements for personnel training, spill prevention and control, environmental compliance, and sediment/erosion control as they relate to environmental monitoring activities and installation of Monitoring Station 4 at WAG 6

  14. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Ggg of... - Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units 7 Table 7 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment... for Waste Management Units To comply with Inspection or monitoring requirement Frequency of inspection...

  15. Remote sensing change detection tools for natural resource managers: Understanding concepts and tradeoffs in the design of landscape monitoring projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Kennedy; Philip A. Townsend; John E. Gross; Warren B. Cohen; Paul Bolstad; Wang Y. Q.; Phyllis Adams

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing provides a broad view of landscapes and can be consistent through time, making it an important tool for monitoring and managing protected areas. An impediment to broader use of remote sensing science for monitoring has been the need for resource managers to understand the specialized capabilities of an ever-expanding array of image sources and analysis...

  16. On gLite WMS/LB monitoring and Management through WMSMonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesini, D; Dongiovanni, D; Fattibene, E; Ferrari, T, E-mail: daniele.cesini@cnaf.infn.i, E-mail: danilo.dongiovanni@cnaf.infn.i [INFN (Italy)

    2010-04-01

    The Workload Management System is the gLite service supporting the distributed production and analysis activities of various HEP experiments. It is responsible of dispatching computing jobs to remote computing facilities by matching job requirements and the resource status information collected from the Grid information services. Given the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the Grid, the monitoring of the job lifecycle and of the aggregate workflow patterns generated by multiple user communities, and the reliability of the service are of great importance. In this paper we deal with the problem of WMS monitoring and management. We present the architecture and implementation of the WMSMonitor, a tool for WMS monitoring and management, which has been designed to meet the needs of various WMS user categories: administrators, developers, advanced Grid users and performance testers. The tool was successfully deployed to monitor the progress of WMS job submission activities during HEP computing challenges. We also describe how, for each WMS in a cluster, WMSMonitor produces status indexes and a load metric that can be used for automated notification of critical events via Nagios, or for ranking of service instances deployed in load balancing mode.

  17. On gLite WMS/LB monitoring and Management through WMSMonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesini, D; Dongiovanni, D; Fattibene, E; Ferrari, T

    2010-01-01

    The Workload Management System is the gLite service supporting the distributed production and analysis activities of various HEP experiments. It is responsible of dispatching computing jobs to remote computing facilities by matching job requirements and the resource status information collected from the Grid information services. Given the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the Grid, the monitoring of the job lifecycle and of the aggregate workflow patterns generated by multiple user communities, and the reliability of the service are of great importance. In this paper we deal with the problem of WMS monitoring and management. We present the architecture and implementation of the WMSMonitor, a tool for WMS monitoring and management, which has been designed to meet the needs of various WMS user categories: administrators, developers, advanced Grid users and performance testers. The tool was successfully deployed to monitor the progress of WMS job submission activities during HEP computing challenges. We also describe how, for each WMS in a cluster, WMSMonitor produces status indexes and a load metric that can be used for automated notification of critical events via Nagios, or for ranking of service instances deployed in load balancing mode.

  18. Monitoring plan for routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, K.J.; Jolley, J.G.

    1994-06-01

    This monitoring plan provides the information necessary to perform routine organic air emissions monitoring at the Waste Storage Facilities located at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Waste Storage Facilities include both the Type I and II Waste Storage Modules. The plan implements a dual method approach where two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and ancillary SUMMA reg-sign canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, will be used to provide qualitative and quantitative volatile organic concentration data. The Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy will provide in situ, real time monitoring of volatile organic compound concentrations in the ambient air of the Waste Storage Facilities. To supplement the OP-FTIR data, air samples will be collected using SUMMA reg-sign, passivated, stainless steel canisters, following the EPA Method TO-14. These samples will be analyzed for volatile organic compounds with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. The sampling strategy, procedures, and schedules are included in this monitoring plan. The development of this monitoring plan is driven by regulatory compliance to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, State of Idaho Toxic Air Pollutant increments, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The various state and federal regulations address the characterization of the volatile organic compounds and the resultant ambient air emissions that may originate from facilities involved in industrial production and/or waste management activities

  19. Antibiotic resistance monitoring in Vibrio spp. isolated from rearing environment and intestines of abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R X; Wang, J Y; Sun, Y C; B L Yang; A L Wang

    2015-12-30

    546 Vibrio isolates from rearing seawater (292 strains) and intestines of abalone (254 strains) were tested to ten antibiotics using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. Resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to chloramphenicol (C), enrofloxacin (ENX) and norfloxacin (NOR) were 40%) to kanamycin (KNA), furazolidone (F), tetracycline (TE), gentamicin (GM) and rifampin (RA). 332 isolates from seawater (n=258) and abalone (n=74) were resistant to more than three antibiotics. Peaked resistant rates of seawater-derived isolates to multiple antibiotics were overlapped in May and August. Statistical analysis showed that pH had an important effect on resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to RA, NOR, and ENX. Salinity and dissolved oxygen were negatively correlated with resistant rates of seawater-derived Vibrio isolates to KNA, RA, and PG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Insecticide resistance in disease vectors from Mayotte: an opportunity for integrated vector management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocquet, Nicolas; Darriet, Frédéric; Zumbo, Betty; Milesi, Pascal; Thiria, Julien; Bernard, Vincent; Toty, Céline; Labbé, Pierrick; Chandre, Fabrice

    2014-07-01

    Mayotte, a small island in the Indian Ocean, has been affected for many years by vector-borne diseases. Malaria, Bancroftian filariasis, dengue, chikungunya and Rift Valley fever have circulated or still circulate on the island. They are all transmitted by Culicidae mosquitoes. To limit the impact of these diseases on human health, vector control has been implemented for more than 60 years on Mayotte. In this study, we assessed the resistance levels of four major vector species (Anopheles gambiae, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) to two types of insecticides: i) the locally currently-used insecticides (organophosphates, pyrethroids) and ii) alternative molecules that are promising for vector control and come from different insecticide families (bacterial toxins or insect growth regulators). When some resistance was found to one of these insecticides, we characterized the mechanisms involved. Larval and adult bioassays were used to evaluate the level of resistance. When resistance was found, we tested for the presence of metabolic resistance through detoxifying enzyme activity assays, or for target-site mutations through molecular identification of known resistance alleles. Resistance to currently-used insecticides varied greatly between the four vector species. While no resistance to any insecticides was found in the two Aedes species, bioassays confirmed multiple resistance in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus (temephos: ~ 20 fold and deltamethrin: only 10% mortality after 24 hours). In An. gambiae, resistance was scarce: only a moderate resistance to temephos was found (~5 fold). This resistance appears to be due only to carboxyl-esterase overexpression and not to target modification. Finally, and comfortingly, none of the four species showed resistance to any of the new insecticides. The low resistance observed in Mayotte's main disease vectors is particularly interesting, because it leaves a range of tools useable by vector control

