WorldWideScience

Sample records for resistance management irm

  1. Overexpression of IRM1 enhances resistance to aphids in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zhao; Visser, Richard G F; Broekgaarden, Colette; Vosman, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Aphids are insects that cause direct damage to crops by the removal of phloem sap, but more importantly they spread devastating viruses. Aphids use their sophisticated mouthpart (i.e. stylet) to feed from the phloem sieve elements of the host plant. To identify genes that affect host plant resistance to aphids, we previously screened an Arabidopsis thaliana activation tag mutant collection. In such mutants, tagged genes are overexpressed by a strong 35S enhancer adjacent to the natural promoter, resulting in a dominant gain-of-function phenotype. We previously identified several of these mutants on which the aphid Myzus persicae showed a reduced population development compared with wild type. In the present study we show that the gene responsible for the phenotype of one of the mutants is At5g65040 and named this gene Increased Resistance to Myzus persicae 1 (IRM1). Overexpression of the cloned IRM1 gene conferred a phenotype identical to that of the original mutant. Conversely, an IRM1 knockout mutant promoted aphid population development compared to the wild type. We performed Electrical Penetration Graph analysis to investigate how probing and feeding behaviour of aphids was affected on plants that either overexpressed IRM1 or contained a knockout mutation in this gene. The EPG results indicated that the aphids encounter resistance factors while reaching for the phloem on the overexpressing line. This resistance mechanism also affected other aphid species and is suggested to be of mechanical nature. Interestingly, genetic variation for IRM1 expression in response to aphid attack was observed. Upon aphid attack the expression of IRM1 was initially (after 6 hours) induced in ecotype Wassilewskija followed by suppression. In Columbia-0, IRM1 expression was already suppressed six hours after the start of the infestation. The resistance conferred by the overexpression of IRM1 in A. thaliana trades off with plant growth.

  2. Overexpression of IRM1 enhances resistance to aphids in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    Full Text Available Aphids are insects that cause direct damage to crops by the removal of phloem sap, but more importantly they spread devastating viruses. Aphids use their sophisticated mouthpart (i.e. stylet to feed from the phloem sieve elements of the host plant. To identify genes that affect host plant resistance to aphids, we previously screened an Arabidopsis thaliana activation tag mutant collection. In such mutants, tagged genes are overexpressed by a strong 35S enhancer adjacent to the natural promoter, resulting in a dominant gain-of-function phenotype. We previously identified several of these mutants on which the aphid Myzus persicae showed a reduced population development compared with wild type. In the present study we show that the gene responsible for the phenotype of one of the mutants is At5g65040 and named this gene Increased Resistance to Myzus persicae 1 (IRM1. Overexpression of the cloned IRM1 gene conferred a phenotype identical to that of the original mutant. Conversely, an IRM1 knockout mutant promoted aphid population development compared to the wild type. We performed Electrical Penetration Graph analysis to investigate how probing and feeding behaviour of aphids was affected on plants that either overexpressed IRM1 or contained a knockout mutation in this gene. The EPG results indicated that the aphids encounter resistance factors while reaching for the phloem on the overexpressing line. This resistance mechanism also affected other aphid species and is suggested to be of mechanical nature. Interestingly, genetic variation for IRM1 expression in response to aphid attack was observed. Upon aphid attack the expression of IRM1 was initially (after 6 hours induced in ecotype Wassilewskija followed by suppression. In Columbia-0, IRM1 expression was already suppressed six hours after the start of the infestation. The resistance conferred by the overexpression of IRM1 in A. thaliana trades off with plant growth.

  3. FARMER DEMAND FOR CORN ROOTWORM BT CORN: DO INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES MATTER?

    OpenAIRE

    Langrock, Ines; Hurley, Terrance M.; Ostlie, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Farmer adoption of Bt corn and compliance with insect resistance management (IRM) regulations will influence the success of these regulations. The purpose of this paper is to use farmer survey data to estimate the demand for new corn rootworm Bt corn and the cost of complying with proposed IRM regulations.

  4. Managing Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, John W.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents some considerations and ideas for managing students' resistance. They are organized around four topics: the impact of context on behavior, the importance of being comprehensive and nonrestrictive in behavior, the adaptive function of resistant behavior, and the benefit of joining children in their frame of reference.…

  5. CH2M Hill Hanford Group Inc (CHG) Information Resource Management (IRM) Strategic Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NELSON, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    The CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., Information Resource Management Strategic Plan is the top-level planning document for applying information and information resource management to achieve the CHG mission for the management of the River Protection Project

  6. CH2M Hill Hanford Group Inc (CHG) Information Resource Management (IRM) Strategic Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NELSON, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG), Information Resource Management Strategic Plan is the top-level planning document for applying information and information resource management to achieve the CHG mission for the management of the River Protection Project waste tank farm

  7. DEFENSE IRM: Management Commitment Needed to Achieve Defense Data Administration Goals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deffer, F

    1994-01-01

    ...) initiative to help streamline operations and manage resources more efficienfly. As you know, CIM is a top-down effort to simplify and improve functional processes by first documenting business goals, methods, and performance measures...

  8. Insecticide resistance management strategies against the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza, Pablo

    2008-11-01

    Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an economically important pest of a wide range of crops grown throughout the world. Insecticide resistance has been documented in many populations of WFT. Biological and behavioural characteristics and pest management practices that promote insecticide resistance are discussed. In addition, an overview is provided of the development of insecticide resistance in F. occidentalis populations and the resistance mechanisms involved. Owing to widespread resistance to most conventional insecticides, a new approach to insecticide resistance management (IRM) of F. occidentalis is needed. The IRM strategy proposed consists of two parts. Firstly, a general strategy to minimise the use of insecticides in order to reduce selection pressure. Secondly, a strategy designed to avoid selection of resistance mechanisms, considering cross-resistance patterns and resistance mechanisms. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Sustainability of insect resistance management strategies for transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, John A; Matten, Sharlene R

    2003-12-01

    Increasing interest in the responsible management of technology in the industrial and agricultural sectors of the economy has been met thorough the development of broadly applicable tools to assess the "sustainability" of new technologies. An arena ripe for application of such analysis is the deployment of transgenic crops. The new transgenic pesticidal or plant-incorporated protectant (PIP) crops have seen widespread application in the United States based on the features of higher yield, lower applications of insecticides, and control of mycotoxin content. However, open rejection of these new crops in Europe and in other countries has been a surprising message and has limited their worldwide acceptance. The US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) has worked on the development and analysis of insect resistance management (IRM) strategies and has mandated specific IRM requirements for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops since 1995 under the Food, Fungicide, Insecticide, and Rodenticide Act. Improvement of data quality and sustainability of IRM strategies have been targeted in an ongoing partnership between the USEPA Office of Research and Development and the Office of Pesticide Programs that will further enhance the agency's ability to develop sustainable insect resistance management strategies for transgenic field corn (Bt corn) producing B. thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins.

  10. Insecticide Resistance and Management Strategies in Urban Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased urbanization of a growing global population makes imperative the development of sustainable integrated pest management (IPM strategies for urban pest control. This emphasizes pests that are closely associated with the health and wellbeing of humans and domesticated animals. Concurrently there are regulatory requirements enforced to minimize inadvertent exposures to insecticides in the urban environment. Development of insecticide resistance management (IRM strategies in urban ecosystems involves understanding the status and mechanisms of insecticide resistance and reducing insecticide selection pressure by combining multiple chemical and non-chemical approaches. In this review, we will focus on the commonly used insecticides and molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance in six major urban insect pests: house fly, German cockroach, mosquitoes, red flour beetle, bed bugs and head louse. We will also discuss several strategies that may prove promising for future urban IPM programs.

  11. AGRIS: Categorization and information retrieval based on IBM's IRMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, H.; Leatherdale, D.

    1976-01-01

    The subject breakdown of the AGRIS data base by categories interlinked with object and geographical codes is described. The use of these categories and codes in a mechanized information retrieval system is then considered. The system is a modification of IBM's Information Retrieval and Management System (IRMS); it allows for batch processing on an IBM/360 or /370 computer operated under OS or VS. As IRMS was developed for use with a controlled vocabulary, the search possibilities on the AGRIS files are necessarily limited. An artificial vocabulary is presented, derived from the AGRIS subject categories, object codes, geographic codes, language codes, and bibliographic data: type of record, literary indicator, volume/issue number, and the country code of the submitting centre. The use of the IRMS system for AGRIS is described, with details of programming deliberately omitted. Program descriptions with data set definitions and file formats are presented separately

  12. Insecticide Resistance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    thuringiensis var. membranes israeknsis A2 Bacillus sphaencus Inhibitocs of chitin biosynthesis type 0 15 Benzaylureas Diflubenzuron, triflnmuron...resources/ pdf /fsp/ir_manual/ir_cdc_bioassay_en.pdf 22 STEP 5: INTERPRETING RESULTS The time required for all susceptible mosquitoes to die in the...purchase by contacting: Dr Zairi Jaal, Tel: 604-6574776; zairi@usm.my http://www.who.int/whopes/resistance/en/WHO_CDS_CPE_PV C_2001.2. pdf 27

  13. Bacterial microleakage of Cavit, IRM, and TERM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveaux, E; Hildelbert, P; Neut, C; Boniface, B; Romond, C

    1992-11-01

    In this in vitro study, a model system was developed and tested to evaluate the sealing ability of temporary restorative materials used in endodontic access preparations. The materials studied, Cavit, IRM, and TERM, were tested on 40 premolars against a known bacterial species, Streptococcus sanguis. The leakage of bacterial cells was checked 4 and 8 days after initial immersion in the culture. Thermocycling was introduced on the fourth day. After 8 days the cement thicknesses were measured after the teeth had been longitudinally sectioned. Before and after thermocycling, IRM was less leakproof than Cavit (p Cavit, whereas TERM remained leakproof. The thicknesses were as follows: Cavit, 3.73 mm; IRM, 3.45 mm; and TERM, 5.49 mm. There was no statistically significant relationship between thickness and tightness.

  14. Early Detection and Mitigation of Resistance to Bt Maize by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andow, David A; Pueppke, Steven G; Schaafsma, Arthur W; Gassmann, Aaron J; Sappington, Thomas W; Meinke, Lance J; Mitchell, Paul D; Hurley, Terrance M; Hellmich, Richard L; Porter, R Pat

    2016-02-01

    Transgenic Bt maize that produces less than a high-dose has been widely adopted and presents considerable insect resistance management (IRM) challenges. Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, has rapidly evolved resistance to Bt maize in the field, leading to local loss of efficacy for some corn rootworm Bt maize events. Documenting and responding to this resistance has been complicated by a lack of rapid diagnostic bioassays and by regulatory triggers that hinder timely and effective management responses. These failures are of great concern to the scientific and agricultural community. Specific challenges posed by western corn rootworm resistance to Bt maize, and more general concerns around Bt crops that produce less than a high-dose of Bt toxin, have caused uncertainty around current IRM protocols. More than 15 years of experience with IRM has shown that high-dose and refuge-based IRM is not applicable to Bt crops that produce less than a high-dose. Adaptive IRM approaches and pro-active, integrated IRM-pest management strategies are needed and should be in place before release of new technologies that produce less than a high-dose. We suggest changes in IRM strategies to preserve the utility of corn rootworm Bt maize by 1) targeting local resistance management earlier in the sequence of responses to resistance and 2) developing area-wide criteria to address widespread economic losses. We also favor consideration of policies and programs to counteract economic forces that are contributing to rapid resistance evolution. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. INIS information retrieval based on IBM's IRMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadjokov, V.; Schmid, H.; Del Bigio, G.

    1975-01-01

    An information retrieval system for the INIS data base is described. It allows for batch processing on an IBM/360 or /370 computer operated under OS or VS. The program package consists basically of IBM's IRMS system which was converted from DOS to OS and adapted for INIS requirements. Sections 1-9 present the system from the user's point of view, deliberately omitting all the programming details. Program descriptions with data set definitions and file formats are given in sections 10-12. (author)

  16. Understanding successful resistance management: the European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Blair D; Hellmich, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn hybrids that express toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt corn, has suppressed corn borer populations and reduced the pest status of this insect in parts of the Corn Belt. Continued suppression of this pest, however, will depend on managing potential resistance to Bt corn, currently through the high-dose refuge (HDR) strategy. In this review, we describe what has been learned with regard to O. nubilalis resistance to Bt toxins either through laboratory selection experiments or isolation of resistance from field populations. We also describe the essential components of the HDR strategy as they relate to O. nubilalis biology and ecology. Additionally, recent developments in insect resistance management (IRM) specific to O. nubilalis that may affect the continued sustainability of this technology are considered.

  17. Strategic Information Resources Management: Fundamental Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudle, Sharon L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses six fundamental information resources management (IRM) practices in successful organizations that can improve government service delivery performance. Highlights include directing changes, integrating IRM decision making into a strategic management process, performance management, maintaining an investment philosophy, using business…

  18. Clinical Management of HIV Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Karoll J.; Maldarelli, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection has resulted in profound reductions in viremia and is associated with marked improvements in morbidity and mortality. Therapy is not curative, however, and prolonged therapy is complicated by drug toxicity and the emergence of drug resistance. Management of clinical drug resistance requires in depth evaluation, and includes extensive history, physical examination and laboratory studies. Appropriate use of resistance testing provides valuable information useful in constructing regimens for treatment-experienced individuals with viremia during therapy. This review outlines the emergence of drug resistance in vivo, and describes clinical evaluation and therapeutic options of the individual with rebound viremia during therapy. PMID:21994737

  19. Management of treatment resistant schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    symptoms, cognitive deficits, excitement or aggression, co- morbidity such as depressive and anxiety symptoms, .... another domain of treatment resistance, cognitive deficits, risperidone and olanzapine may be more .... support, teaching the recognition of early warning signs and addressing issues of medication adherence ...

  20. Miastenia gravis familiar: registro de dois irmãos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R. G. de Freitas

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available A forma familiar da miastenia gravis é condição relativamente rara, ocorrendo em cerca de 3,4% dos pacientes miastênicos. Os autores registram os casos de dois irmãos não-gêmeos, apresentando miastenia gravis com acometimento predominantemente ocular desde o nascimento. Um terceiro irmão faleceu na infância, provavelmente com a mesma afecção. Os pais eram consanguíneos. Estudo da incidência da forma familiar da miastenia e de seus aspectos clínicos, genéticos e terapêuticos complementa os registros.

  1. Bt pollen dispersal and Bt kernel mosaics: integrity of non-Bt refugia for lepidopteran resistance management in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D

    2012-10-01

    Field trials were conducted at Rosemount, MN in 2009 and 2010, to measure pollen movement from Bt corn to adjacent blocks of non-Bt refuge corn. As the use of Bt corn hybrids continues to increase in the United States, and new insect resistance management (IRM) plans are implemented, it is necessary to measure the efficacy of these IRM plans. In Minnesota, the primary lepidopteran pests of corn include the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). The primary IRM plan in transgenic corn is the use of hybrids expressing a high dose of insecticidal proteins and an insect refuge containing hybrids not expressing insecticidal proteins that produce susceptible insects. Wind-assisted pollen movement in corn occurs readily, and is the primary method of pollination for corn. The combination of pollen movement and viability determines the potential for cross pollination of refuge corn. In 2009 and 2010, cross pollination occurred with the highest frequency on the north and east sides of Bt corn fields, but was found at some level in all directions. Highest levels of cross pollination (75%) were found within the first four rows (3 m) of non-Bt corn adjacent to Bt corn, and in general decreasing levels of cross pollination were found the further the non-Bt corn was planted from the Bt corn. A mosaic of Bt cross-pollinated kernels was found throughout the ear, but in both years the ear tip had the highest percentage of cross-pollinated kernels; this pattern may be linked to the synchrony of pollen shed and silking between Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids. The dominant wind direction in both years was from WNW. However, in both years, there were also prevailing winds from SSW and WSW. Further studies are needed to quantify Bt levels in cross-pollinated kernels, measure the Bt dose of such kernels and associated lepidopteran pest survival, and measure the impact of Bt pollen on lepidopteran pests, particularly when considering the

  2. CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE MANAGEMENT OF RESISTANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Marius-Dan DALOTĂ

    2011-01-01

    The difficulty of organisational change is often exacerbated by the mismanagement of resistance derived from a simple set of assumptions that misunderstand resistance’s essential nature. It is suggested that management may greatly gain from techniques that carefully manage resistance to change by looking for ways of utilising it rather than overcoming it. Today, suggestions and prescriptions for managing resistance have left little room for utility in resistance. Traditionally, resistance has...

  3. Messages on "Resistance to change" in German change management approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Fassauer, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    "Resistance to change" is one of the most important topics of change management in organizations. The paper investigates the analytical framing of „resistance“ and the „resistant employee“ in established German literature on change management. The analysis reveals three main messages referring the characteristics of resistance and the resistant change recipient. These are 1) that resistance is a „natural“, nearly inevitable phenomenon in organizational change processes, 2) that every behavior...

  4. Total Quality Management in Libraries: A Short Review Kütüphanelerde Toplam Kalite Yönetimi: Kısa Bir Gözden Geçirme

    OpenAIRE

    Erol Yılmaz

    2010-01-01

    Total Quality Management (TQM), is a management style that aimed at customer satisfaction. In the organisations in which TQM is applied customer is in the centre of the organization. In other words, in this kind of organisations the customer comes before everything else. Reaching the highest level of the customer satisfaction is among the targets of the mentioned organizations. In this study, primarily, definition of the TQM is going to be made together with its definition, short history, pur...

  5. CHANGE RESISTANCE IN THE PROCESS OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Polat TUNÇER

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of this article the resistance to change of the employees in the process of organizational change, in terms of change management is to handle. Made of the literature on the subject, the concepts of change management and resistance to change are examined and focused on the causes to resist and prevention methods its. In addition, in order to manage change successfully, the prevention or elimination of resistance to organizational change, it is necessary matters were discussed. Operati...

  6. Evolution of Resistance by Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Infesting Insecticidal Crops in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, David; Crain, Philip; Crespo, Andre; Hutchison, William; Buntin, David; Porter, Pat; Catchot, Angus; Cook, Don; Pilcher, Clint; Flexner, Lindsey; Higgins, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We created a deterministic, frequency-based model of the evolution of resistance by corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), to insecticidal traits expressed in crops planted in the heterogeneous landscapes of the southern United States. The model accounts for four generations of selection by insecticidal traits each year. We used the model results to investigate the influence of three factors on insect resistance management (IRM): 1) how does adding a third insecticidal trait to both corn and cotton affect durability of the products, 2) how does unstructured corn refuge influence IRM, and 3) how do block refuges (50% compliance) and blended refuges compare with regard to IRM? When Bt cotton expresses the same number of insecticidal traits, Bt corn with three insecticidal traits provides longer durability than Bt corn with two pyramided traits. Blended refuge provides similar durability for corn products compared with the same level of required block refuge when the rate of refuge compliance by farmers is 50%. Results for Mississippi and Texas are similar, but durabilities for corn traits are surprisingly lower in Georgia, where unstructured corn refuge is the highest of the three states, but refuge for Bt cotton is the lowest of the three states. Thus, unstructured corn refuge can be valuable for IRM but its influence is determined by selection for resistance by Bt cotton. PMID:26637533

  7. Managing Resistance: An Essential Consulting Skill for Learning Disabilities Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Marilyn; Bauwens, Jeanne

    1988-01-01

    The article explores characteristics of resistance by general educators to special education consultation programs. It offers teachers of learning disabled students strategies for managing specific types of resistance as well as a general plan for minimizing resistance as well as suggestions for evaluating the impact of resistance management…

  8. Recognition and Management of Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, Branko; Taler, Sandra J; Rahman, Mahboob; Fillaus, Jennifer A; Greco, Barbara A; Forman, John P; Reisin, Efrain; Cohen, Debbie L; Saklayen, Mohammad G; Hedayati, S Susan

    2017-03-07

    Despite improvements in hypertension awareness and treatment, 30%-60% of hypertensive patients do not achieve BP targets and subsequently remain at risk for target organ damage. This therapeutic gap is particularly important to nephrologists, who frequently encounter treatment-resistant hypertension in patients with CKD. Data are limited on how best to treat patients with CKD and resistant hypertension, because patients with CKD have historically been excluded from hypertension treatment trials. First, we propose a consistent definition of resistant hypertension as BP levels confirmed by both in-office and out-of-office measurements that exceed appropriate targets while the patient is receiving treatment with at least three antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic, at dosages optimized to provide maximum benefit in the absence of intolerable side effects. Second, we recommend that each patient undergo a standardized, stepwise evaluation to assess adherence to dietary and lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive medications to identify and reduce barriers and discontinue use of substances that may exacerbate hypertension. Patients in whom there is high clinical suspicion should be evaluated for potential secondary causes of hypertension. Evidence-based management of resistant hypertension is discussed with special considerations of the differences in approach to patients with and without CKD, including the specific roles of diuretics and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and the current place of emerging therapies, such as renal denervation and baroreceptor stimulation. We endorse use of such a systematic approach to improve recognition and care for this vulnerable patient group that is at high risk for future kidney and cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. The potential of Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) and gas chromatography-IRMS analysis of triacetone triperoxide in forensic explosives investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, K.D.B.; Koeberg, M.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Driel, C.A. va; Blaga, C.; Bruinsma, J.; Asten, A.C. van

    2016-01-01

    Studying links between triacetone triperoxide (TATP) samples from crime scenes and suspects can assist in criminal investigations. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and gas chromatography (GC)-IRMS were used to measure the isotopic compositions of TATP and its precursors acetone and hydrogen

  10. Diagnosing resistance to change in the change management process

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzhda, Tetiana

    2016-01-01

    This article explains the change management process and resistance to organizational change through examining causes of resistance to change, diagnosing them, and finding the ways to deal with resistance to change. In business environment, the one thing any company can be assured of is change. If an organization experiences change it may also need to implement new business strategies, which can create resistance among employees. Managers need to know in which phase they have to expect unusual...

  11. Total Quality Management in Libraries: A Short Review Kütüphanelerde Toplam Kalite Yönetimi: Kısa Bir Gözden Geçirme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Yılmaz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Total Quality Management (TQM, is a management style that aimed at customer satisfaction. In the organisations in which TQM is applied customer is in the centre of the organization. In other words, in this kind of organisations the customer comes before everything else. Reaching the highest level of the customer satisfaction is among the targets of the mentioned organizations. In this study, primarily, definition of the TQM is going to be made together with its definition, short history, purpose, benefits and factors; besides descriptive information is going to be given about internal customer, external customer, customer centered process and customer satisfaction. In the second part of the study, TQM subject is going to be discussed within the scope of the libraries widely. In this context, after explanation of customer centeredness (placing the customer at the centre, customer satisfaction and benefits of the TQM to the libraries, the subject is going to be discussed in the context of our country. Toplam Kalite Yönetimi (TKY, müşteri memnuniyeti elde etmeyi amaçlamış bir yönetim biçimidir. TKY uygulanan işletmelerde müşteri kurumun merkezinde yer almaktadır. Bir başka ifadeyle, bu tür kurumlarda müşteri her şeyden önce gelmektedir. Sözkonusu işletmelerin hedeflerinde ise, en yüksek düzeyde müşteri memnuniyetine erişmek yer almaktadır. Bu çalışmada, öncelikle; tanımı, kısa tarihçesi, amacı, yararları ve unsurlarıyla birlikte TKY tanımlaması yapılacak; ayrıca iç müşteri, dış müşteri, müşteri merkezlilik ve müşteri memnuniyeti hakkında tanımlayıcı bilgiler verilecektir. Çalışmanın ikinci bölümünde ise, TKY konusu kütüphaneler bazında ve geniş bir biçimde ele alınacaktır. Bu bağlamda, kullanıcı merkezlilik, kullanıcı memnuniyeti ve TKY’nin kütüphanelere sağlayacağı yararların açıklanmasının ardından konu ülkemiz bazında tartışılacaktır.

  12. Managing Resistance: Remembering How to Fly a Kite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, John W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a technique for managing resistance in which adults alter their responses to fit a child's perspective. Offers a cognitive perspective of reality and ways in which to create rapport through mirroring, postural congruence, and crossover mirroring. Provides techniques for managing resistance, such as acknowledging pessimistic beliefs and…

  13. Preventing and managing antiretroviral drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuritzkes, Daniel R

    2004-05-01

    Development of resistance to antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) is a major impediment to optimum treatment of HIV-1 infection. Although resistance testing can help to select subsequent regimens when virologic failure occurs, cross-resistance, which affects all classes of ARVs, may make it more difficult to achieve optimum control of HIV. We have known for some time that our first choice of antiretroviral therapy offers the best chance to control HIV replication and that initial therapy should be selected with an eye on future options. Potency is the first line of defense against the development of resistance. Other factors that affect resistance development include: tolerability, potential for optimum adherence, and genetic and pharmacologic barriers to development of resistance. If resistance emerges, only a single drug may be affected initially, and a rapid change in ARVs may preserve the efficacy of other components. One cautionary note is that we can no longer assume that a patient's HIV is fully susceptible to all ARVs even in the initial regimen. Transmission of drug-resistant HIV means that the genetic composition may be that of an "experienced" virus with reduced susceptibility to ARVs. Resistance testing at the time of transmission is most likely to reveal this resistance, but over time the dominant genetic pattern may revert to wild-type, and be missed by resistance testing. Because "archived" resistant HIV may emerge quickly once treatment is initiated, we need to keep this in mind when selecting initial therapy.

  14. IMAZAPYR-RESISTANT MAIZE TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Saharan Africa. A new technology known as imazapyr-resistant maize (IRM) has proven to be effective in controlling it. This study examined the status of IRM adoption in western Kenya. A cross sectional survey that included 600 households, ...

  15. Obesity and Insulin Resistance: Management in Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Suhel Ashraff; Muhammad A. Siddiqui; Thomas E. Carline

    2013-01-01

    Obesity today, is a major public health problem across the world. The rapid increase in the incidence of obesity and associated co-morbidities presents a major challenge to health care globally. Insulin resistance is commonly associated with obesity and other life style diseases. However, much uncertainty remains about the mechanism regarding the association between insulin resistance and human disease mainly because of the difficulties of defining insulin resistance in clinical terms and of ...

  16. Resistant hypertension and sleep apnea: pathophysiologic insights and strategic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephen K; Ravenell, Joseph; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Zizi, Ferdinand; Underberg, James A; McFarlane, Samy I; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2011-02-01

    Resistant hypertension is common among adults with hypertension affecting up to 30% of patients. The treatment of resistant hypertension is important because suboptimal blood pressure control is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. A frequent comorbid condition in patients with resistant hypertension is obstructive sleep apnea. The pathophysiology of sleep apnea-associated hypertension is characterized by sustained adrenergic activation and volume retention often posing treatment challenges in patients with resistant hypertension. This review will address some of the epidemiologic data associating apnea with the pathogenesis of resistant hypertension. Diagnosis and management of apnea and its associated hypertension will also be considered.

  17. Resistance gene management: concepts and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. Mundt

    2012-01-01

    There is now a very long history of genetics/breeding for disease resistance in annual crops. These efforts have resulted in conceptual advances and frustrations, as well as practical successes and failures. This talk will review this history and its relevance to the genetics of resistance in forest species. All plant breeders and pathologists are familiar with boom-...

  18. Patterns of Resistance in Managing Assessment Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneen, Christopher; Boud, David

    2014-01-01

    Achieving change in assessment practices in higher education is difficult. One of the reasons for this is resistance among those responsible for teaching and assessing. This paper seeks to explore this resistance through an analysis of staff dialogue during a major attempt to change the assessment practices at one institution. An institution-wide…

  19. Management of treatment resistant schizophrenia | Jones | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article selectively reviews the literature treatment resistance in schizophrenia, and emphasises the importance of an holistic approach to individual patients. Keywords: schizophrenia, treatment resistance, antipsychotics, augmentation, psychosocial treatments. South African Psychiatry Review Vol. 9(1) 2006: 17-23 ...

  20. Uptake of resistant varieties and integrated management packages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    control measures to the BRR disease. All local varieties previously grown in the area were susceptible to the disease. Therefore, there was urgent need to avail. BRR resistant varieties and other management practices to the affected farming communities. Farmers in the area identified, resistant bean varieties, improved soil ...

  1. Managing resistance and negotiating co-design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yndigegn, Signe Louise

    work. The aim was to design services for senior citizens with the focus on social interaction – and with technology as a way to support the interaction among communities of elderlies. The dissertation is a retrospective reflection of the author’s experience with taking part and being heavily involved...... as participant in this project. This is done through a series of selected “moments” from the project and beyond, which in various ways are significant for what is happening in the project – and how the project is enacted. The dissertation contains of two research aims. The first is concerned with resistance...... as part of co-design and citizen involvement with the aim to reflect upon something that is rarely described or discussed within co-design and participatory design. The question is here how resistance is performed in practice, especially in the meetings between citizens and the project, and how resistance...

  2. Herbicide-Resistant Crops: Utilities and Limitations for Herbicide-Resistant Weed Management

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Jerry M.; Owen, Micheal D. K.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant (HR) crops, particularly glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, have transformed the tactics that corn, soybean, and cotton growers use to manage weeds. The use of GR crops continues to grow, but weeds are adapting to the common practice of using only glyphosate to control weeds. Growers using only a single mode of action to manage weeds need to change to a more diverse array of herbicidal, mechanical, and cultural practices to maintain the effec...

  3. Managing resistance with multiple pesticide tactics: theory, evidence, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnik, B E

    1989-10-01

    Sequences, mixtures, rotations, and mosaics are potential strategies for using more than one pesticide to manage pest populations and for slowing the evolution of pesticide resistance. Results from theoretical models suggest that, under certain conditions, mixtures might be especially effective for resistance management. The assumptions of such models, however, are probably not widely applicable. Potential disadvantages associated with mixtures that are usually not considered in modeling studies include disruption of biological control, promotion of resistance in secondary pests, and intense selection for cross-resistance. Results from limited experimental work suggest that pesticide combinations do not consistently suppress resistance development. More thorough evaluation of tactics that seek to optimize benefits of more than one insecticide will require rigorous experiments with the particular pest and pesticide combinations. Because of the difficulty in generalizing results across systems and the potential negative effects of multiple insecticide use, emphasis on minimizing insecticide use is recommended.

  4. Framing the issues of resistance management in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean insect-pest complex consists of both long-established and new invasive pests. Management of these pests has been achieved by various means, but often relies heavily on the application of insecticides and the development of insect-resistant soybean varieties. Pest management practitione...

  5. Evaluation of stem borer resistance management strategies for Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... However, for successful management of a refugia strategy, strict stewardship is required from appropriate government or community institutions. Key words: Refugia, cost-benefit analysis, Bt-maize, insect pest resistance management. INTRODUCTION. Maize is the leading staple food in the world with two-.

  6. Management of treatment resistant schizophrenia | Jones | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whilst gains have been made in recent years in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia, a number of patients still have residual symptoms and disabilities, or simply do not show response to antipsychotic medications. For such 'treatment resistant' patients, there is little by way of randomised controlled data to ...

  7. Era uma vez dois irmãos...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus V. Mazzari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio aborda a narrativa Grimms Wörter [Palavras de Grimm], publicada por Günter Grass em agosto de 2010, pouco antes de completar 83 anos. Wilhelm e Jacob Grimm são suas personagens principais e o tema gira em torno dos esforços despendidos pelos irmãos para elaborar um grande dicionário da língua alemã, concluí-do apenas em 1961 com a publicação do 32º volume. Organizando os capítulos do livro (e também a estrutura narrativa pelas letras do alfabeto, Grass presta comovida homenagem ao trabalho filológico de Wilhelm e Jacob Grimm, ao mesmo tempo que faz uma declaração de amor à língua alemã. Ao mostrar ainda de que modo 123 anos da história alemã se refletem na intrincada gênese do dicionário, o narrador toma episódios fundamentais da vida dos irmãos Grimm como ensejo para reconstituir estações de sua própria biografia política e artística. Na perspectiva desse entrelaçamento de trajetórias, o ensaio privilegia uma passagem do capítulo dedicado à letra "D" (de Däumling: Pequeno Polegar, em alemão para ressaltar a influência que um dos mais célebres heróis dos irmãos Grimm teve sobre a concepção de Oskar Matzerath, o eu narrador do romance O tambor de lata. Estabelece-se assim um arco entre a narrativa Grimms Wörter e o romance que proporcionou notoriedade mundial ao jovem Günter Grass.This essay discusses the narrative Grimms Wörter [Words of Grimm] published by Günter Grass in August 2010, just before his eighty-third birthday. Wilhelm and Jacob Grimm are his main characters, and the theme centres on the efforts of the brothers to elaborate a great dictionary of the German language, which was only completed in 1961 with the publication of the thirty-second volume. Organizing the chapters of the book (and also the narrative structure by the letters of the alphabet, Grass makes a moving tribute to the philological work of Wilhelm and Jacob Grimm and a declaration of love for the German

  8. The antimicrobial resistance crisis: management through gene monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an acknowledged crisis for humanity. Its genetic origins and dire potential outcomes are increasingly well understood. However, diagnostic techniques for monitoring the crisis are currently largely limited to enumerating the increasing incidence of resistant pathogens. Being the end-stage of the evolutionary process that produces antimicrobial resistant pathogens, these measurements, while diagnostic, are not prognostic, and so are not optimal in managing this crisis. A better test is required. Here, using insights from an understanding of evolutionary processes ruling the changing abundance of genes under selective pressure, we suggest a predictive framework for the AMR crisis. We then discuss the likely progression of resistance for both existing and prospective antimicrobial therapies. Finally, we suggest that by the environmental monitoring of resistance gene frequency, resistance may be detected and tracked presumptively, and how this tool may be used to guide decision-making in the local and global use of antimicrobials. PMID:27831476

  9. Resistance to medical educational change: management and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsuen-Chiuan

    2007-01-01

    Medical education in Taiwan is currently undergoing active renovation. Reform and changes always bring resistance from the levels of individuals, institution and even the society. As an educational leader, to be able to manage resistance is a key to successful reform. This review article provides management strategies and communication skills to solve the resistance problem. The best solution to the problem is "to prevent" resistance from happening through identifying those who may be reluctant to change, and the reasons behind the potential resistance. Some of the reasons for resistance are threatening of self-interest and a loss of face, excess uncertainty, conservatism, fear of personal-worth declination in the organization, and different assessment or perception. The management and communication strategies are suggested to adjust to fit reform process, i.e., recognizing the needs for change, planning process, implementation, and institutionalization innovation. Finally, it is only with respect, empathy, sincerity and support that the resistance to changes can be resolved and difficulties can be overcome.

  10. Imazapyr-resistant maize technology adoption for witch weed control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan Africa. A new technology known as imazapyr-resistant maize (IRM) has proven to be effective in controlling it. This study examined the status of IRM adoption in western Kenya. A cross sectional survey that included 600 households, ...

  11. Herbicide-resistant weed management: focus on glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckie, Hugh J

    2011-09-01

    This review focuses on proactive and reactive management of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. Glyphosate resistance in weeds has evolved under recurrent glyphosate usage, with little or no diversity in weed management practices. The main herbicide strategy for proactively or reactively managing GR weeds is to supplement glyphosate with herbicides of alternative modes of action and with soil-residual activity. These herbicides can be applied in sequences or mixtures. Proactive or reactive GR weed management can be aided by crop cultivars with alternative single or stacked herbicide-resistance traits, which will become increasingly available to growers in the future. Many growers with GR weeds continue to use glyphosate because of its economical broad-spectrum weed control. Government farm policies, pesticide regulatory policies and industry actions should encourage growers to adopt a more proactive approach to GR weed management by providing the best information and training on management practices, information on the benefits of proactive management and voluntary incentives, as appropriate. Results from recent surveys in the United States indicate that such a change in grower attitudes may be occurring because of enhanced awareness of the benefits of proactive management and the relative cost of the reactive management of GR weeds. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. A Weed Resistance Management Game: A Teaching Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvold, George B

    2018-04-15

    This article provides instructions and materials to moderate an interactive resistance management game. The game is designed to generate discussion about the challenges and possibilities of coordinating resistance management activities among groups of farmers. The game has been successfully applied in classroom settings, extension workshops, and at professional weed science meetings. Research has found farmers often perceive the success of their own resistance management may be thwarted if their neighbors are not adequately managing resistance as well. This can lead to negative "tragedy of the commons" outcomes. In past applications of the game exercise, participants have often responded in ways consistent with similar studies in experimental and behavioral economics. This includes dividing benefits evenly (even though this is not a requirement of the game) or treating one-time transactions as potentially repeated exchanges. Player behavior may also be greatly influenced by their attitudes toward monetary risks. The game allows participants to explore ways to overcome the tragedy of the commons and illustrates the roles of information sharing and economic incentives in finding solutions. It also allows participants to experiment with bottom-up voluntary approaches toward resistance management as an alternative to top-down regulatory approaches. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Apport de l'IRM dans la prise en charge des compressions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apport de l'IRM dans la prise en charge des compressions médullaires lentes non traumatiques. Nfally Badji, Hamidou Deme, Geraud Akpo, Boucar Ndong, Mouhamadou Hamine Toure, Sokhna Ba Diop, El Hadji Niang ...

  14. Penanganan Llmbah Radioaktif Padat Aktivitas Rendah Pasca Penggantian Hepa Filter Di Irm

    OpenAIRE

    Susanto, Susanto; Sunardi, Sunardi; Farawan, Bening

    2013-01-01

    PENANGANAN LlMBAH RADIOAKTIF PADAT AKTIVITAS RENDAH PASCA PENGGANTIAN HEPA FILTER DI IRM. Penanganan limbah radioaktif padat aktivitas rendah pasca penggantian hepa filter di IRM telah dilakukan. Proses penanganan limbah tersebut mengacu kepada Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia nomor 27 Tahun 2002, tentang Pengelolaan Limbah Radioaktif dan Keputusan Kepala Badan Pengawas Tenaga Nuklir (BAPETEN) nomor : 03/Ka-BAPETEN/V-99, Tentang Ketentuan Keselamatan Untuk Pengelolaan Limbah Radioaktif...

  15. Management of multidrug resistant bacterial endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahar, J-R; Lesprit, P

    2014-09-01

    The fight against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDRGNB), especially extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae, is about to be lost in our country. The emergence of new resistance mechanisms to carbapenems in these Enterobacteriaceae exposes patients to a risk of treatment failure without any other therapeutic options. This dramatic situation is paradoxical because we are well aware of the 2 major factors responsible for this situation: 1) MDRO cross-transmission, associated with a low compliance to standard precautions, especially hand hygiene, and 2) overexposure of patients to antibiotics. The implementation of a "search and isolate" policy, which was justified to control the spread of some MDRO that remained rare in the country, was not associated with a better adherence to standard precautions. The antibiotic policy and the measures implemented to control antibiotic consumptions have rarely been enforced and have shown inconsistent results. Notably, no significant decrease of antibiotic consumption has been observed. There is no excuse for these poor results, because some authors evaluating the effectiveness of programs for the control of MDRO have reported their positive effects on antimicrobial resistance without any detrimental effects. It is now urgent to deal with the 2 major factors by establishing an educational and persuasive program with quantified and opposable objectives. Firstly, we have to improve the observance of hand hygiene above 70%. Secondly, we have to define and reach a target for the reduction of antibiotic consumption both in community and in hospital settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Emerging fluconazole resistance: Implications for the management of cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpoza, Edward; Rhein, Joshua; Abassi, Mahsa

    2018-03-01

    We present the case of an HIV-seropositive individual with cryptococcal meningitis who was found to have a fluconazole resistant strain of Cryptococcus neoformans . The individual required multiple rounds of amphotericin and fluconazole 800-1200 mg after several episodes of clinical relapse. Cerebrospinal fluid sterilization was achieved and maintained with high doses of fluconazole. This case demonstrates the emerging dilemma of increasing rates of fluconazole resistance in Cryptococcus and the clinical difficulties in meningitis management.

  17. Emerging fluconazole resistance: Implications for the management of cryptococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Mpoza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an HIV-seropositive individual with cryptococcal meningitis who was found to have a fluconazole resistant strain of Cryptococcus neoformans. The individual required multiple rounds of amphotericin and fluconazole 800–1200 mg after several episodes of clinical relapse. Cerebrospinal fluid sterilization was achieved and maintained with high doses of fluconazole. This case demonstrates the emerging dilemma of increasing rates of fluconazole resistance in Cryptococcus and the clinical difficulties in meningitis management.

  18. Herbicide-resistant crops: utilities and limitations for herbicide-resistant weed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerry M; Owen, Micheal D K

    2011-06-08

    Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant (HR) crops, particularly glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, have transformed the tactics that corn, soybean, and cotton growers use to manage weeds. The use of GR crops continues to grow, but weeds are adapting to the common practice of using only glyphosate to control weeds. Growers using only a single mode of action to manage weeds need to change to a more diverse array of herbicidal, mechanical, and cultural practices to maintain the effectiveness of glyphosate. Unfortunately, the introduction of GR crops and the high initial efficacy of glyphosate often lead to a decline in the use of other herbicide options and less investment by industry to discover new herbicide active ingredients. With some exceptions, most growers can still manage their weed problems with currently available selective and HR crop-enabled herbicides. However, current crop management systems are in jeopardy given the pace at which weed populations are evolving glyphosate resistance. New HR crop technologies will expand the utility of currently available herbicides and enable new interim solutions for growers to manage HR weeds, but will not replace the long-term need to diversify weed management tactics and discover herbicides with new modes of action. This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of anticipated weed management options and the best management practices that growers need to implement in HR crops to maximize the long-term benefits of current technologies and reduce weed shifts to difficult-to-control and HR weeds.

  19. Resistant starches for the management of metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindels, Laure B; Walter, Jens; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E

    2015-11-01

    Recent clinical trials and animal studies indicate that resistant starches may be beneficial therapeutic tools for the management of metabolic diseases. The purpose of this review is to summarize these findings and discuss the established and proposed mechanisms by which resistant starches exert their benefits. We also examine open questions regarding how resistant starches improve metabolism and propose future research directions for the field. Data from both humans and animal models clearly support a role for resistant starches in improving a variety of metabolic features; however, discrepancies do exist regarding specific effects. Concomitant improvements in both insulin levels and body fat depots are often reported in rodents fed resistant starches, whereas resistant starch feeding in humans improves insulin sensitivity without having a major impact on fat mass. These differences could be explained by the coexistence of several mechanisms (both gut microbiota-dependent and gut microbiota-independent) underpinning the metabolic benefits of resistant starches. Together, the studies presented in this review offer new insights into the potential pathways by which resistant starches enhance metabolic health, including modulation of the gut microbiota, gut peptides, circulating inflammatory mediators, innate immune cells, and the bile acid cycle.

  20. Entre conselho e incesto: a irmã do rei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª do Rosário FERREIRA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Propõe-se neste estudo uma reflexão sobre a natureza do poder de um número não negligenciável de personagens femininas, filhas de reis ou de condes do centro e do ocidente peninsular que, entre os séculos X e XII, tiveram um importante papel político e institucional, desempenhado sobretudo num âmbito para-eclesial. A historiografia retratou algumas destas mulheres como conselheiras dilectas dos reis seus irmãos; a documentação sugere que o poder por elas detido era exercido em aliança estreita com um membro masculino da dinastia real ou condal, investido de funções soberanas; e a tradição lançou sobre o par mais notório, Afonso VI e a infanta Urraca Fernandes, um libelo de incesto. A perspectiva adoptada sustenta que não se terá tratado de situações fortuitas de partilha de poder, mas da repetição de um padrão de herança repartida da soberania. Tal padrão, cujas raízes mergulhariam em particularidades matrilineares do antigo sistema de sucessão régia asturiano refuncionalizadas num contexto patrilinear, concederia à irmã a prerrogativa simbólica de legitimação do exercício fraterno do domínio sobre o território.Cette étude propose une réflexion sur la nature du pouvoir politique et institutionnel, visible surtout dans le domaine para-ecclésial, dont ont joui bon nombre de filles de rois ou de comtes de l’occident et du centre de la péninsule ibérique entre le Xe et le XIIe siècle. L’historiographie a représenté quelques unes de ces femmes sous les traits de proches conseillères des rois dont elles étaient les sœurs ; la documentation suggère que leur pouvoir était exercé en collaboration étroite avec un élément masculin de la dynastie royale ou comtale investi de souveraineté; et la tradition a taxé d’inceste le couple le plus notoire, constitué par Alphonse VI et l’infante Urraca Fernández. Le point de vue de l’auteur est que ceci ne configure pas des situations fortuites

  1. Change Management Employees’ Resistance Towards Organizational Change

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu Tudor

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study carried out using data from the AnticrisisManager platform, in order to identify the Romanian economy areas that offer the biggest opportunities for change. The model used in this study allows ranking the economic sectors on a scale from 1 (low variation/risk) to 10 (high variation/risk), each industry / sub-industry being correlated with a risk factor. Taking into consideration the high rate of failure for change projects, approx. 70% according to th...

  2. Towards a durable management of genetic resistances to Leptosphaeria maculans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinochet Xavier

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Blackeg is the major disease of winter oilseed rape in France. For an efficient control of the disease several tools could be combined, but mainly plant breeding has been used to increase winter oilseed rape resistance to blackleg. A useful step was reached in the nineties, using a specific resistance gene (Rlm1. After being widely used this resistance was broken down by an increase of the virulent sub-populations of the fungus. Such a situation worried the different actors and raised the question of the promotion of a durable management of genetic resistances to Leptosphaeria. After a synthetic presentation of the state of the art in the fields of genetics of resistance, of Leptosphaeria populations and on agronomic practices able to control the pathogen, the promotion of a durable management of resistances is discussed. This target needs to precise the strategy, to improve methodologies to characterise genotypes, to promote proper agronomic practices, to follow Leptosphaeria population behaviour and to motivate economic actors.

  3. Information risk management a practitioner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Sutton, David

    2014-01-01

    Information risk management (IRM) is about identifying, assessing and prioritising risks to keep information secure and available. This accessible book provides practical guidance to the principles and development of a strategic approach to an IRM programme. The only textbook for the BCS Practitioner Certificate in Information Risk Management.

  4. Gene pyramiding as a Bt resistance management strategy: How ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports on the emergence of insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis delta endotoxins have raised doubts on the sustainability of Bt-toxin based pest management technologies. Corporate industry has responded to this challenge with innovations that include gene pyramiding among others. Pyramiding entails stacking ...

  5. Uptake of resistant varieties and integrated management packages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Data were collected on BRR disease, resistant varieties and control management package adopted and factors including the adoption choice. Additional data were collected on the changes in bean yields, consumption, marketable surplus and household income as well as farmers' participation in the different promotional.

  6. Development of a resistance management strategy for ixodid ticks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strategy developed for managing resistance in ticks with the acaricidal products on the market was based on mode of action of the active ingredients. The strategy requires the rotaional use of the acaricidal products in ways that reduces the selection pressure of active ingredients of same chemistry on the target-site in ...

  7. HIV Drug-Resistant Patient Information Management, Analysis, and Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yashik; Mars, Maurice

    2012-06-07

    The science of information systems, management, and interpretation plays an important part in the continuity of care of patients. This is becoming more evident in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa. The high replication rates, selective pressure, and initial infection by resistant strains of HIV infer that drug resistance will inevitably become an important health care concern. This paper describes proposed research with the aim of developing a physician-administered, artificial intelligence-based decision support system tool to facilitate the management of patients on antiretroviral therapy. This tool will consist of (1) an artificial intelligence computer program that will determine HIV drug resistance information from genomic analysis; (2) a machine-learning algorithm that can predict future CD4 count information given a genomic sequence; and (3) the integration of these tools into an electronic medical record for storage and management. The aim of the project is to create an electronic tool that assists clinicians in managing and interpreting patient information in order to determine the optimal therapy for drug-resistant HIV patients.

  8. Management of treatment-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitner, Gabor I; Mansfield, Abigail K

    2012-03-01

    Given the limitations of evidence for treatment options that are consistently effective for TRD and the possibility that TRD is in fact a form of depression that has a low probability of resolving, how can clinicians help patients with TRD? Perhaps the most important conceptual shift that needs to take place before treatment can be helpful is to accept TRD as a chronic illness, an illness similar to many others, one that can be effectively managed but that is not, at our present level of knowledge, likely to be cured. An undue focus on remission or even a 50% diminution of symptoms sets unrealistic goals for both patients and therapists and may lead to overtreatment and demoralization. The focus should be less on eliminating depressive symptoms and more on making sense of and learning to function better in spite of them. It is important to acknowledge the difficult nature of the depressive illness, to remove blame from the patient and clinician for not achieving remission, to set realistic expectations, and to help promote better psychosocial functioning even in the face of persisting symptoms. The critical element when implementing such an approach is a judicious balance between maintaining hope for improvement without setting unrealistic expectations. It is important to reemphasize that following a disease management model with acceptance of the reality of a chronic illness is not nihilistic and does not mean the abandonment of hope for improvement. The first step in treating a patient with TRD is to perform a comprehensive assessment of the patient’s past and current treatment history to ensure that evidence-based treatment trials have in fact been undertaken, and if not, such treatment trials should be implemented. If the patient continues to have significant residual symptoms, it is important to determine the impact is of these symptoms on the patient’s quality of life and ability to function. It is also important to evaluate the factors that may be

  9. Novel AChE inhibitors for sustainable insecticide resistance management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoues Alout

    Full Text Available Resistance to insecticides has become a critical issue in pest management and it is particularly chronic in the control of human disease vectors. The gravity of this situation is being exacerbated since there has not been a new insecticide class produced for over twenty years. Reasoned strategies have been developed to limit resistance spread but have proven difficult to implement in the field. Here we propose a new conceptual strategy based on inhibitors that preferentially target mosquitoes already resistant to a currently used insecticide. Application of such inhibitors in rotation with the insecticide against which resistance has been selected initially is expected to restore vector control efficacy and reduce the odds of neo-resistance. We validated this strategy by screening for inhibitors of the G119S mutated acetylcholinesterase-1 (AChE1, which mediates insensitivity to the widely used organophosphates (OP and carbamates (CX insecticides. PyrimidineTrione Furan-substituted (PTF compounds came out as best hits, acting biochemically as reversible and competitive inhibitors of mosquito AChE1 and preferentially inhibiting the mutated form, insensitive to OP and CX. PTF application in bioassays preferentially killed OP-resistant Culex pipiens and Anopheles gambiae larvae as a consequence of AChE1 inhibition. Modeling the evolution of frequencies of wild type and OP-insensitive AChE1 alleles in PTF-treated populations using the selectivity parameters estimated from bioassays predicts a rapid rise in the wild type allele frequency. This study identifies the first compound class that preferentially targets OP-resistant mosquitoes, thus restoring OP-susceptibility, which validates a new prospect of sustainable insecticide resistance management.

  10. Managing the risk of glyphosate resistance in Australian glyphosate- resistant cotton production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Jeff A; Preston, Christopher; Taylor, Ian N; Charles, Graham W; Roberts, Grant N; Baker, Jeanine

    2008-04-01

    Glyphosate-resistant cotton varieties are an important tool for weed control in Australian cotton production systems. To increase the sustainability of this technology and to minimise the likelihood of resistance evolving through its use, weed scientists, together with herbicide regulators, industry representatives and the technology owners, have developed a framework that guides the use of the technology. Central to this framework is a crop management plan (CMP) and grower accreditation course. A simulation model that takes into account the characteristics of the weed species, initial gene frequencies and any associated fitness penalties was developed to ensure that the CMP was sufficiently robust to minimise resistance risks. The simulations showed that, when a combination of weed control options was employed in addition to glyphosate, resistance did not evolve over the 30 year period of the simulation. These simulations underline the importance of maintaining an integrated system for weed management to prevent the evolution of glyphosate resistance, prolonging the use of glyphosate-resistant cotton. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Implementation of Enhanced Integrated Retail Module (IRM) Installation at Ft. Jackson Clothing Initial Issue Point (CIIP), South Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perrin, Richard A; Fraser, Carol; DeLoach, Doug

    2006-01-01

    ... military clothing inventory. The Enhanced IRM solution brought improvements to accountability of warehouse inventory transactions in VIM/Wholesale Local, improved the efficiency and accountability of sales...

  12. Cry1F resistance among lepidopteran pests: a model for improved resistance management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Ana M; Vellichirammal, Neetha Nanoth; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Siegfried, Blair D

    2016-06-01

    The Cry1Fa protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is known for its potential to control lepidopteran pests, especially through transgenic expression in maize and cotton. The maize event TC1507 expressing the cry1Fa toxin gene became commercially available in the United States in 2003 for the management of key lepidopteran pests including the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. A high-dose/refuge strategy has been widely adopted to delay evolution of resistance to event TC1507 and other transgenic Bt crops. Efficacy of this strategy depends on the crops expressing a high dose of the Bt toxin to targeted pests and adjacent refuges of non-Bt host plants serving as a source of abundant susceptible insects. While this strategy has proved effective in delaying O. nubilalis resistance, field-evolved resistance to event TC1507 has been reported in S. frugiperda populations in Puerto Rico, Brazil, and the southeastern United States. This paper examines available information on resistance to Cry1Fa in O. nubilalis and S. frugiperda and discusses how this information identifies opportunities to refine resistance management recommendations for Bt maize. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Grupo com irmãos de pessoas com necessidades especiais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Silva Molon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O relacionamento entre irmãos favorece o desenvolvimento de ambos porque a relação que se estabelece é de reciprocidade e de complementaridade. Para algumas crianças, a experiência de ter um “irmão especial” pode ser intensamente positiva, mas para outras a vivência pode ser difícil. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo proporcionar a troca de experiências entre os irmãos, assim como auxiliá-los no manejo com seus sentimentos relacionados ao irmão, aos pais, à família e consigo mesmo. O desenvolvimento desse projeto estava centrado num grupo de ajuda mútua, dentro de fundamentos teóricos que compreendem a linha psicanalítica, caracterizado por um grupo do tipo homogêneo e aberto, tendo como participantes seis adolescentes e pré-adolescentes, com idade variando entre 10 e 14 anos. As reuniões do grupo aconteciam no Núcleo de Práticas em Psicologia do Centro Universitário Franciscano – UNIFRA, e compreendiam dois encontros mensais, tendo duração de 1h30min cada e participação gratuita. Num período que compreendeu os meses de Março à Novembro de 2004. O espaço do grupo permitiu aos participantes a escuta de suas dificuldades do dia-a-dia e principalmente dos sentimentos provenientes do convívio com o irmão e auxiliou também no encontro de novas alternativas para lidar com as diferenças. Palavras-chave: Grupo de Irmãos. Interação.

  14. 200-ZP-1 IRM phase 2 and 3 remedial design report, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This 200-ZP-1 remedial design report presents the objectives and rationale developed for the design and implementation of the selected interim remedial measure (IRM) for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit, located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site.The IRM was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (also known as the Tri- party Agreement), and the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan

  15. Blended Refuge and Insect Resistance Management for Insecticidal Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Andre L B; Pan, Zaiqi; Crain, Philip R; Thompson, Stephen D; Pilcher, Clinton D; Sethi, Amit

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In this review, we evaluate the intentional mixing or blending of insecticidal seed with refuge seed for managing resistance by insects to insecticidal corn (Zea mays). We first describe the pest biology and farming practices that will contribute to weighing trade-offs between using block refuges and blended refuges. Case studies are presented to demonstrate how the trade-offs will differ in different systems. We compare biological aspects of several abstract models to guide the reader through the history of modeling, which has played a key role in the promotion or denigration of blending in various scientific debates about insect resistance management for insecticidal crops. We conclude that the use of blended refuge should be considered on a case-by-case basis after evaluation of insect biology, environment, and farmer behavior. For Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, Ostrinia nubilalis, and Helicoverpa zea in the United States, blended refuge provides similar, if not longer, delays in the evolution of resistance compared to separate block refuges. PMID:29220481

  16. Blended Refuge and Insect Resistance Management for Insecticidal Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, David W; Crespo, Andre L B; Pan, Zaiqi; Crain, Philip R; Thompson, Stephen D; Pilcher, Clinton D; Sethi, Amit

    2018-02-08

    In this review, we evaluate the intentional mixing or blending of insecticidal seed with refuge seed for managing resistance by insects to insecticidal corn (Zea mays). We first describe the pest biology and farming practices that will contribute to weighing trade-offs between using block refuges and blended refuges. Case studies are presented to demonstrate how the trade-offs will differ in different systems. We compare biological aspects of several abstract models to guide the reader through the history of modeling, which has played a key role in the promotion or denigration of blending in various scientific debates about insect resistance management for insecticidal crops. We conclude that the use of blended refuge should be considered on a case-by-case basis after evaluation of insect biology, environment, and farmer behavior. For Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, Ostrinia nubilalis, and Helicoverpa zea in the United States, blended refuge provides similar, if not longer, delays in the evolution of resistance compared to separate block refuges. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  17. Marginal Sealing Quality of IRM and Cavit as Assessed by Microbial Penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    phosphate cement. In contrast, Bramante and others8 using 1311 found IRM making a better seal than Cavit. Many variables such as molecular size, pH ...trypticase soy broth (TSB) culture medium could be placed in contact with the exposed cut pulpal surface of the crown. The external tooth enamel-acrylic

  18. An approach to diagnosis and management of resistant hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh C Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a key determinant of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality, directly accounting for approximately 10% of deaths in India. There is a causal association between the magnitude of blood pressure (BP elevation and adverse cardiovascular event rate, which provides the rationale for implementing BP reduction in routine clinical practice. However, an estimated 30-50% of the hypertensive population remain uncontrolled with a BP >140/90 mmHg, of whom a subgroup fulfill the diagnostic criteria for resistant hypertension. This cohort lies at the extreme end of the cardiovascular risk spectrum, and hence stands to benefit most from specialist input to optimize BP control. This review summarizes a management approach in patients with resistant hypertension, focusing on accurate diagnosis and evidence-based treatments.

  19. Absolute Calibration of Si iRMs used for Measurements of Si Paleo-nutrient proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocke, R. D., Jr.; Rabb, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Silicon isotope variations (reported as δ30Si and δ29Si, relative to NBS28) in silicic acid dissolved in ocean waters, in biogenic silica and in diatoms are extremely informative paleo-nutrient proxies. The resolution and comparability of such measurements depend on the quality of the isotopic Reference Materials (iRMs) defining the delta scale. We report new absolute Si isotopic measurements on the iRMs NBS28 (RM 8546 - Silica Sand), Diatomite, and Big Batch using the Avogadro measurement approach and comparing them with prior assessments of these iRMs. The Avogadro Si measurement technique was developed by the German Physikalish-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) to provide a precise and highly accurate method to measure absolute isotopic ratios in highly enriched 28Si (99.996%) material. These measurements are part of an international effort to redefine the kg and mole based on the Planck constant h and the Avogadro constant NA, respectively (Vocke et al., 2014 Metrologia 51, 361, Azuma et al., 2015 Metrologia 52 360). This approach produces absolute Si isotope ratio data with lower levels of uncertainty when compared to the traditional "Atomic Weights" method of absolute isotope ratio measurement calibration. This is illustrated in Fig. 1 where absolute Si isotopic measurements on SRM 990, separated by 40+ years of advances in instrumentation, are compared. The availability of this new technique does not say that absolute Si isotopic ratios are or ever will be better for normal Si isotopic measurements when seeking isotopic variations in nature, because they are not. However, by determining the absolute isotopic ratios of all the Si iRM scale artifacts, such iRMs become traceable to the metric system (SI); thereby automatically conferring on all the artifact-based δ30Si and δ29Si measurements traceability to the base SI unit, the mole. Such traceability should help reduce the potential of bias between different iRMs and facilitate the replacement of delta

  20. Management Options For Reducing The Release Of Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance Genes To The Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water - 77 environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. 78 Objective: To identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and 79 antibiotic resist...

  1. Western flower thrips resistance to insecticides: detection, mechanisms, and management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insecticide resistance continues to be one of the most important issues facing agricultural production. The challenges in insecticide resistance and its management are exemplified by the situation with the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). This ...

  2. Laser assisted ratio analysis - An alternative to GC/IRMS for CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murnick, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    A new technique for laser based analysis of carbon isotope ratios, with the acronym LARA, based on large isotope shifts in molecular spectra, the use of fixed frequency isotopic lasers, and sensitive detection via the laser optogalvanic effect is reviewed and compared with GC/IRMS for carbon dioxide in specific applications. The possibility for development of new classes of isotope ratio measurement systems with LARA is explored. (author)

  3. Bacterial microleakage of Cavit, IRM, TERM, and Fermit: a 21-day in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveaux, E; Hildelbert, P; Neut, C; Romond, C

    1999-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the leakage of four cements (Cavit, IRM, TERM, and Fermit) using a two-compartment model system and Streptococcus sanguis as bacterial marker. Access cavities in premolars were filled with cement and the teeth immersed in culture medium in the model system. Half of the teeth were thermocycled on day 2. Bacterial percolation into the upper compartment was measured at regular intervals (days 2, 7, 14, and 21). Cement thickness was measured at the end of the study. In the nonthermocycled group, Cavit was more leakproof than the other cements at day 2 (p = 0.011), than TERM and IRM at day 7 (p = 0.043). Fermit was more leakproof than IRM at day 7 (p = 0.043). In the thermocycled group, Cavit was more leakproof than the other cements at day 7 (p = 0.041). Thermocycling did not significantly affect leakage. Cement thickness averaged 4.1 mm and did not significantly affect leakage. These results should be considered when using cements as temporary fillings.

  4. Absolute Calibration of Si iRMs used for Si Paleo-nutrient proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocke, Robert; Rabb, Savelas

    2016-04-01

    The Avogadro Project is an ongoing international effort, coordinated by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) and the International Avogadro Coordination (IAC) to redefine the SI unit mole in terms of the Avogadro constant and the SI unit kg in terms of the Planck constant. One of the outgrowths of this effort has been the development of a novel, precise and highly accurate method to measure calibrated (absolute) isotopic ratios that are traceable to the SI (Vocke et al., 2014 Metrologia 51, 361, Azuma et al., 2015 Metrologia 52 360). This approach has also been able to produce absolute Si isotope ratio data with lower levels of uncertainty when compared to the traditional "Atomic Weights" method of absolute isotope ratio measurement. Silicon isotope variations (reported as delta(Si30)and delta(Si29)) in silicic acid dissolved in ocean waters, in biogenic silica and in diatoms are extremely informative paleo-nutrient proxies. The utility and comparability of such measurements however depends on calibration with artifact isotopic Reference Materials (iRMs). We will be reporting new measurements on the iRMs NBS-28 (RM 8546 - Silica Sand), Diatomite, Big Batch and SRM 990 using the Avogadro measurement approach, comparing them with prior assessments of these iRMs.

  5. Genetic differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae populations on cultivated cowpea and wild host plants: implications for insect resistance management and biological control strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolulope A Agunbiade

    Full Text Available Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on a variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1 sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata collected from cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., and alternative host plants Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth. var. javanica (Benth. Baker, Loncocarpus sericeus (Poir, and Tephrosia candida (Roxb.. Analyses of microsatellite data revealed a significant global FST estimate of 0.05 (P≤0.001. The program STRUCTURE estimated 2 genotypic clusters (co-ancestries on the four host plants across 3 geographic locations, but little geographic variation was predicted among genotypes from different geographic locations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA; among group variation -0.68% or F-statistics (FSTLoc = -0.01; P = 0.62. These results were corroborated by mitochondrial haplotype data (φSTLoc = 0.05; P = 0.92. In contrast, genotypes obtained from different host plants showed low but significant levels of genetic variation (FSTHost = 0.04; P = 0.01, which accounted for 4.08% of the total genetic variation, but was not congruent with mitochondrial haplotype analyses (φSTHost = 0.06; P = 0.27. Variation among host plants at a location and host plants among locations showed no consistent evidence for M. vitrata population subdivision. These results suggest that host plants do not significantly influence the genetic structure of M. vitrata, and this has implications for biocontrol agent releases as well as insecticide resistance management (IRM for M. vitrata in West Africa.

