WorldWideScience

Sample records for resistance load bank

  1. Electronic Load Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Steven W.

    1992-01-01

    Electronic load-bank circuit provides pulsed or continuous low-resistance load to imitate effect of short circuit on Ni/H2 or other electrochemical power cells. Includes safety/warning feature and taps for measurement of cell-output voltage and current.

  2. The Use Of Infrared Thermography And Resistive Load Banks For Testing Electrical Bus Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffrin, R. James

    1988-01-01

    Electrical bus duct is a common feature in both manufacturing facilities and high rise buildings. In the past, bus duct testing involved labor-intensive manual inspection and maintenance and a significant power outage. Infrared thermography can be useful in situations where bus duct loads are balanced and uniform; however, these conditions are not usually found in the field. Resistive load banks combined with infrared thermography provide a controlled and accurate non-destructive test method for electrical bus ducts. Labor and downtime are both reduced and testing may be varied from light to full load.

  3. Large Banks of Negative Differential Resistance Nonlinear Loads: A Hidden Threat to Power System Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available DSM (Demand Side Management is a short term and comparatively low cost solution for energy starved countries. Replacement of IB (Incandescent Bulbs with CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lamps has proved its success throughout the world. The same solution, at larger scale, was proposed to Pakistan to mitigate power shortage on short term basis. Accordingly in year 2008, ADB (Asian Development Bank conducted a study and it was found that replacement of conventional IB with 30 million CFL will result into series of benefits for the stake holders and above all the Environment. The study, unfortunately didn’t take enough consideration of effect of CFLs on the power system being nonlinear device and so the power quality issues remained a secondary consideration. The focus of this paper remains on the effect of such non-linear load on consumers, it also envisages the erratic behaviour of such large penetration of CFLs on direct single phase, three phase, digital as well as electromechanical energy meters, under different loading conditions e.g. resistive load, SMPS (Switch Mode Power Supply, half and full-wave rectifiers. It also reflects harmonic pollution caused by CFLs, their effect on power system quality and the registration ability of electromechanical as well as digital energy meters. To this end Harmonic spectrum was recorded up to the 31st harmonic.

  4. Bed Load Transport in Channels with Bank Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, F.-J.

    2003-04-01

    Natural and restored rivers are dominated to a high extent by the vegetation at the banks and on the flood plains of the river. Especially, the interactive zone between the region of water flow through the vegetation and the region of free flowing water in the main channel is of great importance. It is characterized by large vortices at the interface of these two regions. The vortices have an influence on the flow resistance, especially on bed shear stress and thus on bed load transport and dune shape. The aim of the study was to investigate the hydraulic/sedimentological processes in a trapezoidal channel depending on the arrangement of the vegetation and channel width. Laboratory experiments were carried out in a 30 m long and 2.0 m wide tilting flume. The sand of the bed (d50 = 0.82 mm) was recirculated. The arrangement of the bank vegetation (made of rigid PVC-sticks with a diameter of 10 mm, bank slope 1:1) and the width B of the channel bed was variied from B = 0.4 m to B = 1.2 m to investigate the influence of channel width on the overall processes. Based on the experimental results, the existing bed load formulas were verified to determine the influence of rigid bank vegetation on bed load transport. In the case of wide channels (B/h > 3, with h = water depth) the deviation between measured and calculated values was low. However, in the case of narrow channels (B/h bank vegetation down to the river bed the measured transport rates were 52% higher than the calculated ones and in the extreme case of B/h load transport formulas could be modified. In the experiments a significant influence of the vegetation on the occurring dunes was observed. In the series without vegetation the dune crests and vales were horizontally distributed over the width. Especially, the dune vales close to the vegetation zones are scoured in the series with vegetation. The dune crests were tilted in the cross-section of the channel in the series with vegetation on one bank only. As a

  5. Assessing and Reducing Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) in Banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Emily M.

    2012-09-01

    Miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are loads outside of a building's core functions of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and water heating. MELs are a large percentage of total building energy loads. This report reviews methods for reducing MELs in Banks. Reducing MELs in a bank setting requires both local and corporate action. Corporate action centers on activities to prioritize and allocate the right resources to correct procurement and central control issues. Local action includes branch assessment or audits to identify specific loads and needs. The worksheet at the end of this guide can help with cataloging needed information and estimating savings potential. The following steps provide a guide to MEL reductions in Bank Branches. The general process has been adapted from a process developed for office buildings the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, 2011).

  6. The influence of capacitor banks on transformer load current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Aleksandar S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of capacitor banks used for reactive energy compensation on total load current of 10/0,4 kV/kV distribution transformers. The analysis regards distribution area of Leskovac which comprehends town Leskovac and nearby settlements. Differently from previously published references that treat excessively reactive energy consumption, the value of reactive power on low voltage side of transformer taking into account the presence of capacitor banks is observed primarily in this paper. Both theoretically possible cases are restated on the basis of measurements: the compensation is adequate or inadequate. The cases of insufficient compensation and overcompensation are regarded to be inadequate compensation. The adequate compensation is achieved when reactive power oscillates around 0 kvar. The special case of adequate compensation, called conditionally adequate compensation, is introduced. For all four cases that describe reactive energy compensation, the calculation results of relative change of low voltage transformer current in the presence of capacitor banks, in comparison to the current without installed banks are presented.

  7. In situ determination of the static inductance and resistance of a plasma focus capacitor bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, S. H.; Lee, S.; Roy, F.; Chong, P. L.; Vengadeswaran, V.; Sidik, A. S. M.; Leong, Y. W.; Singh, A.

    2010-05-01

    The static (unloaded) electrical parameters of a capacitor bank are of utmost importance for the purpose of modeling the system as a whole when the capacitor bank is discharged into its dynamic electromagnetic load. Using a physical short circuit across the electromagnetic load is usually technically difficult and is unnecessary. The discharge can be operated at the highest pressure permissible in order to minimize current sheet motion, thus simulating zero dynamic load, to enable bank parameters, static inductance L0, and resistance r0 to be obtained using lightly damped sinusoid equations given the bank capacitance C0. However, for a plasma focus, even at the highest permissible pressure it is found that there is significant residual motion, so that the assumption of a zero dynamic load introduces unacceptable errors into the determination of the circuit parameters. To overcome this problem, the Lee model code is used to fit the computed current trace to the measured current waveform. Hence the dynamics is incorporated into the solution and the capacitor bank parameters are computed using the Lee model code, and more accurate static bank parameters are obtained.

  8. In situ determination of the static inductance and resistance of a plasma focus capacitor bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, S H; Lee, S; Roy, F; Chong, P L; Vengadeswaran, V; Sidik, A S M; Leong, Y W; Singh, A

    2010-05-01

    The static (unloaded) electrical parameters of a capacitor bank are of utmost importance for the purpose of modeling the system as a whole when the capacitor bank is discharged into its dynamic electromagnetic load. Using a physical short circuit across the electromagnetic load is usually technically difficult and is unnecessary. The discharge can be operated at the highest pressure permissible in order to minimize current sheet motion, thus simulating zero dynamic load, to enable bank parameters, static inductance L(0), and resistance r(0) to be obtained using lightly damped sinusoid equations given the bank capacitance C(0). However, for a plasma focus, even at the highest permissible pressure it is found that there is significant residual motion, so that the assumption of a zero dynamic load introduces unacceptable errors into the determination of the circuit parameters. To overcome this problem, the Lee model code is used to fit the computed current trace to the measured current waveform. Hence the dynamics is incorporated into the solution and the capacitor bank parameters are computed using the Lee model code, and more accurate static bank parameters are obtained.

  9. In situ determination of the static inductance and resistance of a plasma focus capacitor bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saw, S. H. [INTI University College, Nilai 71800 (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone, Victoria 3148 (Australia); Lee, S. [INTI University College, Nilai 71800 (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone, Victoria 3148 (Australia); National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Roy, F.; Chong, P. L.; Vengadeswaran, V.; Sidik, A. S. M.; Leong, Y. W.; Singh, A. [INTI University College, Nilai 71800 (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    The static (unloaded) electrical parameters of a capacitor bank are of utmost importance for the purpose of modeling the system as a whole when the capacitor bank is discharged into its dynamic electromagnetic load. Using a physical short circuit across the electromagnetic load is usually technically difficult and is unnecessary. The discharge can be operated at the highest pressure permissible in order to minimize current sheet motion, thus simulating zero dynamic load, to enable bank parameters, static inductance L{sub 0}, and resistance r{sub 0} to be obtained using lightly damped sinusoid equations given the bank capacitance C{sub 0}. However, for a plasma focus, even at the highest permissible pressure it is found that there is significant residual motion, so that the assumption of a zero dynamic load introduces unacceptable errors into the determination of the circuit parameters. To overcome this problem, the Lee model code is used to fit the computed current trace to the measured current waveform. Hence the dynamics is incorporated into the solution and the capacitor bank parameters are computed using the Lee model code, and more accurate static bank parameters are obtained.

  10. In situ determination of the static inductance and resistance of a plasma focus capacitor bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, S. H.; Lee, S.; Roy, F.; Chong, P. L.; Vengadeswaran, V.; Sidik, A. S. M.; Leong, Y. W.; Singh, A.

    2010-01-01

    The static (unloaded) electrical parameters of a capacitor bank are of utmost importance for the purpose of modeling the system as a whole when the capacitor bank is discharged into its dynamic electromagnetic load. Using a physical short circuit across the electromagnetic load is usually technically difficult and is unnecessary. The discharge can be operated at the highest pressure permissible in order to minimize current sheet motion, thus simulating zero dynamic load, to enable bank parameters, static inductance L 0 , and resistance r 0 to be obtained using lightly damped sinusoid equations given the bank capacitance C 0 . However, for a plasma focus, even at the highest permissible pressure it is found that there is significant residual motion, so that the assumption of a zero dynamic load introduces unacceptable errors into the determination of the circuit parameters. To overcome this problem, the Lee model code is used to fit the computed current trace to the measured current waveform. Hence the dynamics is incorporated into the solution and the capacitor bank parameters are computed using the Lee model code, and more accurate static bank parameters are obtained.

  11. 40 CFR 92.106 - Equipment for loading the engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: electrical resistance load bank; fans or other means for cooling of the load bank; wattmeter, including phase angle compensation; meter(s) for measurement of the current through the load bank (a calibrated... the load bank; and electrical cable to connect the alternator/generator to the load bank. Many...

  12. Compressive Load Resistance Characteristics of Rice Grain

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpun Chaitep; Chaiy R. Metha Pathawee; Pipatpong Watanawanyoo

    2008-01-01

    Investigation was made to observe the compressive load property of rice gain both rough rice and brown grain. Six rice varieties (indica and japonica) were examined with the moisture content at 10-12%. A compressive load with reference to a principal axis normal to the thickness of the grain were conducted at selected inclined angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 70°. The result showed the compressive load resistance of rice grain based on its characteristic of yield s...

  13. Experimental Cowpox Virus (CPXV) Infections of Bank Voles: Exceptional Clinical Resistance and Variable Reservoir Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Annika; Ulrich, Rainer G; Weber, Saskia; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Keller, Markus; Hoffmann, Donata; Beer, Martin

    2017-12-19

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) is a zoonotic virus and endemic in wild rodent populations in Eurasia. Serological surveys in Europe have reported high prevalence in different vole and mouse species. Here, we report on experimental CPXV infections of bank voles ( Myodes glareolus ) from different evolutionary lineages with a spectrum of CPXV strains. All bank voles, independently of lineage, sex and age, were resistant to clinical signs following CPXV inoculation, and no virus shedding was detected in nasal or buccal swabs. In-contact control animals became only rarely infected. However, depending on the CPXV strain used, inoculated animals seroconverted and viral DNA could be detected preferentially in the upper respiratory tract. The highest antibody titers and virus DNA loads in the lungs were detected after inoculation with two strains from Britain and Finland. We conclude from our experiments that the role of bank voles as an efficient and exclusive CPXV reservoir seems questionable, and that CPXV may be maintained in most regions by other hosts, including other vole species. Further investigations are needed to identify factors that allow and modulate CPXV maintenance in bank voles and other potential reservoirs, which may also influence spill-over infections to accidental hosts.

  14. Optimization of Nanowire-Resistance Load Logic Inverter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Yasir; Sidek, Othman

    2015-09-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate characteristics optimization of nanowire resistance load inverter. Noise margins and inflection voltage of transfer characteristics are used as limiting factors in this optimization. Results indicate that optimization depends on resistance value. Increasing of load resistor tends to increasing in noise margins until saturation point, increasing load resistor after this point will not improve noise margins significantly.

  15. Dietary glycemic load, insulin load, and weight loss in obese, insulin resistant adolescents: RESIST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslowski, Gesa; Halim, Jocelyn; Goletzke, Janina; Gow, Megan; Ho, Mandy; Louie, Jimmy C-Y; Buyken, Anette E; Cowell, Chris T; Garnett, Sarah P

    2015-02-01

    The optimal dietary approach for weight loss and improving insulin sensitivity in adolescents is unknown. This study aimed to explore the association between the estimated insulin demand of the diet, as measured by glycemic and insulin load, weight loss, percentage body fat and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) in obese adolescents with clinical features of insulin resistance and/or prediabetes after a 3 month lifestyle and metformin intervention. Secondary data analysis of 91 adolescents (median age 12.7 years (range 10.1-17.4) participating in a randomized controlled trial, known as RESIST; ACTRN12608000416392. Weight change between baseline and 3 months was measured by BMI expressed as percentage of the 95th centile (BMI %95). Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and ISI was determined by an oral glucose tolerance test. Higher dietary glycemic load and insulin load were associated with less weight loss (BMI %95), adjusted for sex and pubertal stage, β = 0.0466, P = 0.007 and β = 0.0124, P = 0.040, respectively. Inclusion of total energy intake in the model explained observed associations between dietary glycemic load and insulin load and change in BMI %95. Neither dietary glycemic load nor insulin load were associated with changes in percentage body fat or ISI. Dietary glycemic index and macronutrient content (% of total energy) were not associated to changes in BMI %95, percentage body fat or ISI. Reduced energy diet contributes to weight loss in obese, insulin resistant adolescents. Diets with a lower insulin demand were associated with a lower energy intake and may hence assist with weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Creatine loading, resistance exercise performance, and muscle mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, S W; Dudley, G A

    2001-11-01

    We tested the null hypothesis that creatine monohydrate loading (20 g per day for 7 days, n = 18) would not alter resistance exercise performance, isometric strength, or in vivo contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris muscle compared with loading with placebo (n = 13) in resistance-trained subjects. For the entire study group, the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and 5-set performance (the number of repetitions) for unilateral, dynamic knee extension increased slightly (2% and 5%, respectively) after dietary supplementation, and these responses did not differ by condition. Maximal voluntary isometric torque and the rate of torque development did not change. During electromyostimulation, torque development and relaxation time were also unaffected. Our data suggest that creatine loading does not augment unilateral strength or multiset resistance exercise performance for knee extensions compared with placebo loading.

  17. Numerical Estimation of the Outer Bank Resistance Characteristics in AN Evolving Meandering River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Konsoer, K. M.; Rhoads, B. L.; Garcia, M. H.; Best, J.

    2017-12-01

    Few studies have examined the three-dimensional flow structure and its interaction with bed morphology within elongate loops of large meandering rivers. The present study uses a numerical model to simulate the flow pattern and sediment transport, especially the flow close to the outer-bank, at two elongate meandering loops in Wabash River, USA. The numerical grid for the model is based on a combination of airborne LIDAR data on floodplains and the multibeam data within the river channel. A Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to solve the non-hydrostatic RANS equation using a K-epsilon turbulence closure scheme. High-resolution topographic data allows detailed numerical simulation of flow patterns along the outer bank and model calibration involves comparing simulated velocities to ADCP measurements at 41 cross sections near this bank. Results indicate that flow along the outer bank is strongly influenced by large resistance elements, including woody debris, large erosional scallops within the bank face, and outcropping bedrock. In general, patterns of bank migration conform with zones of high near-bank velocity and shear stress. Using the existing model, different virtual events can be simulated to explore the impacts of different resistance characteristics on patterns of flow, sediment transport, and bank erosion.

  18. banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-01-01

    The thaw period was a kind of bank from which our country set sail towards unexplored horizons. The series on the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers is continued by the article by Felix Novikov (144-151, who writes about the history of the design of this wonderful building, today’s monument of architecture of Soviet modernism.

  19. Resistance to cyclic loading of teeth restored with posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Peutzfeldt, A; Ravnholt, G

    2005-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of presence of post, presence of core, and of shape, type, and surface treatment of posts on resistance to cyclic loading of crowned human teeth. For all teeth, crowns designed without ferrule were cast in sterling silver and luted with resin cement (Panavia...

  20. Repeated drought alters resistance of seed bank regeneration in baldcypress swamps of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ting; Middleton, Beth A.