  1. Surveillance Monitoring Management for General Care Units: Strategy, Design, and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Susan P; Taenzer, Andreas H; Karon, Nancy; Blike, George

    2016-07-01

    The growing number of monitoring devices, combined with suboptimal patient monitoring and alarm management strategies, has increased "alarm fatigue," which have led to serious consequences. Most reported alarm man- agement approaches have focused on the critical care setting. Since 2007 Dartmouth-Hitchcock (Lebanon, New Hamp- shire) has developed a generalizable and effective design, implementation, and performance evaluation approach to alarm systems for continuous monitoring in general care settings (that is, patient surveillance monitoring). In late 2007, a patient surveillance monitoring system was piloted on the basis of a structured design and implementation approach in a 36-bed orthopedics unit. Beginning in early 2009, it was expanded to cover more than 200 inpatient beds in all medicine and surgical units, except for psychiatry and labor and delivery. Improvements in clinical outcomes (reduction of unplanned transfers by 50% and reduction of rescue events by more than 60% in 2008) and approximately two alarms per patient per 12-hour nursing shift in the original pilot unit have been sustained across most D-H general care units in spite of increasing patient acuity and unit occupancy. Sample analysis of pager notifications indicates that more than 85% of all alarm conditions are resolved within 30 seconds and that more than 99% are resolved before escalation is triggered. The D-H surveillance monitoring system employs several important, generalizable features to manage alarms in a general care setting: alarm delays, static thresholds set appropriately for the prevalence of events in this setting, directed alarm annunciation, and policy-driven customization of thresholds to allow clinicians to respond to needs of individual patients. The systematic approach to design, implementation, and performance management has been key to the success of the system.

  2. Specialist Cohort Event Monitoring studies: a new study method for risk management in pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Deborah; Shakir, Saad A W

    2015-02-01

    The evolving regulatory landscape has heightened the need for innovative, proactive, efficient and more meaningful solutions for 'real-world' post-authorization safety studies (PASS) that not only align with risk management objectives to gather additional safety monitoring information or assess a pattern of drug utilization, but also satisfy key regulatory requirements for marketing authorization holder risk management planning and execution needs. There is a need for data capture across the primary care and secondary care interface, or for exploring use of new medicines in secondary care to support conducting PASS. To fulfil this need, event monitoring has evolved. The Specialist Cohort Event Monitoring (SCEM) study is a new application that enables a cohort of patients prescribed a medicine in the hospital and secondary care settings to be monitored. The method also permits the inclusion of a comparator cohort of patients receiving standard care, or another counterfactual comparator group, to be monitored concurrently, depending on the study question. The approach has been developed in parallel with the new legislative requirement for pharmaceutical companies to undertake a risk management plan as part of post-authorization safety monitoring. SCEM studies recognize that the study population comprises those patients who may have treatment initiated under the care of specialist health care professionals and who are more complex in terms of underlying disease, co-morbidities and concomitant medications than the general disease population treated in primary care. The aims of this paper are to discuss the SCEM new-user study design, rationale and features that aim to address possible bias (such as selection bias) and current applications.

  3. Citizen science for water resources management: toward polycentric monitoring and governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Dewulf, Art; De Bièvre, Bert; Clark, Julian; Hannah, David

    2016-04-01

    Novel and more affordable technologies are allowing new actors to engage increasingly in the monitoring of hydrological systems and the assessment of water resources. This trend may shift data collection from a small number of mostly formal institutions (e.g., statutory monitoring authorities, water companies) toward a much more dynamic, decentralized, and diverse network of data collectors (including citizens and other non-specialists). Such a move towards a more diverse and polycentric type of monitoring may have important consequences for the generation of knowledge about water resources and the way that this knowledge is used to govern these resources. An increasingly polycentric approach to monitoring and data collection will change inevitably the relation between monitoring and decision-making for water resources. On a technical level, it may lead to improve availability of, and access to, data. The opportunity for actors to design and implement monitoring may also lead to data collection strategies that are tailored better to locally specific management questions. However, in a policy context the evolution may also shift balances of knowledge and power. For example, it will be easier to collect data and generate evidence to support specific agendas, or for non-specialists to challenge existing agreements, laws, and statutory authorities. Analysing a case study in the Peruvian Andes, we identify strong links with polycentric models of river basin management and governance. Polycentric models recognize the existence of multiple centres of decision-making within a catchment and provide a potential alternative to the top-down centralizing tendencies of integrated water resources management. Although polycentric systems are often associated with data scarcity, we argue that citizen science provides a framework for data collection in such systems and that it provides opportunities for knowledge generation, institutional capacity building and policy support, in

  4. Statistical analysis of real-time, enviromental radon monitoring results at the Fernald Enviromental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ning; Spitz, H.B.; Tomezak, L.

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive real-time, environmental radon monitoring program is being conducted at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, where a large quantity of radium-bearing residues have been stored in two covered earth-bermed silos. Statistical analyses was conducted to determine what impact radon emitted by the radium bearing materials contained in the silos has on the ambient radon concentration at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site. The distribution that best describes the outdoor radon monitoring data was determined before statistical analyses were conducted. Random effects associated with the selection of radon monitoring locations were accommodated by using nested and nested factorial classification models. The Project site was divided into four general areas according to their characteristics and functions: (1) the silo area, where the radium-bearing waste is stored; (2) the production/administration area; (3) the perimeter area, or fence-line, of the Fernald Environmental Management Project site; and (4) a background area, located approximately 13 km from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site, representing the naturally-occurring radon concentration. A total of 15 continuous, hourly readout radon monitors were installed to measure the outdoor radon concentration. Measurement results from each individual monitor were found to be log-normally distributed. A series of contrast tests, which take random effects into account, were performed to compare the radon concentration between different areas of the site. These comparisons demonstrate that the radon concentrations in the production/administration area and the perimeter area are statistically equal to the natural background, whereas the silo area is significantly higher than background. The study also showed that the radon concentration in the silo area was significantly reduced after a sealant barrier was applied to the contents of the silos. 10 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Evaluation of Mycobacterium leprae antigens in the serological monitoring of a clofazimine-based chemotherapeutic study of dapsone resistant lepromatous leprosy patients in Cebu, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, J. T.; Hirsch, D. S.; Fajardo, T. T.; Cellona, R. V.; Abalos, R. M.; de la Cruz, E. C.; Madarang, M. G.; de Wit, M. Y.; Klatser, P. R.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-one dapsone resistant lepromatous leprosy patients receiving clofazimine based therapy were serologically monitored throughout their 5-year period of treatment. Sequentially collected sera were used to examine 4 Mycobacterium leprae antigens to evaluate their usefulness in ELISA's for