  6. LC/IRMS analysis: A powerful technique to trace carbon flow in microphytobenthic communities in intertidal sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja C. W.; Stal, Lucas J.; Boschker, Henricus T. S.

    2014-09-01

    Microphytobenthic communities are important for primary production in intertidal marine sediments. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), comprising polysaccharides and proteins, play a key role in the structure and functioning of microphytobenthic biofilms and allow interactions between the benthic microalgae and the associated heterotrophic bacteria. The use of stable isotopes has provided major insights into the functioning of these microbial ecosystems. Until recently, gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) was the principal method for compound specific stable isotope analysis in these studies. Liquid chromatography linked to IRMS (LC/IRMS) is a more recently developed technique that broadens the range of compounds that can be targeted, in particular enabling the analysis of 13C in non-volatile, aqueous soluble organic compounds, such as carbohydrates and amino acids. In this paper we present an overview of the possibilities and limitations of the LC/IRMS technique to study metabolic processes in microphytobenthic biofilms consisting of mainly diatoms. With a preliminary in-situ labeling experiment, we show that the biosynthesis of carbohydrates and amino acids in EPS and total carbohydrate and amino acid pools can be determined by LC/IRMS. Water extractable EPS were composed predominantly of carbohydrates, whereas amino acids played a minor role, both in terms of content and production. By using LC/IRMS, we will be able to quantify the biosynthesis of metabolites and, hence, to unravel in detail the metabolic pathways of the transfer of carbon from the diatoms via EPS to the bacteria.

  7. Analysis of the Factors Affecting Resistance to Changes in Management Accounting Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Angonese; Carlos Eduardo Facin Lavarda

    2014-01-01

    Despite changes in the environment and management accounting practices, studies indicate that management accounting systems do not change or change at a much slower rate than expected. The stability of the management accounting systems used by companies may relate to resistance to changing these systems. This study analyzes the factors that contribute to resistance to implementing an integrated management system from the perspective of institutional theory, grounded in the old institutional e...

  8. The antimicrobial resistance crisis: causes, consequences and management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Anne Michael

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR crisis is the increasing global incidence of infectious diseases affecting the human population, which are untreatable with any known antimicrobial agent. This crisis will have a devastating cost on human society as both debilitating and lethal diseases increase in frequency and scope. Three major factors determine this crisis: 1/ The increasing frequency of AMR phenotypes amongst microbes is an evolutionary response to the widespread use of antimicrobials. 2/ The large and globally connected human population allows pathogens in any environment access to all of humanity. 3/ The extensive and often unnecessary use of antimicrobials by humanity provides the strong selective pressure that is driving the evolutionary response in the microbial world. Of these factors, the size of the human population is least amenable to rapid change. In contrast the remaining two factors may be affected, so offering a means of managing the crisis: The rate at which AMR, as well as virulence factors evolve in microbial world may be slowed by reducing the applied selective pressure. This may be accomplished by radically reducing the global use of current and prospective antimicrobials. Current management measures to legislate the use of antimicrobials and to educate the healthcare world in the issues, while useful, have not comprehensively addressed the problem of achieving an overall reduction in the human use of antimicrobials. We propose that in addition to current measures and increased research into new antimicrobials and diagnostics, a comprehensive education programme will be required to change the public paradigm of antimicrobial usage from that of a first line treatment to that of a last resort when all other therapeutic options have failed.

  9. The antimicrobial resistance crisis: causes, consequences, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Carolyn Anne; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Labbate, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis is the increasing global incidence of infectious diseases affecting the human population, which are untreatable with any known antimicrobial agent. This crisis will have a devastating cost on human society as both debilitating and lethal diseases increase in frequency and scope. Three major factors determine this crisis: (1) the increasing frequency of AMR phenotypes among microbes is an evolutionary response to the widespread use of antimicrobials; (2) the large and globally connected human population allows pathogens in any environment access to all of humanity; and (3) the extensive and often unnecessary use of antimicrobials by humanity provides the strong selective pressure that is driving the evolutionary response in the microbial world. Of these factors, the size of the human population is least amenable to rapid change. In contrast, the remaining two factors may be affected, so offering a means of managing the crisis: the rate at which AMR, as well as virulence factors evolve in microbial world may be slowed by reducing the applied selective pressure. This may be accomplished by radically reducing the global use of current and prospective antimicrobials. Current management measures to legislate the use of antimicrobials and to educate the healthcare world in the issues, while useful, have not comprehensively addressed the problem of achieving an overall reduction in the human use of antimicrobials. We propose that in addition to current measures and increased research into new antimicrobials and diagnostics, a comprehensive education program will be required to change the public paradigm of antimicrobial usage from that of a first line treatment to that of a last resort when all other therapeutic options have failed.

  10. Implementation of AICAR analysis by GC-C-IRMS for anti-doping purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisson, C; Frelat, C; Mongongu, C; Martinat, N; Audran, M

    2017-11-01

    AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside), is a naturally occurring substance which is part to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List. It is claimed to improve physical performance when administered as a supplement. As for other endogenous compounds such as steroids, the gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) analysis remains an efficient tool to differentiate endogenous substances from exogenous ones. A protocol was described in the literature for the analysis of AICAR by GC-C-IRMS. The aim of the present study was to implement this protocol in our laboratory and to propose solutions to avoid the difficulties encountered. The first point discussed in this study is the derivatization step. Due to the structure of the AICAR molecule, conventional derivatization for GC-C-IRMS such as acetylation could not be applied and silylation was preferred. The improvement of the derivatives stability was achieved thanks to several derivatization conditions tested. This adjustment led to a reproducible derivatization pattern with the 3-TMS form as major derivative product. The second point discussed in this study is the diminution of extracts' background noise. Indeed, the implementation of the published protocol was not easy due to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) problems encountered when concentrated urine was injected into our system. Also, too many interferences in the endogenous reference compound fractions were observed. The addition of both a wash step before the HPLC purification and a HPLC purification step for the endogenous reference compound (ERC) fraction allowed us to increase the robustness of the method. This study presents the modified protocol compared to the original protocol as well as the evaluation of the whole method performances. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. O abuso incestuoso entre irmãos e disfuncionalidade familiar

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaz, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Psicocriminologia, apresentada ao ISPA - Instituto Universitário O fenómeno do incesto entre irmãos não é algo desconhecido, pelo contrário, é um tema bastante recorrente na mitologia, na literatura (científica e de ficção), na história e, principalmente, na vida das pessoas. No entanto, apesar de conhecido, este fenómeno, não tem sido muito estudado. Ainda assim, muitos autores consideram que este tipo de abuso pode ser bastante prejudicial, não só p...

  12. Cantando com os irmãos: do Salmos e Hinos aos louvores da contemporaneidade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Sudário de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SOUZA, Ailton Sudário de. Cantando com os irmãos: do Salmos e Hinos aos louvores da contemporaneidade. 2014. Dissertação (Mestrado, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte.Palavras-chave: Cântico. Louvor. Hinários. Protestantismo. Pentecostalismo. Neopentecostalismo. Contemporaneidade.Keywords: Chant. Worship. Hymnals. Protestantism. Pentecostalism. Neo-Pentecostalism. Contemporaneity.  

  13. Management options for reducing the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes to the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruden, Amy; Larsson, D.G. Joakim; Amézquita, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Objective: Our aim in this study was to identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance...... of management strategies is also highlighted. Finally, we describe a case study in Sweden that illustrates the critical role of communication to engage stakeholders and promote action. Conclusions: Environmental releases of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can in many cases be reduced at little...... associated with antibiotic resistance strongly indicate the need for action....

  14. Management of insecticide resistance in Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations from Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanga, Lambert H B; Pree, David J; van Lier, Jennifer L; Walker, Gerald M

    2003-08-01

    The development of resistance in the Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) to organophosphorus (OP) insecticides (azinphos-methyl and phosmet) is a serious threat to the tender fruit industry in Ontario (50% crop losses in 1994). Resistance to carbamate insecticides and increased survival of field-collected moths at diagnostic concentrations of pyrethroids were widespread. As a result, four different treatment regimes were tested to manage resistance in G molesta, and the changes in resistance frequencies under each treatment regime were monitored from 1996 to 1999. The data indicated that the levels of resistance were significantly influenced by the various treatment regimes. The seasonal pattern of resistance was similar for all treatment regimes, in that resistance peaked in mid-season and declined in the late season. Levels of resistance in G molesta to OPs decreased from 55% to 14% and that to pyrethroids declined from 30% to 10% from 1996 to 1999 under a treatment regime consisting of endosulfan-organophosphate-pyrethroid rotation. Similarly, under a treatment regime implemented in commercial orchards (organophosphate-pyrethroid rotation), resistance to OP insecticides declined from 50% to 12% and resistance to pyrethroids evolved to around 16%. The overall data indicated that resistance was unstable; a strategy based on rotation of insecticides by class for each generation of G molesta was successful in managing resistance to both OP and pyrethroid insecticides. The rotational strategy has been widely adopted by growers and is applied to ca 85% of the acreage.

  15. Multi drug resistant tuberculosis: a challenge in the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) will not usually respond to short course chemotherapy. Unless the individual infected with this bug is treated appropriately, they can continue spreading resistant strains in the community and further fuel the tuberculosis epidemic. Diagnosis requires drug sensitivity testing and the ...

  16. Managing Resistance to Instructional Modifications in Mainstreamed Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Howard; McGettigan, James

    1988-01-01

    Classroom teachers serving handicapped students in the mainstream often need to make instructional modifications. This article discusses reasons for teacher resistance to instructional modifications and provides strategies that consultative staff can use to prevent or reduce resistance. Expectancy theory is used to provide a framework for…

  17. Herbicide-resistant weeds: Management strategies and upcoming technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicides have contributed to substantial increase in crop yields over the past seven decades. Over reliance on herbicides for weed control has led to rapid evolution of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds. Increased awareness of herbicide resistance and adoption of diversified weed control tactics by f...

  18. Microleakage of Cavit, CavitW, CavitG and IRM by impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquot, B M; Panighi, M M; Steinmetz, P; G'Sell, C

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the sealing ability of four temporary filling materials over 9 days using a new electrochemical technique. Fifty-two extracted human maxillary bicuspids were selected and prepared for the measurements. They were divided into four groups of 12 teeth each, in addition to two positive and two negative controls. After preparation of the endodontic access cavity the sealing ability was registered. After a randomization procedure one group was obturated with IRM, another group with Cavit, a third group with CavitW and the last group with CavitG. The sealability was measured just after obturation (time 0) and after days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 9. The results showed that the IRM group was significantly more watertight than the different Cavit formulations. Throughout the experiment no significant difference was noticed between the Cavit and CavitW groups (P > 0.05). The CavitG group was significantly less watertight throughout the measurements (P < 0.05).

  19. Differentiation of partial acylglycerols derived from different animal fats by EA-IRMS and GCMS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nina Naquiah, A.N.; Marikkar, J.M.N.; Shuhaimi, M.

    2016-07-01

    A study was carried out to compare partial acylglycerols of lard with those of chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Elemental Analysis–Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS). Mono- (MAG) and di-(DAG) acylglycerols of animal fats were prepared according to a chemical glycerolysis method and isolated using column chromatography. The fatty acid composition and δ13C carbon isotope ratio of MAG and DAG derived from individual animal fat were determined separately to establish their identity characteristics. The results showed that the δ13C values of MAG and DAG of lard were significantly different from those of MAG and DAG derived from chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat. According to the loading plots based on a principle component analysis (PCA), fatty acids namely stearic, oleic and linoleic were the most discriminating parameters to distinctly identify MAG and DAG derived from different animal fats. This demonstrated that the EA-IRMS and the PCA of fatty acid data have considerable potential for discriminating MAG and DAG derived from lard from other animal fats for Halal authentication purposes. (Author)

  20. Perspectivas da pesquisa prospectiva com bebês irmãos de autistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lampreia

    Full Text Available A identificação precoce de bebês com risco de desenvolver um quadro autístico é importante por permitir uma intervenção também precoce, minimizar o sofrimento da família e tornar os profissionais de saúde e educação mais vigilantes para os possíveis sinais de risco de autismo. Ao longo dos últimos anos, tem havido um interesse crescente na pesquisa sobre indicadores precoces do autismo. O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir uma metodologia longitudinal prospectiva para a identificação de sinais precoces de risco do autismo, a partir de estudos envolvendo bebês irmãos de autistas, que também permita investigar a identificação de subtipos de autismo e proporcionar melhor entendimento da relação entre a tríade de prejuízos que o define. Serão apresentados, inicialmente, os diferentes tipos de estudos disponíveis sobre indicadores de risco de autismo - relatos dos pais, estudos de vídeos familiares e de atenção compartilhada, instrumentos disponíveis e pesquisas prospectivas de bebês irmãos de autistas.

  1. Insights from agriculture for the management of insecticide resistance in disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Thomas, Matthew B

    2018-04-01

    Key to contemporary management of diseases such as malaria, dengue, and filariasis is control of the insect vectors responsible for transmission. Insecticide-based interventions have contributed to declines in disease burdens in many areas, but this progress could be threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance in vector populations. Insecticide resistance is likewise a major concern in agriculture, where insect pests can cause substantial yield losses. Here, we explore overlaps between understanding and managing insecticide resistance in agriculture and in public health. We have used the Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management in malaria vectors, developed under the auspices of the World Health Organization Global Malaria Program, as a framework for this exploration because it serves as one of the few cohesive documents for managing a global insecticide resistance crisis. Generally, this comparison highlights some fundamental differences between insect control in agriculture and in public health. Moreover, we emphasize that the success of insecticide resistance management strategies is strongly dependent on the biological specifics of each system. We suggest that the biological, operational, and regulatory differences between agriculture and public health limit the wholesale transfer of knowledge and practices from one system to the other. Nonetheless, there are some valuable insights from agriculture that could assist in advancing the existing Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management framework.

  2. Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)--preliminary study on TATP and PETN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sarah J; Lennard, Christopher J; Maynard, Philip; Hill, David M; Andrew, Anita S; Roux, Claude

    2009-06-01

    The application of isotopic techniques to investigations requiring the provision of evidence to a Court is limited. The objective of this research was to investigate the application of light stable isotopes and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to solve complex forensic cases by providing a level of discrimination not achievable utilising traditional forensic techniques. Due to the current threat of organic peroxide explosives, such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP), research was undertaken to determine the potential of IRMS to differentiate samples of TATP that had been manufactured utilising different starting materials and/or manufacturing processes. In addition, due to the prevalence of pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN) in detonators, detonating cord, and boosters, the potential of the IRMS technique to differentiate PETN samples from different sources was also investigated. Carbon isotope values were measured in fourteen TATP samples, with three definite groups appearing in the initial sample set based on the carbon data alone. Four additional TATP samples (in a second set of samples) were distinguishable utilising the carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions individually, and also in combination with the oxygen isotope values. The 3D plot of the carbon, oxygen and hydrogen data demonstrated the clear discrimination of the four samples of TATP. The carbon and nitrogen isotope values measured from fifteen PETN samples, allowed samples from different sources to be readily discriminated. This paper demonstrates the successful application of IRMS to the analysis of explosives of forensic interest to assist in discriminating samples from different sources. This research represents a preliminary evaluation of the IRMS technique for the measurement of stable isotope values in TATP and PETN samples, and supports the dedication of resources for a full evaluation of this application in order to achieve Court reportable IRMS results.

  3. Density Dependence and Growth Rate: Evolutionary Effects on Resistance Development to Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jeannette C; Caprio, Michael A; Friedenberg, Nicholas A

    2018-02-09

    It has long been recognized that pest population dynamics can affect the durability of a pesticide, but dose remains the primary component of insect resistance management (IRM). For transgenic pesticidal traits such as Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)), dose (measured as the mortality of susceptibles caused by a toxin) is a relatively fixed characteristic and often falls below the standard definition of high dose. Hence, it is important to understand how pest population dynamics modify durability and what targets they present for IRM. We used a deterministic model of a generic arthropod pest to examine how timing and strength of density dependence interacted with population growth rate and Bt mortality to affect time to resistance. As in previous studies, durability typically reached a minimum at intermediate doses. However, high population growth rates could eliminate benefits of high dose. The timing of density dependence had a more subtle effect. If density dependence operated simultaneously with Bt mortality, durability was insensitive to its strengths. However, if density dependence was driven by postselection densities, decreasing its strength could increase durability. The strength of density dependence could affect durability of both single traits and pyramids, but its influence depended on the timing of density dependence and size of the refuge. Our findings suggest the utility of a broader definition of high dose, one that incorporates population-dynamic context. That maximum growth rates and timing and strength of interactions causing density dependent mortality can all affect durability, also highlights the need for ecologically integrated approaches to IRM research. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Methods in the use of GC/C/IRMS for the analysis of biochemical and pollutant isotope signatures of compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macko, S.A.; Engel, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    The potential for application of GC/C/IRMS analysis to any multitude of environmental, ecological or biochemical research areas is only beginning to be realized. Extension of compound-specific isotope analytical data derived from modern organisms and settings to yield interpretations of ancient depositional environments certainly appears possible. Further application of GC/C/IRMS approaches to understand the cycling of carbon and nitrogen, the identification and alteration of pollutants, or resolve metabolic relationships between compounds in living or extinct organisms are all within the scope of future research. (author)

  5. Southern African Treatment Resistance Network (SATuRN) RegaDB HIV drug resistance and clinical management database: supporting patient management, surveillance and research in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasa, Justen; Lessells, Richard; Rossouw, Theresa; Naidu, Kevindra; Van Vuuren, Cloete; Goedhals, Dominique; van Zyl, Gert; Bester, Armand; Skingsley, Andrew; Stott, Katharine; Danaviah, Siva; Chetty, Terusha; Singh, Lavanya; Moodley, Pravi; Iwuji, Collins; McGrath, Nuala; Seebregts, Christopher J; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2014-01-01

    Substantial amounts of data have been generated from patient management and academic exercises designed to better understand the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and design interventions to control it. A number of specialized databases have been designed to manage huge data sets from HIV cohort, vaccine, host genomic and drug resistance studies. Besides databases from cohort studies, most of the online databases contain limited curated data and are thus sequence repositories. HIV drug resistance has been shown to have a great potential to derail the progress made thus far through antiretroviral therapy. Thus, a lot of resources have been invested in generating drug resistance data for patient management and surveillance purposes. Unfortunately, most of the data currently available relate to subtype B even though >60% of the epidemic is caused by HIV-1 subtype C. A consortium of clinicians, scientists, public health experts and policy markers working in southern Africa came together and formed a network, the Southern African Treatment and Resistance Network (SATuRN), with the aim of increasing curated HIV-1 subtype C and tuberculosis drug resistance data. This article describes the HIV-1 data curation process using the SATuRN Rega database. The data curation is a manual and time-consuming process done by clinical, laboratory and data curation specialists. Access to the highly curated data sets is through applications that are reviewed by the SATuRN executive committee. Examples of research outputs from the analysis of the curated data include trends in the level of transmitted drug resistance in South Africa, analysis of the levels of acquired resistance among patients failing therapy and factors associated with the absence of genotypic evidence of drug resistance among patients failing therapy. All these studies have been important for informing first- and second-line therapy. This database is a free password-protected open source database available on

  6. Notification: Evaluation of Office of Pesticide Programs’ Genetically Engineered Corn Insect Resistance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY15-0055, July 09, 2015. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the EPA's ability to manage and prevent increased insect resistance to genetically engineered Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn.

  7. Notification: Evaluation of EPA's Management of Resistance Issues Related to Herbicide Tolerant Genetically Engineered Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY16-0023, March 25, 2016. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research to assess the EPA's management and oversight of resistance issues related to herbicide tolerant genetically engineered crops.

  8. The background and theory of integrated risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsucker, John L.

    1995-01-01

    While all good managers have always considered risk in their decision making, only recently have formal programs to do so been introduced. This report covers the logical structure behind the formulation of an integrated risk management plan (IRM). Included in the report are factors forcing the development of a formal plan to consider risk, the basic objective or purpose of an IRM, and desirable traits of such a plan. The report moves on to a discussion of background issues, seeks to formalize some definitions, and then discusses required information on threats. The report concludes with the steps for an IRM.

  9. Harnessing Resistance: Using the Theory of Constraints To Assist Change Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabin, Victoria J.; Forgeson, Steve; Green, Lawrence

    2001-01-01

    Applies the Theory of Constraints, which views resistance to change as a necessary, positive force, to a case study of a bank merger. For each resistance factor, the theory provides tools for using it and managing change successfully. (Contains 46 references.) (SK)

  10. Challenges of drug resistance in the management of pancreatic cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheikh, Rizwan

    2012-02-01

    The current treatment of choice for metastatic pancreatic cancer involves single-agent gemcitabine or a combination of gemcitabine with capecitabine or erlotinib (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor). Only 25–30% of patients respond to this treatment and patients who do respond initially ultimately exhibit disease progression. Median survival for pancreatic cancer patients has reached a plateau due to inherent and acquired resistance to these agents. Key molecular factors implicated in this resistance include: deficiencies in drug uptake, alteration of drug targets, activation of DNA repair pathways, resistance to apoptosis and the contribution of the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, for newer agents including tyrosine kinase inhibitors, overexpression of signaling proteins, mutations in kinase domains, activation of alternative pathways, mutations of genes downstream of the target and\\/or amplification of the target represent key challenges for treatment efficacy. Here we will review the contribution of known mechanisms and markers of resistance to key pancreatic cancer drug treatments.

  11. Treatment-resistant panic disorder: clinical significance, concept and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2016-10-03

    Panic disorder is commonly prevalent in the population, but the treatment response for panic disorder in clinical practice is much less effective than that in our imagination. Increasing evidence suggested existence of a chronic or remitting-relapsing clinical course in panic disorder. In this systematic review, we re-examine the definition of treatment-resistant panic disorder, and present the potential risk factors related to the treatment resistance, including the characteristics of panic disorder, other psychiatric and physical comorbidities, and psychosocial stresses. Furthermore, we summarize the potential pathophysiologies, such as genetic susceptibility, altered brain functioning, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and long-term inflammation, to explain the treatment resistance. Finally, we conclude the current therapeutic strategies for treating treatment-resistant panic disorder from pharmacological and non-pharmacological views. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: biology, epidemiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Elizabeth; Adler, Amos; Lerner, Anat; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2014-09-01

    Introduced in the 1980s, carbapenem antibiotics have served as the last line of defense against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms. Over the last decade, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have emerged as a significant public health threat. This review summarizes the molecular genetics, natural history, and epidemiology of CRE and discusses approaches to prevention and treatment. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Recent advances in the management of resistant hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Manolis, Athanasios J.; Kallistratos, Manolis S.; Doumas, Michalis; Pagoni, Stamatina; Poulimenos, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    And suddenly, following the preliminary results of renal denervation and carotid baroreceptor stimulation, a big interest in resistant hypertension rose, and all interventionists, many of them with no previous experience with hypertension, fell in love with hypertension and especially resistant hypertension. In the European Society of Hypertension/International Society of Hypertension (ESH/ISH) 2014 Joint Hypertension meeting in Athens, there were no more than four to five sessions related to...

  14. A comparative prospective randomized clinical study of MTA and IRM as root-end filling materials in single-rooted teeth in endodontic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, Jerome A. H.; Frenken, Joost W. F. H.; Kroon, Frans H. M.; van den Akker, Hans P.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. Randomized clinical prospective study to evaluate the application of MTA and IRM as retrograde sealers in surgical endodontics. Study design. One hundred single-rooted teeth were surgically treated. After randomization, MTA or IRM was used as a retrosealer. Radiographs were taken I week,

  15. The Power to Resist: Irrigation Management Transfer in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhardiman, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades, international donors have promoted Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) as an international remedy to management problems in government irrigation systems in many developing countries. This article analyses the political processes that shape IMT policy formulation and

  16. U.S. Air Force Information Resources Management: An Exploratory Study of Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Munoz, Brian

    1998-01-01

    .... Information Resources Management (IRM) was established within the Department of Defense (DoD) in 1983 as a tool for better managing its information in the wake of automated information processing and sharing...

  17. Analysis of the Factors Affecting Resistance to Changes in Management Accounting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Angonese

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite changes in the environment and management accounting practices, studies indicate that management accounting systems do not change or change at a much slower rate than expected. The stability of the management accounting systems used by companies may relate to resistance to changing these systems. This study analyzes the factors that contribute to resistance to implementing an integrated management system from the perspective of institutional theory, grounded in the old institutional economics. Methodologically, this study provides a qualitative assessment of the problem and a descriptive analysis of the resistance factors through a case-study approach. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed through content analysis. Two companies were selected for this study due to their differing characteristics. The following seven factors were analyzed for resistance to implementing integrated management systems: institutional power, ontological insecurity, trust, inertia, lack of knowledge, acceptance of routines and decoupling. However, there was no evidence to characterize hierarchical power. The research findings indicate that changing management accounting systems, through the implementation of an integrated management system, faces internal resistance in these organizations. Each factor varies in intensity but is permanently present in these companies, such as ontological insecurity, trust, inertia, lack of knowledge, acceptance of routines and decoupling. These factors are awakened when the change process begins and, if they gather enough force, can stop the change.

  18. Continuous flow IRMS application to CH4, MNHCS, and N2O in the atmosphere and the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, N.; Tsunogai, U.; Toyoda, S.

    2001-01-01

    The application of CF-IRMS to measurement of methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCS), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is outlined and preliminary information on isotopic variations in the atmosphere and oceans is presented. Labelling of these compounds is expected to provide a robust method for tracing sources, sinks and controlling processes in the environment. (author)

  19. Regressão e crescimento do primogênito no processo de tornar-se irmão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Silva Oliveira

    Full Text Available Investigaram-se indicadores de regressão e crescimento do primogênito no processo de tornar-se irmão. Participaram três primogênitos pré-escolares no terceiro trimestre de gestação, aos 12 e 24 meses do irmão. Foi aplicado o Teste das Fábulas e realizada análise qualitativa de conteúdo. Os resultados revelaram regressão do primogênito na gestação materna e crescimento, aos 12 e aos 24 meses de idade do irmão. A regressão foi uma forma de enfrentar a chegada do irmão, enquanto que o crescimento revelou capacidade para conquistas ou custos de ser mais velho. Tanto a regressão quanto o crescimento oportunizaram um ir e vir saudável, fundamental para o desenvolvimento rumo à independência. Esses achados têm implicações para a pesquisa e para a clínica.

  20. Taking the atmosphere's pulse: The application of GC-IRMS to stable isotopes in atmospheric trace gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, D.C.; Ferretti, D.J.; Francey, R.J.; Allison, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the abundance of many atmospheric trace gases has changed significantly. This is of concern because many of these trace species play a fundamental role in determining physical and chemical properties of the atmosphere important for maintaining life on earth. The impacts of the changes have been studied by a combination of analytical and theoretical modelling techniques. Stable isotope measurements made by conventional dual inlet IRMS for example, have provided valuable constraints on the budgets and removal mechanisms of key atmospheric trace gases. Unfortunately, in most cases, the application of these methods has been limited, because large air samples and cumbersome off line processing techniques are required to pre-concentrate enough gas for analysis. GC-IRMS offers a very attractive alternative because it combines on line processing with air sample size requirements typically 1000 times less than used in conventional techniques. In this article we focus on the requirements imposed on GC-IRMS by some of the current applications in atmospheric trace gas research. In addition, we examine some of the analytical and calibration aspects of the method applied to this kind of work. We finish with a summary of some of the comparative advantages and disadvantages of the GC-IRMS technique and some suggestions for future research using the method applied to specific atmospheric trace gases. (author)

  1. FTIR and NDIR spectroscopies as valuable alternatives to IRMS spectrometry for the δ(13)C analysis of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pironti, Concetta; Proto, Antonio; Camin, Federica; Cucciniello, Raffaele; Zarrella, Ilaria; Motta, Oriana

    2016-11-01

    The (13)C/(12)C carbon isotope ratio is a chemical parameter with many important applications in several scientific area and the technique of choice currently used for the δ(13)C determination is the isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). This latter is highly accurate (0.1‰) and sensitive (up to 0.01‰), but at the same time expensive and complex. The objective of this work was to assess the reliability of FTIR and NDIRS techniques for the measurement of carbon stable isotope ratio of food sample, in comparison to IRMS. IRMS, NDIRS and FTIR were used to analyze samples of food, such as oil, durum, cocoa, pasta and sugar, in order to determine the natural abundance isotopic ratio of carbon in a parallel way. The results were comparable, showing a close relationship among the three techniques. The main advantage in using FTIR and NDIRS is related to their cheapness and easy-to-operate in comparison to IRMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Zygomycetes from herbivore dung in the ecological reserve of Dois Irmãos, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris, camel (Camelus bactrianus, horse (Equus caballus, deer (Cervus elaphus, agouti (Dasyprocta aguti, donkey (Equus asinus, llama (Llama glama and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant.

  3. Propagation of perturbation energy fluxes in the subsolar magnetosheath - AMPTE IRM observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, N.; Engebretson, M. J.; Baumjohann, W.; Luehr, H.

    1991-01-01

    The propagation properties of perturbation energy fluxes of subsolar magnetosheath fluctuations were studied. The Poynting flux, kinetic energy flux, and enthalpy flux are calculated using magnetic field and plasma measurements from the AMPTE IRM satellite during five intervals in 1984. The results are then compared with a disturbance indicator R of the magnetic field in the same magnetosheath region. It is shown that during disturbed periods with large transverse variations (low R level), the perturbation Poynting flux and the kinetic energy flux increase, and a significant portion of the fluxes consistently propagates toward the magnetopause. The Poynting flux of those fluctuations which consist of mainly compressional perturbations does not appear to propagate in any certain direction. The enthalpy flux of the perturbations does not propagate in any certain direction in any of the cases. The kinetic energy flux appears to be more important in exciting harmonic ULF waves in the dayside magnetosphere.

  4. Os contos dos Irmãos Grimm e o seu poder questionador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Azeved

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio analisa a dimensão questionadora subjacente a alguns contos dos Irmãos Grimm, salientando que, muitos destes textos, pela sua especificidade e pelo seu funcionamento pragmático, comportam uma não negligenciável capacidade perlocutiva. Com efeito, no corpus selecionado verifica-se uma atenção concedida a personagens simbolicamente destituídas de voz ou de capacidade de ação, mostrando-se que elas podem, se assim o desejarem, alcançar sempre uma certa ordem simbólica, desde que realizem um determinado esforço, superando um conjunto de provas ou de obstáculos. Deste modo, estes textos ensinam os seus leitores a acreditaram no poder da palavra e na capacidade desta em transformar o mundo.

  5. No Solutions: Resisting Certainty in Water Supply Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerill, K.; Armstrong, M.; Richter, J.; Okie, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    Although most scholars and water managers implicitly understand that managing water resources is an ongoing need, both popular and academic literature routinely use the words `solution' and `solve' in discussing water management concerns. The word `solution' reflects a quest for certainty, stability, permanence. A focus on `solving' creates a simplistic expectation that some person or institution is responsible for implementing a solution and that once `solved' the issue no longer requires attention. The reality, however, is water management is a wicked problem, meaning it is amorphous, involves multiple definitions, is embedded in complex systems, and hence is intractable. By definition, wicked problems defy solution. Our interdisciplinary project integrates research from across a broad spectrum of biological, physical, and social sciences. We find that framing a problem in terms of `solving' affects how people think, feel, behave toward the problem. Further, our work suggests that the prevalence of solution- based language has simultaneously generated expectations that science / scientists can predict and control biophysical systems and that science is not to be trusted because it has failed to deliver on previous promises to permanently `solve' events like floods or droughts. Hydrologic systems, are, of course highly uncertain. Hence, reiterating a simplistic insistence on `solving' water management concerns may result in decreased public attention to or support for more complex policy discussions that could provide long-term management strategies. Using the language of `solutions' with expectations of certainty sets hydrologic researchers and water managers up to fail. Managing water is a social responsibility and it will require consistent attention in the future, just as it has throughout human history. Scientists have a key role to play in explaining how various hydrologic systems function, but they should not be expected to `solve' pressing water management

  6. Six Strategies for Breaking Out of Another HRD Box--Management's Resistance to Change Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Robert; Mok, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Many human resources development (HRD) people play out self-fulfilling roles of incongruency with top management, but when management resistance to change is real, the six strategies offered in the article can be used by HRD specialists to help themselves and their companies. (Author/AJ)

  7. Current concepts in the management of resistant hypertension: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Resistant hypertension is defined as uncontrolled hypertension above the target goal despite treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive agents, one of which is a diuretic, at optimum and best tolerated doses. The target blood pressure is defined as < 140/90 mmHg in most people and < 130/80 mmHg in those ...

  8. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: epidemiology and management challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dheda, Keertan; Warren, Robin M.; Zumla, Alimuddin; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    Widespread global use of rifampin for 2 decades preceded the emergence of clinically significant multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the early 1990s. The prevalence of MDR-TB has gradually increased such that it accounts for approximately 5% of the global case burden of disease

  9. Evaluation of stem borer resistance management strategies for Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem borers are the major insect pests of maize in Kenya. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) technology is an effective way of controlling lepidopteran pests. However, the likelihood of development of resistance to the Bt toxins by the target stem borer species is a concern. Forages, sorghum and maize varieties were ...

  10. Evaluation of stem borer resistance management strategies for Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... Stem borers are the major insect pests of maize in Kenya. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) technology is an effective way of controlling lepidopteran pests. However, the likelihood of development of resistance to the Bt toxins by the target stem borer species is a concern. Forages, sorghum and maize ...

  11. 5 Development of a resistance management.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Koney E. M. B. and Nipah G. (2000). Amblyomma variegatum resistance to acaricides in the Accra plains of Ghana. Ghana J. Sci. 40:39-49. Morrow A. N., Arnott J. L., Heron I. D., Koney E. M. B. and Walker A. R. (1993). The effect of tick control on the prevalence of dermatophilosis on indigenous cattle in Ghana. Revue Elev.

  12. Skid resistance determination for pavement management and wet-weather road safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.F. Fwa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Road accidents during wet weather have been a topic of major concern of road engineers in regions of wet-tropical climate and in other parts of the world during the wet season of the year. Road safety studies indicate that approximately 20% of all road accidents occurred during wet weather, and that the skid resistance of wet pavements have a major influence on the occurrences of wet-weather accidents. Monitoring of wet pavement skid resistance has been an integral part of a typical pavement management system. However, because of the lack of prediction capability of pavement skid resistance under various rainfall intensities, the minimum skid resistance threshold for safe wet-weather driving has been specified by highway agencies based on either engineering judgement or past experience. It is shown in this paper that the single-point minimum skid resistance threshold is inadequate to offer a complete description of the skid resistance performance of the pavement sections in question for effective management of a road network. It is unable to assess the risk involved in an actual wet-weather condition where the pavement surface water-film thickness and vehicle speed are different from standard test conditions. This limitation of the current system of specifying a minimum skid resistance threshold can be overcome by adopting a theoretically sound approach to represent pavement skid resistance under different conditions of water-film thickness and vehicle speed. This paper describes the theoretical basis of the approach and the development of a mechanistically derived three-dimensional finite-element skid resistance simulation model to predict skid resistance. The application of the proposed approach and the skid resistance prediction procedure in pavement management system and wet-weather driving safety assessment is presented.

  13. Hypertension management and microvascular insulin resistance in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seung-Hyun; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2010-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is in essence a vascular disease and is frequently associated with hypertension, macrovascular events, and microvascular complications. Microvascular dysfunction, including impaired recruitment and capillary rarefaction, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Microvascular insulin resistance and renin-angiotensin system upregulation are present in diabetes, and each contributes to the development of hypertension and microvascular dysfunction. In the insulin-sensitive state, insulin increases microvascular perfusion by increasing endothelial nitric oxide production, but this effect is abolished by insulin resistance. Angiotensin II, acting via the type 1 receptors, induces inflammation and oxidative stress, leading to impaired insulin signaling, reduced nitric oxide availability, and vasoconstriction. Conversely, it acts on the type 2 receptors to cause vasodilatation. Because substrate and hormonal exchanges occur in the microvasculature, antihypertensive agents targeted to improve microvascular insulin sensitivity and function may have beneficial effects beyond their capacity to lower blood pressure in patients with diabetes.

  14. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE AND ERP IMPLEMENTATION SUCCESS: THE MODERATING ROLE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar U. Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP is a useful tool that builds strong capabilities, improves performance, supports better decision making, and provides competitive advantage for businesses. ERP aims to help the management by setting better business practices and equipping them with the right information to take timely decision. In any new technology implementation, one of the issues that need to be addressed is the resistance to change. Many implementations have failed due to strong resistance from the end users. Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to test the impact of resistance to change on ERP's implementation success and how change management initiatives acts in the capacity of a moderating role. Using data collected from 69 manufacturing organizations through a mail survey, it was found that resistance to change is negatively related to achievement of predetermined goals (b = –0.930, p < 0.01 and usersatisfaction (b = –0.952, p < 0.01. Further, change management initiatives did not moderate the relationship between resistance and predetermined goals but it moderated the relationship between resistance and user satisfaction. In addition, change management initiatives have a direct positive impact on user satisfaction. This research concludes that the human factor is very important in ERP's implementation.

  15. Surgical management of cavernous malformations coursing with drug resistant epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Arturo Alonso-Vanegas; Jose Miguel eCisneros-Franco; Taisuke eOtsuki

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CM) are dynamic lesions characterized by continuous size changes and repeated bleeding. When involving cortical tissue, CM pose a significant risk for the development of drug-resistant epilepsy, which is thought to be result of an altered neuronal network caused by the lesion itself and its blood degradation products. Preoperative evaluation should comprise a complete seizure history, neurological examination, epilepsy-oriented MRI, EEG, video-EEG, completed ...

  16. Picture this: Managed change and resistance in business network settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Hanne; Andersen, Poul Houman

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses change management in networks. The literature on business networks tends to downplay the role of managerial initiative in network change. The change management literature addresses such initiative, but with its single-firm perspective it overlooks the interdependence of network...... actors. In exploring the void between these two streams of literature, we deploy the concept of network pictures to discuss managed change in network settings. We analyze a change project from the furniture industry and address the consequences of attempting to manage change activities in a network...... context characterized by limited managerial authority over these activities. Our analysis suggests that change efforts unfold as a negotiated process during which the change project is re-negotiated to fit the multiple actor constituencies. The degree of overlap in the co-existing network pictures...

  17. The Power to Resist: Irrigation Management Transfer in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Suhardiman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, international donors have promoted Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT as an international remedy to management problems in government irrigation systems in many developing countries. This article analyses the political processes that shape IMT policy formulation and implementation in Indonesia. It links IMT with the issue of bureaucratic reform and argues that its potential to address current problems in government irrigation systems cannot be achieved if the irrigation agency is not convinced about the need for management transfer. IMT’s significance cannot be measured only through IMT outcomes and impacts, without linking these with how the irrigation agency perceives the idea of management transfer in the first place, how this perception (redefines the agency’s position in IMT, and how it shapes the agency’s action and strategy in the policy formulation and implementation. I illustrate how the irrigation agency contested the idea of management transfer by referring to IMT policy adoption in 1987 and its renewal in 1999. The article concludes that for management transfer to be meaningful it is pertinent that the issue of bureaucratic reform is incorporated into current policy discussions.

  18. Potential shortfall of pyramided transgenic cotton for insect resistance management

    OpenAIRE

    Brévault, Thierry; Heuberger, Shannon; Zhang, Min; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Ni, Xinzhi; Masson, Luke; Li, Xianchiun; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2013-01-01

    To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the “pyramid” strategy uses plants that produce two or more toxins that kill the same pest. In the United States, this strategy has been adopted widely, with two-toxin Bt cotton replacing one-toxin Bt cotton. Although two-toxin plants are likely to be more durable than one-toxin plants, the extent of this advantage depends on several conditions. One key assumption favori...

  19. Elicitors and soil management to induce resistance against fungal plant diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Tamm, L.; Thürig, B.; Fließbach, A.; Goltlieb, A. E.; Karavani, S.; Cohen, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Air-borne foliar diseases as well as soil-borne diseases can cause substantial losses in agricultural production systems. One of the strategies to overcome production losses caused by plant diseases is the targeted use of disease defence mechanisms that are inherent to plants. In this paper, the potential to enhance the plant’s health status either by inducing resistance through optimized soil management techniques or by foliar application of inducers of resistance is explored on the basis of...

  20. Anthelmintic resistance: Management of parasite refugia for Haemonchus contortus through the replacement of resistant with susceptible populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchiut, Sebastián Manuel; Fernández, Alicia Silvina; Steffan, Pedro Eduardo; Riva, Eliana; Fiel, César Alberto

    2018-04-30

    Sheep production in tropical and temperate regions is hampered by the presence of Haemonchus contortus, the blood-sucking nematode that is the major cause of economic losses in small ruminant enterprises. The most limiting factor in the control of this parasitic disease is the steady progress of anthelmintic resistance worldwide. The search for control strategies that minimise the use of anthelmintics is therefore central to various efforts worldwide. One strategy is the introduction of susceptible parasites in refugia when these refugia are at low levels. This strategy could lead to a renewed possibility anthelmintics being effective. At farm level, this management practice could recover the use of anthelmintics in flocks with high levels of resistance. This review explores the possibility of replacing resistant H. contortus populations with susceptible ones through refugia management and. highlights the experiences of on-farm research attempts carried out in different geographical areas, reaching various degrees of success. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Soil management effect on soil penetration resistance in the vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Catania

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In environments characterized by steep slopes or arranged in terraces, among the shallow tillage systems, rototilling is extensively used. However, the effect of the repeated use of rototilling has a considerable influence on soil characteristics; it appears finely powdered, soft and without structure. In order to limit these inconveniences, an innovative self-propelled machine equipped with working tools as a spade, to be used in steep slopes or arranged in terraces areas, was designed by the Mechanics Section of the SAF (Scienze Agrarie e Forestali Department of the University of Palermo in cooperation with Agrotec company, Padua, Italy. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of three machines for shallow tillage: a chisel plough (CP, a rototilling (RT and a spading machine (SM on penetration resistance in semi-arid environments of the Mediterranean basin. No tillage was also included. Penetration resistance (PR was surveyed for all the treatments to a depth of 300 mm with an electronic dynamometer. The treatments consisted in the execution of a shallow tillage to a depth of 150 mm. SP treatment allowed us to obtain PR lower values throughout the tillage profile than RT, CP and NT. It follows that the type of machine used influences soil PR, and then the soil water storage capacity, key factor for the agricultural productions in semi-arid environments as in Sicily.

  2. Surgical management of cavernous malformations coursing with drug resistant epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Arturo Alonso-Vanegas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral cavernous malformations (CM are dynamic lesions characterized by continuous size changes and repeated bleeding. When involving cortical tissue, CM pose a significant risk for the development of drug-resistant epilepsy, which is thought to be result of an altered neuronal network caused by the lesion itself and its blood degradation products. Preoperative evaluation should comprise a complete seizure history, neurological examination, epilepsy-oriented MRI, EEG, video-EEG, completed with SPECT, PET, functional MRI and/or invasive monitoring as needed. Radiosurgery shows variable rates of seizure freedom and a high incidence of complications, thus microsurgical resection remains the optimal treatment for CM coursing with drug-resistant epilepsy.Two thirds of patients reach Engel I class at three-year follow-up, regardless of lobar location. Those with secondarily generalized seizures, a higher seizure frequency, and generalized abnormalities on preoperative or postoperative EEG, show poorer outcomes, while factors such as gender, duration of epilepsy, lesion size, age, bleeding at the time of surgery, do not correlate consistently with seizure outcome. Electrocorticography and a meticulous removal of all cortical hemosiderin –beyond pure lesionectomy– reduce the risk of symptomatic recurrences.

  3. Mechanisms and management of diuretic resistance in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyne, L K M

    2003-05-01

    Diuretic drugs are used almost universally in patients with congestive heart failure, most frequently the potent loop diuretics. Despite their unproven effect on survival, their indisputable efficacy in relieving congestive symptoms makes them first line therapy for most patients. In the treatment of more advanced stages of heart failure diuretics may fail to control salt and water retention despite the use of appropriate doses. Diuretic resistance may be caused by decreased renal function and reduced and delayed peak concentrations of loop diuretics in the tubular fluid, but it can also be observed in the absence of these pharmacokinetic abnormalities. When the effect of a short acting diuretic has worn off, postdiuretic salt retention will occur during the rest of the day. Chronic treatment with a loop diuretic results in compensatory hypertrophy of epithelial cells downstream from the thick ascending limb and consequently its diuretic effect will be blunted. Strategies to overcome diuretic resistance include restriction of sodium intake, changes in dose, changes in timing, and combination diuretic therapy.

  4. Antiviral resistance in herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piret, Jocelyne; Boivin, Guy

    2016-12-01

    Aciclovir (ACV) is the first-line drug for the management of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections. Long-term administration of ACV for the treatment of severe infections in immunocompromised patients can lead to the development of drug resistance. Furthermore, the emergence of isolates resistant to ACV is increasingly recognized in immunocompetent individuals with herpetic keratitis. This review describes the mechanisms involved in drug resistance for HSV and VZV, the laboratory diagnosis and management of patients with infections refractory to ACV therapy. Genotypic testing is more frequently performed for the diagnosis of infections caused by drug-resistant HSV or VZV isolates. Molecular biology-based systems for the generation of recombinant viruses have been developed to link unknown mutations with their drug phenotypes. Fast and sensitive methods based on next-generation sequencing will improve the detection of heterogeneous viral populations of drug-resistant viruses and their temporal changes during antiviral therapy, which could allow better patient management. Novel promising compounds acting on targets that differ from the viral DNA polymerase are under clinical development. Antiviral drug resistance monitoring for HSV and VZV is required for a rational use of antiviral therapy in high-risk populations.

  5. Quality of life in siblings of autistic patients Qualidade de vida em irmãos de autistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Regina Ferreira Marciano

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Quality of Life (QoL among siblings of autistic patients. METHODS: Casuistic: siblings of autistic patients (n = 31 and, as a control group, siblings of patients with speech disorder (n = 30. Inclusion criteria: age between 7 and 11 years old; absence of current mental disorder; regular attendance to school. Exclusion criteria: antecedents of clinical or psychiatric diseases; disabilities (visual, auditive or motor; antecedents of cognitive and/or intelligence disabilities. Instruments included a questionnaire which evaluated the quality of life in a subjective way. RESULTS: it was observed worse QoL among siblings of autistic patients (p = 0.000. CONCLUSION: The hypothesis that the quality of life was compromised in children (aged 7 to 11 by the presence of an autistic sibling was confirmed, and was worse than that of siblings of children with speech disorders.OBJETIVO: Avaliou-se a Qualidade de Vida (QV em irmãos de autistas. MÉTODOS: casuística: irmãos de autistas (n = 31 e irmãos de crianças com problemas de fala (n = 30, como controles. Critérios de inclusão: idade entre 7 e 11 anos; ausência de transtorno mental atual; freqüentar escola regular. Critérios de exclusão: antecedentes de doenças clínicas ou psiquiátricas; deficiências visual, auditiva ou motora; deficiências cognitivas e/ou de inteligência. Utilizou-se questionário que avalia a qualidade de vida de forma subjetiva. RESULTADOS: houve prejuízo na qualidade de vida de irmãos de autistas, em relação ao grupo controle (p = 0,000. CONCLUSÃO: Confirmou-se a hipótese de que a QV estaria comprometida, em crianças de 7 a 11 anos, pela presença de um irmão(ã com autismo e seria pior do que a de irmãos de crianças com problemas de fala.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in Helicobacter pylori: current situation and management strategy in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Trung Nam; Tran, Van Huy; Tran, Thi Nhu Hoa; Le, Van An; Santona, Antonella; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-07-04

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance to key antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori has become a main cause of treatment failures in many countries, including Vietnam. For this reason it is advisable to perform antimicrobial sensitivity tests to provide more focused regimens for H. pylori eradication. However, this approach is generally unavailable for H. pylori in Vietnam and the selection of treatment regimens is mainly based on the trend of antibiotic use in the population, resistance development in the region, and history of H. pylori eradication of patients. The aim of this review is to examine the current situation of antimicrobial resistance in Vietnam and suggest management strategies for treatment selection.

  7. Implications of Antibiotic Resistance in the Management of Helicobacter pylori Infection: Canadian Helicobacter Study Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RH Hunt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Eradication of Helicobacter pylori from the gastric and duodenal mucosa is an important clinical goal in the treatment of infected patients with peptic ulcer disease and other H pylori-associated conditions. Although several oral drug combination regimens are associated with eradication rates of approximately 85% in controlled trials, the success rate in patients infected with a resistant strain of H pylori is closer to 75%. Resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin, which are common components of combination treatment regimens, is of greatest concern. Reported rates of H pylori resistance to various antibiotics vary considerably. In Canada, the data documenting H pylori susceptibility are limited but suggest that resistance to these antibiotics varies geographically and within specific treatment groups. Although susceptibility testing is not a prerequisite for initial treatment of individual patients infected with H pylori, formal efforts to identify and monitor both the causes and prevalence of antibiotic resistance across Canada are a much needed step in the ongoing management of this important infection. Recommended treatment regimens may be useful, even for treating apparently resistant H pylori strains. However, it is important to understand the mechanisms of the development of resistant strains to manage patients with treatment failure better.

  8. The management of insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teede, Helena J; Hutchison, Samantha K; Zoungas, Sophia

    2007-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has reproductive and metabolic implications. Insulin resistance (IR), secondary to genetic and lifestyle factors, is integral in the pathogenesis, metabolic, clinical features and the long-term sequelae in the majority of people with PCOS. Therapeutic strategies targeting IR in PCOS ameliorate clinical features and might reduce long-term sequelae including diabetes. The mainstay for improving IR is lifestyle change; however, feasibility and sustainability remain concerns. In PCOS, metformin reduces IR, improves ovarian function, regulates cycles, lowers androgens, improves clinical hyperandrogenism and potentially improves fertility. Metformin is also likely to delay diabetes onset and has a role in PCOS in those at high risk of diabetes; however, further research is needed to clarify specific target subgroups and clinical indications.

  9. Management of patients with resistant hypertension: current treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nilay Kumar,1 David A Calhoun,2 Tanja Dudenbostel21Department of Medicine, 2Division of Cardiovascular Disease, Hypertension and Vascular Biology Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: Resistant hypertension (RHTN is an increasingly common clinical problem that is often heterogeneous in etiology, risk factors, and comorbidities. It is defined as uncontrolled blood pressure on optimal doses of three antihypertensive agents, ideally one being a diuretic. The definition also includes controlled hypertension with use of four or more antihypertensive agents. Recent observational studies have advanced the characterization of patients with RHTN. Patients with RHTN have higher rates of cardiovascular events and mortality compared with patients with more easily controlled hypertension. Secondary causes of hypertension, including obstructive sleep apnea, primary aldosteronism, renovascular disease, are common in patients with RHTN and often coexist in the same patient. In addition, RHTN is often complicated by metabolic abnormalities. Patients with RHTN require a thorough evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and optimize treatment, which typically includes a combination of lifestyle adjustments, and pharmacologic and interventional treatment. Combination therapy including a diuretic, a long-acting calcium channel blocker, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, a beta blocker, and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist where warranted is the classic regimen for patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists like spironolactone or eplerenone have been shown to be efficacious in patients with RHTN, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and primary aldosteronism. Novel interventional therapies, including baroreflex activation and renal denervation, have shown that both of these methods may be used to lower blood pressure safely, thereby providing exciting and promising new

  10. Management of Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : This disorder, also known by terms such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, upper airway sleep disorder and snoring. Snoring has also been identified as a possible risk factor for hyper tension, ischemic heart disease and stroke. The role of dentistry in sleep disorders is becoming more significant, especially in co- managing patients with simple snoring and mild to moderate OSA. The practicing dental professional has the opportunity to assist patients at a variety of levels, starting with the recognition of a sleep -related disorder, referring patients to a physician for evaluation and assisting in the management of sleep disorders. The first and simplest option would be behaviour modification, followed by insertion of oral devices suited to the patient, especially in those with mild to moderate OSA. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP and surgic al options are chosen for patients with moderate to severe OSA.

  11. An Implentation Methodology for Integrated Resource Management in Urban Water Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, G.; Thurm, B.; Klein, D. R.; Öberg, G.

    2014-12-01

    Urban water management requires innovative and integrative approaches to improve sustainability in cities keeping in touch with science progress. Integrated Resource Management (IRM) is one of these strategies and has been developed to integrate various natural and human resources. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that it is challenging to move from vision to implementation. The aim of this paper is to identify strengths and weaknesses of IRM and analyze if the approach might facilitate implementation of sustainability objectives in the water management field. A literature review was performed on peer-reviewed papers that were identified through Google Scholar search for the term 'Integrated Resource Management'. It was found that IRM has been used in a number of contexts such as urban planning, forestry, and management of waste and livestock. Significant implementation challenges are highlighted in the literature. Based on the lessons learned in many different fields, from forestry to communication sciences, important characteristics of IRM approach were found such as the need for adequate governance and strong leaderships, stakeholder's involvement, the learning process and the critical need of appropriate evaluation criteria. We conclude developing an implementation methodology and presenting several recommendations to implement IRM in urban management. While Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is recognized as a fruitful approach to achieve sustainable water management, this study suggests that a shift toward Integrated Resource Management (IRM) can be beneficial as it is designed to facilitate consideration of the interrelationships between various natural and human resources.

  12. Positive and normative modeling for Palmer amaranth control and herbicide resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvold, George B; Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V; Norsworthy, Jason K

    2017-06-01

    Dynamic optimization models are normative; they solve for what growers 'ought to do' to maximize some objective, such as long-run profits. While valuable for research, such models are difficult to solve computationally, limiting their applicability to grower resistance management education. While discussing properties of normative models in general, this study presents results of a specific positive model of herbicide resistance management, applied to Palmer amaranth control on a representative cotton farm. This positive model compares a proactive resistance management strategy to a reactive strategy with lower short-run costs, but greater risk of herbicide resistance developing. The proactive strategy can pay for itself within 1-4 years, with a yield advantage of 4% or less if the yield advantage begins within 1-2 years of adoption. Whether the proactive strategy is preferable is sensitive to resistance onset and yield losses, but less sensitive to cotton prices or baseline yields. Industry rebates to encourage residual herbicide use (to delay resistance to post-emergence treatments) may be too small to alter grower behavior or they may be paid to growers who would have used residuals anyway. Rebates change grower behavior over a relatively narrow range of model parameters. The size of rebates needed to induce a grower to adopt the proactive strategy declines significantly if growers extend their planning horizon from 1 year to 3-4 years. Whether proactive resistance management is more profitable than a reactive strategy is more sensitive to biological parameters than economic ones. Simulation results suggest growers with longer time horizons (perhaps younger ones) would be more responsive to rebate programs. More empirical work is needed to determine how much rebates increase residual use above what would occur without them. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Estudo da validade de construto das Revised Conflict Tactics Scales – Versão Irmãos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otília Monteiro Fernandes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A violência entre irmãos é um fenómeno que genericamente continua a ser subestimado, e Portugal não constitui exceção. Mas o seu estudo é fundamental para uma melhor compreensão do fenómeno da violência, nomeadamente em contexto familiar. A presente investigação pretendeu analisar, numa amostra de estudantes universitários portugueses, a validade de construto das CTS2-SP (versão irmãos. Trata-se de um instrumento de autorrelato que permite avaliar as táticas de conflito usadas em contexto fraterno. Os resultados confirmam o modelo multidimensional constituído pelos cinco fatores propostos pelos autores deste instrumento, bem como a sua adequabilidade para avaliar a violência fraterna.

  14. Monitoring and managing antibiotic resistance in refugee children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltezou, Helena C; Elhadad, Dana; Glikman, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    The past decade the Middle East and Southeastern Europe have witnessed an enormous movement of refugees due to the Syrian war and conflicts in Asia and Africa. Although carriage of and infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens in refugees have been reported, pediatric data are scarce. Areas covered: MDR bacterial carriage and infections, and MDR-tuberculosis (TB) in refugee children from 2010. Expert commentary: High MDR carriage rates in refugee children are attributed to high pre-civil war MDR rates, war-damaged infrastructure and healthcare systems, and poor hygiene conditions. Currently there are no international guidelines about MDR screening in refugee children. Given the medical importance of MDRs, challenging therapeutics and risk of importation in non/low-endemic countries, we recommend routine screening and contact isolation upon hospitalization of refugees. TB, including MDR-TB, is highly-endemic in many Asian and African countries, however, current data in refugee children are lacking. TB Screening in refugees is widely implemented but there is no consensus on methods and target populations. Coordinated TB detection and treatment, use of rapid molecular tests and drug-susceptibility testing, better access to healthcare, cross border TB care collaboration, and protection from deportation while on treatment should be integrated parts of TB control and prevention.

  15. Synthesis of 1-octacosanol and GC-C-IRMS discrimination of samples from different origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotto, Giancarlo; Calcio Gaudino, Emanuela; Barge, Alessandro; Binello, Arianna; Albertino, Andrea; Aghemo, Costanza

    2010-03-01

    Lately, long-chain primary alcohols have been investigated in depth on account of their biological activities. In particular, 1-octacosanol (C(28)H(57)OH), the main component of policosanol, the hypolipidaemic fatty alcohol mixture obtained from sugar cane wax, has been the subject of a multitude of pharmacological studies. The aim of this work was to search a convenient synthetic protocol for the preparation of 1-octacosanol in a gram scale. The key step was a Wittig reaction between the octadecyltriphenylphosphonium ylide and the methyl 10-oxodecanoate. Some steps were further improved by power ultrasound and microwave irradiation, either alone or in combination. Our methodology is suitable for a rapid generation of homologues by varying the chain length in the alkyl halide. Due to the high commercial value, a series of 1-octacosanol samples, either isolated from natural sources or from synthesis (different origin and suppliers), were analysed by gas chromatography-combustion-isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) and according to the carbon isotopic content, classified on the basis of their origin.

  16. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    One possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars is abiotic formation by Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis during serpentinization reactions. Measurement of carbon and hydrogen isotopes of intermediary organic compounds can help constrain the origin of this methane by tracing the geochemical pathway during formation. Of particular interest within the context of this work is the isotopic composition of organic intermediaries produced on the surfaces of mineral catalysts (i.e. magnetite) during hydrothermal experiments, and the ability to make meaningful and reproducible hydrogen isotope measurements. Reported here are results of experiments to characterize the hydrogen isotope composition of low molecular weight organic acids and alcohols. The presence of these organic compounds has been suggested by others as intermeadiary products made during mineral surface catalyzed reactions. This work compliments our previous study characterizing the carbon isotope composition of similar low molecular weight intermediary organic compounds (Socki, et al, American Geophysical Union Fall meeting, Abstr. #V51B-2189, Dec., 2010). Our hydrogen isotope measurements utilize a unique analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-High Temperature Conversion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS-TC-IRMS). Our technique is unique in that it carries a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQ-II? quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of separated organic compounds, therefore both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out simultaneously on the same sample.

  17. Using mass-release of engineered insects to manage insecticide resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alphey, Nina; Coleman, Paul G.; Donnelly, Christl A.

    2006-01-01

    Transgenic crops expressing insecticidal toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used to control insect pests. The benefits of such crops would be lost if resistance to the toxins spread to a significant proportion of the pest population. The main resistance management method, mandatory in the US, is the high-dose/refuge strategy, requiring nearby refuges of toxin-free crops, and the use of toxin doses sufficiently high to kill not only wild type insects but also insects heterozygous for a resistance allele, thereby rendering the resistance functionally recessive. We propose that mass-release of harmless toxin-sensitive insects could substantially delay or even reverse the spread of resistance. Mass-release of such insects is an integral part of RIDL, a genetics-based method of pest control related to the Sterile Insect Technique. We used a population genetic mathematical model to analyze the effects of releasing male insects homozygous for a female-specific dominant lethal genetic construct, and concluded that this RIDL strategy could form an effective component of a resistance management scheme for insecticidal plants and other toxins. (author)

  18. Using mass-release of engineered insects to manage insecticide resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphey, Nina [University of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Zoology; Alphey, Luke [Oxitec Limited, Oxford (United Kingdom); Coleman, Paul G. [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (United Kingdom). Dept. of Infectious and Tropical Diseases; Donnelly, Christl A. [Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Infectious Disease Epidemiology

    2006-07-01

    Transgenic crops expressing insecticidal toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used to control insect pests. The benefits of such crops would be lost if resistance to the toxins spread to a significant proportion of the pest population. The main resistance management method, mandatory in the US, is the high-dose/refuge strategy, requiring nearby refuges of toxin-free crops, and the use of toxin doses sufficiently high to kill not only wild type insects but also insects heterozygous for a resistance allele, thereby rendering the resistance functionally recessive. We propose that mass-release of harmless toxin-sensitive insects could substantially delay or even reverse the spread of resistance. Mass-release of such insects is an integral part of RIDL, a genetics-based method of pest control related to the Sterile Insect Technique. We used a population genetic mathematical model to analyze the effects of releasing male insects homozygous for a female-specific dominant lethal genetic construct, and concluded that this RIDL strategy could form an effective component of a resistance management scheme for insecticidal plants and other toxins. (author)

  19. Overcoming resistance against managed care - insights from a bargaining model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Andree; Wein, Thomas; Zweifel, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Recent healthcare reforms have sought to increase efficiency by introducing managed care (MC) while respecting consumer preferences by admitting choice between MC and conventional care. This article proposes an institutional change designed to let German consumers choose between the two settings through directing payments from the Federal Health Fund to social health insurers (SHIs) or to specialized MC organizations (MCOs). To gauge the chance of success of this reform, a game involving a SHI, a MCO, and a representative insured (RI) is analyzed. In a "three-player/three-cake" game the coalitions {SHI, MCO}, {MCO, RI}, and {SHI, RI} can form. Players' possibility to switch between coalitions creates new outside options, causing the conventional bilateral Nash bargaining solution to be replaced by the so-called von Neumann-Morgenstern triple. These triples are compared to the status quo (where the RI has no threat potential) and related to institutional conditions characterizing Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland.

  20. Complex Interactions between Fungal Avirulence Genes and Their Corresponding Plant Resistance Genes and Consequences for Disease Resistance Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann Petit-Houdenot

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During infection, pathogens secrete an arsenal of molecules, collectively called effectors, key elements of pathogenesis which modulate innate immunity of the plant and facilitate infection. Some of these effectors can be recognized directly or indirectly by resistance (R proteins from the plant and are then called avirulence (AVR proteins. This recognition usually triggers defense responses including the hypersensitive response and results in resistance of the plant. R—AVR gene interactions are frequently exploited in the field to control diseases. Recently, the availability of fungal genomes has accelerated the identification of AVR genes in plant pathogenic fungi, including in fungi infecting agronomically important crops. While single AVR genes recognized by their corresponding R gene were identified, more and more complex interactions between AVR and R genes are reported (e.g., AVR genes recognized by several R genes, R genes recognizing several AVR genes in distinct organisms, one AVR gene suppressing recognition of another AVR gene by its corresponding R gene, two cooperating R genes both necessary to recognize an AVR gene. These complex interactions were particularly reported in pathosystems showing a long co-evolution with their host plant but could also result from the way agronomic crops were obtained and improved (e.g., through interspecific hybridization or introgression of resistance genes from wild related species into cultivated crops. In this review, we describe some complex R—AVR interactions between plants and fungi that were recently reported and discuss their implications for AVR gene evolution and R gene management.

  1. Managing the Risk of European Corn Borer Resistance to Transgenic Corn: An Assessment of Refuge Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Terrance M. Hurley; Silvia Secchi; Bruce A. Babcock

    1999-01-01

    The use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in agriculture has been on the rise since 1995. Scientists have been working to develop a high-dose refuge management plan that can effectively delay European corn borer resistance to pesticidal GMO corn. This paper develops a stochastic agricultural production model to assess and provide insight into the reasons why refuge recommendations remain controversial.