    2018-01-01

    Recurring drying and wetting events are likely to increase in frequency and intensity in predicted future droughts in the central USA and alter the regeneration potential of species. We explored the resistance of seed banks to successive droughts in 53 sites across the nine locations in baldcypress swamps in the southeastern USA. Along the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley and northern Gulf of Mexico, we investigated the capacity of seed banks to retain viable seeds after successive periods of drying and wetting in a greenhouse study. Mean differences in species richness and seed density were compared to examine the interactions of successive droughts, geographical location and water regime. The results showed that both species richness and total density of germinating seedlings decreased over repeated drought trials. These responses were more pronounced in geographical areas with higher annual mean temperature. In seed banks across the southeastern swamp region, most species were exhausted after Trial 2 or 3, except for semiaquatic species in Illinois and Tennessee, and aquatic species in Texas. Distinct geographical trends in seed bank resistance to drought demonstrate that climate-induced drying of baldcypress swamps could influence the regeneration of species differently across their ranges. Despite the health of adult individuals, lack of regeneration may push ecosystems into a relict status. Seed bank depletion by germination without replenishment may be a major conservation threat in a future with recurring droughts far less severe than megadrought. Nevertheless, the protection of moist refugia might aid conservation.

  1. INFLUENCE OF INTERMITTENT CYCLIC LOADING ON REINFORCED CONCRETE RESISTANCE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Karpiuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the study of reinforced concrete span bending structures under conditions of high-level cyclic loading. Previous studies on the development of physical models of bending reinforced concrete element fatigue resistance, cyclic effect of lateral forces, and methods of calculation, are important and appropriate owing to certain features and the essential specificity of the mentioned loading type. These primarily include the nonlinearity of deformation, damage accumulation in the form of fatigue micro- and macro-cracks, and exhausting destruction of construction materials. In this paper, key expressions determining the endurance limits of concrete, longitudinal reinforcement, and anchoring longitudinal reinforcement, which contribute to endurance throughout the entire construction, are considered. Establishing a link between stresses in the elements and deformations in the element under conditions of cyclic loading action is of equal importance because of the presence of cyclic stress-induced creep deformation.

  2. Insulin resistance and associated factors: a cross-sectional study of bank employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaroli, Luciane Bresciani; Cattafesta, Monica; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Zandonade, Eliana; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2017-04-01

    Insulin resistance is characterized by the failure of target cells to respond to normal levels of circulating insulin, and this condition is related to cardiovascular disease. This study sought to evaluate the prevalence of insulin resistance and its association with markers of metabolic abnormalities and metabolic syndrome in bank employees. A cross-sectional study was performed on 498 working men and women aged ≥20 years old. The Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) was used to determine the presence of insulin resistance based on cut-off values of ≤2.71 for normal insulin levels and >2.71 for insulin resistance, as established for the adult Brazilian population. It was observed that the 52 (10.4%) overweight individuals with insulin resistance were 4.97 times (95%CI 1.31-18.83) more likely to have high HOMA-IR values than the normal-weight participants; among those who were obese, the likelihood increased to 17.87 (95%CI 4.36-73.21). Individuals with large waist circumferences were 3.27 times (95%CI 1.03-10.38) more likely to develop insulin resistance than those who were within normal parameters. The HOMA-IR values differed between subjects with and without metabolic syndrome, with values of 2.83±2.5 and 1.10±0.81 (p=0.001), respectively. The levels of insulin, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein and uric acid were also associated with insulin resistance. The prevalence of insulin resistance among bank employees is high, and insulin resistance is associated with and serves as a marker of metabolic syndrome. Cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome-associated metabolic abnormalities were observed, and insulin resistance may be a risk factor in this group of professionals.

  3. Effects of sediment load on emergence of aquatic invertebrates and plants from wetland soil egg and seed banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, R.A.; Euliss, N.H.; Hubbard, D.E.; Duffy, W.G.

    2003-01-01

    Intensive agricultural activities near prairie wetlands may result in excessive sediment loads, which may bury seed and invertebrate egg banks that are important for maintenance and cycling of biotic communities during wet/dry cycles. Sediment-load experiments indicated that burial depths of 0.5 cm caused a 91.7% reduction in total seedling emergence and a 99.7% reduction in total invertebrate emergence. These results suggest sediment entering wetlands from agricultural erosion may hamper successional changes throughout interannual climate cycles.

  4. Stormwater loadings of antibiotic resistance genes in an urban stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Emily; Benitez, Romina; von Wagoner, Emily; Sawyer, Richard; Schaberg, Erin; Hession, W Cully; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Badgley, Brian D; Pruden, Amy

    2017-10-15

    Antibiotic resistance presents a critical public health challenge and the transmission of antibiotic resistance via environmental pathways continues to gain attention. Factors driving the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in surface water and sources of ARGs in urban stormwater have not been well-characterized. In this study, five ARGs (sul1, sul2, tet(O), tet(W), and erm(F)) were quantified throughout the duration of three storm runoff events in an urban inland stream. Storm loads of all five ARGs were significantly greater than during equivalent background periods. Neither fecal indicator bacteria measured (E. coli or enterococci) was significantly correlated with sul1, sul2, or erm(F), regardless of whether ARG concentration was absolute or normalized to 16S rRNA levels. Both E. coli and enterococci were correlated with the tetracycline resistance genes, tet(O) and tet(W). Next-generation shotgun metagenomic sequencing was conducted to more thoroughly characterize the resistome (i.e., full complement of ARGs) and profile the occurrence of all ARGs described in current databases in storm runoff in order to inform future watershed monitoring and management. Between 37 and 121 different ARGs were detected in each stream sample, though the ARG profiles differed among storms. This study establishes that storm-driven transport of ARGs comprises a considerable fraction of overall downstream loadings and broadly characterizes the urban stormwater resistome to identify potential marker ARGs indicative of impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Moment resistance of steel pipes subjected to combined loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozkan, Istemi F.; Mohareb, Magdi

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this paper provides a review of recent investigations on steel pipes subjected to combined loads. Attention is given to studies involving both numerical and experimental components aimed at quantifying the modified moment resistance of pipes subjected to internal pressure and axial force. The comparison of experimental and finite element results indicate that the nonlinear shell finite element analysis is a reliable tool for predicting moment capacities of pipes. The second part of the paper reports two additional full-scale tests recently conducted at the University of Ottawa aimed at expanding the existing experimental database to pipes subjected to more complex load combinations involving twisting moment and shear (in addition to axial force, internal pressure, and bending). The finite element analysis for both tests is shown to provide excellent predictions of pipe moment capacity. The third part of the paper is a systematic parametric study based on the FEA model verified in previous and present investigations, aimed to assess the ability of pipe sections to attain their modified elastic and/or plastic moment resistance as predicted by analytically derived interaction equations. The parameters investigated are the applied torsion, internal pressure, axial force, and the diameter-to-thickness ratio of the pipe

  6. A Simultaneous Biogeography based Optimal Placement of DG Units and Capacitor Banks in Distribution Systems with Nonlinear Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Hassan; Ghaffarzadeh, Navid

    2016-09-01

    This paper uses a new algorithm namely biogeography based optimization (BBO) intended for the simultaneous placement of the distributed generation (DG) units and the capacitor banks in the distribution network. The procedure of optimization has been conducted in the presence of nonlinear loads (a cause of harmonic injection). The purpose of simultaneous optimal placement of the DG and the capacitor is the reduction of active and reactive losses. The difference in the values of loss reduction at different levels of the load have been included in the objective function and the considered objective function includes the constraints of voltage, size and the number of DG units and capacitor banks and the allowable range of the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the total voltage in accordance with the IEEE 519 standards. In this paper the placement has been performed on two load types ie constant and mixed power, moreover the effects of load models on the results and the effects of optimal placement on reduction of the THD levels have also been analyzed. The mentioned cases have been studied on a 33 bus radial distribution system.

  7. A Novel Load-Balancing Method and Device by Intelligent Grouping Compound Switches-Based Capacitor Banks Shunt Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuye Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel compensator topology is proposed for three-phase unbalanced loads in the distribution networks. The negative and zero sequence compensation networks are proposed using delta-connected and star-connected capacitor banks. The compensation networks are paralleled with the unbalanced load to achieve a perfect balancing of active power and a complete compensation of reactive power of the unbalanced load. Intelligent grouping compound switches are implemented to control the capacitors, where, therefore, each capacitor can be switched between phases or phase and ground. Wireless sensors are also applied to acquire the load quantities. The compensation method proposed is based on symmetrical component theory. In addition, the load compensation based on instantaneous symmetrical component theory with positive sequence online extraction is proposed under unbalanced and distorted source voltages. The proposed load-balancing method and device are applied to Liaoning, Neimenggu, and Jilin provinces. The application results are provided to validate the performance of the proposed compensator topology and compensation method.

  8. FDA-CDC Antimicrobial Resistance Isolate Bank: a Publicly Available Resource To Support Research, Development, and Regulatory Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutgring, Joseph D; Machado, María-José; Benahmed, Faiza H; Conville, Patricia; Shawar, Ribhi M; Patel, Jean; Brown, Allison C

    2018-02-01

    The FDA-CDC Antimicrobial Resistance Isolate Bank was created in July 2015 as a publicly available resource to combat antimicrobial resistance. It is a curated repository of bacterial isolates with an assortment of clinically important resistance mechanisms that have been phenotypically and genotypically characterized. In the first 2 years of operation, the bank offered 14 panels comprising 496 unique isolates and had filled 486 orders from 394 institutions throughout the United States. New panels are being added. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Resistance factors for 100% dynamic testing, with and without static load tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Current department of transportation (DOT) and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) practice has highly : variable load and resistance factor design (LRFD) resistance factors, , for driven piles from design (e.g., Standard : Penetration Tests (SPT...

  10. Effect of flood-induced chemical load on filtrate quality at bank filtration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C.; Soong, T.W.; Lian, Y.Q.; Roadcap, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    Riparian municipal wells, that are located on riverbanks, are specifically designed to capture a portion of the river water through induced infiltration. Runoff from agricultural watersheds is found to carry enormous amounts of pesticides and nitrate. While the risk of contamination for a vast majority of sites with small-capacity vertical wells is low, potential exists for medium to large capacity collector wells to capture a fraction of the surface water contaminants during flood. Prior monitoring and current modeling results indicate that a small-capacity (peak pumpage 0.0315 m3/s) vertical bank filtration well may not be affected by river water nitrate and atrazine even during flood periods. For a medium capacity (0.0875-0.175 m3/s) hypothetical collector well at the same site, potential exists for a portion of the river water nitrate and atrazine to enter the well during flood periods. Various combinations of hydraulic conductivity of the riverbed or bank material were used. For nitrate, it was assumed either no denitrification occurred during the period of simulation or a half-life of 2 years. Equilibrium controlled sorption (organic carbon partition coefficient of 52 ml/g) and a half-life of between 7.5 and 15 weeks were considered for atrazine. Combinations of these parameters were used in various simulations. Peak concentrations of atrazine or nitrate in pumped water could vary from less than 1% to as high as 90% of that in the river. It was found that a combination of river stage, pumping rates, hydraulic properties of the riverbed and bank, and soil/pesticide properties could affect contaminant entry from river water to any of these wells. If the hydraulic conductivity of the bed and bank material were low, atrazine would not reach the pumping well with or without sorption and degradation. However, for moderately low permeable bank and bed materials, some atrazine from river water could enter a hypothetical collector well while pumping at 0.0875 m3/s. It

  11. Minimization of Impact from Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment to the Electric Grid Using a Dynamically Controlled Battery Bank for Peak Load Shaving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castello, Charles C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This research presents a comparison of two control systems for peak load shaving using local solar power generation (i.e., photovoltaic array) and local energy storage (i.e., battery bank). The purpose is to minimize load demand of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) on the electric grid. A static and dynamic control system is compared to decrease demand from EVSE. Static control of the battery bank is based on charging and discharging to the electric grid at fixed times. Dynamic control, with 15-minute resolution, forecasts EVSE load based on data analysis of collected data. In the proposed dynamic control system, the sigmoid function is used to shave peak loads while limiting scenarios that can quickly drain the battery bank. These control systems are applied to Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) solar-assisted electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. This installation is composed of three independently grid-tied sub-systems: (1) 25 EVSE; (2) 47 kW photovoltaic (PV) array; and (3) 60 kWh battery bank. The dynamic control system achieved the greatest peak load shaving, up to 34% on a cloudy day and 38% on a sunny day. The static control system was not ideal; peak load shaving was 14.6% on a cloudy day and 12.7% on a sunny day. Simulations based on ORNL data shows solar-assisted EV charging stations combined with the proposed dynamic battery control system can negate up to 89% of EVSE load demand on sunny days.

  12. Phosphorus load to surface water from bank erosion in a Danish lowland river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronvang, Brian; Audet, Joachim; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Jensen, Henning S; Larsen, Søren E

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus loss from bank erosion was studied in the catchment of River Odense, a lowland Danish river basin, with the aim of testing the hypothesis of whether stream banks act as major diffuse phosphorus (P) sources at catchment scale. Furthermore, the study aimed at analyzing the impact of different factors influencing bank erosion and P loss such as stream order, anthropogenic disturbances, width of uncultivated buffer strips, and the vegetation of buffer strips. A random stratified procedure in geographical information system (GIS) was used to select two replicate stream reaches covering different stream orders, channelized vs. naturally meandering channels, width of uncultivated buffer strips (≤ 2 m and ≥ 10 m), and buffer strips with different vegetation types. Thirty-six 100-m stream reaches with 180 bank plots and a total of 3000 erosion pins were established in autumn 2006, and readings were conducted during a 3-yr period (2006-2009). The results show that neither stream size nor stream disturbance measured as channelization of channel or the width of uncultivated buffer strip had any significant ( erosion and P losses during each of the 3 yr studied. In buffer strips with natural trees bank erosion was significantly ( erosion amounted to 13.8 to 16.5 and 2.4 to 6.3 t P, respectively, in the River Odense catchment during the three study years. The net P input from bank erosion equaled 17 to 29% of the annual total P export and 21 to 62% of the annual export of P from diffuse sources from the River Odense catchment. Most of the exported total P was found to be bioavailable (71.7%) based on a P speciation of monthly suspended sediment samples collected at the outlet of the river basin. The results found in this study have a great importance for managers working with P mitigation and modeling at catchment scale. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Shielding ability of lead loaded radiation resistant gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao; Ebihara, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    The shielding ability of radiation resistant gloves were examined. The gloves are made of lead loaded (as PbO 2 ) polyvinyl chloride resin and are about 0.4 mm of thickness (70 mg/cm 2 ). Eleven test pieces were sampled from each of three gloves (total were thirty three) and the transmission rates for radiations (X-ray or γ-ray) through the test pieces were measured with radiation sources, 99m Tc, 57 Co, 133 Ba, 133 Xe and 241 Am. The differences of the transmission rate for radiations by the positions of the gloves were smaller than 15%, and the differences by three gloves were smaller than 5% in the case of 60 keV and 141 keV radiations. The average transmission rates for radiations in thirty three test pieces were about 40% for 30 keV radiation, about 90% for 80 keV and 140 keV radiations. The shielding characteristic of the gloves could be equivalent to about 0.026 mm thick lead plate. (author)

  14. Identifying the optimal resistive load for complex training in male rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comyns, Thomas M; Harrison, Andrew J; Hennessy, Liam; Jensen, Randall L

    2007-01-01

    Alternating a resistance exercise with a plyometric exercise is referred to as "complex training". In this study, we examined the effect of various resistive loads on the biomechanics of performance of a fast stretch-shortening cycle activity to determine if an optimal resistive load exists for complex training. Twelve elite rugby players performed three drop jumps before and after three back squat resistive loads of 65%, 80%, and 93% of a single repetition maximum (1-RM) load. All drop jumps were performed on a specially constructed sledge and force platform apparatus. Flight time, ground contact time, peak ground reaction force, reactive strength index, and leg stiffness were the dependent variables. Repeated-measures analysis of variance found that all resistive loads reduced (P benefit performance. However, it is unknown if these acute changes will produce any long-term adaptations to muscle function.

  15. Enhanced sediment loading facilitates point bar growth and accelerates bank erosion along a modelled meander bend on the Sacramento River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Joshua; Constantine, José A.; Hales, Tristram C.

    2017-04-01

    Meandering channels provide a conduit through which sediment and water is routed from the uplands to the sea. Alluvial material is periodically stored and transported through the channel network as permitted by the prevailing hydrologic conditions. In the lowlands, this sediment often accumulates as point bar deposits attached to the inner banks of meander bends; previous research has highlighted the importance of these bedforms in facilitating the link between in-stream sediment supplies and channel dynamism. We use a 2D curvilinear hydrodynamic model (MIKE 21C) to perform a number of experiments in which we alter the sediment load to investigate how changes in alluvial material fluxes affect the development of point bars and the resultant patterns of bank erosion. We reveal that increasing the sediment load by up to two times the normal causes the point bar to grow both longitudinally and transversely; concurrently, near-bank shear stresses are elevated resulting in accelerated rates of bank retreat compared to normal sediment loads. Our results suggest that enhanced sediment loads (potentially the result of changes in land use or climate) can trigger enhanced rates of bank erosion and channel change through the sequestration of alluvial material on point bars, which then deflect high-velocity fluid towards the outer bank of the meander. These results have implications for the development of morphodynamic meander models which should consider the role of topographic flow accelerations induced by the presence of point bars more explicitly. Moreover, increased boundary shear stresses accelerate rates of bank retreat and therefore control rates of riparian habitat development as well as exchanges of sediment and nutrients between the channel and floodplain.