  6. Results of Recent DOE Research on Development of Cable Condition Monitoring and Aging Management Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.J.; McConkey, J.B.; Hashemian, H.M.; Sexton, C.D.; Cummins, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis and Measurement Services (AMS) Corporation has been conducting two research projects focused on understanding cable aging and developing cable condition monitoring technologies for nuclear power plants. The goal of the first project is to correlate cable faults with testing techniques that can identify and locate the faults whether they are in the cable, conductor, or the insulation. This project involves laboratory experiments using low and medium voltage cable types typically installed in nuclear power plants. The second project is focused on development of an integrated cable condition monitoring system for nuclear facilities. This system integrates a number of cable testing and cable condition monitoring techniques, such as the time domain reflectometry (TDR), frequency domain reflectometry (FDR), inductance, capacitance, resistance (LCR), reverse TDR (RTDR), current-to-voltage (IV) for testing of nuclear instrumentation sensors, insulation resistance (IR) and other techniques. The purpose of the project is to combine all proven technologies into one system to detect and pinpoint problems in cable circuits as well as cable insulation, shield, or jacket material. (author)

  7. SymptomCare@Home: Developing an Integrated Symptom Monitoring and Management System for Outpatients Receiving Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Susan L; Eaton, Linda H; Echeverria, Christina; Mooney, Kathi H

    2017-10-01

    SymptomCare@Home, an integrated symptom monitoring and management system, was designed as part of randomized clinical trials to help patients with cancer who receive chemotherapy in ambulatory clinics and often experience significant symptoms at home. An iterative design process was informed by chronic disease management theory and features of assessment and clinical decision support systems used in other diseases. Key stakeholders participated in the design process: nurse scientists, clinical experts, bioinformatics experts, and computer programmers. Especially important was input from end users, patients, and nurse practitioners participating in a series of studies testing the system. The system includes both a patient and clinician interface and fully integrates two electronic subsystems: a telephone computer-linked interactive voice response system and a Web-based Decision Support-Symptom Management System. Key features include (1) daily symptom monitoring, (2) self-management coaching, (3) alerting, and (4) nurse practitioner follow-up. The nurse practitioner is distinctively positioned to provide assessment, education, support, and pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions to intensify management of poorly controlled symptoms at home. SymptomCare@Home is a model for providing telehealth. The system facilitates using evidence-based guidelines as part of a comprehensive symptom management approach. The design process and system features can be applied to other diseases and conditions.

  8. Global climate change mitigation and sustainable forest management--The challenge of monitoring and verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, sustainable forest management is discussed within the historical and theoretical framework of the sustainable development debate. The various criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management put forth by different institutions are critically explored. Specific types of climate change mitigation policies/projects in the forest sector are identified and examined in the light of the general criteria for sustainable forest management. Areas of compatibility and contradiction between the climate mitigation objectives and the minimum criteria for sustainable forest management are identified and discussed. Emphasis is put on the problems of monitoring and verifying carbon benefits associated with such projects given their impacts on pre-existing policy objectives on sustainable forest management. The implications of such policy interactions on assignment of carbon credits from forest projects under Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly initiatives are discussed. The paper concludes that a comprehensive monitoring and verification regime must include an impact assessment on the criteria covered under other agreements such as the Biodiversity and/or Desertification Conventions. The actual carbon credit assigned to a specific project should at least take into account the negative impacts on the criteria for sustainable forest management. The value of the impacts and/or the procedure to evaluate them need to be established by interested parties such as the Councils of the respective Conventions.

  9. [SUS management and monitoring and evaluation practices: possibilities and challenges for building a strategic agenda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, André Luis Bonifácio de; Souza, Maria de Fátima; Shimizu, Helena Eri; Senra, Isabel Maria Vilas Boas; Oliveira, Kátia Cristina de

    2012-04-01

    This paper deals with the challenges involved in institutionalizing Monitoring and Evaluation practices within the scope of management of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), based on the creation of a strategic agenda. This is structured around actions by the Federal Administration, from the perspective of defining the scope of the federative relationship. A summarized literature review is thus presented, placing into context the current SUS management process, which is based on the Pact for Health as well as theoretical and operational aspects inherent to monitoring and evaluation practices. The approach related to the strategic agenda highlights the creation of mechanisms that underpin the political and institutional decision, namely the creation of financial incentives and the development of technical mechanisms. These include organizational strategies for qualifying management teams and conducting studies and research and the dissemination of strategic information. These processes are based on the concept of providing for the management specificities in the different spheres of management based on a broad cooperation process involving teaching and research institutions and international organizations as well as the managers themselves.

  10. A strategy for monitoring and managing declines in an amphibian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H Campbell; Zipkin, Elise F; Nichols, James D; Campbell, J Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Although many taxa have declined globally, conservation actions are inherently local. Ecosystems degrade even in protected areas, and maintaining natural systems in a desired condition may require active management. Implementing management decisions under uncertainty requires a logical and transparent process to identify objectives, develop management actions, formulate system models to link actions with objectives, monitor to reduce uncertainty and identify system state (i.e., resource condition), and determine an optimal management strategy. We applied one such structured decision-making approach that incorporates these critical elements to inform management of amphibian populations in a protected area managed by the U.S. National Park Service. Climate change is expected to affect amphibian occupancy of wetlands and to increase uncertainty in management decision making. We used the tools of structured decision making to identify short-term management solutions that incorporate our current understanding of the effect of climate change on amphibians, emphasizing how management can be undertaken even with incomplete information. Estrategia para Monitorear y Manejar Disminuciones en una Comunidad de Anfibios. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Web system for dosimetric data management of internal monitoring programme at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Vanesa R. de; Rodriguez Junior, Orlando; Todo, Alberto S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The internal monitoring programme are carried out for the occupationally exposed workers that develop activities in the radioisotope production plant, fuel cycle facilities, waste management installations, cyclotron and the reactor facility at Institute of Nuclear Energy and Research (IPEN). According to the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), Regulation NN-3.01, the dose of each worker should be maintained at least for a period of 30 years. With this purpose, an online system, called 'IntDosWeb', was developed with the objective of the management for data dosimetric of internal monitoring programme. The system IntDosWeb, based on free software, was developed in programming language PHP and environment database PostgreSQL. This system is to be available at the local net, Intranet. The database maintains information about identification of the worker that handles non-sealed radioactive sources, physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclides, monitoring types, measurement data and the dose. This system is able to generate annual reports of the individuals and the historical dose. Several simulation cases have been put into effect to check the on-line software functional capabilities. The users can access the dosimetric information according to following database field: monitoring period, monitoring type, intake pattern, radionuclide type and monitoring data from a specific installation or from each worker. The system was tested in the routinely service of internal dosimetry at IPEN. The rastreability of the information made in the internal monitoring programme was a success and also guaranteeing the reliability and integrity of the stored information. The IntDosWeb was shown as a helpful tool for analysis of the committed effective dose in the radiation protection programme, besides obeying the legal demands of the Brazilian Regulatory Commission. (author)