  2. Resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems: Implications for state and transition models and management treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Richard F. Miller; David I. Board; David A. Pyke; Bruce A. Roundy; James B. Grace; Eugene W. Schupp; Robin J. Tausch

    2014-01-01

    In sagebrush ecosystems invasion of annual exotics and expansion of pinon (Pinus monophylla Torr. and Frem.) and juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook., J. osteosperma [Torr.] Little) are altering fire regimes and resulting in large-scale ecosystem transformations. Management treatments aim to increase resilience to disturbance and enhance resistance to invasive species...

  3. Using epidemiological principles to explain fungicide resistance management tactics: why do mixtures outperform alternations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderfield, James A; Lopez Ruiz, Fran; van den Bosch, Frank; Cunniffe, Nik J

    2018-01-29

    Whether fungicide resistance management is optimised by spraying chemicals with different modes of action as a mixture (i.e. simultaneously) or in alternation (i.e. sequentially) has been studied by experimenters and modellers for decades. However results have been inconclusive. We use previously-parameterised and validated mathematical models of wheat septoria leaf blotch and grapevine powdery mildew to test which tactic provides better resistance management, using the total yield before resistance causes disease control to become economically-ineffective ("lifetime yield") to measure effectiveness. We focus on tactics involving the combination of a low-risk and a high-risk fungicide, and the case in which resistance to the high-risk chemical is complete (i.e. in which there is no partial resistance). Lifetime yield is then optimised by spraying as much low-risk fungicide as is permitted, combined with slightly more high-risk fungicide than needed for acceptable initial disease control, applying these fungicides as a mixture. That mixture rather than alternation gives better performance is invariant to model parameterisation and structure, as well as the pathosystem in question. However if comparison focuses on other metrics, e.g. lifetime yield at full label dose, either mixture or alternation can be optimal. Our work shows how epidemiological principles can explain the evolution of fungicide resistance, and also highlights a theoretical framework to address the question of whether mixture or alternation provides better resistance management. It also demonstrates that precisely how spray tactics are compared must be given careful consideration.

  4. Insecticide resistance in disease vectors from Mayotte: an opportunity for integrated vector management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocquet, Nicolas; Darriet, Frédéric; Zumbo, Betty; Milesi, Pascal; Thiria, Julien; Bernard, Vincent; Toty, Céline; Labbé, Pierrick; Chandre, Fabrice

    2014-07-01

    Mayotte, a small island in the Indian Ocean, has been affected for many years by vector-borne diseases. Malaria, Bancroftian filariasis, dengue, chikungunya and Rift Valley fever have circulated or still circulate on the island. They are all transmitted by Culicidae mosquitoes. To limit the impact of these diseases on human health, vector control has been implemented for more than 60 years on Mayotte. In this study, we assessed the resistance levels of four major vector species (Anopheles gambiae, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) to two types of insecticides: i) the locally currently-used insecticides (organophosphates, pyrethroids) and ii) alternative molecules that are promising for vector control and come from different insecticide families (bacterial toxins or insect growth regulators). When some resistance was found to one of these insecticides, we characterized the mechanisms involved. Larval and adult bioassays were used to evaluate the level of resistance. When resistance was found, we tested for the presence of metabolic resistance through detoxifying enzyme activity assays, or for target-site mutations through molecular identification of known resistance alleles. Resistance to currently-used insecticides varied greatly between the four vector species. While no resistance to any insecticides was found in the two Aedes species, bioassays confirmed multiple resistance in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus (temephos: ~ 20 fold and deltamethrin: only 10% mortality after 24 hours). In An. gambiae, resistance was scarce: only a moderate resistance to temephos was found (~5 fold). This resistance appears to be due only to carboxyl-esterase overexpression and not to target modification. Finally, and comfortingly, none of the four species showed resistance to any of the new insecticides. The low resistance observed in Mayotte's main disease vectors is particularly interesting, because it leaves a range of tools useable by vector control

  5. Options for the management of antiviral resistance during hepatitis B therapy: reflections on battles over a decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hyung Joon; Hwang, Seong Gyu

    2013-09-01

    Although much advancement has been achieved in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B, antiviral resistance is still a challenging issue. Previous generation antiviral agents have already developed resistance in a number of patients, and it is still being used especially in resource limited countries. Once antiviral resistance occurs, it predisposes to subsequent resistance, resulting in multidrug resistance. Therefore, prevention of initial antiviral resistance is the most important strategy, and appropriate choice and modification of therapy would be the cornerstone in avoiding treatment failures. Until now, management of antiviral resistance has been evolving from sequential therapy to combination therapy. In the era of tenofovir, the paradigm shifts again, and we have to decide when to switch and when to combine on the basis of newly emerging clinical data. We expect future eradication of chronic hepatitis B virus infection by proper prevention and optimal management of antiviral resistance.

  6. Organizational risk management of resistance to care episodes in health facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Ashley; Guest, Maya; McLeod, Mary

    2012-09-01

    This article reports a study of organizational risk management approaches to resistance to care episodes in specific clinical areas: prevention measures, provision of subsequent support and follow-up by management and resultant organizational change. Resistance to care describes a patient's unwillingness to be assisted by healthcare staff and is manifested in defensive behaviours ranging from minor non-compliance/dissent to aggression. It has previously been studied in aged care settings and focused on patient behaviours and appropriate responses. This was a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of nurses (n = 5044) who were members of the New South Wales Nurses' Association in Australia, in 2008-2009. Of 1132 participants, 80% reported being involved in resistance to care episodes during the previous month and this was higher in some settings. Episodes were not routinely reported internally, and often did not lead to organizational change. Nurses reported that talking with other staff was the most effective action in dealing with the consequences of these episodes. Half of the respondents considered that they were provided with sufficient support and follow-up after a resistance to care episode. Prevention measures and follow-up strategies adopted by employers varied across clinical settings. Resistance to care is not confined to aged care settings, and risk management of resistance to care can increase safety in the workplace. Preventive strategies such as increased staff, training and security should be focused on high risk clinical areas; and appropriate support, follow-up and organizational change instituted in response to these episodes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Carbon-Isotopic Analysis of Individual Pigments by HPLC-Moving Wire-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessions, A. L.; Keely, B. J.; Hayes, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    We have developed a method for directly analyzing the carbon isotope ratios of individual pigments, including chlorophyll (chl) and its derivatives, by coupling a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) to an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) via a novel `moving-wire' interface. Pigments were separated on a reversed-phase C18 column, using a binary gradient modified from Airs et al. (2001, J. Chrom. A 917, 167-177). The HPLC effluent was dried onto a continuously-spooling nickel wire, and the involatile sample residue was combusted to CO2 and transferred to the IRMS for isotopic analysis. Replicate analyses of a standard solution yield precision for delta13C of better than 0.2‰ for injections containing ~5 μ g of chl-a. A five-fold improvement in sensitivity should be attainable using capillary HPLC to further reduce solvent volumes. The biomarker potential of tetrapyrrole pigments, combined with the geochemical information recorded by isotopic compositions, makes this combination a potent tool for biogeochemical studies. As a demonstration, we analyzed chlorophyll degradation products in sediments from a lake and a salina. First, compounds derived from bacteriochlorophylls (bchl)-c and -d were extracted from sediment cores taken at Kirisjes Lake (Larsmann Hills, Antarctica). These pigments are products of green sulfur bacteria and indicate the presence of an anoxic photic zone. The δ 13C values of bchl-related compounds are near -25‰ . Using published fractionations for Chlorobium species to extrapolate, dissolved CO2 in Kirisjes Lake probably had a δ 13C value of -12 to -21‰ and was strongly influenced by the recycling of organic carbon, possibly including methane. Second, compounds derived from chl-a, bchl-c, and bchl-d were isolated from sediments taken below a living microbial mat in the hypersaline les Salines de la Trinital (South Catalonia, Spain). The sediments contain visible remnants of past microbial mats and pigment distributions

  8. Combining pest control and resistance management: synergy of engineered insects with Bt crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphey, Nina; Bonsall, Michael B; Alphey, Luke

    2009-04-01

    Transgenic crops producing insecticidal toxins are widely used to control insect pests. Their benefits would be lost if resistance to the toxins became widespread in pest populations. The most widely used resistance management method is the high-dose/refuge strategy. This requires toxin-free host plants as refuges near insecticidal crops, and toxin doses intended to be sufficiently high to kill insects heterozygous for a resistant allele, thereby rendering resistance functionally recessive. We have previously shown by mathematical modeling that mass-release of harmless susceptible (toxin-sensitive) insects engineered with repressible female-specific lethality using release of insects carrying a dominant lethal ([RIDL] Oxitec Limited, United Kingdom) technology could substantially delay or reverse the spread of resistance and reduce refuge sizes. Here, we explore this proposal in depth, studying a wide range of scenarios, considering impacts on population dynamics as well as evolution of allele frequencies, comparing with releases of natural fertile susceptible insects, and examining the effect of seasonality. We investigate the outcome for pest control for which the plant-incorporated toxins are not necessarily at a high dose (i.e., they might not kill all homozygous susceptible and all heterozygous insects). We demonstrate that a RIDL-based approach could form an effective component of a resistance management strategy in a wide range of genetic and ecological circumstances. Because there are significant threshold effects for several variables, we expect that a margin of error would be advisable in setting release ratios and refuge sizes, especially as the frequency and properties of resistant alleles may be difficult to measure accurately in the field.

  9. The Impact of Volunteer Corn on Crop Yields and Insect Resistance Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Marquardt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Volunteer corn (VC has reemerged as a problematic weed in corn/soybean rotational cropping systems. This reemergence and increasing prevalence of volunteer corn has been correlated to an increased adoption of herbicide-resistant (HR corn hybrids and the adoption of conservation tillage. Since the introduction of HR crops, control options, weed/crop competition, and other concerns (i.e., insect resistance management of Bt traits have increased the amount of attention that volunteer corn is receiving. The objective of this review is to discuss what is known about VC prior to and after the introduction of HR crops, and to discuss new information about this important weed.

  10. Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, Laboratory Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Antimicrobial Management of Invasive Salmonella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; Gordon, Melita A.; Parry, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Salmonella enterica infections are common causes of bloodstream infection in low-resource areas, where they may be difficult to distinguish from other febrile illnesses and may be associated with a high case fatality ratio. Microbiologic culture of blood or bone marrow remains the mainstay of laboratory diagnosis. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged in Salmonella enterica, initially to the traditional first-line drugs chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility and then fluoroquinolone resistance have developed in association with chromosomal mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of genes encoding DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and also by plasmid-mediated resistance mechanisms. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins has occurred more often in nontyphoidal than in typhoidal Salmonella strains. Azithromycin is effective for the management of uncomplicated typhoid fever and may serve as an alternative oral drug in areas where fluoroquinolone resistance is common. In 2013, CLSI lowered the ciprofloxacin susceptibility breakpoints to account for accumulating clinical, microbiologic, and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic data suggesting that revision was needed for contemporary invasive Salmonella infections. Newly established CLSI guidelines for azithromycin and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi were published in CLSI document M100 in 2015. PMID:26180063

  11. Environmental Restoration Information Resource Management Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Environmental Restoration Information Resources Management (ER IRM) Program Plan defines program requirements, organizational structures and responsibilities, and work breakdown structure and to establish an approved baseline against which overall progress of the program as well as the effectiveness of its management will be measured. This plan will guide ER IRM Program execution and define the program's essential elements. This plan will be routinely updated to incorporate key decisions and programmatic changes and will serve as the project baseline document. Environmental Restoration Waste Management Program intersite procedures and work instructions will be developed to facilitate the implementation of this plan

  12. Unprecedented Silver Resistance in Clinically Isolated Enterobacteriaceae: Major Implications for Burn and Wound Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Phillip J; Norton, Rhy; Austin, Cindy; Mitchell, Amber; Zank, Sara; Durham, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Increased utilization of inorganic silver as an adjunctive to many medical devices has raised concerns of emergent silver resistance in clinical bacteria. Although the molecular basis for silver resistance has been previously characterized, to date, significant phenotypic expression of these genes in clinical settings is yet to be observed. Here, we identified the first strains of clinical bacteria expressing silver resistance at a level that could significantly impact wound care and the use of silver-based dressings. Screening of 859 clinical isolates confirmed 31 harbored at least 1 silver resistance gene. Despite the presence of these genes, MIC testing revealed most of the bacteria displayed little or no increase in resistance to ionic silver (200 to 300 μM Ag(+)). However, 2 isolates (Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter cloacae) were capable of robust growth at exceedingly high silver concentrations, with MIC values reaching 5,500 μM Ag(+). DNA sequencing of these two strains revealed the presence of genes homologous to known genetic determinants of heavy metal resistance. Darkening of the bacteria's pigment was observed after exposure to high silver concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the presence of silver nanoparticles embedded in the extracellular polymeric substance of both isolates. This finding suggested that the isolates may neutralize ionic silver via reduction to elemental silver. Antimicrobial testing revealed both organisms to be completely resistant to many commercially available silver-impregnated burn and wound dressings. Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence of clinical bacteria capable of expressing silver resistance at levels that could significantly impact wound management. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Unprecedented Silver Resistance in Clinically Isolated Enterobacteriaceae: Major Implications for Burn and Wound Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Rhy; Austin, Cindy; Mitchell, Amber; Zank, Sara; Durham, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Increased utilization of inorganic silver as an adjunctive to many medical devices has raised concerns of emergent silver resistance in clinical bacteria. Although the molecular basis for silver resistance has been previously characterized, to date, significant phenotypic expression of these genes in clinical settings is yet to be observed. Here, we identified the first strains of clinical bacteria expressing silver resistance at a level that could significantly impact wound care and the use of silver-based dressings. Screening of 859 clinical isolates confirmed 31 harbored at least 1 silver resistance gene. Despite the presence of these genes, MIC testing revealed most of the bacteria displayed little or no increase in resistance to ionic silver (200 to 300 μM Ag+). However, 2 isolates (Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter cloacae) were capable of robust growth at exceedingly high silver concentrations, with MIC values reaching 5,500 μM Ag+. DNA sequencing of these two strains revealed the presence of genes homologous to known genetic determinants of heavy metal resistance. Darkening of the bacteria's pigment was observed after exposure to high silver concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the presence of silver nanoparticles embedded in the extracellular polymeric substance of both isolates. This finding suggested that the isolates may neutralize ionic silver via reduction to elemental silver. Antimicrobial testing revealed both organisms to be completely resistant to many commercially available silver-impregnated burn and wound dressings. Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence of clinical bacteria capable of expressing silver resistance at levels that could significantly impact wound management. PMID:26014954

  14. Use of an individual-based simulation model to explore and evaluate potential insecticide resistance management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Russell; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Elias, Jan; Semenov, Mikhail A; Denholm, Ian

    2017-07-01

    Tools with the potential to predict risks of insecticide resistance and aid the evaluation and design of resistance management tactics are of value to all sectors of the pest management community. Here we describe use of a versatile individual-based model of resistance evolution to simulate how strategies employing single and multiple insecticides influence resistance development in the pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus. Under repeated exposure to a single insecticide, resistance evolved faster to a pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin) than to a pyridine azomethane (pymetrozine), due to difference in initial efficacy. A mixture of these compounds delayed resistance compared to use of single products. The effectiveness of rotations depended on the sequence in which compounds were applied in response to pest density thresholds. Effectiveness of a mixture strategy declined with reductions in grower compliance. At least 50% compliance was needed to cause some delay in resistance development. No single strategy meets all requirements for managing resistance. It is important to evaluate factors that prevail under particular pest management scenarios. The model used here provides operators with a valuable means for evaluating and extending sound resistance management advice, as well as understanding needs and opportunities offered by new control techniques. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Next-Generation Human Immunodeficiency Virus Sequencing for Patient Management and Drug Resistance Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Julian, Marc; Edgil, Dianna; Harrigan, P Richard; Sandstrom, Paul; Godfrey, Catherine; Paredes, Roger

    2017-12-01

    High-quality, simplified, and low-cost human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance tests that are able to provide timely actionable HIV resistance data at individual, population, and programmatic levels are needed to confront the emerging drug-resistant HIV epidemic. Next-generation sequencing technologies embedded in automated cloud-computing analysis environments are ideally suited for such endeavor. Whereas NGS can reduce costs over Sanger sequencing, automated analysis pipelines make NGS accessible to molecular laboratories regardless of the available bioinformatic skills. They can also produce highly structured, high-quality data that could be examined by healthcare officials and program managers on a real-time basis to allow timely public health action. Here we discuss the opportunities and challenges of such an approach. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Moving beyond resistance to restraint minimization: a case study of change management in aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan; Ostaszkiewicz, Joan; O'Connell, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes a quality initiative to minimize restraint in an Australian residential aged care facility. The process of improving practice is examined with reference to the literature on implementation of research into practice and change management. The differences between planned and emergent approaches to change management are discussed. The concepts of resistance and attractors are explored in relation to our experiences of managing the change process in this initiative. The importance of the interpersonal interactions that were involved in facilitating the change process is highlighted. Recommendations are offered for dealing with change management processes in clinical environments, particularly the need to move beyond an individual mind-set to a systems-based approach for quality initiatives in residential aged care.

  17. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE AND ERP IMPLEMENTATION SUCCESS: THE MODERATING ROLE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar U. Ahmed; Imad Zbib; Sawaridass Arokiasamy; T. Ramayah; Lo May Chiun

    2006-01-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is a useful tool that builds strong capabilities, improves performance, supports better decision making, and provides competitive advantage for businesses. ERP aims to help the management by setting better business practices and equipping them with the right information to take timely decision. In any new technology implementation, one of the issues that need to be addressed is the resistance to change. Many implementations have failed due to strong resistan...

  18. A Novel Role for Raloxifene Nanomicelles in Management of Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Taurin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Of patients with castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC, less than 25–33% survive more than five years. Recent studies have implicated estrogen, acting either alone or synergistically with androgens in the development of castrate resistant prostate cancer. Several in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as a limited number of clinical trials, have highlighted the potential of selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as raloxifene (Ral for the treatment of castrate resistant prostate cancer. However, the poor oral bioavailability and metabolism of selective estrogen receptor modulators limit their efficiency in clinical application. To overcome these limitations, we have used styrene co-maleic acid (SMA micelle to encapsulate raloxifene. Compared to free drug, SMA-Ral micelles had 132 and 140% higher cytotoxicity against PC3 and DU 145 prostate cell lines, respectively. SMA-Ral effectively inhibits cell cycle progression, increases apoptosis, and alters the integrity of tumor spheroid models. In addition, the micellar system induced changes in expression and localization of estrogen receptors, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, and downstream effectors associated with cell proliferation and survival. Finally, SMA-Ral treatment decreased migration and invasion of castrate resistant prostate cancer cell lines. In conclusion, SMA-Ral micelles can potentially benefit new strategies for clinical management of castrate resistant prostate cancer.

  19. Estudo Exploratório sobre a Violência entre Irmãos em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Inês Carvalho Relva; Otília Monteiro Fernandes; Madalena Alarcão; Amadeu Quelhas Martins

    2014-01-01

    A violência entre irmãos é uma das formas mais comuns de violência familiar. Este estudo pretendeu caracterizar este problema em Portugal, numa amostra de 588 estudantes universitários. Os diferentes tipos de violência (física, psicológica e sexual) foram avaliados com as "Revised Conflict Tactics Scales - Sibling Version". Procedeu-se a análises descritivas exploratórias das distribuições das principais variáveis, recorreu-se ao teste do χ2 e a análises de covariância múltipla. Os resultados...

  20. Determination of stable carbon isotope compositions in individual amino acids of anchovy engraulis japonicus by GC-C-IRMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haizhen; Cai Deling; Zhang Longjun

    2005-01-01

    The stable carbon isotope compositions of individual amino acids in muscle tissues of the anchovy, Engraulis japonicus, a key species of animal in the Yellow and the East China Sea ecosystem, were determined by the gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Eleven amino acid compounds were identified and their δ( 13 C) values were successfully measured. The new ability to measure stable carbon isotope compositions of individual amino acids offers a potential method for understanding digest, absorption and metabolism of anchovy, Engraulis japonicus, pathway of carbon transfer through food web and evaluating trophic quality of diet. (authors)

  1. Plasma waves observed by the IRM and UKS spacecraft during the AMPTE solar wind lithium releases: Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeusler, B.; Woolliscroft, L.J.; Anderson, R.R.; Gurnett, D.A.; Holzworth, R.H.; Koons, H.C.; Bauer, O.H.; Haerendel, G.; Treumann, R.A.; Christiansen, P.J.

    1986-02-01

    The two September 1984 solar wind lithium releases produced a rich variety of plasma waves which have been measured in situ by the plasma wave instrumentation on board the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) IRM and UKS spacecraft. Reflection of the natural galactic and terrestrial electromagnetic radiation from the dense Li plasma caused a cutoff in the high-frequency electric field intensities from which the temporal and spatial variation of the plasma density can be determined. Inside the diamagnetic cavity the electron plasma frequency and also temporarily the Li plasma frequency have been excited.

  2. δ18O analysis of individual carbohydrates - a new method for GC-pyrolysis-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marco M.; Fischer, Maria; Zech, Michael; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Saurer, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Measuring the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of various plant tissues is a widely used tool to investigate biochemical and physiological processes. While we have a good understanding about the hydrological cycle in plants with an evaporative enrichment in 18O in leaf water, we still lack knowledge about the biochemical link between the oxygen atoms in leaf water, leaf assimilates, and stem cellulose and associated isotope fractionations. Especially, the influence of different environmental factors on δ18O of individual carbohydrates (i.e. sugars) and thus on δ18O of cellulose is not fully resolved. A better understanding of these processes may improve climatic reconstructions of tree-ring studies about past environmental conditions. However, further progress in this topic is limited since a precise and reliable method to determine δ18O of individual sugars has not been available yet. With our new approach we attempt to overcome this issue by establishing a new methylation derivatization method suitable for GC-pyrolysis -IRMS. A methyl group (CH3) was thereby added to all hydroxyl groups of a sugar (e.g., glucose, fructose, and sucrose) during a catalyzed one-pot reaction overnight in acetonitrile with methyl iodide (CH3-I) and silver oxide, making them amenable for GC analysis. First results show a very good precision for δ18O of sucrose, but also δ18O of other high-abundant sugars such as glucose and fructose could be measured for the first time. We successfully analyzed a standard mix of all three sugars and determined various other carbohydrates not only related to plant sciences (e.g. mannitol, lactose), showing promising δ18O results. First tests with real plant samples were performed to make this method available for determining δ18O of individual carbohydrates of diverse plant tissues. In future, this new methylation derivatization method should allow us analyzing plant samples of different field sites and of lab experiments to investigate the

  3. Solid-state NMR and IRMS characterization of smouldered peat from ombrotrophic cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Rein, Guillermo; Gioacchini, Paola; Knicker, Heike; Ciavatta, Claudio; Miano, Teodoro M.

    2013-04-01

    Smouldering fires are slow, low temperature, flameless and the most persistent form of combustion of organic matter (OM) in porous form. Although smouldering fires of peatlands represent a large perturbation of the atmospheric chemistry, to date, most studies on smouldering focused on ignition, carbon (C) losses or emissions, whereas the literature still lacks understanding of the OM evolution following these events. The potential to track OM changes able to serve as new proxies for the identification of past fire events along peat cores is extremely important, especially considering that bogs are often used as natural archives of paleoenvironmental changes. In the present work we show preliminary results about solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectroscopy (IRMS) characterization of peat OM along three Sphagnum peat columns (26 cm deep) having different initial moisture contents (MC): 50% MC, 100% MC, and 200% MC. The 15N spectrum of fresh peat (FP) used as control shows, as expected, only an amide signal, which is in agreement with the 13C NMR spectrum where mainly signals of carbohydrates and alkyl C can be observed. Further signals can be observed in the aromatic region, most probably due to lignin derivatives. Following the smouldering event, selected peat samples from both the 50% and 100% MC series show, as expected, signals supporting the occurrence of fire. In detail, the 15N-signals between -200 and -250 ppm are typical for pyrrole or indole type N. This is in accordance with the 13C NMR spectra showing considerable intensity in the aromatic region, most likely from char residues. Isotopic signatures (i.e., δ13C and δ15N) show a very interesting behaviour. In detail, δ13C seems to be slightly affected by smouldering, although the information about vegetational changes are preserved, whereas the δ15N shows a trend positively correlated with the relative N enrichment observed in smouldered peat samples, as also

  4. Resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems: implications for state and transition models and management treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Miller, Richard F.; Board, David I.; Pyke, David A.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Grace, James B.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Tausch, Robin J.

    2014-01-01

    In sagebrush ecosystems invasion of annual exotics and expansion of piñon (Pinus monophylla Torr. and Frem.) and juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook., J. osteosperma [Torr.] Little) are altering fire regimes and resulting in large-scale ecosystem transformations. Management treatments aim to increase resilience to disturbance and enhance resistance to invasive species by reducing woody fuels and increasing native perennial herbaceous species. We used Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project data to test predictions on effects of fire vs. mechanical treatments on resilience and resistance for three site types exhibiting cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) invasion and/or piñon and juniper expansion: 1) warm and dry Wyoming big sagebrush (WY shrub); 2) warm and moist Wyoming big sagebrush (WY PJ); and 3) cool and moist mountain big sagebrush (Mtn PJ). Warm and dry (mesic/aridic) WY shrub sites had lower resilience to fire (less shrub recruitment and native perennial herbaceous response) than cooler and moister (frigid/xeric) WY PJ and Mtn PJ sites. Warm (mesic) WY Shrub and WY PJ sites had lower resistance to annual exotics than cool (frigid to cool frigid) Mtn PJ sites. In WY shrub, fire and sagebrush mowing had similar effects on shrub cover and, thus, on perennial native herbaceous and exotic cover. In WY PJ and Mtn PJ, effects were greater for fire than cut-and-leave treatments and with high tree cover in general because most woody vegetation was removed increasing resources for other functional groups. In WY shrub, about 20% pretreatment perennial native herb cover was necessary to prevent increases in exotics after treatment. Cooler and moister WY PJ and especially Mtn PJ were more resistant to annual exotics, but perennial native herb cover was still required for site recovery. We use our results to develop state and transition models that illustrate how resilience and resistance influence vegetation dynamics and management options.

  5. Lack of evidence to support policy development for management of contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients: two systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, M. J.; Langendam, M. W.; Sandgren, A.; Manissero, D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Existing international guidelines provide different recommendations for the management of contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients. OBJECTIVE: To conduct two systematic reviews with the aim of identifying chemoprophylactic approaches that are effective in contacts

  6. Antibiotic Resistance: New Challenge in the Management of Bacterial Eye Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, A K; Sultana, Z; Jahan, I; Khanam, M; Rahman, M; Rahman, M F; Rahman, M B

    2017-01-01

    Ophthalmologists are still facing difficulties in managing bacterial eye infections. The study was designed for the isolation and identification of bacteria from infected eyes and observation of the sensitivity and resistant pattern. This cross sectional study was performed among 160 patients of suspected bacterial eye infection at Dr. K. Zaman BNSB Eye Hospital, Mymensingh and Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh from March, 2010 to June, 2014. After collection of the samples from suspected infected eyes, it was nourished into nutrient broth in shaking incubator for three hours and then cultured into nutrient agar media followed by Mannitol salt agar, MacConkey's agar and blood agar. Bacteria were categorized by colony characteristics and Gram staining. Antibiogram was performed by disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar media. McFarland Equivalence Turbidity Standard was maintained. The efficacy of the drug was evaluated by measuring the diameter of the zone of inhibition surrounding the disc. Ten percent Staphylococcus species isolates was resistant to Gatifloxacin, Gentamicin, Tobramycin and Cloxacillin, 26.0% to Ciprofloxacin, 40.0% to Azythromycin and Moxifloxacin, 58.0% to Cefixime and 64.0% to Cephalexin. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 62.8%. About 24.0% Streptococcus species isolates was resistant to Gatifloxacin, 33.3% to Azythromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamycin, Moxifloxacin and Tobramycin, 52.4% to Cefixime and 71.4% to Cephalexin. About 9.0% of Pseudomonas species was resistant to Gatifloxacin and Tobramycin, 14.7% to Ciprofloxacin, 26.5% to Cefixime, 29.4% to Gentamicin and Moxifloxacin, 44.1% to Azythromycin and 82.3% to Cephalexin and Cloxacillin. Rational use of antibiotics and proper attentions of concerned authorities are necessary to overcome the emergent ocular situation leaded by antibiotic resistant.

  7. Evaluation of alternative tactics for management of insecticide-resistant horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, C D; McNew, R W; Simpson, R B; Rorie, R W; Phillips, J M; Rosenkrans, C F

    2003-06-01

    A 3-yr study was conducted to determine the efficacy of tactics that could be used to manage populations of insecticide-resistant horn flies, Hematobia irritans irritans (L.). Insecticide spray, spot-on or pour-on formulations and two IGRs in bolus formulation, 1.3- and 3.2-ha pasture rotations on different rotation schedules, 0-50% Brahman breeding, selected fly-resistant cows, and a mechanical trap were evaluated singly and in combination. Concentration-mortality tests indicated that horn flies collected from cows used in the current study were significantly less susceptible to diazinon, coumaphos, and methoxychlor than horn flies from cows at the same locations previously used to determine baseline susceptibility. During the 3-yr study at the Southeast Research and Extension Center (SEREC), the IGR-bolus significantly reduced (P management treatments. All tactics and tactic-combinations used at SWREC on cattle having no Brahman breeding failed to significantly reduce insecticide-resistant horn fly numbers. However, the combination of Brahman breeding with the IGR-Bolus and mechanical trap significantly reduced horn fly numbers and resulted in significant increases in calf weaning weight. In addition, mean horn fly numbers decreased significantly as the percentage Brahman breeding increased with 50% Brahman breeding reducing horn fly numbers by 140 flies per cow. No significant difference was found between the mean fly numbers on the fly-resistant purebred group and the cows that had no Brahman breeding but received the IGR-Bolus or used the mechanical trap. The use of synergized zeta-cypermethrin pour-on treatment successfully complimented the use of IGR-bolus and mechanical traps in reducing insecticide-resistant horn fly numbers. Neither 1.3- nor 3.2-ha size paddocks and stocking rates used in the rotation graze regimens at SEREC and SWREC, respectively, significantly reduced horn fly numbers when compared with continuously grazed paddocks. Data indicated the

  8. The Relationship between Participative Management and Resistance to Change from the Perspective of Administrators at Educational Hospitals in Yazd, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Tayefi

    2016-10-01

    r = -0.325, and control and supervision (P = 0.01, r = -0.292 indicated an inverse significant correlation with resistance to change. Conclusion: According to the results of this study applying participative management could be an appropriate and beneficial strategy to reduce staff resistance to change.

  9. Compound-specific isotope analysis of light elements using gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) and its application to geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraoka, Hiroshi; Yamada, Keita; Matsumoto, Kohei; Ishiwatari, Ryoshi

    1997-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis has been developed recently using gas chromatography/combustion/mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). This paper summarizes principles and progress of GC/C/IRMS, and reviews recent some important works using this new method. GC/C/IRMS is a novel tool for (1) biomarker analysis in sediments and living matter, (2) paleoenvironment analysis including reconstruction of ancient biogeochemical processes, (3) geochemical cycle study of organic compounds in a terrestrial-marine system, (4) evaluation of maturity and diagenesis of organic matter including petroleum formation, (5) ecological analysis, (6) evaluation of anthropologenic pollution in environment, (7) detection of extraterrestrial organic compounds and the formation mechanism study, (8) tracer studies in environment. (author)

  10. A interação entre as pessoas com síndrome de Down e seus irmãos: um estudo exploratório

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Bruna Rafaela de; Duarte, Márcia; Cia, Fabiana

    2016-01-01

    Resumo A presença de uma pessoa com deficiência provoca transformações na família que exigem, de cada membro, redefinição de papéis. O irmão, como todos os outros membros, passa por processos de frustração, aceitação, culpa e mudanças. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se (a) analisar a interação entre o irmão com desenvolvimento típico e o com síndrome de Down; (b) identificar que informação e reação os irmãos com desenvolvimento típico possuem sobre o diagnóstico da síndrome de Down; (c) verificar s...

  11. Information resources management for policy formulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses the findings of a study conducted on the state of information resources management (IRM) in government ministries in Tanzania. The purpose of the study was to investigate and establish the extent to which the information resources management in the ministries reflect and support the process of ...

  12. Improving management of resistant hypertension: Rationale and protocol for a cluster randomized trial addressing physician managers in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltermann, Birgitta; Viehmann, Anja; Kersting, Christine

    2016-03-01

    Resistant hypertension (RH) is defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) despite ≥3 antihypertensive agents. It is estimated to account for 12-28% of all hypertensive patients. Despite a higher risk of cardiovascular events, hypertension therapy in these patients is often insufficient. In a previous study we successfully tested an evidence-based, physician manager-centered hypertension management. For this cluster randomized trial (CRT), a random sample of 102 German primary care practices will be randomized into two study arms (1:1). Physician managers and practice assistants of the intervention arm will participate in three-session medical education on hypertension management to implement 1) standardized diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for RH patients, 2) structured recall of patients with uncontrolled BP, and 3) teaching and supervision of RH patients on BP self-measurements. Practice tools are provided to facilitate implementation, e.g., how to distinguish true from pseudo RH and guideline-based medication selection. Physicians will specify guideline-algorithms for their practice to manage RH. A secured web-based peer-group exchange with hypertension specialists is offered to both professional groups. Physicians of both study arms will consecutively recruit patients with RH. BP will be measured by ambulatory BP monitoring at baseline and after 12 months. The primary endpoint is defined as treatment success with either normalized BP (24h<130/80 mmHg) and/or a reduction by ≥20 mmHg systolic and/or ≥10 mmHg diastolic. Secondary analyses will focus on changes in physicians' knowledge and practice routines. This CRT will determine the effectiveness of a physician manager-centered intervention on treatment success in high-risk patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Management of steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome in children with cyclosporine - a tertiary care centre experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.S.H.; Akhtar, N.; Sunbleen, F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the response and adverse effects of cyclosporine in combination with oral steroids for management of idiopathic steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome in pediatric patients. Methodology: It was an observational study conducted at Children Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan from March 2014 to June 2015. Forty normotensive patients of idiopathic steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome between one and twelve years of age with normal renal function were included in the study. Patients were prescribed cyclosporine with prednisolone and were followed to see the response and adverse effects of drugs. Results: Out of 40 patients, 20(50%) were males and 20(50%) females. Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis was found in 27(67.5%) patients followed by Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in 9(22.5%) patients. Complete response was observed in 32(80%) children while partial response in 8(20%) patients at the end of six months. The most common adverse effects were cushingoid features seen in 26(65%) and cyclosporine related hypertrichosis in 34(85%). Conclusion: Management of idiopathic steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome in children with a combination of cyclosporine and prednisolone provided good results as response to treatment was seen in 80% patients. (author)

  14. Host Resistance and Chemical Control for Management of Sclerotinia Stem Rot of Soybean in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzar-Novakowiski, Jaqueline; Paul, Pierce A; Dorrance, Anne E

    2017-08-01

    Recent outbreaks of Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) of soybean in Ohio, along with new fungicides and cultivars with resistance to this disease, have led to a renewed interest in studies to update disease management guidelines. The effect of host resistance (in moderately resistant [MR] and moderately susceptible [MS] cultivars) and chemical control on SSR and yield was evaluated in 12 environments from 2014 to 2016. The chemical treatments evaluated were an untreated check, four fungicides (boscalid, picoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and thiophanate-methyl), and one herbicide (lactofen) applied at soybean growth stage R1 (early flowering) alone or at R1 followed by a second application at R2 (full flowering). SSR developed in 6 of 12 environments, with mean disease incidence in the untreated check of 2.5 to 41%. The three environments with high levels of SSR (disease incidence in the untreated check >20%) were used for further statistical analysis. There were significant effects (P soybean cultivar and chemical treatment on SSR levels. Significantly lower levels of SSR were observed in MR cultivars. Both boscalid and lactofen reduced SSR but did not increase yield. Pyraclostrobin increased SSR compared with the untreated check in the three environments with high levels of disease. In the six fields where SSR did not develop, chemical treatment did not increase yield, nor was the yield from the MR cultivar significantly different from the MS cultivar. For Ohio, MR cultivars alone were effective for management of SSR in soybean fields where this disease has historically occurred.

  15. Managing head lice in an era of increasing resistance to insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Anthony M R

    2004-01-01

    Head lice are present in all age groups, however, the peak age for infestation is 7-8 years and the incidence varies throughout the year with higher incidence during the winter. Different insecticides have been used over the past 60 years to manage this condition. There is now strong evidence of insecticide resistance established in many countries to such an extent that some of these chemicals have become obsolete. Resistance to some pediculicides can vary from country to country and region to region within a country. The lack of a local monitoring system of resistance patterns means that parents and pupils are hampered in making an informed decision regarding how to treat head lice. One should no longer assume that treatment failure is due to poor treatment compliance or re-infestation. Clear treatment guidelines drawn up by healthcare professionals with an interest in head lice and taking into account regional/national resistance patterns should be implemented. These guidelines should combine chemical and non-chemical approaches to treatment and be coordinated and regularly reviewed by local public health departments. Drug companies should be made to provide up-to-date efficacy of their products.

  16. O câncer infantil na perspectiva dos irmãos das crianças doentes: revisão bibliográfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristiane Cavicchioli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem como objetivo realizar uma revisão bibliográfica de pesquisas que abordam temáticas relacionadas aos irmãos de crianças com câncer, no período de 1998 até 2003, a fim de identificar os conhecimentos disponíveis na área e fornecer subsídios para o cuidado de enfermagem aos irmãos das crianças com câncer. Utilizamos as bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, CINAHL e PsycINFO, também, artigos disponibilizados on line, na íntegra, por meio da editora OVID, com as seguintes combinações de palavras-chave: cancer e siblings;cancer, child e siblings; cancer, adolescent e siblings. A análise das publicações permitiu a identificação de quatro temáticas: o impacto da doença nos irmãos saudáveis; o significado da doença para o irmão saudável; suporte social e necessidades de cuidado e intervenção. Os dados indicam que as pesquisas enfocando os irmãos das crianças com câncer vêem crescendo, em especial nas áreas de enfermagem e psicologia; revelam ainda, a preocupação em transformar a prática clínica a fim de intervir efetivamente no cuidado às necessidades psicossociais dos irmãos.

  17. Nutritional management of insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Beth A; Beasley, Jeannette M; Aebersold, Karin; Jhangiani, Sunil S; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2013-10-11

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging global health concern. It is the most common form of chronic liver disease in Western countries, affecting both adults and children. NAFLD encompasses a broad spectrum of fatty liver disease, ranging from simple steatosis (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and is strongly associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. First-line therapy for NAFLD includes weight loss achieved through diet and physical activity. However, there is a lack of evidenced-based dietary recommendations. The American Diabetes Association's (ADA) recommendations that aim to reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease may also be applicable to the NAFLD population. The objectives of this review are to: (1) provide an overview of NAFLD in the context of insulin resistance, and (2) provide a rationale for applying relevant aspects of the ADA recommendations to the nutritional management of NAFLD.

  18. Chlorine Stable Isotope Measurements by SIMS: a Calibration with IRMS Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godon, A. V.; Webster, J. D.; Layne, G. D.; Jendrzejewski, N.; Pineau, F.; Mathez, E.; Javoy, M.

    2001-12-01

    Chlorine isotope distribution is not uniform in nature and the few chlorine isotope data reported in the literature cover a large range of δ 37Cl values (from -14 to +10 permil versus SMOC). Deep Earth reservoirs are isotopically distinct compared to seawater and other surficial reservoirs. Physio-chemical processes, such as diffusion or ion filtration can produce important isotopic variations. Data and experimental studies on chlorine isotope fractionation are needed to understand the origin of such fractionations and to constrain the global chlorine geochemical cycle, and this requires new analytical tools. Accordingly, we have conducted a calibration of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) using the gaseous Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) technique as the standard comparison method. Homogeneous silicate glasses, for use as SIMS chlorine-isotope standards, were prepared with an internally heated pressure vessel at the American Museum of Natural History. Rock powders ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite were fused in Au and Au-Pd capsules, with Cl added as PtCl2 and other chloride salts, at 2 to 4 kilobars and 1000 to 1170° C. The purpose of these glasses is to determine the potential influence of composition on the mass fractionation factors for Cl isotope analysis by SIMS. The chemical homogeneity of the glass was checked by electron microprobe. In Paris GIS Lab., the chlorine was extracted from the glasses by NaOH alkali fusion at 500° C. After acidification at pH 2.2 and addition of KNO3 to adjust the ionic strength, AgCl was precipitated and recovered by filtration at 0.7 μ m. In a sealed capsule under vacuum, an excess of ICH3 was added to AgCl to produce ClCH3. This ClCH3 was then purified by gas chromatography. δ 37Cl measurements were performed with a gaseous dual inlet mass spectrometer on ClCH3+, with a precision better than 0.1 permil on 30 μ mol of Cl. SIMS measurements, using the IMS 1270 at Woods Hole Oceanographic

  19. In-host adaptation and acquired triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus: a dilemma for clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Paul E; Zhang, Jianhua; Debets, Alfons J M; Meis, Jacques F; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Schoustra, Sijmen E; Zwaan, Bas J; Melchers, Willem J G

    2016-11-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus causes a range of diseases in human beings, some of which are characterised by fungal persistence. A fumigatus can persist by adapting to the human lung environment through physiological and genomic changes. The physiological changes are based on the large biochemical versatility of the fungus, and the genomic changes are based on the capacity of the fungus to generate genetic diversity by spontaneous mutations or recombination and subsequent selection of the genotypes that are most adapted to the new environment. In this Review, we explore the adaptation strategies of A fumigatus in relation to azole resistance selection and the clinical implications thereof for management of diseases caused by Aspergillus spp. We hypothesise that the current diagnostic tools and treatment strategies do not take into account the biology of the fungus and might result in an increased likelihood of fungal persistence in patients. Stress factors, such as triazole exposure, cause mutations that render resistance. The process of reproduction-ie, sexual, parasexual, or asexual-is probably crucial for the adaptive potential of Aspergillus spp. As any change in the environment can provoke adaptation, switching between triazoles in patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis might result in a high-level pan-triazole-resistant phenotype through the accumulation of resistance mutations. Alternatively, when triazole therapy is stopped, an azole-free environment is created that could prompt selection for compensatory mutations that overcome any fitness costs that are expected to accompany resistance development. As a consequence, starting, switching, and stopping azole therapy has the risk of selecting for highly resistant strains with wildtype fitness. A similar adaptation is expected to occur in response to other stress factors, such as endogenous antimicrobial peptides; over time the fungus will become increasingly adapted to the lung environment, thereby limiting

  20. Direct costs of managing adverse drug reactions during rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis treatment in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnippel, K; Firnhaber, C; Berhanu, R; Page-Shipp, L; Sinanovic, E

    2018-04-01

    To estimate the provider costs of managing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to standard long-course treatment for multidrug- and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) according to South African guidelines. We parameterised a published Markov health state model for MDR/RR-TB with guidelines-based, bottom-up public-sector provider costing of ADR management. Frequency of ADR occurrence was extracted from the literature. Costs were estimated over 10 years, discounted 3% annually and tested using probabilistic sensitivity analysis. On average, guidelines-based costing of moderate ADRs weighted by the frequency of occurrence was US$135.76 (standard deviation [SD] US$17.18) and the cost of serious ADRs was US$521.29 (SD US$55.99). We estimated that the incremental costs of ADR management were US$380.17 annually per patient initiating MDR/RR-TB treatment. The incremental costs of ADR management for the public health sector in South Africa was US$4.76 million, 8.3% of the estimated cohort costs of MDR/RR-TB treatment ($57.55 million) for the 2015 cohort of 12 527 patients. Management of multiple ADRs and serious ADRs, which are common during the first 6 months of standard, long-course MDR/RR-TB treatment, substantially increases provider treatment costs. These results need to be taken into account when comparing regimen costs, and highlight the urgent need to identify drug regimens with improved safety profiles.

  1. Preliminary Favorable Outcome for Medically and Surgically Managed Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, France, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Benoît; Revest, Matthieu; Dournon, Nathalie; Epelboin, Loïc; Mellon, Guillaume; Bellaud, Guillaume; Mordant, Pierre; Le Dû, Damien; Véziris, Nicolas; Bernard, Christine; Morel, Sébastien; Jauréguiberry, Stéphane; Michelet, Christian; Bricaire, Françcois; Tattevin, Pierre; Caumes, Éric

    2016-03-01

    We report 20 cases of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis managed in France. Treatment was individualized and included bedaquiline and linezolid for most patients and surgery in 8 patients. At last follow-up (22 months), 19 patients had achieved conversion from positive to negative on culture testing. These promising results of comprehensive management obtained in a small series deserve confirmation.

  2. Preliminary Favorable Outcome for Medically and Surgically Managed Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, France, 2009–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Benoît; Revest, Matthieu; Dournon, Nathalie; Epelboin, Loïc; Mellon, Guillaume; Bellaud, Guillaume; Mordant, Pierre; Le Dû, Damien; Véziris, Nicolas; Bernard, Christine; Morel, Sébastien; Jauréguiberry, Stéphane; Michelet, Christian; Bricaire, François; Caumes, Éric

    2016-01-01

    We report 20 cases of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis managed in France. Treatment was individualized and included bedaquiline and linezolid for most patients and surgery in 8 patients. At last follow-up (22 months), 19 patients had achieved conversion from positive to negative on culture testing. These promising results of comprehensive management obtained in a small series deserve confirmation. PMID:26891089

  3. Defense IRM: Alternatives Should Be Considered in Developing the New Civilian Personnel System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ... regional centers, and attempting to improve personnel management business processes. A key part of this initiative is Defense's development of a new information management system-the Defense Civilian Personnel Data System (DCPDs...

  4. Management of Severe Insulin Resistance in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Rebecca; Reutrakul, Sirimon

    2015-10-01

    Managing severe insulin resistance (IR) in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) can be challenging for both clinicians and patients. As average weight for patients with T1DM has increased in recent decades, IR in this population has become more widespread. Currently, almost 50 % of patients with T1DM are overweight or obese. While intensive insulin therapy is associated with reduction in complications, aggressive treatment can lead to weight gain. With increasing weight, insulin can become less effective to control glycemia, resulting in higher insulin doses and hence more weight gain. Novel strategies to break this vicious cycle are needed. This review will investigate current research on insulin formulations, lifestyle modification, adjunct therapies, and surgery that may help better manage patients with T1DM and IR.

  5. Role of resveratrol in the management of insulin resistance and related conditions: Mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi Oshaghi, Ebrahim; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Higgins, Victoria; Adeli, Khosrow

    2017-06-01

    Resveratrol (RES), a well-known antioxidant, is present in numerous plant species and, as a result, is easily obtained through dietary intake of plant-based foods and beverages. Several studies suggest that RES has anti-carcinogenic, anti-microbial, and anti-viral effects. It may also have beneficial metabolic properties that result in mitigation of insulin resistance (IR) and related metabolic abnormalities, including dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia through regulation of gene expression or the activity of rate-limiting enzymes. A large body of evidence supports the beneficial effects of RES in the management and treatment of IR, type 2 diabetes, and related complications through a multitude of mechanisms. This review article focuses on the mechanisms of action of RES, the mechanisms leading to improved insulin sensitivity, and its clinical role in the management and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  6. Fundamentals and Catalytic Innovation: The Statistical and Data Management Center of the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvane, Jacqueline; Komarow, Lauren; Hill, Carol; Tran, Thuy Tien T; Pereira, Carol; Rosenkranz, Susan L; Finnemeyer, Matt; Earley, Michelle; Jiang, Hongyu Jeanne; Wang, Rui; Lok, Judith; Evans, Scott R

    2017-03-15

    The Statistical and Data Management Center (SDMC) provides the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) with statistical and data management expertise to advance the ARLG research agenda. The SDMC is active at all stages of a study, including design; data collection and monitoring; data analyses and archival; and publication of study results. The SDMC enhances the scientific integrity of ARLG studies through the development and implementation of innovative and practical statistical methodologies and by educating research colleagues regarding the application of clinical trial fundamentals. This article summarizes the challenges and roles, as well as the innovative contributions in the design, monitoring, and analyses of clinical trials and diagnostic studies, of the ARLG SDMC. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Carbon Isotope Characterization of Organic Intermediaries in Hydrothermal Hydrocarbon Synthesis by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-C-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    We report results of experiments designed to characterize the carbon isotope composition of intermediate organic compounds produced as a result of mineral surface catalyzed reactions. The impetus for this work stems from recently reported detection of methane in the Martian atmosphere coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Martian history. Abiotic formation by Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis during serpentinization reactions may be one possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars, and measurement of carbon and hydrogen isotopes of intermediary organic compounds can help constrain the origin of this methane. Of particular interest within the context of this work is the isotopic composition of organic intermediaries produced on the surfaces of mineral catalysts (i.e. magnetite) during hydrothermal experiments, and the ability to make meaningful and reproducible isotope measurements. Our isotope measurements utilize a unique analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Specrometry (Py-GC-MS-C-IRMS). Others have conducted similar pyrolysis-IRMS experiments on low molecular weight organic acids (Dias, et al, Organic Geochemistry, 33 [2002]). Our technique differs in that it carries a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQ-II quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of the organic compounds. A sample of carboxylic acid (mixture of C1 through C6) was pyrolyzed at 100 XC and passed through the GC-MS-C-IRMS (combusted at 940 XC). In order to test the reliability of our technique we compared the _13C composition of different molecular weight organic acids (from C1 through C6) extracted individually by the traditional sealed-tube cupric oxide combustion (940 XC) method with the _13C produced by our pyrolysis technique. Our data indicate that an average 4.3. +/-0.5. (V

  8. Evaluation and management of the patient with difficult-to-control or resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthony J; Hinderliter, Alan L

    2009-05-15

    High blood pressure is often difficult to control. Resistant hypertension is blood pressure above goal despite adherence to a combination of at least three antihypertensive medications of different classes, optimally dosed and usually including a diuretic. The approach to blood pressure that is apparently difficult to control begins with an assessment of the patient's adherence to the management plan, including lifestyle modifications and medications. White-coat hypertension may need to be ruled out. Suboptimal therapy is the most common reason for failure to reach the blood pressure goal. Once-daily fixed-dose combination pills may improve control through the synergism of antihypertensive agents from different classes and improved adherence. Truly drug-resistant hypertension is commonly caused by chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, or hyperaldosteronism, all of which can lead to fluid retention. Higher doses of diuretics (or a change to a loop diuretic) are usually needed. Other strategies include adding an alpha blocker, alpha-beta blocker, clonidine, or an aldosterone antagonist (e.g., spironolactone). Particularly in patients with diabetes or renal disease, combining a long-acting nondihydropyridine with a dihydropyridine calcium channel . blocker can also be considered. Obesity, heavy alcohol intake, high levels of dietary sodium, and interfering substances (especially nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) contribute to hypertension that is resistant or difficult to control.

  9. Resistance Management for Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Dong Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayma, is one of the most important pests in citrus production. The objective of this study was to evaluate D. citri resistance management with three insecticide rotations and compare them with no rotation and an untreated check. The different insecticides (modes of action tested were: dimethoate, imidacloprid, diflubenzuron, abamectin 3% + thiamethoxam 13.9%, and fenpropathrin. Eggs, nymph, and adult psyllids were counted weekly. Five insecticide applications were made in 2016. Insecticide susceptibility was determined by direct comparison with a laboratory susceptible population and field populations before and after all treatments were applied. Rankings of eggs, nymphs, and adults counted in treated plots were significantly lower than in the untreated control plots after each application. Initially, the resistance ratio (RR50 for each rotation model, as compared with laboratory susceptible strain and the field population before application, was less than 5.76 and 4.31, respectively. However, after five applications with dimethoate, the RR50 using the laboratory and pre-treatment field populations was 42.34 and 34.74, respectively. Our results indicate that effectively rotating modes of action can delay and/or prevent development of insecticide resistance in populations of D. citri.

  10. Molecular detection of rifampin and isoniazid resistance to guide chronic TB patient management in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinsi Gabriele

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB is considered a real threat to the achievement of TB control. Testing of mycobacterial culture and testing of drug susceptibility (DST capacity are limited in resource-poor countries, therefore inadequate treatment may occur, favouring resistance development. We evaluated the molecular assay GenoType® MTBDRplus (Hain Lifescience, Germany in order to detect DR-TB directly in clinical specimens as a means of providing a more accurate management of chronic TB patients in Burkina Faso, a country with a high TB-HIV co-infection prevalence. Methods Samples were collected in Burkina Faso where culture and DST are not currently available, and where chronic cases are therefore classified and treated based on clinical evaluation and sputum-smear microscopy results. One hundred and eight chronic TB patients (sputum smear-positive, after completing a re-treatment regimen for pulmonary TB under directly observed therapy were enrolled in the study from December 2006 to October 2008. Two early morning sputum samples were collected from each patient, immediately frozen, and shipped to Italy in dry ice. Samples were decontaminated, processed for smear microscopy and DNA extraction. Culture was attempted on MGIT960 (Becton Dickinson, Cockeysville, USA and decontaminated specimens were analyzed for the presence of mutations conferring resistance to rifampin and isoniazid by the molecular assay GenoType® MTBDRplus. Results We obtained a valid molecular test result in 60/61 smear-positive and 47/47 smear-negative patients. Among 108 chronic TB cases we identified patients who (i harboured rifampin- and isoniazid-susceptible strains (n 24, (ii were negative for MTB complex DNA (n 24, and (iii had non-tuberculous mycobacteria infections (n 13. The most represented mutation conferring rifampin-resistance was the D516V substitution in the hotspot region of the rpoB gene (43.8% of cases. Other mutations recognized

  11. Managing resistance in cognitive behavioural therapy: the application of motivational interviewing in mixed anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Henny A

    2004-01-01

    While cognitive behavioural therapy is highly effective in the treatment of anxiety and depression, a substantive number of individuals either refuse treatment, fail to respond to treatment or respond only partially. Arguably, ambivalence about change or about engaging in treatment tasks may in part be related to incomplete recovery rates in cognitive behavioural therapy. Motivational interviewing is a client-centred, directive treatment originally developed in the addictions domain whose goal is to enhance motivation for change by understanding and resolving ambivalence. This method has consistently received support for enhancing outcomes in the addictions domain, particularly when used as an adjunct to further treatment. As yet, motivational methods have not been generalized to the treatment of prevalent mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression. The present paper presents the application of a treatment targeting motivation (motivational interviewing adapted for anxiety and depression) to the management of resistance in cognitive behavioural therapy for 3 clients with mixed anxiety and depression. Motivational interviewing is conceived as an adjunct to highly effective traditional cognitive behavioural therapy methods, which is indicated for use with clients resistant to and significantly ambivalent about change-based techniques for managing anxiety or alleviating depression.

  12. A participação da irmã Mathilde Nina na construção histórica da ABEn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Marques Bezerra

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de cunho histórico-social, cujo objeto é a participação da Irmã Mathilde Nina no processo histórico da Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem (ABEn, como representante da Companhia das Filhas da Caridade. Objetivo: discutir o advento da inserção dessa Irmã na Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem como uma forma de difusão da influência católica. Recorte temporal: 1939 a 1950. Fontes primárias: documentos escritos e depoimento de pessoas que tenham convivido com Mathilde Nina. O método é dialético, e a discussão dos achados fundamenta-se no pensamento de Pierre Bourdieu. As Irmãs da Caridade fizeram, no Brasil, um movimento de inserção na educação formal. Tal evento foi conseqüência do Decreto 20.109/31. Como primeira representante da Companhia a se diplomar, a Irmã Nina possuía um capital que a legitimava nas várias instâncias da enfermagem; sua inserção na ABEn é mais uma das formas de difusão da ideologia católica.

  13. The use of IRMS, (1)H NMR and chemical analysis to characterise Italian and imported Tunisian olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camin, Federica; Pavone, Anita; Bontempo, Luana; Wehrens, Ron; Paolini, Mauro; Faberi, Angelo; Marianella, Rosa Maria; Capitani, Donatella; Vista, Silvia; Mannina, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS), (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR), conventional chemical analysis and chemometric elaboration were used to assess quality and to define and confirm the geographical origin of 177 Italian PDO (Protected Denomination of Origin) olive oils and 86 samples imported from Tunisia. Italian olive oils were richer in squalene and unsaturated fatty acids, whereas Tunisian olive oils showed higher δ(18)O, δ(2)H, linoleic acid, saturated fatty acids β-sitosterol, sn-1 and 3 diglyceride values. Furthermore, all the Tunisian samples imported were of poor quality, with a K232 and/or acidity values above the limits established for extra virgin olive oils. By combining isotopic composition with (1)H NMR data using a multivariate statistical approach, a statistical model able to discriminate olive oil from Italy and those imported from Tunisia was obtained, with an optimal differentiation ability arriving at around 98%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Extruder ile Pişirme Yönteminin Gıda Bileşim Öğeleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Artık

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gıdalara uygulanan diğer ısıl işlemler gibi extruder ile pişirme yönteminde yararlı ve zararlı etkileri birlikte söz konusudur. Bu yöntemin yararlı etkisi; gıdanın özelliklerini olumsuz etkileyen faktörlerin elemine edilmesi; olumsuz etkisi ise, proteinler ile şekerler arasında oluşan Maillard tepkimesidir. Anılan tepkime ile proteinlerin besleyici niteliği azalmaktadır. Ayrıca ısıl işlem nedeniyle vitamin kayıpları söz konusu olmaktadır (Bjorck ve Asp, 1982.

  15. A new derivatization method for δ18O analysis of individual carbohydrates with GC-Pyrolysis-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, M. M.; Siegwolf, R. T.; Saurer, M.; Blees, J.; Fischer, M.; Zech, M.

    2015-12-01

    Compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) with gas chromatography coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-Pyr-IRMS) is nowadays a powerful tool that is widely used by a broad spectrum of research fields to investigate the isotopic signature of diverse metabolites. While many CSIA methods for carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen isotopes are known, CSIA methods for the analysis of oxygen isotopes (δ18O) are still not widely established. Especially, reliable and precise methods for the δ18O analyses of individual carbohydrates are scarce, which is caused by the highly sensitive nature of the sugars. However, carbohydrates are important components of living organisms, source for many biochemical reactions, and can be found in all organisms, in soils, sediments, and in air. Thus, a method, allowing the investigation of the 18O/16O ratio in carbohydrates will enhance the scope of research using isotopes. We developed a new and easy to handle derivatization method to determine δ18O in carbohydrates with GC-Pyr-IRMS that consists of a catalyzed one-pot reaction in acetonitrile, resulting in complete methylation of all sugar hydroxyl groups within 24 hours, with silver oxide as the proton acceptor and methyl iodide as the methyl group carrier. Results derived from standard material show unrivalled δ18O precision ranging from about 0.2 to 1.1 ‰ for different individual carbohydrates of different classes and a generally very good accuracy, with a narrow range of 0.2 ‰ around the reference value, despite of high area variations. We applied this method on real samples, demonstrating that the method can commonly be used for analyzing honey samples, and for the analyses of more complex carbohydrate mixtures from plant leaves, including glucose, fructose, pinitol, and sucrose. Our new method may be used for food, beverage, and medical applications, as well as for biogeochemical and paleoclimatic sciences.

  16. Performance and cross-crop resistance of Cry1F-maize selected Spodoptera frugiperda on transgenic Bt cotton: implications for resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Kerns, David L; Brown, Sebe; Kurtz, Ryan; Dennehy, Tim; Braxton, Bo; Head, Graham; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-06-15

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins have become a primary tool in pest management. Due to the intensive use of Bt crops, resistance of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to Cry1F maize has occurred in Puerto Rico, Brazil, and some areas of the southeastern U.S. The sustainability of Bt crops faces a great challenge because the Cry1F-maize resistant S. frugiperda may also infest other Bt crops in multiple cropping ecosystems. Here we examined the survival and plant injury of a S. frugiperda population selected with Cry1F maize on three single-gene and five pyramided Bt cotton products. Larvae of Cry1F-susceptible (SS), -heterozygous (RS), and -resistant (RR) genotypes of S. frugiperda were all susceptible to the pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac/Cry1F/Vip3A, Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae, or Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae/Vip3A, and the single-gene Cry2Ae cotton. Pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry1F was effective against SS and RS, but not for RR. These findings show that the Cry1F-maize selected S. frugiperda can cause cross-crop resistance to other Bt crops expressing similar insecticidal proteins. Resistance management and pest management programs that utilize diversify mortality factors must be implemented to ensure the sustainability of Bt crops. This is especially important in areas where resistance to single-gene Bt crops is already widespread.

  17. What is the best management strategy for patients with severe insulin resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Robert K; Williams, Rachel M; Dunger, David B

    2010-09-01

    Management of severe insulin resistance (IR) is a major clinical challenge in many patients with obesity or lipodystrophy, and also in rarer patients with proven or suspected genetic defects in the insulin receptor or downstream signalling. The latter group can present at any time between birth and early adult life, with a variable clinical course broadly correlated with the severity of IR. Primary insulin signalling defects are usually associated with poor weight gain rather than obesity. Initially, extreme hyperinsulinaemia produces ovarian enlargement and hyperandrogenism in women, and often fasting or postprandial hypoglycaemia. However, any hypoglycaemia gradually evolves into insulin-resistant hyperglycaemia when beta cell function declines. Optimal management of these complex disorders depends on early diagnosis and appropriate targeting of both high and low glucose levels. In newborns, continuous nasogastric feeding may reduce harmful glycaemic fluctuations, and in older patients, acarbose may mitigate postprandial hypoglycaemia. Insulin sensitization, initially with metformin but later with trials of additional agents such as thiazolidinediones, is the mainstay of early therapy, but insulin replacement, eventually with very high doses, is required once diabetes has supervened. Preliminary data suggest that rhIGF-1 can improve survival in infants with the most severe insulin receptor defects and also improve beta cell function in older patients with milder receptoropathies. The utility of newer therapies such as glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors remains untested in this condition. Thus, management of these patients remains largely empirical, and there is a pressing need to collate data centrally to optimize treatment algorithms.

  18. Pişirme Yöntemlerinin Karadeniz Hamsisinin (Engraulis Encrasicolus, Linnaeus 1758 Besin Kompozisyonu Üzerine Etkisi (İngilizce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Kocatepe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Çalışmada farklı pişirme yöntemlerinin (ızgara, fırında pişirme, kızartma, mikrodalgada pişirme hamsinin (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus 1758 besin kompozisyonu üzerine etkisi araştırılmıştır. Çiğ balığın ortalama su, yağ, protein, kül, karbonhidrat içeriği ve kalori değeri sırasıyla; %62.85, %10.64, %22.71, %1.48, %2.31 ve 195.88 kcal’dir. Çiğ ve pişmiş balıklar karşılaştırıldığında pişirme yöntemlerinin balık eti besin kompozisyonu üzerine önemli derecede etkili olduğu saptanmıştır. En yüksek su kaybı kızartılan hamside bulunmuştur (%49.55. Izgarada, fırında, yağda ve mikrodalgada pişirilmiş hamsilerin ortalama protein ve yağ içerikleri sırasıyla; %25.55, %17.51; %22.58, %20.54; %24.44, %23.30; %22.63 ve %22.34’tür. Sağlıklı beslenme için en iyi pişirme metodu olarak, en yüksek protein ve en düşük yağ ve enerji içeriğine sahip olan ızgara önerilebilir.

  19. 48 CFR 1552.211-79 - Compliance with EPA Policies for Information Resources Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Policies for Information Resources Management. 1552.211-79 Section 1552.211-79 Federal Acquisition... Information Resources Management (OCT 2000) (a) Definition. Information Resources Management (IRM) is defined... includes both information itself, and the management of information and related resources such as personnel...