  16. Moving Aerospace Structural Design Practice to a Load and Resistance Factor Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Curtis E.; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2016-01-01

    Aerospace structures are traditionally designed using the factor of safety (FOS) approach. The limit load on the structure is determined and the structure is then designed for FOS times the limit load - the ultimate load. Probabilistic approaches utilize distributions for loads and strengths. Failures are predicted to occur in the region of intersection of the two distributions. The load and resistance factor design (LRFD) approach judiciously combines these two approaches by intensive calibration studies on loads and strength to result in structures that are efficient and reliable. This paper discusses these three approaches.

  17. A memory aid for reduced cognitive load in manually entered online bank transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Sandnes, Frode Eika

    2012-01-01

    Paper based invoices are still commonly used in Norway where users manually copy large amounts of digits in order to set up transactions. Such digit copying tasks are cognitively and visually demanding, errors are easily introduced and the process is often perceived as laborious. This study proposes an alternative scheme based on dictionary coding that reduces the cognitive load on the user by a factor of five. The strategy has improved error detection characteristics and th...

  18. Load and resistance factor rating (LRFR) in New York State : volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report develops a Load and Resistance Factor Rating (NYS-LRFR) methodology : for New York bridges. The methodology is applicable for the rating of existing : bridges, the posting of under-strength bridges, and checking Permit trucks. The : propo...

  19. Load and resistance factor rating (LRFR) in New York State : volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report develops a Load and Resistance Factor Rating (NYS-LRFR) methodology : for New York bridges. The methodology is applicable for the rating of existing : bridges, the posting of under-strength bridges, and checking Permit trucks. The : propo...

  20. Embedded data collector (EDC) phase II load and resistance factor design (LRFD) : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Piles that support bridge structures are designed for the specific site characteristics and loads : that the piles are expected to bear. In Florida, driven piles are monitored during installation : (dynamically tested) to assess resistance, com...

  1. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF DYNAMIC LOADED CAST ALLOY AS12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Andrushevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of influence of powder particles in the mode of super deep penetration (SDP on change of corrosion resistance of aluminum cast alloy AK12 is executed. The aluminum alloy reinforced by fiber zones with the reconstructed structure has the increased corrosion resistance.

  2. Enhanced sediment loading facilitates point bar growth and accelerates bank erosion along a modelled meander bend on the Sacramento River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, J.; Constantine, J. A.; Hales, T. C.

    2017-12-01

    Meandering channels provide a conduit through which sediment and water is routed from the uplands to the sea. Alluvial material is periodically stored and transported through the channel network as permitted by the prevailing hydrologic conditions. The lowlands are typically characterised by accumulations of sediment attached to the inner banks of meander bends (point bars). These bedforms have been identified as important for facilitating a link between in-stream sediment supplies and channel dynamism. A 2D curvilinear hydrodynamic model (MIKE 21C) was used to perform a number of experiments in which the sediment load was adjusted to investigate how changes in alluvial material fluxes affect the development of point bars and the resultant patterns of bank erosion. A doubling of the sediment load caused a longitudinal increase in the bar in the upstream direction and caused a coeval doubling of the transverse channel slope at the meander apex. The upstream growth of the point bar was accompanied by an increase in length over which lateral migration took place at the outer bank. The magnitude of outer bank erosion was 9-times greater for the high-sediment simulation. These results suggest that enhanced sediment loads (potentially the result of changes in land use or climate) can trigger greater rates of bank erosion and channel change through the sequestration of alluvial material on point bars, which encourage high-velocity fluid deflection towards the outer bank of the meander. This controls riparian habitat development and exchanges of sediment and nutrients across the channel-floodplain interface.

  3. Low-Load Resistance Training with Blood Flow Occlusion as a Countermeasure to Disuse Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Cook, S. B.

    2009-01-01

    Decreases in strength and neuromuscular function are observed following prolonged disuse. Exercise countermeasures to prevent muscle dysfunction during disuse typically involve high intensity resistance training. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of low-load resistance training with a blood flow occlusion to mitigate muscle loss and dysfunction during 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS).

  4. [Loading and strength of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses. 1. Retention and resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Meijers, C.C.A.J.; Vergoossen, E.L.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses are able to withstand loading forces is dependent, among other things, on the quality of their retention and resistance. The quality of the retention and resistance of the configuration of an abutment tooth prepared for a metal and

  5. Experimental Study on Impact Load Resistance of RC Beam with Corroded Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuwahara Isao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, many concrete bridges along the coastline have suffered corrosion due to the chloride attack from seawater and airborne salt. Therefore, now, several researches on corroded RC structures have been ongoing around the world. Especially, as a basic research, many researchers have studied on the numerical and experimental method to evaluate static load resistant capacity of RC beams with corroded reinforcements. However, there has been almost no research to evaluate impact load resistant capacity. Of course, it is important that impact load resistant capacity is clarified, if the possibility of acting of impact load including in natural disaster on corroded RC structures is dealt with. With a background like this, this paper describes an experimental investigation of the structural behavior of corroded RC beams. To be precise, in this study, RC beams with corroded reinforcement by using electrolytic corrosion method were made, and both of static loading test and repeated impact test for those RC beams were conducted in order to clarify the static and impact load resistant capacity of them. As a result, we could get some findings. At first, through repeated impact tests (which has 1.0m/s impact velocity and a 100kg steel weight, the number of impacts to the failure of corroded RC beams were less than half of healthy RC beams. It was also found that fracture pattern was completely different due to some axial cracks by corrosion. In addition, even though the corrosion rate is same level, the impact load resistant capacity reduce greatly compared to the static load resistant capacity because of the existence and pattern of cracks due to corrosion.

  6. Effect of resistive load on the inspiratory work and power of breathing during exertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Powell

    Full Text Available The resistive work of breathing against an external load during inspiration (WR(I was measured at the mouth, during sub-maximal exercise in healthy participants. This measure (which excludes the elastic work component allows the relationship between resistive work and power, ventilation and exercise modality to be explored. A total of 45 adult participants with healthy lung function took part in a series of exercise protocols, in which the relationship between WR(I, power of breathing, PR(I and minute ventilation, [Formula: see text] were assessed during rest, while treadmill walking or ergometer cycling, over a range of exercise intensities (up to 150 Watts and ventilation rates (up to 48 L min(-1 with applied constant resistive loads of 0.75 and 1.5 kPa.L.sec(-1. Resting WR(I was 0.12 JL(-1 and PR(I was 0.9 W. At each resistive load, independent of the breathing pattern or exercise mode, the WR(I increased in a linear fashion at 20 mJ per litre of [Formula: see text], while PR(I increased exponentially. With increasing resistive load the work and power at any given [Formula: see text] increased exponentially. Calculation of the power to work ratio during loaded breathing suggests that loads above 1.5 kPa.L.sec(-1 make the work of resistive breathing become inhibitive at even a moderate [Formula: see text] (>30 L sec(-1. The relationship between work done and power generated while breathing against resistive loads is independent of the exercise mode (cycling or walking and that ventilation is limited by the work required to breathe, rather than an inability to maintain or generate power.

  7. Doxorubicin loaded Polymeric Nanoparticulate Delivery System to overcome drug resistance in osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susa, Michiro; Iyer, Arun K; Ryu, Keinosuke; Hornicek, Francis J; Mankin, Henry; Amiji, Mansoor M; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2009-01-01

    Drug resistance is a primary hindrance for the efficiency of chemotherapy against osteosarcoma. Although chemotherapy has improved the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients dramatically after introduction of neo-adjuvant therapy in the early 1980's, the outcome has since reached plateau at approximately 70% for 5 year survival. The remaining 30% of the patients eventually develop resistance to multiple types of chemotherapy. In order to overcome both the dose-limiting side effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents and the therapeutic failure incurred from multidrug resistant (MDR) tumor cells, we explored the possibility of loading doxorubicin onto biocompatible, lipid-modified dextran-based polymeric nanoparticles and evaluated the efficacy. Doxorubicin was loaded onto a lipid-modified dextran based polymeric nano-system. The effect of various concentrations of doxorubicin alone or nanoparticle loaded doxorubicin on KHOS, KHOS R2 , U-2OS, and U-2OS R2 cells was analyzed. Effects on drug retention, immunofluorescence, Pgp expression, and induction of apoptosis were also analyzed. Dextran nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin had a curative effect on multidrug resistant osteosarcoma cell lines by increasing the amount of drug accumulation in the nucleus via Pgp independent pathway. Nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin also showed increased apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells as compared with doxorubicin alone. Lipid-modified dextran nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin showed pronounced anti-proliferative effects against osteosarcoma cell lines. These findings may lead to new treatment options for MDR osteosarcoma

  8. Effects of electrical loads containing non-resistive components on electromagnetic vibration energy harvester performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Corr, Lawrence R.; Ma, Tianwei

    2018-02-01

    To further advance the existing knowledge base on rectified vibration energy harvester design, this study investigates the fundamental effects of electrical loads containing non-resistive components (e.g., rectifiers and capacitors) on electromagnetic energy harvester performance. Three types of electrical loads, namely (I) a resistor with a rectifier, (II) a resistor with a rectifier and a capacitor, and (III) a simple charging circuit consisting of a rectifier and a capacitor, were considered. A linear electromagnetic energy harvester was used as an illustrative example. Results have verified that device performance obtained from pure-resistive loads cannot be generalized to applications involving rectifier and/or capacitor loads. Such generalization caused not only an overestimation in the maximum power delivered to the load resistance for cases (I) and (II), but also an underestimation of the optimal load resistance and an overestimation of device natural frequency for case (II). Results obtained from case (II) also showed that it is possible to tune the mechanical natural frequency of device using an adjustable regulating capacitor. For case (III), it was found that a larger storing capacitor, with a low rectifier voltage drop, improves the performance of the electromagnetic harvester.

  9. Changes in muscle size and MHC composition in response to resistance exercise with heavy and light loading intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, L.; Reitelseder, S.; Pedersen, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle mass accretion is accomplished by heavy-load resistance training. The effect of light-load resistance exercise has been far more sparsely investigated with regard to potential effect on muscle size and contractile strength. We applied a resistance exercise protocol in which the same indivi...

  10. Effect of surfaces similarity on contact resistance of fractal rough surfaces under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanwen; Liu, Limei; Ta, Wurui; Song, Jihua

    2018-03-01

    Although numerous studies have shown that contact resistance depends significantly on roughness and fractal dimension, it remains elusive how they affect contact resistance between rough surfaces. The interface similarity index is first proposed to describe the similarity of the contact surfaces, which gives a good indication of the actual contact area between surfaces. We reveal that the surfaces' similarity be an origin of contact resistance variation. The cyclic loading can increase the contact stiffness, and the contact stiffness increases with the increase of the interface similarity index. These findings explain the mechanism of surface roughness and fractal dimension on contact resistance, and also provide reference for the reliability design of the electrical connection.

  11. The Red Queen and the seed bank: pathogen resistance of ex situ and in situ conserved barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Helen R; Dreiseitl, Antonín; Sadiki, Mohammed; Schoen, Daniel J

    2012-06-01

    Plant geneticists have proposed that the dynamic conservation of crop plants in farm environments (in situ conservation) is complementary to static conservation in seed banks (ex situ conservation) because it may help to ensure adaptation to changing conditions. Here, we test whether collections of a traditional variety of Moroccan barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) conserved ex situ showed differences in qualitative and quantitative resistance to the endemic fungal pathogen, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, compared to collections that were continuously cultivated in situ. In detached-leaf assays for qualitative resistance, there were some significant differences between in situ and ex situ conserved collections from the same localities. Some ex situ conserved collections showed lower resistance levels, while others showed higher resistance levels than their in situ conserved counterparts. In field trials for quantitative resistance, similar results were observed, with the highest resistance observed in situ. Overall, this study identifies some cases where the Red Queen appears to drive the evolution of increased resistance in situ. However, in situ conservation does not always result in improved adaptation to pathogen virulence, suggesting a more complex evolutionary scenario, consistent with several published examples of plant-pathogen co-evolution in wild systems.

  12. Deterministic and Probabilistic Analysis of NPP Communication Bridge Resistance Due to Extreme Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králik Juraj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiences from the deterministic and probability analysis of the reliability of communication bridge structure resistance due to extreme loads - wind and earthquake. On the example of the steel bridge between two NPP buildings is considered the efficiency of the bracing systems. The advantages and disadvantages of the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the structure resistance are discussed. The advantages of the utilization the LHS method to analyze the safety and reliability of the structures is presented

  13. Ultimate resistance of a reinforced concrete foundation under impulsive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquaro, D.; Forasassi, G.; Marconi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of a spent nuclear fuel cask against a reinforced concrete slab of a temporary repository for spent nuclear fuel is numerically analysed. The analysis considers accidental events in which a spent nuclear fuel cask would drop against the floor of a repository during lifting operations. Two types of solutions have been taken into account: a simple reinforced concrete structure and a structure provided with a 40 mm thick steel liner on the impacted surface, connected to a 1600 mm thick concrete bed. The model is assumed to be axisymmetric and positioned on an elastic ground (Winkler model). The concrete has been simulated as: elastic perfectly plastic under compressive stresses limited by a crushing strain; elastic linear under tensile stresses until a cracking stress value and a following decrease of stress characterized by a constant or variable softening modulus; limited ability to resist at shear stresses after cracking characterized by a shear retention factor. The steel of the reinforcement bars and of the cask has been simulated as an elastic perfectly plastic material. Several numerical simulations have been performed in order to determine the influence, on the ultimate resistance of the structure under examination, of the steel liner, of some characteristic parameters of concrete (as the softening module and the shear retention factor) and of the Winkler coefficient values, simulating the elastic behaviour of the ground. The obtained results demonstrate that a steel liner produces a lower stress in the concrete as well as in the reinforcement but the bed is still subjected to the cracking phenomenon throughout its entire width although the crushing is localized to only a few elements near the impact zone. The use of a more complex constitutive equation for the concrete considering the shear retention factor and the softening module has given results which do not differ greatly from those related to a more simplified model. A different degree of

  14. Effects of bed-load movement on flow resistance over bed forms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of bed-load transport on flow resistance of alluvial channels with undulated bed was experimentally investigated. The experiments were carried out in a tilting flume 250mm wide and 12·5m long with glass-sides of rectan- gular cross-section and artificial dune shaped floor that was made from Plexi-glass.

  15. Load and resistance factor rating (LRFR) in NYS : volume I final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report develops a Load and Resistance Factor Rating (NYS-LRFR) methodology for New York bridges. The methodology is applicable for the rating of existing bridges, the posting of under-strength bridges, and checking Permit trucks. The proposed LR...

  16. Load and resistance factor rating (LRFR) in NYS : volume II final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report develops a Load and Resistance Factor Rating (NYS-LRFR) methodology for New York bridges. The methodology is applicable for the rating of existing bridges, the posting of under-strength bridges, and checking Permit trucks. The proposed LR...

  17. Resistance and Elastic Stiffness of RHS "T" Joints: Part II - Combined Axial Brace and Chord Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.M.P. de Matos

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper deals with the behaviour of welded "T" joints between RHS sections submitted to tension brace loading combined with chord axial loading. In the companion paper (part I a finite element model and a study without axial load in the chord, focusing on the joint behaviour as a function of the significant geometrical variables, were presented. In this part II paper, tension loading on the brace is incremented up to the joint failure, but is combined with different chord load levels in tension or compression, that are kept constant for each case. The same geometries and geometric variables as in the companion paper are used, and therefore the influence of these features together with the chord load level (in tension or compression on the connection's response is evaluated. The force-displacement curves from the different geometries and chord load levels are analysed and compared, with a special attention on the influence of the chord load on the joint resistance and stiffness. Finally, a comparison of the numerical results with the (Eurocode 3, 2005 and the newer (ISO 14346, 2013 provisions is presented and discussed.

  18. Influence of thermomechanical fatigue loading on the fracture resistance of all-ceramic posterior crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyilmaz, Dilek Pinar; Canay, Senay; Heydecke, Guido; Strub, Joerg Rudolf

    2010-06-01

    This study evaluated the fracture resistance and the survival rate of different all-ceramic crowns in-vitro after thermomechanical fatigue loading in comparison to porcelain-fused-to-metal posterior crowns. Sixteen crowns for human mandibular first molars were made of each of the following: Cercon, IPS-Empress 2 In-Ceram Zirconia, Procera AllZircon and porcelain-fused-to-metal. Half of the specimens of each group was thermocycled and dynamically loaded using a chewing simulator All samples were thereafter tested for the maximum fracture resistance. The survival rates after 1-2 million cycles in the artificial mouth were 100% in all the tested crown systems. The chewing simulation and thermocycling did not significantly decrease the fracture strength of the ceramic crowns (P>0.005). The median fracture load of Cercon, Procera AllZircon, In-Ceram Zirconia and PFM was significantly higher than IPS-Empress 2 both for loaded and non loaded groups (PZirconia and PFM was not significant (P>0.005). All-ceramic systems showed fracture load values similar to those of porcelain-fused-to-metal molar crowns and therefore may be considered for use in clinical studies.