  12. Options for the management of antiviral resistance during hepatitis B therapy: reflections on battles over a decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hyung Joon; Hwang, Seong Gyu

    2013-09-01

    Although much advancement has been achieved in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B, antiviral resistance is still a challenging issue. Previous generation antiviral agents have already developed resistance in a number of patients, and it is still being used especially in resource limited countries. Once antiviral resistance occurs, it predisposes to subsequent resistance, resulting in multidrug resistance. Therefore, prevention of initial antiviral resistance is the most important strategy, and appropriate choice and modification of therapy would be the cornerstone in avoiding treatment failures. Until now, management of antiviral resistance has been evolving from sequential therapy to combination therapy. In the era of tenofovir, the paradigm shifts again, and we have to decide when to switch and when to combine on the basis of newly emerging clinical data. We expect future eradication of chronic hepatitis B virus infection by proper prevention and optimal management of antiviral resistance.

  13. Automated time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) for improved process analysis and long-term monitoring of frozen ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Christian; Hilbich, Christin; Fuss, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Determining the subsurface ice and unfrozen water content in cold regions are important tasks in all kind of cryospheric studies, but especially on perennial (permafrost) or seasonal frozen ground, where little insights can be gained from direct observations at the surface. In the absence of boreholes, geophysical methods are often the only possibility for visualising and quantifying the subsurface characteristics. Their successful applications in recent years lead to more and more sophisticated approaches including 2- and 3-dimensional monitoring and even quantifying the ice and unfrozen water content evolution within the subsurface. Due to the strong sensitivity of electrical resistivity to the phase change between unfrozen water and ice, the application of electrical and electromagnetic techniques has been especially successful. Within these methods, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) is often favoured due to its comparatively easy and fast data processing, its robustness against ambient noise and its good performance even in harsh, cold and heterogeneous environments. Numerous recent studies have shown that ERT is principally suitable to spatially delineate ground ice, differentiate between ice-poor and ice-rich occurrences, monitor freezing, thawing and infiltration processes. However, resistivity surveys have still to be made manually, which poses large constraints concerning the comparability of measurements at specific time instances, e.g. the choice of the date for end-of-summer measurements, and/or the possibility for measurements during winter, when many locations are inaccessible. Furthermore, many climate studies require the analysis of statistically meaningful properties, such as maximum/minimum values and monthly or annual mean values, which cannot be determined using temporally sparse and irregularly spaced measurements. As a new system for future automated measurements with regular time interval (e.g. 1 measurement per day), an automated ERT

  14. Keep Talking & Monitoring: the importance of longitudinal research & community-based monitoring to support sustainable land management in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougill, Andrew; Stringer, Lindsay

    2015-04-01

    Projects come and go with researchers, development practioners and government staff initiating new forms of community engagement in environmental monitoring and land management practices. We analyse interventions from Botswana and Swaziland and highlight that for benefits to be long-lived and lead to sustainable land management, requires community engagement in project design, implementation and for project outputs to be used in developing community-led environmental monitoring tools that can then help to guide local decision-making systems. We stress the vital importance of continued participatory engagement of researchers with community leaders and key government staff beyond the timeframe of their initial research such that longitudinal research approaches can realise significant benefits to all concerned. In dynamic (non-equilibrium) dryland environments, it is vitally important that research approaches address temporal and spatial variability by mapping patterns of change, using a range of participatory tools to enhance understandings of the causes of land degradation and the opportunities for shifts towards more sustainable land management. Decision-support tools, such as rangeland assessment guides produced for various Kalahari rangeland settings in Botswana (via a UNEP project and affiliated research), provide opportunities to support more sustainable land management. However, at present benefits are not being fully realised as project and research staff move on after projects end. Similarly, findings from mixed farming systems in Swaziland (assessing a JICA-funded project) show problems in maintaining new institutional structures to manage rangeland degradation, whilst issues on arable areas associated with parasitic weeds (Striga asiatica) remain problematic. Findings from longitudinal research in Swaziland also show that community understandings of environmental problems have evolved over 10 years and identify new problems associated with intensified

  15. Resources monitoring and automatic management system for multi-VO distributed computing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Pelevanyuk, I.; Sun, Y.; Zhemchugov, A.; Yan, T.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhang, X. M.

    2017-10-01

    Multi-VO supports based on DIRAC have been set up to provide workload and data management for several high energy experiments in IHEP. To monitor and manage the heterogeneous resources which belong to different Virtual Organizations in a uniform way, a resources monitoring and automatic management system based on Resource Status System(RSS) of DIRAC has been presented in this paper. The system is composed of three parts: information collection, status decision and automatic control, and information display. The information collection includes active and passive way of gathering status from different sources and stores them in databases. The status decision and automatic control is used to evaluate the resources status and take control actions on resources automatically through some pre-defined policies and actions. The monitoring information is displayed on a web portal. Both the real-time information and historical information can be obtained from the web portal. All the implementations are based on DIRAC framework. The information and control including sites, policies, web portal for different VOs can be well defined and distinguished within DIRAC user and group management infrastructure.