  20. Evolving concepts in the management of drug resistant ovarian cancer: dose dense chemotherapy and the reversal of clinical platinum resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinato, David J; Graham, Janet; Gabra, Hani; Sharma, Rohini

    2013-04-01

    Despite the initially high response rate to standard front-line debulking surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy, the relapse rate in ovarian cancer is high and many patients will recur within 6 months of completing platinum based treatment. These patients may still require further chemotherapy despite being considered "platinum resistant". In this setting, response rates to conventionally scheduled second line platinum and non-platinum agents is low, ranging between 5% and 15%. There is an emerging body of evidence that in this scenario, chemotherapeutic activity can be enhanced using unconventionally scheduled "dose-dense" platinum and non-platinum based regimens with improved response rates of up to 65%. Randomised studies to evaluate the impact of this approach on survival in recurrent, platinum resistant disease are urgently required to confirm the promising phase II findings if there is to be a change in the standard of care of patients with platinum resistant disease. In this review we discuss the evolving strategies to overcome resistance in patients with platinum resistant ovarian cancer with a particular focus on alterations in dose schedule as a means of reversing platinum resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A prospective study of tuberculosis drug susceptibility in sabah, malaysia, and an algorithm for management of isoniazid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid Ali, Muhammad Redzwan S; Parameswaran, Uma; William, Timothy; Bird, Elspeth; Wilkes, Christopher S; Lee, Wai Khew; Yeo, Tsin Wen; Anstey, Nicholas M; Ralph, Anna P

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The burden of tuberculosis is high in eastern Malaysia, and rates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance are poorly defined. Our objectives were to determine M. tuberculosis susceptibility and document management after receipt of susceptibility results. Methods. Prospective study of adult outpatients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Sabah, Malaysia. Additionally, hospital clinicians accessed the reference laboratory for clinical purposes during the study. Results. 176 outpatients were enrolled; 173 provided sputum samples. Mycobacterial culture yielded M. tuberculosis in 159 (91.9%) and nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) in three (1.7%). Among outpatients there were no instances of multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Seven people (4.5%) had isoniazid resistance (INH-R); all were switched to an appropriate second-line regimen for varying durations (4.5-9 months). Median delay to commencement of the second-line regimen was 13 weeks. Among 15 inpatients with suspected TB, 2 had multidrug resistant TB (one extensively drug resistant), 2 had INH-R, and 4 had NTM. Conclusions. Current community rates of MDR-TB in Sabah are low. However, INH-resistance poses challenges, and NTM is an important differential diagnosis in this setting, where smear microscopy is the usual diagnostic modality. To address INH-R management issues in our setting, we propose an algorithm for the treatment of isoniazid-resistant PTB.

  2. A Prospective Study of Tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility in Sabah, Malaysia, and an Algorithm for Management of Isoniazid Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Redzwan S. Rashid Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The burden of tuberculosis is high in eastern Malaysia, and rates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance are poorly defined. Our objectives were to determine M. tuberculosis susceptibility and document management after receipt of susceptibility results. Methods. Prospective study of adult outpatients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in Sabah, Malaysia. Additionally, hospital clinicians accessed the reference laboratory for clinical purposes during the study. Results. 176 outpatients were enrolled; 173 provided sputum samples. Mycobacterial culture yielded M. tuberculosis in 159 (91.9% and nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM in three (1.7%. Among outpatients there were no instances of multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB. Seven people (4.5% had isoniazid resistance (INH-R; all were switched to an appropriate second-line regimen for varying durations (4.5–9 months. Median delay to commencement of the second-line regimen was 13 weeks. Among 15 inpatients with suspected TB, 2 had multidrug resistant TB (one extensively drug resistant, 2 had INH-R, and 4 had NTM. Conclusions. Current community rates of MDR-TB in Sabah are low. However, INH-resistance poses challenges, and NTM is an important differential diagnosis in this setting, where smear microscopy is the usual diagnostic modality. To address INH-R management issues in our setting, we propose an algorithm for the treatment of isoniazid-resistant PTB.

  3. A managed multidisciplinary programme on multi-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Danish university hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Ejdrup; Knudsen, Inge Jenny Dahl

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacteria-producing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes are resistant to commonly used antimicrobials. In 2008, routine monitoring revealed a clonal hospital outbreak of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP). METHODS: At a 510-bed Danish university hospital......, a multidisciplinary change project inspired by Kotter's Eight Steps of Change was designed. In addition to revision of antimicrobial guidelines and restriction of selected antimicrobials, the complex, managed, multi-faceted intervention comprised training and education, enhanced isolation precautions, and a series...... of actions to improve the infection control measures and standardise procedures across the hospital. A prospective interrupted time series design was used to analyse data collected at hospital level from January 2008 through December 2011. RESULTS: Though overall antimicrobial consumption remained unaffected...

  4. Insulin resistance and management of the menopause: a clinical hypothesis in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcroft, Sovra; Herriot, Anne

    2011-03-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with a number of metabolic abnormalities including glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and central obesity (the metabolic syndrome), which predispose to cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and some cancers. The incidence of many of these conditions increases after the menopause, a time when IR also increases. Medical intervention to help alleviate menopausal symptoms, frequently vasomotor in origin, usually involves hormone replacement therapy (HRT), but some women may only experience partial symptom relief. We have hypothesized that this may be due to concurrent IR. Our approach is therefore to manage menopausal symptoms in conjunction with the treatment of any concurrent IR, achieved through a combination of hormone replacement, dietary intervention and, if necessary, an insulin sensitizer. We suggest that this approach may not only improve symptom relief but may also reduce the risk of developing more serious health complaints in the future.

  5. Antibody-Based Agents in the Management of Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speziale, Pietro; Rindi, Simonetta

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen that can cause a wide spectrum of diseases, including sepsis, pneumonia, arthritis, and endocarditis. Ineffective treatment of a number of staphylococcal infections with antibiotics is due to the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant strains following decades of antibiotic usage. This has generated renewed interest within the scientific community in alternative therapeutic agents, such as anti-S. aureus antibodies. Although the role of antibodies in the management of S. aureus diseases is controversial, the success of this pathogen in neutralizing humoral immunity clearly indicates that antibodies offer the host extensive protection. In this review, we report an update on efforts to develop antibody-based agents, particularly monoclonal antibodies, and their therapeutic potential in the passive immunization approach to the treatment and prevention of S. aureus infections. PMID:29533985

  6. An empirical evaluation of competency requirements for first-line managers to deal with resistance to change.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The point of departure of this study is that first-line managers play a pivotal role in the facilitation of change initiatives in organisations world-wide. Resistance to change is one of the primary reasons why change interventions fail or why success is not achieved in the change process. More specific, the inability of first-line managers to deal with resistance to change has been cited as a primary cause for change projects to fail. There is no evidence that any research has been conducted...

  7. {sup 2}H NMR and {sup 13}C-IRMS analyses of acetic acid from vinegar, {sup 18}O-IRMS analysis of water in vinegar: International collaborative study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Freddy [Eurofins Scientific Analytics, BP42301, 44323 Nantes (France); Jamin, Eric, E-mail: ericjamin@eurofins.com [Eurofins Scientific Analytics, BP42301, 44323 Nantes (France)

    2009-09-01

    An international collaborative study of isotopic methods applied to control the authenticity of vinegar was organized in order to support the recognition of these procedures as official methods. The determination of the {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H ratio of the methyl site of acetic acid by SNIF-NMR (site-specific natural isotopic fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance) and the determination of the {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio, by IRMS (isotope ratio mass spectrometry) provide complementary information to characterize the botanical origin of acetic acid and to detect adulterations of vinegar using synthetic acetic acid. Both methods use the same initial steps to recover pure acetic acid from vinegar. In the case of wine vinegar, the determination of the {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratio of water by IRMS allows to differentiate wine vinegar from vinegars made from dried grapes. The same set of vinegar samples was used to validate these three determinations. The precision parameters of the method for measuring {delta}{sup 13}C (carbon isotopic deviation) were found to be similar to the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or sugars extracted from fruit juices: the average repeatability (r) was 0.45 per mille , and the average reproducibility (R) was 0.91 per mille . As expected from previous in-house study of the uncertainties, the precision parameters of the method for measuring the {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H ratio of the methyl site were found to be slightly higher than the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or fermentation ethanol in fruit juices: the average repeatability was 1.34 ppm, and the average reproducibility was 1.62 ppm. This precision is still significantly smaller than the differences between various acetic acid sources ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O) and allows a satisfactory discrimination of vinegar types. The precision parameters of the method for measuring {delta}{sup 18}O were found to be similar

  8. Managing anthelmintic resistance-Variability in the dose of drug reaching the target worms influences selection for resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, Dave M; Luo, Dongwen

    2017-08-30

    The concentration profile of anthelmintic reaching the target worms in the host can vary between animals even when administered doses are tailored to individual liveweight at the manufacturer's recommended rate. Factors contributing to variation in drug concentration include weather, breed of animal, formulation and the route by which drugs are administered. The implications of this variability for the development of anthelmintic resistance was investigated using Monte-Carlo simulation. A model framework was established where 100 animals each received a single drug treatment. The 'dose' of drug allocated to each animal (i.e. the concentration-time profile of drug reaching the target worms) was sampled at random from a distribution of doses with mean m and standard deviation s. For each animal the dose of drug was used in conjunction with pre-determined dose-response relationships, representing single and poly-genetic inheritance, to calculate efficacy against susceptible and resistant genotypes. These data were then used to calculate the overall change in resistance gene frequency for the worm population as a result of the treatment. Values for m and s were varied to reflect differences in both mean dose and the variability in dose, and for each combination of these 100,000 simulations were run. The resistance gene frequency in the population after treatment increased as m decreased and as s increased. This occurred for both single and poly-gene models and for different levels of dominance (survival under treatment) of the heterozygote genotype(s). The results indicate that factors which result in lower and/or more variable concentrations of active reaching the target worms are more likely to select for resistance. The potential of different routes of anthelmintic administration to play a role in the development of anthelmintic resistance is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Management and control of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB): Addressing policy needs for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atre, Sachin R; Murray, Megan B

    2016-05-06

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) challenges TB control efforts because of delays in diagnosis plus its long-term treatment which has toxic effects. Of TB high-incidence countries, India carries the highest burden of MDR-TB cases. We describe policy issues in India concerning MDR-TB diagnosis and management in a careful review of the literature including a systematic review of studies on the prevalence of MDR-TB. Of 995 articles published during 2001-2016 and retrieved from the PubMed, only 20 provided data on the population prevalence of MDR-TB. We further reviewed and describe diagnostic criteria and treatment algorithms in use and endorsed by the Revised National TB Control Program of India. We discuss problems encountered in treating MDR-TB patients with standardized regimens. Finally, we provide realistic suggestions for policymakers and program planners to improve the management and control of MDR-TB in India.Journal of Public Health Policy advance online publication, 6 May 2016; doi:10.1057/jphp.2016.14.

  10. ReTrust: attack-resistant and lightweight trust management for medical sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Daojing; Chen, Chun; Chan, Sammy; Bu, Jiajun; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2012-07-01

    Wireless medical sensor networks (MSNs) enable ubiquitous health monitoring of users during their everyday lives, at health sites, without restricting their freedom. Establishing trust among distributed network entities has been recognized as a powerful tool to improve the security and performance of distributed networks such as mobile ad hoc networks and sensor networks. However, most existing trust systems are not well suited for MSNs due to the unique operational and security requirements of MSNs. Moreover, similar to most security schemes, trust management methods themselves can be vulnerable to attacks. Unfortunately, this issue is often ignored in existing trust systems. In this paper, we identify the security and performance challenges facing a sensor network for wireless medical monitoring and suggest it should follow a two-tier architecture. Based on such an architecture, we develop an attack-resistant and lightweight trust management scheme named ReTrust. This paper also reports the experimental results of the Collection Tree Protocol using our proposed system in a network of TelosB motes, which show that ReTrust not only can efficiently detect malicious/faulty behaviors, but can also significantly improve the network performance in practice.

  11. Pneumonia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: clinical features, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconelli, Evelina; De Angelis, Giulia

    2009-05-01

    The review highlights the clinical findings and the management of community-acquired, health-care associated and nosocomial pneumonia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Although previously considered as a purely nosocomial event, community-acquired MRSA pneumonia is underestimated and is spreading worldwide. A retrospective study showed that almost half of patients with nonnosocomial MRSA pneumonia admitted to a large teaching hospital did not present established criteria for healthcare-associated infections. Recent data show that MRSA ventilator-associated pneumonia is associated with significantly higher mortality than ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, prompt and appropriate therapy is essential. The optimal therapy for MRSA pneumonia has not been fully elucidated. Although vancomycin has been considered the gold standard for the treatment of MRSA infections, clinical failures have also been reported in the presence of in-vitro susceptibility. Linezolid may provide improved outcomes compared with vancomycin in patients with MRSA pneumonia, but validation in a prospective trial is currently lacking. Recently licensed tigecycline and dalbavancin, a drug in phase III trial, look promising. Animal models showed that immunization against a cytolytic toxin secreted by most Staphylococcus aureus strains protects against lethal pneumonia. Rapid recognition of possible staphylococcal infection in patients with severe pneumonia is essential. The treatment of MRSA pneumonia must be prompt and effective in order to allow a fast microbiological clearance and to successfully manage the infection.

  12. Information resource management concepts for records managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seesing, P.R.

    1992-10-01

    Information Resource Management (ERM) is the label given to the various approaches used to foster greater accountability for the use of computing resources. It is a corporate philosophy that treats information as it would its other resources. There is a reorientation from simply expenditures to considering the value of the data stored on that hardware. Accountability for computing resources is expanding beyond just the data processing (DP) or management information systems (MIS) manager to include senior organization management and user management. Management`s goal for office automation is being refocused from saving money to improving productivity. A model developed by Richard Nolan (1982) illustrates the basic evolution of computer use in organizations. Computer Era: (1) Initiation (computer acquisition), (2) Contagion (intense system development), (3) Control (proliferation of management controls). Data Resource Era: (4) Integration (user service orientation), (5) Data Administration (corporate value of information), (6) Maturity (strategic approach to information technology). The first three stages mark the growth of traditional data processing and management information systems departments. The development of the IRM philosophy in an organization involves the restructuring of the DP organization and new management techniques. The three stages of the Data Resource Era represent the evolution of IRM. This paper examines each of them in greater detail.

  13. Frankliniella fusca resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides: an emerging challenge for cotton pest management in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseth, Anders S; Chappell, Thomas M; Langdon, Kevin; Morsello, Shannon C; Martin, Scott; Greene, Jeremy K; Herbert, Ames; Jacobson, Alana L; Reay-Jones, Francis Pf; Reed, Timothy; Reisig, Dominic D; Roberts, Phillip M; Smith, Ron; Kennedy, George G

    2016-10-01

    Over the past two decades, neonicotinoid seed treatments have become the primary method to manage tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca Hinds, on seedling cotton. Because this insect is highly polyphagous and the window of insecticide exposure is short, neonicotinoid resistance was expected to pose a minimal risk. However, reports of higher than expected F. fusca seedling damage in seed-treated cotton fields throughout the Mid-South and Southeast US production regions suggested neonicotinoid resistance had developed. To document this change, F. fusca populations from 86 different locations in the eastern United States were assayed in 2014 and 2015 for imidacloprid and thiamethoxam resistance to determine the extent of the issue in the region. Approximately 57 and 65% of the F. fusca populations surveyed had reduced imidacloprid and thiamethoxam sensitivity respectively. Survivorship in diagnostic bioassays was significantly different at both the state and regional scales. Multiple-dose bioassays conducted on 37 of the populations documented up to 55- and 39-fold resistance ratios for imidacloprid and thiamethoxam respectively. Estimates of neonicotinoid resistance indicate an emerging issue for management of F. fusca in the eastern United States. Significant variation in survivorship within states and regions indicated that finer-scale surveys were needed to determine factors (genetic, insecticide use) driving resistance evolution. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Compound Specific Hydrogen Isotope Composition of Type II and III Kerogen Extracted by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Pernia, Denet; Evans, Michael; Fu, Qi; Bissada, Kadry K.; Curiale, Joseph A.; Niles, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    The use of Hydrogen (H) isotopes in understanding oil and gas resource plays is in its infancy. Described here is a technique for H isotope analysis of organic compounds pyrolyzed from oil and gas shale-derived kerogen. Application of this technique will progress our understanding. This work complements that of Pernia et al. (2013, this meeting) by providing a novel method for the H isotope analysis of specific compounds in the characterization of kerogen extracted by analytically diverse techniques. Hydrogen isotope analyses were carried out entirely "on-line" utilizing a CDS 5000 Pyroprobe connected to a Thermo Trace GC Ultra interfaced with a Thermo MAT 253 IRMS. Also, a split of GC-separated products was sent to a DSQ II quadrupole MS to make semi-quantitative compositional measurements of the extracted compounds. Kerogen samples from five different basins (type II and III) were dehydrated (heated to 80 C overnight in vacuum) and analyzed for their H isotope compositions by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS. This technique takes pyrolysis products separated via GC and reacts them in a high temperature conversion furnace (1450 C) which quantitatively forms H2, following a modified method of Burgoyne and Hayes, (1998, Anal. Chem., 70, 5136-5141). Samples ranging from approximately 0.5 to 1.0mg in size, were pyrolyzed at 800 C for 30s. Compounds were separated on a Poraplot Q GC column. Hydrogen isotope data from all kerogen samples typically show enrichment in D from low to high molecular weight compounds. Water (H2O) average deltaD = -215.2 (V-SMOW), ranging from -271.8 for the Marcellus Shale to -51.9 for the Polish Shale. Higher molecular weight compounds like toluene (C7H8) have an average deltaD of -89.7 0/00, ranging from -156.0 for the Barnett Shale to -50.0 for the Monterey Shale. We interpret these data as representative of potential H isotope exchange between hydrocarbons and sediment pore water during formation within each basin. Since hydrocarbon H isotopes

  15. SUCCESSION PROCESS IN A FAMILY BUSINESS: KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT OVERCOMING RESISTANCE TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Sá Freire

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the perception of a family business’ employees over changes brought about by the company’s succession procsess through the identification of existing problems and the probabilities of overcoming them. The company was classified as a family business organization as per Bernhoeft´s (1991 definition, and the perspectives proposed by Motta (2001 were used as a basis for change analysis. The succession challenges were studied through the knowledge management viewpoint. The methodological approach is characterized as a qualitative descriptive study done through interviews and document analysis. Quantitative data was used, with the application of questionnaires in order to obtain primary data. Data analysis is mainly characterized by its qualitative and descriptive content. After data analysis, the following issues were detected: (1 lack of or inneficient internal communication, (2 the decision making process was either slow or not committed to the desired results and (3 there was either dual leadership or no leadership. It was concluded that in order to achieve the objectives of the changes, it would require a new look into the intraorganizational integration to eliminate features of the family business such as lack of dialogue and unilateral decisions. It is finally suggested the use of strategies for sharing information and knowledge that will pave the way for understanding the entire succession process, overcoming uncertainties and individual resistance. Thus, the inclusion of Knowledge Management in the family business succession process will result in more aware leaders, managers and employees in terms of change of power during the mentioned process.

  16. Review of a major epidemic of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: The costs of screening and consequences of outbreak management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Zee (Anneke); W. Hendriks; L.D. Roorda (Lieuwe); J.M. Ossewaarde (Jacobus); J. Buitenwerf (Johannes)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: A major outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) occurred in locations C and Z of our hospital and lasted for several years. It affected 1,230 patients and 153 personnel. Methods: Outbreak management was installed according to the Dutch "search and

  17. Kdr mutations in Triatoma infestans from the Gran Chaco are distributed in two differentiated foci: Implications for pyrethroid resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Ivana; Capriotti, Natalia; Fronza, Georgina; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Ons, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    Point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, the primary target of pyrethroid insecticides, have been associated with the resistance in Triatoma infestans, an important vector of Chagas' disease. Hence, the sustainability of vector control programs requires the implementation of resistance management strategies. We determined the sensitivity of the molecular assays previously designed for early resistance detection to be used in pooled samples from a wide area of the endemic region, and validated them for their routine use in control campaigns for the monitoring of insecticide resistance in T. infestans. Consequently, we used these methods to examine the distribution of resistance-associated mutations in the sodium channel gene in populations of T. infestans from the Argentinean and Bolivian Gran Chaco. The PASA and REA assays tested proved sensitive enough to detect kdr SNPs in pooled samples, indicating these assays are suitable for routine screening in insecticide resistance surveillance. Two geographically differentiated foci were detected in T. infestans populations from the Argentinean and Bolivian Gran Chaco, with populations on the Bolivian-Argentinean border carrying L1014F mutation, and those from the Argentinean Chaco carrying L925I mutation. In all highly resistant populations analyzed, one of both kdr mutations was present, and toxicological assays determined that all pyrethroid resistant populations analyzed herein were sensitive to fenitrothion. The principal cause of pyrethroid resistance in T. infestans from the Gran Chaco ecoregion is kdr mutations in the sodium channel. Different levels of resistance occur in different populations carrying identical mutation, suggesting the existence of contributory mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Insecticide Resistance Mechanisms in the Green Peach Aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) II: Costs and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andrea X.; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D.; Luna-Rudloff, Manuela; Figueroa, Christian C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Among herbivorous insects that have exploited agro-ecosystems, the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae, is recognized as one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Uses over 400 plant species and has evolved different insecticides resistance mechanisms. As M. persicae feeds upon a huge diversity of hosts, it has been exposed to a wide variety of plant allelochemicals, which probably have promoted a wide range of detoxification systems. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work we (i) evaluated whether insecticide resistance mutations (IRM) in M. persicae can give an advantage in terms of reproductive fitness when aphids face two hosts, pepper (Capsicum annuum) a suitable host and radish (Raphanus sativus) the unfavorable host and (ii) examined the transcriptional expression of six genes that are known to be up-regulated in response to insecticides. Our results show a significant interaction between host and IRM on the intrinsic rate of increase (rm). Susceptible genotypes (not carrying insensitivity mutations) had a higher rm on pepper, and the transcriptional levels of five genes increased on radish. The rm relationship was reversed on the unfavorable host; genotypes with multiple IRM exhibited higher rm, without altering the transcriptional levels of the studied genes. Genotypes with one IRM kept a similar rm on both hosts, but they increased the transcriptional levels of two genes. Conclusions/Significance Although we have studied only nine genotypes, overall our results are in agreement with the general idea that allelochemical detoxification systems could constitute a pre-adaptation for the development of insecticide resistance. Genotypes carrying IRM exhibited a higher rm than susceptible genotypes on radish, the more unfavorable host. Susceptible genotypes should be able to tolerate the defended host by up-regulating some metabolic genes that are also responding to insecticides. Hence, our results suggest that the trade-off among

  19. Function and effectiveness of natural refuge in IRM strategies for Bt crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunhe; Gao, Yulin; Wu, Kongming

    2017-06-01

    Several strategies involving refuge have been proposed for delaying insect resistance to Bt crops. The report was focused on the unstructured 'natural' refuges that contain plants naturally presented as part of the cropping system in the form of non-Bt plants that differ from Bt plant species, or wild host plants of the target pests. The cases of natural refuges applied in different countries were analyzed, and the factors that favor their success are discussed. The results indicate that the effectiveness of a natural refuge strategy depends on the biological characteristics of the target pest, the spatial and temporal distribution and abundance of the host plants in the agricultural system and the quality of the host plants for the pest species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A congregação das Irmãs Doroteias em tempo de mudança: tradição e modernidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Campos Matos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Para compreender o lugar do instituto das Irmãs Doroteias depois da instauração da I República (1910, importa examinar historicamente dois tópicos centrais: 1. as relações Estado com a Igreja e as ordens religiosas no século XIX e princípios do séc.XX e, 2. a problemática da educação no sistema liberal, na monarquia e na República. Num tempo de modernidade, secularização e laicização, entendidas como processo de autonomização entre a o campo político e o campo religioso, pretende-se situar o projecto educativo das Irmãs Doroteias num contexto amplo.

  1. Information resource management concepts for records managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seesing, P.R.

    1992-10-01

    Information Resource Management (ERM) is the label given to the various approaches used to foster greater accountability for the use of computing resources. It is a corporate philosophy that treats information as it would its other resources. There is a reorientation from simply expenditures to considering the value of the data stored on that hardware. Accountability for computing resources is expanding beyond just the data processing (DP) or management information systems (MIS) manager to include senior organization management and user management. Management's goal for office automation is being refocused from saving money to improving productivity. A model developed by Richard Nolan (1982) illustrates the basic evolution of computer use in organizations. Computer Era: (1) Initiation (computer acquisition), (2) Contagion (intense system development), (3) Control (proliferation of management controls). Data Resource Era: (4) Integration (user service orientation), (5) Data Administration (corporate value of information), (6) Maturity (strategic approach to information technology). The first three stages mark the growth of traditional data processing and management information systems departments. The development of the IRM philosophy in an organization involves the restructuring of the DP organization and new management techniques. The three stages of the Data Resource Era represent the evolution of IRM. This paper examines each of them in greater detail.

  2. Captures of MFO-resistant Cydia pomonella adults as affected by lure, crop management system and flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, D; Rodríguez, M A; Avilla, J

    2016-02-01

    The main resistance mechanism of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in the tree fruit area of Lleida (NE Spain) is multifunction oxidases (MFO). We studied the frequency of MFO-resistant adults captured by different lures, with and without pear ester, and flights in orchards under different crop management systems. The factor year affected codling moth MFO-resistance level, particularly in the untreated orchards, highlighting the great influence of codling moth migration on the spread of resistance in field populations. Chemical treatments and adult flight were also very important but mating disruption technique showed no influence. The second adult flight showed the highest frequency, followed by the first flight and the third flight. In untreated orchards, there were no significant differences in the frequency of MFO-resistant individuals attracted by Combo and BioLure. Red septa lures baited with pear ester (DA) captured sufficient insects only in the first generation of 2010, obtaining a significantly lower proportion of MFO-resistant adults than Combo and BioLure. In the chemically treated orchards, in 2009 BioLure caught a significantly lower proportion of MFO-resistant adults than Combo during the first and third flight, and also than DA during the first flight. No significant differences were found between the lures or flights in 2010. These results cannot support the idea of a higher attractiveness of the pear ester for MFO-resistant adults in the field but do suggest a high influence of the response to the attractant depending on the management of the orchard, particularly with regard to the use of chemical insecticides.

  3. Manejo de Conyza bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate Management of Glyphosate-resistant Conyza bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Paula

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available C. bonariensis (Conyza bonariensis é uma planta daninha da família Asteraceae, amplamente distribuída no Brasil, com presença marcante nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e do Paraná. Biótipos de C. bonariensis resistentes ao glyphosate foram identificados nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná e São Paulo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de inverno e na pré-semeadura da soja sobre a população de plantas de C. bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate. Os resultados evidenciaram que a população de C. bonariensis é maior em áreas mantidas sem cultivo (pousio do que naquelas áreas cultivadas com trigo ou aveia-preta durante o inverno. Observou-se que o trigo e a aveia-preta exercem efeito supressor sobre a população de C. bonariensis, proporcionando maior facilidade de controle com herbicida na pré-semeadura da cultura usada em sucessão. O controle de C. bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate foi satisfatório quando se utilizaram herbicidas pós-emergentes na cultura do trigo e glyphosate + 2,4-D ou glyphosate + diuron + paraquat na pré-semeadura da soja.Horseweed (Conyza bonariensis, which belongs to the Asteraceae family, is a weed species widely spread in Brazil. Horseweed biotypes resistant to glyphosate, the main herbicide used in Roundup Ready soybean fields, were identified in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Parana. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different winter and pre-sowing management techniques on soybean plant population of C. bonariensis resistant to glyphosate. The results showed that the population of C. bonariensis is larger in areas maintained fallow than in areas planted with wheat or oats during the winter. Wheat and oats were found to exert a suppressive effect on the population of C. bonariensis, providing greater ease of control with herbicide before seeding in the culture used in succession. The control of glyphosate-resistant C

  4. Congener-specific carbon isotope analysis of technical PCN and PCB preparations using 2DGC-IRMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horii, Y.; Yamashita, N. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). Tsukuba (Japan); Petrick, G. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Marineforschung; Katase, T. [Nihon Univ., Fujisawa (Japan). College of Bioresource Sciences; Gamo, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Ocean Research Institute

    2004-09-15

    Carbon isotope analysis is one of the most traditional approaches used in biogeochemical research for the last few decades. The isotopic composition of 13C/12C in bulk carbon has been measured in many kinds of environmental matrixes and supposed to be a useful indicator to understand biogeochemical circulation of carbon in ecosystems. With the recent advancements in instrumental analysis, compound-specific carbon isotope analysis (CSIA) is emerging as a hot issue in the research area of source determination of natural products. However, only limited investigations have been reported to date, regarding the CSIA of manmade chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Although a traditional approaches such as fingerprinting, to determine sources of specific anthropogenic chemicals in environment has been in use for decades, those techniques are relatively more qualitative than quantitative; therefore, development of novel and reliable method is required to enable comprehensive understanding of sources and environmental destiny of man-made chemicals, especially those that are hazardous ones. In this study, we developed a new approach of CSIA using two-dimensional gas chromatograph (2DGC) with combustion chamber (C)/ isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) and applied for ''congener-specific'' carbon isotopic analysis of PCBs and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). We clarified the need to solve the co-elution of individual chlorobiphenyl and chloronaphthalene congeners and to decrease the blank for ''congener-specific'' CSIA.

  5. MODY, a história de dois irmãos...porque o raro também acontece!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Filipa Miranda Mota

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY é um tipo de diabetes mellitus não insulino-dependente, sem insulinorresistência ou disfunção autoimune das células β pancreáticas. Apresenta história familiar e início antes dos 25 anos. Prevalência estimada de 1-4% dos doentes diabéticos pediátricos. Apresenta-se o caso clínico de um rapaz, previamente saudável, cuja clínica de hiperglicemia em jejum fez diagnóstico inicial de diabetes mellitus tipo 1. Após conhecimento do diagnóstico de MODY na irmã da linhagem materna, não convivente, procedeu-se ao estudo genético, tendo-se identificado uma mutação em heterozigotia no gene GCK. A elevada suspeição clínica, habitualmente suportada pela história familiar sugestiva, é o primeiro passo para o correto diagnóstico. No entanto, a necessidade de exames complementares dispendiosos e morosos e a sua prevalência dificultam o seu diagnóstico, impossibilitando desde o início a otimização da terapêutica e do prognóstico, bem como o aconselhamento genético.

  6. Integrated Palmer Amaranth Management in Glufosinate-Resistant Cotton: II. Primary, Secondary and Conservation Tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Patterson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A three year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of soil inversion, cover crops and spring tillage methods for Palmer amaranth between-row (BR and within-row (WR management in glufosinate-resistant cotton. Main plots were two soil inversion treatments: fall inversion tillage (IT and non-inversion tillage (NIT. Subplots were three cover treatments: crimson clover, cereal rye or none (i.e., winter fallow; and the sub subplots were four secondary spring tillage methods: disking followed by (fb cultivator (DCU, disking fb chisel plow (DCH, disking fb disking (DD and no tillage (NT. Averaged over years and soil inversion, the crimson clover produced maximum cover biomass (4390 kg ha−1 fb cereal rye (3698 kg ha−1 and winter fallow (777 kg ha−1. Two weeks after planting (WAP and before the postemergence (POST application, Palmer amaranth WR and BR density were two- and four-times less, respectively, in IT than NIT. Further, Palmer amaranth WR and BR density were reduced two-fold following crimson clover and cereal rye than following winter fallow at 2 WAP. Without IT, early season Palmer amaranth densities were 40% less following DCU, DCH and DD, when compared with IT. Following IT, no spring tillage method improved Palmer amaranth control. The timely application of glufosinate + S-metolachlor POST tank mixture greatly improved Palmer amaranth control in both IT and NIT systems. The highest cotton yields were obtained with DD following cereal rye (2251 kg ha−1, DD following crimson clover (2213 kg ha−1 and DD following winter fallow (2153 kg ha−1. On average, IT cotton yields (2133 kg ha−1 were 21% higher than NIT (1766 kg ha−1. Therefore, from an integrated weed management standpoint, an occasional fall IT could greatly reduce Palmer amaranth emergence on farms highly infested with glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. In addition, a cereal rye or crimson clover cover crop can effectively reduce early season Palmer

  7. In vitro study to compare the coronal microleakage of Tempit UltraF, Tempit, IRM, and Cavit by using the fluid transport model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koagel, Susan O; Mines, Pete; Apicella, Michael; Sweet, Mark

    2008-04-01

    An adequate coronal seal is critical for the success of root canal therapy. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the coronal microleakage of 4 temporary filling materials used to seal the access cavity in root canal treated teeth. Standardized access cavities were prepared in 55 extracted human, single canal teeth. They were instrumented by using a crown-down method to a size 45 file. The smear layer was removed with a 1-minute soak with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid followed by a 10-minute soak with 5.25% NaOCl and dried with paper points. All roots were obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer by using the continuous wave of condensation technique. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups of 10 teeth, with the remaining teeth serving as positive and negative controls. The access openings of the teeth in the experimental groups were filled with 4 mm of Cavit, IRM, Tempit, or Tempit-Ultra-F. All teeth were stored in 100% humidity at 37 degrees for 10 days, allowing sealer to set before testing. After thermocycling for 500 cycles (5 degrees C-55 degrees C), microleakage was measured by using the fluid transport model at 10 psi. All materials tested leaked. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U analysis indicated significantly less leakage (P Cavit and IRM. There were no statistically significant differences between Tempit Ultra-F and Tempit or between Cavit, IRM, and Tempit.

  8. The Repair of Furcal Perforations in Different Diameters with Biodentine, MTA, and IRM Repair Materials: A Laboratory Study Using an E. Faecalis Leakage Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Övsay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the microleakage of repair materials MTA, IRM, and Biodentine applied on furcal perforations with different diameters. One hundred and forty extracted human teeth were used in this study. The teeth were divided into 2 main groups (60 teeth in each which were then divided into 3 subgroups (n=20. The remaining 20 teeth were divided into 2 groups (10 in each to serve as controls. The furcal areas of the teeth were perforated with #2 cylindrical burs in Group 1 whereas perforations were made using #4 cylindrical burs in Group 2. Each subgroup of both Groups 1 and 2 received ProRoot MTA (ProRoot, USA, Biodentine (Septodont, or IRM (Dentsply, USA to repair the perforations. An experimental set-up was established to contaminate repaired perforations with E. Faecalis (ATCC29212. The turbidity of bacteria was observed on the 7th, 15th, 30th, and 45th days. The data was analysed by chi-square test (p>0.05. The number of bacteria in the group perforated by bur #2 and closed by MTA was found to be lower than the other groups on the 7th day (p0.05. ProRoot MTA was found to be more successful in the prevention of bacterial leakage compared to IRM and Biodentine in smaller perforations during the 1st week.

  9. Development of Partial Ontogenic Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Hop Cones and Its Management Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Megan C.; Wolfenbarger, Sierra N.; Woods, Joanna L.; Gent, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of processes leading to crop damage is central to devising rational approaches to disease management. Multiple experiments established that infection of hop cones by Podosphaera macularis was most severe if inoculation occurred within 15 to 21 days after bloom. This period of infection was associated with the most pronounced reductions in alpha acids, cone color, and accelerated maturation of cones. Susceptibility of cones to powdery mildew decreased progressively after the transition from bloom to cone development, although complete immunity to the disease failed to develop. Maturation of cone tissues was associated with multiple significant affects on the pathogen manifested as reduced germination of conidia, diminished frequency of penetration of bracts, lengthening of the latent period, and decreased sporulation. Cones challenged with P. macularis in juvenile developmental stages also led to greater frequency of colonization by a complex of saprophytic, secondary fungi. Since no developmental stage of cones was immune to powdery mildew, the incidence of powdery mildew continued to increase over time and exceeded 86% by late summer. In field experiments with a moderately susceptible cultivar, the incidence of cones with powdery mildew was statistically similar when fungicide applications were made season-long or targeted only to the juvenile stages of cone development. These studies establish that partial ontogenic resistance develops in hop cones and may influence multiple phases of the infection process and pathogen reproduction. The results further reinforce the concept that the efficacy of a fungicide program may depend largely on timing of a small number of sprays during a relatively brief period of cone development. However in practice, targeting fungicide and other management tactics to periods of enhanced juvenile susceptibility may be complicated by a high degree of asynchrony in cone development and other factors that are situation

  10. Considerations of the Principles of Resistance Training in Exercise Studies for the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshull, Claire; Gleeson, Nigel

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the methodologic quality of resistance training interventions for the management of knee osteoarthritis. A search of the literature for studies published up to August 10, 2015, was performed on MEDLINE (OVID platform), PubMed, Embase, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database databases. Search terms associated with osteoarthritis, knee, and muscle resistance exercise were used. Studies were included in the review if they were published in the English language and met the following criteria: (1) muscle resistance training was the primary intervention; (2) randomized controlled trial design; (3) treatment arms included at least a muscle conditioning intervention and a nonexercise group; and (4) participants had osteoarthritis of the knee. Studies using preoperative (joint replacement) interventions with only postoperative outcomes were excluded. The search yielded 1574 results. The inclusion criteria were met by 34 studies. Two reviewers independently screened the articles for eligibility. Critical appraisal of the methodology was assessed according to the principles of resistance training and separately for the reporting of adherence using a specially designed scoring system. A rating for each article was assigned. There were 34 studies that described a strength training focus of the intervention; however, the principles of resistance training were inconsistently applied and inadequately reported across all. Methods for adherence monitoring were incorporated into the design of 28 of the studies, but only 13 reported sufficient detail to estimate average dose of exercise. These findings affect the interpretation of the efficacy of muscle resistance exercise in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Clinicians and health care professionals cannot be confident whether nonsignificant findings are because of the lack of efficacy of muscle resistance interventions, or occur through limitations in treatment prescription and patient adherence. Future research that

  11. Rôle de l’IRM prostatique dans le cancer de la prostate en 2016: mise au point et perspectives d’avenir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barrier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Le diagnostic du cancer de la prostate est le plus souvent porté à l’occasion d’un dosage élevé de PSA, fait dans le cadre du dépistage individuel, et repose sur la réalisation de «biopsies systématisées» par voie transrectale avec guidage échographique. Cette stratégie classique entraîne un risque de sur-diagnostic de cancers cliniquement non significatifs [microfoyers], ainsi qu’une non-détection de certains cancers cliniquement significatifs situés en dehors des zones prélevées. La réalisation d’une IRM prostatique avant les biopsies a tout changé. Elle augmente la détection des cancers de volume significatif grâce aux «biopsies ciblées» sur les anomalies vues à l’IRM. Elle améliore l’estimation de leur grade, de leur taille et permet de préciser leur localisation et contour. Elle permettrait aussi de diminuer la détection des cancers non significatifs, si les biopsies systématisées n’étaient plus faites en cas d’IRM sans cible suspecte. Les applications thérapeutiques de l’IRM sont déterminantes pour l’essor des options récentes de prise en charge comme la sélection des patients pour la surveillance active ainsi que pour l’indication de traitement focal. Les modalités de réalisation et d’interprétation de l’IRM ont été publiées en 2016 sous forme d’une mise à jour du score PI-RADS [Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2]. Cette standardisation aide les radiologues à proposer aux cliniciens urologues et radiothérapeutes les éléments nécessaires pour le diagnostic et le traitement des cancers de la prostate.

  12. Human Management of a Wild Plant Modulates the Evolutionary Dynamics of a Gene Determining Recessive Resistance to Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Poulicard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the genetic variation and evolutionary patterns of recessive resistance loci involved in matching-allele (MA host-pathogen interactions, focusing on the pvr2 resistance gene to potyviruses of the wild pepper Capsicum annuum glabriusculum (chiltepin. Chiltepin grows in a variety of wild habitats in Mexico, and its cultivation in home gardens started about 25 years ago. Potyvirus infection of Capsicum plants requires the physical interaction of the viral VPg with the pvr2 product, the translation initiation factor eIF4E1. Mutations impairing this interaction result in resistance, according to the MA model. The diversity of pvr2/eIF4E1 in wild and cultivated chiltepin populations from six biogeographical provinces in Mexico was analysed in 109 full-length coding sequences from 97 plants. Eleven alleles were found, and their interaction with potyvirus VPg in yeast-two-hybrid assays, plus infection assays of plants, identified six resistance alleles. Mapping resistance mutations on a pvr2/eIF4E1 model structure showed that most were around the cap-binding pocket and strongly altered its surface electrostatic potential, suggesting resistance-associated costs due to functional constraints. The pvr2/eIF4E1 phylogeny established that susceptibility was ancestral and resistance was derived. The spatial structure of pvr2/eIF4E1 diversity differed from that of neutral markers, but no evidence of selection for resistance was found in wild populations. In contrast, the resistance alleles were much more frequent, and positive selection stronger, in cultivated chiltepin populations, where diversification of pvr2/eIF4E1 was higher. This analysis of the genetic variation of a recessive resistance gene involved in MA host-pathogen interactions in populations of a wild plant show that evolutionary patterns differ according to the plant habitat, wild or cultivated. It also demonstrates that human management of the plant population has profound

  13. FY 1997 Hanford telecommunication and informations system user profile, milestone IRM-097-003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, T.T.

    1997-09-22

    This document reports survey data collected from the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) companies, and the PHMC enterprise companies for purposes of characterizing the Hanford Local Area Network (HLAN) user profile. Telephone, radio, and pager data are also provided. The data reveal that job tasks of the 8,500 Hanford Site workers who use the HLAN are highly, if not completely, computer dependent. Employees use their computers as their pens and paper, calculators, drafting tables and communication devices. Fifty eight percent of the survey respondents predict 90 to 100% loss in productivity if they had no access to a computer. Additionally, 30% of the users felt they would have a 50 to 80% loss in productivity without computers; and more than 68 % use their computers between 4 and 8 hours per day. The profile also shows th at the software packages used most heavily are cc:Mail` the Windows version, Hanford Information, WordPerfece, Site Forms and Look-up. Use of Windows-based products is very high. Regarding the productivity tools that are seldom used, 49 % of the respondents say they ``never use`` the Hanford Help and Hints (HUH). The use of the external intemet by Hanford has shown a large increase. The survey indicates that users rate the intranet and the ability to access other sources of information as the fourth most important computer application. The Microsoft System Management Server (SMS 4) data show that more than 60% of the computers on the HLAN need replacement or upgrades to run the Windows 95 Operating System, which has been selected as the PHMC standard. Although data also show that 77% of the PHMC machines are running the current standard Windows for Workgroup version 3. 1 1, they do not have the memory and/or the hard disk space to upgrade to Windows 95. The survey results indicate that telephone system use is also high and regarded as a useful tool. Pager use is very high and

  14. O impacto da deficiência nos irmãos: histórias de vida Impact of disability in siblings: life stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcione Aparecida Messa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Quando uma criança nasce com deficiência, a expectativa da família necessita ser revista, pois se trata de uma situação inesperada, exigindo o ajuste às mudanças de planos. Devido ao significado do relacionamento fraterno, mudanças na saúde e no funcionamento de um irmão irão afetar os outros. As relações com um irmão deficiente dependerão das características da deficiência, além do significado compartilhado na família. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi analisar as repercussões da deficiência para os irmãos, investigando os sentimentos e reações que permeiam as vivências desses indivíduos. Realizouse um grupo de discussão. Os resultados apontaram que cada indivíduo dá significado a vivência com um irmão deficiente segundo seus recursos e história de vida. Os irmãos apresentaram sentimentos negativos como raiva, vergonha e culpa e também ganhos como maturidade, independência e altruísmo. Pode-se concluir que o impacto da deficiência nos irmãos compreende vivências negativas e positivas e que, portanto, deve ser considerado segundo uma rede de influências e peculiaridades intrínsecas das relações familiares. Evidencia-se a necessidade de que esses irmãos sejam assistidos de forma adequada, visando à ampliação dos recursos disponíveis.When a disabled child is born all the family's expectations need to be reviewed because it is an unexpected situation and needs the family system to be adjusted to the new situation. Due to the meaning that sibling relations acquire during lifetime, changes in health and functioning of a sibling will affect the others. Relations with a disabled sibling will depend on features of disability as well as its meaning shared by the family. The aim of this research was to analyze the manifestation of disability for siblings of disabled people, investigating feelings and reactions that pervade their experiences. A discussion group of siblings was created. Results indicated that each

  15. Health system factors influencing management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in four European Union countries - learning from country experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Gerard; Tsolova, Svetla; Anderson, Laura F; Gebhard, Agnes C; Heldal, Einar; Hollo, Vahur; Cejudo, Laura Sánchez-Cambronero; Schmid, Daniela; Schreuder, Bert; Varleva, Tonka; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2017-04-19

    In the European Union and European Economic Area only 38% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients notified in 2011 completed treatment successfully at 24 months' evaluation. Socio-economic factors and patient factors such as demographic characteristics, behaviour and attitudes are associated with treatment outcomes. Characteristics of healthcare systems also affect health outcomes. This study was conducted to identify and better understand the contribution of health system components to successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. We selected four European Union countries to provide for a broad range of geographical locations and levels of treatment success rates of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cohort in 2009. We conducted semi-structured interviews following a conceptual framework with representatives from policy and planning authorities, healthcare providers and civil society organisations. Responses were organised according to the six building blocks of the World Health Organization health systems framework. In the four included countries, Austria, Bulgaria, Spain, and the United Kingdom, the following healthcare system factors were perceived as key to achieving good treatment results for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: timely diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis; financial systems that ensure access to a full course of treatment and support for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients; patient-centred approaches with strong intersectoral collaboration that address patients' emotional and social needs; motivated and dedicated healthcare workers with sufficient mandate and means to support patients; and cross-border management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to secure continuum of care between countries. We suggest that the following actions may improve the success of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients: deployment of rapid molecular diagnostic tests; development of context-specific treatment

  16. Analytical Method for Carbon and Oxygen Isotope of Small Carbonate Samples with the GasBench Ⅱ-IRMS Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Cui-cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method for measuring carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of trace amount carbonate (>15 μg was established by Delta V Advantage isotope Ratio MS coupled with GasBench Ⅱ. Different trace amount (5-50 μg carbonate standard samples (IAEA-CO-1 were measured by GasBench Ⅱ with 12 mL and 3.7 mL vials. When the weight of samples was less than 40 μg and it was acidified in 12 mL vials, most standard deviations of the δ13C and δ18O were more than 0.1‰, which couldn’t satisfied high-precision measurements. When the weight of samples was greater than 15 μg and it was acidified in 3.7 mL vials, standard deviations for the δ13C and δ18O were 0.01‰-0.07‰ and 0.01‰-0.08‰ respectively, which satisfied high-precision measurements. Therefore, small 3.7 mL vials were used to increase the concentration of carbon dioxide in headspace, carbonate samples even less as 15 μg can be analyzed routinely by a GasBench Ⅱ continuous-flow IRMS. Meanwhile, the linear relationship between sample’s weight and peak’s area was strong (R2>0.993 2 and it can be used to determine the carbon content of carbonate samples.

  17. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: report of two Brazilian brothers Xantomatose cerebrotendínea: relato de dois irmãos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Christiano Lange

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable rare autossomal recessive disease characterized by lipid storage secondary to a sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in the formation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. We describe two Brazilian brothers with cognitive impairement and chronic diarrhea. One of them also presents bilateral cataracts. Neurological findings were progressive walking deficit, limb ataxia and pyramidal signs. Both patients had bilateral Achilles tendon xanthomata. Magnetic resonance image showed signal alterations in cerebellar hemispheres. We describe these cases with molecular genetic analysis confirming diagnosis and comparing with previous literature. The CYP27A1 gene study showed a C1187T mutation on exon 6.Xantomatose cerebrotendínea é doença autossômica recessiva tratável causada pelo acúmulo de lipídeos por deficiência da enzima 27-esterol hidroxilase na produção de ácido cólico e deoxicólico. Descrevemos dois irmãos brasileiros com dificuldade cognitiva e diarréia crônica. Um deles apresentava catarata bilateral. Os achados neurológicos foram dificuldade progressiva para deambular, ataxia de membros e sinais piramidais. Ambos tinham xantomas de tendão aquileu bilateralmente. O exame de ressonância magnética revelou áreas de sinal hiperintenso em ambos os hemisférios cerebelares. Descrevemos os casos com diagnóstico genético comparando-os com a literatura. O estudo do gene CYP27A1 demonstrou a mutação C1183T no exon 6.

  18. European and Russian physician awareness of best management approaches for infections due to antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Paurus; Salimi, Tehseen; Epstein, Robert; Leone-Perkins, Megan; Aubert, Ronald; Khalid, Mona; Epstein, Emma; Teagarden, J Russell

    2017-08-01

    The rapid spread of infections due to antibiotic-resistant, Gram-negative bacteria in Europe and surrounding regions requires a heightened level of awareness among physicians within their practice settings. We surveyed 800 physicians who treat these infections across France, Germany, Spain, Italy, and Russia to assess their awareness of best management approaches. We found that more than two-thirds do not consider themselves highly aware of best management practices. The respondents are facing these resistant infections as evidenced by the antibiotics they report using and their stated interest in newer agents. Respondents indicated that precious time is lost waiting for culture results, but also said they will need more information about accuracy, use, and costs for adopting rapid molecular testing. The survey further identified the need for treatment guidelines and clinical decision support tools that can be applied at the bedside.

  19. A methodology for resistance to change management in information systems projects

    OpenAIRE

    Vrhovec, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The rate of failed information systems development projects remains high despite increasing investments into information systems and their major importance for contemporary organizations. Resistance to change is one of the critical reasons for such high failure rates. Organizations faced resistance to change long before the emergence of first computers as it is a natural reaction to change. With the emergence of computers and introduction of information technology to organizations, resistance...

  20. Unprecedented Silver Resistance in Clinically Isolated Enterobacteriaceae: Major Implications for Burn and Wound Management

    OpenAIRE

    Finley, Phillip J.; Norton, Rhy; Austin, Cindy; Mitchell, Amber; Zank, Sara; Durham, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Increased utilization of inorganic silver as an adjunctive to many medical devices has raised concerns of emergent silver resistance in clinical bacteria. Although the molecular basis for silver resistance has been previously characterized, to date, significant phenotypic expression of these genes in clinical settings is yet to be observed. Here, we identified the first strains of clinical bacteria expressing silver resistance at a level that could significantly impact wound care and the use ...

  1. RESISTANCE TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE: ANALYSIS OF THE PROCESS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN SENAI-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Soares Paiva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available More and more, organizations are challenged to anticipate an uncertain future in order to survive in the market, so it is natural that the processes of organizational change part of their routine and it will be perceived resistance from those who takes part the organization. So, this article aims to analyze, though the view internal public, in which perspectives are the main resistances to the organization change in a non-profit organization, upon the implementation of Integrated Management Systems. The present work was realized in Serviço Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial – Departamento Regional da Bahia (SENAI/BA, over the period of 2006 upon 2009. For this, was realized a bibliography search of organization change and resistance for it. The research was essentially qualitative, with methodologists procedures that had included documentary analysis, the application of the technique of focus groups, interviews and participated observation. From the obtained results, concludes that the main resistance for the organization change, when the implementation of Integrated Management Systems, are concentrated in the politic, human and cultural perspectives.

  2. Using resilience and resistance concepts to manage persistent threats to sagebrush ecosystems and greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Pyke, David A.; Boyd, Chad S.; Pellant, Mike; Wuenschel, Amarina

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of imperiled species often demands addressing a complex suite of threats that undermine species viability. Regulatory approaches, such as the US Endangered Species Act (1973), tend to focus on anthropogenic threats through adoption of policies and regulatory mechanisms. However, persistent ecosystem-based threats, such as invasive species and altered disturbance regimes, remain critical issues for most at-risk species considered to be conservation-reliant. We describe an approach for addressing persistent ecosystem threats to at-risk species based on ecological resilience and resistance concepts that is currently being used to conserve greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)and sagebrush ecosystems. The approach links biophysical indicators of ecosystem resilience and resistance with species-specific population and habitat requisites in a risk-based framework to identify priority areas for management and guide allocation of resources to manage persistent ecosystem-based threats. US federal land management and natural resource agencies have adopted this framework as a foundation for prioritizing sage-grouse conservation resources and determining effective restoration and management strategies. Because threats and strategies to address them cross-cut program areas, an integrated approach that includes wildland fire operations, postfire rehabilitation, fuels management, and habitat restoration is being used. We believe this approach is applicable to species conservation in other largely intact ecosystems with persistent, ecosystem-based threats.

  3. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Américo David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.

  4. Insulin signaling pathways in a patient with insulin resistance of difficult management - a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Taboada, Giselle F; de Freitas, Marta S; da S Corr?a, Fernanda H; Junior, Carlos RMA; de B Gomes, Mar?lia

    2009-01-01

    Insulin signalling pathways were investigated in a 33 year-old woman with immunologic insulin resistance. Her past medical history was remarkable for intermittent use of insulin and allergic reactions to several drugs, and measure of plasma anti-insulin antibodies level corroborated the clinical suspicion of immune mediated insulin resistance (8074 nU/ml - RIA - Ref value:

  5. Epidemiology of antifungal resistance in human pathogenic yeasts: current viewpoint and practical recommendations for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2017-09-01

    In this review, we describe the epidemiology and clinical significance of resistance in Candida spp. and other non-Cryptococcus yeasts. The rise in echinocandin resistance, azole resistance and cross-resistance to two or more antifungal classes [multidrug resistance (MDR)] has been a worrisome trend, mainly in US large tertiary and oncology centres, particularly as it relates to Candida glabrata. Candida kefyr is also a concern as it can be resistant to echinocandins and polyenes, especially in patients with haematological malignancies. Lately, Candida auris has drawn a lot of attention: this uncommon Candida spp. is the first globally emerging fungal pathogen that exhibits MDR and strong potential for nosocomial transmission. Its almost simultaneous spread in four continents could be indicative of increasing selection pressures from the use of antifungal agents. Echinocandin non-susceptibility is also common among non-Candida, non-Cryptococcus yeasts. As Candida resistance patterns reflect, in part, institutional practices of antifungal administration, the benefits of antifungal stewardship protocols are increasingly recognised and endorsed in recent guidelines. Development of rapid diagnostic methods for detecting or ruling out the presence of candidaemia and antifungal resistance, as well as discovery of novel antifungals, are key priorities in medical mycology research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Dual-Task Management and Resistance Training on Gait Performance in Older Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollesen, Bettina; Mattes, Klaus; Schulz, Sören; Bischoff, Laura L.; Seydell, L.; Bell, Jeffrey W.; von Duvillard, Serge P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dual-task (DT) training is a well-accepted modality for fall prevention in older adults. DT training should include task-managing strategies such as task switching or task prioritization to improve gait performance under DT conditions. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate a balance and task managing training (BDT group) in gait performance compared to a single task (ST) strength and resistance training and a control group, which received no training. A total of 78 older individuals (72.0 ± 4.9 years) participated in this study. The DT group performed task managing training incorporating balance and coordination tasks while the ST group performed resistance training only. Training consisted of 12 weekly sessions, 60 min each, for 12 weeks. We assessed the effects of ST and BDT training on walking performance under ST and DT conditions in independent living elderly adults. ST and DT walking (visual verbal Stroop task) were measured utilizing a treadmill at self-selected walking speed (mean for all groups: 4.4 ± 1 km h-1). Specific gait variables, cognitive performance, and fear of falling were compared between all groups. >Results: Training improved gait performance for step length (p changes in cognitive performance. Both interventions reduced fear of falling (p management strategies into balance and strength training in our population revealed a promising modality to prevent falls in older individuals. Trial registration: German register of clinical trials DRKS00012382. PMID:29326581

  7. High levels of insecticide resistance in introduced horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) populations and implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, M P; Li, A Y; Figueroa, C C

    2011-02-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), was introduced to Chile in the beginning of the 1990s. Since its introduction, farmers have controlled this pest almost exclusively with insecticides. To understand the consequences of different control strategies on the development of insecticide resistance and their persistence, a field survey was conducted at eight farms in the south of Chile to characterize insecticide resistance in field populations and resistance mechanisms. Horn fly samples were assayed to determine levels of resistance to pyrethroids and diazinon, genotyped for kdr and HialphaE7 mutations, and tested for general esterase activity. All field populations, including ones that were not treated with insecticides for the past 5 yr, showed high levels of cypermethrin resistance and high frequencies of the kdr mutation. None of the fly populations demonstrated resistance to diazinon and the HialphaE7 mutation was not detected in any of the fly samples. Esterase activities in all populations were comparable to those found in the susceptible reference strain. The findings of high frequencies of homozygous resistant and heterozygous individuals both in insecticide treated horn fly populations and in the untreated fly populations suggests complex interactions among field populations of the horn fly in Chile.

  8. Durable resistance: a key to sustainable management of pathogens and pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Christopher C

    2014-10-01

    This review briefly addresses what has been learned about resistance durability in recent years, as well as the questions that still remain. Molecular analyses of major gene interactions have potential to contribute to both breeding for resistance and improved understanding of virulence impacts on pathogen fitness. Though the molecular basis of quantitative resistance is less clear, substantial evidence has accumulated for the relative simplicity of inheritance. There is increasing evidence for specific interactions with quantitative resistance, though implications of this for durability are still unknown. Mechanisms by which resistance gene pyramids contribute to durability remain elusive, though ideas have been generated for identifying gene combinations that may be more durable. Though cultivar mixtures and related approaches have been used successfully, identifying the diseases and conditions that are most conducive to the use of diversity has been surprisingly difficult, and the selective influence of diversity on pathogen populations is complex. The importance of considering resistance durability in a landscape context has received increasing emphasis and is an important future area of research. Experimental systems are being developed to test resistance gene deployment strategies that previously could be addressed only with logic and observation. The value of molecular markers for identifying and pyramiding major genes is quite clear, but the successful use of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for marker-assisted selection of quantitative resistance will depend greatly on the degree to which the identified QTL are expressed in different genetic backgrounds. Transgenic approaches will likely provide opportunities for control of some recalcitrant pathogens, though issues of durability for transgenes are likely to be no different than other genes for resistance. The need for high quality phenotypic analysis and screening methodologies is a priority, and field

  9. Development and validation of a GC-C-IRMS method for the confirmation analysis of pseudo-endogenous glucocorticoids in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Xavier; Curcio, Davide; Colamonici, Cristiana; Molaioni, Francesco; Cilia, Marta; Botrè, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are included in the S9 section of the World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) prohibited list international standard. Some among them are pseudo-endogenous steroids, like cortisol and cortisone, which present the same chemical structure as endogenously produced steroids. We are proposing an analytical method based on gas chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) which allows discrimination between endogenous and synthetic origin of the urinary metabolites of the pseudo-endogenous glucocorticoids. A preliminary purification treatment by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of the target compounds (TC) (i.e., cortisol, tetrahydrocortisone (THE) 5α-tetrahydrocortisone (aTHE), tetrahydrocortisol (THF), and 5α-tetrahydrocortisol (aTHF)) allows collection of extracts with adequate purity for the subsequent analysis by IRMS. A population of 40 urine samples was analyzed for the TC and for the endogenous reference compounds (ERC: i.e., 11-desoxy-tetrahydrocortisol (THS) or pregnanediol). For each sample, the difference between the delta values of the ERCs and TCs (Δδ values) were calculated and based on that, some decision limits for atypical findings are proposed. The limits are below 3% units except for cortisol. The fit to purpose of the method has been confirmed by the analysis of urine samples collected in two patients under treatment with 25 mg of cortisone acetate (p.o). The samples showed Δδ values higher than 3 for at least 24 h following administration depending on the TC considered. The method can easily be integrated into existing procedures already used for the HPLC purification and IRMS analysis of pseudo-endogenous steroids with androgenic/anabolic activity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Perioperative management of neurosurgical patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, Paul T; Belko, John; Banerjee, Amit; Guppy, Kern; Herbert, David; Slipchenko, Tamara; DeLemos, Christi; Hawk, Mark

    2010-02-01

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has posed a challenge in the treatment of neurosurgical patients. The authors investigated the impact of MRSA colonization and infection in the neurosurgical population at a community-based, tertiary care referral center. Hospitalized patients under the care of the Kaiser Permanente inpatient neurosurgery service were prospectively entered into a database. In Phase I of the study, 492 consecutive patients were followed. Per hospital policy, the 260 patients from this group who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) underwent screening for MRSA based on nasal swab cultures and a review of their medical history for prior MRSA infections. These patients were designated as either MRSA positive (17 patients, 6.5% of screened patients) or MRSA negative (243 patients). The 232 patients admitted to non-ICU nursing units did not undergo MRSA screening and were designated as unscreened. In Phase II of the study, the authors reviewed 1005 neurosurgical admissions and completed a detailed chart review in 62 MRSA-positive patients (6.2%). Eleven patients received nonoperative treatment. Five patients presented with community-acquired neurosurgical infections, and the causative organism was MRSA in 3 cases. Forty-six patients underwent 55 procedures, and the authors reviewed their perioperative management. In Phase I of the study, the authors found that for the MRSA-positive, MRSA-negative, and unscreened groups, the rates of postoperative neurosurgical wound infections caused by all pathogens were 23.5, 4.1, and 1.3%, respectively. For MRSA wound infections, the rates were 23.5, 0.8, and 0%, respectively. In Phase II, patients with MRSA were noted to have the following clinical features: male sex in 63%, a malignancy in 39.1%, diabetes in 34.8%, prior MRSA infection in 21.7%, immunosuppressed state in 17.4%, and a traumatic injury in 15.2%. The rate of postoperative neurosurgical wound infection in

  11. Managing anthelmintic resistance in small ruminant livestock of resource-poor farmers in South Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Vatta

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal parasitism is one of the most important disease complexes of sheep and goats impacting on the resource-poor livestock farmer. Of the responsible nematodes, Haemonchus contortus, a blood-sucking worm of the abomasum, poses possibly the greatest threat. Over the past several decades, the worm has been controlled through the use of anthelmintics, but the emergence of anthelmintic resistance has threatened this chemotherapeutic approach. In Africa, the overall prevalence of anthelmintic resistance has not been extensively investigated, particularly within the resource-poor farming sector, but resistance has been reported from at least 14 countries with most of the reports emanating from Kenya and South Africa and the majority concerning H. contortus. While levels of resistance under commercial sheep farming systems in South Africa is considered to be amongst the worst in the world, resistance has also been reported from the resource-poor farming sector. Increases in productivity and reproduction of livestock and the development of markets for sale of animals are seen by international funding bodies as a way out of poverty for communities that keep livestock. This must lead to the greater need for parasite control. At such times, the risk of levels of anthelmintic resistance escalating is much greater and there is therefore a need to look at alternatives to their use. Proposed strategies include the appropriate, but judicious use of anthelmintics by application of the FAMACHA(c system and the use of alternatives to anthelmintics such as strategic nutrient supplementation. It is also very clear that there is a strong demand for knowledge about animal diseases, including helminthosis, and their effective management in the resource-poor livestock farming communities. This is an important challenge to meet.

  12. Infection control, genetic assessment of drug resistance and drug susceptibility testing in the current management of multidrug/extensively-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothamley, Graham H.; Lange, Christoph; Albrecht, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Europe has the highest documented caseload and greatest increase in multidrug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) of all World Health Organization (WHO) regions. This survey examines how recommendations for M/XDR-TB management are being implemented. METHODS: TBNET is a pan......-European clinical research collaboration for tuberculosis. An email survey of TBNET members collected data in relation to infection control, access to molecular tests and basic microbiology with drug sensitivity testing. RESULTS: 68/105 responses gave valid information and were from countries within the WHO...... widely available (88%), even in lower income and especially in high incidence countries. Molecular tests for other first line and second line drugs were less accessible (76 and 52% respectively). A third of physicians considered that drug susceptibility results were delayed by > 2 months. CONCLUSION...

  13. Independent Reporting Mechanism (IRM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard

    2017-01-01

    To raise the impact of OGP in Denmark, the government can broaden the inclusivity of the OGP process and deepen in-person engagement with a more diverse group of stakeholders. Future action plans may include commitments regarding political party fnancing, lobbying regulations and access to inform......To raise the impact of OGP in Denmark, the government can broaden the inclusivity of the OGP process and deepen in-person engagement with a more diverse group of stakeholders. Future action plans may include commitments regarding political party fnancing, lobbying regulations and access...