  19. Muscle activation and perceived loading during rehabilitation exercises: comparison of dumbbells and elastic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Mortensen, Ole S; Poulsen, Otto M; Bjørnlund, Inger Birthe T; Zebis, Mette K

    2010-04-01

    High-intensity resistance training plays an essential role in the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders. Although resistance exercises with heavy weights yield high levels of muscle activation, the efficacy of more user-friendly forms of exercise needs to be examined. The aim of this study was to investigate muscle activation and perceived loading during upper-extremity resistance exercises with dumbbells compared with elastic tubing. A single-group, repeated-measures study design was used. Exercise evaluation was conducted in a laboratory setting. Sixteen female workers (aged 26-55 years) without serious musculoskeletal diseases and with a mean neck and shoulder pain intensity of 7.8 on a 100-mm visual analog scale participated in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was measured in 5 selected muscles during the exercises of lateral raise, wrist extension, and shoulder external rotation during graded loadings with dumbbells (2-7.5 kg) and elastic tubing (Thera-Band, red to silver resistance). The order of exercises and loadings was randomized for each individual. Electromyographic amplitude was normalized to the absolute maximum EMG amplitude obtained during maximal voluntary isometric contraction and exercise testing. Immediately after each set of exercise, the Borg CR10 scale was used to rate perceived loading during the exercise. Resistance exercise with dumbbells as well as elastic tubing showed increasing EMG amplitude and perceived loading with increasing resistance. At the individually maximal level of resistance for each exercise-defined as the 3 repetitions maximum-normalized EMG activity of the prime muscles was not significantly different between dumbbells (59%-87%) and elastic tubing (64%-86%). Perceived loading was moderately to very strongly related to normalized EMG activity (r=.59-.92). Limitations The results of this study apply only for exercises performed in a controlled manner (ie, without sudden jerks

  20. Description of load progression and pain response during progressive resistance training early after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone R; Petersen, Annemette K; Mechlenburg, Inger

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a progressive resistance training intervention implemented shortly after total hip arthroplasty, including a detailed description of load progression, pain response and adverse events to the training. DESIGN: Secondary analyses of data from the intervention group...... in a randomized controlled trial. SUBJECTS: This study reports data from the intervention group ( n = 37). INTERVENTIONS: The protocol described supervised progressive resistance training of the operated leg two days/week in addition to home-based exercise five days/week and for 10 weeks. The relative load...... time ( p response (an increase >20 mm Visual Analog Scale) occurred in 13 patients in 24 training sessions. CONCLUSION: Progressive resistance...

  1. Load Shifting and Storage of Cooling Energy through Ice Bank or Ice Slurry Systems: modelling and experimental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grozdek, Marino

    2009-10-15

    Ice based Cool Thermal Energy Storage (CTES) systems have attracted much attention during last few decades. The reasons are mainly of economical and environmental nature. Compared to conventional refrigeration and air-conditioning systems without cool thermal energy storage, implementation of CTES will increase environmental standards and overall efficiency of the energy systems as it contributes to the phase-out of synthetic refrigerants and reduces peak loads in electricity grids. For the application of a cool thermal energy storages in refrigeration installations and HVAC systems in industry and building sector, it is necessary to have appropriate design tools in order to sufficiently accurate predict their performance. In this thesis theoretical and experimental investigations of two ice based cool thermal energy storage systems, namely static, indirect, external melt, ice-on-coil, i.e. ice bank system and dynamic, ice slurry cool thermal energy storage system are carried out. An ice bank storage technology for cooling purposes is known for a long time. The main drawbacks which are hindering its wider use are the system complexity, high first costs, system efficiency which is highly dependant on design, control and monitoring of the system, etc. On the other hand, ice slurry technology was not well studied until recently, while in the current scientific literature there are still differences between results and conclusions reported by different investigators. The aim of the present thesis is to extend the knowledge in the field of ice based CTES systems, thereby contributing in the development and wider utilization of those systems. In the first part of the thesis a computer application, named 'BankaLeda' is presented. It enables simulation of an ice bank system performance. In order to verify developed simulation model an experimental evaluation has been performed. Field measurements have been conducted on a two module silo which was installed as a

  2. Myogenic response of human skeletal muscle to 12 weeks of resistance training at light loading intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Holm, L; Reitelseder, S

    2011-01-01

    There is strong evidence for enhanced numbers of satellite cells with heavy resistance training. The satellite cell response to very light muscle loading is, however, unknown. We, therefore, designed a 12-week training protocol where volunteers trained one leg with a high load (H) and the other leg...... with a light load (L). Twelve young healthy men [mean age 25 ± 3 standard deviation (SD) years] volunteered for the study. Muscle biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of both legs before and after the training period and satellite cells were visualized by CD56 immunohistochemistry....... A significant main effect of time was observed (P12 ± 0.03 to 0.15 ± 0.05, mean ± SD). The finding that 12 weeks of training skeletal muscle even with very light loads can induce an increase in the number of satellite...

  3. Resistivity and AE Response Characteristics in the Failure Process of CGB under Uniaxial Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingye Qi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the characteristics of the acoustic emission (AE and electrical resistivity of cemented coal gangue backfill (CGB under uniaxial compression, the variations in these characteristics at 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days are analyzed by means of a stress-strain-resistivity-AE test, and the microperformances are investigated. The research results indicate that the AE can reflect the initiation and propagation of cracks and later explain the variation of the resistivity of the specimens under the uniaxial loading. The cumulative energy curve of AE is approximately two straight lines corresponding to the peak stress, and the difference in the linear slope gradually decreased with the increasing curing time due to the lower pore solution content and the compact pore structure. The relationships between the stress and resistivity and the loading condition before and after the peak stress at different curing times were established. Therefore, it is of great significance to predict the stability of the filling body by monitoring the AE and resistivity variations of the filling body. In addition, it is possible to calculate the roof stress using the relation equation between the resistivity and stress.

  4. HORMONAL RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT REST INTERVALS DURING RESISTANCE TRAINING WITH LIGHT LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Mohamad-Panahi

    2014-02-01

    load. Also, load effect was statistically significant only in 90 seconds rest interval trials and rest interval effect was statistically significant only in heavy load trials (p<0.05. Conclusions: Based on these results it can be concluded that when resistance training with light loads, higher resting interval (240 seconds may be provides a better anabolic environment for muscle growth and keep the training intensity.

  5. Power Generation by Zinc Antimonide Thin Film under Various Load Resistances at its Critical Operating Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mir Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) use the Seebeck effect in semiconductors for direct conversion of heat to electrical energy. Zinc antimonide films were deposited on polished fused silica substrates by co-sputtering method in Aarhus University. This study focuses on stability of zinc antimonide...... slightly reduces during unload conditions, although it is expected that by eliminating load in each step, the initial amount of voltage exactly repeats. Similar behavior is observed for Seebeck coefficient distribution versus time of working particularly in lower load resistances. Based on variation...

  6. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, fiber, simple sugars, and insulin resistance - The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Cathrine; Pedersen, Oluf; Færch, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index daily glycemic, load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The inter99 study is a nonpharmacolo......OBJECTIVE - To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index daily glycemic, load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The inter99 study...... is a nonpharmacological intervention study. We used baseline data and examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate-related dietary factors and an estimate of insulin resistance in 5,675 subjects at 30 - 60 years. The dietary intake was estimated from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire......, and insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Multiple regressions were performed with HOMA-IR as the dependent variable and carbohydrate-related factors as explanatory variables. All models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity...

  7. On interrelation of crack resistance characteristics of metal materials under static and dynamic loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramyan, K.G.; Goloveshkin, Yu.V.; Tuzlukova, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    Home and foreign data on crack resistance characteristics of metal structural materials are generalized and analyzed. Dependence between various parameters of material strength and toughness on the one hand and racck resistance on the other hand is established on the basis of the energy concept of the failure mechanics. Effect of the strain rate on σsub(0.2) and Ksub(Ic) values is evaluated. Quanlitative and quantitative relations obtained permit conducting a complex estimation of materials behaviour during static and dynamic loading operations

  8. Trackable Mitochondria-Targeting Nanomicellar Loaded with Doxorubicin for Overcoming Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Congjun; Chen, Jing; Liu, Li; Hu, Mengyue; Li, Jun; Bi, Hong

    2017-08-02

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) has been recognized as a major obstacle to successful chemotherapy for cancer in the clinic. In recent years, more and more nanoscaled drug delivery systems (DDS) are constructed to modulate drug efflux protein (P-gp) and deliver chemotherapeutic drugs for overcoming MDR. Among them, d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) has been widely used as a drug carrier due to its capability of inhibiting overexpression of P-gp and good amphiphilicity favorable for improving permeation and long-circulation property of DDS. In the present work, a novel kind of mitochondria-targeting nanomicelles-based DDS is developed to integrate chemotherapeutics delivery with fluorescence imaging functionalities on a comprehensive nanoplatform. The mitochondria-targeting nanomicelles are prepared by self-assembly of triphenylphosphine (TPP)-modified TPGS and fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) in an n-hexane/H 2 O mixed solution, named CQDs-TPGS-TPP. Notably, although the drug loading content of doxorubicin (DOX) in the as-prepared nanomicelles is as low as 3.4%, the calculated resistant index (RI) is greatly decreased from 66.23 of free DOX to 7.16 of DOX-loaded nanomicelles while treating both parental MCF-7 cells and drug-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells. Compared with free DOX, the penetration efficiency of DOX-loaded nanomicelles in three-dimensional multicellular spheroids (MCs) of MCF-7/ADR is obviously increased. Moreover, the released DOX from the nanomicelles can cause much more damage to cells of drug-resistant MCs. These results demonstrate that our constructed mitochondria-targeting nanomicelles-based DDS have potential application in overcoming MDR of cancer cells as well as their MCs that mimic in vivo tumor tissues. The MDR-reversal mechanism of the DOX-loaded CQDs-TPGS-TPP nanomicelles is also discussed.

  9. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Low-Load Blood Flow Restricted Resistance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer B. Cook, Brendan R. Scott, Katherine L. Hayes, Bethany G. Murphy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-load blood flow restricted (BFR resistance exercise has been suggested to be as effective as moderate and high-load resistance training for increasing muscle size and strength. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of 6 weeks of HL or low-load BFR resistance training on neuromuscular function, strength, and hypertrophy of the knee extensors. Eighteen participants aged 18-22 years old were randomized to one of three training groups: moderate load (ML: 70% of 1 repetition maximum [1-RM]; BFR (20% 1-RM with a vascular restriction set to ~180 mmHg; and a control group (CON that did not exercise. Participants performed leg extension (LE and leg press exercises 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Measurements of isometric torque, LE 1-RM, central activation, electrically evoked torque, and muscle volume of the knee extensors were obtained before and after training. Isometric peak torque did not change following the training (p = 0.13. LE 1-RM improved in the ML (34 ± 20%; d = 0.78 and BFR (14 ± 5%; d = 0.67 groups compared to the CON group (0.6 ± 8%; d = 0.09; time x group interaction p = 0.02. Muscle volume increased in the ML (5.6%; d = 0.19 and BFR groups (2.5%; d = 0.09 with no change in the CON group (time x group interaction p = 0.001. There were no changes in central activation and evoked torque in any groups following the training (p > 0.05. Strength and hypertrophy were evident following ML and BFR resistance training programs indicating that both modalities are effective, although ML training appears to be a more potent and efficient. Neuromuscular changes were not evident and warrant more research.

  10. Development of reliability-based load and resistance factor design methods for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyub, Bilal M.; Hill, Ralph S. III; Balkey, Kenneth R.

    2003-01-01

    Current American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) nuclear codes and standards rely primarily on deterministic and mechanistic approaches to design. The American Institute of Steel Construction and the American Concrete Institute, among other organizations, have incorporated probabilistic methodologies into their design codes. ASME nuclear codes and standards could benefit from developing a probabilistic, reliability-based, design methodology. This paper provides a plan to develop the technical basis for reliability-based, load and resistance factor design of ASME Section III, Class 2/3 piping for primary loading, i.e., pressure, deadweight and seismic. The plan provides a proof of concept in that LRFD can be used in the design of piping, and could achieve consistent reliability levels. Also, the results from future projects in this area could form the basis for code cases, and additional research for piping secondary loads. (author)

  11. Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Burd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the effect of resistance exercise intensity (%1 repetition maximum-1RM and volume on muscle protein synthesis, anabolic signaling, and myogenic gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifteen men (21+/-1 years; BMI=24.1+/-0.8 kg/m2 performed 4 sets of unilateral leg extension exercise at different exercise loads and/or volumes: 90% of repetition maximum (1RM until volitional failure (90FAIL, 30% 1RM work-matched to 90%FAIL (30WM, or 30% 1RM performed until volitional failure (30FAIL. Infusion of [ring-13C6] phenylalanine with biopsies was used to measure rates of mixed (MIX, myofibrillar (MYO, and sarcoplasmic (SARC protein synthesis at rest, and 4 h and 24 h after exercise. Exercise at 30WM induced a significant increase above rest in MIX (121% and MYO (87% protein synthesis at 4 h post-exercise and but at 24 h in the MIX only. The increase in the rate of protein synthesis in MIX and MYO at 4 h post-exercise with 90FAIL and 30FAIL was greater than 30WM, with no difference between these conditions; however, MYO remained elevated (199% above rest at 24 h only in 30FAIL. There was a significant increase in AktSer473 at 24h in all conditions (P=0.023 and mTORSer2448 phosphorylation at 4 h post-exercise (P=0.025. Phosporylation of Erk1/2Tyr202/204, p70S6KThr389, and 4E-BP1Thr37/46 increased significantly (P<0.05 only in the 30FAIL condition at 4 h post-exercise, whereas, 4E-BP1Thr37/46 phosphorylation was greater 24 h after exercise than at rest in both 90FAIL (237% and 30FAIL (312% conditions. Pax7 mRNA expression increased at 24 h post-exercise (P=0.02 regardless of condition. The mRNA expression of MyoD and myogenin were consistently elevated in the 30FAIL condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that low-load high volume resistance exercise is more effective in inducing acute muscle anabolism than high-load low volume or work matched resistance exercise modes.

  12. Diversity of Dominant Bacterial Taxa in Activated Sludge Promotes Functional Resistance following Toxic Shock Loading

    KAUST Repository

    Saikaly, Pascal

    2010-12-14

    Examining the relationship between biodiversity and functional stability (resistance and resilience) of activated sludge bacterial communities following disturbance is an important first step towards developing strategies for the design of robust biological wastewater treatment systems. This study investigates the relationship between functional resistance and biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa by subjecting activated sludge samples, with different levels of biodiversity, to toxic shock loading with cupric sulfate (Cu[II]), 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP), or 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Respirometric batch experiments were performed to determine the functional resistance of activated sludge bacterial community to the three toxicants. Functional resistance was estimated as the 30 min IC50 or the concentration of toxicant that results in a 50% reduction in oxygen utilization rate compared to a referential state represented by a control receiving no toxicant. Biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa was assessed using polymerase chain reaction-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-T-RFLP) targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene. Statistical analysis of 30 min IC50 values and PCR-T-RFLP data showed a significant positive correlation (P<0.05) between functional resistance and microbial diversity for each of the three toxicants tested. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing a positive correlation between biodiversity of dominant bacterial taxa in activated sludge and functional resistance. In this system, activated sludge bacterial communities with higher biodiversity are functionally more resistant to disturbance caused by toxic shock loading. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. Resistência a acaricidas em Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende, Daniela Duarte Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    O ácaro predador Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) possui grande potencial como agente de controle biológico do ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). No entanto, o controle químico pode interferir negativamente na efetividade deste predador. Uma alternativa que permitiria explorar o potencial apresentado por P. macropilis como inimigo natural do ácaro-rajado seria a seleção de indivíduos resistentes aos principais pesticidas a partir de coletas em á...

  14. Movement of the human upper airway during inspiration with and without inspiratory resistive loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S; Butler, J E; Gandevia, S C; Bilston, L E

    2011-01-01

    The electromyographic (EMG) activity of human upper airway muscles, particularly the genioglossus, has been widely measured, but the relationship between EMG activity and physical movement of the airway muscles remains unclear. We aimed to measure the motion of the soft tissues surrounding the airway during normal and loaded inspiration on the basis of the hypothesis that this motion would be affected by the addition of resistance to breathing during inspiration. Tagged MR imaging of seven healthy subjects was performed in a 3-T scanner. Tagged 8.6-mm-spaced grids were used, and complementary spatial modulation of magnetization images were acquired beginning ∼200 ms before inspiratory airflow. Deformation of tag line intersections was measured. The genioglossus moved anteriorly during normal and loaded inspiration, with less movement during loaded inspiration. The motion of tissues at the anterior border of the upper airway was nonuniform, with larger motions inferiorly. At the level of the soft palate, the lateral dimension of the airway decreased significantly during loaded inspiration (-0.15 ± 0.09 and -0.48 ± 0.09 mm during unloaded and loaded inspiration, respectively, P < 0.05). When resistance to inspiratory flow was added, genioglossus motion and lateral dimensions of the airway at the level of the soft palate decreased. Our results suggest that genioglossus motion begins early to dilate the airway prior to airflow and that inspiratory loading reduces the anterior motion of the genioglossus and increases the collapse of the lateral airway walls at the level of the soft palate.