  16. Commercial Smartphone-Based Devices and Smart Applications for Personalized Healthcare Monitoring and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Vashist

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone-based devices and applications (SBDAs with cost effectiveness and remote sensing are the most promising and effective means of delivering mobile healthcare (mHealthcare. Several SBDAs have been commercialized for the personalized monitoring and/or management of basic physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, weight, body analysis, pulse rate, electrocardiograph, blood glucose, blood glucose saturation, sleeping and physical activity. With advances in Bluetooth technology, software, cloud computing and remote sensing, SBDAs provide real-time on-site analysis and telemedicine opportunities in remote areas. This scenario is of utmost importance for developing countries, where the number of smartphone users is about 70% of 6.8 billion cell phone subscribers worldwide with limited access to basic healthcare service. The technology platform facilitates patient-doctor communication and the patients to effectively manage and keep track of their medical conditions. Besides tremendous healthcare cost savings, SBDAs are very critical for the monitoring and effective management of emerging epidemics and food contamination outbreaks. The next decade will witness pioneering advances and increasing applications of SBDAs in this exponentially growing field of mHealthcare. This article provides a critical review of commercial SBDAs that are being widely used for personalized healthcare monitoring and management.

  17. Nurse adoption of continuous patient monitoring on acute post-surgical units: managing technology implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeskey, Mary; Card, Elizabeth; Nelson, Donna; Mercaldo, Nathaniel D; Sanders, Neal; Higgins, Michael S; Shi, Yaping; Michaels, Damon; Miller, Anne

    2011-10-01

    To report an exploratory action-research process used during the implementation of continuous patient monitoring in acute post-surgical nursing units. Substantial US Federal funding has been committed to implementing new health care technology, but failure to manage implementation processes may limit successful adoption and the realisation of proposed benefits. Effective approaches for managing barriers to new technology implementation are needed. Continuous patient monitoring was implemented in three of 13 medical/surgical units. An exploratory action-feedback approach, using time-series nurse surveys, was used to identify barriers and develop and evaluate responses. Post-hoc interviews and document analysis were used to describe the change implementation process. Significant differences were identified in night- and dayshift nurses' perceptions of technology benefits. Research nurses' facilitated the change process by evolving 'clinical nurse implementation specialist' expertise. Health information technology (HIT)-related patient outcomes are mediated through nurses' acting on new information but HIT designed for critical care may not transfer to acute care settings. Exploratory action-feedback approaches can assist nurse managers in assessing and mitigating the real-world effects of HIT implementations. It is strongly recommended that nurse managers identify stakeholders and develop comprehensive plans for monitoring the effects of HIT in their units. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Participatory Monitoring and Management of Subsistence Hunting in the Piagaçu-Purus Reserve, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Albuquerque Regina de Mattos Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sustainable Development Reserve (RDS model in Brazil provides legal context for monitoring wildlife with the involvement of local populations in gathering data and developing strategies for sustainable use. We present results of one year of self monitoring by hunters in five communities within the RDS-PP, discuss how the observed patterns reflect local hunting regulations, and suggest how this information could be incorporated into a formal management system. In addition to the offtake data, we interviewed hunters, inquiring about informal community hunting norms and agreements, and analysed the content of 19 rules in the reserve′s management plan. 509 hunting events were recorded by 37 of the 104 families present (35%. Self monitoring permitted the evaluation of temporal and spatial fluctuations of hunting activities, notably regarding ease of canoe transport during the high-water season. Though communities have been apprehensive about developing regulations for subsistence hunting, one of the communities had developed a set of formal rules. Hunting for commercial sale to outsiders and restrictions on external hunters are concerns shared by the local population and the reserve management agencies. Such data and understanding are crucial to the management of protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon, where governance is often limited.

  19. System-Aware Smart Network Management for Nano-Enriched Water Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mokhtar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive water quality monitoring system that employs a smart network management, nano-enriched sensing framework, and intelligent and efficient data analysis and forwarding protocols for smart and system-aware decision making. The presented system comprises two main subsystems, a data sensing and forwarding subsystem (DSFS, and Operation Management Subsystem (OMS. The OMS operates based on real-time learned patterns and rules of system operations projected from the DSFS to manage the entire network of sensors. The main tasks of OMS are to enable real-time data visualization, managed system control, and secure system operation. The DSFS employs a Hybrid Intelligence (HI scheme which is proposed through integrating an association rule learning algorithm with fuzzy logic and weighted decision trees. The DSFS operation is based on profiling and registering raw data readings, generated from a set of optical nanosensors, as profiles of attribute-value pairs. As a case study, we evaluate our implemented test bed via simulation scenarios in a water quality monitoring framework. The monitoring processes are simulated based on measuring the percentage of dissolved oxygen and potential hydrogen (PH in fresh water. Simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed HI-based methodology at learning different water quality classes.

  20. Management of bank risks in the system of internal financial monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Lysenok

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Risk is an integral part of banking activities. That is why there are many researches on definition, measurement and monitoring of banking risks. Nowadays it is important to improve the risk management process of legalization (laundering of proceeds from crime or terrorist financing, especially in the present conditions of socio-economic development. This will improve the quality of financial monitoring in the country as a whole and will reduce the risk of attracting banks to laundering money from crime. The article reviews and examines modern management techniques and risk assessment of laundering proceeds from crime. The authors make suggestions to strengthen the tracking and detection of illegal schemes and appropriate approaches to «launder» criminal money. They also offer an appropriate model to manage the risks which accompany the process of laundering the proceeds from crime. According to the study carried out the authors provide their conclusions and recommendations to improve risk management in the system of internal financial monitoring of banks.

  1. Defining an Inteligent Information System for Monitoring and Verification of Energy Management in Cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, Z.; Gasic, I.; Lugaric, L.; Cacic, G.

    2011-01-01

    Improving the efficiency of energy consumption (EC) is a central theme of any energy policy. Improved energy efficiency (EE) meets three energy policy goals: security of supply, competitiveness and protection of the environment. Systematic energy management is a body of knowledge and skills based on an organizational structure that links people with assigned responsibilities, efficiency monitoring procedures and continuous measurement and improvement of energy efficiency. This body of knowledge must be supported by appropriate ICT for gathering, processing and disseminating data on EC, EE targets and information. Energy Management Information System - EMIS is a web application for monitoring and analysis of energy and water consumption in public buildings and represents inevitable tool for systematic energy management. EMIS software tool connects processes of gathering data on buildings and their energy consumption, monitoring consumption indicators, setting energy efficiency targets and reporting energy and water consumption savings. Project Intelligent Information System for Monitoring and Verification of Energy Management in Cities (ISEMIC) will distribute EMIS software tool in region (BiH, Slovenia and Serbia). This project also has a goal of improving a software system for utilizing EC measurements, both from smart meters and traditional measurement devices and subsequent data processing and analysis to facilitate, upgrade and eventually replace the currently used energy management system for public buildings in Croatia. ISEMIC will enable use of smart meters within an energy management for the first time in BiH, Slovenia and Serbia, along with an analytical part which enables intelligent estimation of energy consumption based on multiple criteria. EMIS/ISEMIC will enable: Continuous updating and maintenance of a database of information on buildings; Continuous entry and monitoring of consumption data for all energents and water in buildings; Calculation of