  14. Report: EPA Needs Better Data, Plans and Tools to Manage Insect Resistance to Genetically Engineered Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #16-P-0194, June 1, 2016. Bt crops have reduced insecticide applications by 123 million pounds. The EPA can preserve this significant public benefit through enhanced monitoring and preparation to address insect resistance in Bt corn.

  15. Gestores do SUS: apoio e resistências à Homeopatia Support for and resistance to Homeopathy among managers of the Unified National Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Abrahão Chaim Salles

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta parte dos resultados de pesquisa que investigou características do movimento de aproximação e afastamento entre homeopatas e médicos da Biomedicina, segundo o ponto de vista dos profissionais não homeopatas. Foram entrevistados 48 profissionais de saúde (docentes, gestores e médicos que trabalham na rede publica. Toma-se para análise apenas os resultados das entrevistas com gestores. Foram usadas como referências as concepções de: campo social e científico de Bourdieu; racionalidades médicas de Madel Luz; arranjos tecnológicos do trabalho em saúde de Mendes-Gonçalves e de identidade profissional de médico de Donnangelo e de Schraiber. Os resultados indicam que o apoio de gestores à presença da Homeopatia no SUS relaciona-se à percepção da demanda social, à defesa do direito de escolha dos usuários e à constatação de tratar-se de uma prática médica que resgata a dimensão humanista da medicina, contribuindo assim para a satisfação do usuário. As dificuldades e resistências apontadas pelos gestores ressaltam que a falta de informações sobre os procedimentos homeopáticos limita as possibilidades de utilização da Homeopatia porque gera insegurança sobre esta medicina.This article presents partial findings from a study on trends towards greater or lesser proximity between homeopathic and allopathic physicians, from the perspective of the latter. Forty-eight health professionals were interviewed (faculty, managers, and physicians working in the public health system. This specific article focused only on the interviews with health system managers. The following concepts were used as references: social and scientific field (Bourdieu; medical rationalities (Madel Luz; technological arrangements in health work (Mendes-Gonçalves; and physician's professional identity (Donnangelo & Schraiber. According to the findings, support by managers for the presence of Homeopathy in the Unified National

  16. Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections: epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and optimal management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Driscoll T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tristan O’Driscoll,1 Christopher W Crank2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Chicago College of Pharmacy, Downers Grove, IL, USA; 2Pharmacy Services, Rush-Copley Medical Center, Aurora, IL, USA Abstract: Since its discovery in England and France in 1986, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus has increasingly become a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Enterococci are prolific colonizers, with tremendous genome plasticity and a propensity for persistence in hospital environments, allowing for increased transmission and the dissemination of resistance elements. Infections typically present in immunosuppressed patients who have received multiple courses of antibiotics in the past. Virulence is variable, and typical clinical manifestations include bacteremia, endocarditis, intra-abdominal and pelvic infections, urinary tract infections, skin and skin structure infections, and, rarely, central nervous system infections. As enterococci are common colonizers, careful consideration is needed before initiating targeted therapy, and source control is first priority. Current treatment options including linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and tigecycline have shown favorable activity against various vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus infections, but there is a lack of randomized controlled trials assessing their efficacy. Clearer distinctions in preferred therapies can be made based on adverse effects, drug interactions, and pharmacokinetic profiles. Although combination therapies and newer agents such as tedizolid, telavancin, dalbavancin, and oritavancin hold promise for the future treatment of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus infections, further studies are needed to assess their possible clinical impact, especially in the treatment of serious infections. Keywords: Gram-positive, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, VRE, antibiotic resistance, multidrug resistance

  17. Proposed management control requirements of the U.S. Coast Guard Information Resource Management Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Ashforth, William Robert

    1984-01-01

    This thesis places the Information Resource Management Architecture of the U.S. Coast Guard in the contagious growth stage of Nolan's model of organizational computer growth. Control is the next stage predicted by the model. The financial accounting basis of EDP chargeback and control systems is examined as a precursor to developing five management control requirements of the IRM architecture. These include (1) aggregate financial accounting for information services, (2) an auditable user acc...

  18. Skin Manifestations of Insulin Resistance: From a Biochemical Stance to a Clinical Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Saldivar, Gloria; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; González-González, José Gerardo; Gómez-Flores, Minerva

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide, more than 1.9 billion adults are overweight, and around 600 million people suffer from obesity. Similarly, ~382 million individuals live with diabetes, and 40-50% of the global population is labeled at "high risk" (i.e., prediabetes). The impact of these two chronic conditions relies not only on the burden of illnesses per se (i.e., associated increased morbidity and mortality), but also on their increased cost, burden of treatment, and decreased health-related quality of life. For this review a comprehensive search in several databases including PubMed (MEDLINE), Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus was conducted. In both diabetes and obesity, genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors overlap and are inclusive rather than exclusive. De facto, 70-80% of the patients with obesity and virtually every patient with type 2 diabetes have insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a well-known pathophysiologic factor in the development of type 2 diabetes, characteristically appearing years before its diagnosis. The gold standard for insulin resistance diagnosis (the euglycemic insulin clamp) is a complex, invasive, costly, and hence unfeasible test to implement in clinical practice. Likewise, laboratory measures and derived indexes [e.g., homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR-)] are indirect, imprecise, and not highly accurate and reproducible tests. However, skin manifestations of insulin resistance (e.g., acrochordons, acanthosis nigricans, androgenetic alopecia, acne, hirsutism) offer a reliable, straightforward, and real-time way to detect insulin resistance. The objective of this review is to aid clinicians in recognizing skin manifestations of insulin resistance. Diagnosing these skin manifestations accurately may cascade positively in the patient's health by triggering an adequate metabolic evaluation, a timely treatment or referral with the ultimate objective of decreasing diabetes and obesity burden, and improving the

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance: Its Surveillance, Impact, and Alternative Management Strategies in Dairy Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Rokana, Namita; Chandra, Mudit; Singh, Brij Pal; Gulhane, Rohini Devidas; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh; Ray, Pallab; Puniya, Anil Kumar; Panwar, Harsh

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), one among the most common priority areas identified by both national and international agencies, is mushrooming as a silent pandemic. The advancement in public health care through introduction of antibiotics against infectious agents is now being threatened by global development of multidrug-resistant strains. These strains are product of both continuous evolution and un-checked antimicrobial usage (AMU). Though antibiotic application in livestock has largely contributed toward health and productivity, it has also played significant role in evolution of resistant strains. Although, a significant emphasis has been given to AMR in humans, trends in animals, on other hand, are not much emphasized. Dairy farming involves surplus use of antibiotics as prophylactic and growth promoting agents. This non-therapeutic application of antibiotics, their dosage, and withdrawal period needs to be re-evaluated and rationally defined. A dairy animal also poses a serious risk of transmission of resistant strains to humans and environment. Outlining the scope of the problem is necessary for formulating and monitoring an active response to AMR. Effective and commendably connected surveillance programs at multidisciplinary level can contribute to better understand and minimize the emergence of resistance. Besides, it requires a renewed emphasis on investments into research for finding alternate, safe, cost effective, and innovative strategies, parallel to discovery of new antibiotics. Nevertheless, numerous direct or indirect novel approaches based on host–microbial interaction and molecular mechanisms of pathogens are also being developed and corroborated by researchers to combat the threat of resistance. This review places a concerted effort to club the current outline of AMU and AMR in dairy animals; ongoing global surveillance and monitoring programs; its impact at animal human interface; and strategies for combating resistance with an extensive

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance: Its Surveillance, Impact, and Alternative Management Strategies in Dairy Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance (AMR, one among the most common priority areas identified by both national and international agencies, is mushrooming as a silent pandemic. The advancement in public health care through introduction of antibiotics against infectious agents is now being threatened by global development of multidrug-resistant strains. These strains are product of both continuous evolution and un-checked antimicrobial usage (AMU. Though antibiotic application in livestock has largely contributed toward health and productivity, it has also played significant role in evolution of resistant strains. Although, a significant emphasis has been given to AMR in humans, trends in animals, on other hand, are not much emphasized. Dairy farming involves surplus use of antibiotics as prophylactic and growth promoting agents. This non-therapeutic application of antibiotics, their dosage, and withdrawal period needs to be re-evaluated and rationally defined. A dairy animal also poses a serious risk of transmission of resistant strains to humans and environment. Outlining the scope of the problem is necessary for formulating and monitoring an active response to AMR. Effective and commendably connected surveillance programs at multidisciplinary level can contribute to better understand and minimize the emergence of resistance. Besides, it requires a renewed emphasis on investments into research for finding alternate, safe, cost effective, and innovative strategies, parallel to discovery of new antibiotics. Nevertheless, numerous direct or indirect novel approaches based on host–microbial interaction and molecular mechanisms of pathogens are also being developed and corroborated by researchers to combat the threat of resistance. This review places a concerted effort to club the current outline of AMU and AMR in dairy animals; ongoing global surveillance and monitoring programs; its impact at animal human interface; and strategies for combating resistance

  1. Detection and management of drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in lower-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballif, M; Nhandu, V; Wood, R

    2014-01-01

    SETTING: Drug resistance threatens tuberculosis (TB) control, particularly among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected persons. OBJECTIVE: To describe practices in the prevention and management of drug-resistant TB under antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in lower-income countries. DESIGN......: We used online questionnaires to collect program-level data on 47 ART programs in Southern Africa (n = 14), East Africa (n = 8), West Africa (n = 7), Central Africa (n = 5), Latin America (n = 7) and the Asia-Pacific (n = 6 programs) in 2012. Patient-level data were collected on 1002 adult TB...... patients seen at 40 of the participating ART programs. RESULTS: Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) was available in 36 (77%) ART programs, but was only used for 22% of all TB patients. Molecular DST was available in 33 (70%) programs and was used in 23% of all TB patients. Twenty ART programs (43...

  2. Management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, K. F.

    2018-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis(MTB). 10.4 million new TB cases will appear in 2015 worldwide. There were an estimated 1.4 million TB deaths in 2015, and an additional 0.4 million deaths resulting from TB disease among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Multidrug- resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR and XDR-TB) are major public health concerns worldwide. 480.000 new cases of MDR-TB will appear in 2015 and an additional 100,000 people with rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) who were also newly eligible for MDR-TB treatment. Their association with HIV infection has contributed to the slowing down of TB incidence decline over the last two decades, therefore representing one important barrier to reach TB elimination. Patients infected with MDR-TB require more expensive treatment regimens than drug-susceptible TB, with poor treatment.Patients with multidrug- resistant tuberculosis do not receive rifampin; drug interactions risk is markedly reduced. However, overlapping toxicities may limit options for co-treatment of HIV and multidrug- resistant tuberculosis.

  3. High-precision 13C and 18O measurements by continuous flow-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS) in Romanian wines characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costinel, Diana; Ionete, Roxana; Vremera, Raluca; Stanciu, Vasile

    2008-01-01

    Wines characterization is an important problem to which isotopic analysis by continuous flow- IRMS has made a significant contribution. The use of mass spectrometry (MS) to determine the ratios of stable isotopes in bio-molecules now provides the means to prove the botanical and geographical origin of a wide variety of foodstuffs - and therefore, to authenticate and eliminate fraud. There is a strong need for reliable and validated methods to ensure compliance with such regulation and to protect the interests of the consumer. The right to producing wines with an appellation of origin is guaranteed by the Ministry of Agriculture, based on proposals made by the National Office of Vine and Wine (starting with the 1993 vintage year). The Ministry of Agriculture, the National Office for Vine and Wine, and the National Research Institute grants the authentication of the wines with appellation of origin. The present paper emphasize the isotopic analysis for 18 O/ 16 O and 13 C/ 12 C from wines, using a new generation Isotope Ratio MS, CF-IRMS Delta V Plus, coupled with three flexible continuous flow preparation devices (GasBench II and TC Elemental Analyser). (authors)

  4. Origin of Xylitol in Chewing Gum: A Compound-Specific Isotope Technique for the Differentiation of Corn- and Wood-Based Xylitol by LC-IRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Daniel; Wolbert, Jens-Benjamin; Schulte, Marcel S; Jochmann, Maik A; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2018-02-28

    The sugar replacement compound xylitol has gained increasing attention because of its use in many commercial food products, dental-hygiene articles, and pharmaceuticals. It can be classified by the origin of the raw material used for its production. The traditional "birch xylitol" is considered a premium product, in contrast to xylitol produced from agriculture byproducts such as corn husks or sugar-cane straw. Bulk stable-isotope analysis (BSIA) and compound-specific stable-isotope analysis (CSIA) by liquid-chromatography isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) of chewing-gum extracts were used to determine the δ 13 C isotope signatures for xylitol. These were applied to elucidate the original plant type the xylitol was produced from on the basis of differences in isotope-fractionation processes of photosynthetic CO 2 fixation. For the LC-IRMS analysis, an organic-solvent-free extraction protocol and HPLC method for the separation of xylitol from different artificial sweeteners and sugar-replacement compounds was successfully developed and applied to the analysis of 21 samples of chewing gum, from which 18 could be clearly related to the raw-material plant class.

  5. Pesticide Resistance in Stored-Product Insects and Alternative Biorational Management: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Talukder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional pesticides are being used as the major tools for stored grain and food protection. Many conventional pesticides have created problems including pesticide resistance, toxic residues in the treated products, handling hazards, health hazards to operatives and pest resurgence. Among these, the incidence of pesticide resistance is a growing problem in stored product protection. Problems associated with synthetic pesticides, especially pesticide resistance, have created a worldwide interest in the development of alternative biorational strategies. Plant-derived materials, biological control agents, insect growth regulators, solar disinfestation systems, use of inert dusts and diatomaceous earth, etc., are potential viable alternatives. Most of these alternatives have low toxicity or are not toxic to humans, making them environmentally acceptable and enabling them to be incorporated in stored product protection.

  6. Skid resistance determination for pavement management and wet-weather road safety

    OpenAIRE

    T.F. Fwa

    2017-01-01

    Road accidents during wet weather have been a topic of major concern of road engineers in regions of wet-tropical climate and in other parts of the world during the wet season of the year. Road safety studies indicate that approximately 20% of all road accidents occurred during wet weather, and that the skid resistance of wet pavements have a major influence on the occurrences of wet-weather accidents. Monitoring of wet pavement skid resistance has been an integral part of a typical pavement ...

  7. Antibiotic resistance and therapeutic management of sepsis in a Malaysian public Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forouzan Bayat Nejad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to document the microbial profile and pattern of use of antibiotics in the government hospital of Penang state, Malaysia. An audit was conducted in 2007 in the general medical ward of Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. The mortality rate was 54.22% with severesepsis or septicaemia. Mithicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus caused 37% of deaths, while 33% of deaths involved Klebsiella Spp. Commonly prescribed antibiotics included; cloxacillin 500mg (qid 20%, tazocin 2gm (bid1.1%, and vancomycin 1gm (od 27%. We report the useof high doses of antibiotics in the six months prior to anotable rise in resistant infections.

  8. Rastreamento de sinais e sintomas de transtornos do espectro do autismo em irmãos Screening for signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorders in siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pontrelli Mecca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os transtornos globais do desenvolvimento (TGD são caracterizados por anormalidades qualitativas e abrangentes em três domínios do desenvolvimento: interação social recíproca, comunicação e presença de um repertório comportamental de interesses restritos, repetitivo e estereotipado. Estudos genéticos têm identificado a recorrência de TGD numa mesma família. O presente estudo teve por objetivo rastrear a ocorrência de sinais e sintomas de TGD em irmãos de indivíduos com esse diagnóstico. Participaram do estudo 25 sujeitos provenientes de 19 famílias. A coleta de dados foi realizada mediante a utilização da versão brasileira do Autism Screening Questionnaire (ASQ, ou Questionário de Comportamento e Comunicação Social. Foram confirmados dois casos de irmãos com TGD (10,52% dos casos, sendo um irmão gêmeo monozigótico e um irmão de um probando com diagnóstico de síndrome de Asperger. Os dados apontam para taxas mais elevadas do que aquelas descritas na literatura (2-6% e se aproximam dos achados que relatam 10% de recorrência familiar em gêmeos dizigóticos. Esse resultado fornece evidências de possíveis fatores neurogenéticos para explicar a ocorrência de TGD nos familiares dos probandos estudados e salienta a necessidade de efetuar o rastreamento desse transtorno não só na criança avaliada, mas também em seus irmãos.Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD are characterized by comprehensive and qualitative abnormalities affecting three areas of development: reciprocal social interaction, communication, and a repetitive, stereotyped behavioral repertoire, of limited interests. Genetic studies have identified the recurrence of PDD in the same family. The present study aimed to trace the occurrence of signs and symptoms of PDD in the siblings of patients with this diagnosis. The study included 25 subjects from 19 families. Data collection was performed using the Brazilian version of the Autism Screening

  9. Resistance evolution to the first generation of genetically modified Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events by western corn rootworm: management and monitoring considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Yann; Meihls, Lisa N; Kiss, József; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2013-04-01

    Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera; WCR) is a major coleopteran maize pest in North America and the EU, and has traditionally been managed through crop rotation and broad-spectrum soil insecticides. Genetically modified Bt-maize offers an additional management tool for WCR and has been valuable in reducing insecticide use and increasing farm income. A concern is that the widespread, repeated, and exclusive deployment of the same Bt-maize transformation event will result in the rapid evolution of resistance in WCR. This publication explores the potential of WCR to evolve resistance to plant-produced Bt-toxins from the first generation of Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events (MON 863 and MON 88017, DAS-59122-7 and MIR604), and whether currently implemented risk management strategies to delay and monitor resistance evolution are appropriate. In twelve of the twelve artificial selection experiments reported, resistant WCR populations were yielded rapidly. Field-selected resistance of WCR to Cry3Bb1 is documented in some US maize growing areas, where an increasing number of cases of unexpected damage of WCR larvae to Bt-maize MON 88017 has been reported. Currently implemented insect resistance management measures for Bt-crops usually rely on the high dose/refuge (HDR) strategy. Evidence (including laboratory, greenhouse and field data) indicates that several conditions contributing to the success of the HDR strategy may not be met for the first generation of Bt-maize events and WCR: (1) the Bt-toxins are expressed heterogeneously at a low-to-moderate dose in roots; (2) resistance alleles may be present at a higher frequency than initially assumed; (3) WCR may mate in a non-random manner; (4) resistance traits could have non-recessive inheritance; and (5) fitness costs may not necessarily be associated with resistance evolution. However, caution must be exercised when extrapolating laboratory and greenhouse results to field conditions. Model predictions

  10. Teófilo Braga e Adolfo Coelho: duas posições face aos irmãos Grimm e à colecção Kinder-und Hausmärchen

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, Maria Teresa

    2001-01-01

    No presente artigo pretendo documentar as diferentes posições assumidas pelos dois fundadores do movimento etnográfico português, Teófilo Braga (1843-1924) e Adolfo Coelho (1847-1919), face ao trabalho de investigação e recolha de contos populares alemães realizado pelos Irmãos Grimm. Ao longo da sua obra, Teófilo Braga testemunhou repetidamente uma enorme admiração pelos Irmãos Grimm, muito em especial por Jacob, cujo exemplo procurou seguir. Teófilo Braga orientou-se na sua pesquisa pela...

  11. Potential management of resistant microbial infections with a novel non-antibiotic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutta, Noton Kumar; Annadurai, Subramanian; Mazumdar, Kaushiki

    2007-01-01

    Diclofenac sodium (Dc), an anti-inflammatory agent, has remarkable inhibitory action both against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant clinical isolates of various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of Dc to protect mice from a virulent...

  12. Managing Instructor Cyberanxiety: The Role of Self-Efficacy in Decreasing Resistance to Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Gerard; Camarata, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of educational technology innovations focuses on some of the behavioral challenges facing the drive toward multimedia instruction and suggests a method by which instructor resistance to technological change can be lessened or eliminated based on the concept of self-efficacy. A typology of instructors is explained. (Author/LRW)

  13. Connecting public administration and change management literature : The effects of policy alienation on resistance to change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The main goal of this article is to contribute to change management literature in the public sector. A recent literature review argues that there is a gap in the literature on change management specifically using the public administration perspective. We therefore analyze

  14. Beyond Resistance: Exploring Health Managers' Propensity for Participatory Evaluation in a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Pernelle A.; Champagne, Francois; Farand, Lambert

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of interventions is becoming increasing common and now often seeks to involve managers in the process. Such practical participatory evaluation (PPE) aims to increase the use of evaluation results through the participation of stakeholders. This study focuses on the propensity of health managers for PPE, as measured through the…

  15. Using electrical resistivity tomography to assess the effectiveness of managed aquifer recharge in a salinized coastal aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Menéndez, Olga; Ballesteros, Bruno J; Renau-Pruñonosa, Arianna; Morell, Ignacio; Mochales, Tania; Ibarra, Pedro I; Rubio, Félix M

    2018-01-27

    Over 40 years, the detrital aquifer of the Plana de Castellón (Spanish Mediterranean coast) has been subjected to seawater intrusion because of long dry periods combined with intensive groundwater exploitation. Against this backdrop, a managed artificial recharge (MAR) scheme was implemented to improve the groundwater quality. The large difference between the electrical conductivity (EC) of the ambient groundwater (brackish water due to marine intrusion) and the recharge water (freshwater) meant that there was a strong contrast between the resistivities of the brackish water saturated zone and the freshwater saturated zone. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be used for surveying similar settings to evaluate the effectiveness of artificial recharge schemes. By integrating geophysical data with lithological information, EC logs from boreholes, and hydrochemical data, we can interpret electrical resistivity (ER) with groundwater EC values and so identify freshwater saturated zones. Using this approach, ERT images provided a high-resolution spatial characterization and an accurate picture of the shape and extent of the recharge plume of the MAR site. After 5 months of injection, a freshwater plume with an EC of 400-600 μS/cm had formed that extended 400 m in the W-E direction, 250 m in the N-S direction, and to a depth of 40 m below piezometric level. This study also provides correlations between ER values with different lithologies and groundwater EC values that can be used to support other studies.

  16. Evaluation of Bt Corn with Pyramided Genes on Efficacy and Insect Resistance Management for the Asian Corn Borer in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jiang

    Full Text Available A Bt corn hybrid (AcIe with two Bt genes (cry1Ie and cry1Ac was derived by breeding stack from line expressing Cry1Ie and a line expressing Cry1Ac. Efficacy of this pyramided Bt corn hybrid against the Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis, was evaluated. We conducted laboratory bioassays using susceptible and resistant ACB strains fed on artificial diet or fresh plant tissues. We also conducted field trials with artificial infestations of ACB neonates at the V6 and silk stages. The toxin-diet bioassay data indicated that mixtures of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ie proteins had synergistic insecticidal efficacy. The plant tissue bioassay data indicated that Bt corn hybrids expressing either a single toxin (Cry1Ac or Cry1Ie or two toxins had high efficacy against susceptible ACB. Damage ratings in the field trials indicated that the Bt corn hybrids could effectively protect against 1st and the 2nd generation ACB in China. The hybrid line with two Bt genes showed a higher efficacy against ACB larvae resistant to Cry1Ac or CryIe than the hybrid containing one Bt gene, and the two gene hybrid would have increased potential for managing or delaying the evolution of ACB resistance to Bt corn plants.

  17. Evaluation of Bt Corn with Pyramided Genes on Efficacy and Insect Resistance Management for the Asian Corn Borer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Zhang, Tiantao; Bai, Shuxiong; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai

    2016-01-01

    A Bt corn hybrid (AcIe) with two Bt genes (cry1Ie and cry1Ac) was derived by breeding stack from line expressing Cry1Ie and a line expressing Cry1Ac. Efficacy of this pyramided Bt corn hybrid against the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, was evaluated. We conducted laboratory bioassays using susceptible and resistant ACB strains fed on artificial diet or fresh plant tissues. We also conducted field trials with artificial infestations of ACB neonates at the V6 and silk stages. The toxin-diet bioassay data indicated that mixtures of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ie proteins had synergistic insecticidal efficacy. The plant tissue bioassay data indicated that Bt corn hybrids expressing either a single toxin (Cry1Ac or Cry1Ie) or two toxins had high efficacy against susceptible ACB. Damage ratings in the field trials indicated that the Bt corn hybrids could effectively protect against 1st and the 2nd generation ACB in China. The hybrid line with two Bt genes showed a higher efficacy against ACB larvae resistant to Cry1Ac or CryIe than the hybrid containing one Bt gene, and the two gene hybrid would have increased potential for managing or delaying the evolution of ACB resistance to Bt corn plants.

  18. Responding to the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis crisis: mainstreaming programmatic management to the Philippine National Tuberculosis Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelapio, M I D; Mira, N R C; Orillaza-Chi, R B; Belen, V; Muñez, N; Belchez, R; Egos, G E; Evangelista, M; Vianzon, R; Tupasi, T E

    2010-06-01

    The Philippines ranks eighth among 27 priority countries for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). To describe a model of public-private partnership in MDR-TB management. An exploratory study of integrating MDR-TB management initiated in private-public mix DOTS into the National TB Programme (NTP). Recognising that MDR-TB was a threat to DOTS, the Tropical Disease Foundation initiated MDR-TB management in 1999. An official mandate for the integration of MDR-TB services into the NTP was issued by the Department of Health in 2008. With an increased government budget augmented by support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, 1294 MDR-TB patients were placed on treatment from 1999 to 2008. The treatment success rate improved from 64% in 1999 to 75% in 2005. There are now five MDR-TB treatment centres with 181 treatment sites in Metro Manila, and three culture centres. People trained include 12 master trainers, 31 trainers, 25 treatment centre and 381 treatment site staff. Mainstreaming into the NTP of this unique model of MDR-TB management through a dynamic public-private collaboration can be considered best practice in implementation science of an evidence-based intervention leading to change in health care policy and practice.

  19. Effect of human placental extract in the management of biofilm mediated drug resistance - A focus on wound management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sutapa; Sarkar, Ratul; Saha, Pritam; Maity, Amit; Sarkar, Tridib; Das, Debmalya; Chakraborty, Piyali Datta; Bandyopadhyay, Subhasri; Ghosh, Chandan Kumar; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Sen, Tuhinadri

    2017-10-01

    Management of infectious wounds, particularly chronic wounds and burn injuries, is a matter of global concern. Worldwide estimates reveal that, billions of dollars are being spent annually for the management of such chronic ailments. Evidently, bacterial biofilms pose a greater problem in the effective management of infection in chronic wounds, since most of the currently available antibiotics are unable to act on the microorganisms residing inside the protected environment of the biofilms. Accordingly, in the present study, we have attempted to evaluate the anti-biofilm properties of human placental extract (PLX) and also other virulence factors that are mediated via the quorum sensing (QS) signalling system. PLX is well known for its anti inflammatory action and it has been shown earlier some anti microbial and enzymatic activity also. PLX was found to produce significant inhibition of biofilm formation and also decreased the levels of pyoverdin and pyocyanin. The microscopic analysis (both light microscopy and atomic force microscopy) of biofilms was also used for substantiating the findings from spectrophotometric (crystal violet estimation) and fluorescence analysis (resazurin uptake). PLX pre-treatment decreased the hydrophobicity of gram-positive and gram negative cells, indicating the effect of placental extract on adherence property of planktonic cell, serving as an indicator for its antibiofilm effect on microorganisms. The reduced extracellular DNA (eDNA) content in biofilm matrix following treatment with PLX also indicates the effectiveness of placenta extract on bacterial adherence, which in turn serves as evidence substantiating the antibiofilm effects of the PLX. Furthermore, PLX was also found to be significantly effective in the in vitro wound biofilm model. Thus the present study, the first of its kind with PLX, establishes the therapeutic benefit of the same particularly in infected wounds, opening up newer avenue for further exploration

  20. Management of resistant supraventricular tachycardia in the immediate postpartum period: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangadharaiah Narasimhaiah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT during pregnancy or immediate postpartum is the commonest arrhythmia during pregnancy. Usually, the clinical symptoms are mild or go unrecognized. Rarely as in our case, can patient present with severe symptoms of agitation and restlessness which can mimic puerperal psychosis. A 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG and an echocardiogram usually are sufficient to diagnose SVT. Amiodarone, even though is not the drug recommended to be used during pregnancy, in resistant types of SVT it is an useful drug.

  1. Management of the Patient with Aggressive and Resistant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Miftari, Rame; Top?iu, Valdete; Nura, Adem; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Papillary carcinoma is the most frequent type of thyroid cancer and was considered the most benign of all thyroid carcinomas, with a low risk of distant metastases. However, there are some variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma that have affinity to spread in many organs, such as: lymph nodes, lungs and bones. Aim: The aim of this study was presentation of a case with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland, very persistent and resistant in treatment with I 131. Material and result...

  2. Surgical Management of Cavernous Malformations Presenting with Drug-Resistant Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Vanegas, Mario Arturo; Cisneros-Franco, José M.; Otsuki, Taisuke

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CMs) are dynamic lesions characterized by continuous size changes and repeated bleeding. When involving cortical tissue, CMs pose a significant risk for the development of drug-resistant epilepsy, which is thought to be result of an altered neuronal network caused by the lesion itself and its blood degradation products. Preoperative evaluation should comprise a complete seizure history, neurological examination, epilepsy-oriented MRI, EEG, video-EEG, complete...

  3. Wet weather highway accident analysis and skid resistance data management system (volume II : user's manual).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The objectives and scope of this research are to establish an effective methodology for wet weather accident analysis and to develop a database management system to facilitate information processing and storage for the accident analysis process, skid...

  4. Wet weather highway accident analysis and skid resistance data management system (volume I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The objectives and scope of this research are to establish an effective methodology for wet weather accident analysis and to develop a database management system to facilitate information processing and storage for the accident analysis process, skid...

  5. Mosquitocidal carbamates with low toxicity to agricultural pests: an advantageous property for insecticide resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swale, Daniel R; Carlier, Paul R; Hartsel, Joshua A; Ma, Ming; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2015-08-01

    Insecticide resistance in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae is well documented, and widespread agricultural use of pyrethroids may exacerbate development of resistance when pyrethroids are used in vector control. We have developed carbamate anticholinesterases that possess a high degree of An. gambiae:human selectivity for enzyme inhibition. The purpose of this study was to assess the spectrum of activity of these carbamates against other mosquitoes and agricultural pests. Experimental carbamates were potent inhibitors of mosquito acetylcholinesterases, with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. Similar potencies were observed for Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster enzymes. Although meta-substituted carbamates were potent inhibitors, two ortho-substituted carbamates displayed poor enzyme inhibition (IC50 ≥ 10(-6)  M) in honey bee (Apis mellifera), Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) and lepidopteran agricultural pests (Plutella xylostella and Ostrinia nubilalis). Enzyme inhibition results were confirmed by toxicity studies in caterpillars, where the new carbamates were 2-3-fold less toxic than propoxur and up to tenfold less active than bendiocarb, indicating little utility of these compounds for crop protection. The experimental carbamates were broadly active against mosquito species but not agricultural pests, which should mitigate selection for mosquito insecticide resistance by reducing agricultural uses of these compounds. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Relações familiares na perspectiva de pais, irmãos e crianças com deficiência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cerqueira da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento das crianças com deficiência é influenciado pelas relações familiares, sobretudo pelo modo como os pais lidam com a criança e a deficiência. No entanto, apesar de sua importância, pouco é conhecido sobre o funcionamento global dessas famílias. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as características das relações familiares de crianças com deficiência (auditiva, intelectual, física, múltipla e visual na perspectiva das mães (n=16, dos pais (n=12, dos irmãos (n=10 e das próprias crianças com deficiência (n=16, priorizando as relações nos subsistemas parental, conjugal e fraterno. Foi realizada uma entrevista semiestruturada com cada um dos participantes, individualmente, em suas respectivas residências, e foi aplicado um questionário de caracterização do sistema familiar com um dos genitores. Os resultados mostram que as práticas parentais são percebidas como coercitivas, mesmo havendo harmonia, diálogo e compartilhamento nos cuidados com os filhos. As relações conjugais são vistas como predominantemente satisfatórias, embora existam conflitos. Já sobre as relações fraternas, foram frequentes os relatos sobre conflito, harmonia, cuidado/proteção e coesão/união entre os irmãos. A percepção das relações familiares varia em função do tipo de deficiência da criança no que tange às práticas educativas parentais, aos valores/crenças presentes na educação dos filhos e aos conflitos conjugais e entre irmãos. Os resultados indicam a necessidade urgente de investigar os padrões de comunicação em famílias com crianças com diferentes tipos de deficiência, visando à elaboração de propostas de educação e reeducação voltadas ao funcionamento típico de cada tipologia de família.

  7. Antibiotic management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus--associated acute pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Nicholas M; Toussaint, Kimberly A; Prescott, William Allan

    2015-04-01

    To review the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-associated acute pulmonary exacerbations (APEs) in cystic fibrosis (CF). A search of PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and Clinicaltrials.gov databases through November 2014 was conducted using the search terms Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, pulmonary exacerbations, and cystic fibrosis. All English-language research articles, case reports, and case series were evaluated. A total of 185 articles were identified related to MRSA and CF; 30 articles that studied treatments of MRSA APE in CF were included. The persistent presence of MRSA in the respiratory tract of patients with CF has been associated with higher morbidity and an increased risk of death. Limited clinical data exist supporting the efficacy of any specific antimicrobial currently available for the treatment of APE secondary to MRSA. Data extrapolated from other populations suggest that vancomycin and linezolid are appropriate first-line treatment options for the treatment of APE secondary to MRSA. Second-line options include doxycycline or minocycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, each of which may be useful in patients coinfected with other respiratory pathogens, for which they may provide overlapping coverage. Ceftaroline and ceftobiprole are newer antibiotics that appear to have a potential role in the treatment of APE in CF, but the latter is not currently available to the US market. Although potentially useful, clindamycin is limited by high rates of resistance, telavancin is limited by its toxicity profile, and tigecycline is limited by a lack of demonstrated efficacy for infections that are similar to that seen in the CF population. Studies investigating the clinical utility of the above-cited antibiotics for APE in CF secondary to MRSA are desperately needed to broaden the treatment armamentarium for this medical condition. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Dilemma of managing asymptomatic children referred with 'culture-confirmed' drug-resistant tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, Marian; Sunkari, Babu; Marais, Ben J; Master, Iqbal; Brust, James C M

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in children is challenging and treatment is associated with many adverse effects. We aimed to assess if careful observation, without initiation of second-line treatment, is safe in asymptomatic children referred with 'culture-confirmed' DR-TB. KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa-an area with high burdens of HIV, TB and DR-TB. We performed an outcome review of children with 'culture-confirmed' DR-TB who were not initiated on second-line TB treatment, as they were asymptomatic with normal chest radiographs on examination at our specialist referral hospital. Children were followed up every other month for the first year, with a final outcome assessment at the end of the study. In total, 43 asymptomatic children with normal chest radiographs were reviewed. The median length of follow-up until final evaluation was 549 days (IQR 259-722 days); most (34; 83%) children were HIV uninfected. Resistance patterns included 9 (21%) monoresistant and 34 (79%) multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. Fifteen children (35%) had been treated with first-line TB treatment, prior to presentation at our referral hospital. At the final evaluation, 34 (80%) children were well, 7 (16%) were lost to follow-up, 1 (2%) received MDR-TB treatment and 1 (2%) died of unknown causes. The child who received MDR-TB treatment developed new symptoms at the 12-month review and responded well to second-line treatment. Bacteriological evaluation should not be performed in the absence of any clinical indication. If drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is detected in an asymptomatic child with a normal chest radiograph, close observation may be an appropriate strategy, especially in settings where potential laboratory error and poor record keeping are constant challenges. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Resistance and the management of complicated skin and skin structure infections: the role of ceftobiprole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Barbour

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available April Barbour1, Hartmut Derendorf21GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Antimicrobial resistant bacteria are an increasing concern due to the resulting increase in morbidity, mortality, and health-care costs associated with the administration of inadequate or delayed antimicrobial therapy. The implications of inadequate antimicrobial therapy in complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs have gained more attention recently, most likely due to the recent emergence of community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and the already high prevalence of MRSA in the nosocomial setting. Due to the continuous threat of resistance arising and the limitations of currently available agents for the treatment of cSSSIs, it is necessary to develop new antimicrobials for this indication. Ceftobiprole medocaril, the prodrug of ceftobiprole, is a parental investigational cephalosporin for the treatment of cSSSIs displaying a wide-spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative species, including MRSA. Ceftobiprole displays noncomplex linear pharmacokinetics, is eliminated primarily by glomerular filtration, and distributes to extracellular fluid. Additionally, it has been shown that the extent of distribution to the site of action with regard to cSSSIs, ie, the extracellular space fluid of subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, is expected to be efficacious, as free concentrations meet efficacy targets for most pathogens. Similar to other beta-lactams, it displays an excellent safety and tolerability profile with the primary adverse events being dysgeusia in healthy volunteers, resulting from the conversion of the prodrug to the active, and nausea in patients. Ceftobiprole has demonstrated noninferiority in two large-scale pivotal studies comparing it to vancomycin, clinical cure rates 93.3% vs

  10. 13 C analysis of aromas and perfumes by a coupled GC-IRMS technique. The case of vanillin and leaf alcohol extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breas, O.; Fourel, F.; Martin, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The determination of stable isotope ratios is a precious tool to establish the natural status of flavors and fragrances. Results are presented concerning δ 13 C measurements using gas chromatography-combustion interface-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C- 13 C IRMS). This technique allows to measure carbon isotope ratios on pure compounds separated by capillary gas chromatography and injected on-line into an isotopic mass spectrometer. δ 13 C measurements carried out on vanilla extracts require only very small quantities of compounds ( 13 C measurements performed on cis-3-hexanol extracted from mint, the difference between natural and synthetic cis-3-hexanol is underlined and it is demonstrated that reproducible isotope ratios may be measured for cis-3-hexanol on mint extracts without purification even if this compound only represents 0.5% of the extract. (authors). 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  11. Évaluation des potentialités de l'IRM pour la recherche sur la Physiologie des Bivalves Premiers résultats anatomiques et perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Pouvreau, Stephane; Davenel, A; Quellec, S; Rambeau, M

    2004-01-01

    La résonance magnétique nucléaire (RMN) est de plus en plus utilisée en biologie et l'apparition de plate-formes (Rennes, Strasbourgs, Marseille...) d'imagerie et de spectroscopie structurale et/ou métabolique (IRM/SRM) dédié au petit animal montre l'engouement récent pour ces techniques d'investigation. Pourtant, à ce jour et à notre connaissance, aucune approche de ce style n'a été développée chez les mollusques marins, a fortiori chez l'huître creuse, Crassostrea gigas. De part son importa...

  12. Fé no pife: as flautas de pífano no contexto cultural da banda Cabaçal dos Irmãos Aniceto

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Murilo

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho consiste em uma etnografia da prática musical das flautas de pífano da banda cabaçal dos Irmãos Aniceto. Tal pesquisa buscou ligar fatos histórico-sociais do grupo em questão e da região do Cariri Cearense com a musicalidade do sujeito da pesquisa. Com tal objetivo realizou-se uma viagem de campo nos primeiros meses de 2011. A metodologia de coleta de dados estabeleceu a relação mestre/aprendiz no intuito de conhecer empiricamente o instrumento musical em questão. Além d...

  13. Cotton pest management practices and the selection of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae population in Northern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadouleton Anges

    2011-04-01

    An. gambiae from BP areas gave a high level of susceptibility to permethrin with an average mortality of 94%. Molecular analysis identified An. gambiae s.s, and An. arabiensis with a high predominance of An. gambiae s.s (90%. The two molecular forms, M and S, were also determined with a high frequency of the S form (96%. The Kdr gene seemed the main target- site resistance mechanism detected in CCP, TICP, and BP areas at the rates ranging from 32 to 78%. The frequency of ace-1R gene was very low ( The presence of inhibiting factors in soil samples under insecticide treatments were found and affected negatively in delaying the development of An. gambiae larval populations. Conclusions This research shows that Kdr has spread widely in An. gambiae, mainly in CCP and TICP areas where pyrethroids are extensively used. To reduce the negative impact of pesticides use in cotton crop protection, the application of BP-like programs, which do not appear to select for vector resistance would be useful. These results could serve as scientific evidence of the spread of resistance due to a massive agricultural use of insecticides and contribute to the management of pesticides usage on cotton crops hence reducing the selection pressure of insecticides on An. gambiae populations.

  14. Omalizumab is efficacious for management of recalcitrant, antihistamine-resistant chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, D M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic urticaria continues to be a challenging condition for both patients and physicians. Despite improved understanding of chronic urticaria, many patients continue to experience ongoing symptoms and impaired quality of life. Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the domain at which IgE binds to the high-affinity IgE receptor on mast cells and basophils. The efficacy of omalizumab for antihistamine-resistant chronic urticaria has been demonstrated in several randomized controlled trials as well as observational studies. Omalizumab is generally well tolerated, and is associated with less potential for harm compared with other therapeutic alternatives (e.g., calcineurin inhibitors) for recalcitrant chronic urticaria. Omalizumab has become the best-studied agent for treatment of antihistamine-resistant chronic urticaria, and the agent for which the data in support of its efficacy is most methodologically sound. Omalizumab is an effective therapeutic option for patients with recalcitrant chronic urticaria. Copyright 2015 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  15. Surgical Management of Cavernous Malformations Presenting with Drug-Resistant Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Vanegas, Mario Arturo; Cisneros-Franco, José M.; Otsuki, Taisuke

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CMs) are dynamic lesions characterized by continuous size changes and repeated bleeding. When involving cortical tissue, CMs pose a significant risk for the development of drug-resistant epilepsy, which is thought to be result of an altered neuronal network caused by the lesion itself and its blood degradation products. Preoperative evaluation should comprise a complete seizure history, neurological examination, epilepsy-oriented MRI, EEG, video-EEG, completed with SPECT, PET, functional MRI, and/or invasive monitoring as needed. Radiosurgery shows variable rates of seizure freedom and a high incidence of complications, thus microsurgical resection remains the optimal treatment for CMs presenting with drug-resistant epilepsy. Two thirds of patients reach Engel I class at 3-year follow-up, regardless of lobar location. Those with secondarily generalized seizures, a higher seizure frequency, and generalized abnormalities on preoperative or postoperative EEG, show poorer outcomes, while factors such as gender, duration of epilepsy, lesion size, age, bleeding at the time of surgery, do not correlate consistently with seizure outcome. Electrocorticography and a meticulous removal of all cortical hemosiderin – beyond pure lesionectomy – reduce the risk of symptomatic recurrences. PMID:22319505

  16. Microbial leakage of Cavit, IRM, and Temp Bond in post-prepared root canals using two methods of gutta-percha removal: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balto, Hanan; Al-Nazhan, Saad; Al-Mansour, Khulood; Al-Otaibi, Moneera; Siddiqu, Yunus

    2005-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the integrity of the coronal seal of Temp-Bond and compare it to Cavit and IRM after post space preparation using S. faecalis as a microbial tracer. In addition, the affect of two methods of gutta percha removal on the apical seal of root canal fillings was also evaluated. Forty extracted human single rooted teeth were prepared chemomechanically and obturated with gutta percha and AH26 sealer cement using the lateral cold condensation technique to a standardized working length of 15 mm. About 10 mm of the coronal gutta-percha was removed with either Peeso-reamer or a hot plugger. The roots were divided into three experimental groups of 10 roots and a control group. Each experimental group was subdivided equally into two groups of 15 each according to the method of post space preparation. Cavit, IRM, and Temp-Bond were used to seal the access opening. Each root was fixed in a cuvette containing Tryptic Soya Broth which, covered 2 mm of the root apex. Bacterial suspension was introduced through pipette. Fresh bacterial suspension was added every week, and the system was monitored daily for the growth of microorganisms for a period of one month. The results showed there was no significant difference in terms of coronal leakage between the three coronal materials used (P=0.478), but the methods of gutta-percha removal did have an impact on the apical leakage (P=0.047). The mean value showed the Peeso-reamer provided less leakage compared to using a hot plugger during the 30-day experimental time period. It was concluded the temporary type of coronal seal of endodontically treated teeth will not prevent coronal leakage if left for a long period of time. In addition, permanent cementation of the post with the coronal restoration should be carried out as soon as possible to prevent recontamination of the root canal.

  17. IRMS detection of testosterone manipulated with {sup 13}C labeled standards in human urine by removing the labeled {sup 13}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingzhu, E-mail: wangjingzhu@chinada.cn [National Anti-Doping Laboratory, China Anti-Doping Agency, Beijing (China); Yang, Rui [Sport Science College, Beijing Sport University Beijing, Beijing (China); Yang, Wenning [School of Pharmacy, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing (China); Liu, Xin; Xing, Yanyi; Xu, Youxuan [National Anti-Doping Laboratory, China Anti-Doping Agency, Beijing (China)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • {sup 13}C labeled testosterone can be used to adjust the isotope ratio of testosterone. • The novel testosterone cannot be detected by the regular IRMS method in doping test. • A method was explored to remove the labeled {sup 13}C. • The established method can be used to detect the manipulated testosterone. - Abstract: Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is applied to confirm testosterone (T) abuse by determining the carbon isotope ratios (δ{sup 13}C value). However, {sup 13}C labeled standards can be used to control the δ{sup 13}C value and produce manipulated T which cannot be detected by the current method. A method was explored to remove the {sup 13}C labeled atom at C-3 from the molecule of androsterone (Andro), the metabolite of T in urine, to produce the resultant (A-nor-5α-androstane-2,17-dione, ANAD). The difference in δ{sup 13}C values between Andro and ANAD (Δδ{sup 13}C{sub Andro–ANAD}, ‰) would change significantly in case manipulated T is abused. Twenty-one volunteers administered T manipulated with different {sup 13}C labeled standards. The collected urine samples were analyzed with the established method, and the maximum value of Δδ{sup 13}C{sub Andro–ANAD} post ingestion ranged from 3.0‰ to 8.8‰. Based on the population reference, the cut-off value of Δδ{sup 13}C{sub Andro–ANAD} for positive result was suggested as 1.2‰. The developed method could be used to detect T manipulated with 3-{sup 13}C labeled standards.

  18. GC-C-IRMS analysis of FAMEs as a tool to ascertain the diet of Iberian pigs used for the production of pork products with high added value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raposo, C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Taste, quality and perceived health benefits result in a high demand for both green and mature pork products derived from the Iberian bred swine. These characteristics are directly related to diet and breeding style (free ranging in a particular Mediterranean ecosystem: the Dehesa. Given that current demand is not matched by the available resources, animal feed is increasingly used. GC-C-IRMS analysis of Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic and Linoleic Acid methyl esters allows for differentiating between pork raised in the traditional way and that fattened on animal feed. Although a value of δ13CC18:1 = –25.9‰ is a good discriminator, exploratory analysis of principal canonical components is required to properly assign any unknown sample.El sabor, la calidad y los efectos saludables de los derivados del cerdo ibérico dan lugar a una elevada demanda de los mismos, tanto en fresco como curados. Las características mencionadas responden a una dieta y crianza específicas (libres en la Dehesa, alimentándose de lo que ésta produce. Frecuentemente, los recursos disponibles son insuficientes para cubrir la demanda, dando en ocasiones lugar a la alimentación artificial de algunos de los cerdos. El análisis de las relaciones isotópicas 13C/12C de los ácidos grasos Palmítico, Esteárico, Oleico y Linoleico mediante GC-C-IRMS permite diferenciar entre animales criados al estilo tradicional (acabados en montanera y aquellos alimentados con piensos. El valor de δ13CC18:1 = –25.9‰ es un buen indicador, pero la correcta asignación de una muestra dada requiere el empleo de los cuatro ácidos grasos indicados y su tratamiento estadístico mediante análisis de componentes principales.

  19. Ixabepilone: a new treatment option for the management of taxane-resistant metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobham, Marta Vallee; Donovan, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Ixabepilone (Ixempra ® ; Bristol-Myers Squibb) is a novel microtubule stabilizing agent recently approved for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). This article focuses on considerations for ixabepilone administration and adverse event (AE) management, drawing from the biomedical literature indexed in PubMed, published abstracts from the American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meetings, and the manufacturer’s prescribing information for ixabepilone. Administered as monotherapy or in combination with capecitabine in clinical studies, ixabepilone demonstrated positive clinical response rates, prolonged progression-free survival, and a favorable safety profile in patients with MBC. Treatment-related AEs were predictable and manageable with dose modification, treatment interruption, and active management. As ixabepilone undergoes development in earlier lines of breast cancer therapy and in other solid tumors, oncology nurses will encounter more and more patients receiving ixabepilone therapy. If nurses are acquainted with the unique management strategies associated with ixabepilone treatment, as detailed herein, patients are more likely to receive the full benefit of therapy

  20. Management of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in children: consensus and controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Fleischman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Amy Fleischman, Erinn T RhodesDivision of Endocrinology, Children’s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, United StatesAbstract: Childhood obesity has become a national and international epidemic. The prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes in youth have been increasing, and type 2 diabetes is one of the most challenging complications of obesity in childhood. Comprehensive lifestyle interventions that include attention to dietary change, increased physical activity and behavior change appear to be required for the successful treatment of pediatric obesity. In particular, aspects of behavioral interventions that have been identified as contributing to effectiveness have included intensity, parent/family participation, addressing healthy dietary change, promoting physical activity, and involving behavioral management principles such as goal setting. A multidisciplinary team approach is required for successful management of type 2 diabetes in youth as well. As with many therapies in pediatrics, clinical trials and support for treatments of obesity and type 2 diabetes in youth lag behind adult data. Pediatric recommendations may be extrapolated from adult data and are often based on consensus guidelines. Type 2 diabetes in children is most commonly managed with lifestyle modification and medications, metformin and/or insulin, the only medications currently approved for use in children. However, many opportunities exist for ongoing research to clarify optimal management for obesity and type 2 diabetes in youth.Keywords: children, obesity, type 2 diabetes, metformin, insulin, bariatric surgery

  1. The Management of Resistance to Change and Polarity in Educational Organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, A. M. C.; Westhuizen, Philip C. van der

    Research has shown that organizations differ on the basis of their willingness to change and the strategies they use to manage change. For this paper, data were gathered through a review of the literature and through nonstandard interviews with persons in two identified organizations who handle grievance procedures. The analysis identifies the…

  2. Conversion of natural forest to managed forest plantations decreases tree resistance to prolonged droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Domec; John S. King; Eric Ward; A. Christopher Oishi; Sari Palmroth; Andrew Radecki; Dave M. Bell; Guofang Miao; Michael Gavazzi; Daniel M. Johnson; Steve G. McNulty; Ge Sun; Asko. Noormets

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the southern US, past forest management practices have replaced large areas of native forests with loblolly pine plantations and have resulted in changes in forest response to extreme weather conditions. However, uncertainty remains about the response of planted versus natural species to drought across the geographical range of these forests. Taking...

  3. Management of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in children: consensus and controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Amy; Rhodes, Erinn T

    2009-11-27

    Childhood obesity has become a national and international epidemic. The prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes in youth have been increasing, and type 2 diabetes is one of the most challenging complications of obesity in childhood. Comprehensive lifestyle interventions that include attention to dietary change, increased physical activity and behavior change appear to be required for the successful treatment of pediatric obesity. In particular, aspects of behavioral interventions that have been identified as contributing to effectiveness have included intensity, parent/family participation, addressing healthy dietary change, promoting physical activity, and involving behavioral management principles such as goal setting. A multidisciplinary team approach is required for successful management of type 2 diabetes in youth as well. As with many therapies in pediatrics, clinical trials and support for treatments of obesity and type 2 diabetes in youth lag behind adult data. Pediatric recommendations may be extrapolated from adult data and are often based on consensus guidelines. Type 2 diabetes in children is most commonly managed with lifestyle modification and medications, metformin and/or insulin, the only medications currently approved for use in children. However, many opportunities exist for ongoing research to clarify optimal management for obesity and type 2 diabetes in youth.

  4. 1993 Department of Energy Records Management Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This document consists of viewgraphs from the presentations at the conference. Topics included are: DOE records management overview, NIRMA and ARMA resources, NARA records management training, potential quality assurance records, filing systems, organizing and indexing technical records, DOE-HQ initiatives, IRM reviews, status of epidemiologic inventory, disposition of records and personal papers, inactive records storage, establishing administrative records, managing records at Hanford, electronic mail -- legal and records issues, NARA-GAO reports status, consultive selling, automated indexing, decentralized approach to scheduling at a DOE office, developing specific records management programs, storage and retrieval at Savannah River Plant, an optical disk case study, and special interest group reports.

  5. Investigating IT Faculty Resistance to Learning Management System Adoption Using Latent Variables in an Acceptance Technology Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousbahi, Fatiha; Alrazgan, Muna Saleh

    2015-01-01

    To enhance instruction in higher education, many universities in the Middle East have chosen to introduce learning management systems (LMS) to their institutions. However, this new educational technology is not being used at its full potential and faces resistance from faculty members. To investigate this phenomenon, we conducted an empirical research study to uncover factors influencing faculty members' acceptance of LMS. Thus, in the Fall semester of 2014, Information Technology faculty members were surveyed to better understand their perceptions of the incorporation of LMS into their courses. The results showed that personal factors such as motivation, load anxiety, and organizational support play important roles in the perception of the usefulness of LMS among IT faculty members. These findings suggest adding these constructs in order to extend the Technology acceptance model (TAM) for LMS acceptance, which can help stakeholders of the university to implement the use of this system. This may assist in planning and evaluating the use of e-learning.

  6. Resistance to Change—A New Perspective: A Textbook for Managers Who Plan to Implement a Change” by Daniela Bradutanu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Barnes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available hange is inevitable—it’s in our experience wherever we turn. One area, however, where most people do not want to experience change is in the work place. Whether the change is beneficial or not, those who are subjected to a change in the workplace will almost without fail resist a change to their status quo. Managers have normally come to accept this and just plough ahead, coercing their subordinates into accepting the change. With the advent of Dr Daniela Bradutanu’s new book “Resistance to Change”, there is another way—a way of cooperation between managers and employees.

  7. A step ahead of PPARγ full agonists to PPARγ partial agonists: therapeutic perspectives in the management of diabetic insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigurupati, Sridevi; Dhanaraj, Sokkalingam A; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2015-05-15

    Described since long as a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate the gene expression of proteins involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. PPARs indeed regulate several physiologic processes, including lipid homeostasis, adipogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing. PPARs bind natural or synthetic PPAR ligands can function as cellular sensors to regulate the gene transcription. Dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with insulin resistance are treated using agonists of PPARα and PPARγ, respectively. The PPARγ is a key regulator of insulin sensitization and glucose metabolism, and therefore is considered as an imperative pharmacological target to combat diabetic metabolic disease and insulin resistance. Of note, currently available PPARγ full agonists like rosiglitazone display serious adverse effects such as fluid retention/oedema, weight gain, and increased incidence of cardiovascular events. On the other hand, PPARγ partial agonists are being suggested to devoid or having less incidence of these undesirable events, and are under developmental stages. Current research is on the way for the development of novel PPARγ partial agonists with enhanced therapeutic efficacy and reduced adverse effects. This review sheds lights on the current status of development of PPARγ partial agonists, for the management of T2DM, having comparatively less or no adverse effects to that of PPARγ full agonists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Negotiating peace across identities : are identity conflicts especially intractable and resistant to conflict management?

    OpenAIRE

    Humberset, Arne

    2005-01-01

    This Master s Thesis develops the concept of identity conflict on the basis of needs- and identity-based approaches to conflict resolution. These various theoretical perspectives share the assumption that identity conflicts make up a particularly intractable type of conflict that is not amendable to conventional methods of conflict management. The concept of identity conflict incorporates several key assumptions from the needs- and identity-based approaches to conflict resolution. First it as...

  9. Change, resistance and coping: a study of first tier managers in further education

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Damien

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents findings from a study of first tier managers (FTMs) in Further Education colleges, a role that has been largely neglected by the extant literature. The study investigated the role in four general FE colleges and adopted a case study approach, employing semi-structured interviews as the main research method. The findings suggest that the FTM role is extremely diverse and heterogeneous, elastic and poorly understood. Yet FTMs themselves enjoyed a high degree of autonomy in ...

  10. Mechanisms of glyphosate resistance and response to alternative herbicide-based management in populations of the three Conyza species introduced in Southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Blanco, Ignacio; Fernández-Moreno, Pablo Tomás; Osuna-Ruiz, María Dolores; Bastida, Fernando; De Prado, Rafael

    2018-02-25

    In perennial crops, the most common method of weed control is to spray herbicides, and glyphosate has long been the first choice of farmers. Three species of the genus Conyza are among the most problematic weeds for farmers, exhibiting resistance to glyphosate. The objectives of this work were to evaluate resistance levels and mechanisms, and to test chemical control alternatives in putative resistant (R) populations of Conyza bonariensis, Conyza canadensis and Conyza sumatrensis. Plants of the three R-populations of Conyza spp. survived high doses of glyphosate compared to plants of susceptible (S) populations. The rate of movement of 14 C glyphosate out of treated leaves in plants of S-populations was higher than in plants of R-populations. Only in plants of the R-population of C. sumatrensis contained the known target-site 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase mutation Pro-106-Thr. Field responses to the different alternative herbicide treatments tested indicated injury and high effectiveness in most cases. The results indicate that non-target-site resistant (NTSR) mechanisms explain resistance in C. bonariensis and C. canadensis, whereas both NTSR and target-site resistant (TSR) mechanisms contribute to resistance in C. sumatrensis. The results obtained in the field trials suggest that the resistance problem can be solved through Integrated Weed Management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of water management on the oxygen transport resistance in polymer electrolyte fuel cell with ultra-low precious metal loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srouji, A. K.; Zheng, L. J.; Dross, R.; Aaron, D.; Mench, M. M.

    2017-10-01

    Limiting current measurements are used to evaluate oxygen transport resistance in the catalyst layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). The pressure independent oxygen transport resistance in the electrode is quantified for two cell architectures and two cathode Pt loadings (0.4 and 0.07 mgPt.cm-2). The compounded effect of the flow field and Pt loading is used to shed light on the nature of the observed transport resistance, especially its response to fundamentally different flow fields, which is shown to directly or indirectly scale with Pt loading in the open literature. By varying gas pressure and using low oxygen concentrations, the total oxygen transport resistance is divided into intermolecular gas diffusion (a pressure-dependent component) and a pressure independent component, which can be attributed to Knudsen diffusion or dissolution film resistance. The pressure-independent oxygen transport resistance in the catalyst layer varies between 13.3 and 34.4 s/m. It is shown that the pressure independent oxygen transport resistance increases with reduced Pt loading, but that effect is greatly exacerbated by using conventional channel/lands. The results indicate that open metallic element architecture improves the oxygen transport resistance in ultra-low Pt loading electrodes, likely due to enhanced water management at the catalyst layer.

  12. Resistance training program for fatigue management in the workplace: exercise protocol in a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hélio Gustavo; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Valentim, Daniela Pereira; da Silva, Patricia Rodrigues; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    2016-12-22

    Fatigue is a multifactorial condition that leads to disease and loss in production, and it affects a large number of workers worldwide. This study aims to demonstrate a resistance exercise protocol that individuals will perform during the work schedule, and to evaluate the effectiveness of this exercises program for fatigue control. This is a cluster randomized controlled trial with two arms and is assessor blinded. A total of 352 workers of both sexes, aged 18-65 years, from a medium-sized dairy plant were enrolled in this study. Participants will be recruited from 13 production sectors according to the eligibility criteria and will be randomized by clusters to either the Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE) intervention group or the Compensatory Workplace Exercise (CWE) comparative group. A resistance exercise program will be implemented for both groups. The groups will receive instructions on self-management, breaks, adjustments to workstations, and the benefits of physical exercise. The PRE group will perform resistance exercises with gradual loads in an exercise room, and the CWE group will perform exercise at their workstations using elastic bands. The exercise sessions will be held 3 times a week for 20 min. The primary outcome measures will be symptoms of physical and mental fatigue, and muscular fatigue based on a one-repetition maximum (1RM). The secondary outcome measures will be level of physical activity, musculoskeletal symptoms, physical condition, perceived exposure, and productivity. The workers will be assessed at baseline and after a 4-month program. A linear mixed model will be applied on an intention-to-treat basis. This intervention is expected to reduce symptoms of fatigue in the workers. The exercise program is indicating in the workplace, although there are few studies describing the effects of exercise on the control of fatigue in the workplace. Emphasis will be placed on adherence to the program, which may result in significant and

  13. Resistance training program for fatigue management in the workplace: exercise protocol in a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Gustavo Santos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is a multifactorial condition that leads to disease and loss in production, and it affects a large number of workers worldwide. This study aims to demonstrate a resistance exercise protocol that individuals will perform during the work schedule, and to evaluate the effectiveness of this exercises program for fatigue control. Methods/Design This is a cluster randomized controlled trial with two arms and is assessor blinded. A total of 352 workers of both sexes, aged 18–65 years, from a medium-sized dairy plant were enrolled in this study. Participants will be recruited from 13 production sectors according to the eligibility criteria and will be randomized by clusters to either the Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE intervention group or the Compensatory Workplace Exercise (CWE comparative group. A resistance exercise program will be implemented for both groups. The groups will receive instructions on self-management, breaks, adjustments to workstations, and the benefits of physical exercise. The PRE group will perform resistance exercises with gradual loads in an exercise room, and the CWE group will perform exercise at their workstations using elastic bands. The exercise sessions will be held 3 times a week for 20 min. The primary outcome measures will be symptoms of physical and mental fatigue, and muscular fatigue based on a one-repetition maximum (1RM. The secondary outcome measures will be level of physical activity, musculoskeletal symptoms, physical condition, perceived exposure, and productivity. The workers will be assessed at baseline and after a 4-month program. A linear mixed model will be applied on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion This intervention is expected to reduce symptoms of fatigue in the workers. The exercise program is indicating in the workplace, although there are few studies describing the effects of exercise on the control of fatigue in the workplace. Emphasis will be placed on

  14. Um olhar sobre as ruínas da casa e sua correlação com o conflito familiar nos romances Os dois irmãos, de Germano Almeida e Dois irmãos, de Milton Hatoum

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    Antonio Aparecido Mantovani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O diálogo entre a literatura brasileira e a cabo-verdiana não se esgota nas décadas de 30 e 40. Este pode ser observado até a atualidade e com extensão para outras regiões brasileiras, além do Nordeste. A partir desta reflexão, este estudo tem como objetivo investigar, dentro do macrossistema literário de língua portuguesa e no âmbito das relações literárias contemporâneas entre Brasil e Cabo Verde, as tensões das personagens a partir da casa nos romances Os dois irmãos, de Germano Almeida, e Dois irmãos, de Milton Hatoum. Nessas obras, a casa, distante de sua função de aconchego, em vez de ser “uma das maiores (forças de integração”, no dizer de Bachelard, transforma-se num ambiente hostil, que impõe o conflito fraterno que se estende aos espaços em seu entorno.Palavras-chave: Literatura cabo-verdiana; Literatura brasileira; Estudos comparados; Casa; Drama familiar.

  15. Challenges in the sequencing of therapies for the management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Phillip; Parnis, Francis; Gurney, Howard

    2014-09-01

    Prior to 2010, docetaxel was the standard option for chemotherapy in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Today, the picture is vastly different: several additional therapies have each demonstrated a survival benefit such that we now have chemotherapy (cabazitaxel), androgen suppressive agents (abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide), a cellular vaccine (sipuleucel-T) and radium-233 (for symptomatic bone metastases). With several other agents in the pipeline for late-stage disease, the future looks promising for mCRPC. As the available data are not able to inform as to the optimum sequencing of therapy, this remains a challenge. This paper draws on insights from published and ongoing clinical studies to provide a practical patient-focused approach to maximize the benefits of the current therapeutic armamentarium. Preliminary sequencing suggestions are made based on clinical trial criteria. But until more data become available, clinical gestalt, experience, cost and individual patient preferences will continue to drive choices. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Monitoring and Management of Imidazolinone-Resistant Red Rice (Oryza sativa L., var. sylvatica in Clearfield® Italian Paddy Rice

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    Laura Scarabel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction in Italy of Clearfield® rice cultivars carrying imidazolinone-resistant traits provides an efficient option to control red rice, a conspecific weed of cultivated rice. However, despite the promulgation of specific guidelines for Clearfield® technology management, imazamox red rice survivors have been reported by farmers. Forty-two fields were monitored in 2010 and 2011 throughout the Piedmont and Lombardy regions and field cases were recorded of herbicides use and agronomic practices. Whole-plant sensitivity to imazamox was assessed and the resistance mechanism was determined by molecular analysis. Twenty-six red rice populations out of 42 were imazamox-resistant and plants of all the resistant populations possess a Ser to Asn substitution at locus 653 of the ALS gene determining the target-site resistance. Farmers frequently grow Clearfield® varieties for more than two consecutive years so increasing the selection pressure exerted by imazamox and favoring the evolution of resistant red rice. To maintain the sustainability of this new technology, a proper management based on crop rotation, utilization of certified seeds and strict control of red rice escapes has to be implemented. More generally, all stakeholders must increase their awareness that the selection pressure exerted by ALS inhibitors in rice cropping system should be reduced.