  15. Macrolide-Resistance Selection in Tibetan Pigs with a High Load of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Gang; Rui, Yapei; Zhang, Jialu; Zhang, Lihong; Huang, Shucheng; Wu, Qingxia; Li, Kun; Han, Zhaoqing; Liu, Suozhu; Li, Jiakui

    2017-12-22

    Currently, tylosin tartrate is the first-line treatment for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in China. However, the efficacy of tylosin tartrate and resistance to this treatment in M. hyopneumoniae infections of Tibetan pigs are unknown. In this study, we examined the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infection in Tibetan pigs at three intensive farms in Tibet, China. In addition, we investigated the efficacy of tylosin tartrate treatment for porcine enzootic pneumonia by monitoring M. hyopneumoniae DNA eradication dynamics and macrolide resistance (MR). Eighty-two of 450 (18.2%) Tibetan pigs tested positive for only M. hyopneumoniae, and most of these animals (85.1%) had symptoms and signs of pneumonia. The elimination of M. hyopneumoniae DNA was substantially faster in Tibetan pigs with a lower pretreatment M. hyopneumoniae load, and the total eradication rate was 97.4% (75/77). Two Tibetan pigs tested positive for M. hyopneumoniae that contained macrolide resistance-determining mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. Our results indicate that the pretreatment M. hyopneumoniae load may be an effective predictor of macrolide treatment efficacy (and possibly that of other antimicrobial agents) and MR. Moreover, our results suggest that danofloxacin mesylate can be used as an alternative drug for the treatment of macrolide-resistant M. hyopneumoniae infection acquired during intensive farming.

  16. Influence of inspiratory resistive loading on expiratory muscle fatigue in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Carli M; Welch, Joseph F; Dominelli, Paolo B; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Romer, Lee M; McKenzie, Donald C; Sheel, A William

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? This study is the first to measure objectively both inspiratory and expiratory muscle fatigue after inspiratory resistive loading to determine whether the expiratory muscles are activated to the point of fatigue when specifically loading the inspiratory muscles. What is the main finding and its importance? The absence of abdominal muscle fatigue suggests that future studies attempting to understand the neural and circulatory consequences of diaphragm fatigue can use inspiratory resistive loading without considering the confounding effects of abdominal muscle fatigue. Expiratory resistive loading elicits inspiratory as well as expiratory muscle fatigue, suggesting parallel coactivation of the inspiratory muscles during expiration. It is unknown whether the expiratory muscles are likewise coactivated to the point of fatigue during inspiratory resistive loading (IRL). The purpose of this study was to determine whether IRL elicits expiratory as well as inspiratory muscle fatigue. Healthy male subjects (n = 9) underwent isocapnic IRL (60% maximal inspiratory pressure, 15 breaths min -1 , 0.7 inspiratory duty cycle) to task failure. Abdominal and diaphragm contractile function was assessed at baseline and at 3, 15 and 30 min post-IRL by measuring gastric twitch pressure (P ga,tw ) and transdiaphragmatic twitch pressure (P di,tw ) in response to potentiated magnetic stimulation of the thoracic and phrenic nerves, respectively. Fatigue was defined as a significant reduction from baseline in P ga,tw or P di,tw . Throughout IRL, there was a time-dependent increase in cardiac frequency and mean arterial blood pressure, suggesting activation of the respiratory muscle metaboreflex. The P di,tw was significantly lower than baseline (34.3 ± 9.6 cmH 2 O) at 3 (23.2 ± 5.7 cmH 2 O, P muscle fatigue. Agonist-antagonist interactions for the respiratory muscles appear to be more important during expiratory versus inspiratory

  17. [Loading and strength of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses. 1. Retention and resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Meijers, C C A J; Vergoossen, E L M; Creugers, N H J

    2014-03-01

    The degree to which single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses are able to withstand loading forces is dependent, among other things, on the quality of their retention and resistance. The quality of the retention and resistance of the configuration of an abutment tooth prepared for a metal and metal-ceramic single-unit fixed dental prosthesis is determined by the configuration's convergence angle, the height, the volume, the interocclusal space, the cervical outline design, the additional preparations, the quality of the (build-up) restoration, and the surface roughness. A silicate ceramic single-unit fixed dental prosthesis is attached through adhesion using a composite cement, but the retention and resistance of an oxide ceramic single-unit fixed dental prosthesis is dependent on the abutment tooth configuration. Most types of multi-unit fixed dental prosthesis have the following additional retention and resistance determining factors: the position in the occlusal system, the number of abutment teeth and their mutual configurations, and the length of (cantilever) pontics. A resin-bonded fixed partial denture's retention and resistance are determined by its bonding as well as its enamel surface coverage and its resistance preparations.

  18. Paclitaxel-loaded star-shaped copolymer nanoparticles for enhanced malignant melanoma chemotherapy against multidrug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yongsheng Su,1 Jian Hu,1 Zhibin Huang,1 Yubin Huang,1 Bingsheng Peng,1 Ni Xie,2 Hui Liu1 1Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The People’s Hospital of Baoan Shenzhen Affiliated to Southern Medical University, 2Core Laboratory, Shenzhen Second People’s Hospital, First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Malignant melanoma (MM is the most dangerous type of skin cancer with annually increasing incidence and death rates. However, chemotherapy for MM is restricted by low topical drug concentration and multidrug resistance. In order to surmount the limitation and to enhance the therapeutic effect on MM, a new nanoformulation of paclitaxel (PTX-loaded cholic acid (CA-functionalized star-shaped poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA-d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS nanoparticles (NPs (shortly PTX-loaded CA-PLGA-TPGS NPs was fabricated by a modified method of nanoprecipitation. The particle size, zeta potential, morphology, drug release profile, drug encapsulation efficiency, and loading content of PTX-loaded NPs were detected. As shown by confocal laser scanning, NPs loaded with coumarin-6 were internalized by human melanoma cell line A875. The cellular uptake efficiency of CA-PLGA-TPGS NPs was higher than those of PLGA NPs and PLGA-TPGS NPs. The antitumor effects of PTX-loaded NPs were evaluated by the MTT assay in vitro and by a xenograft tumor model in vivo, demonstrating that star-shaped PTX-loaded CA-PLGA-TPGS NPs were significantly superior to commercial PTX formulation Taxol®. Such drug delivery nanocarriers are potentially applicable to the improvement of clinical MM therapy. Keywords: malignant melanoma, paclitaxel, nanoparticles, enhanced therapeutic effects, drug delivery

  19. Beam heat load due to geometrical and resistive wall impedance in COLDDIAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalbuoni, S.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Spataro, B.

    2012-11-01

    One of the still open issues for the development of superconductive insertion devices is the understanding of the heat intake from the electron beam. With the aim of measuring the beam heat load to a cold bore and the hope to gain a deeper understanding in the underlying mechanisms, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG) was built. It is equipped with the following instrumentation: retarding field analyzers to measure the electron flux, temperature sensors to measure the beam heat load, pressure gauges, and mass spectrometers to measure the gas content. Possible beam heat load sources are: synchrotron radiation, wakefield effects due to geometrical and resistive wall impedance and electron/ion bombardment. The flexibility of the engineering design will allow the installation of the cryostat in different synchrotron light sources. COLDDIAG was first installed in the Diamond Light Source (DLS) in 2011. Due to a mechanical failure of the thermal transition of the cold liner, the cryostat had to be removed after one week of operation. After having implemented design changes in the thermal liner transition, COLDDIAG has been reinstalled in the DLS at the end of August 2012. In order to understand the beam heat load mechanism it is important to compare the measured COLDDIAG parameters with theoretical expectations. In this paper we report on the analytical and numerical computation of the COLDDIAG beam heat load due to coupling impedances deriving from unavoidable step transitions, ports used for pumping and diagnostics, surface roughness, and resistive wall. The results might have an important impact on future technological solutions to be applied to cold bore devices.

  20. Antibiotic-loaded MoS2 nanosheets to combat bacterial resistance via biofilm inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Wentao; Liu, Lizhi; Yang, Mei; Huang, Lunjie; Chen, Kai; Wang, Rong; Yang, Baowei; Zhang, Daohong; Wang, Jianlong

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance has resulted in increasing difficulty in treating clinical infections associated with biofilm formation, one of the key processes in turn contributing to enhanced antibiotic resistance. With the rapid development of nanotechnology, a new way to overcome antibiotic resistance has opened up. Based on the many and diverse properties of MoS2 nanosheets that have attracted wide attention, in particular their antibacterial potential, herein, a novel antimicrobial agent to combat resistant gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Salmonella was prepared using chitosan functionalized MoS2 nanosheets loading tetracycline hydrochloride drugs (abbreviated to CM-TH). The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of the CM-TH nanocomposites showed the synergetic effect that the combination of nanomaterials and antibiotics was more efficient than either working alone. In particularly, the minimum inhibitory concentration values generally decreased by a factor of dozens, suggesting that CM-TH may become a possible alternative to traditional antibiotics in disrupting biofilms and overcoming antibiotic resistance in treating medical diseases.

  1. Physiological and metabolic responses as function of the mechanical load in resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Sebastian; Wirtz, Nicolas; Flenker, Ulrich; Kleinöder, Heinz

    2014-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the mechanical load during resistance exercise and the elicited physiological responses. Ten resistance-trained healthy male subjects performed 1 set of resistance exercise each at 55%, 70%, and 85% of 1 repetition maximum for as many repetitions as possible and in 4 training modes: 4-1-4-1 (4 s concentric, 1 s isometric, 4 s eccentric, and 1 s isometric successive actions), 2-1-2-1, 1-1-1-1, and explosive (maximum velocity concentric). Mean concentric power and total concentric work were determined. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2) was measured during exercise and for 30 min post exercise. Total volume of consumed oxygen (O2 consumed) and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) were calculated. Maximum blood lactate concentration (LAmax) was also determined. V̇O2 exhibited a linear dependency on mean concentric power. Mean concentric power did not have a detectable effect on EPOC and LAmax. An augmentation of total concentric work resulted in significant linear increase of O2 consumed and EPOC. Total concentric work caused a significant increase in LAmax. In general, a higher mechanical load induced a larger physiological response. An increase in mean concentric power elicited higher aerobic energy turnover rates. However, a higher extent of total concentric work augments total energy cost covered by oxidative and (or) glycolytic pathways.

  2. Safety Analysis of the Patch Load Resistance of Plate Girders: Influence of Model Error and Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Shahabian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to undertake a statistical study to evaluate the accuracy of nine models that have been previously proposed for estimating the ultimate resistance of plate girders subjected to patch loading. For each model, mean errors and standard errors, as well as the probability of underestimating or overestimating patch load resistance, are estimated and the resultant values are compared one to another. Prior to that, the models are initially calibrated in order to improve interaction formulae using an experimental data set collected from the literature. The models are then analyzed by computing design factors associated with a target risk level (probability of exceedance. These models are compared one to another considering uncertainties existed in material and geometrical properties. The Monte Carlo simulation method is used to generate random variables. The statistical parameters of the calibrated models are calculated for various coefficients of variations regardless of their correlation with the random resistance variables. These probabilistic results are very useful for evaluating the stochastic sensitivity of the calibrated models.

  3. Thermal load resistance of erosion-monitoring beryllium maker tile for JET ITER like wall project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, T.; Linke, J.; Sundelin, P.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Matthews, G.F.; Lungu, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The ITER reference materials, beryllium (Be), carbon fibre composite (CFC) and tungsten (W), have been tested separately in tokamaks. An integrated test demonstrating both compatibility of metal plasma facing components with high-power operation and acceptable tritium retention has not yet been carried out. At JET, the size, magnetic field strength and high plasma current allow to conducting tests with the combination of the materials. Thus, the ITER-like Wall (ILW) project has been launched. In the project, Be will be the plasmafacing material on the main chamber wall of JET. To assess the erosion of the Be tiles, a Be marker tile was proposed and designed. The test samples which simulate the JET Be marker tile have been produced in MEdC, Romania in order to study the thermal load resistance of the JET Be marker (20 x 20 mm 2 size with 30 mm height). The marker tile sample consists of bulk Be, high-Z interlayer (2-3 μm Ni coating) and 8-9 μm Be coating. Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) techniques based on the electron-induced evaporation have been selected for this purpose. In the present work, the global characterization of the maker tile samples and thermal load tests were performed. After the pre-characterization (microstructure observation by scanning electron microscope and elemental analysis by means of Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy), the thermal loading tests were performed in the electron beam facility JUDITH. The coating consisted of tiny platelets of ∝0.1 um in diameter and localized larger platelets of 1 um in diameter. The surface and bulk temperature were observed during the tests. In the screening thermal load test, the samples were loaded to 6 MW/m 2 for 10 s. The layers did not show any macroscopic damages at up to 4.5 MW/m 2 for 10 s (45 MJ/m 2 ). However, the coating delaminated and the maker was damaged when the thermal loading reached at 5 MW/m 2 (∝50 MJ/m 2 ). Cyclic heat load tests were

  4. The effect of inspiratory muscle training on respiratory and limb locomotor muscle deoxygenation during exercise with resistive inspiratory loading.

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Louise; Tecklenburg-Lund, S.L.; Chapman, R.; Shei, R.J.; Wilhite, D.P.; Mickleborough, T.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how inspiratory muscle training impacted respiratory and locomotor muscle deoxygenation during submaximal exercise with resistive inspiratory loading. 16 male cyclists completed 6 weeks of either true (n=8) or sham (n=8) inspiratory muscle training. Pre- and post-training, subjects completed 3, 6-min experimental trials performed at ~80%  ˙VO2peak with interventions of either moderate inspiratory loading, heavy inspiratory loading, or maximal exercise imposed in the final 3 mi...

  5. Crack density and electrical resistance in indium-tin-oxide/polymer thin films under cyclic loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel

    2014-11-01

    Here, we propose a damage model that describes the degradation of the material properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on polymer substrates under cyclic loading. We base this model on our earlier tensile test model and show that the new model is suitable for cyclic loading. After calibration with experimental data, we are able to capture the stress-strain behavior and changes in electrical resistance of ITO thin films. We are also able to predict the crack density using calibrations from our previous model. Finally, we demonstrate the capabilities of our model based on simulations using material properties reported in the literature. Our model is implemented in the commercially available finite element software ABAQUS using a user subroutine UMAT.[Figure not available: see fulltext.].

  6. Light-load resistance exercise increases muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy signaling in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jakob; Bülow, Jacob; Jensen, Jacob K

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The present study investigated whether well-tolerated light-load resistance exercise (LL-RE) affects skeletal muscle fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and anabolic intracellular signaling as a way to counteract age-related loss of muscle mass. METHODS: Untrained healthy men (age: +65...... and 12g whey protein at 7 hours post-exercise; N=10) or placebo (4g maltodextrin/hour; N=10). Quadriceps muscle biopsies were taken at 0, 3, 7 and 10 hours post-exercise from both the resting and exercised leg. Myofibrillar-FSR and activity of select targets from the mTORC1-signalling cascade were...

  7. Using resistivity to measure H/Pd and D/Pd loading. Method and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mckubre, M.C.H.; Tanzella, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    The resistance ratio method is the most frequent technique used to determine the extent of interstitial loading of hydrogen or deuterium atoms into palladium electrodes, or extended structures used in electrolytic or gas phase cold fusion experiments. Specifically, advantage is taken of an empirical relationship between the measured resistance, R, normalized to that of the same body at the same temperature in the absence of hydrogen isotope, R 0 , hence R/R 0 , and the atomic fraction occupancy of octahedral interstitials, x=H/Pd or D/Pd. This method was first suggested and employed in cold fusion studies by the present authors, and received immediate and widespread acceptance because of the ease with which this experimental technique could be used to make in situ, real-time measurements of a parameter, D/Pd, anticipated or hypothesized at that time to relate to cold fusion heat excess or nuclear production. We take up this topic again 15 years later in an attempt to clear up some errors and misunderstandings regarding the resistance ratio method and its application in cold fusion studies. The relationship between R/R 0 and x is empirical. That is, calibrations are only as good as the experiments that support the shape of the curve and cannot be used outside the range (P, T, x) in which data are taken. The original calibration (unaccountably and erroneously immortalized as the 'famous Baranowski curve') involved an extrapolation of known data into the region of cold fusion interest in the D-Pd system, at x > 0.6. Present theory and results focus new attention on the very high loading region as x approaches or even exceeds unity, where double occupation of octahedral sites, tetrahedral site occupancy, new phase formation or new electrical states, may be relevant to the underlying physical process of excess heat and nuclear production. Rather than simply using the resistance ratio as a qualitative tool to determine whether an electrode is better or lesser loaded, it

  8. Changes in muscle size and MHC composition in response to resistance exercise with heavy and light loading intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Reitelseder, Søren; Pedersen, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle mass accretion is accomplished by heavy-load resistance training. The effect of light-load resistance exercise has been far more sparsely investigated with regard to potential effect on muscle size and contractile strength. We applied a resistance exercise protocol in which the same indivi...... in healthy young men. However, LL resistance training was inferior to HL training in evoking adaptive changes in muscle size and contractile strength and was insufficient to induce changes in MHC composition.......Muscle mass accretion is accomplished by heavy-load resistance training. The effect of light-load resistance exercise has been far more sparsely investigated with regard to potential effect on muscle size and contractile strength. We applied a resistance exercise protocol in which the same.......05) in HL but remained unchanged in LL (4 +/- 5%, not significant). Finally, MHC IIX protein expression was decreased with HL but not LL, despite identical total workload in HL and LL. Our main finding was that LL resistance training was sufficient to induce a small but significant muscle hypertrophy...