  2. A Strategy and Case Study Example for Designing and Implementing Environmental Long-Term Monitoring at Legacy Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl D. Mattson; Roelof J. Versteeg; Mark Ankeny; Gail Heath; Alex Richardson

    2004-04-01

    Environmental monitoring objectives of site owners, regulators, consultants, and scientists typically share the common elements of (1) cost management, (2) risk management, and (3) information management (Figure 1). Many site owners focus on minimizing monitoring costs while regulators typically focus on risk and regulatory compliance. Scientists and consultants typically provide information management in the form of spreadsheets with extracted information provided in reports to other users. This common piecemeal approach upon individual focus on elements of the monitoring objectives, rather than the common objective of minimizing cost and risk using site information, results in missed opportunities for cost savings, environmental protection, and improved understanding of site performance.

  3. Simultaneous On-State Voltage and Bond-Wire Resistance Monitoring of Silicon Carbide MOSFETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    the voltage between the kelvin-source and power-source can be used to specifically monitor bond-wire degradation. Meanwhile, the drain to kelvin-source voltage can be monitored to track defects in the semiconductor die or gate driver. Through an accelerated aging test on 20 A Silicon Carbide Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Field-Effect...

  4. Interim Status Groundwater Monitoring Plan for Low-Level Waste Management Areas 1 to 4, RCRA Facilities, Hanford,Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P Evan

    2004-10-25

    This document describes the monitoring plan to meet the requirements for interim status groundwater monitoring at Hanford Site low-level waste burial grounds as specified by 40 CFR 265, incorporated by reference in WAC 173-303-400. The monitoring will take place at four separate low-level waste management areas in the 200-West and 200-East Areas, in the central part of the site. This plan replaces the previous monitoring plan.

  5. Organizational risk management of resistance to care episodes in health facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Ashley; Guest, Maya; McLeod, Mary

    2012-09-01

    This article reports a study of organizational risk management approaches to resistance to care episodes in specific clinical areas: prevention measures, provision of subsequent support and follow-up by management and resultant organizational change. Resistance to care describes a patient's unwillingness to be assisted by healthcare staff and is manifested in defensive behaviours ranging from minor non-compliance/dissent to aggression. It has previously been studied in aged care settings and focused on patient behaviours and appropriate responses. This was a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of nurses (n = 5044) who were members of the New South Wales Nurses' Association in Australia, in 2008-2009. Of 1132 participants, 80% reported being involved in resistance to care episodes during the previous month and this was higher in some settings. Episodes were not routinely reported internally, and often did not lead to organizational change. Nurses reported that talking with other staff was the most effective action in dealing with the consequences of these episodes. Half of the respondents considered that they were provided with sufficient support and follow-up after a resistance to care episode. Prevention measures and follow-up strategies adopted by employers varied across clinical settings. Resistance to care is not confined to aged care settings, and risk management of resistance to care can increase safety in the workplace. Preventive strategies such as increased staff, training and security should be focused on high risk clinical areas; and appropriate support, follow-up and organizational change instituted in response to these episodes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Wireless Damage Monitoring of Laminated CFRP Composites using Electrical Resistance Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Todoroki, Akira

    2007-01-01

    .... In this system, a tiny oscillation circuit is attached to the composite component. When delimitation of the component occurs, electrical resistance changes, which causes a change in the oscillating frequency of the circuit...

  7. Fault Zone Resistivity Structure and Monitoring at the Taiwan Chelungpu Drilling Project (TCDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wen Chiang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault drilling project (TCDP has undertaken scientific drilling and directly sampled the sub-surface rupture of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT measurements were used to investigate electrical resistivity structure at the TCDP site from 2004 - 2006. These data show a geoelectric strike direction of N15°E to N30°E. Inversion and forward modeling of the AMT data were used to generate a 1-D resistivity model that has a prominent low resistivity zone (< 10 ohm-m between depths of 1100 and 1500 m. When combined with porosity measurements, theAMT measurements imply that the ground water has a resistivity of 0.55 ohm-m at the depth of the fault zone.

  8. Experimental design to monitor the influence of crop residue management on the dynamics of soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chélin, Marie; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Parvin, Nargish; Bodson, Bernard; Degré, Aurore; Nguyen, Frédéric; Garré, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    Choices related to crop residue management affecting soil structure determine spatio-temporal dynamics of water content and eventually crop yields. In this contribution, we will discuss the experimental design we adopted to study the influence of agricultural management strategies (tillage and residue management) on the soil water dynamics under maize in a Cutanic Siltic Luvisol in Gembloux, Belgium. Three different treatments will be studied: a conventional ploughing realized either in December 2014 or just before sowing in April 2015, and a strip tillage in April 2015. A bare soil under conventional ploughing will also be monitored in order to better understand the influence of the plant over the growing season. In order to limit soil disturbance, we opted for the use of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and we use the bulk electrical conductivity as a proxy for soil moisture content. ERT will be collected every week on a surface of two square meters corresponding to three rows of seven maize plants through surface stainless steel electrodes. Five additional sticks with stainless steel electrodes will be vertically inserted into the soil up to 1.50 m to get more detailed information near to the central maize row. In each of the monitoring plots, two time-domain reflectometry (TDR) probes will be installed for data validation. In order to calibrate the relationship between electrical resistivity and soil water content under highly variable field conditions (changes in soil structure, variable weather conditions, plant growth, fertilization), a trench will be dug, in which a set of four electrodes, one TDR probe and one temperature sensor will be placed at four different depths. In addition, two suction cups will be installed in each of the plots to quantify changes in ion composition and electrical conductivity of the soil solution at two different depths. Within the framework of the multidisciplinary research platform AgricultureIsLife, regular assessment