  17. Effectiveness of the high dose/refuge strategy for managing pest resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants expressing one or two toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryspeirt, Aiko; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

    2012-10-01

    To delay resistance development to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants expressing their own insecticide, the application of the Insect Resistance Management strategy called "High Dose/Refuge Strategy" (HD/R) is recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). This strategy was developed for Bt plants expressing one toxin. Presently, however, new Bt plants that simultaneously express two toxins are on the market. We used a mathematical model to evaluate the efficiency of the HD/R strategy for both these Bt toxins. As the current two-toxin Bt plants do not express two new Cry toxins but reuse one toxin already in use with a one-toxin plant, we estimated the spread of resistance when the resistance alleles are not rare. This study assesses: (i) whether the two toxins have to be present in high concentration, and (ii) the impact of the relative size of the refuge zone on the evolution of resistance and population density. We concluded that for Bt plants expressing one toxin, a high concentration is an essential condition for resistance management. For the pyramided Bt plants, one toxin could be expressed at a low titer if the two toxins are used for the first time, and a small refuge zone is acceptable.

  18. Community-based management of multiple drug resistant tuberculosis in a tertiary hospital in Tanzania: a best practice implementation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelly, Isaya; Peters, Micah D J

    2017-12-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has prioritized collaboration with communities in its 2016 "End TB" implementation strategy. Acknowledging the difficulties that some communities face in gaining access to health facilities due to barriers such as stigma, discrimination, healthcare expenditure, transport and income loss, partnering with communities in the roll-out of community-based TB management activities is vital. The aim of this project was to make a contribution to promoting evidence-based practice with regards to the community-based management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at Kibong'oto National Infectious Disease Hospital, Tanzania, and thereby supporting improvements in patient outcomes and resource utilization. The project utilized the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System (JBI PACES) program to facilitate the collection of pre- and post-audit data. The Getting Research into Practice (GRiP) module was also used to analyze the potential barriers and for designing the final action plan. This project was conducted in three phases over a three-month period at the MDR-TB unit in a referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. The project showed that there were significant improvements in compliance rates in staff education and documentation of patients' suitability and preferences in receiving community-based care for MDR-TB. The compliance rate of criterion 2, which was already 100% at baseline, was slightly lower at follow-up. The project achieved significant improvements in the delivery of evidence-based practice with regards to community-based management of MDR-TB.

  19. Insecticide resistance mechanisms in the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae II: Costs and benefits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea X Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among herbivorous insects that have exploited agro-ecosystems, the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae, is recognized as one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Uses over 400 plant species and has evolved different insecticides resistance mechanisms. As M. persicae feeds upon a huge diversity of hosts, it has been exposed to a wide variety of plant allelochemicals, which probably have promoted a wide range of detoxification systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we (i evaluated whether insecticide resistance mutations (IRM in M. persicae can give an advantage in terms of reproductive fitness when aphids face two hosts, pepper (Capsicum annuum a suitable host and radish (Raphanus sativus the unfavorable host and (ii examined the transcriptional expression of six genes that are known to be up-regulated in response to insecticides. Our results show a significant interaction between host and IRM on the intrinsic rate of increase (r(m. Susceptible genotypes (not carrying insensitivity mutations had a higher r(m on pepper, and the transcriptional levels of five genes increased on radish. The r(m relationship was reversed on the unfavorable host; genotypes with multiple IRM exhibited higher r(m, without altering the transcriptional levels of the studied genes. Genotypes with one IRM kept a similar r(m on both hosts, but they increased the transcriptional levels of two genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although we have studied only nine genotypes, overall our results are in agreement with the general idea that allelochemical detoxification systems could constitute a pre-adaptation for the development of insecticide resistance. Genotypes carrying IRM exhibited a higher r(m than susceptible genotypes on radish, the more unfavorable host. Susceptible genotypes should be able to tolerate the defended host by up-regulating some metabolic genes that are also responding to insecticides. Hence, our results suggest that

  20. Microbiology and resistance in first episodes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: implications for management and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Kilian; Nüssle, Simone; Rehlen, Tobias; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Mischnik, Alexander; Eisenbach, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    International guidelines for antibiotic treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) are based on studies conducted decades ago and do not reflect regional differences of bacterial epidemiology. We retrospectively analyzed epidemiology of agents, antibiotic resistance patterns, and survival in liver cirrhosis patients with their first episode of SBP during the years 2007-2013. Of the 311 patients included, 114 patients had a positive ascites culture, and 197 had an ascitic neutrophil count >250 μL. Gram-positive bacteria (47.8%) were more frequently found than Gram-negatives (44.9%), fungi in 7.2%. Enterobacter spp. (40.6%), Enterococcus spp. (26.1%), and Staphylcoccus spp. (13.8%) were the most frequently isolated agents. Third-generation cephalosporins covered 70.2% of non-nosocomial and 56.3% of nosocomial-acquired SBP cases.When SBP was diagnosed by a positive ascitic culture, survival was highly significantly reduced (mean: 13.9 ± 2.9 months; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.1-19.8) compared with culture-negative SBP patients (mean: 44.1 ± 5.4 months; 95% CI: 33.4-54.9; P = 0.000). Along with model of end-stage liver disease score and intensive care unit contact, a positive ascites culture remained an independent risk factor associated with poor survival (odds ratio: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.03) in multivariate analysis; piperacillin/tazobactam proved to be an adequate antibiotic for nosocomial and non-nosocomial SBP in 85.1% and 92.5%, respectively. SBP infection with Enterococcus spp. was associated with poor patient survival (P = 0.048). Third-generation cephalosporins have poor microbial coverage for treatment of SBP. Current guidelines need to adapt for the emerging number of Gram-positive infectious agents in SBP patients. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Management of the Patient with Aggressive and Resistant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftari, Rame; Topçiu, Valdete; Nura, Adem; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Papillary carcinoma is the most frequent type of thyroid cancer and was considered the most benign of all thyroid carcinomas, with a low risk of distant metastases. However, there are some variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma that have affinity to spread in many organs, such as: lymph nodes, lungs and bones. Aim: The aim of this study was presentation of a case with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland, very persistent and resistant in treatment with I 131. Material and results: A man 56 years old were diagnosed with papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland. He underwent a surgical removal of the tumor and right lobe of thyroid gland. With histopathology examination, were confirmed follicular variant of papillary carcinoma pT4. Two weeks later he underwent total thyroidectomy and was treated with 100 mCi of J 131. Six months later, the value of thyroglobulin was found elevated above upper measured limits (more than 500 ng/ml). Patient underwent surgical removal of 10 metastatic lymph nodes in the left side of the neck and has been treated with 145 mCi of radioiodine I 131. The examination after 5 months shows elevation of thyroglobulin, more than 20000 ng/ml and focally uptake of J 131 in the left lung. Patient was treated once again with 150 mCi radioiodine J 131. Whole body scintigraphy was registered focal uptake of radioiodine in the middle of the left collarbone. After a month, patient refers the enlargement of the lymph node in the right side of the neck. Currently patient is being treated with kinase inhibitor drug sorafenib and ibandronate. We have identified first positive response in treatment. Enlarged lymph node in the neck was reduced and the patient began feeling better. Conclusion: This study suggests that some subtypes of papillary thyroid carcinoma appear to have more aggressive biological course. Subtypes of papillary thyroid carcinoma such as diffuse sclerosing carcinoma, tall cell or columnar cell and insular variants, appears to

  2. Developing a neem-based pest management product: laboratory evaluations of neem extracts on insect pests resistance to synthetic pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Permana, A.D.; Rahadian, R.; Wibowo, S.A

    1998-12-16

    Laboratory studies has been conducted as a part of a project aimed at the development of a neem-based insecticide for pest management purposes. Permethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, and neem (Azadirachta indica) products were tested against larvae of Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella, and Helicoverpa armigera collected from several locations in West Java, Indonesia. The results of bioassay showed that the average LC{sub 50} values of permethrin for Plutella xylostella had been 60-100 fold higher as compared with the normal dosage recommended. Similarly, the LC{sub 50} values obtained for Helicoverpa armigera had been 46-73 fold as compared with the recommended dosage. These facts suggest that both insects have developed resistance to permethrin. The results of bioassay with neem-products tested against Plutella xylostella and Helicoverpa armigera larvae showed that statistically LC{sub 50} values of neem-products for each strain of either Plutella xylostella or Helicoverpa armigera were not significantly different one to another. We also found that neem-treated insects, even though they were not killed directly by the insecticide, were not able to molt to the next instar or pupae, so that very low percentage of adults emerged. The susceptibility of neem-products could not be easily determined by only measuring the LC{sub 50} values from the larval stage, but the disruption of the growth and development of the insect should be considered as well. Our findings suggest that neem-products could be used effectively to control insects which have developed resistance to conventional insecticide. (author)

  3. Terapia de linguagem de irmãos com transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento: estudo longitudinal Language therapy of brothers with pervasive developmental disorders: longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Regina Nunes Misquiatti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever o processo de intervenção fonoaudiológica de dois irmãos com transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento, por meio de um estudo longitudinal de caso clínico. Participaram dois irmãos, um de nove e outro de 11 anos de idade, ambos do gênero masculino, com autismo (Caso 1 e transtorno invasivo do desenvolvimento sem outra especificação (Caso 2. Como procedimento de coleta e análise de dados foi realizado um estudo longitudinal, por meio de acompanhamento dos casos ao longo de quatro anos de intervenção fonoaudiológica. Foram realizadas filmagens durante as sessões de terapia, análise documental de informações dos prontuários referentes à anamnese, avaliação e relatórios terapêuticos fonoaudiológicos, exames e avaliações multidisciplinares. Em ambos os casos houve melhora no contato visual, na interação social, no vocabulário e na brincadeira simbólica. No Caso 1 ocorreu aumento de 2,0 para 6,2 atos comunicativos por minuto, no Caso 2 de 3,5 para 8,0 atos e ambos demonstraram predominância do meio verbal e maior variedade de funções comunicativas. Outros fatores influenciaram estes resultados, como a deficiência intelectual, a dinâmica familiar, os conflitos no relacionamento entre os irmãos e o ambiente escolar em que estavam inseridos. Confirmou-se a relevância do fonoaudiólogo em intervenções nos transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento, junto a equipes multidisciplinares, para a discussão diagnóstica e de condutas mais adequadas. Estudos longitudinais podem contribuir para uma análise mais detalhada e fidedigna de intervenções terapêuticas nesses casos, para esclarecer lacunas existentes na literatura e subsidiar a atuação do fonoaudiólogo clínico.The aim of this research was to describe the language intervention process of two brothers with pervasive developmental disorders, through a longitudinal clinical case study. Two brothers - one nine and the other 11

  4. Hydrogen (H) Isotope Composition of Type II Kerogen Extracted by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-IRMS: Terrestrial Shale Deposits as Martian Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Pernia, Denet; Evans, Michael; Fu, Qi; Bissada, Kadry K.; Curiale, Joseph A.; Niles, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Described here is a technique for H isotope analysis of organic compounds pyrolyzed from kerogens isolated from gas- and liquids-rich shales. Application of this technique will progress the understanding of the use of H isotopes not only in potential kerogen occurrences on Mars, but also in terrestrial oil and gas resource plays. H isotope extraction and analyses were carried out utilizing a CDS 5000 Pyroprobe connected to a Thermo Trace GC interfaced with a Thermo MAT 253 IRMS. Also, a split of GC-separated products was sent to a DSQ II quadrupole MS to make qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of these products. Kerogen samples from five different basins (type II and II-S) were dehydrated (heated to 80 C overnight under vacuum) and analyzed for their H isotope compositions by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS. This technique takes pyrolysis products separated via GC and reacts them in a high temperature conversion furnace (1450 C), which quantitatively forms H2. Samples ranging from 0.5 to 1.0mg in size, were pyrolyzed at 800 C for 30s. and separated on a Poraplot Q GC column. H isotope data from all kerogen samples typically show enrichment in D from low to high molecular weight. H2O average delta D = -215.2 per mille (V-SMOW), ranging from - 271.8 per mille for the Marcellus Shale to -51.9 per mille for a Polish shale. Higher molecular weight compounds like toluene (C7H8) have an average delta D of -89.7 per mille, ranging from -156.0 per mille for the Barnett Shale to -50.0 per mille for the Monterey Shale. We interpret these data as representative of potential H isotope exchange between hydrocarbons and sediment pore water during basin formation. Since hydrocarbon H isotopes readily exchange with water, these data may provide some useful information on gas-water or oil-water interaction in resource plays, and further as a possible indicator of paleoenvironmental conditions. Alternatively, our data may be an indication of H isotope exchange with

  5. Integrated community case management for childhood illnesses: explaining policy resistance in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Pamela A; Owuor, Karen; Bennett, Sara

    2015-12-01

    There has been a re-emphasis recently on community health workers to provide child health care services including integrated community case management for childhood illness (iCCM). This research analysed iCCM policy development in Kenya and in particular the types of decision-making criteria used by Kenyan policy-makers in considering whether to advance iCCM policy. Data were collected through document reviews (n = 41) and semi-structured interviews (n = 19) with key stakeholders in iCCM policy including government officials, development partners, bilateral donors, and civil society organizations. Initial analysis was guided by the policy triangle with further analysis of factors affecting policy decision-making drawing upon a simple framework developed by Grindle and Thomas (Policy makers, policy choices and policy outcomes: the political economy of reform in developing countries. 1989; Policy Sci 22: :213-48.). Policy development for iCCM has been slow in Kenya, compared with other Sub-Saharan African countries. At the time of the study, the Government had just completed the Community Health Training Manual which incorporated iCCM as a module, but this was the only formal expression of iCCM in Kenya. We found technical considerations, notably concerns about community health workers dispensing antibiotics to be a key factor slowing iCCM policy development, but this also overlapped with bureaucratic considerations, such as how the development of community health worker cadres may affect clinicians, as well as initial concerns about how an integrated approach might affect vertically oriented programs. International actors through agreements such as the Millennium Development Goals helped to get child survival onto the national policy agenda and such actors were active promoters of iCCM policy change. However international funders had not committed funding to scale-up iCCM policy, and this probably constrained their influence over iCCM policy debate. Kenyan actors

  6. Insulin resistance as a physiological defense against metabolic stress: implications for the management of subsets of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Christopher J; Ruderman, Neil B; Kahn, Steven E; Pedersen, Oluf; Prentki, Marc

    2015-03-01

    Stratifying the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has to take into account marked variability in patient phenotype due to heterogeneity in its pathophysiology, different stages of the disease process, and multiple other patient factors including comorbidities. The focus here is on the very challenging subgroup of patients with T2D who are overweight or obese with insulin resistance (IR) and the most refractory hyperglycemia due to an inability to change lifestyle to reverse positive energy balance. For this subgroup of patients with T2D, we question the dogma that IR is primarily harmful to the body and should be counteracted at any cost. Instead we propose that IR, particularly in this high-risk subgroup, is a defense mechanism that protects critical tissues of the cardiovascular system from nutrient-induced injury. Overriding IR in an effort to lower plasma glucose levels, particularly with intensive insulin therapy, could therefore be harmful. Treatments that nutrient off-load to lower glucose are more likely to be beneficial. The concepts of "IR as an adaptive defense mechanism" and "insulin-induced metabolic stress" may provide explanation for some of the unexpected outcomes of recent major clinical trials in T2D. Potential molecular mechanisms underlying these concepts; their clinical implications for stratification of T2D management, particularly in overweight and obese patients with difficult glycemic control; and future research requirements are discussed. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  7. Management of chili pepper root rot and wilt (caused by Phytophthora nicotianae by grafting onto resistant rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad SAADOUN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Root rot and plant wilting caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is a severe disease of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. in open fields and under greenhouse production in Tunisia. Chili pepper grafting for disease manage- ment is attracting increased interest in recent years. Using the tube grafting technique, different compatible scion/rootstock combinations were obtained with the wild-type pepper SCM334 and the local chili pepper cultivars ‘Beldi’ and ‘Baker’. SCM334 was resistant to P. nicotianae, while the cultivars Beldi and Baker were susceptible. Plant inoculations were performed with P. nicotianae zoospores, and severity of root rot was rated 30 days post- inoculation using a 0 (healthy plant to 5 (dead plant severity score. On SCM334 rootstock and with ‘Beldi’ or ‘Baker’ scions, the intensity of root rot was very low (mean score 0.1–0.2 and plants were healthy. However, with Baker or Beldi rootstocks and SCM334 scions, root rot was severe (mean score 3.1–4.6, leading to high numbers of wilting and dead plants. This severe root rot was similar to that observed on non-grafted plants of ‘Baker’ and ‘Beldi’ inoculated with the pathogen. Under greenhouse conditions, measurements of agronomic characters indicated non-consistent improvement of these features on the scion cultivar when SCM334 was the rootstock. Since plant foliage is not attacked by this pathogen, these results show that susceptible chili pepper scions grafted onto SCM334 rootstocks could be used for root rot management and improvement of pepper yields in P. nicotianae infested soils.

  8. A new system for the simultaneous measurement of δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N by IRMS and radiocarbon by AMS on gaseous samples: Design features and performances of the gas handling interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braione, Eugenia; Maruccio, Lucio; Quarta, Gianluca; D’Elia, Marisa; Calcagnile, Lucio, E-mail: lucio.calcagnile@unisalento.it

    2015-10-15

    We present the general design features and preliminary performances of a new system for the simultaneous AMS-{sup 14}C and IRMS δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N measurements on samples with masses in the μg range. The system consists of an elemental analyzer (EA), a gas splitting unit (GSU), a IRMS system, a gas handling interface (GHI) and a sputtering ion source capable of accepting gaseous samples. A detailed description of the system and of the control software supporting unattended operation are presented together with the first performance tests carried out by analyzing samples with masses ranging from 8 μgC to 2.4 mgC. The performances of the system were tested in term of stability of the ion beam extracted from the ion source, precision and accuracy of the results by comparing the measured isotopic ratios with those expected for reference materials.

  9. Investigating IT Faculty Resistance to Learning Management System Adoption Using Latent Variables in an Acceptance Technology Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Bousbahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance instruction in higher education, many universities in the Middle East have chosen to introduce learning management systems (LMS to their institutions. However, this new educational technology is not being used at its full potential and faces resistance from faculty members. To investigate this phenomenon, we conducted an empirical research study to uncover factors influencing faculty members’ acceptance of LMS. Thus, in the Fall semester of 2014, Information Technology faculty members were surveyed to better understand their perceptions of the incorporation of LMS into their courses. The results showed that personal factors such as motivation, load anxiety, and organizational support play important roles in the perception of the usefulness of LMS among IT faculty members. These findings suggest adding these constructs in order to extend the Technology acceptance model (TAM for LMS acceptance, which can help stakeholders of the university to implement the use of this system. This may assist in planning and evaluating the use of e-learning.

  10. Resistance to Change—A New Perspective: A Textbook for Managers Who Plan to Implement a Change” by Daniela Bradutanu

    OpenAIRE

    James W. Barnes

    2015-01-01

    hange is inevitable—it’s in our experience wherever we turn. One area, however, where most people do not want to experience change is in the work place. Whether the change is beneficial or not, those who are subjected to a change in the workplace will almost without fail resist a change to their status quo. Managers have normally come to accept this and just plough ahead, coercing their subordinates into accepting the change. With the advent of Dr Daniela Bradutanu’s new book “Resistance to C...

  11. Produtividade de culturas e resistência à penetração de Argissolo Vermelho sob diferentes manejos Yield of crops and soil resistance to penetration of the Alfisol under different management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Liane Rodrigues de Lima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a relação entre parâmetros de plantas de soja e feijão e a resistência do solo à penetração de Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico sob semeadura direta e convencional. Em experimento implantado em 1989 em semeadura direta, foram aplicadas diferentes passadas de máquina de 10 Mg e realizados diferentes preparos do solo em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram quantificados o índice de velocidade de emergência, o índice de área foliar, a altura e a produtividade de grãos de soja e de feijão e a resistência do solo à penetração. O índice de área foliar, a altura e a produtividade do feijão são influenciados pela resistência do solo à penetração em 46, 51 e 59%, respectivamente, enquanto 55% da variação da altura da soja é explicada pela resistência à penetração. Indica-se um valor crítico de resistência à penetração de aproximadamente 1,7 e 1,9 MPa no que se refere ao crescimento e à produtividade de grãos de feijão e de soja, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship among soybean and bean plant parameters and soil resistance to penetration of an Alfisol under no-tillage and conventional systems. In an experiment deployed under no-tillage in 1989, different wheel tracks of a 10-Mg machine were applied and different soil management systems were used in completely randomized design. Emergence speed index, foliar area index, height and yield of soybean and bean crops and soil resistance to penetration were quantified. The influence of soil resistance to penetration in foliar area index, height and productivity of beans is of 46, 51 and 59% respectively, whereas 55% of the height variation in soybean is explained by soil resistance to penetration. The critical value of soil resistance to penetration indicated for bean and soybean growth and yield is of approximately 1.7 and 1.9 MPa respectively.

  12. Regressão e crescimento do primogênito no processo de tornar-se irmão Firstborn's regression and growth in the process of becoming a sibling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Silva Oliveira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigaram-se indicadores de regressão e crescimento do primogênito no processo de tornar-se irmão. Participaram três primogênitos pré-escolares no terceiro trimestre de gestação, aos 12 e 24 meses do irmão. Foi aplicado o Teste das Fábulas e realizada análise qualitativa de conteúdo. Os resultados revelaram regressão do primogênito na gestação materna e crescimento, aos 12 e aos 24 meses de idade do irmão. A regressão foi uma forma de enfrentar a chegada do irmão, enquanto que o crescimento revelou capacidade para conquistas ou custos de ser mais velho. Tanto a regressão quanto o crescimento oportunizaram um ir e vir saudável, fundamental para o desenvolvimento rumo à independência. Esses achados têm implicações para a pesquisa e para a clínica.Regression and growth indicators in the process of becoming a sibling were investigated. Three firstborns took part in the study during the first sibling's third trimester of pregnancy, and when the sibling was 12 and 24 months old, respectively. The Fables Test was used and a qualitative content analysis was carried out. Results revealed regression indicators during pregnancy. At 12 and 24 months there were growth indicators together with regression indicators. Regression was used by the firstborn for coping with the sibling's arrival while growth revealed the capacity for acquisitions or the costs of being an older sibling. Both regressive and growth manifestations enabled a healthy to and fro, which is fundamental for development towards independence. These findings have both research and clinical implications.

  13. The presence of Italy in Brazilian furniture production and design: Fábrica de Móveis Federico Oppido & Irmão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Naclério Homem

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Our maternal grandfather, Federico Oppido, was born in Tito, a small Basilicata town in Southern Italy, in 1877. A descendant of a family of painters and artisans, he was a draftsman, furniture manufacturer and interior decorator. He moved to São Paulo in 1888 where he studied at the Arts and Crafts Lyceum. After 1900, together with his brother Nicola, he owned Federico Oppido & C., a furniture-making and upholstery shop, which was later renamed Fábrica de Móveis "Federico Oppido & Irmão." He produced works in eclecticism, art nouveau and art déco for private customers, artists, architects, politicians and industry magnates. He can be considered one of the pioneers of modern furniture in Brazil thanks to the important works he produced in the latter style and as a result of his collaboration with swiss and brazilian artist John Graz in the manufacturing of tubular furniture that also adorned the interiors of the first residences designed by the architect Gregori Warchavchik. His factory is also credited with producing a wealth of well-known craftsmen, designers and painters. This year is the "Italy in Brazil" year, celebrating the 150th anniversary of Italy's unification. We are using this opportunity to honor Federico Oppido by publishing his biography, concentrating especially on his factory and the artists he influenced through his work. We are including the furniture he designed, family memories and information from his home town.

  14. On-line measurement of 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios by E/A-diluter-IRMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstel, H.; Boner, M.; Prast, H.

    2001-01-01

    Efficient food control requires rapid procedures for testing source authenticity. Food is produced inside a closed 'isotopic environment' from where it inherits a specific isotopic composition or fingerprint. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) measures isotopic compositions using simple gases like CO 2 or N 2 exclusively. From food samples these gases may be produced by combustion in a commercial CHN analyser (Elemental Analyser, EA). Following GC separation of the combustion gases the elemental content is determined using a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) . The effluent of the EA is coupled to the mass spectrometer via an open split. Because the relative amounts of the bio-elements vary significantly, (often C/N is 25/1 or larger), the amount of analyte gas produced from a single sample must be adjusted e.g. using a diluter. Our diluter configuration can be adjusted to measure repeatedly the 13 C/ 12 C ratio of carbon dioxide in mineral waters, as well as to measure 15 N/ 14 N and 13 C/ 12 C ratios from biological or soil samples simultaneously. In the first application different types of carbon dioxide, produced naturally (well) or technically (process), can be distinguished. The second application offers the possibility to trace the fate of a fertilizer in vineyards by determining the isotopic variation of nitrogen and carbon in soil and vines. (author)

  15. Combination therapy with monoamine oxidase inhibitors and other antidepressants or stimulants: strategies for the management of treatment-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Samantha J; Shin, Mirae; McInnis, Melvin G; Bostwick, Jolene R

    2015-04-01

    Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a major health concern. More than 40% of patients treated for major depressive disorder with an appropriate antidepressant dose for an adequate duration fail to respond. Further, approximately half of adults with major depressive disorder fail to achieve sustained remission despite various medication trials. The utilization of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) for the treatment of depression in clinical practice today is low due to their widely known adverse effects, some of which may be life threatening, and the risk for dietary and drug interactions. For these reasons, MAOIs are not recommended to be prescribed along with other antidepressants or certain prescription or nonprescription drugs. Pharmacologic options are limited for individuals with TRD, however, and there is a paucity of data on the efficacy of MAOIs in combination with other antidepressants for the management of TRD. We performed a search of the PubMed database (inception through January 25, 2015) to identify cases that illustrate the potential utility, as well as risks, of combination treatment with MAOIs and other antidepressants for the management of TRD; 18 articles met the criteria for our search. In addition, we performed a retrospective case series by reviewing the medical records of 29 adults treated for depression with an MAOI plus another psychotropic agent (an antidepressant or stimulant medication) between 2003 and 2012 at a large Midwestern teaching hospital. We compared the findings of the published experience with our local experience to allow for more informed decisions regarding pharmacotherapy in patients with TRD. We separated the local experience into two groups: 15 cases with the selective MAO type B inhibitor selegiline combined with medications presumed to increase the risk of serotonin syndrome and 14 cases with nonselective MAOIs (phenelzine and tranylcypromine) combined with other contraindicated medications. Although risks of

  16. Managing resistance to information system (IS) change at the pre-implementation stage from the senior management perspective : a case of a commercial bank in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Nguyen Hoang

    2016-01-01

    User resistance to information system (IS) change is an important issue in the IS literature. However, despite a large body of user adoption literature, there is far less literature addressing user resistance to IS change, especially in organisational contexts. Moreover, there are still left a number of open questions regarding the why and how resistance takes place. Particularly, previous research failed to explain these questions for two reasons. First, none of the previous research explain...

  17. Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszko, Adrian; Janus, Agnieszka; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a severe medical condition which is estimated to appear in 9-18% of hypertensive patients. Due to higher cardiovascular risk, this disorder requires special diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous etiology, risk factors and comorbidities of resistant hypertension stand in need of sophisticated evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and select the best therapeutic options, which should consider lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological and interventional treatment. After having excluded pseudohypertension, inappropriate blood pressure measurement and control as well as the white coat effect, suspicion of resistant hypertension requires an analysis of drugs which the hypertensive patient is treated with. According to one definition - ineffective treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs including diuretics makes it possible to diagnose resistant hypertension. A multidrug therapy including angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, long-acting calcium channel blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be effective in resistant hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, optional, innovative therapies, e.g. a renal denervation or baroreflex activation, may create a novel pathway of blood pressure lowering procedures. The right diagnosis of this disease needs to eliminate the secondary causes of resistant hypertension e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, atherosclerosis and renal or hormonal disorders. This paper briefly summarizes the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension and therapeutic strategies, which may contribute to the proper diagnosis and an improvement of the long term management of resistant hypertension.

  18. Interação entre irmãos: deficiência mental, idade e apoio social da família Siblings' interaction: mental disability, age and family social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Cristina Nunes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram: (a caracterizar a interação entre díades de irmãos, divididas em dois grupos - G1, com o irmão deficiente mental pré-adolescente, e G2, com esse irmão adulto; (b comparar os desempenhos dos grupos nas interações; e (c avaliar diferenças entre os grupos nas interações, considerando o apoio social da família. Foram realizadas sessões de observação de interações, e aplicação de instrumentos de auto-relato; os cuidadores responderam escalas para avaliação do apoio social. Os resultados sugeriram diferença no comportamento de ajudante do irmão com desenvolvimento típico, com taxa de ocorrência maior para G1. Nas escalas, houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na Escala de Apoio à Maternidade/Paternidade, revelando-se menor apoio para G1. Especula-se que, como as famílias do G1 recebem menor apoio deste nível, há maior demanda de ajuda requerida pelo filho deficiente, que pode ser suprida pelos irmãos menores com desenvolvimento típico, que desempenham o papel de ajudante em maior escala que os adultos.The purpose of the present study was: (a To describe the relationship in sibling's dyads, separated in two groups - G1, with pre-adolescent mentally retarded sibling, and G2, with this adult sibling; (b To compare the performance of both groups in the interactions; and (3 To evaluate differences in the relationships between the groups when family social support is taken into account. Sessions of sibling's interactions were videotaped, and self-report instruments were used. The caretakers answered scales of social support. Results suggested differences concerning the behavior of the helper of the sibling with characteristic development, with highest occurrence in G1. Scales' results indicated statistically significant difference for the Parenting Support from Family/Friends Scale, showing less support for G1. It is possible to suggest that because families from G1 have less support

  19. Physico-Chemical-Managed Killing of Penicillin-Resistant Static and Growing Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Vegetative Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Robert Chaffee (Inventor); Schramm, Jr., Harry F. (Inventor); Defalco, Francis G. (Inventor); Farris, III, Alex F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Systems and methods for the use of compounds from the Hofmeister series coupled with specific pH and temperature to provide rapid physico-chemical-managed killing of penicillin-resistant static and growing Gram-positive and Gram-negative vegetative bacteria. The systems and methods represent the more general physico-chemical enhancement of susceptibility for a wide range of pathological macromolecular targets to clinical management by establishing the reactivity of those targets to topically applied drugs or anti-toxins.

  20. Management of chili pepper root rot and wilt (caused by Phytophthora nicotianae) by grafting onto resistant rootstock

    OpenAIRE

    Mourad SAADOUN; Mohamed Bechir ALLAGUI

    2013-01-01

    Root rot and plant wilting caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is a severe disease of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in open fields and under greenhouse production in Tunisia. Chili pepper grafting for disease manage- ment is attracting increased interest in recent years. Using the tube grafting technique, different compatible scion/rootstock combinations were obtained with the wild-type pepper SCM334 and the local chili pepper cultivars ‘Beldi’ and ‘Baker’. SCM334 was resistant to P. nicoti...

  1. Diagnostic and management challenges from childhood, puberty through to transition in severe insulin resistance due to insulin receptor mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Christina; Burren, Christine P

    2017-12-01

    Two Caucasian girls, both of normal weight and body mass indices, were diagnosed with type A insulin resistance (IR) in childhood. Case 1 presented with premature adrenarche aged 7 years, then by age 12 years had hirsutism, acne, acanthosis nigricans, and asymptomatic diabetes. Subsequent investigation revealed raised adiponectin (15.3 mg/L) and heterozygous p.Pro1205Leu mutation in the INSR gene encoding the insulin receptor. She experienced postprandial hypoglycaemia on metformin; acarbose was trialled and discontinued aged 16 years, as she became normoglycaemic. Hirsutism was treated with topical eflornithine, oral spironolactone and flutamide, and laser therapy. Unfortunately, diabetes reemerged in young adulthood with obesity. Case 2: during an emergency admission for acute abdominal pain aged 11 years, hyperglycaemia was noted which led to further investigation. An oral glucose tolerance test showed diabetes and ultrasound showed polycystic ovaries. Further investigations revealed raised adiponectin (18 mg/L) and compound heterozygous mutations in the INSR gene: p.Pro1263Ala and p.Ser748Leu (latter probable normal variant). She was treated with metformin and experienced postprandial hypoglycaemia. Symptoms of hyperandrogenism were controlled by flutamide. She maintained a healthy weight and reassessment at young adulthood showed resolution of diabetes. Type A IR may present in childhood with overlapping features of common endocrine entities such as premature adrenarche and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Patients with abnormal glucose tolerance yet normal weight merit screening with adiponectin; raised adiponectin levels prompt insulin receptor mutational analysis. Postprandial hypoglycaemia is characteristic. Management includes optimization of glycaemic control with oral hypoglycaemic agents and maintenance of healthy weight, and controlling the effects of hyperandrogenism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cross-pollination of nontransgenic corn ears with transgenic Bt corn: efficacy against lepidopteran pests and implications for resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, E C; O'Rourke, P K; Hutchison, W D

    2011-10-01

    The efficacy of nontransgenic sweet corn, Zea mays L., hybrids cross-pollinated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) sweet corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab toxin was evaluated in both field and laboratory studies in Minnesota in 2000. Non-Bt and Bt hybrids (maternal plants) were cross-pollinated with pollen from both non-Bt and Bt hybrids (paternal plants) to create four crosses. Subsequent crosses were evaluated for efficacy in the field against European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and in laboratory bioassays against O. nubilalis. Field studies indicated that crosses with maternal Bt plants led to low levels of survival for both O. nubilalis and H. zea compared with the non-Bt x non-Bt cross. However, the cross between non-Bt ears and Bt pollen led to survival rates of 43 and 63% for O. nubilalis and H. zea larvae, respectively. This intermediate level of survival also was reflected in the number of kernels damaged. Laboratory bioassays for O. nubilalis, further confirmed field results with larval survival on kernels from the cross between non-Bt ears and Bt pollen reaching 60% compared with non-Bt crossed with non-Bt. These results suggest that non-Bt refuge plants, when planted in proximity to Bt plants, and cross-pollinated, can result in sublethal exposure of O. nubilalis and H. zea larvae to Bt and may undermine the high-dose/refuge resistance management strategy for corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab.

  3. Quality of water and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from water sources of hilly tribal villages with and without integrated watershed management-a one year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerkar, Sandeep S; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Khedkar, Smita U; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2014-06-01

    In many hilly tribal areas of the world, water scarcity is a major problem and diarrhoea is common. Poor quality of water also affects the environment. An integrated watershed management programme (IWMP) aims to increase availability of water and to improve life conditions. Globally, there is a lack of information on water contamination, occurrence of diarrhoea and antibiotic resistance, a serious global concern, in relation to IWMP in hilly tribal areas. Therefore, a prospective observational study was conducted during 2011–2012 in six villages in a hilly tribal belt of India, three with and three without implementation of an IWMP, to explore quality of water, diarrhoeal cases in the community and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from water sources. The results showed that physico-chemical quality of water was within limits of safe consumption in all samples. The odds of coliform contamination in water samples was 2.3 times higher in non-watershed management villages (NWMV) compared to integrated watershed management villages (IWMV) (95% CI 0.8–6.45, p = 0.081). The number of diarrhoeal cases (18/663 vs. 42/639, p < 0.05) was lower in IWMV as compared to NWMV. Overall E. coli isolates showed high susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to a wider range of antibiotics was observed in NWMV.

  4. Potential of 2, 2'-dipyridyl diselane as an adjunct to antibiotics to manage cadmium-induced antibiotic resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty2 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, Praveen; Thakur, Reena; Kaur, Ujjwal Jit; Singh, Harjit; Bhasin, Kuldip K

    2017-09-01

    One of the reasons for increased antibiotic resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty2 is the influx of heavy metal ions in the sewage, from where the infection is transmitted. Therefore, curbing these selective agents could be one of the strategies to manage the emergence of multidrug resistance in the pathogen. As observed in our earlier study, the present study also confirmed the links between cadmium accumulation and antibiotic resistance in Salmonella. Therefore, the potential of a chemically-synthesised compound 2, 2'-dipyridyl diselane (DPDS) was explored to combat the metal-induced antibiotic resistance. Its metal chelating and antimicrobial properties were evidenced by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and microbroth dilution method. Owing to these properties of DPDS, further, this compound was evaluated for its potential to be used in combination with conventional antibiotics. The data revealed effective synergism at much lower concentrations of both the agents. Thus, it is indicated from the study that the combination of these two agents at their lower effective doses might reduce the chances of emergence of antibiotic resistance, which can be ascribed to the multi-pronged action of the agents.

  5. Variabilidade genética em progênies de meios-irmãos de coentro Genetic variability of half-sib progenies of coriander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto de A Melo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Grande número de produtores envolve-se com o cultivo do coentro durante todo o ano, tornando a cultura importante social e economicamente. Praticamente em toda a região Nordeste utiliza-se a cultivar Verdão. Estudos da variabilidade genética do coentro são importantes, tendo em vista o melhor planejamento de programas de melhoramento genético. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo quantificar a variabilidade genética de características agronômicas do coentro cultivar Verdão, avaliando-se progênies de meios-irmãos potencialmente úteis no melhoramento genético. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, em casa de vegetação, em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições e parcelas de 28 plantas, colocadas em dois vasos. Os tratamentos foram compostos por 55 progênies de meios-irmãos da cultivar Verdão. O teste t detectou significância a 1 e a 5% de probabilidade entre as correlações genotípicas, fenotípicas e ambientais. A herdabilidade no sentido amplo variou de 7,19 (peso médio de plantas a 81,09 (número de plantas pendoadas. Para a razão entre os coeficientes de variação genético e ambiental (CVg /CVe, obteve-se de 0,27 (peso médio de plantas a 2,07 (número de plantas pendoadas, indicando que a seleção contra o pendoamento apresenta as condições mais favoráveis em termos de ganhos genéticos imediatos. A correlação genotípica entre altura de plantas não pendoadas e número de plantas pendoadas foi alta e significativa.A large number of producers are involved in the cultivation of coriander throughout the year in Brazil, making it a crop of social and economic importance. Throughout nearly the entire Northeast Region, cultivar Verdão is used. Genetic variability studies on coriander are important for the proper planning of genetic improvement programs. The aim of the present study was to quantify the genetic variability for agronomic characteristics in cv. Verd

  6. Desempenho psicolinguístico e escolar de irmãos com mielomeningocele Psycholinguistic and school performance of brothers with myelomeningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionísia Aparecida Cusin Lamônica

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: mielomeningocele e consequências para o desenvolvimento de habilidades psicolinguísticas e escolares. PROCEDIMENTOS: o objetivo deste estudo foi descrever e refletir sobre o desempenho psicolinguístico e escolar de irmãos com mielomeningocele lombar baixa. Participaram do estudo um menino de 14 anos e 5 meses (P1 e sua irmã de 6 anos e 6 meses (P2. Os procedimentos constaram de entrevista com familiares, Observação do Comportamento Comunicativo (OCC, Teste de Vocabulário por Imagens Peabody - TVIP, Teste Illinóis de Habilidades Psicolinguísticas (ITPA, Perfil de Habilidades Fonológicas (PHF, Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE, e Reconhecimento de letras e números (RLN. A análise dos resultados foi descritiva respeitando os manuais dos instrumentos. RESULTADOS: a linguagem oral encontra-se sem alteração evidente. No ITPA e PHF, verificou-se que P1 e P2 apresentaram dificuldade nas habilidades de memória, closura auditiva, expressão verbal, combinação de sons e consciência fonológica. P1 ainda apresentou dificuldade na habilidade de recepção visual e P2 nas habilidades de associação auditiva e closura gramatical. Ambas as crianças apresentaram alteração nas atividades de aprendizagem. CONCLUSÃO: os participantes do estudo apresentaram comportamento comunicativo, habilidades de linguagem oral e vocabulário receptivo sem alterações evidentes. P1 e P2 apresentaram alterações nas habilidades psicolinguísticas bem como no desempenho de atividades envolvendo leitura, escrita e aritmética. As dificuldades apresentadas causam impacto importante nas atividades acadêmicas, demonstrando vulnerabilidade cerebral no sistema de suporte para atividade de aprendizagem.BACKGROUND: meningomyelocele and consequences on the development of psycholinguistic and school abilities. PROCEDURES: the purpose of this study was to describe and reflect on the psycholinguistic and school performance of siblings with low lumbar

  7. Statistical model for classifying the feeding systems of Iberian pigs through Gas Chromatography (GC-FID and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Casco, J. M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we have analyzed a total of 734 subcutaneous fat samples from Iberian pigs with different feeding systems for fattening (“Bellota”, “Recebo”, “Campo” and “Cebo” over three consecutive years, 2009-2011. Lipids were extracted from the subcutaneous fat on the rump, and after esterification, they were analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC-FID and Gas Chromatography- Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS. Mean fatty acids and isotope ratios show that there are differences according to the year and feeding systems, two factors that should be taken into account when classifying the animals. The application of different prediction models based on Discriminant analysis has allowed us to establish a method for the classification of animals according to the feeding system type, with a correct percentage of 85% using three or four classification categories (Bellota, Recebo, Campo and/or Cebo and 91% using only two categories, Cebo and Bellota. This model could provide the basis for appropriate classification of Iberian pigs according to their feeding regime.En el presente trabajo se han analizado un total de 734 muestras de tejido subcutáneo de cerdos ibéricos con distintos tipos de alimentación de engorde (Bellota, Recebo, Cebo y Campo a lo largo de tres años consecutivos, 2009-2011. Se han extraído los lípidos de la grasa subcutánea de rabadilla, y después de su esterificación, se han analizado por Cromatografía de gases (GC-FID y por Espectrometría de masas de relaciones isotópicas (GC-C-IRMS. Las medias de los ácidos grasos y de las relaciones isotópicas muestran que existen diferencias según el año y tipo de alimentación, factores que deberían tenerse en cuenta a la hora de clasificar los animales. La aplicación de distintos modelos de predicción basados en análisis discriminante permite establecer un método para la clasificación de los animales según el tipo de alimentación, con

  8. Preliminary study to characterize plastic polymers using elemental analyser/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Daniela; Rampazzo, Federico; Gion, Claudia; Noventa, Seta; Ronchi, Francesca; Traldi, Umberto; Giorgi, Giordano; Cicero, Anna Maria; Giovanardi, Otello

    2017-06-01

    Plastic waste is a growing global environmental problem, particularly in the marine ecosystems, in consideration of its persistence. The monitoring of the plastic waste has become a global issue, as reported by several surveillance guidelines proposed by Regional Sea Conventions (OSPAR, UNEP) and appointed by the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Policy responses to plastic waste vary at many levels, ranging from beach clean-up to bans on the commercialization of plastic bags and to Regional Plans for waste management and recycling. Moreover, in recent years, the production of plant-derived biodegradable plastic polymers has assumed increasing importance. This study reports the first preliminary characterization of carbon stable isotopes (δ 13 C) of different plastic polymers (petroleum- and plant-derived) in order to increase the dataset of isotopic values as a tool for further investigation in different fields of polymers research as well as in the marine environment surveillance. The δ 13 C values determined in different packaging for food uses reflect the plant origin of "BIO" materials, whereas the recycled plastic materials displayed a δ 13 C signatures between plant- and petroleum-derived polymers source. In a preliminary estimation, the different colours of plastic did not affect the variability of δ 13 C values, whereas the abiotic and biotic degradation processes that occurred in the plastic materials collected on beaches and in seawater, showed less negative δ 13 C values. A preliminary experimental field test confirmed these results. The advantages offered by isotope ratio mass spectrometry with respect to other analytical methods used to characterize the composition of plastic polymers are: high sensitivity, small amount of material required, rapidity of analysis, low cost and no limitation in black/dark samples compared with spectroscopic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the organic matter sources using the δ13C composition of individual n-alkanes in sediments from Brazilian estuarine systems by GC/C/IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maioli, Otávio Luiz Gusso; de Oliveira, Cristiane Rossi; Dal Sasso, Marco Aurélio; Madureira, Luiz Augusto dos Santos; Azevedo, Débora de Almeida; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

    2012-12-01

    The δ13C composition of individual n-alkanes (from C16 to C34) was measured from surface sediments of five Brazilian estuarine systems affected by different organic matter sources, such as harbor area, industries, urban centers and sugar cane crops, in order to determine the origins of the organic matter. The aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction was analyzed by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). The levels of n-alkanes in the studied areas ranged from 0.34 to 18.14 μg kg-1, being relatively low in comparison to high polluted environments. The Carbon Preference Index (CPI) calculated in the C23-C34 range indicates that n-alkanes are mainly inherited from cuticular waxes of higher plants. The δ13C composition of all n-alkanes detected in the sediment samples ranged from -39.6 to -18.3‰ showing different sources for the studied estuarine systems. Through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) it was possible to verify the petrogenic influence in the n-alkane sources, especially in the Paraíba do Sul sediment samples. Differences up to 15‰ of the δ13C values between n-alkanes of odd and even carbon number (C26 and C27) also indicated mixture of petrogenic and biogenic sources in Paraíba do Sul River. High (less negative) δ13C n-alkane values of odd carbon number were obtained from two sampling sites located close to an ethanol plant, indicating residues discharge of sugar cane (C4 plant). Influence of C3 plants that are the main components of dense ombrophile forest was observed in the Itajaí-Açu sediments by the decrease of δ13C (about 10‰ compared to the Paraíba do Sul River δ13C).

  10. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS: Application to Analysis of Experimentally Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the H isotope composition of organic acids and alcohols. These experiments make use of a pyroprobe interfaced with a GC and high temperature extraction furnace to make quantitative H isotope measurements. This work compliments our previous work that focused on the extraction and analysis of C isotopes from the same compounds [1]. Together with our carbon isotope analyses our experiments serve as a "proof of concept" for making C and H isotope measurements on more complex mixtures of organic compounds on mineral surfaces in abiotic hydrocarbon formation processes at elevated temperatures and pressures. Our motivation for undertaking this work stems from observations of methane detected within the Martian atmosphere [2-5], coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Mars history [6-8]. Methane production on Mars could be the result of synthesis by mineral surface-catalyzed reduction of CO2 and/or CO by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions during serpentization [9,10]. Others have conducted experimental studies to show that FTT reactions are plausible mechanisms for low-molecular weight hydrocarbon formation in hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges [11-13]. Our H isotope measurements utilize an analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-High Temperature Conversion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS-TC-IRMS). This technique is designed to carry a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQII quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of separated organic compounds, therefore both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out simultaneously on the same sample.

  11. Pişirme Öncesinde Hamurun Kısa Süre Bekletilmesinin Pandispanya Nitelikleri Üzerine Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halef Dizlek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, hazırlanan kek hamurunun fırına beklemeksizin (doğrudan konulmasının ve kısa süre (10 d bekletildikten sonra konulmasının pandispanya nitelikleri (hacim, gözenek yapısı, yumuşaklık, nem içeriği vb. üzerindeki etkileri araştırılmıştır. Bu amaçla, farklı bileşimlere sahip dört kabartma tozu kek hamurunda üç ayrı düzeyde (%0.25, %1.25 ve %2.25 kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda, pandispanya hamurunun pişirme öncesinde kısa süre bekletilmesinin denemede ele alınan 12 farklı pandispanya formülünde ürün özelliklerini çok sınırlı ölçüde olumsuz etkilediği, genel olarak önemli bir değişikliğe (gerilemeye yol açmadığı belirlenmiştir. Bu durumun, pandispanya hamurunun formülünde temel bileşen olarak bulunan yumurta ve yüzey aktif maddenin hamura stabil ve kuvvetli bir yapı kazandırmasından ileri geldiği düşünülmektedir.

  12. Síndrome de Waardenburg: achados audiológicos em 2 irmãos Waardenburg's syndrome: audiological findings in 2 brothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique F. Martins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Waardenburg foi inicialmente descrita em 1951 por P.J. Waardenburg, como uma condição autossômica dominante que apresenta penetrância e expressividade variáveis de seus caracteres. Os sinais clínicos mais frequentes são: deslocamento lateral dos cantos internos dos olhos (telecanto, hiperplasia da porção medial dos supercílios (sinofris, base nasal proeminente e alargada, alterações na pigmentação da íris e da pele, surdez congênita, mecha branca frontal ou encanecimento precoce. Este estudo foi realizado em dois irmãos de uma família, que apresentavam características clínicas da síndrome de Waardenburg, entre elas a deficiência auditiva. Os pacientes foram submetidos à uma avaliação otorrinolaringológica, audiológica e genética.Waardenburg's Syndrome, first described in 1951 by P.J. Waardenburg, is an autossomal dominant condition with variable penetrance and expressivity of its features. The clinical signs are lateral displacement of the inner canthi of the eyes, confluent eyebrows, broad and prominent nasal root, pigmentation changes of the irises and skin, sensorineural deafness, white forelock or early graying of the hair. This study was based on two brothers who presented a typical clinical picture of Waardenburg's Syndrome, including hearing loss. Otolaryngological, audiological and genetical evaluations were conducted.

  13. High-precision dual-inlet IRMS measurements of the stable isotopes of CO2 and the N2O / CO2 ratio from polar ice core samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Bauska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An important constraint on mechanisms of past carbon cycle variability is provided by the stable isotopic composition of carbon in atmospheric carbon dioxide (δ13C-CO2 trapped in polar ice cores, but obtaining very precise measurements has proven to be a significant analytical challenge. Here we describe a new technique to determine the δ13C of CO2 at very high precision, as well as measuring the CO2 and N2O mixing ratios. In this method, ancient air is extracted from relatively large ice samples (~400 g with a dry-extraction "ice grater" device. The liberated air is cryogenically purified to a CO2 and N2O mixture and analyzed with a microvolume-equipped dual-inlet IRMS (Thermo MAT 253. The reproducibility of the method, based on replicate analysis of ice core samples, is 0.02‰ for δ13C-CO2 and 2 ppm and 4 ppb for the CO2 and N2O mixing ratios, respectively (1σ pooled standard deviation. Our experiments show that minimizing water vapor pressure in the extraction vessel by housing the grating apparatus in a ultralow-temperature freezer (−60 °C improves the precision and decreases the experimental blank of the method to −0.07 ± 0.04‰. We describe techniques for accurate calibration of small samples and the application of a mass-spectrometric method based on source fragmentation for reconstructing the N2O history of the atmosphere. The oxygen isotopic composition of CO2 is also investigated, confirming previous observations of oxygen exchange between gaseous CO2 and solid H2O within the ice archive. These data offer a possible constraint on oxygen isotopic fractionation during H2O and CO2 exchange below the H2O bulk melting temperature.

  14. More than a decade of conflict between hazardous waste management and public resistance: a case study of NIMBY syndrome in Souselas (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ryunosuke; Gerardo, Romeu

    2009-12-30

    Portugal's export amount of hazardous waste is increasing. More than 10 years ago, waste co-incineration in cement kilns was proposed in Portugal for technical and economic reasons amid administrative willingness to manage hazardous waste domestically. However, this waste project has still not been realized owing to local public resistance (the so-called NIMBY syndrome). We focus attention on the long-term resistance, and the following points are established through analysis: (i) public participation was left out of the project at the initial stage, so public confidence in government ability has been declining, (ii) public antipathy results from emotive stimulation and/or mental fears rather than scientific evidence, and (iii) indirect socio-economic factors in the region proposed for a hazardous waste facility are completely excluded from the project scope. The presented case study suggests that public acceptability is quite important in implementing hazardous waste management without delay. Therefore, engineers, researchers and planners in hazardous waste management should be aware that a report addressing only technical performance is less beneficial than a comprehensive report for putting a management tool into industrial practice.

  15. More than a decade of conflict between hazardous waste management and public resistance: A case study of NIMBY syndrome in Souselas (Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Ryunosuke, E-mail: kikuchi@mail.esac.pt [CERNAS, ESAC - Instituto Politecnico de Coimbra, Bencanta, 3040-316 Coimbra (Portugal); Gerardo, Romeu [CERNAS, ESAC - Instituto Politecnico de Coimbra, Bencanta, 3040-316 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2009-12-30

    Portugal's export amount of hazardous waste is increasing. More than 10 years ago, waste co-incineration in cement kilns was proposed in Portugal for technical and economic reasons amid administrative willingness to manage hazardous waste domestically. However, this waste project has still not been realized owing to local public resistance (the so-called NIMBY syndrome). We focus attention on the long-term resistance, and the following points are established through analysis: (i) public participation was left out of the project at the initial stage, so public confidence in government ability has been declining, (ii) public antipathy results from emotive stimulation and/or mental fears rather than scientific evidence, and (iii) indirect socio-economic factors in the region proposed for a hazardous waste facility are completely excluded from the project scope. The presented case study suggests that public acceptability is quite important in implementing hazardous waste management without delay. Therefore, engineers, researchers and planners in hazardous waste management should be aware that a report addressing only technical performance is less beneficial than a comprehensive report for putting a management tool into industrial practice.

  16. Resistance to change in the Management Information System: an analysis of the institutionalization of IT structures and processes in an organization of the Brazilian Judicial Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Junqueira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the resistance factors to change the Management Information System - MIS, in an organization of the Brazilian judiciary, describing how the actions of the actors can inhibit the institutionalization of management control practices. We use the case study method, with the framework of Burns and Scapens (2000 to understand the process in which the rules become habits and routines and are institutionalized. Huy’s framework (2001 were used to explain how the ideal types of planned change to analyzing can explain resistance factors. The cut chosen for analysis was the IT structures and processes recommended by law and supported by the literature in the field. We conducted interviews, document analysis and field notes for the collection and discourse analysis elements - DA for data analysis. The results indicate that the structures and processes IT should form the MIS of organization are not fully institutionalized, although the coercive pressure to change. Thus, we observe a purely ceremonial use of various processes of MIS and concluded that if senior management does not exercise its coordinating role and support the process of change and if there is no proper training of servers, hardly the rules become will habits and patterns, or they will be institutionalized. The study contributes to the field to describe how failures in planning the change and / or the lack of interest of senior management, coupled with the lack of training of staff inhibits the institutionalization of new rules, even when these are established coercively.

  17. Impact of antibiotic resistance in the management of ocular infections: the role of current and future antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Bertino Jr

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Joseph S Bertino Jr1,21College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, N Y, USA; 2Principal, Bertino Consulting, Schenectady, NY, USAPurpose: This article reviews the effects of the increase in bacterial resistance on the treatment of ocular infections.Design: Interpretive assessment.Methods: Literature review and interpretation.Results: Ocular bacterial infections include conjunctivitis, keratitis, endophthalmitis, blepharitis, orbital cellulitis, and dacryocystitis. Treatment for most ocular bacterial infections is primarily empiric with broad-spectrum antibiotics, which are effective against the most common bacteria associated with these ocular infections. However, the widespread use of broad-spectrum systemic antibiotics has resulted in a global increase in resistance among both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria to a number of the older antibiotics as well as some of the newer fluoroquinolones used to treat ophthalmic infections. Strategies for the prevention of the increase in ocular pathogen resistance should be developed and implemented. In addition, new antimicrobial agents with optimized pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties that have low toxicity, high efficacy, and reduced potential for the development of resistance are needed.Conclusions: New antimicrobial agents that treat ocular infections effectively and have a low potential for the development of resistance could be a part of strategies to prevent the global increase in ocular pathogen resistance.Keywords: ocular infections, emerging pathogen drug resistance, fluoroquinolones, besifloxacin

  18. Safety and efficacy of a novel drug elores (ceftriaxone + sulbactam + disodium edetate in the management of multi-drug resistant bacterial infections in tertiary care centers: a post-marketing surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Chaudhary

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: In this post-marketing surveillance study, CSE-1034 was found to be an effective and safe option against Pip tazo and meropenem in management of patients with multi-drug resistant (MDR bacterial infections under routine ward settings.

  19. Management of resistant distal femur non-unions with allograft strut and autografts combined with osteosynthesis in a series of 22 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakeshwar, Raja Bhaskara; Jayaramaraju, Dheenadhayalan; Agraharam, Devendra; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan

    2017-08-01

    Challenges to the surgeon in managing cases of resistant non-union of the distal femur include poor bone stock, disuse osteopenia and joint contractures. Procedures varying from simple bone grafting to megaprosthesis revision have been described. We successfully managed such cases using our technique of combining cortical allograft struts to augment the defect in the femoral condyle coupled with autogenous iliac crest bone grafting and locking plate osteosynthesis. Between April 2012 and May 2014, 22 patients who presented with resistant nonunions of the distal femur following initial surgery were managed using this technique. Cortical allograft struts were taken from the tissue bank of our institution. All patients were followed up post operatively and their time to union was noted. Functional outcome was calculated using LEFS (Lower extremity functional score). The average follow up of all our patients was 24 months. All patients went on to achieve complete bony union. The average union time was 6.2 months (5 to 8 months). One patient who was a diabetic had superficial infection post operatively which was treated successfully with IV antibiotics. Average knee flexion was 110 degrees (80 to 130 degrees). The mean LEFS score was 72 (59 to 79). Combing a locking plate fixation with the bone grafting technique of using an allograft strut to support the metaphyseal medial bone defect and autografts gives a good union and a good functional outcome in the management of resistant non-unions of the distal femur by enhancing the biology and providing a good structural support to the distal femur. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Herbicide and cover crop residue integration for amaranth control in conservation agriculture cotton and implications for resistance management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation agriculture practices are threatened by glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. Integrated practices including PRE herbicides and high-residue conservation agriculture systems may decrease Amaranth emergence. Field experiments were conducted from autumn 2006 through cash crop harvest in...

  1. Larval Dispersal of Spodoptera frugiperda Strains on Bt Cotton: A Model for Understanding Resistance Evolution and Consequences for its Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, José B; Godoy, Wesley A C; Garcia, Adriano G; Ramalho, Francisco de S; Omoto, Celso

    2017-11-23

    High dispersal of Lepidoptera larvae between non-Bt and Bt cotton plants can favour the evolution of insect resistance; however, information on host acceptance of neonates in tropical transgenic crops is scarce. Therefore, the purposes of this study were as follows: (i) to investigate the feeding behaviour of susceptible and Cry1F-resistant strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) on Bt and non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties and (ii) to understand the possible effects of cotton field contamination on the dispersal and infestation capacity of S. frugiperda larvae by using an individual-based model. The main results of this paper are as follows: (1) the highest post-feeding larval dispersal of the Cry1F-resistant strain occurred at an exposure time of 18-24 h; (2) via video tracking assays, we found that the least distance moved was by larvae resistant to Cry1F on non-Bt cotton; and (3) the model indicated differences in mobility capacity between Bt and non-Bt cotton. We conclude that resistant neonates exhibit sedentary behaviour. Our report represents the first findings concerning the fitness cost of larval behaviour traits of S. frugiperda associated with Cry1F resistance in Brazilian populations.

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic properties of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Norway in 2009: antimicrobial resistance warrants an immediate change in national management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmevoll, S O; Golparian, D; Dedi, L; Skutlaberg, D H; Haarr, E; Christensen, A; Jørgensen, S; Nilsen, Ø J; Unemo, M; Skogen, V

    2012-06-01

    Despite rapidly diminishing treatment options for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and high levels of ciprofloxacin resistance worldwide, Norwegian guidelines still recommend ciprofloxacin as empirical treatment for gonorrhea. The present study aimed to characterize phenotypical and genotypical properties of N. gonorrhoeae isolates in Norway in 2009. All viable N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 114) from six university hospitals in Norway (2009) were collected, representing 42% of all notified gonorrhea cases. Epidemiological data were collected from the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases and linked to phenotypical and genotypical characteristics for each N. gonorrhoeae isolate. Resistance levels to the antimicrobials examined were: ciprofloxacin 78%, azithromycin 11%, cefixime 3.5%, ceftriaxone 1.8%, and spectinomycin 0%. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin varied from 1.5 to 8 mg/L. Forty-one (36%) of the isolates were β-lactamase-producing, 17 displayed penA mosaic alleles, and 72 different N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence types (ST; 37 novel) were identified. The most common ST was ST1407 (n = 11), containing penA mosaic allele. Four of these isolates displayed intermediate susceptibility/resistance to cefixime. The N. gonorrhoeae strains circulating in Norway were highly diverse. The level of ciprofloxacin resistance was high and the Norwegian management guidelines should promptly exclude ciprofloxacin as an empirical treatment option for gonorrhea.

  3. Optimization of on-line hydrogen stable isotope ratio measurements of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organic compounds using elemental analyzer–chromium/high-temperature conversion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Geilmann, Heike; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Kümmel, Steffen; Ivdra, Natalija; Brand, Willi A.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Accurate hydrogen isotopic analysis of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organics has not been possible with traditional high-temperature conversion (HTC) because the formation of hydrogen-bearing reaction products other than molecular hydrogen (H2) is responsible for non-quantitative H2 yields and possible hydrogen isotopic fractionation. Our previously introduced, new chromium-based EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS (Elemental Analyzer–Chromium/High-Temperature Conversion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) technique focused primarily on nitrogen-bearing compounds. Several technical and analytical issues concerning halogen- and sulfur-bearing samples, however, remained unresolved and required further refinement of the reactor systems.

  4. Anticoagulant Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte

    Although sewer rat control is carried out in more than 80 % of all Danish municipalities, with usage of large amounts of anticoagulant rodenticides, knowledge on anticoagulant resistance among rats living in the sewers is limited. As rat problems in urban areas are believed to be related to sewer...... problems (70-90 % in UK and DK) unawareness of resistance amongst these populations of Brown rats may constitute a future control problem and knowledge on this issue has become crucial. Rats were captured in sewers from seven different locations in the suburban area of Copenhagen. Locations was chosen...... to represent different sewer rat management strategies i) no anticoagulants for approx. 20 years ii) no anticoagulants for the last 5 years and iii) continuous control for many years. Animals were tested for resistance to bromadiolone by Blood-Clotting Response test, as bromadiolone is the most frequently used...

  5. Application of a nanoEA-IRMS system for δ13C measurement of biomineral-bound organics in samples of diatom opal with nanomolar quantities of C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Vicente, Ana; María Mejía-Ramírez, Luz; Stoll, Heather

    2013-04-01

    We describe the isotopic measurement of δ13C in very small samples of diatom opal (nanomolar quantities of C) both from fossil sediments and cultures. We use a nano-EA system composed of a combustion elemental analyzer (EA3000 series, Eurovector), with standard 18 mm diameter quartz oxidation-reduction reactors and an ash removal device that aids in removal of uncombusted opal and ensures a long reactor lifetime. This is coupled to a custom designed trapping and cromatography system (Nano-CF, Nu Instruments Ltd.) which cryogenically removes CO2 generated by sample combustion and introduces the gas into a low-flow helium carrier stream to the mass spectrometer (Nu Perspective IRMS instrument, Nu Instruments Ltd.). This technique allows for an important reduction in the minimum sample requirements for analysis compared to a typical EA, however the need to reduce the contribution of the blank to the measured values becomes all the more critical. Blank from the capsules can be minimized through specific protocols including cleaning with solvents and reducing the size of the capsule by cutting it to a smaller size, attaining blanks as low as 13.75±2.15 nmol C. Under these conditions we can accurately measure both standards and diatom reference materials in the range of 100 to 330 nmol C, with a precision of 2σ 10 ‰ analysed in sequence. Applied to measure biomineral-bound organics in cleaned diatom samples from sediments, the low sample size requirements of this technique allows us to analyse multiple size fractions within one sample, and explore isotopic fractionation patterns between them. We have analysed samples from sediments of both centric and pennate diatoms typically in the range of 200 to 1300 µg of cleaned opal. Analysis of culture samples of Thalassiosira pseudonana of 20 to 150 µg of cleaned opal, allows us to evaluate if there is covariation of the whole cell particulate organic carbon (POC) and diatom-bound δ13C values. Initial results suggest

  6. Incorporation of 13C labeled Pinus ponderosa needle and fine root litter into soil organic matter measured by Py-GC/MS-C-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambelli, S.; Gleixner, G.; Dawson, T. E.; Bird, J. A.; Torn, M. S.