  9. Contact resistance evolution of highly cycled, lightly loaded micro-contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilson, Christopher; Coutu, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    Reliable microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switches are critical for developing high performance radio frequency circuits like phase shifters. Engineers have attempted to improve reliability and lifecycle performance using novel contact metals, unique mechanical designs and packaging. Various test fixtures including: MEMS devices, atomic force microscopes (AFM) and nanoindentors have been used to collect resistance and contact force data. AFM and nanoindentor test fixtures allow direct contact force measurements but are severely limited by low resonance sensors, and therefore low data collection rates. This paper reports the contact resistance evolution results and fabrication of thin film, sputtered and evaporated gold, micro-contacts dynamically tested up to 3kHz. The upper contact support structure consists of a gold surface micromachined, fix-fix beam designed with sufficient restoring force to overcome adhesion. The hemisphere-upper and planar-lower contacts are mated with a calibrated, external load resulting in approximately 100μN of contact force and are cycled in excess of 106 times or until failure. Contact resistance is measured, in-situ, using a cross-bar configuration and the entire apparatus is isolated from external vibration and housed in an enclosure to minimize contamination due to ambient environment. Additionally, contact cycling and data collection are automated using a computer and LabVIEW. Results include contact resistance measurements of 6 and 8 μm radius contact bumps and lifetime testing up to 323.6 million cycles.

  10. Effects of load-volume on EPOC after acute bouts of resistance training in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, George J; Greer, Beau K; Campbell, Sara C; Panton, Lynn B

    2013-07-01

    Recent investigations have shown excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) to be elevated for up to 48 hours in both untrained and trained subjects after resistance training (RT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of load-volume on EPOC. Eight trained men (aged 22 ± 3 years) participated in 2 randomized RT bouts separated by at least 1 week with total load-volumes of 10,000 and 20,000 kg, respectively. Intensity of RT (85% 1 repetition maximum) did not differ between trials. Exercise energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured by indirect calorimetry at 8.5 hours before, 1.5 hours before, and during RT bouts and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after exercise. Creatine kinase (CK) was measured before and after RT, and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours postexercise; ratings of perceived muscle soreness were measured on a similar time course save the immediate postexercise time point. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to analyze dependent variables. During the 20,000 kg trial, subjects expended significantly (p EPOC above baseline RMR.

  11. Tnf-α expression and promoter sequences reflect the balance of tolerance/resistance to Puumala hantavirus infection in European bank vole populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guivier, Emmanuel; Galan, Maxime; Salvador, Alexis Ribas; Xuéreb, Anne; Chaval, Yannick; Olsson, Gert E; Essbauer, Sandra; Henttonen, Heikki; Voutilainen, Liina; Cosson, Jean-François; Charbonnel, Nathalie

    2010-12-01

    The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) influences the ability to limit parasite infection but its over-production might result in inflammatory disorders. The level of Tnf-α gene expression could thus mediate a balance of tolerance/resistance to infections. This study focused on Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection in its rodent host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In humans, PUUV is responsible of a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, nephropathia epidemica (NE). The severity of NE is associated with an over-production of TNF-α. By contrast, PUUV infection in bank vole is chronic and asymptomatic. It is likely that different coevolutionary histories between PUUV and its hosts could lead to different balances of resistance/tolerance to PUUV infection, at least partly mediated by variable production levels of TNF-α. We investigated the hypothesis that bank voles from PUUV endemic areas should exhibit higher levels of tolerance, i.e. lower levels of TNF-α production, than bank voles from areas where PUUV prevalence is low. For this purpose, we analysed variations of Tnf-α gene expression and promoter sequences among European populations of bank voles. Our results revealed an absence of up-regulation of Tnf-α gene expression in PUUV infected bank voles and significant differences in Tnf-α gene expression level with regard to PUUV endemicity. These results corroborated the hypothesis of different balances of tolerance/resistance to PUUV. Two single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypes within the Tnf-α promoter (-302 GG/GG and -296 A/A) were associated with higher Tnf-α gene expression and were more frequent in non-endemic areas. This study emphasized the potential influence of selection acting on TNF-α production and mediating a tolerance/resistance balance to PUUV in bank voles. Further investigations, including the role of phenotypic plasticity and parasite communities on Tnf-α expression levels, should provide important keys to understand

  12. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles loading doxorubicin reverse multidrug resistance: performance and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianan; He, Qianjun; Gao, Yu; Shi, Jianlin; Li, Yaping

    2011-10-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the major obstacles for successful chemotherapy in cancer. One of the effective approaches to overcome MDR is to use nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery to increase drug accumulation in drug resistant cancer cells. In this work, we first report that the performance and mechanism of an inorganic engineered delivery system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) loading doxorubicin (DMNs) to overcome the MDR of MCF-7/ADR (a DOX-resistant and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) over-expression cancer cell line). The experimental results showed that DMNs could enhance the cellular uptake of doxorubicin (DOX) and increase the cell proliferation suppression effect of DOX against MCF-7/ADR cells. The IC50 of DMNs against MCF-7/ADR cells was 8-fold lower than that of free DOX. However, an improved effect of DOX in DMNs against MCF-7 cells (a DOX-sensitive cancer cell line) was not found. The increased cellular uptake and nuclear accumulation of DOX delivered by DMNs in MCF-7/ADR cells was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and could result from the down-regulation of P-gp and bypassing the efflux action by MSNs themselves. The cellular uptake mechanism of DMNs indicated that the macropinocytosis was one of the pathways for the uptake of DMNs by MCF-7/ADR cells. The in vivo biodistribution showed that DMNs induced a higher accumulation of DOX in drug resistant tumors than free DOX. These results suggested that MSNs could be an effective delivery system to overcome multidrug resistance.

  13. Loads and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. on fresh chicken meat in Nueva Ecija, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sison, F B; Chaisowwong, W; Alter, T; Tiwananthagorn, S; Pichpol, D; Lampang, K N; Baumann, M P O; Gölz, G

    2014-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence and to semiquantify Campylobacter spp. on chicken meat samples at 4 selected local wet markets in Nueva Ecija, Philippines, and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Campylobacter isolates. Out of 120 chicken meat samples, 57 (47.5%) were Campylobacter spp. positive. The majority of isolated Campylobacter strains were identified as Campylobacter coli (54.4%) and 45.6% as Campylobacter jejuni. Most of these positive samples (52.6%) showed a very high quantitative Campylobacter contamination (most probable number > 2,400/g, lower confidence limit 580/g). For antimicrobial resistance testing, 44 C. coli/jejuni isolates were tested using the agar disk diffusion method. Out of these, 77.3% were resistant to ampicillin, followed by ciprofloxacin (70.4%), tetracycline (54.6%), erythromycin (20.2%), and gentamicin (11.4%). Of the isolates, 36.4% (n = 16) were resistant to 1 antimicrobial agent, 34.1% (n = 15) were resistance to 3 antimicrobial agents, 13.6% (n = 6) to 2 antimicrobial agents, 9.1% (n = 4) to 4 antimicrobial agents, and 6.8% (n = 3) to all 5 antimicrobial agents tested. Our data demonstrate a high contamination of fresh chicken meat with Campylobacter spp. at retail in the Philippines. The detected high Campylobacter prevalences and quantitative loads on chicken meat at retail in the Philippines highlight the need to implement efficient intervention measures along the food chain and to encourage sanitary handling of poultry meat.

  14. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  15. Models for ductile crack initiation and tearing resistance under mode 1 loading in pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.R.

    1988-06-01

    Micromechanistic models are presented which aim to predict plane strain ductile initiation toughness, tearing resistance and notched bar fracture strains in pressure vessel steels under monotonically increasing tensile (mode 1) loading. The models for initiation toughness and tearing resistance recognize that ductile fracture proceeds by the growth and linkage of voids with the crack-tip. The models are shown to predict the trend of initiation toughness with inclusion spacing/size ratio and can bound the available experimental data. The model for crack growth can reproduce the tearing resistance of a pressure vessel steel up to and just beyond crack growth initiation. The fracture strains of notched bars pulled in tension are shown to correspond to the achievement of a critical volume fraction of voids. This criterion is combined with the true stress - true strain history of a material point ahead of a blunting crack-tip to predict the initiation toughness. An attempt was made to predict the fracture strains of notched tensile bars by adopting a model which predicts the onset of a shear localization phenomenon. Fracture strains of the correct order are computed only if a ''secondary'' void nucleation event at carbide precipitates is taken into account. (author)

  16. FIND Tuberculosis Strain Bank: a Resource for Researchers and Developers Working on Tests To Detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Related Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessema, Belay; Nabeta, Pamela; Valli, Eloise; Albertini, Audrey; Collantes, Jimena; Lan, Nguyen Huu; Romancenco, Elena; Tukavdze, Nestani; Denkinger, Claudia M; Dolinger, David L

    2017-04-01

    The spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB hampers global efforts in the fight against tuberculosis. To enhance the development and evaluation of diagnostic tests quickly and efficiently, well-characterized strains and samples from drug-resistant tuberculosis patients are necessary. In this project, the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) has focused on the collection, characterization, and storage of such well-characterized reference materials and making them available to researchers and developers. The collection is being conducted at multiple centers in Southeast Asia, South America, Eastern Europe, and soon the sub-Saharan Africa regions. Strains are characterized for their phenotypic resistances and MICs to first-line drugs (FLDs) and second-line drugs (SLDs) using the automated MGIT 960 system following validated procedures and WHO criteria. Analysis of resistance-associated mutations is done by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) using the Illumina NextSeq system. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat analysis and WGS are used to determine strain lineages. All strains are maintained frozen at -80°C ± 10°C as distinct mother and daughter lots. All strains are extensively quality assured. The data presented here represent an analysis of the initial part of the collection. Currently, the bank contains 118 unique strains with extracted genomic DNA and matched sputum, serum, and plasma samples and will be expanded to a minimum of 1,000 unique strains over the next 3 years. Analysis of the current strains by phenotypic resistance testing shows 102 (86.4%), 10 (8.5%), and 6 (5.1%) MDR, XDR, and mono/poly resistant strains, respectively. Two of the strains are resistant to all 11 drugs that were phenotypically tested. WGS mutation analysis revealed FLD resistance-associated mutations in the rpoB , katG , inhA , embB , embA , and pncA genes; SLD resistance in the gyr

  17. Nuclear fuel banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    In december 2010 IAEA gave its agreement for the creation of a nuclear fuel bank. This bank will allow IAEA to help member countries that renounce to their own uranium enrichment capacities. This bank located on one or several member countries will belong to IAEA and will be managed by IAEA and its reserve of low enriched uranium will be sufficient to fabricate the fuel for the first load of a 1000 MW PWR. Fund raising has been successful and the running of the bank will have no financial impact on the regular budget of the IAEA. Russia has announced the creation of the first nuclear fuel bank. This bank will be located on the Angarsk site (Siberia) and will be managed by IAEA and will own 120 tonnes of low-enriched uranium fuel (between 2 and 4.95%), this kind of fuel is used in most Russian nuclear power plants. (A.C.)

  18. Expansion of Viral Load Testing and the Potential Impact on HIV Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizes, Elliot; Hader, Shannon; Birx, Deborah

    2017-12-01

    The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) supports aggressive scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in high-burden countries and across all genders and populations at risk toward global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic control. PEPFAR recognizes the risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) as a consequence of aggressive ART scale-up and is actively promoting 3 key steps to mitigate the impact of HIVDR: (1) routine access to routine viral load monitoring in all settings; (2) optimization of ART regimens; and (3) routine collection and analysis of HIVDR data to monitor the success of mitigation strategies. The transition to dolutegravir-based regimens in PEPFAR-supported countries and the continuous evolution of HIVDR surveillance strategies are essential elements of PEPFAR implementation. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. NVENTIONS IN THE NANOTECHNOLOGICAL AREA PROVIDE INCREASED RESISTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS TO OPERATIONAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes (RU 2494961» can be used in production of modifying additives for construction materials. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes contains, mass %: carbon nanotubes 1–20; surface active agent – sodium chloride of sulfonated derived naphthalene 1–20; fumed silica 5–15; water – the rest. Dispersion can additionally contain ethylene glycol as antifreeze. Dispersion is steady in storage, it is soluble in water, provides increased strength of construction materials. Invention «Building Structures Reinforcement Composition (RU 2493337» can beused in construction to reinforce concrete, brick and masonry structures. Composition contains glass or basalt roving taken in quantity 90÷100 parts by weight, soaked in polymer binder based on epoxy taken in quantity 0,001÷1,5 parts by weight. This invention provides high resistance to operational load.

  20. Effect of light-load resistance exercise on postprandial amino acid transporter expression in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jakob; Bülow, Jacob; Jensen, Jacob K

    2017-01-01

    An impaired amino acid sensing is associated with age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass. We tested whether light-load resistance exercise (LL-RE) affects postprandial amino acid transporter (AAT) expression in aging skeletal muscle. Untrained, healthy men (age: +65 years) were subjected to 13 h...... and 12 g at 7 h) (BOLUS, N = 10), or hourly isocaloric maltodextrin drinks (placebo, N = 10). Quadriceps muscle biopsies were taken at 0, 3, 7, and 10 h postexercise from both the resting and exercised leg, from which the membrane protein and mRNA expression of select AATs were analyzed by Western Blot...... decrease in SNAT2 mRNA expression was observed. LL-RE increased membrane-associated AAT protein expression and mRNA expression. Altered AAT protein expression was only seen in groups that ingested whey protein, with the greatest effect observed after hourly feeding. This points toward an importance of AATs...

  1. MODELING OF SOIL LOAD-BEARING CAPACITY AS A FUNCTION OF SOIL MECHANICAL RESISTANCE TO PENETRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Ortigara

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of soil load-bearing capacity from mathematical models that relate preconsolidation pressure (σp to mechanical resistance to penetration (PR and gravimetric soil water content (U is important for defining strategies to prevent compaction of agricultural soils. Our objective was therefore to model the σp and compression index (CI according to the PR (with an impact penetrometer in the field and a static penetrometer inserted at a constant rate in the laboratory and U in a Rhodic Eutrudox. The experiment consisted of six treatments: no-tillage system (NT; NT with chiseling; and NT with additional compaction by combine traffic (passing 4, 8, 10, and 20 times. Soil bulk density, total porosity, PR (in field and laboratory measurements, U, σp, and CI values were determined in the 5.5-10.5 cm and 13.5-18.5 cm layers. Preconsolidation pressure (σp and CI were modeled according to PR in different U. The σp increased and the CI decreased linearly with increases in the PR values. The correlations between σp and PR and PR and CI are influenced by U. From these correlations, the soil load-bearing capacity and compaction susceptibility can be estimated by PR readings evaluated in different U.

  2. Effect of Load Range on Probabilistic Fatigue Crack Growth Resistance in Flux Cored Arc Welded Api 2w GR. Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Jin; Sohn, Sang-Hoon; Sohn, Hye-Jeong

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of the load range on the spatial variation of fatigue crack growth resistance in three different zones, WM, HAZ and BM for flux cored arc welded API 2W Gr. 50 steel using the stochastic model based on reliability theory. Experimental fatigue crack growth tests were performed on ASTM standard CT specimens. The results indicates that the load range has strong dependency on probabilistic fatigue crack growth for the three different zones WM, HAZ and BM, and also the spatial variation of fatigue crack growth resistance.

  3. Inverse relationship between viral load and genotypic resistance mutations in Korean patients with primary HIV type 1 infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Bum Sik; Choi, Juyeon; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Kee, Mee Kyung; Suh, Soon Deok; Choi, Jin Young; Chu, Chaeshin; Kim, Sung Soon

    2006-11-01

    The transmission of antiretroviral-resistant HIV-1 strains is associated with suboptimal virological responses to initial antiretroviral therapy. However, certain types of resistance mutations are known to be associated with decreased viral fitness, which confers a lower replication capacity than that of the wild-type virus in the absence of antiretroviral drugs. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between antiretroviral resistance mutations and viral replication in the primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) period. From January 2002 to March 2005, 52 PHI patients were identified in the Republic of Korea. HIV-1 RNA genotyping was performed, and the resistance mutation score was obtained from the HIV Drug Resistance Database of Stanford University. We defined the sum of the average resistance mutation scores (SARMS) for each antiretroviral drug class as a measure of the degree of resistance of any specific strain. The overall mean SARMS was 2.00 +/- 2.74, and the annual mean did not change significantly during the study period. No critical resistance mutation gene was identified in the study group. The SARMS showed a weak negative correlation with the viral load log10 during PHI, but without statistical significance (r = -0.274, p = 0.051). But the mean SARMS of patients with a viral load exceeding 100,000 copies/ml was significantly lower than that of patients with a viral load of less than 100,000 copies/ml (p = 0.03). Evaluation of the potency of antiretroviral resistance revealed a weak negative correlation with viral replication in the PHI period. This could be one reason why the transmission of resistant strains in PHI patients is not increasing significantly despite the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

  4. Islamic banking

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Viktoriya

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is focused on introduction of Islamic banking system. Morover part of the work is devoted to a detailed description of the history of Islamic banking, on explanation of the principles on which the banking system is based. Also are analyzed in detail the basic Islamic banking products. And at the end are presented the advantages and disadvantages of the Islamic banking system.