  9. Regional monitoring of the urinary tract infections causative agents antibiotic resistance in the child population of the Chernivtsi region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Bezruk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the scope of current medical practice the “viewpoint” regarding the growth of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms is a threat to national security. A reasonable use of antibiotics on the basis of uropathogen regional bacterial sensitivity gives the opportunity to “restrain” the growth of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms and increase the effectiveness of the UTI treatment. The aim of the article is to determine the range and dynamics of the antibiotic resistance of major groups of infectious-inflammatory diseases causative agents of the urinary tract in the child population of the Chernivtsi region. Materials and methods. The analysis of etiologic spectrum and antibiotic resistance of uropathogens was conducted and observed in the urine samples of 657 patients who were provided with a specialized medical care in the Nephrology department of the “Municipal Children’s Clinical Hospital”, Chernivtsi (2014–2015 with the purpose of the dynamic control of possible changes in the regional antibiotic resistance of pathogens of causative pathogens of the “urinary tract infections” (UTI; identify the age and gender differences of the child population of the Chernivtsi region (2014–2015 compared to the monitoring data for the period of 2009–2013. Results. When UTI among of the child population of the Chernivtsi region leading etiologic organisms include strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae and uropathogen of the genus Proteus. A “wave-like” curve of the dynamics of antibiotic resistance of Enterobacteriaceae uropathogens with a decreasing tendency to the “drugs of choice” was observed among the child population of the region (2009–2015: penicillin (p < 0.01, cephalosporin II–III generation (p < 0.01 and medicine of the fluoroquinolone series (p < 0.01. A “wave-like” curve of the dynamics of antibiotic resistance of Proteus uropathogens with a decreasing tendency to the “drugs of choice” was

  10. Optimizing urine drug testing for monitoring medication compliance in pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Stacy E F; Ptolemy, Adam S; Wasan, Ajay D

    2013-12-01

    It can be challenging to successfully monitor medication compliance in pain management. Clinicians and laboratorians need to collaborate to optimize patient care and maximize operational efficiency. The test menu, assay cutoffs, and testing algorithms utilized in the urine drug testing panels should be periodically reviewed and tailored to the patient population to effectively assess compliance and avoid unnecessary testing and cost to the patient. Pain management and pathology collaborated on an important quality improvement initiative to optimize urine drug testing for monitoring medication compliance in pain management. We retrospectively reviewed 18 months of data from our pain management center. We gathered data on test volumes, positivity rates, and the frequency of false positive results. We also reviewed the clinical utility of our testing algorithms, assay cutoffs, and adulterant panel. In addition, the cost of each component was calculated. The positivity rate for ethanol and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine were <1% so we eliminated this testing from our panel. We also lowered the screening cutoff for cocaine to meet the clinical needs of the pain management center. In addition, we changed our testing algorithm for 6-acetylmorphine, benzodiazepines, and methadone. For example, due the high rate of false negative results using our immunoassay-based benzodiazepine screen, we removed the screening portion of the algorithm and now perform benzodiazepine confirmation up front in all specimens by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Conducting an interdisciplinary quality improvement project allowed us to optimize our testing panel for monitoring medication compliance in pain management and reduce cost. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Combining pest control and resistance management: synergy of engineered insects with Bt crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphey, Nina; Bonsall, Michael B; Alphey, Luke

    2009-04-01

    Transgenic crops producing insecticidal toxins are widely used to control insect pests. Their benefits would be lost if resistance to the toxins became widespread in pest populations. The most widely used resistance management method is the high-dose/refuge strategy. This requires toxin-free host plants as refuges near insecticidal crops, and toxin doses intended to be sufficiently high to kill insects heterozygous for a resistant allele, thereby rendering resistance functionally recessive. We have previously shown by mathematical modeling that mass-release of harmless susceptible (toxin-sensitive) insects engineered with repressible female-specific lethality using release of insects carrying a dominant lethal ([RIDL] Oxitec Limited, United Kingdom) technology could substantially delay or reverse the spread of resistance and reduce refuge sizes. Here, we explore this proposal in depth, studying a wide range of scenarios, considering impacts on population dynamics as well as evolution of allele frequencies, comparing with releases of natural fertile susceptible insects, and examining the effect of seasonality. We investigate the outcome for pest control for which the plant-incorporated toxins are not necessarily at a high dose (i.e., they might not kill all homozygous susceptible and all heterozygous insects). We demonstrate that a RIDL-based approach could form an effective component of a resistance management strategy in a wide range of genetic and ecological circumstances. Because there are significant threshold effects for several variables, we expect that a margin of error would be advisable in setting release ratios and refuge sizes, especially as the frequency and properties of resistant alleles may be difficult to measure accurately in the field.

  12. The Impact of Volunteer Corn on Crop Yields and Insect Resistance Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Marquardt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Volunteer corn (VC has reemerged as a problematic weed in corn/soybean rotational cropping systems. This reemergence and increasing prevalence of volunteer corn has been correlated to an increased adoption of herbicide-resistant (HR corn hybrids and the adoption of conservation tillage. Since the introduction of HR crops, control options, weed/crop competition, and other concerns (i.e., insect resistance management of Bt traits have increased the amount of attention that volunteer corn is receiving. The objective of this review is to discuss what is known about VC prior to and after the introduction of HR crops, and to discuss new information about this important weed.

  13. Tritium waste management on the La Hague AREVA NC site: associated impact and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devin, P.; Deguette, H.

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose an analysis of tritium behaviour in the nuclear fuel processed in the AREVA NC plant in La Hague, of its presence in the plant and in its wastes, and of the impact of these wastes and the tritium monitoring in the environment. First, they present the AREVA NC plant and evoke the legal context concerning the waste management. They report and discuss the analysis of the presence and behaviour of tritium in irradiated fuel, of its behaviour during spent fuel processing, the evolution of tritium releases (legal limitations, evolutions since 1992), of measurement of activity in effluents, and discuss a study of possible reductions of tritium releases by La Hague plants (mainly in sea waters). They also report the computational assessment of the dosimetric impact of tritium on neighbouring population. They describe how the presence of tritium in the environment is monitored within the annual radioactivity monitoring programme

  14. Monitoring and controlling ATLAS data management: The Rucio web user interface

    CERN Document Server

    Lassnig, Mario; The ATLAS collaboration; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Serfon, Cedric; Vigne, Ralph; Garonne, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The monitoring and controlling interfaces of the previous data management system DQ2 followed the evolutionary requirements and needs of the ATLAS collaboration. The new system, Rucio, has put in place a redesigned web-based interface based upon the lessons learnt from DQ2, and the increased volume of managed information. This interface encompasses both a monitoring and controlling component, and allows easy integration for user-generated views. The interface follows three design principles. First, the collection and storage of data from internal and external systems is asynchronous to reduce latency. This includes the use of technologies like ActiveMQ or Nagios. Second, analysis of the data into information is done massively parallel due to its volume, using a combined approach with an Oracle database and Hadoop MapReduce. Third, sharing of the information does not distinguish between human or programmatic access, making it easy to access selective parts of the information both in constrained frontends like ...