    2006-12-01

    Developing effective strategies for enhancing C storage in soils requires understanding the influence of plant C quality. In turn, plant C quality impacts the decay continuum between plant residue and humified, stable SOM. This remains one of the least understood aspects of soil biogeochemistry. We investigated the initial phase of incorporation of 13C labeled Pinus ponderosa needle and fine root litter into SOM. The two litter types were placed in separate microcosms in the A horizon in a temperate conifer soil. Curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography coupled with on-line mass spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS-C- IRMS) were used to determine the identity and the 13C enrichment of pyrolysis products (fragments of carbohydrates, lignin, proteins and lipids). We compared the two initial litter types, needles and fine roots, to samples of the bulk soil (A horizon, soil humin fraction (from chemical solubility) obtained from each microcosm 1.5y after litter addition. Pyrolysis of plant material and SOM produced 56 suitable products for isotopic analysis; of them, 15 occurred in both the litter and bulk soil, 7 in both the litter and the humin fraction and 9 in both bulk soil and the humin fraction. The pyrolysis products found in common in the plant and soil were related either to polysaccharides or were non-specific and could have originated from various precursors. The data suggest that the majority of plant inputs, both from needles or fine roots, were degraded very rapidly. In the humin fraction, the most recalcitrant pool of C in soil, with a measured turnover time of 260y (this soil), only products from the fragmentation of polysaccharides and alkyl-benzene compounds were found. Comparisons of the enrichment normalized by input level suggest little difference between the incorporation of C from needles versus fine roots into SOM. The most enriched fragments in the humin fraction were products from polysaccharides degradation, indicating

  7. Comparative biology of the two sister species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae Biologia comparativa de duas espécies irmãs de Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Carbajal de la Fuente

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Triatoma pseudomaculata and T. wygodzinskyi (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae are two Brazilian vectors of Chagas disease. The first is an arboricolous species in sylvatic environment and considered a vector of T. cruzi in peridomestic structures; the second, a rupicolous species in the wild environment of no epidemiological importance. In order to test the assumption that sister species share biological traits, comparative studies of their development cycle and blood ingestion were conducted. METHODS: Eggs laid by five field females of each species were randomly selected. The nymphs were observed daily and fed on mice weekly. The time required to pass through the different stages to adulthood was recorded in days. The triatomines were weighed individually before and after feeding. The mortality rate according to each nymphal stage was calculated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the results shows that they display only minor biological differences even though they exhibit a distinct ecology. This suggests that the biological traits are important criteria to determine the relationship between species.INTRODUÇÃO: Triatoma pseudomaculata e T. wygodzinskyi (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae são dois vetores Brasileiros da doença de Chagas. A primeira é uma espécie arborícola em ambiente silvestre e considerada vetor do T. cruzi em estruturas peridomesticas. A segunda é rupícola em ambientes silvestres e sem importância epidemiológica. Com o objetivo de testar a hipótese que espécies irmãs compartilham características semelhantes, realizamos um estudo comparativo do ciclo biológico e ingesta alimentar. MÉTODOS: Ovos pertencentes a cinco fêmeas de cada espécie provenientes do campo foram selecionados aleatoriamente. As ninfas foram observadas diariamente e alimentadas com camundongos semanalmente. O tempo requerido para passar até o estágio adulto foi registrado em dias. Os triatomíneos foram pesados

  8. The ability to manage self-proposed projects between 1;3 and 2;0 years old: a study of inhibition and resistance to interference

    OpenAIRE

    Estanislao Pastor-Mallol; Edith Santó-Rañé

    2015-01-01

    This study examines very young children's ability to manage self-proposed projects by using the inhibitory function and resistance to interference. In a natural environment and using an observational method, we conducted a longitudinal study of a sample observed at 1;3, 1;6, 1;9 and 2;0 years old. The research was divided into two studies which followed different procedures and looked at the projects carried out, the interferences produced and the functioning of inhibition. We observed signif...

  9. Larval Dispersal of Spodoptera frugiperda Strains on Bt Cotton: A Model for Understanding Resistance Evolution and Consequences for its Management

    OpenAIRE

    Malaquias, José B.; Godoy, Wesley A. C.; Garcia, Adriano G.; Ramalho, Francisco de S.; Omoto, Celso

    2017-01-01

    High dispersal of Lepidoptera larvae between non-Bt and Bt cotton plants can favour the evolution of insect resistance; however, information on host acceptance of neonates in tropical transgenic crops is scarce. Therefore, the purposes of this study were as follows: (i) to investigate the feeding behaviour of susceptible and Cry1F-resistant strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) on Bt and non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties and (ii) to understand the possible effects of cot...

  10. Resident resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J L; Cleary, B

    1999-01-01

    Clearly, faculty must work hard with residents to explore the nature of their resistance to a program's learning and growth opportunities. Initial steps to a deeper, more effective, and longer-lasting change process must be pursued. If resident resistance is mishandled or misunderstood, then learning and professional growth may be sidetracked and the purposes of residency training defeated. Listening to the whole person of the resident and avoiding the trap of getting caught up in merely responding to select resident behaviors that irritate us is critical. Every faculty member in the family practice residency program must recognize resistance as a form of defense that cannot immediately be torn down or taken away. Resident defenses have important purposes to play in stress reduction even if they are not always healthy. Residents, especially interns, use resistance to avoid a deeper and more truthful look at themselves as physicians. A family practice residency program that sees whole persons in their residents and that respects resident defenses will effectively manage the stress and disharmony inherent to the resistant resident.

  11. Herbicide and cover crop residue integration for amaranthus control in conservation agriculture cotton and implications for resistance management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation agriculture (CA) practices are threatened by glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. Integrated control practices including PRE herbicides and high-residue CA systems can decrease Amaranthus emergence. Field experiments were conducted from autumn 2006 through crop harvest in 2009 at two s...

  12. Normalising corporate counterinsurgency: Engineering consent, managing resistance and greening destruction around the Hambach coal mine and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunlap, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    The German Rhineland is home to the world's largest opencast lignite coal mine and human-made hole – the Hambach mine. Over the last seven years, RWE, the mine operator, has faced an increase in militant resistance, culminating in the occupation of the Hambacher Forest and acts of civil disobedience

  13. Strategies for the empirical management of infection in cancer patients with emphasis on the emergence of resistant gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klastersky, Jean; Georgala, Aspasia

    2014-12-01

    Combinations of antibiotics (namely penicillins and aminoglycosides) have been advocated in the 1970s for the empirical therapy of FN in cancer patients in order to take advantage of the possible synergism between these agents and to extend the potential antimicrobial spectrum of empirical therapy. Later, with the development of potent broad spectrum antibiotics, the need for combinations became less obvious as monotherapy with these new agents appeared as effective and less toxic than previously used combinations. However, today we are facing a major challenge through the emergence of multi-resistant microrganisms. With such bacteria, we might be coming back to the pre-antibiotic era when no active agents were available. This situation is due, in part, by the excessive use of antibiotics, namely as a prophylaxis for infection, and is complicated by the fact that very few new effective antibiotics are being developed by the pharmaceutical industry. Under these circumstances, it is likely that we will have to resort to "old timers" such as the polymyxins. It is also possible that combination therapy will come back in favor to take advantage of the synergism and extend the spectrum of coverage, just as it has been the case for the management of resistant tuberculosis. At the same time, the development of multidisciplinary antimicrobial stewardship is mandatory for efficient infection control and minimizing emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. An automated GC-C-GC-IRMS setup to measure palaeoatmospheric δ13C-CH4, δ15N-N2O and δ18O-N2O in one ice core sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sperlich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Air bubbles in ice core samples represent the only opportunity to study the mixing ratio and isotopic variability of palaeoatmospheric CH4 and N2O. The highest possible precision in isotope measurements is required to maximize the resolving power for CH4 and N2O sink and source reconstructions. We present a new setup to measure δ13C-CH4, δ15N-N2O and δ18O-N2O isotope ratios in one ice core sample and with one single IRMS instrument, with a precision of 0.09, 0.6 and 0.7‰, respectively, as determined on 0.6–1.6 nmol CH4 and 0.25–0.6 nmol N2O. The isotope ratios are referenced to the VPDB scale (δ13C-CH4, the N2-air scale (δ15N-N2O and the VSMOW scale (δ18O-N2O. Ice core samples of 200–500 g are melted while the air is constantly extracted to minimize gas dissolution. A helium carrier gas flow transports the sample through the analytical system. We introduce a new gold catalyst to oxidize CO to CO2 in the air sample. CH4 and N2O are then separated from N2, O2, Ar and CO2 before they get pre-concentrated and separated by gas chromatography. A combustion unit is required for δ13C-CH4 analysis, which is equipped with a constant oxygen supply as well as a post-combustion trap and a post-combustion GC column (GC-C-GC-IRMS. The post-combustion trap and the second GC column in the GC-C-GC-IRMS combination prevent Kr and N2O interferences during the isotopic analysis of CH4-derived CO2. These steps increase the time for δ13C-CH4 measurements, which is used to measure δ15N-N2O and δ18O-N2O first and then δ13C-CH4. The analytical time is adjusted to ensure stable conditions in the ion source before each sample gas enters the IRMS, thereby improving the precision achieved for measurements of CH4 and N2O on the same IRMS. The precision of our measurements is comparable to or better than that of recently published systems. Our setup is calibrated by analysing multiple reference gases that were injected over bubble-free ice samples. We show

  15. Cotton pest management practices and the selection of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae population in Northern Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Yadouleton, A.; Martin, T.; Padonou, G.; Chandre, Fabrice; Asidi, A.; Djogbénou, Luc; Dabiré, R.; Aikpon, R.; Boko, M.; Glitho, I.; Akogbeto, M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Pyrethroid insecticides, carbamate and organophosphate are the classes of insecticides commonly used in agriculture for crop protection in Benin. Pyrethroids remain the only class of insecticides recommended by the WHO for impregnation of bed nets. Unfortunately, the high level of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l., threatens to undermine the success of pyrethroid treated nets. This study focuses on the investigation of agricultural practices in cotton growing...

  16. Assessment of wound bio-burden and prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria during open wound management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolff, M C; Reese, S; Fehr, M; Dening, R; Meyer-Lindenberg, A

    2016-05-01

    To describe the bacterial bio-burden of open-treated wounds and make comparisons with bite wounds. Retrospective multicentre study. Microbial culture between 2011 and 2013 from open-treated wounds in dogs and cats (initiation of therapy n=88, follow-up n=52) were compared to those from bite wounds (n=184). Bacteria were identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibility by two accredited laboratories. In total, 77/88 (88%) of open-treated wounds yielded positive bacterial cultures at the beginning of treatment, decreasing to 27/52 (52%) during treatment. Upon initial evaluation, 42/88 (48 %) of open-treated wounds were considered infected with multi-drug-resistant bacteria, with a drop to 22/52 (41%) during therapy. Bite wounds yielded fewer positive cultures 88/184 (48%) with only 11/182 (6%) being affected by multi-drug-resistant bacteria. Bacteria found most commonly in open-treated wounds were Enterococcus subspecies, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacterial populations of open-treated wounds differed markedly from the bite wounds. The high incidence of multi-drug-resistant strains in open wounds highlights the need for alternatives to antibiotics. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  17. Relação de uso dos recursos naturais pelas comunidades do entorno de um fragmento florestal urbano no Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos, Recife – Pernambuco. Relation of use of natural resources by surrounding communities of an urban forest fragment in Dois Irmãos State Park, Recife – Pernambuco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogenes José Gusmão COUTINHO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho visa determinar as relações entre comunidades e vegetação do Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos, Recife – Pernambuco. Através de 50 entrevistas, foram investigados aspectos da percepção ambiental dos moradores das comunidades do entorno da floresta do Parque Estadual, percebendo seu modo de vida e sua relação com os recursos naturais. Foram registradas 88 espécies, nativas, cultivadas e introduzida, e dez animais foram citados para a área. As famílias com maior representatividade em número de espécies foram: Fabaceae (treze espécies, Lamiaceae (seis Anacardiaceae, Arecaceae e Cucurbitaceae (cinco, Anonaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Myrtaceae e Poaceae (quatro. O uso alimentício ocorreu em 31,42% das espécies, seguido do uso medicinal (28,57%, comercial (14,28%, madeireiro (11,42%, tecnológico (9,52% e ornamental (4,76%. A vegetação nativa constitui uma fonte importante de recursos madeireiros e medicinais, mas é subutilizada como fonte de alimento. Os vegetais não têm grande relevância na atividade de comércio, servindo como complemento de renda para as famílias. As comunidades utilizam diferentes fontes vegetais para as categorias comércio, construção e tecnologia, decorrentes tanto das principais atividades que exercem seus moradores, como dos recursos naturais à sua disposição. O lixo, a falta de saneamento básico e alagamentos são os principais problemas enfrentados pelas comunidades. The study aims to determine the relationships between vegetation communities and the Dois Irmãos State Park, Recife – Pernambuco. Through 50 interviews, aspects of environmental perception of the residents of the communities surrounding the State Park wereinvestigated in order to find out their lifestyle and their relationship with natural resources.We recorded 88 species, native, cultivated and introduced and ten animals were reported for the area. Families with more representative number of species were Fabaceae

  18. Resistência parasitária em helmintos de eqüídeos e propostas de manejo Parasite resistance on helminths of equids and management proposal’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Beltrão Molento

    2005-12-01

    toll that should be used with caution, because it may not reduce the presence of resistant organisms to the compounds involved. The objective of this article is to demonstrate control alternatives that would contribute to sanitary management, to improve animal welfare and to preserve the toxic effect of the antiparasitic products.

  19. Resistance to Powdery Mildews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwoszek, Agnieszka Izabela

    in majority of them. Resistance to barley powdery mildew in the field is controlled by use of resistant varieties in a combination with fungicides. Early disease management is crucial for effective control. Yet, the pathogen commonly develops fungicide resistance due to simple point mutations. Several studies...... investigated reduced fitness of plants as a cost of resistance to pathogens. In case of barley powdery mildew, most common resistance (mlo) is linked to a higher susceptibility to other pathogens and spontaneous necrosis that leads to yield reduction. Thus, there is a clear need for alternative methods of crop...... protection. In the present study, I provide an overview of the current knowledge about plant pathogens and plant disease resistance. I use Arabidopsis as a model to investigate the mechanism of non-host resistance, presumed to be the most durable and broad-spectrum form of resistance. I attempt to determine...

  20. No consistent effect of plant species richness on resistance to simulated climate change for above- or below-ground processes in managed grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormann, Carsten F; von Riedmatten, Lars; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael

    2017-06-17

    Species richness affects processes and functions in many ecosystems. Since management of temperate grasslands is directly affecting species composition and richness, it can indirectly govern how systems respond to fluctuations in environmental conditions. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether species richness in managed grasslands can buffer the effects of drought and warming manipulations and hence increase the resistance to climate change. We established 45 plots in three regions across Germany, each with three different management regimes (pasture, meadow and mown pasture). We manipulated spring warming using open-top chambers and summer drought using rain-out shelters for 4 weeks. Measurements of species richness, above- and below-ground biomass and soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations showed significant but inconsistent differences among regions, managements and manipulations. We detected a three-way interaction between species richness, management and region, indicating that our study design was sensitive enough to detect even intricate effects. We could not detect a pervasive effect of species richness on biomass differences between treatments and controls, indicating that a combination of spring warming and summer drought effects on grassland systems are not consistently moderated by species richness. We attribute this to the relatively high number of species even at low richness levels, which already provides the complementarity required for positive biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. A review of the literature also indicates that climate manipulations largely fail to show richness-buffering, while natural experiments do, suggesting that such manipulations are milder than reality or incur treatment artefacts.

  1. Resistência à penetração em Neossolo Quartzarênico submetido a diferentes formas de manejo Resistance to penetration in Quartzarenic Neosol subjected to different forms of management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idelfonso C. de Freitas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A substituição das florestas nativas por agrossistemas provoca mudanças na estrutura do solo. O grau dessas alterações depende da intensidade do uso e do manejo do solo, condições climáticas locais e propriedades físicas e químicas do solo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a densidade do solo, resistência do solo à penetração e a matéria orgânica de um Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico em quatro sistemas de manejo: floresta nativa, agrofloresta, pasto e outra área recentemente convertida para uso agrícola. Em cada sistema avaliado sete perfis de solo foram coletados em julho de 2010 e Janeiro de 2011. A resistência do solo foi determinada com um penetrômetro de impacto, modelo Planasucar Stolf IAA, de 00-40 cm de profundidade. O teor de água do solo foi determinado de 00-20 e 20-40 cm de profundidade. A matéria orgânica e a densidade do solo foram determinadas de 00-05; 05-10; 10-20 e 20-40 cm. Entre os sistemas avaliados os menores valores de densidade e resistência do solo foram encontrados na agrofloresta e os maiores obtidos no pasto. Os resultados obtidos na área com uso agrícola de apenas um ano, foram semelhantes aos obtidos em mata nativa.The replacement of native forests for agrosystems causes changes in soil structure. The degree of these changes depends on the intensity of use and soil management, climatic conditions and soil physical and chemical properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the soil bulk density (Bd, soil resistance to penetration and organic matter content of an Ortic Quartzarenic Neosol under four land use systems: native forest, agroforestry, pasture and other area recently converted to agricultural use. In each system seven soil profiles were selected and samples were collected in July 2010 and January 2011. The soil resistance to penetration was determined in 0-40 cm depth using an impact penetrometer, Planasucar Stolf IAA model. The water content in the soil layers was determined

  2. Management

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    La globalisation des activités avec son lot de relocalisations, d’alliances stratégiques par-delà les frontières, défie les pratiques traditionnelles du management, nécessairement construites sur les systèmes nationaux. Cas pratiques à l’appui (dont Aventis, BASF, Novartis ou Siemens), les auteurs, tous deux professeurs de management international, détaillent en les analysant les nouveaux impératifs de management et d’organisation que doivent affronter les entreprises. Ils distinguent clairem...

  3. Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ughetto , Pascal

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Quand il s'agit de rendre compte du travail et de ses conditions, le management exerce autant un fort pouvoir de séduction que de répulsion. Le travail d'aujourd'hui est directement confronté à l'empire des dispositifs de gestion. Il importe de reconstituer les mondes sociaux du management - le top management, les directions spécialisées, les cadres de terrain - si l'on veut comprendre où et comment se jouent les marges de manoeuvre accordées à l'activité de travail ou...

  4. A retrospective critic Re-Debate on Stakeholders’ resistance checklist in software project management within multi-cultural, multi-ethnical and cosmopolitan society context: The Malaysian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Taherdoost

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Risks stemming from software projects were extensively studied. However, software project risk management has rarely researched organizational risks within multi-cultural and multi-ethnical atmospheres. The fact of the matter is that problems occur when the stakeholders’ cultural and ethnical aspects are not addressed, especially in multi-cultural, multi-ethnical, and cosmopolitan society such as Malaysia. To avoid analyzing something that has already been studied in detail, this study conducted based on in-depth literature review considering key word search in subject-specific databases. Journal articles published in reputed journals were reviewed. By employing Rumelt’s resistance to change checklist and culture gap tool source, this paper develops an organizational risk framework considering cross-cultural and cross-ethnical critical factors in order to show how can risks be better comprehended and managed. The significance of bio-cultural dimensions was scrutinized as vital criteria which should be considered in international project sphere, so that, not only the odds of project success would be increased but also the risks can be mitigated significantly. A review of the risk management process, Rumelt’s Checklist, cultural issues in international project environment allows a better understanding of the importance of cultural dimensions in project spheres.

  5. Shhhhhh, The Dragon Is Asleep, and Its Name Is Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janas, Monica

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the effect of resistance on educational change, offering three steps for managing resistance (being aware of resistance, identifying sources and types of resistance, and developing and applying proactive strategies for managing resistance). Two sidebars describe 10 techniques to turn resistance into productive effort and discuss how to…

  6. Significant Need for a French Network of Expert Centers Enabling a Better Characterization and Management of Treatment-Resistant Depression (Fondation FondaMental).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yrondi, Antoine; Bennabi, Djamila; Haffen, Emmanuel; Garnier, Marion; Bellivier, Frank; Bourgerol, Thierry; Camus, Vincent; D'Amato, Thierry; Doumy, Olivier; Haesebaert, Frédéric; Holtzmann, Jérôme; Lançon, Christophe; Vignaud, Philippe; Moliere, Fanny; Nieto, Isabel; Richieri, Raphaëlle Marie; Domenech, Philippe; Rabu, Corentin; Mallet, Luc; Yon, Liova; Schmitt, Laurent; Stephan, Florian; Vaiva, Guillaume; Walter, Michel; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Courtet, Philippe; Leboyer, Marion; El-Hage, Wissam; Aouizerate, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    involved in the management of TRD thereby facilitating treatment decisions and choice in everyday clinical practice. This could contribute to significantly improve the poor prognosis, the relapsing course, daily functioning and heavy burden of TRD. Moreover, the newly created French network of expert centers for TRD will be particularly helpful for a better characterization of sociodemographic, clinical, neuropsychological, and biological markers of treatment resistance required for the further development of personalized therapeutic strategies in TRD.

  7. Significant Need for a French Network of Expert Centers Enabling a Better Characterization and Management of Treatment-Resistant Depression (Fondation FondaMental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Yrondi

    2017-11-01

    -based information to those clinicians most closely involved in the management of TRD thereby facilitating treatment decisions and choice in everyday clinical practice. This could contribute to significantly improve the poor prognosis, the relapsing course, daily functioning and heavy burden of TRD. Moreover, the newly created French network of expert centers for TRD will be particularly helpful for a better characterization of sociodemographic, clinical, neuropsychological, and biological markers of treatment resistance required for the further development of personalized therapeutic strategies in TRD.

  8. Klasik ve Vakum Altında Spreylenerek Pişirme Yöntemlerinin Akide Şekerinin bazı Kalite Kriterleri ve Raf Ömrü Üzerine Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kürşat Demir

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Akide şekeri, Osmanlı mutfağından günümüze kadar gelen, sert şeker olarak da bilenen, geleneksel şekerle­me ürünüdür. Kaliteli akide sert, parlak ve camsı karakterde olan ve bu özelliğini uzun süre koruyan şeker­lemelerdir. Klasik akide şekerlerinin en büyük problemi, bünyesindeki hava kabarcıkları ve çevreden nem çekmesi sonucu renginin matlaşıp, ağarması ve serliğini kaybetmesidir. Bu çalışmada, klasik akide şekerinin raf ömrünü uzatmak amacıyla klasik pişirme işlemi (168 oC ile spreyli vakum ortamında pişirme (138 oC işlemlerinin son ürün kalitesi ve raf ömrüne etkilerinin karşılaştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Beş kg şeker lapası ile yapılan ön denemeler sonucunda spreyli vakum sisteminin 135 oC ve 500 milibar vakum uygulamasının optimum norm oluşturduğu, ancak 50 kg üzerinden yürütülen endüstriyel üretim şartlarında 138 oC nin daha uygun olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Akide şekeri örneklerinin renk değişimleri (L, a ve b, %65±5 nispi nemde 15 günlük rutubetli şartlarda su absorbsiyonu (higroskopite, ağızda erime durumlarını da ortaya koymak için 37 oC’da çözünürlük analizleri, aromatik profili değerlendirmede panel testi gerçekleştirilmiş­tir. Sonuç olarak, spreyli vakumlu pişirme sisteminin, klasik sisteme göre çok daha sert, camsı, raf ömrü çok daha uzun, renk ve aromatik profili muhafaza açısından daha etkili akide şekeri verdiği tespit edilmiştir.

  9. Estresse e relações familiares na perspectiva de irmãos de indivíduos com transtornos globais do desenvolvimento Stress and family relationships from the perspective of siblings of individuals with pervasive developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fonseca Gomes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento (TGD caracterizam-se pelo comprometimento da interação social, pelo uso estereotipado e repetitivo da linguagem e pela presença de comportamentos repetitivos com interesses restritos. A maioria dos estudos nessa área focaliza o impacto dos TGD nos pais, ao passo que pouca atenção tem sido dada ao impacto nos irmãos. O presente estudo objetivou investigar a presença de indicadores de estresse e a qualidade das relações familiares em irmãos de indivíduos com e sem TGD. Participaram 62 crianças e adolescentes com idades entre 8 e 18 anos. Os resultados revelaram a ausência de indicadores de estresse nos grupos investigados. Os dados corroboram as premissas do metamodelo de Adaptação da Família à Doença Crônica, ao demonstrar que a presença de um membro com TGD na família não representa, obrigatoriamente, um evento adverso para os irmãos, desde que haja qualidade nas relações familiares e uma rede de apoio.The Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD can be described as a severe developmental disorder that presents deficits in reciprocal social interaction, communication and restricted and repetitive interests and behaviors. Most studies focus the impact of parenting an individual with PDD. However less research has investigated how autistic individuals affect their siblings. The goal of this study was to evaluate indicators of stress and the quality of family interactions in siblings of autistic individuals compared to siblings of normally developing individuals. Sixty-two siblings between the ages of 8 and 18 participated in this investigation. Results indicated that siblings of individuals with autism, as well as comparison siblings, do not report stress. The results of this investigation suggest that the presence of a family member with PDD does not necessarily represent an adverse event for the siblings. This could be due to the quality of family relations and availability of

  10. European perspective and update on the management of nosocomial pneumonia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after more than 10 years of experience with linezolid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastre, J; Blasi, F; Masterton, R G; Rello, J; Torres, A; Welte, T

    2014-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of antimicrobial-resistant hospital-acquired infections worldwide and remains a public health priority in Europe. Nosocomial pneumonia (NP) involving MRSA often affects patients in intensive care units with substantial morbidity, mortality and associated costs. A guideline-based approach to empirical treatment with an antibacterial agent active against MRSA can improve the outcome of patients with MRSA NP, including those with ventilator-associated pneumonia. New methods may allow more rapid or sensitive diagnosis of NP or microbiological confirmation in patients with MRSA NP, allowing early de-escalation of treatment once the pathogen is known. In Europe, available antibacterial agents for the treatment of MRSA NP include the glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) and linezolid (available as an intravenous or oral treatment). Vancomycin has remained a standard of care in many European hospitals; however, there is evidence that it may be a suboptimal therapeutic option in critically ill patients with NP because of concerns about its limited intrapulmonary penetration, increased nephrotoxicity with higher doses, as well as the emergence of resistant strains that may result in increased clinical failure. Linezolid has demonstrated high penetration into the epithelial lining fluid of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia and shown statistically superior clinical efficacy versus vancomycin in the treatment of MRSA NP in a phase IV, randomized, controlled study. This review focuses on the disease burden and clinical management of MRSA NP, and the use of linezolid after more than 10 years of clinical experience. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  11. The ability to manage self-proposed projects between 1;3 and 2;0 years old: a study of inhibition and resistance to interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estanislao Pastor-Mallol

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines very young children's ability to manage self-proposed projects by using the inhibitory function and resistance to interference. In a natural environment and using an observational method, we conducted a longitudinal study of a sample observed at 1;3, 1;6, 1;9 and 2;0 years old. The research was divided into two studies which followed different procedures and looked at the projects carried out, the interferences produced and the functioning of inhibition. We observed significant differences in the execution of inhibition at the different age groups. We also describe general cognitive functions in terms of significant patterns, and determine that the use of inhibition is linked not only to age but also to the activity complexity level and the type of interference.

  12. Resistência à compactação de um Latossolo cultivado com cafeeiro, sob diferentes sistemas de manejo de plantas invasoras Resistance to soil compaction of an Oxisol cultivated with coffee plants under different weed Management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Francisco Araujo-Junior

    2008-02-01

    ção.The knowledge of the pressure levels that can be applied to the soil under different weed management system (WMS is importante for coffee plantations management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different weed management systems on the susceptibility to compaction of a Red-Yellow Latossol (Oxisol (LVA using soil support capacity (CSC models. This study was carried out at the Epamig Research Farm in Patrocínio, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in a coffee plantation using Ruby 1192 coffee variety in a 3.8 x 0.7 m spacing, planted in February 1999. Four WMS were used and the soil samples were collected in-between the rows under the following management systems: (1 no weed control (SC; (2 hoe-weeded (CM; (3 weed control with post-emergence herbicide Glyphosate (HPÓS; (4 weed control with pre-emergence Oxyfluorfen (HPRÉ. Fifteen undisturbed soil samples from each system were collected (in the layers 0-3, 10-13 and 25-28 cm in July 2004, totaling 180 samples. The undisturbed soil samples were equilibrated at different moisture contents and subjected to the uniaxial compression test to obtain the soil CSC models. Results suggested that the support capacity of the LVA decreases in the center of the inter rows in the following order: HPRÉ in the 0-3 cm layer > CM in the 10-13 cm layer > SC in the 0-3, 10-13, 25-28 cm layers = HPÓS in the 0-3, 10-13, 25-28 cm layers = CM at 0-3 and 25-28 cm layers = HPRÉ in the 10-13 cm layer > HPRÉ in the 25-28 cm layer. Weed control with HPRÉ in the 25-28 cm layer was most susceptible, while HPRÉ in the 0-3 cm layer was most resistant to soil compaction. The management systems SC and HPÓS in the 0-3, 10-13, 25-28 cm layers and the managements CM in the 0-3 and 25-28 cm layers and HPRÉ in the 10-13 cm layer were equally susceptible to soil compaction.

  13. Yield of glyphosate-resistant sugar beets and efficiency of weed management systems with glyphosate and conventional herbicides under German and Polish crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichterlein, Henrike; Matzk, Anja; Kordas, Leszek; Kraus, Josef; Stibbe, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    In sugar beet production, weed control is one of the most important and most expensive practices to ensure yield. Since glyphosate-resistant sugar beets are not yet approved for cultivation in the EU, little commercial experience exists with these sugar beets in Europe. Experimental field trials were conducted at five environments (Germany, Poland, 2010, 2011) to compare the effects of glyphosate with the effects of conventional weed control programs on the development of weeds, weed control efficiency and yield. The results show that the glyphosate weed control programs compared to the conventional methods decreased not only the number of herbicide applications but equally in magnitude decreased the dosage of active ingredients. The results also showed effective weed control with glyphosate when the weed covering was greater and sugar beets had a later growth stage of four true leaves. Glyphosate-resistant sugar beets applied with the glyphosate herbicide two or three times had an increase in white sugar yield from 4 to 18 % in comparison to the high dosage conventional herbicide systems. In summary, under glyphosate management sugar beets can positively contribute to the increasingly demanding requirements regarding efficient sugar beet cultivation and to the demands by society and politics to reduce the use of chemical plant protection products in the environment.

  14. Outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in the intensive care unit: a multi-level strategic management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molter, G; Seifert, H; Mandraka, F; Kasper, G; Weidmann, B; Hornei, B; Öhler, M; Schwimmbeck, P; Kröschel, P; Higgins, P G; Reuter, S

    2016-02-01

    An outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb) occurred in an interdisciplinary intensive care unit, affecting 10 patients. Within hours of recognition of the spread of CRAb an intervention team was instituted for collection of available data, decision-making, communication and monitoring of all interventions performed, including cohorting, temporary stop of admissions, staff education, and enforcement of infection control measures. An area was defined for cohortation of patients colonized with CRAb, with a separate nursing team and a second set of mobile equipment. New transmissions were no longer observed after only four days into the institution of enhanced infection control measures. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Morbidity, mortality, and management of methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia in the USA: update on antibacterial choices and understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortwine, Jessica K; Bhavan, Kavita

    2018-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is associated with significant healthcare costs, morbidity, and mortality in the United States. Complications of MRSA bacteremia include infective endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and sepsis, all of which are difficult to treat. Time to effective therapy and antibacterial choice greatly affect patient outcomes. Vancomycin and daptomycin remain first-line therapies; however, reports of vancomycin-associated treatment failure and reduced daptomycin susceptibility highlight the need to define alternative strategies for MRSA bacteremia treatment. In addition, several patient- and pathogen-specific factors influence the outcomes of MRSA bacteremia. It is, therefore, critical to explore the interaction between host- and pathogen-specific factors and its effect on MRSA bacteremia pathogenesis and mortality. This review discusses the factors that drive the development of MRSA bacteremia and examines alternative treatment strategies.

  16. A Network Meta-Analysis of Clinical Management Strategies for Treatment-Resistant Hypertension: Making Optimal Use of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makai, Peter; IntHout, Joanna; Deinum, Jaap; Jenniskens, Kevin; Wilt, Gert Jan van der

    2017-08-01

    With the addition of surgical interventions to current medicinal treatments, it is increasingly challenging for clinicians to rationally choose among the various options for treating patients with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (ATRHTN). This study aims to establish the comparative effectiveness of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA), renal denervation (RDN), darusentan and central arteriovenous anastomosis (CAA) for patients with ATRHTN by performing a network meta-analysis. Data Sources: Studies from recent meta-analyses for RDN and placebo effect were supplemented with a systematic search for MRAs in ATRHTN in the Pubmed, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through November 2016. Randomized controlled trials comparing treatment options for patients with ATRHTN. Data were extracted using predefined data extraction forms, including the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. A Bayesian random effects model was used to conduct a network meta-analysis. Spironolactone was used as the main comparator. Main Outcomes and Measures: Reduction in 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM). Twenty articles met our inclusion criteria, and seven treatment alternatives were compared. Compared to MRA, CAA had the highest probability of being more effective, further reducing 24-h SBP (-4.8 mmHg [-13.0, 3.7]) and 24-h DBP (-9.7 mmHg [-18, -0.63]). This difference is likely to be clinically meaningful, with a probability of 78 and 96% at a threshold of a 2-mmHg reduction in blood pressure. When compared to MRA as anchor, darusentan, CAA and RDN are not more effective in achieving a clinically significant reduction in ambulatory blood pressure in individuals with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension.

  17. The use of U-500 regular insulin in the management of patients with obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P; Idris, I

    2013-10-01

    The rise in prevalence of obesity and diabetes has created a challenge in managing increasing numbers of patients who require high doses of insulin. This article reviews the published literature on the properties of U-500 insulin and its use in clinical practice. U-500 insulin is likely to have a longer time to peak effect and a longer duration of action than similar doses of U-100 insulin. Evidence for its use in clinical practice rests on retrospective case series, which suggests that the use of U-500 insulin either by multiple daily injections or a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion is effective in improving glycaemic control. To prevent insulin dosing and administration errors, great care must be taken in providing staff and patient education, and in developing policies for the management of patients on U-500 insulin who are admitted to hospital. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The state - local regulatory nexus in US growth management: claims of property and participation in the localist resistance

    OpenAIRE

    T A Clark

    1994-01-01

    Influenced possibly more by volume than substance, some scholars have concluded that significant progress is being realized in state-level land-use regulation in the United States. In truth, more time must pass before a definitive evaluation of the more comprehensive efforts can be made. In this critical paper I examine the statewide growth-management legislation of the four states having tripartite (local - regional - state) administrative hierarchies: Florida, Vermont, Maine, and Georgia. T...

  19. Manejo da Planta Daninha Brachiaria plantaginea Resistente aos herbicidas Inibidores da ACCase Management of the Weed Brachiaria plantaginea Resistant to ACCase Inhibitor Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Christoffoleti

    2001-04-01

    study a population of alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea resistant to ACCase inhibitor herbicides (ariloxyphenoxypropionic and cyclohexanodiones, usually sprayed on soybean under the conservation tillage system. Two experiments were conducted, one under field conditions, comparing the efficacy of non-selective herbicides to ACCase inhibitors, and another under greenhouse conditions, using ACCase inhibitors with nitrogenous additives in the spray solution. Resistant seeds were collected from a site of suspected resistant population, and compared to a population of alexandergrass that had never been sprayed with ACCase inhibitors, the susceptible population. The experiment with non-selective herbicides was conducted under field conditions, but plants were confined to pots of 50 L capacity, avoiding the dissemination of the seeds to adjacent areas. It was then concluded that resistant plants did not show multiple resistance to non selective herbicides with alternative mechanisms of action, with glyphosate, paraquat, paraquat + diuron, MSMA and glufosinate alternative herbicides being possible to be used to control the weed during the winter to manage populations of alexandergrass resistant to ACCase inhibitor herbicides. The additive experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions in pots, using seeds from the same populations used in the non selective experiment. The herbicides tested were ACCase inhibitors, and the additive treatments were ammonium sulfate and urea. It was then concluded that the additives did not enhance ACCase inhibitor herbicide efficacy in neither of the alexandergrass populations.

  20. Isotope determination of sulfur by mass spectrometry in soil samples Determinação isotópica de enxofre por espectrometria de massas (irms em amostras de solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexssandra Luiza Rodrigues Molina Rossete

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur plays an essential role in plants and is one of the main nutrients in several metabolic processes. It has four stable isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S, and 36S with a natural abundance of 95.00, 0.76, 4.22, and 0.014 in atom %, respectively. A method for isotopic determination of S by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS in soil samples is proposed. The procedure involves the oxidation of organic S to sulphate (S-SO4(2-, which was determined by dry combustion with alkaline oxidizing agents. The total S-SO4(2- concentration was determined by turbidimetry and the results showed that the conversion process was adequate. To produce gaseous SO2 gas, BaSO4 was thermally decomposed in a vacuum system at 900 ºC in the presence of NaPO3. The isotope determination of S (atom % 34S atoms was carried out by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS. In this work, the labeled material (K2(34SO4 was used to validate the method of isotopic determination of S; the results were precise and accurate, showing the viability of the proposed method.O enxofre tem papel essencial em plantas, sendo um dos principais nutrientes em diversos processos metabólicos; ele apresenta quatro isótopos estáveis (32S, 33S, 34S e 36S, com abundância natural de 95,00, 0,76, 4,22 e 0,014 % em átomos, respectivamente. Desenvolver um método para determinação isotópica do S por espectrometria de massas de razão isotópica (IRMS em amostras de solo foi o objetivo deste trabalho. A oxidação de S orgânico a sulfato (S-SO4(2- foi avaliada utilizando a oxidação via seca com agentes oxidantes alcalinos. A concentração S-SO4(2- foi determinada pelo método turbidimétrico, e os resultados mostraram que o processo de conversão foi adequado. A obtenção do gás SO2 foi por decomposição térmica do BaSO4 em uma linha de vácuo a 900 ºC, em presença de NaPO3. A determinação isotópica do S (% em átomos de 34S foi realizada em um espectrômetro de massa (IRMS. Neste trabalho, a

  1. Elektro-eğirme Yöntemiyle ÇCKNT Takviye Edilerek Güçlendirilmiş Naylon-6,6 Nanoelyafların Üretimi ve Karakterizasyonu

    OpenAIRE

    DURMUŞ, Fırat; EKREM, Mürsel; ÖNAL, Gürol

    2018-01-01

    Bu çalışmada ağırlıkça % 1, 3 ve 5 oranlarında çokcidarlı karbon nanotüp (ÇCKNT) takviyeli/takviyesiz naylon-6,6 (N-6,6)nanoelyafların üretimi elektro-eğirme metodu kullanılarak gerçekleştirilmiştir.Üretilen nanoelyafların N-6,6 ve ÇCKNT ile bir araya gelmesi ile oluşansistemde meydana gelen kimyasal değişimleri ve etkileşimleri, Termogravimetrikanaliz (TGA) ve Fourier Dönüşümlü Kızılötesi Spektroskopisi (FT-IR) analizleri yapılmıştır.Ayrıca ÇCKNT takviyeli/takviyesiz N-6,6 nanoelyafların öze...

  2. Estudio in vitro del grado de filtración marginal de materiales selladores provisionales: ketac molar, ionoseal, irm, clip f y coltosol en dientes bicuspídeos sometidos a termociclaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giomara Catherine Silva Tapia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo 225 piezas fueron utilizadas; se les dividió en tres grupos: el primer grupo consistió en piezas obturadas endodónticamente, el segundo grupo fueron piezas instrumentadas pero sin obturación endodóntica, y el tercer grupo de piezas que solamente fueron instrumentadas pero que en su interior se colocó una torunda de algodón y un cono de papel con dimetilglioxima. A su vez cada uno de los grupos se los dividió en 5 sub grupos y en su corona se colocaron los 5 materiales: Irm, Ketac molar, Ionoseal, Clip F, Coltosol. Se sometieron dichas piezas a diferentes cambios de temperatura 5°C, 37°C y 55°C cada 5 minutos en un número de 84 ciclos, las piezas fueron impermeabilizadas después de lo cual se colocó al primero y segundo grupo inmersos en azul de metileno al 2% y el tercer grupo en sulfato de níquel al 5%, todas ellas a 37 grados centígrados por 24 horas. Todas las piezas fueron divididas y se midió el grado de filtración con un USB digital microscopio. Con base al estudió estadístico Kruskal Wallis mostró que la menor filtración se dió en el siguiente orden: Clip F, Ionoseal, Ketac Molar, Coltosol e Irm.

  3. Revisiting racial disparities in access to surgical management of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy post implementation of Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kanika; Kalakoti, Piyush; Henry, Miriam; Mishra, Vikas; Riel-Romero, Rosario Maria; Notarianni, Christina; Nanda, Anil; Sun, Hai

    2017-07-01

    Prior to enactment of the Affordable Care Act(ACA), several reports demonstrated remarkable racial disparities in access to surgical care for epileptic patients. Implementation of ACA provided healthcare access to 7-16 million uninsured Americans. The current study investigates racial disparity post ACA era in (1) access to surgical management of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (DRTLE); (2) short-term outcomes in the surgical cohort. Adult patients with DRTLE registered in the National Inpatient Sample (2012-2013) were identified. Association of race (African Americans and other minorities with respect to Caucasians) with access to surgical management of TLE, and short-term outcomes [discharge disposition, length of stay (LOS) and hospital charges] in the surgical cohort were investigated using multivariable regression techniques. Of the 4062 patients with DRTLE, 3.6%(n=148) underwent lobectomy. Overall, the mean age of the cohort was 42.35±16.33years, and 54% were female. Regression models adjusted for patient demographics, clinical and hospital characteristics demonstrated no racial disparities in access to surgical care for DRTLE. Likewise, no racial disparity was noted in outcomes in the surgical cohort. Our study reflects no racial disparity in access to surgical care in patients with DRTLE post 2010 amendment of the ACA. The seismic changes to the US healthcare system may plausibly have accounted for addressing the gap in racial disparity for epilepsy surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Role of pulmonary resections in management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. A monocentric series of 29 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchikh, M; Achir, A; Caidi, M; El Aziz, S; Benosman, A

    2013-12-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a worldwide health problem. Surgery is often used as an adjuvent therapy with anti-tuberculosis agents. The aim of this study is to present our results of pulmonary resections in the treatment of MDR-TB. [corrected] This is a retrospective monocentric study of 29 patients operated on between 1995 and 2010 for MDR-TB. Tuberculosis was evolving from 9 to 108 months with a median of 34.77±19.88 months. The average number of tuberculosis relapses was 2.73 per patient. All patients had a destroyed and/or cavitary parenchyma and 17 had bacilli in sputum at the time of surgery. Lobectomy (51.17%) and pneumonectomy (41.37%) were the main interventions carried out. The operative mortality was 3.44%. Complications such prolonged air leaking and empyema had occurred in 9 patients. The rate of postoperative microbiological conversion was 88.23%. One patient had a relapse 5 months after surgery. Surgery associated with medical treatment provides a high cure rate to the detriment of an acceptable morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of Heat Transfer Resistance of Scale Deposit on theEvaporator of Radioactive Waste Management Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus-Salimin

    2000-01-01

    Identification of heat transfer resistance of scale deposit from fixedhardness of liquid waste in the form of CaSO 4 and MgSO 4 ratio 2:1 has beendone on the evaporation system of Serpong Nuclear Facilities fordetermination of the quality of heat transfer obstruction from heating sourceto solution. Evaporation simulation of solution containing hardness withconcentration 0.5; 1; 2; and 2.5% mass were done on the stainless steelcontainer of 1 / volume with electrical heater in which a stainless-steeltube is put down on the base container. After 24, 168, 336, 504 and 672 hoursevaporation process it is obtained the thickness of scale deposit on thesurface of tube for determining the fouling factor. Heat transfer resistanceof scale deposit from 672 hours evaporation of solution 2.5% concentrationhampered heat transfer, the value of fouling factor be superior to limitsvalue of 0.000515 hours.m 2 . o C/kcal.The fouling factor from the evaporationof solution of 0.5; 1; and 2% concentration during 672 hours be inferior tolimits value. (author)

  6. Densidade, porosidade e resistência à penetração em Latossolo cultivado sob diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo Soil bulk density, porosity and resistance to root penetration in an Oxisol managed by different soil tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Antonio Tormena

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de preparo e manejo do solo determinam as condições físicas para o crescimento das plantas e produtividade das culturas. O objetivo deste estudo é o de avaliar algumas propriedades físicas de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, cultivado com mandioca, após dois anos de implantação em diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: Plantio Direto (mobilização do solo somente ao longo das linhas de plantio; Preparo Mínimo (escarificação a 0,30 m, seguido de gradagem niveladora e Preparo Convencional (aração, com arado de aiveca a uma profundidade de 0,25 m, seguido de gradagem niveladora. Avaliaram-se, nas camadas de 0-0,10 m e 0,10-0,20 m, as seguintes propriedades físicas do solo: densidade, volume de macroporos, microporos, a porosidade e a resistência do solo à penetração das raízes, a cada 0,05 m, até à profundidade de 0,40 m, em três diferentes épocas. Constataram-se maiores valores de densidade do solo e menores valores de macroporosidade na camada de 0-0,10 m no plantio direto e preparo mínimo do solo. Resultados similares foram obtidos na avaliação da resistência do solo à penetração, independente da época de avaliação e da umidade do solo. Os sistemas de preparo mínimo e preparo convencional do solo proporcionam condições físicas menos restritivas ao crescimento das plantas, quando comparado com o plantio direto. Avaliações de médio-longo prazo são necessárias face às mudanças dinâmicas na qualidade física do solo, impostas pelos sistemas de preparo e manejo do solo e da cultura.Soil tillage and management affect soil physical conditions for plant growth and crop productivity. The objective of this research was to evaluate some soil physical properties of an Typic Haplorthox located in the Northwest region of the State of Paraná, Brazil, after two years of different tillage systems, with same crop. The tillage systems used were: No-tillage (cultivated

  7. Control of the development and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of food animal origin in Japan: a new approach for risk management of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tetsuo; Hiki, Mototaka; Ozawa, Manao; Koike, Ryoji; Eguchi, Kaoru; Kawanishi, Michiko; Kojima, Akemi; Endoh, Yuuko S; Hamamoto, Shuichi; Sakai, Masato; Sekiya, Tatsuro

    2014-03-01

    Antimicrobial agents are essential for controlling bacterial disease in food-producing animals and contribute to the stable production of safe animal products. The use of antimicrobial agents in these animals affects the emergence and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from animals and animal products. As disease-causing bacteria are often transferred from food-producing animals to humans, the food chain is considered a route of transmission for the resistant bacteria and/or resistance genes. The Food Safety Commission of Japan (FSC) has been assessing the risk posed to human health by the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria from livestock products via the food chain. In addition to the FSC's risk assessments, the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has developed risk-management guidelines to determine feasible risk-management options for the use of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products during farming practices. This report includes information on risk assessment and novel approaches for risk management of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products for mitigating the risk of development and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria originating from food-producing animals in Japan.

  8. Study on electrical monitoring of fill-up improvement. Utilization of resistivity data for soil compaction management; Hiteiko mitsudo kanri ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu. Moritsuchi seko kanri eno hiteiko yuko riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, N.; Hiramatsu, W. [Dai Nippon Construction, Gifu (Japan); Sugano, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    At present, measurement of wet density and water content by radio isotope (RI method) is used for filling management. It is supposed for filling in road construction that putting-out thickness of banking material reaches nearly 1m in the future rapid construction, however, use of RI method is difficult because of inserting and installing of a radiation source rod, large measuring apparatus, and the legal regulation on radioactivity intensity. Application of resistivity measurement was thus considered. Since resistivity has the same parameter as compaction curve, and monotonously decreases with an increase in water content by volume, it is applicable as construction management index. The management reference of resistivity (Rm) is set by plotting of a compaction curve and corresponding resistivity curve, determination of the reference resistivity (Ro) corresponding to a maximum dry density and optimum water content ratio, and setting of the allowance to Ro according to soil or application. It was clarified that Rm is applicable as set for every filling material. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Dispersão de diásporos e ecologia morfofuncional de plântulas de espécies de um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica em Dois Irmãos, Recife–PE. Propagule dispersion and morphofunctional seedling ecology of species in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Dois Irmãos, Recife–PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogenes José Gusmão COUTINHO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Trabalhos sobre dispersão de frutos e sementes e aspectos morfofuncionais de plântulas podem fornecer informações essenciais no esclarecimento de questões ligadas à sucessão ecológica, além de contribuir nos trabalhos de inventário, conservação e regeneração de ecossistemas naturais, uma vez que contribuem para a compreensão das funções das estruturas morfológicas nos processos de desenvolvimento e estabelecimento das plantas. Diante do exposto, a presente investigação objetivou levantar as síndromes de dispersão e a morfofuncionalidade de plântulas de espécies de fanerógamos de um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica em Dois Irmãos, Recife–PE. O levantamento das espécies e coleta de material fértil foi feito pelo método do caminhamento, entre o período de janeiro de 2008 e agosto de 2011. As espécies foram demarcadas com fitas e acompanhadas quanto à produção de frutos e sementes para determinação da síndrome de dispersão e posterior germinação, visando à obtenção das plântulas. Também foram feitas observações de campo para identificação das sementes germinadas e plântulas encontradas na serrapilheira. A caracterização da síndrome de dispersão e morfofuncionalidade de plântulas foram feitas através de observações em campo e literatura. Foram levantadas 85 espécies, distribuídas em 19 famílias e 60 gêneros. Quanto ao hábito, 63,85% das espécies são árvores, 16,86% são arbustos, 14,45% são trepadeiras e 7,22% são ervas. A síndrome de dispersão mais frequente foi a zoocoria (66,66%, seguida da autocoria (18,84% e anemocoria (13,05%. O padrão de morfofuncionalidade de plântulas predominantes foi o fanerocotiledonar-epígeo com cotilédones do tipo foliáceo, semelhante ao padrão descrito na literatura para as florestas tropicais úmidas não inundáveis. Papers on fruit and seed dispersal and seedling morphofunctional aspects can provide essential information to clarify issues

  10. Medicine of senescence or managing a hospital system: the resistible rise of geriatric medicine in the State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Cecily

    2006-04-01

    This paper investigates the conditions in which geriatric medicine emerged in the state of Victoria between the late 1950s and the late 1970s. It shows how, in transforming a charity model of care into a medical model of service, nascent geriatricians were caught up in the shifting balance of responsibilities between state and Commonwealth governments in funding health services and care for the aged, and in the efforts of a small segment of the Australian medical profession to establish an organisational setting and professional context for social medicine. In Victoria, the potential for doctors to circumvent bureaucratic and professional limitations on their work lay in their relationship with their institutional committees of management whose members were drawn from the general community. The paper argues that pioneer 'geriatricians' failed to establish a field of practice that met all the needs they discerned in their patient group because they could not change community ideas about appropriate responses to old age infirmity.

  11. Management

    OpenAIRE

    Daft, Richard L.; Kendrick, Martyn; Vershinina, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    The market-leading textbook for principles of management courses reaches a new level with Richard L. Daft being joined by Martyn Kendrick and Natalia Vershinina (both Leicester Business School) to provide an unparalleled resource for students in Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA). After listening to the requirements of lecturers, the authors have maintained the same comprehensive coverage and structure of the original work but carefully threaded in new EMEA and wider global examples an...

  12. Resistance/reactance level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Larry E; Harwood, T Mark; Michelson, Aaron; Song, Xiaoxia; Holman, John

    2011-02-01

    Psychotherapists from all professions and perspectives periodically struggle to effectively manage a patient's resistance to change. This article provides definitions and examples of patient-treatment matching applied to patient resistance or reactance. We report the results from an original meta-analysis of 12 select studies (N = 1,102) on matching therapist directiveness to patient reactance. Our findings support the hypothesis that patients exhibiting low levels of trait-like resistance respond better to directive types of treatment, while patients with high levels of resistance respond best to nondirective treatments (d = .82). Limitations of the research reviewed are noted, and practice recommendations are advanced. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Science framework for the conservation and restoration strategy of DOI secretarial order 3336: Utilizing resilience and resistance concepts to assess threats to sagebrush ecosystems and greater sage-grouse, prioritize conservation and restoration actions, and inform management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Campbell, Steve; Carlson, John; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Clause, Karen J.; Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Espinosa, Shawn; Griffin, Kathleen A.; Christiansen, Thomas J.; Crist, Michele R.; Hanser, Steven E.; Havlina, Douglas W.; Henke, Kenneth F.; Hennig, Jacob D.; Kurth, Laurie L.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Mayer, Kenneth E.; Manning, Mary E.; Mealor, Brian A.; McCarthy, Clinton; Pellant, Mike; Prentice, Karen L.; Perea, Marco A.; Pyke, David A.; Wiechman , Lief A.; Wuenschel, Amarina

    2016-01-01

    The Science Framework for the Conservation and Restoration Strategy of the Department of the Interior, Secretarial Order 3336 (SO 3336), Rangeland Fire Prevention, Management and Restoration, provides a strategic, multiscale approach for prioritizing areas for management and determining effective management strategies across the sagebrush biome. The emphasis of this version is on sagebrush ecosystems and greater sage-grouse. The Science Framework uses a six step process in which sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to nonnative, invasive annual grasses is linked to species habitat information based on the distribution and abundance of focal species. The predominant ecosystem and anthropogenic threats are assessed, and a habitat matrix is developed that helps decision makers evaluate risks and determine appropriate management strategies at regional and local scales. Areas are prioritized for management action using a geospatial approach that overlays resilience and resistance, species habitat information, and predominant threats. Decision tools are discussed for determining the suitability of priority areas for management and the most appropriate management actions at regional to local scales. The Science Framework and geospatial crosscut are intended to complement the mitigation strategies associated with the Greater Sage-Grouse Land Use Plan amendments for the Department of the Interior Bureaus, such as the Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Forest Service.

  14. Resistance-resistant antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-12-01

    New antibiotics are needed because drug resistance is increasing while the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. We discuss here six possible approaches to develop 'resistance-resistant' antibiotics. First, multitarget inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy owing to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, repurposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multitarget therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and, in some cases, suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored in otherwise drug-resistant organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Survival and Development of Spodoptera frugiperda and Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt Cotton and Implications for Resistance Management Strategies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgatto, Rodrigo J; Bernardi, Oderlei; Omoto, Celso

    2015-02-01

    In Brazil, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) and Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) are important cotton pests and target of control of Bollgard II (Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab2) and WideStrike (Cry1Ac/Cry1F) cotton technologies. To subsidize an insect resistance management program, we conducted laboratory studies to evaluate the toxicity of these Bt cotton plants throughout larval development of S. frugiperda and C. includens. In bioassays with leaf disc, the efficacy of both Bt cotton plants against neonates was >80% for S. frugiperda and 100% for C. includens. However, S. frugiperda larvae that survived on Bt cotton had >76% of growth inhibition and stunting. In bioassays with S. frugiperda and C. includens larvae fed on non-Bt near-isoline during different time period (from 3 to 18 d) and then transferred to Bollgard II or WideStrike leaves showed that larval susceptibility decreased as larval age increased. For Bollgard II cotton, in all S. frugiperda instars, there were larvae that reached the pupal and adult stages. In contrast, on WideStrike cotton, a few larvae in fifth and sixth instar completed the biological cycle. For C. includens, some larvae in sixth instar originated adults in both Bt cotton plants. In conclusion, Bollgard II and WideStrike cotton technologies showed high efficacy against neonates of S. frugiperda and C. includens. However, the mortality of these species decreases as larval age increase, allowing insect survival in a possible seed mixture environment and favoring the resistance evolution. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Using resilience and resistance concepts to manage threats to sagebrush ecosystems, Gunnison sage-grouse, and Greater sage-grouse in their eastern range: A strategic multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Campbell, Steve; Carlson, John; Christiansen, Thomas J.; Clause, Karen J.; Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Griffin, Kathleen A.; Havlina, Douglas W.; Mayer, Kenneth F.; Hennig, Jacob D.; Kurth, Laurie L.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Manning, Mary E.; Mealor, Brian A.; McCarthy, Clinton; Perea, Marco A.; Pyke, David A.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a strategic approach developed by a Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies interagency working group for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems, Greater sage-grouse, and Gunnison sage-grouse. It uses information on (1) factors that influence sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to nonnative invasive annual grasses and (2) distribution and relative abundance of sage-grouse populations to address persistent ecosystem threats, such as invasive annual grasses and wildfire, and land use and development threats, such as oil and gas development and cropland conversion, to develop effective management strategies. A sage-grouse habitat matrix links relative resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems with modeled sage-grouse breeding habitat probabilities to help decisionmakers assess risks and determine appropriate management strategies at both landscape and site scales. Areas for targeted management are assessed by overlaying matrix components with Greater sage-grouse Priority Areas for Conservation and Gunnison sage-grouse critical habitat and linkages, breeding bird concentration areas, and specific habitat threats. Decision tools are discussed for determining the suitability of target areas for management and the most appropriate management actions. A similar approach was developed for the Great Basin that was incorporated into the Federal land use plan amendments and served as the basis of a Bureau of Land Management Fire and Invasives Assessment Tool, which was used to prioritize sage-grouse habitat for targeted management activities.

  17. [Children exposed to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: How should we manage? Analysis of 46 child contacts and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catho, G; Sénéchal, A; Ronnaux-Baron, A-S; Valour, F; Perpoint, T; Bouaziz, A; Dumitriescu, O; Reix, P; Pedone, C; Ader, F

    2015-12-01

    Tuberculosis-related morbidity and mortality remain important. Emergence and diffusion of multidrug-resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a global public health concern. Cases of MDR-TB in children are a sentinel event indicating the spread of a mycobacterial strain within a community. Latent TB precedes MDR-TB and screening and follow-up of contact individuals are key points of TB infection control. We performed the case-investigation of 20 adult cases of MDR-TB managed in our institution. Forty-six pediatric contact individuals were identified. A high proportion of these children were lost to follow-up (80% at 12 months), showing that monitoring this reservoir population with migrant history is challenging. Five (11%) children presented a secondary infection: one child was diagnosed with active TB infection (positive tuberculin skin test associated with abnormalities on chest computer tomography [CT] scan). Four children were diagnosed with latent TB infection (isolated positive tuberculin skin test with normal CT scan). Two of these children received a treatment adjusted to the strain of the index case. In the setting of emerging MDR-TB, tuberculin skin test may be likely replaced by specific interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA), independent of prior BCG vaccination. In addition, chest CT scan is preferred to chest X-ray to detect TB lesions. The management of latent TB infection is controversial: immediate treatment with second-line anti-TB drugs adapted to the index case strain or, consistently with WHO guidelines, a simple follow-up with subsequent treatment in case of active TB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Acaricide rotation strategy for managing resistance in the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acarina: Ixodidae): laboratory experiment with a field strain from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullner, Friederike; Willadsen, Peter; Kemp, David

    2007-09-01

    During the past two decades, resistance to pyrethroids within the cattle tick genus Boophilus has caused tick control problems in various tropical countries, mainly in Latin America, southern Africa, Australia, and New Caledonia. A Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) strain from Costa Rica, exhibiting resistance to the pyrethroid deltamethrin but only a very low resistance to organophosphates (OP) was kept under selection pressure for 9 to 11 generations by using deltamethrin or coumaphos (OP), either exclusively or in rotation. The objective of this acaricide rotation was to examine the possibility of delaying or reducing the full emergence of pyrethroid resistance. In the substrain selected with deltamethrin at the LD50 concentration, resistance to deltamethrin was measured after five generations (resistance factor [RF] = 9.2) and very high resistance after 11 generations (RF = 756), compared with the starting field strain from Costa Rica. In the substrain selected with deltamethrin then coumaphos in rotation, resistance to deltamethrin was variable from one generation to the next (RF = 1-4.2), but no high, stable resistance developed. After 10 generations of rotation, the deltamethrin RF was 1.6. In the substrains selected continuously with coumaphos or coumaphos and deltamethrin in rotation, no consistent change in resistance to coumaphos was observed. Rotation of deltamethrin with coumaphos seems to delay the development of strong resistance to deltamethrin in a population that had initially a low level of deltamethrin resistance.

  19. Resistência ao cisalhamento de um latossolo sob diferentes uso e manejo Shear strength of a latosol under different use and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Silva

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência do solo ao cisalhamento é uma importante propriedade dinâmica do solo, a qual vem sendo desconsiderada na maioria das pesquisas que investigam a influência do uso e manejo, assim como os estados de consistência , sobre o comportamento da estrutura dos solos agrícolas. Isto tem contribuído para a adoção de estratégias quase sempre equivocadas, tendo, como conseqüência, o depauperamento das propriedades físicas e mecânicas do solo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a resistência ao cisalhamento de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico submetido ao preparo convencional e semeadura direta, tendo, como tratamento-testemunha, o cerradão, considerando diferentes conteúdos de água: 0,05; 0,16; 0,18 e 0,38 kg kg-1. Com base nos resultados encontrados, verificou-se que a resistência ao cisalhamento do solo, avaliada na profundidade de 0-0,05 m do Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, foi influenciada pelo aumento da umidade, tipo de uso e manejo. De maneira geral, as equações ajustadas conforme o modelo de Coulomb constataram maior resistência do solo ao cisalhamento no cerradão, seguido do preparo convencional e semeadura direta. A menor resistência ao cisalhamento do solo estudado, corroborada pelo menor atrito interno (tg f e maior coesão aparente (c, especificamente nos teores de água 0,16 e 0,27 kg kg-1 (contemplando, portanto, a faixa friável do solo, confere à semeadura direta a condição de maior possibilidade de preservação da sustentabilidade da estrutura do Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. A predição da tensão de cisalhamento apresentou-se sensível aos efeitos da variação do teor de água no solo, ao tipo de uso, podendo contribuir, particularmente, em estudos da sustentabilidade da estrutura dos solos agrícolas, a qual normalmente é comprometida em áreas cujo tráfego e preparo do solo são realizados inadequadamente.Shear soil strength is an important dynamic property of the soil, as well as

  20. Information management fiscal year 1996 site support program plan, WBS 6.4. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    In the recent past, information resource management (IRM) was a neatly separable component of the overall DOE mission, concerned primarily with procuring and implementing automatic data processing (ADP) systems. As the DOE missions have shifted from producing product to managing processes, those clear lines have blurred. Today, IRM is firmly embedded in all aspects of the DOE mission. BCS Richland, Inc., (BCSR) provides IRM for the Hanford Site. The main focus in executing this mission is to meet customer goals by providing high-quality, timely, and cost-effective electronic communication, computing, and information services. Information resources provide the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Hanford Site contractors the ability to generate, store, access, and communicate information quickly, reliably, and cost effectively. BCSR plans, implements, and operates electronic communication, computing and information management systems that enable effective operation of the Hanford Site. Five strategic initiatives to encompass the vision provide guidance and focus to the information technology (IT) direction for developing the BCSR program plan. These strategic initiatives are the program vision and are as follows: primary focus; fast response; accessible information; world class information management infrastructure; powerful desktop. The business directions that guide the development of the BCSR Program Plan are: (1) emphasize providing cost-effective and value-added communication, computing, and information systems products and services to the Site missions; (2) strengthen the alignment of products and services with Site projects and programs and eliminate duplications Sitewide; (3) focus on the effective resolution of critical Site information management (IM) issues.