  5. Strength and Hypertrophy Adaptations Between Low- vs. High-Load Resistance Training: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Grgic, Jozo; Ogborn, Dan; Krieger, James W

    2017-12-01

    Schoenfeld, BJ, Grgic, J, Ogborn, D, and Krieger, JW. Strength and hypertrophy adaptations between low- vs. high-load resistance training: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3508-3523, 2017-The purpose of this article was to conduct a systematic review of the current body of literature and a meta-analysis to compare changes in strength and hypertrophy between low- vs. high-load resistance training protocols. Searches of PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Scopus were conducted for studies that met the following criteria: (a) an experimental trial involving both low-load training [≤60% 1 repetition maximum (1RM)] and high-load training (>60% 1RM); (b) with all sets in the training protocols being performed to momentary muscular failure; (c) at least one method of estimating changes in muscle mass or dynamic, isometric, or isokinetic strength was used; (d) the training protocol lasted for a minimum of 6 weeks; (e) the study involved participants with no known medical conditions or injuries impairing training capacity. A total of 21 studies were ultimately included for analysis. Gains in 1RM strength were significantly greater in favor of high- vs. low-load training, whereas no significant differences were found for isometric strength between conditions. Changes in measures of muscle hypertrophy were similar between conditions. The findings indicate that maximal strength benefits are obtained from the use of heavy loads while muscle hypertrophy can be equally achieved across a spectrum of loading ranges.

  6. Effects of an MHC-DRB genotype and allele number on the load of gut parasites in the bank vole Myodes glareolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloch, Agnieszka; Babik, Wiesław; Bajer, Anna; Siński, Edward; Radwan, Jacek

    2010-03-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes code for the proteins responsible for pathogen recognition. The MHC class II DRB gene is multiplicated in the bank vole, Myodes glareolus, with different numbers of loci found in different individuals. Possessing large numbers of loci should increase the probability of pathogen recognition, but according to the optimality hypothesis, there is a cost of possessing too many MHC alleles. Using 454 technology, we determined the individual DRB allelic diversity and related it to the load of intestinal parasites in voles collected from three sites separated by a distance of 12 to 27 km. The analysis of six microsatellite loci revealed significant population structure (F(ST) = 0.07). The sites differed significantly in the prevalence and abundance of nematode species as well. We found two significant associations between MHC alleles and the intensity of the infection with the most prevalent nematode, Aspiculuris tetraptera. One of these associations was population-specific. This result suggests that the directions of selection can differ between populations connected by a low level of gene flow, which may contribute to the maintenance of high DRB allele diversity. In accordance with the optimality hypothesis, individuals with an intermediate number of alleles carried the lowest number of nematode species and had the lowest prevalence of A. tetraptera. However, the intensity of infection with A. tetraptera was linearly and negatively associated with the number of alleles.

  7. Banking contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Sochorová, Silvie

    2012-01-01

    Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...

  8. Dependence of Seebeck coefficient on a load resistance and energy conversion efficiency in a thermoelectric composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Osamu; Odahara, Hirotaka; Ochi, Takahiro; Satou, Kouji

    2007-01-01

    The thermo-emf ΔV and current ΔI generated by imposing the alternating temperature gradients (ATG) at a period of T and the steady temperature gradient (STG) on a thermoelectric (TE) composite were measured as a function of t, where t is the lapsed time and T was varied from 60 to or ∞ s. The STG and ATG were produced by imposing steadily and alternatively a source voltage V in the range from 1.0 to 4.0 V on two Peltier modules sandwiching a composite. ΔT, ΔV, ΔI and V P oscillate at a period T and their waveforms vary significantly with a change of T, where ΔV and V P are the voltage drops in a load resistance R L and in resistance R P of two modules. The resultant Seebeck coefficient |α| = |ΔV|/ΔT of a composite under the STG was found to be expressed as |α| = |α 0 |(1 - R comp /R T ), where R T is the total resistance of a circuit for measuring the output signals and R comp is the resistance of a composite. The effective generating power ΔW eff has a local maximum at T = 960 s for the p-type composite and at T = 480 s for the n-type one. The maximum energy conversion efficiency η of the p- and n-type composites under the ATG produced by imposing a voltage of 4.0 V at an optimum period were 0.22 and 0.23% at ΔT eff = 50 K, respectively, which are 42 and 43% higher than those at ΔT = 42 K under the STG. These maximum η for a TE composite sandwiched between two Peltier modules, were found to be expressed theoretically in terms of R P , R T , R L , α P and α, where α P and α are the resultant Seebeck coefficients of Peltier modules and a TE composite

  9. Affective Responses to Acute Resistance Exercise Performed at Self-Selected and Imposed Loads in Trained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht, Brian C; Garver, Matthew J; Cotter, Joshua A; Devor, Steven T; Lucas, Alexander R; Fairman, Ciaran M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the affective responses to acute resistance exercise (RE) performed at self-selected (SS) and imposed loads in recreationally trained women. Secondary purposes were to (a) examine differences in correlates of motivation for future participation in RE and (b) determine whether affective responses to RE were related to these select motivational correlates of RE participation. Twenty recreationally trained young women (mean age = 23 years) completed 3 RE sessions involving 3 sets of 10 repetitions using loads of 40% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM), 70% 1RM, and an SS load. Affective responses were assessed before, during, and after each RE session using the Feeling Scale. Self-efficacy and intention for using the imposed and SS loads for their regular RE participation during the next month were also assessed postexercise. Results revealed that although the SS and imposed load RE sessions yielded different trajectories of change in affect during exercise (p participation (p resistance training; and affective responses were unrelated to motivational correlates of resistance training.

  10. Fast risetime one megajoule capacitor bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markins, D.; Baker, W.L.; Reinovsky, R.E.; Clark, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    A 100 kV, 1.1 MJ capacitor bank for plasma research experiments has been constructed for the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. The system consists of twenty, individual, low inductance capacitor modules, each utilizing a four element switch package approximately 2 meters wide. Each module contains twenty-four ''scyllac'' type 1.85 μF capacitors. A 100 kV output pulse is obtained by charging the top half of each module to +50 kV and the bottom half to -50 kV. A pressurized, low inductance multichannel switch package incorporating four separately triggered elements is designed to fit into the parallel plate transmission line system of the capacitor module. The bank is configured in a cross shape with twenty modules spaced uniformly around the perimeter of a parallel plate transmission line. The transmission line is constructed with 32 mil aluminum and insulated with 60 mils of mylar. The bank is designed to feed an easily replaceable central coaxial load. The entire system has been repeatedly fired at 100 kV with a dummy resistive load and has delivered 2.2 x 10 7 amperes of current with a risetime of 1.1 μsec. The total measured system inductance is 2.2 nH. This system represents a significant advance in the development of reliable, fast, high current capacitor banks

  11. Formulation of carbapenems loaded gold nanoparticles to combat multi-antibiotic bacterial resistance: In vitro antibacterial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Mohamed A; Shaaban, Mona I

    2017-06-15

    Despite the fact that carbapenems (powerful β-lactams antibiotics) were able to fight serious infectious diseases, nowadays the spread of carbapenems-resistant bacteria is considered the main challenge in antibacterial therapy. In this study, we focused on evaluating the surface conjugation of carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) with gold nanoparticles as a delivering strategy to specifically and safely maximize their therapeutic efficacy while destroying the developing resistance of the pathogens. Different particle size formulae (35, 70 and 200nm) were prepared by citrate reduction method. The prepared nanoparticles were functionalized with imipenem (Ipm) or meropenem (Mem) and physico-chemically characterized for loading efficiency, particle size, morphology, and in-vitro release. The antibacterial efficacy was also evaluated against carbapenems resistant Gram-negative bacteria isolated from infected human, through measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration and antibiotic kill test. All the obtained gold nanoparticles showed a distinct nano-size with loading efficiency up to 72% and 74% for Ipm and Mem, respectively. The conjugation and physico-chemical stability of the formulated carbapenems were confirmed by FTIR and X-RPD. Diffusion driven release behavior was observed for both Ipm and Mem from all of the loaded gold nanoparticles. For both Ipm and Mem, formula with 35nm diameter showed the most significant enhancement in antibacterial activity against all the selected isolates including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Acinteobacter baumanii. Ipm loaded Gold nanoparticles demonstrated decrease in the MIC of Ipm down to four folds, whereas, Mem loaded gold nanoparticles showed decrease in the MIC of Mem down to three folds on the tested bacterial isolates. Based on these results, the formulation of carbapenems-loaded gold nanoparticles demonstrated to be a promising nano-size delivery vehicle for improving the therapeutic activity and

  12. Co-selection of antibiotic resistance via copper shock loading on bacteria from a drinking water bio-filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Menglu; Chen, Lihua; Ye, Chengsong; Yu, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Heavy metal contamination of source water frequently occurred in developing countries as a result of accidents. To address the problems, most of the previous studies have focused on engineering countermeasures. In this study, we investigated the effects of heavy metals, particularly copper, on the development of antibiotic resistance by establishing a copper shock loading test. Results revealed that co-selection occurred rapidly within 6 h. Copper, at the levels of 10 and 100 mg/L, significantly increased bacterial resistance to the antibiotics tested, including rifampin, erythromycin, kanamycin, and a few others. A total of 117 antimicrobial-resistance genes were detected from 12 types of genes, and the relative abundance of most genes (particularly mobile genetic elements intⅠand transposons) was markedly enriched by at least one fold. Furthermore, the copper shock loading altered the bacterial community. Numerous heavy metal and antibiotic resistant strains were screened out and enriched. These strains are expected to enhance the overall level of resistance. More noticeably, the majority of the co-selected antibiotic resistance could sustain for at least 20 h in the absence of copper and antimicrobial drugs. Resistance to vancomycin, erythromycin and lincomycin even could remain for 7 days. The prominent selection pressure by the copper shock loading implies that a real accident most likely poses similar impacts on the water environment. An accidental release of heavy metals would not only cause harm to the ecological environment, but also contribute to the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance. Broader concerns should be raised about the biological risks caused by sudden releases of pollutants by accidents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Three-Dimensional Resistive Metamaterial Absorber Loaded with Metallic Resonators for the Enhancement of Lower-Frequency Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistive patch array incorporating with metallic backplane provided an effective way to achieve broadband metamaterial absorbers (MAs in microwave frequency, and the outstanding construction contributed more flexible and diversified broadband absorption. In this paper, we attempted to load metallic resonators (MRs to three-dimensional resistive MA to further enhance the lower-frequency absorption performance. Simulation showed that the partial absorption peak was separated to the lower frequency, while the rest of broadband absorption was unaffected. Meanwhile, after combining multi-unit of the proposed MAs, the stair-stepping broadband absorption was also achieved. Finally, three samples were fabricated. The agreements between simulations and experimental results demonstrated that resistive MA loaded with MRs provided an effective way for further enhancement of lower-frequency absorption with almost no change of the absorbing structure and lightweight characteristic. Thus, it was worthy to expect a wide range of applications to emerge inspired from the proposed attempt.

  14. Influence of Compaction Temperature on Resistance Under Monotonic Loading of Crumb-Rubber Modified Hot-Mix Asphalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Rondón-Quintana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of compaction temperature on resistance under mono-tonic loading (Marshall of Crumb-Rubber Modified (CRM Hot-Mix As-phalt (HMA was evaluated. The emphasis of this study was the applica-tion in Bogotá D.C. (Colombia. In this city the compaction temperature of HMA mixtures decreases, compared to the optimum, in about 30°C. Two asphalt cements (AC 60-70 and AC 80-100 were modified. Two particle sizes distribution curve were used. The compaction temperatures used were 120, 130, 140 and 150°C. The decrease of the compaction tempera-ture produces a small decrease in resistance under monotonic loading of the modified mixtures tested. Mixtures without CRM undergo a lineal decrease in its resistance of up to 34%.

  15. Lateral Load-Resisting System Using Mass Timber Panel for High-Rise Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As global interest in using engineered wood products in tall buildings intensifies due to the “green” credential of wood, it is expected that more tall wood buildings will be designed and constructed in the coming years. This, however, brings new challenges to the designers. One of the major challenges is how to design lateral load-resisting systems (LLRSs with sufficient stiffness, strength, and ductility to resist strong wind and earthquakes. In this study, an LLRS using mass timber panel on a stiff podium was developed for high-rise buildings in accordance with capacity-based design principle. The LLRS comprises eight shear walls with a core in the center of the building, which was constructed with structural composite lumber and connected with dowel-type connections and wood–steel composite system. The main energy dissipating mechanism of the LLRS was detailed to be located at the panel-to-panel interface. This LLRS was implemented in the design of a hypothetical 20-storey building. A finite element (FE model of the building was developed using general-purpose FE software, ABAQUS. The wind-induced and seismic response of the building model was investigated by performing linear static and non-linear dynamic analyses. The analysis results showed that the proposed LLRS using mass timber was suitable for high-rise buildings. This study provided a valuable insight into the structural performance of LLRS constructed with mass timber panels as a viable option to steel and concrete for high-rise buildings.

  16. Dissociated Time Course of Recovery Between Strength and Power After Isoinertial Resistance Loading in Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rodney A; Drake, David

    2018-03-01

    Kennedy, RA and Drake, D. Dissociated time course of recovery between strength and power after isoinertial resistance loading in rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 748-755, 2018-There is a substantial amount of research on the responses to isometric and eccentric loading. However, only a paucity of literature exists on the responses to isoinertial loading, especially in trained athletic populations using realistic loading protocols. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute neuromuscular response to a bout of isoinertial resistance loading in elite rugby players. Seventeen male (age: 19.5 ± 2.3 years) rugby union players performed a conventional maximal isoinertial resistance loading protocol. Countermovement jump (CMJ) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) squat performance were measured on 3 occasions: at baseline, immediately post, and 48 hour post. The results indicated that the decrease in MVC (9.7%) is greater than or comparable with the CMJ output variables (4.2-10.3%), immediately postexercise. Although isometric strength had demonstrated a full recovery at 48 hour post, many of the key CMJ output variables were still impaired (p ≤ 0.05). Similar findings were observed in the normalized CMJ curves. Complete recovery of the ability to rapidly produced force may require more than 48 hours in many athletes. Individual responses should, therefore, be monitored to help plan acute and chronic training loads. It is recommended that future fatigue studies should incorporate temporal phase analyses to consider the power-, force-, velocity-, and displacement-time curves.

  17. The influence of low-temperature degradation and cyclic loading on the fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia molar crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Harada, A; Kanno, T; Inagaki, R; Niwano, Y; Milleding, P; Örtengren, U

    2015-07-01

    The present study analyzed the kinetics of low-temperature degradation (LTD) in zirconia, and evaluated the influence of LTD and cyclic loading on the fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia molar crowns. Bar-shaped zirconia specimens were divided into nine groups and autoclaved at 134°C for 0-200h to induce LTD. The surface fraction and penetration depth of the monoclinic phase were examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Monolithic zirconia molar crowns were prepared for crown fracture testing. The crowns were autoclaved for 0-100h (n=6) and cemented to dies. Six crown-die samples that were not autoclaved and six samples that were autoclaved for 100h were subjected to cyclic loading with a load of 300N for 240,000 cycles. All samples were tested in a load-to-failure test. The monoclinic fraction on the surface increased with autoclaving time and reached a plateau after 50h. The depth of the monoclinic phase increased without reaching a plateau. The fracture load of the crowns significantly decreased from 5683N (SD: 342) to 3975N (SD: 194) after 100h of autoclaving. Cyclic loading did not significantly affect the fracture resistance of the crowns in all cases. Kinetic analysis showed no linear correlation between the surface fraction and depth of the monoclinic phase after 50h of autoclaving. Even though LTD increased the monoclinic phase, resulting in lower strength, the fracture resistance of the monolithic zirconia crowns was still sufficient to withstand the loading conditions in the molar regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Finite Element Analysis of Bearing Resistance of Timber Loaded through a Steel Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leijten A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Decrease projected length of bolts due to bending deformation in timber joints compresses the steel washers onto timber member and increases lateral resistance of the joints. As this lateral strength increase primarily depend on bearing characteristics of timber beneath the steel washers, a finite element analysis was performed to predict their bearing-embedment behavior. A 3-D finite element model consisting of 8-node solid and contact pair elements was developed using ANSYS assuming an anisotropic plasticity model for timber and an elastic-perfectly plastic model for the washers. Material constants for both steel washer and timber member were obtained from previous test data. The results of the analysis were in good agreement with the experimental load-embedment curves as well as the analytical curves obtained in a previous study based on a rigid-body-spring-model. The same approach was also used to evaluate the effective bearing length (under uniform compression of a 50 mm depth timber block partially compressed.

  19. Comparison of Power Supply Pumping of Switch-Mode Audio Power Amplifiers with Resistive Loads and Loudspeakers as Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Petersen, Lars Press

    2013-01-01

    Power supply pumping is generated by switch-mode audio power amplifiers in half-bridge configuration, when they are driving energy back into their source. This leads in most designs to a rising rail voltage and can be destructive for either the decoupling capacitors, the rectifier diodes...... in the power supply or the power stage of the amplifier. Therefore precautions are taken by the amplifier and power supply designer to avoid those effects. Existing power supply pumping models are based on an ohmic load attached to the amplifier. This paper shows the analytical derivation of the resulting...