  15. Jogging support system with portable monitoring device and health manage software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makikawa, Masaki; Isaka, Tadao; Iida, Takeo; Asajima, Shuzo; Tsukise, Kanji; Shiozawa, Narihiro; Nishiyama, Kento; Wada, Sumio; Nakayama, Kyochiro; Horiguchi, Michiyuki; Torimoto, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    At MEDINFO 2001 we reported about an ambulatory biosignal memory device. As an application of this system, we have developed a portable jogging monitoring device and studied its application for health management here. This device is a micro processor based system with some sensors necessary to monitor condition of the user during jogging, that is, a heart rate sensor, a GPS sensor and a physical activity sensor. We also have developed PC based health management software that receives jogging data after jogging and stores it as a long term jogging trend data. From these long term data it feeds back the distance completion of jogging on the virtual course. Moreover it can show the trend of jogging time, distance, average heart rate and the user can know his/her own health condition.

  16. Autonomous health management for PMSM rail vehicles through demagnetization monitoring and prognosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Jiang, Junjie; Youn, Byeng D; Pecht, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are playing an increasingly importance in support of a wide variety of critical events. This paper presents a novel autonomous health management scheme on rail vehicles driven by permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). Firstly, the PMSMs are modeled based on first principle to deduce the initial profile of pneumatic braking (p-braking) force, then which is utilized for real-time demagnetization monitoring and degradation prognosis through similarity-based theory and generate prognosis-enhanced p-braking force strategy for final optimal control. A case study is conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and benefit of using the real-time prognostics and health management (PHM) information in vehicle 'drive-brake' control automatically. The results show that accurate demagnetization monitoring, degradation prognosis, and real-time capability for control optimization can be obtained, which can effectively relieve brake shoe wear. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. EEG-based "serious" games and monitoring tools for pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourina, Olga; Wang, Qiang; Nguyen, Minh Khoa

    2011-01-01

    EEG-based "serious games" for medical applications attracted recently more attention from the research community and industry as wireless EEG reading devices became easily available on the market. EEG-based technology has been applied in anesthesiology, psychology, etc. In this paper, we proposed and developed EEG-based "serious" games and doctor's monitoring tools that could be used for pain management. As EEG signal is considered to have a fractal nature, we proposed and develop a novel spatio-temporal fractal based algorithm for brain state quantification. The algorithm is implemented with blobby visualization tools for patient monitoring and in EEG-based "serious" games. Such games could be used by patient even at home convenience for pain management as an alternative to traditional drug treatment.

  18. Waste assaying and radiation monitoring equipment at the waste management centre of NPP Leningrad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šokčić-Kostić Marina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste accumulated in the past at the Nuclear Power Plant Leningrad has to be sorted and packed in an optimal way. In the area of waste treatment and management, the completeness and quality of direct monitoring are of the outmost importance for the validity of, and confidence in, both practicable waste management options and calculations of radiological impacts. Special monitoring systems are needed for this purpose. Consistent with the scale of work during the waste treatment procedures and the complexity of the plant data have to be collected from characteristic parts in various treatment stages. To combine all the information, a tracking procedure is needed during the waste treatment process to characterize the waste for interim and/or final disposal. RWE NUKEM GmbH has developed special customer-tailored systems which fulfill the specifications required by plant operation and by the authorities.

  19. Interpolation of extensive routine water pollution monitoring datasets: methodology and discussion of implications for aquifer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuval, Yuval; Rimon, Yaara; Graber, Ellen R; Furman, Alex

    2014-08-01

    A large fraction of the fresh water available for human use is stored in groundwater aquifers. Since human activities such as mining, agriculture, industry and urbanisation often result in incursion of various pollutants to groundwater, routine monitoring of water quality is an indispensable component of judicious aquifer management. Unfortunately, groundwater pollution monitoring is expensive and usually cannot cover an aquifer with the spatial resolution necessary for making adequate management decisions. Interpolation of monitoring data is thus an important tool for supplementing monitoring observations. However, interpolating routine groundwater pollution data poses a special problem due to the nature of the observations. The data from a producing aquifer usually includes many zero pollution concentration values from the clean parts of the aquifer but may span a wide range of values (up to a few orders of magnitude) in the polluted areas. This manuscript presents a methodology that can cope with such datasets and use them to produce maps that present the pollution plumes but also delineates the clean areas that are fit for production. A method for assessing the quality of mapping in a way which is suitable to the data's dynamic range of values is also presented. A local variant of inverse distance weighting is employed to interpolate the data. Inclusion zones around the interpolation points ensure that only relevant observations contribute to each interpolated concentration. Using inclusion zones improves the accuracy of the mapping but results in interpolation grid points which are not assigned a value. The inherent trade-off between the interpolation accuracy and coverage is demonstrated using both circular and elliptical inclusion zones. A leave-one-out cross testing is used to assess and compare the performance of the interpolations. The methodology is demonstrated using groundwater pollution monitoring data from the coastal aquifer along the Israeli

  20. QoS-based management of biomedical wireless sensor networks for patient monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Carlos; Miranda, Francisco; Ricardo, Manuel; Mendes, Paulo Mateus

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical wireless sensor networks are a key technology to support the development of new applications and services targeting patient monitoring, in particular, regarding data collection for medical diagnosis and continuous health assessment. However, due to the critical nature of medical applications, such networks have to satisfy demanding quality of service requirements, while guaranteeing high levels of confidence and reliability. Such goals are influenced by several factors, where the network topology, the limited throughput, and the characteristics and dynamics of the surrounding environment are of major importance. Harsh environments, as hospital facilities, can compromise the radio frequency communications and, consequently, the network's ability to provide the quality of service required by medical applications. Furthermore, the impact of such environments on the network's performance is hard to manage due to its random and unpredictable nature. Consequently, network planning and management, in general or step-down hospital units, is a very hard task. In such context, this work presents a quality of service based management tool to help healthcare professionals supervising the network's performance and to assist them managing the admission of new sensor nodes (i.e., patients to be monitored) to the biomedical wireless sensor network. The proposed solution proves to be a valuable tool both, to detect and classify potential harmful variations in the quality of service provided by the network, avoiding its degradation to levels where the biomedical signs would be useless; and to manage the admission of new patients to the network.