  1. Understanding The Resistance to Health Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    David Ackah; Angelito E Alvarado; Heru Santoso Wahito Nugroho; Sanglar Polnok; Wiwin Martiningsih

    2017-01-01

    User resistance is users’ opposition to system implementation. Resistance often occurs as a result of a mismatch between management goals and employee preferences. There are two types of resistance to health iformation system namely active resistance and passive resistance. The manifestation of active resistance are being critical,  blaming/accusing, blocking, fault finding, sabotaging, undermining, ridiculing, intimidating/threatening, starting rumors, appealing to fear, manipulating arguing...

  2. Seleção de progênies de meio-irmãos de milho para eficiência no uso de nitrogênio Selection of half-sib of maize for nitrogen use efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Heinz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo estimar os parâmetros e os ganhos genéticos na seleção de progênies de meio-irmãos para eficiência no uso de nitrogênio, por meio de seleção simultânea de caracteres. Foram instalados dois experimentos, diferenciados pela adubação nitrogenada, sendo um com adubação adequada (alto N e outro em condição de estresse (baixo N. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em látice 10x10, com duas repetições. Nos ensaios foram utilizadas 84 progênies de meio-irmãos e 16 testemunhas. A partir dos quadrados médios das análises de variâncias de cada ambiente foram realizadas as estimativas dos parâmetros genéticos. Após as análises, foram selecionadas em cada ambiente 17 progênies de meio-irmãos, por meio do índice clássico de seleção, e verificou-se a repetibilidade das progênies entre os ambientes. Observou-se variabilidade entre as progênies, determinando o potencial da população para a seleção considerando-se a eficiência no uso de nitrogênio. As estimativas de parâmetros e ganhos genéticos foram maiores em alto N. O uso do índice de seleção promoveu estimativas de ganho por seleção de 24,43 e 21,05% para alto e baixo N, respectivamente, para a produtividade de grãos. As progênies selecionadas apresentaram médias de produtividade de grãos de 13,45 e 19,47% maiores que as testemunhas, em alto e baixo N, respectivamente.The study aimed to estimate the parameters and the genetic gain in selection of half-sib for nitrogen use efficiency, through simultaneous selection of characters. Two experiments were established, differentiated by nitrogen fertilization, one with proper fertilization (high N and another in stress conditions (low N. The experiment was using a 10x10 lattice with two replications. In the tests we used 84 different half-sib and 16 witnesses. From the mean squares of analysis of variance in each environment were the estimates of genetic parameters. After the

  3. Resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, P; Oliveras, A; de la Sierra, A

    2013-11-01

    A 53 year old woman with hypercholesterolemia treated with statins, with no history of cardiovascular disease, was referred to the Hypertension and Vascular Risk Unit for management of hypertension resistant to 4 antihypertensive agents at full doses. The patient had obesity, with a body mass index of 36.3kg/m(2) and office blood pressure 162/102mm Hg. Physical examination showed no data of interest. glucose 120mg/dl, glycated Hb: 6.4%, albuminuria 68mg/g, kidney function and study of the renin angiotensin system and other biochemical parameters were normal. Echocardiography: left ventricular mass, 131g/m(2) (normal, <110g/m(2)). True resistant hypertension was confirmed by ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure during 24h (153/89mm Hg). Spironolactone treatment (25mg/day) was added and was well tolerated, with no change in renal function and kaliemia within normal (4.1mmol/l) following the treatment. After 8 weeks, blood pressure was well controlled: office blood pressure 132/86mm Hg and 24h-ambulatory blood pressure: 128/79mm Hg. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Benchmark study on glyphosate-resistant cropping systems in the United States. Part 7: Effects of weed management strategy (grower practices versus academic recommendations) on the weed soil seedbank over 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David J; Young, Bryan G; Owen, Micheal D K; Gage, Karla L; Matthews, Joseph L; Jordan, David L; Shaw, David R; Weller, Stephen C; Wilson, Robert G

    2016-04-01

    Shifts in weed species composition and richness resulting from near-exclusive reliance on herbicides in glyphosate-resistant (GR) cropping systems has necessitated the implementation of alternative weed management tactics to reduce selection pressures of herbicides. We contrasted the response of the weed soil seedbank to effects of weed management strategy, comparing grower practices with academic recommendations for best management practices (BMPs) over 6 years and across five weed hardiness zones in the US Midwest at sites subject to GR cropping systems. Total weed population density and species richness varied according to cropping system, location and prior year's crop, but less so to weed management strategy. The seedbank population density for 11 of the 14 most frequent weed species was affected by weed management strategy either alone or in an interaction with hardiness zone or year, or both. In only 29% of comparisons was weed population density lower following academic recommendations, and this depended upon prior crop and cropping system. The population density of high-risk weed species was reduced by academic recommendations, but only in two of six years and under continuous GR maize. Overall, the weed population density was decreasing in field halves subject to the BMPs in the academic recommendations relative to grower practices. The soil seedbank is slow to respond to academic recommendations to mitigate glyphosate-resistant weeds, but represents a biological legacy that growers need to keep in mind even when management practices reduce emerged field weed population densities. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Terapia fonológica em irmãos com diferentes graus de gravidade do desvio fonológico Phonological therapy in siblings with different severity degree of phonological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Carlesso Pagliarin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: terapia fonológica em irmãos com desvio fonológico. PROCEDIMENTOS: participaram da pesquisa dois irmãos, S1 e S2, do sexo masculino e feminino, respectivamente. O S1, 6:6 de idade, apresentava desvio fonológico de grau severo e foi tratado pelo modelo de Oposições Mínimas e o S2, 4:8 de idade, com desvio fonológico de grau moderado-severo foi tratado pelo Modelo de Oposições Máximas. Ambos os sujeitos realizaram 25 sessões de fonoterapia. RESULTADOS: o S2 obteve uma melhor evolução terapêutica comparado ao S1. O S1 apresentou generalização a itens não utilizados no tratamento e o S2 apresentou generalização dentro de uma classe de sons. CONCLUSÃO: os modelos utilizados são eficazes, pois proporcionaram a ocorrência de generalizações e a melhora do sistema fonológico de ambos os sujeitos. No entanto os fatores ambientais podem ter limitado a evolução do tratamento, uma vez que as crianças apresentavam substituições semelhantes na fala o que favorecia a manutenção da alteração.BACKGROUND: phonological therapy in siblings with phonological disorder. PROCEDURE: the sample was composed of two brothers, S1 and S2, male and female, respectively. S1, age 6:6-year-old, with severe phonological disorder, was treated by Minimal Opposition model and S2, age 4:8-year-old, with moderate-severe phonological disorder, was treated by Maximal Opposition model. Both subjects have had 25 sessions of speech therapy. RESULTS: S2 got better development compared to S1. S1 showed generalization to untreated items and S2 showed generalization within a sound class. CONCLUSION: the used models are effective, because they provided the occurrence of generalizations and the improvement of the phonological system of both subjects. However, environmental factors may have limited the progress of treatment, since that the children had similar substitutions in the speech that favored the maintenance of the change.

  6. Florence Nightingale e as irmãs de caridade: revisitando a história Florence Nightingale y las hermanas de caridad: revisitando la historia Florence Nightingale and charity sisters: revisiting the history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Itayra Coelho de Souza Padilha

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo trata de uma reflexão historiográfica acerca dos elos de ligação entre a prática de enfermagem e a influência recebida das ordens/associações religiosas, que marcam o ideário de enfermagem até os dias de hoje, especialmente das Irmãs de Caridade de São Vicente de Paulo. A enfermagem profissional, que só ocorreria no século XIX na Inglaterra, erigida por Florence Nightingale sofreria influência direta dos ensinamentos de amor e fraternidade traduzidos pelo conceito de altruísmo, da valorização do ambiente adequado para o cuidado e a divisão social do trabalho em enfermagem. O estudo mostra também a influência sofrida por Florence Nightingale pelo trabalho exercido pelas Irmãs de Caridade.El estudio trata de una reflexión historiográfica acerca de los eslabones de conexión entre la práctica de enfermería y la influencia recibida de las órdenes/asociaciones religiosas, que marcan el ideario de enfermería hasta los días de hoy, especialmente de las Hermanas de la Caridad de San Vicente de Pablo. La enfermería profesional, que sólo se llevaría a cabo en el siglo XIX en Inglaterra, erigida por Florence Nightingale sufriría influencia directa de las enseñanzas de amor y fraternidad traducidos por el concepto de altruismo, de la valorización del ambiente adecuado para el cuidado y la división social del trabajo en enfermería. El estudio mostra también la influencia sufrida por Florence Nightingale por el trabajo ejercido por las hermanas de la Caridad.This study presents an historical analysis on the links betwen the nursing practice and the influence received from various religious orders/associations along the times, especially from Saint Vincent Paul's charity sisters. The professional nursing which was pioneered by Florence Nightingale in the XIXth century, was directly influenced by the teachings of love and fraternity. In addition, other contributions from the religious orders/associations were the

  7. Validation of GC-IRMS techniques for δ13C and δ2H CSIA of organophosphorus compounds and their potential for studying the mode of hydrolysis in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Langping; Kümmel, Steffen; Richnow, Hans H

    2017-04-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) is among the most promising tools for studying the fate of organic pollutants in the environment. However, the feasibility of multidimensional CSIA was limited by the availability of a robust method for precise isotope analysis of heteroatom-bearing organic compounds. We developed a method for δ 13 C and δ 2 H analysis of eight organophosphorus compounds (OPs) with different chemical properties. In particular, we aimed to compare high-temperature conversion (HTC) and chromium-based HTC (Cr/HTC) units to explore the limitations of hydrogen isotope analysis of heteroatom-bearing compounds. Analysis of the amount dependency of the isotope values (linearity analysis) of OPs indicated that the formation of HCl was a significant isotope fractionation process leading to inaccurate δ 2 H analysis in HTC. In the case of nonchlorinated OPs, by-product formation of HCN, H 2 S, or PH 3 in HTC was observed but did not affect the dynamic range of reproducible isotope values above the limit of detection. No hydrogen-containing by-products were found in the Cr/HTC process by use of ion trap mass spectrometry analysis. The accuracy of gas chromatography - isotope ratio mass spectrometry was validated in comparison with elemental analyzer - isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Dual-isotope fractionation yielded Λ values of 0 ± 0 at pH 7, 7 ± 1 at pH 9, and 30 ± 6 at pH 12, indicating the potential of 2D CSIA to characterize the hydrolysis mechanisms of OPs. This is the first report on the combination of δ 2 H and δ 13 C isotope analysis of OPs, and this is the first study providing a systematic evaluation of HTC and Cr/HTC for hydrogen isotope analysis using OPs as target compounds. Graphical Abstract Comparison of δ 2 H measurement of non-chlorinated and chlorinated OPs via GC-Cr/HTC-IRMS and GC-HTC-IRMS system.

  8. Nódulo umbilical metastático (nódulo da Irmã Maria José: um sinal de alerta para tumoração maligna intra-abdominal - relato de caso Sister Mary Joseph's nodule: a warning sign for intra-abdominal malignant tumors. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Soares Fogaça

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available O nódulo da "Irmã Maria José" é tumor metastático que acomete a cicatriz umbilical e pode ser a primeira evidência de neoplasia intra-abdominal disseminada. Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente com o nódulo da "Irmã Maria José" no qual o diagnóstico do tumor primário só foi possível por meio dos testes imuno-histoquímicos da lesão biopsiada da pele.The umbilical metastatic tumoral nodule, Sister Mary Joseph's nodule, is a rare clinical sign indicative of disseminated intra-abdominal tumor, and may be the first evidence of malignancy. The authors report a case of a patient with umbilical metastatic nodule in whom the diagnosis of the primary tumor was possible by immunohistochemistry of the lesion biopsy.

  9. Survey of vegetation and its diametric distribution in an area of cerrado sensu stricto and riparian forest fragment at Dois Irmãos stream in the Area of Environmental Protection (APA of Cafuringa, Federal District, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elias de Paula

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available All individual trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH of over 5cm, as well as the natural succession, were identified in 2,500m2 of the savannah (cerrado sensu stricto area and in 5,000m2 of the “Dois Irmãos” riparian forest vegetation (15º30’19”S and 48º06’18”W. The floristic composition of the cerrado sensu stricto was composed by 100 trees distributed in 25 species, and the riparian forest consisted of 155 trees distributed in 55 species. The natural regeneration was formed with 211 and 287 individuals in the cerrado sensu stricto and riparian forest distributed into 38 and 55 species respectively. The basal areas of the trees occupied 3.40m2.ha-1 in the cerrado sensu stricto and 5.08m2.ha-1 in the riparian forest. The diametric distribution curves for both plant communities, adjusted by the Meyers equation, demonstrated a typical tendency of reversed-J shape with strongly antropic action in the 11 to 17cm diametric classes.

  10. Borboletas frugívoras (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae no Horto Botânico Irmão Teodoro Luis, Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Madruga Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n1p87 No Rio Grande do Sul, há carência de informações sistematizadas sobre a fauna de borboletas frugívoras. Este artigo teve por objetivo inventariar a guilda no Horto Botânico Irmão Teodoro Luis, ambiente caracterizado pela tensão ecológica entre a floresta estacional semidecidual e as formações pioneiras. As coletas foram realizadas em três áreas, cada uma contendo cinco armadilhas Van Someren-Rydon modificadas, iscadas com banana fermentada. As armadilhas permaneceram em campo durante seis dias consecutivos por mês, entre setembro de 2010 e agosto de 2011. Em 10.800 horas de esforço amostral, foram registrados 453 indivíduos distribuídos em 16 espécies, 15 gêneros e três subfamílias de Nymphalidae. Satyrinae foi a mais rica e abundante, sendo duas espécies deste grupo muito frequentes e dominantes. Os índices de riqueza indicaram entre 78% e 93% da fauna registrada, a curva de acúmulo de espécies condiz com esses valores e a diversidade foi de 2,02 (H’. Prepona pylene Hewitson, [1854] e Archaeoprepona demophoon (Hübner, [1814] constituem novos registros para o Litoral Sul do estado.

  11. Cofirmation of resistance in littleseed canarygrass (phalaris minor retz) to accase inhibitors in central punjab-pakistan and alternative herbicides for its management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, T.; Burgos, N. R.; Nadeem, M. A.; Matloob, A.; Farooq, N.; Chauhan, B. S.

    2017-01-01

    Littleseed canarygrass (Phalaris minor) infests wheat and other winter crops in Pakistan and many other countries. Studies were conducted in Pakistan to confirm littleseed canarygrass resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and to appraise the efficacy of other postemergence herbicides against this grassy weed. A field survey was conducted to collect putative fenoxaprop-resistant seeds from various districts of the central Punjab in March 2015. Dose-response assays were conducted in the greenhouse to confirm resistance to fenoxaprop. The response of fenoxaprop-resistant littleseed canarygrass to diverse herbicide molecules like clodinafop-propargyl, metribuzin, pinoxaden, and sulfosulfuron was also evaluated in further dose-response bioassays. All accessions manifested variable resistance to fenoxaprop, which ranged from 2.52- to 6.00-fold. The resistant accessions also showed low-level cross-resistance (two-fold) to clodinafop. Metribuzin, pinoxaden, and sulfosulfuron were still effective in controlling fenoxaprop-resistant canarygrass. This is the first scientific documentation of resistance to ACCase inhibitor herbicides in central Punjab, Pakistan. The use of alternative herbicides in conjunction with other agronomic practices is crucial for sustainable wheat production in the country. (author)

  12. Differences in treatment patterns among patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer treated by oncologists versus urologists in a US managed care population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel-Nitz, Nicole M; Alemayehu, Berhanu; Parry, David; Nathan, Faith

    2011-01-01

    Differences in treatment patterns, health care resource utilization, and costs between patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) treated by oncologists and those treated by urologists were examined. Patients aged ≥40 with CRPC were identified using claims from a large US managed health care plan between July 2001 and December 2007. A 6-month baseline period was used to assess patient characteristics. Patients with visits to an urologist, without visits to an oncologist, were assigned to the urology cohort, and patients with visits to an oncologist, with or without visits to an urologist, were assigned to the oncology cohort. Treatment patterns, health care resource utilization, and costs during a variable follow-up period were compared between cohorts using descriptive statistics and Lin’s regression. The urology cohort had fewer comorbid illnesses (P < 0.001) and patients were less likely to have other cancers during baseline (P < 0.001) or to die during follow-up (P = 0.004) compared with the oncology cohort. The oncology cohort patients were significantly more likely to have a claim for hormones (74.5% vs 61.1%; P < 0.001), chemotherapy (46.9% vs 10.2%, P < 0.001), and radiation (22.3% vs 3.7%, P < 0.0001) over follow-up. Mean unadjusted health care costs were higher in the oncology vs the urology cohort (US$31,896 vs US$15,318, respectively; P < 0.001). At 6 years follow-up, cumulative adjusted CRPC-specific costs were significantly higher among patients treated by oncologists with chemotherapy than among patients treated by urologists. CRPC patients treated by oncologists had greater use of hormones, chemotherapy, and radiation; higher percentages of patients with inpatient stays, emergency room, and ambulatory visits; and higher health care costs, than patients treated by urologists

  13. VARIABLES QUE INTERVIENEN EN LA PERSONALIDAD RESISTENTE Y LAS ESTRATEGIAS DE AFRONTAMIENTO EN ADULTOS MAYORES/ VARIABLES INTERVENING IN RESISTANT PERSONALITY AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN AGED PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoila Edith Hernández Zamora*

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el nivel de Personalidad Resistente (PR, su relación con el nivel deestrategias de afrontamiento así como con otras variables psicológicas y sociodemográficas de una muestra de 102 adultosmayores que asisten a una estancia diurna especial para este grupo etario. Los resultados muestran que la mayoría de losparticipantes tienen un nivel alto de PR y ninguna resultó con un nivel bajo en este constructo. Las variables asociadassignificativamente con una PR alta son: sexo, independencia, escolaridad, autopercepción de salud y repercusión en elestado de ánimo de sus enfermedades. En cuanto al nivel de estrategias de afrontamiento la mayoría se ubicó en el nivelmedio, no existiendo correlaciones en este aspecto con otras variables de estudio. Se recomienda hacer otras investigacionescon poblaciones de este mismo grupo etario aunque en diferentes hábitats, así como con otros grupos etarios para compararresultados.Abstract:The purpose of this research was to determine the level of Resistant Personality (RP, its relationship with the level ofmanagement strategies, as well as with other psychological and sociodemographic variables of a sample of 102 agedpersons who attend a diurnal home special for this kind of people. The results show that most of the participants have a highlevel of RP, and no one resulted with a low level in this constructo. The variables significantly associated with a high RP are:sex, independence, education, self perception of health, and repercussion on their mood of their illnesses. According to thelevel of management strategies, most of them were placed at middle level, without exixting correlations in this aspect withother variables of study. Werecommend to carry out further research with populations of this same kind of group, althoughin different habitas, as well as with other groups to compare the results.

  14. Novel Vip3A Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize approaches high-dose efficacy against Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under field conditions: Implications for resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Dively, Galen; Patton, Terry; Morey, Amy C; Hutchison, William D

    2010-01-01

    Sweet corn, Zea mays L., transformed to express a novel vegetative insecticidal protein, Vip3A (event MIR162, Syngenta Seeds, Inc..), produced by the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), was evaluated over four field seasons in Maryland and two field seasons in Minnesota for efficacy against the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Hybrids expressing the Vip3A protein and pyramided in hybrids also expressing the Cry1Ab Bt protein (event Bt11, ATTRIBUTE(®), Syngenta Seeds, Inc.) were compared to hybrids expressing only Cry1Ab or to genetically similar non-Bt hybrids each year. In addition to H. zea efficacy, results for Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) are presented. Over all years and locations, the non-Bt hybrids, without insecticide protection, averaged between 43 and 100% ears infested with a range of 0.24 to 1.74 H. zea larvae per ear. By comparison, in the pyramided Vip3A x Cry1Ab hybrids, no larvae were found and only minimal kernel damage (likely due to other insect pests) was recorded. Hybrids expressing only Cry1Ab incurred a moderate level of H. zea feeding damage, with surviving larvae mostly limited to the first or second instar as a result of previously documented growth inhibition from Cry1Ab. These results suggest that the Vip3A protein, pyramided with Cry1Ab, appears to provide the first "high-dose" under field conditions and will be valuable for ongoing resistance management.

  15. Leading Antimicrobial Drug-Resistant Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supporting research on several organisms that have developed resistance to antimicrobial drug treatment. The institute manages a research portfolio of grants aimed at the problem of antimicrobial resistance and hospital-acquired infections. Here is a list ...

  16. On-farm starling populations and other environmental and management factors associated with the presence of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli among dairy cattle in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhanie, Genet A; Pearl, David L; McEwen, Scott A; Guerin, Michele T; Jardine, Claire M; Schrock, Jennifer; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2016-11-01

    Wild birds that forage around livestock facilities have been implicated as vectors of antimicrobial resistant organisms. Although antimicrobial resistant bacteria have been isolated from European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), their role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant elements in livestock facilities needs further investigation. To determine whether on-farm starling density and other factors were associated with the presence of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli among dairy cows in Ohio, bovine fecal pats from 150 farms were tested for the presence of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli. Each farm was visited twice (during the summer and fall of 2007-2009). Multi-level logistic regression models with a random intercept to account for fecal pats collected within a specific visit to a farm were used to assess the associations. The percentage of samples with cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli was 13.4% and 13.6%, respectively. The percentage of farms having at least one sample testing positive for cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli was 56.7% and 48.7%, respectively. The odds of detecting cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli in the samples was significantly higher in 2007 compared to 2008 and 2009, in fall compared to summer, and from farms closer than 60km to starling night roost sites compared to the farms further than 60km. The presence of starlings during the day had a negative association with the likelihood of detecting cefotaxime resistant E. coli. Presence of calves also had a negative association with the likelihood of detecting both cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli. European starlings might play a role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant agents in livestock facilities related to their daily population movements rather than the specific density of birds on farm during the day. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Putting resilience and resistance concepts into practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Jeremy D. Maestas; Mike Pellant

    2015-01-01

    Land managers are increasingly interested in improving resilience to disturbances, such as wildfire, and resistance to invasive species, such as cheatgrass and medusahead. This factsheet is designed to assist land managers in using resilience and resistance concepts to assess risks, prioritize management activities, and select appropriate treatments.

  18. Control of Busseola fusca and Chilo partellus stem borers by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... Abbreviations: Bt, Bacillus thuringiensis; HPR, host plant resistance; ITK, indigenous technical knowledge; CFT, confined field trials; IRM, Insect Resistance Management. achieving greater yields is to minimize insect pest losses through the use of stem borer resistant maize that could reduce annual grain ...

  19. Myths, models and mitigation of resistance to pesticides.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoy, M A

    1998-01-01

    Resistance to pesticides in arthropod pests is a significant economic, ecological and public health problem. Although extensive research has been conducted on diverse aspects of pesticide resistance and we have learned a great deal during the past 50 years, to some degree the discussion about 'resistance management' has been based on 'myths'. One myth involves the belief that we can manage resistance. I will maintain that we can only attempt to mitigate resistance because resistance is a natu...

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... least 10 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom ... plan Global report on surveillance Country situation analysis Policy to combat antimicrobial resistance More on antimicrobial resistance ...

  1. OVERTURES TO REDUCING ROMANIAN MINISTRY OF NATIONAL DEFENSE TENUITY IN INFORMATION RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian BIBO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Information Resources Management (IRM means planning, budgeting, organizing, directing, training and controlling information. It encompasses both information itself and related resources such as personnel, equipment, funds and technology. For many organizations, information and the technology that supports it represent their most valuable, but often least understood assets. The Romanian Ministry of National Defense (MoND has to face this fragile issue, too. Hence an analysis of the AS IS situation is more than necessary if future endeavors in the field are to succeed. Moreover, the identification of possible solutions and of their likely constraints is another aim of this article

  2. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected with a drug-resistant strain of HIV. Drug-resistance testing results are used to decide which HIV medicines to include in a person’s first HIV regimen. After treatment is started, drug-resistance testing is repeated if ...

  3. Doença granulomatosa crônica autossômica: relato de caso e análise genético-molecular de dois irmãos brasileiros Autosomal chronic granulomatous disease: case report and mutation analysis of two Brazilian siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Prando-Andrade

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar dois casos de irmãos com doença granulomatosa crônica. A doença granulomatosa crônica é uma imunodeficiência primária caracterizada por atividade microbicida deficiente. Mutações no gene que codifica a proteína p47-phox (NCF-1 estão presentes em 30% dos casos de doença granulomatosa crônica. Essa forma da doença é de herança autossômica recessiva e resulta em fenótipo de evolução mais benigno e início tardio em relação à forma ligada ao X, que corresponde a 56% dos casos. DESCRIÇÃO: Caso 1 - paciente feminina, iniciou infecções de repetição aos 10 anos, com impetigo, seguido de pneumonia grave 6 meses após. A gravidade da infecção pulmonar associada a abscesso hepático e sua refratariedade ao tratamento demandaram investigação laboratorial para imunodeficiência, com teste do nitroblue tetrazolium e dosagem de ânion superóxido compatíveis com doença granulomatosa crônica. A avaliação dos familiares confirmou o mesmo diagnóstico em seu irmão (Caso 2, que também iniciou infecções de repetição com impetigo aos 10 anos e pneumonia 6 meses após, porém tratada com sucesso ambulatorialmente. A análise de polimorfismo conformacional de cadeia simples revelou alteração da mobilidade eletroforética do éxon 2 do gene NCF-1. Identificou-se uma deleção dos nucleotídeos GT no éxon 2 por seqüenciamento do DNA. COMENTÁRIOS: Este estudo mostra a importância da avaliação de familiares, mesmo quando não apresentam história clínica típica de doença granulomatosa crônica. A identificação da mutação e sua correlação com o fenótipo dos pacientes é importante para estabelecer o prognóstico e o aconselhamento genético.OBJECTIVE: To report the case of two siblings with chronic granulomatous disease. Chronic granulomatous disease is a primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by abnormal microbicidal activity. Mutations in the p47-phox gene (NCF-1 are present in

  4. [French Society for Biological Psychiatry and Neuropsychopharmacology and Fondation FondaMental task force: Formal Consensus for the management of treatment-resistant depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpeaud, T; Genty, J-B; Destouches, S; Yrondi, A; Lancrenon, S; Alaïli, N; Bellivier, F; Bennabi, D; Bougerol, T; Camus, V; D'amato, T; Doumy, O; Haesebaert, F; Holtzmann, J; Lançon, C; Lefebvre, M; Moliere, F; Nieto, I; Richieri, R; Schmitt, L; Stephan, F; Vaiva, G; Walter, M; Leboyer, M; El-Hage, W; Haffen, E; Llorca, P-M; Courtet, P; Aouizerate, B

    2017-09-01

    Major depression represents among the most frequent psychiatric disorders in the general population with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 16-17%. It is characterized by high levels of comorbidities with other psychiatric conditions or somatic diseases as well as a recurrent or chronic course in 50 to 80% of the cases leading to negative repercussions on the daily functioning, with an impaired quality of life, and to severe direct/indirect costs. Large cohort studies have supported that failure of a first-line antidepressant treatment is observed in more than 60% of patients. In this case, several treatment strategies have been proposed by classical evidence-based guidelines from internationally recognized scientific societies, referring primarily on: I) the switch to another antidepressant of the same or different class; II) the combination with another antidepressant of complementary pharmacological profile; III) the addition of a wide range of pharmacological agents intending to potentiate the therapeutic effects of the ongoing antidepressant medication; IV) the association with appropriate psychological therapies; and, V) the use of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques. However, although based on the most recently available data and rigorous methodology, standard guidelines have the significant disadvantage of not covering a large variety of clinical conditions, while currently observed in everyday clinical practice. From these considerations, formalized recommendations by a large panel of French experts in the management of depressed patients have been developed under the shared sponsorship of the French Association of Biological Psychiatry and Neuropsychopharmacology (AFPBN) and the Fondation FondaMental. These French recommendations are presented in this special issue in order to provide relevant information about the treatment choices to make, depending particularly on the clinical response to previous treatment lines or the complexity of clinical

  5. Skin and soft-tissue infections in suburban primary care: epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and observations on abscess management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boggs John

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports from urban medical centers suggest that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has become the most common cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs. Risk factors for MRSA have been identified but have not been clinically useful. Findings From May 2006-April 2007, we performed an observational study of 529 SSTIs among ambulatory patients in the urgent care departments of a large suburban primary-care practice. SSTIs were included if they produced pus or fluid. The proportion of MRSA was determined overall (defined as prevalence and by SSTI diagnosis. Potential risk factors for MRSA were examined with multivariate analysis, and descriptive statistics were generated for follow-up and abscess management. The prevalence of MRSA was 22% and did not rise during the study. MRSA was isolated from 36% of abscesses, 15% of cellulitis, and 14% of other SSTIs. Independent risk factors for MRSA included a prior history of MRSA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 41.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.4-147.3, a close contact with prior MRSA (aOR, 12.83; 95% CI, 4.2-39.2, erythema ≥10 cm (aOR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.5-4.4, and abscess diagnosis (aOR, 3.19; 95% CI, 2.1-5.0. Prior MRSA had a positive predictive value of 88% for current MRSA. When both abscess diagnosis and erythema ≥10 cm were present, the proportion of MRSA was 59%. The vast majority of SSTIs (96 percent resolved or improved within one week. Most abscesses, even small ones, were treated with antibiotics. Resource utilization was highest in those abscesses with erythema ≥10 cm. Conclusions The prevalence of MRSA is relatively low among SSTIs in suburban primary care. However, MRSA is common in the subgroup of abscesses with large erythema. While the effectiveness of adjunctive antibiotic therapy for large abscesses is unknown, drugs chosen for these infections should be active against MRSA. Most non-abscess SSTIs do not require treatment with a MRSA

  6. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian

    of antimicrobial resistance: (1) adaptive mutations and (2) horizontal acquisition of resistance genes from antibiotic gene reservoirs. By studying the geno- and phenotypic changes of E. coli in response to single and drug-pair exposures, I uncover the evolutionary trajectories leading to adaptive resistance. I......Bacteria can avoid extinction during antimicrobial exposure by becoming resistant. They achieve this either via adaptive mutations or horizontally acquired resistance genes. If resistance emerges in clinical relevant species, it can lead to treatment failure and ultimately result in increasing...... morbidity and mortality as well as an increase in the cost of treatment. Understanding how bacteria respond to antibiotic exposure gives the foundations for a rational approach to counteract antimicrobial resistance. In the work presented in this thesis, I explore the two fundamental sources...

  7. Resistência à penetração de um Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo do Cerrado sob diferentes sistemas de manejo Penetration resistance of a Red-Yellow Latosol of Cerrado under different management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ralisch

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Embora associada à adoção de tecnologias de conservação do solo, a intensificação dos sistemas de produção agropecuária tem induzido a um dos principais problemas enfrentados pelos agricultores, a compactação do solo, seja em sistemas de plantio direto ou em sistemas de plantio convencional e pastagem. Este estudo foi realizado em Rio Verde, GO, em Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo, nos seguintes sistemas: plantio direto há 14 anos (SD14; plantio direto há oito anos (SD8; plantio direto há dois anos (SD2; preparo convencional (PC; pastagem (P e floresta (F. A resistência à penetração do solo foi determinada utilizando-se o penetrômetro de Impacto Modelo IAA/Planalsucar - Stolf, a partir da superfície do solo até a profundidade de 0,40 m; determinaram-se, também, a densidade do solo e a granulometria. O plantio convencional apresentou menor resistência à penetração, na profundidade 0-0,10 m, enquanto o SD2 indicou maior resistência à penetração até 0,40 m de profundidade. Abaixo da profundidade de 0,15 m não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos PC, SD8, SD14. Os dois primeiros anos de adoção do sistema de plantio direto são críticos quanto à resistência a penetração nas camadas superficiais do solo.The intensification of agricultural production systems has caused soil compaction even when soil conservation technologies are adopted. Soil compaction is one of the main problems for farmers, both in no-tillage and in conventional-tillage systems, as well as in pasture. This study was conducted in Rio Verde, (State of Goias, on Red-Yellow Latosol under the following systems: no-tillage for 14 years (SD14; no-tillage for 8 years (SD8; no-tillage for 2 years (SD2; conventional tillage (CT; pasture (P and forest (F. The soil resistance to penetration was measured by the impact penetrometer Model IAA/Planalsucar - Stolf, from soil surface to the soil depth of 0.40 m. Soil bulk density and granulometry were

  8. Camptothecin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brangi, M; Litman, Thomas; Ciotti, M

    1999-01-01

    The mitoxantrone resistance (MXR) gene encodes a recently characterized ATP-binding cassette half-transporter that confers multidrug resistance. We studied resistance to the camptothecins in two sublines expressing high levels of MXR: S1-M1-80 cells derived from parental S1 colon cancer cells...... and MCF-7 AdVp3,000 isolated from parental MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Both cell lines were 400- to 1,000-fold more resistant to topotecan, 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin, and the active metabolite of irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), than their parental cell lines. The cell lines...... demonstrated much less resistance to camptothecin and to several camptothecin analogues. Reduced accumulation and energy-dependent efflux of topotecan was demonstrated by confocal microscopy. A significant reduction in cleavable complexes in the resistant cells could be observed after SN-38 treatment...

  9. Organizational change and resistance: An identity perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, S.B.; Thomas, R; Hardy, C.; Courpasson, D.; Vallas, S.

    2016-01-01

    A classic term in popular and scholarly literature on change management is ‘resistance to change’. It understands resistance in terms of opposition to managerial strategies for organizational change. Since change is generally viewed as reasonable and desirable within this literature, resistance to

  10. Insulin Resistance: From Theory To Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Kakkilaya Bevinje

    2006-01-01

    Insulin resistance is at the core of the well recognised metabolic syndrome and possibly many other ailments commonly seen in the modern society. While the quantification of insulin resistance remains a difficult task, the problems associated with it are increasing in epidemic proportions. Need of the hour therefore is to develop concise dietary and pharmacotherapeutic guidelines for prevention and management of insulin resistance

  11. Achieving durable resistance against plant diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lof, Marjolein Elisabeth; Vallavieille-Pope, de Claude; Werf, van der Wopke

    2017-01-01

    Genetic resistance in crops is a cornerstone of disease management in agriculture. Such genetic resistance is often rapidly broken due to selection for virulence in the pathogen population. Here, we ask whether there are strategies that can prolong the useful life of plant resistance genes. In a

  12. Interactive effects of altitude and management on resistance and resilience of permanent grasslands to drought: combining agronomic, functional and ecophysiological approaches Buttler, A., Deleglise, C., Signarbieux, C., Meisser, M., Mosimann, E., Mills, R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttler, A.; Deléglise, C.; Signarbieux, C.; Meisser, M.; Mosimann, E.; Mills, R.; Risch, A.; Vitra, A.; Delzon, S.

    2015-12-01

    The expected increase in extreme climatic events will cause significant constraints on grassland systems and, as a result, farmers must adapt grassland management. Identifying potential interactive effects of factors such as altitude and management, with different water availability scenarios is therefore a major challenge to anticipate the performance of mountain grasslands. Using rain shelters across grassland systems in the Swiss Jura, we simulated the effects of severe droughts in spring and summer periods, at different altitudes, and compared realistic management types such as grazing by sheep, and intensive and extensive mowing. When comparing grazing and mowing management under an extreme drought event at a similar altitude, minor short-term changes of species composition, and almost no persistent effects were observed. However, significant changes were observed in plant functional traits, reflecting a strong decline in plant growth during the drought, and a partial recovery two months later. Forage yields, and its nutritive value, thus declined during the drought period, and both were still affected in the following months, but had recovered in the following spring. Negative drought effects were stronger in the grazing management, although recovery was slightly improved in this management. Concerning soil biogeochemistry, we compared microbial biomass C and N, as well as the activity of extracellular enzymes at peak drought, and during the rewet phase. Both indices remained comparable to control treatments under drought. During the rewet phase, some enzymes were stimulated in the grazed-control, but microbial biomass remained comparable. These systems showed considerable resistance to extreme drought, with only minor short term impacts due to management. However, cascading effects from the aboveground to belowground function may be observed if such events increase in frequency and these processes are expected to be different at the various altitudes.

  13. Daptomycin as a possible new treatment option for surgical management of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus sternal wound infection after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmert Alexander

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a case of a 77-year old female who had undergone a coronary artery bypass grafting with an aortic valve replacement and developed three month later a Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA sternal wound infection which was successful treated with Daptomycin combined with vacuum-assisted closure (VAC.

  14. Targeted Temperature Management at 33°C Versus 36°C and Impact on Systemic Vascular Resistance and Myocardial Function After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Hassager, Christian; Wanscher, Michael

    2014-01-01

    performance at a targeted temperature management of 33°C (TTM33) versus 36°C (TTM36). METHODS AND RESULTS: Single-center substudy of 171 patients included in the Target Temperature Management Trial (TTM Trial) randomly assigned to TTM33 or TTM36 for 24 hours after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Mean arterial......BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular dysfunction is common after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest as part of the postcardiac arrest syndrome, and hypothermia may pose additional impact on hemodynamics. The aim was to investigate systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), cardiac index, and myocardial...... pressure ≥65 mm Hg and central venous pressure of 10 to 15 mm Hg were hemodynamic treatment goals. Hemodynamic evaluation was performed by serial right heart catheterization and transthoracic echocardiography. Primary end point was SVRI after 24 hours of cooling and secondary end points included mean SVRI...

  15. Potential impact of joint association of alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase on insulin resistance in Japan: The Toranomon Hospital Health Management Center Study 19 (TOPICS 19).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arase, Yasuji; Heianza, Yoriko; Hara, Shigeko; Ohmoto-Sekine, Yuki; Amakawa, Kazuhisa; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Kyoko; Saito, Kazumi; Kodama, Satoru; Ikeda, Kenji; Kumada, Hiromitsu; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Sone, Hirohito

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the potential impact of joint association of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) on insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in healthy Japanese individuals with a normal range of liver enzymes. This study included 1010 individuals (545 men and 465 women) aged 20-89 years who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test for health screening. Participants were divided into four groups on the basis of median values for ALT and GGT: (i) both ALT and GGT low (both-low); (ii) ALT high and GGT low (ALT-high); (iii) ALT low and GGT high (GGT-high); and (iv) both ALT and GGT high (both-high). Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between liver enzyme and insulin dynamics, such as Homeostasis Model of Assessment - Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulinogenic index (IGI). The insulin resistance was defined when HOMA-IR was 2.5 or more. IGI of less than 0.4 was considered to be decreased early-phase insulin secretion. Mean values of HOMA-IR in men was 1.5 in the both-low group, 1.8 in ALT-high, 1.8 in GGT-high and 2.8 in both-high. The mean HOMA-IR in women was 1.3 in the both-low group, 1.3 in ALT-high, 1.6 in GGT-high and 2.0 in both-high. HOMA-IR in the both-high group was significantly higher than that in the both-low group regardless of the difference of sex. Multivariate analysis showed that insulin resistance occurred when the patient had high liver enzymes. Combining the two liver function markers would be effective for identifying individuals with insulin resistance. © 2014 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  16. Microbiologia de swabs retais e otológicos em carnívoros silvestres do zoológico do Parque Estadual de Dois Irmãos, Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Costa Viegas de Lima

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo epidemiológico de patógenos em populações selvagens no ambiente in situ e ex situ é fundamental para implementação de programas de prevenção, controle e monitoramento de enfermidades e para elaboração de políticas públicas de saúde pública e animal. O estudo foi realizado no zoológico do Parque Estadual de Dois Irmãos no período de janeiro a julho de 2011 onde foram coletados swabs anais e otológicos referentes a 29 carnívoros silvestres cativos do zoológico. Dos swabs otológicos analisados, 1/29 (3,4% foi positivo para Malassezia pachy dermatis no exame direto. No exame microbiológico dos swabs otológicos, observou-se maior freqüência para bactérias do gênero Bacillus 16/29 (55,2%, seguida de Sta phylococcus 15/29 (51,7%, Escherichia coli 7/29 (24,1%, Streptobacillus 1/29 (3,4%, Micrococcus 1/29 (3,4% e Klebsiella 1/29 (3,4%. Com relação ao exame presuntivo para o gênero Salmonella a partir das amostras de swab retal, observou-se positividade para seis raposas (Cerdocyon thous e um guaxinim (Procyon cancrivorus. O isolamento de Salmonella spp. em C. thous e em P. cancrivorus indica um risco à saúde pública, principalmente para os profissionais do zoológico que trabalham diretamente com esses animais. Essa pesquisa reforça a importância da criação de estratégias de vigilância epidemiológica voltadas para a prevenção, controle e monitoramento de potenciais reservatórios de agentes etiológicos de doenças infecciosas e parasitárias no ambiente dos zoológicos.

  17. User resistance in IT: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mahmood; Zhou, Li; Miller, Lloyd; Ieromonachou, Petros

    2016-01-01

    User resistance is a complex phenomenon long viewed as a major constraint in successful information technology implementation. User resistance, which can vary between passive and active, could be a source of guidance towards reducing problems associated with organisational change. However, rather than embracing user resistance and seeing it as a learning opportunity and a tool for managing current and future difficulties around user resistance, organisations fear it. There exist a wide litera...

  18. Evaluation of Varietal Resistance as a Management Strategy for Thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) Trybom and Frankliniella Occidentals Peragande) on French Bean (Phaseolus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambua, E.M

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of 9 French bean varieties was undertaken during the period of November 2001 to April 2002 to evaluate the resistance of these varieties to thrips (Megaluthrothrips sjostedti and Frankliniella occidentalis). This was done in two planting phases using randomised complete block design with four replicates in each phase. It was evident from the study that there are significant differences in resistance to thrips by these varieties. Monel variety was found to be the most susceptible and Impala the least. Frankliniella was more abundant than Megalurothrips sjostedti during the study period. The ratio of M. sjostedti to F. occidentalis on flowers was 1:5 and 1:7 during 1 s t and 2 n d planting respectively

  19. Evaluation of Curetis Unyvero, a multiplex PCR-based testing system, for rapid detection of bacteria and antibiotic resistance and impact of the assay on management of severe nosocomial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Wafaa; Al Roomi, Ebtehal; AbdulAziz, Lubna R; Rotimi, Vincent O

    2014-07-01

    Health care-associated pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant organisms represents a major therapeutic challenge. Unfortunately, treatment is dependent on empirical therapy, which often leads to improper and inadequate antimicrobial therapy. A rapid multiplex PCR-based Unyvero pneumonia application (UPA) assay that assists in timely decision-making has recently become available. In this study, we evaluated the performance of UPA in detecting etiological pathogens and resistance markers in patients with nosocomial pneumonia (NP). The impact of this assay on the management of severe nosocomial pneumonia was also assessed. Appropriate specimens were processed by UPA according to the manufacturer's protocol in parallel with conventional culture methods. Of the 56 patients recruited into the study, 49 (87.5%) were evaluable. Of these, 27 (55.1%) and 4 (8.2%) harbored multiple bacteria by the PCR assay and conventional culture, respectively. A single pathogen was detected in 8 (16.3%) and 4 (8.2%) patients, respectively. Thirteen different genes were detected from 38 patients, including the ermB gene (40.8%), the blaOXA-51-like gene (28.6%), the sul1 (28.6%) and int1 (20.4%) integrase genes, and the mecA and blaCTX-M genes (12.3% each). The time from sample testing to results was 4 h versus 48 to 96 h by UPA and culture, respectively. Initial empirical treatment was changed within 5 to 6 h in 33 (67.3%) patients based on the availability of UPA results. Thirty (62.2%) of the patients improved clinically. A total of 3 (6.1%) patients died, mainly from their comorbidities. These data demonstrate the potential of a multiplex PCR-based assay for accurate and timely detection of etiological agents of NP, multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms, and resistance markers, which can guide clinicians in making early antibiotic adjustments. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. A clinical study of ligamentoaxis using an external fixator, modified frame in the management of a neglected, relapsed, resistant older congenital Talipes Equino varus child

    OpenAIRE

    Ajit Shinde; Suhas Kamble; Smit Shah; Raviraj Shinde

    2013-01-01

    Background: In an older, relapsed, recurrent, resistant Congenital Talipes Equino Varus (CTEV) child with previous surgical scar, soft tissue release alone is often not sufficient for full correction, particularly at above 2 years of age. Here controlled, fractional differential distraction with Joshi′s external stabilization system is a useful option to correct all the deformities. It is a well-established modality but with complication rate of 30%, mainly related to pin loosening and infect...

  1. Feasible Management of Southern Corn Leaf Blight via Induction of Systemic Resistance by Bacillus cereus C1L in Combination with Reduced Use of Dithiocarbamate Fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ru Lai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dithiocarbamate fungicides such as maneb and mancozeb are widely used nonsystemic protectant fungicides to control various plant fungal diseases. Dithiocarbamate fungicides should be frequently applied to achieve optimal efficacy of disease control and avoid either decline in effectiveness or wash-off from leaf surface. Dithiocarbamates are of low resistance risk but have the potential to cause human neurological diseases. The objective of this study was to develop a strategy to effectively control plant disease with reduced use of dithiocarbamtes. Southern corn leaf blight was the model pathosystem for the investigation. When corn plants were drench-treated with Bacillus cereus C1L, a rhizobacterium able to induce systemic resistance in corn plants against southern leaf blight, frequency of spraying dithiocarbamate fungicides could be decreased. The treatment of B. cereus C1L was able to protect maize from southern leaf blight while residues of dithiocarbamates on leaf surface were too low to provide sufficient protection. On the other hand, frequent sprays of mancozeb slightly but significantly reduced growth of corn plants under natural conditions. In contrast, application of B. cereus C1L can significantly promote growth of corn plants whether sprayed with mancozeb or not. Our results provide the information that plant disease can be well controlled by rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance in combination with reduced but appropriate application of dithiocarbamate fungicides just before a heavy infection period. An appropriate use of rhizobacteria can enhance plant growth and help plants overcome negative effects caused by dithiocarbamates.

  2. The role of fluoroquinolones in the management of urinary tract infections in areas with high rates of fluoroquinolone-resistant uropathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-H; Ko, W-C; Hsueh, P-R

    2012-08-01

    Fluoroquinolones have been recommended as the drugs of choice for the empirical treatment of uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant uropathogens. However, because of the increased use of both oral and parenteral fluoroquinolones for other kinds of infections, increasing rates of resistance to fluoroquinolones among the most common uropathogens have challenged this recommendation, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. The current interpretative criteria for the in vitro susceptibility of uropathogens to some fluoroquinolones, such as levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, are set according to their therapeutic efficacy for bloodstream infections, and are not specific to UTIs. Fluoroquinolones exhibit concentration-dependent antibacterial activity, high renal excretion, and relatively early and prolonged urinary bactericidal titers. Whether or not current interpretative criteria for the in vitro susceptibility of uropathogens to fluoroquinolones predict clinical failure in treating UTIs is still controversial. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has established UTI-specific breakpoints for resistance to a few fluoroquinolones. However, the application of high-dose fluoroquinolone therapy for the treatment of mild to moderate UTIs caused by isolates with higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of several fluoroquinolones needs to be re-validated based on more relevant clinical studies, prudent pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) considerations, and thorough study of the mutant prevention concentration of fluoroquinolones in the treatment of UTI.

  3. Manejo de capim pé-de-galinha em lavouras de soja transgênica resistente ao glifosato Management of goose grass on transgenic soybean, resistant to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André da Rosa Ulguim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de capim pé-de-galinha (Eleusine indica ao glifosato, em lavouras de soja transgênica; avaliar o efeito de aplicações de glifosato em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento; identificar práticas agronômicas associadas à seleção de biótipos resistentes; e avaliar a eficiência dos herbicidas cletodim, fluazifope-P-butílico, clomazona, glufosinato de amônio e glifosato nas plantas resistentes. Plantas escapes ao tratamento com glifosato foram coletadas em 24 propriedades, no Rio Grande do Sul. As plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação, tendo-se avaliado a sua resistência ao glifosato. Os acessos resistentes foram selecionados e avaliados quanto ao efeito da aplicação do glifosato em diferentes estádios de crescimento e quanto à sensibilidade aos herbicidas. Foi aplicado um questionário aos produtores para identificação das práticas agronômicas associadas às falhas no controle. O controle de E. indica pelo glifosato é mais efetivo com a aplicação em estádios iniciais de desenvolvimento. Práticas agronômicas, como uso contínuo de baixas doses do herbicida, aplicação em estádios de desenvolvimento avançados das plantas daninhas (mais de um afilho e a ausência de rotação de culturas foram relacionadas às falhas de controle observadas. Os herbicidas cletodim, fluazifope-P-butílico e glufosinato de amônio são alternativas eficientes para o controle de E. indica.The objective of this work was to evaluate the resistance of goose grass (Eleusine indica to glyphosate application in transgenic soybean crops; evaluate the effect of glyphosate applications in different growth stages; identify the main agronomic practices associated with the selection of resistant biotypes; and evaluate the effect of the herbicides clethodim, fluazifop-p-butyl, clomazone, glufosinate ammonium, and glyphosate on resistant plants. Plants that survived glyphosate application

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life-threatening infections – to a last resort treatment (carbapenem antibiotics) has spread to all regions of the ... unit patients. In some countries, because of resistance, carbapenem antibiotics do not work in more than half ...

  5. From resistance to relational inertia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    Empirical evidence have built up that shows that the concept of “resistance to change” does not fully explain the varied types of reactions found among recipients of organizational change initiatives. Instead of being only negative some change recipients reactions have been found to be positive...... or potentially positive and constructive. The traditional idea that managers manage change which is implemented top-down and which employees resist is questioned by other researchers and are being replaced by more processual views that view such processes as sense-making, translation or local organizing...... processes and thus as social and relational rather than psychological phenomena. This have led some researchers to suggest that the definition of resistance to change have to be reformulated and others to suggest that the term “resistance to change” should either be reformulated in terms of sensemaking...

  6. The benefits of herbicide-resistant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerry M

    2012-10-01

    Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant crops, primarily glyphosate-resistant soybean, corn, cotton and canola, have helped to revolutionize weed management and have become an important tool in crop production practices. Glyphosate-resistant crops have enabled the implementation of weed management practices that have improved yield and profitability while better protecting the environment. Growers have recognized their benefits and have made glyphosate-resistant crops the most rapidly adopted technology in the history of agriculture. Weed management systems with glyphosate-resistant crops have often relied on glyphosate alone, have been easy to use and have been effective, economical and more environmentally friendly than the systems they have replaced. Glyphosate has worked extremely well in controlling weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops for more than a decade, but some key weeds have evolved resistance, and using glyphosate alone has proved unsustainable. Now, growers need to renew their weed management practices and use glyphosate with other cultural, mechanical and herbicide options in integrated systems. New multiple-herbicide-resistant crops with resistance to glyphosate and other herbicides will expand the utility of existing herbicide technologies and will be an important component of future weed management systems that help to sustain the current benefits of high-efficiency and high-production agriculture. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Resistance to change: Four interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Bringselius, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Although the phenomenon of resistance to change has gained considerable attention in organization theory over the years, the meaning of the concept is rarely discussed. In this paper, a conceptual framework is suggested that distinguishes between four interpretations of resistance and builds upon the two variables of changeability and emotionality. Each interpretation is based on various assumptions and theoretical influences, as well as connected to different change management strategies. Th...

  8. A clinical study of ligamentoaxis using an external fixator, modified frame in the management of a neglected, relapsed, resistant older congenital Talipes Equino varus child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Shinde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In an older, relapsed, recurrent, resistant Congenital Talipes Equino Varus (CTEV child with previous surgical scar, soft tissue release alone is often not sufficient for full correction, particularly at above 2 years of age. Here controlled, fractional differential distraction with Joshi′s external stabilization system is a useful option to correct all the deformities. It is a well-established modality but with complication rate of 30%, mainly related to pin loosening and infection leading to instability of frame. We aimed to study a method to increase stability of frame to reduce incidence of pin loosening, infection and to evaluate clinical and functional outcome of the modality along with modification. Materials and Methods: 117 children underwent Joshi′s external stabilization system procedure. The principle of correction applied in this study was fractional distraction. Patients were evaluated by Catteral and Simons criteria. Results: Excellent results were obtained in 68.50% of cases, good results in 23.90%, and poor results in 7.60% of the cases. The complication rate reduced to 3% pin tract infections, which eventually healed with outpatient treatment. Conclusion: Fractional distraction method by using Joshi′s External Stabilization System is an easy, simple, less invasive method, which corrects all the deformities in resistant, neglected, and relapsed cases of CTEV and modification of the frame we used proved to be beneficial. Teaching and awareness of parents regarding distraction schedule, stability of frame postoperative importance of wearing of corrected footwear for long period are important.

  9. Challenges in the management of EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer patients with acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Justine L; Smit, Egbert F

    2014-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation have a median progression-free survival of 12 months on treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Clearly, the introduction of these agents had major implications for the treatment of NSCLC, but new questions and challenges arise as well. Traditionally, response assessments of anti-cancer treatment are conducted according to the RECIST criteria. Progressive disease is usually indicative of a change of therapy. In the current era of targeted therapies, it has become clear that different patterns of progressive disease are observed with TKI treatment in EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients, with potential consequences for therapeutic decision-making. In this review, we will discuss whether the RECIST criteria are still optimal for response evaluation. Rebiopsy studies have provided more insight into different resistance mechanisms at the time of acquired resistance to TKIs. These mechanisms, as well as the role of rebiopsy in daily clinical practice, will subsequently be covered. Finally, treatment strategies for different types of progressive disease will be discussed. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Management of infections in critically ill returning travellers in the intensive care unit—I: considerations on infection control and transmission of resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Leblebicioglu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Depending on their destinations and activities, international travellers are at a significant risk of contracting both communicable and non-communicable diseases. On return to their home countries, such travellers may require intensive care. The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV, and more recently Ebola haemorrhagic fever, has highlighted the risks. Other well-known communicable pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae have been described previously. However, malaria remains by far the most important cause of death. The issues related to imported antibiotic resistance and protection from highly contagious diseases are reviewed here. Surveillance strategies based on epidemiological data (country visited, duration of travel, and time elapsed since return and clinical syndromes, together with systematic search policies, are usually mandatory to limit the risk of an outbreak. Single-bed hospital rooms and isolation according to symptoms should be the rule while awaiting laboratory test results. Because person-to-person contact is the main route of transmission, healthcare workers should implement specific prevention strategies.

  11. Resistance evolution to the first generation of genetically modified Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events by western corn rootworm: management and monitoring considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera; WCR) is a major coleopteran maize pest in North America and the EU, and has traditionally been managed through crop rotation and broad-spectrum soil insecticides. Genetically modified (GM) Bt-maize offers an additional means of control against W...

  12. Resistance as Organizational Change Dynamic:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2017-01-01

    processes (Vangen & Winchester, 2013; Purdy, 2012; Plotnikof, 2016). Therefore, issues such as diversity management, process design and power are being investigated; however, central matters of e.g. resistance are surprisingly overseen – although resistance to political changes and welfare reform processes...... is not novel. As such, resistance is not given much attention in the governance literature, if so merely as a destructive obstacle or as lacking individual adaptability to change amongst stakeholders (Kumar et al., 2007). Contrary to this, resistance is a central theme to a stream of research on organizational...... change processes (Thomas & Davies, 2005; Ford, Ford & D’amelio, 2008; Hernes & Maitlis, 2010; Plotnikof, 2015). These studies take a discursive perspective to approach resistance and power as intertwined in change dynamics, thus offering theorizing valuable to governance studies concerning political...

  13. Western corn rootworm larval movement in a SmartStax seed blend scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect resistance management (IRM) can extend the lifetime of management options, but depends on extensive knowledge of the biology of the pest species involved for an optimal plan. Recently, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registered a seed blend refuge for two of the transgenic Bt corn ...

  14. Genetic analysis of half-sib progenies of Theobroma grandiflorum Análise genética de famílias de meios-irmãos de cupuaçuzeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clideana Cabral Maia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum, species native from the Amazon region, has been domesticated presenting a broad genetic variability, and thus favorable conditions for establishing of strategies to breeding and genetic conservation. The aim of this work was to evaluate 36 half-sib progenies of Theobroma grandiflorum obtained from a stratified mass selection in farmers areas based on primary components of yield. The experiment for selection of elite progenies was set up in a randomized complete block design with three replications and four plants per plot. The fruit traits (length and width, in cm and components of production (average weight of fruit/plant; average weight of pulp with seeds/plant and average weight of pulp/plant, in g were evaluated. The data were analyzed through the methodology of REML/BLUP using the Selegen software. Analysis of grouping was performed using the matrix of genetic euclidean distances and Mahalanobis. The experimental population allowed the selection of superior parents for formation of base population to be used in the genetic improvement of cupuaçu. Among the 36 analyzed lineages only the genotypes 9, 10 and 18 showed genetic divergence and they can be recommended with some lineage of group 1 that demonstrates agronomic superiority to form base population of experimental clones with high genetic dissimilarity.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.66.123

    O cupuaçuzeiro, espécie nativa da região Amazônica, encontra-se em processo de domesticação, apresentando ampla variabilidade genética e condições favoráveis para o estabelecimento de estratégias de melhoramento e conservação. O objetivo foi avaliar geneticamente 36 progênies de meios-irmãos de cupuaçu oriundos de seleção massal estratificada em

  15. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  16. Severe ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and other pathogens: report of a case successfully managed by serial surveillance cultures of endotracheal aspirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Chikara; Soda, Hiroaki

    2011-06-01

    Severe ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) developed in a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome. After tracheostomy, the patient was treated with antibiotic therapy guided by serial surveillance cultures of endotracheal aspirates. According to the result of the culture, the suitable antibiotic targeting the pathogen (e.g., MRSA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella oxytoca) that had grown most predominantly in the culture was used until clinical resolution of VAP, leading to avoidance of overusing broad-spectrum antibiotics and ultimately a favorable outcome. During vancomycin (VCM) therapy for MRSA VAP, MRSA bacteremia occurred even though the trough value of VCM was sufficiently high. After the change from VCM to linezolid (LZD), the VAP improved promptly, indicating that LZD is superior to VCM in the treatment of MRSA pneumonia.

  17. Managing Phytophthora crown and root rot on tomato by pre-plant treatments with biocontrol agents, resistance inducers, organic and mineral fertilizers under nursery conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna GILARDI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Five trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to test the efficacy of spray programmes based on biocontrol agents, phosphite-based fertilizers and a chemical inducer of resistance (acibenzolar-S-methyl, phosethyl-Al to control crown and root rot of tomato incited by Phytophthora nicotianae. The best disease control, under high disease pressure resulting from artificial inoculation, was obtained with three pre-plant leaf sprays at 7 d intervals with acibenzolar-S-methyl and with two mineral phosphite-based fertilizers. The disease reduction achieved was similar to that obtained with a single application of azoxystrobin and metalaxyl-M. Phosetyl-Al and the biocontrol agents Glomus spp. + Bacillus megaterium + Trichoderma, B. subtilis QST713, B. velezensis IT45 and the mixture T. asperellum ICC012 + T. gamsii ICC080 provided a partial disease control. Brassica carinata pellets did not control the disease.

  18. Dorothy Hodgkin Lecture 2012: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance and ectopic fat: a new problem in diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, C D

    2012-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is now recognized as the hepatic component of the metabolic syndrome. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a spectrum of fat-associated liver conditions that can result in end-stage liver disease and the need for liver transplantation. Simple steatosis, or fatty liver, occurs early in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and may progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Prevalence estimates for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease range from 17 to 33% in the general populations and it has been estimated that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease exists in up to 70% of people with Type 2 diabetes. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease increases risk of Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In people with Type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most frequent cause (∼80%) of fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasound. As non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is strongly associated with insulin resistance, the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with diabetes often contributes to poor glycaemic control. Consequently, strategies that decrease liver fat and improve whole-body insulin sensitivity may both contribute to prevention of Type 2 diabetes and to better glycaemic control in people who already have developed diabetes. This review summarizes the Dorothy Hodgkin lecture given by the author at the 2012 Diabetes UK annual scientific conference, proposing that fatty acid fluxes through the liver are crucial for the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and for increasing insulin resistance. © 2012 The Author. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  19. User requirements for innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycle technologies in the area of economics, environment, safety, waste management, proliferation resistance and cross cutting issues, and methodology for innovative technologies assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, Juergen; Depisch, Frank; Allan, Colin

    2003-01-01

    The IAEA General Conference in 2000 has invited ''all interested Member States to combine their efforts under the aegis of the Agency in considering the issues of the nuclear fuel cycle, in particular by examining innovative and proliferation-resistant nuclear technology''. In response to this invitation, the IAEA initiated an ''International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles'', INPRO. The overall objectives of INPRO is to help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in fulfilling in a sustainable manner energy needs in the 21st century, and to bring together all interested Member States, both technology holders and technology users, to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles that use sound and economically competitive technology. Phase-I of INPRO was initiated in May 2001. During Phase-I, work was subdivided in two sub phase: Phase 1A (finished in June 2003) and Phase 1B (started in June 2003). Phase 1A dealt with the definition of Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria, and the development of a methodology for the evaluation of innovative nuclear technologies. In Phase 1A, task groups for several areas were established: (a) Prospects and Potentials of Nuclear Power, (b) Economics; (c) Sustainability and Environment, (d) Safety of Nuclear Installations, (e) Waste Management, (f) Proliferation Resistance, (g) Crosscutting issues and (h) for the Methodology for Assessment. In Phase-IB evaluations of innovative nuclear energy technologies will be performed by Member States against the INPRO Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria. This paper summarizes the results achieved in the Phase 1A of INPRO and is a cooperative effort of the INPRO team, consisting of all INPRO cost free experts and task managers. (author)

  20. Four novel prosthodontic methods for managing upper airway resistance syndrome: An investigative analysis revealing the efficacy of the new nasopharyngeal aperture guard appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkat R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Obstructive sleep apnea is the most frequent cause for insomnia in the populace. Snoring is mulled over as the potential factor that can lead the sequel to obstructive sleep apnea. Although the etiology and deterrence measures for snoring are yet to be undoubtedly clarified by our scientific sorority, various means of surgical corrections have been affirmed and put into practice, with a substantial degree of success. Despite this, it is implicit that a noninvasive method of managing obstructive sleep apnea is more relevant for overcoming this condition. Purpose: This manuscript intends to establish how snoring can be controlled prosthodontically by different modalities of scientifically defensible approaches. The most effective among the modalities was affirmed as the investigative analyses of the treatment outcomes with each modality. Novel Methods: Four new methods of managing obstructive sleep apnea - uvula lift appliance, uvula and velopharynx lift appliance, nasopharyngeal aperture guard, and soft palate lift appliance were demonstrated through this article. Clinical Reports: The four new modalities stated and one conventional modality of mandibular advancement appliance for managing obstructive sleep apnea, a total of five types of appliance therapies, were described with case reports for each. Investigation: Five individuals undergoing the appliance therapy were chosen for each modality. The treatment outcome with each modality was examined by analysis of clinical predictors and also by means of standard investigation, with nasal and oral endoscopic analyses. Result: Among the five types of appliance therapies, the nasopharyngeal aperture guard provided the best treatment outcome in terms of clinical predictors and endoscopic analyses. Conclusion: Nasopharyngeal aperture guard, the novel method stated in this article is the better modality for managing obstructive sleep apnea, among the five different appliance