  20. Polyelectrolyte Multicomponent Colloidosomes Loaded with Nisin Z for Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity against Foodborne Resistant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taskeen Niaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Food grade micro- or nano-carrier systems (NCS are being developed to improve the controlled release of antimicrobial agents. To augment the stability of liposomal NCS and to overcome the limitations associated with the use of free bacteriocin (nisin in the food system, multi-component colloidosomes (MCCS were developed by electrostatic interactions between anionic alginate and cationic chitosan (multilayer around phospholipids based liposomes (core. Zeta-sizer results revealed the average diameter of 145 ± 2 nm, 596 ± 3 nm, and 643 ± 5 nm for nano-liposome (NL, chitosomes (chitosan coated NL and MCCS, respectively. Zeta potential values of NCS varied from −4.37 ± 0.16 mV to 33.3 ± 6 mV, thus both chitosomes (CS and MCCS were positively charged. Microstructure analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM revealed relatively higher size of MCCS with smooth and round morphology. TGA and DSC based experiments revealed that MCCS were thermally more stable than uncoated liposomes. Encapsulation efficiency of nisin in MCCS was observed to be 82.9 ± 4.1%, which was significantly higher than NL (56.5 ± 2.5%. FTIR analyses confirmed the cross-linking between sodium alginate and chitosan layer. Both qualitative (growth kinetics and quantitative (colony forming unit antimicrobial assays revealed that nisin loaded MCCS have superior potential to control resistant foodborne pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis, (5.8, 5.4, and 6.1 Log CFUmL−1 reduction, respectively as compared to free nisin, loaded NL or CS. Controlled release kinetics data fitted with Korsmeyer–Peppas model suggested that nisin release from MCCS followed Fickian diffusion. Cytotoxic studies on human blood cells and HepG2 cell lines revealed hemocompatibility and non-toxicity of MCCS. Thus, due to enhanced controlled release, stability and biocompatibility; these multi-component colloidosomes can be useful for

  1. Prediction of crack density and electrical resistance changes in indium tin oxide/polymer thin films under tensile loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel

    2014-06-11

    We present unified predictions for the crack onset strain, evolution of crack density, and changes in electrical resistance in indium tin oxide/polymer thin films under tensile loading. We propose a damage mechanics model to quantify and predict such changes as an alternative to fracture mechanics formulations. Our predictions are obtained by assuming that there are no flaws at the onset of loading as opposed to the assumptions of fracture mechanics approaches. We calibrate the crack onset strain and the damage model based on experimental data reported in the literature. We predict crack density and changes in electrical resistance as a function of the damage induced in the films. We implement our model in the commercial finite element software ABAQUS using a user subroutine UMAT. We obtain fair to good agreement with experiments. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Ratings of Perceived Exertion During Acute Resistance Exercise Performed at Imposed and Self-Selected Loads in Recreationally Trained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Joshua A; Garver, Matthew J; Dinyer, Taylor K; Fairman, Ciaran M; Focht, Brian C

    2017-08-01

    Cotter, JA, Garver, MJ, Dinyer, TK, Fairman, CM, and Focht, BC. Ratings of perceived exertion during acute resistance exercise performed at imposed and self-selected loads in recreationally trained women. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2313-2318, 2017-Resistance exercise (RE) is commonly used to elicit skeletal muscle adaptation. Relative intensity of a training load links closely with the outcomes of regular RE. This study examined the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to acute bouts of RE using imposed (40% and 70% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and self-selected (SS) loads in recreationally trained women. Twenty physically active women (23.15 ± 2.92 years), who reported regular RE training of at least 3 weekly sessions for the past year, volunteered to participate. During the initial visit, participants completed 1RM testing on 4 exercises in the following order: leg extension, chest press, leg curl, and lat pull-down. On subsequent visits, the same exercises were completed at the SS or imposed loads. The RPE was assessed after the completion of each set of exercises during the 3 RE conditions using the Borg-15 category scale. Self-selected loads corresponded to an average of approximately 57%1RM (±7.62). Overall, RPE increased with load (40%1RM = 11.26 [±1.95]; SS 57%1RM = 13.94 [±1.58]; and, 70%1RM = 15.52 [±2.05]). Reflecting the linear pattern found between load and perceived effort, the present data provide evidence that RPE levels less than 15 likely equate to loads which are not consistent with contemporary American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines for enhancing musculoskeletal health which includes strength and hypertrophy. Women desiring increases in strength and lean mass likely need to train at an exertion level at or surpassing a rating of 15 on the Borg-15 category. This article examined the modification of training load on perceived exertion, but other variables, such as the number of repetitions completed, may also be

  3. The effect of preparation height and luting agent on the resistance form of cemented cast crowns under load fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Elvin W J; Choon Tan, Keson Beng; Nicholls, Jack Ivan; Chua, Ee Kiam; Wong, Keng Mun; Neo, Jennifer Chiew Lian

    2009-09-01

    The minimum amount of resistance form required for the success of a clinical crown is unknown.There is little information on the fatigue performance of complete coverage restorations on natural tooth preparations cemented with different luting cements. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth preparation height and luting agent on resistance form using unidirectional load fatigue testing. For a given tooth preparation with a clinically relevant total occlusal convergence (TOC), the adequacy of resistance form was investigated. Sixty-four human maxillary premolars were prepared with occlusal-cervical dimensions of 2, 3,4, or 5 mm and a TOC of 20 degrees. Complete metal crowns were cemented using either zinc phosphate cement (HY Bond;ZP groups) or resin cement (Panavia F; PF groups). Cyclic load fatigue testing was done with an applied load of 6.0 kg at 2.6 Hz. Load cycles to preliminary failure were detected with a strain gauge at the palatal crown-tooth interface. Results were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Wilcoxon post-hoc rank sum test (alpha=.05). Groups ZP4, ZP5, PF2, PF3, PF4, and PF5 had the highest mean number of cycles to preliminary failure,while group ZP2 had the lowest mean number of cycles to failure. Group ZP2 was significantly different (Pcement exhibited a poorer fatigue performance compared to Panavia F. There was no significant difference in the number of cycles to failure for groups ZP4,ZP5, PF2, PF3, PF4, and PF5. For both cements, the number of cycles to failure increased with increasing resistance length. (J Prosthet Dent 2009;102:155-164)

  4. Prevalence of drug resistance and importance of viral load measurements in Honduran HIV-infected patients failing antiretroviral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Wendy; de Rivera, I L; Parham, L; Jovel, E; Palou, E; Karlsson, A C; Albert, J

    2010-02-01

    The Honduran HIV/AIDS Program began to scale up access to HIV therapy in 2002. Up to May 2008, more than 6000 patients received combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). As HIV drug resistance is the major obstacle for effective treatment, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance in Honduran HIV-1-infected individuals. We collected samples from 138 individuals (97 adults and 41 children) on cART with virological, immunological or clinical signs of treatment failure. HIV-1 pol sequences were obtained using an in-house method. Resistance mutations were identified according to the 2007 International AIDS Society (IAS)-USA list and predicted susceptibility to cART was scored using the ANRS algorithm. Resistance mutations were detected in 112 patients (81%), 74% in adults and 98% in children. Triple-, dual- and single-class drug resistance was documented in 27%, 43% and 11% of the study subjects, respectively. Multiple logistic regression showed that resistance was independently associated with type of treatment failure [virological failure (odds ratio (OR) = 1) vs. immunological failure (OR = 0.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.030-0.43) vs. clinical failure (OR = 0.037; 95% CI 0.0063-0.22)], route of transmission (OR = 42.8; 95% CI 3.73-491), and years on therapy (OR = 1.81; 95% CI 1.11-2.93). The prevalence of antiretroviral resistance was high in Honduran HIV-infected patients with signs of treatment failure. A majority of study subjects showed dual- or triple-class resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors. Virologically defined treatment failure was a strong predictor of resistance, indicating that viral load testing is needed to correctly identify patients with treatment failure attributable to resistance.

  5. Load limit of mini-implants with reduced abutment height based on fatigue fracture resistance: experimental and finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Yusuke; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the fracture resistance of experimental mini-implants with a reduced abutment height. The secondary objective was to assess the effects of implant diameter and bone level on the load limit, using finite element simulations. Two Ti-6A1-4V 1.8-mm-diameter implants were subjected to monotonic bending testing and fatigue tests incorporating 5 x 10(6) cycles (ISO 14801): a commercially available implant (c18), and an experimental implant with a reduced abutment height (e18). The load limit was estimated using the finite element models based on the maximum stress at failure in the experiments. For simulations, implants with increased diameters of 2.1 and 2.4 mm were also modeled, and the load limit was estimated for all models in a bone model. In the bending test, e18 revealed a higher mean load at yield stress than c18, and this was attributed to the reduced height of the former. An endurance limit of 140 N was detected for both c18 and e18 in the fatigue test, while the load limit of e18 was higher than that of c18. The estimated load limit increased as the implant diameter or the bone level increased, with the highest value of 510 N observed at a diameter of 2.4 mm. A higher load limit was evident in the experimental mini-implant with a reduced abutment height. The simulations indicated that the load limit increased with increased implant diameter and higher bone levels.

  6. Effect of mechanical pre-loadings on corrosion resistance of chromium-electroplated steel rods in marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubina Helbert, Varvara; Dhondt, Matthieu; Homette, Remi; Arbab Chirani, Shabnam; Calloch, Sylvain

    2018-03-01

    Providing high hardness, low friction coefficient, as well as, relatively good corrosion resistance, chromium-plated coatings (∼20 μm) are widely used for steel cylinder rods in marine environment. However, the standardized corrosion test method (ISO 9227, NSS) used to evaluate efficiency of this type of coatings does not take into account in-service mechanical loadings on cylinder rods. Nevertheless, the uniform initial network of microcracks in chromium coating is changing under mechanical loadings. Propagation of these microcracks explains premature corrosion of the steel substrate. The aim of the study was to evaluate relationship between mechanical loadings, propagation of microcracks network and corrosion resistance of chromium coatings. After monotonic pre-loading tests, it was demonstrated by microscopic observations that the microcracks propagation started at stress levels higher than the substrate yield stress (520 MPa). The microcracks become effective, i.e. they have instantly undergone through the whole coating thickness to reach the steel substrate. The density of effective microcracks increases with the total macroscopic level, i.e. the intercrack distance goes from 60 ± 5 μm at 1% of total strain to approximately 27 ± 2 μm at 10%. Electrochemical measurements have shown that the higher the plastic strain level applied during mechanical loading, the more the corrosion potential of the sample decreased until reaching the steel substrate value of approximately ‑0.65 V/SCE after 2 h of immersion. The polarization curves have also highligthed an increase in the corrosion current density with the strain level. Therefore, electrochemical measurements could be used to realize quick and comprehensive assesment of the effect of monotonic pre-loadings on corrosion properties of the chromium coating.

  7. Effect of Shear Resistance on Flexural Debonding Load-Carrying Capacity of RC Beams Strengthened with Externally Bonded FRP Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibing Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Debonding failure is the main failure mode in flexurally strengthened reinforced concrete beams by externally bonded or near surface mounted fibre reinforced polymer (FRP composites. It is believed that FRP debonding will be initiated if the shear stress on the concrete-FRP interface reaches the tensile strength of concrete. However, it was found through experimental and analytical studies that the debonding mechanism of FRP composites has the potential of shear failure in combination with debonding failure. Moreover, the shear failure probably influences the debonding failure. Presently, there are very little experimental and analytical studies to investigate the influence of shear resistance of reinforced concrete (RC beam on FRP debonding failure. The current study investigates and analyzes the effect of shear resistance on FRP debonding failure based on test results. The analytical results show that the shear resistance of RC beam has a great effect on flexural debonding load-carrying capacity of FRP-strengthened RC beam. The influence of shear resistance on flexural debonding load-carrying capacity must be fully considered in flexural strengthening design of RC beams.

  8. Effect of luting agent on the load to failure and accelerated-fatigue resistance of lithium disilicate laminate veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresnigt, Marco M M; Özcan, Mutlu; Carvalho, Marco; Lazari, Priscilla; Cune, Marco S; Razavi, Peywand; Magne, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the luting agent on the application of laminate veneers (LVs) in an accelerated fatigue and load-to-failure test after thermo-cyclic aging. Sound maxillary central incisors (N=40) were randomly divided into four groups to receive LVs (Li 2 Si 2 O 5 ) that were adhesively bonded: Group CEMF: Adhesive cement (Variolink Esthetic LC), fatigue test; Group CEMLF: Adhesive cement, load-to-failure test; Group COMF: Resin composite (Enamel HFO), fatigue test; Group COMLF: Resin composite, load-to-failure test. The specimens were thermo-mechanically aged (1.2×10 6 cycles at 1.7Hz/50N, 8000 cycles 5-55°C) and then subjected to either accelerated fatigue (5Hz, 25N increasing after each 500 cycles) or load to failure (1mm/min). Failure types were classified and data analyzed using chi-square, Kaplan Meier survival, Log Rank (Mantel-Cox) and independent-samples t-test. After thermo-mechanical aging, fracture resistance (pveneer. The delivery of laminate veneers using a direct restorative composite rather than a resin cement resulted in significantly less chipping and fractures, higher fracture strength in both accelerated fatigue and load-to-failure. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of resistance to horizontal loads and functional failure from impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça, P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses the results of the serviciability and use condition tests carried on an innovative solution for partitions, designated AdjustMembrane developed within a research project. The proposed system is a modular non-loadbearing wall, tensioned between the pavements and ceiling slabs, which are used as anchoring elements. It allows several advantages, related with the weight reduction to achieve a good sustainable performance, such as the reduction of construction costs, energy, and materials, and it is easy to recycle and to reuse, allowing self-construction. Apart from a general presentation of the partition technology, this paper presents and discusses the results of experimental tests carried out. From the results obtained, it is possible to conclude that the solution fulfils the requirements for this typology of wall in terms of resistance to horizontal loads induced by soft and hard body impacts.En este trabajo se presentan y discuten los resultados de ensayos de condiciones de servicio y seguridad de uso de una solución innovadora para particiones interiores, designada por AdjustMembrane y desarrollada en un proyecto de investigación. El sistema propuesto es una solución de partición modular no estructural, tensada entre los forjados de piso y de techo, que se utilizan como elementos de anclaje. Permite varias ventajas, relacionadas con la reducción de peso para lograr buenos indicadores de sostenibilidad, tales como la reducción de los costos de construcción, energía y materiales. Es fácil de reciclar y reutilizar, lo que permite la auto-construcción. Además de una presentación general de la tecnología de pared desarrollada, se presentan y discuten los resultados de algunos ensayos experimentales efectuados. A partir de los resultados obtenidos fue posible concluir que la solución cumple con los requisitos de resistencia a cargas horizontales y daños funcionales por impacto de cuerpo duro y blando

  10. The Effect of Inspiratory Muscle Training on Respiratory and Limb Locomotor Muscle Deoxygenation During Exercise with Resistive Inspiratory Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L A; Tecklenburg-Lund, S L; Chapman, R; Shei, R-J; Wilhite, D P; Mickleborough, T

    2016-07-01

    We investigated how inspiratory muscle training impacted respiratory and locomotor muscle deoxygenation during submaximal exercise with resistive inspiratory loading. 16 male cyclists completed 6 weeks of either true (n=8) or sham (n=8) inspiratory muscle training. Pre- and post-training, subjects completed 3, 6-min experimental trials performed at ~80%  ˙VO2peak with interventions of either moderate inspiratory loading, heavy inspiratory loading, or maximal exercise imposed in the final 3 min. Locomotor and respiratory muscle oxy-, deoxy-, and total-haemoglobin and myoglobin concentration was continuously monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy. Locomotor muscle deoxygenation changes from 80%  ˙VO2peak to heavy inspiratory loading were significantly reduced pre- to post-training from 4.3±5.6 µM to 2.7±4.7 µM. Respiratory muscle deoxygenation was also significantly reduced during the heavy inspiratory loading trial (4.6±3.5 µM to 1.9±1.5 µM) post-training. There was no significant difference in oxy-, deoxy-, or total-haemoglobin and myoglobin during any of the other loading trials, from pre- to post-training, in either group. After inspiratory muscle training, highly-trained cyclists exhibited decreased locomotor and respiratory muscle deoxygenation during exercise with heavy inspiratory loading. These data suggest that inspiratory muscle training reduces oxygen extraction by the active respiratory and limb muscles, which may reflect changes in respiratory and locomotor muscle oxygen delivery. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Fatigue Crack-Growth Resistance of Aluminum Alloys Under Spectrum Loading. Volume 2. Aluminum Lithium Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Bretz (Alcoa) 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF REPORT IYr . Mo.. Daye IS. PAGE COUNT Technical Report FROM 30Segt82 TO _1 Ma85 DECEMBER...alloy for both constant-amplitude loading and two F-18 load spectrums. One of the spectrums was dominated by tension loads ( TD ) and the other spectrum...indicating contact between the opposing fracture surfaces. Several observations can be made based on the TD and TC spectrum FCP test results: 1. The fatigue

  12. Liquidity, Banking, and Bank Failures.

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Stephen D

    1988-01-01

    A multiperiod model with risk-neutral agents is constructed in which a liquidity problem arises in an equilibrium with decentralized tradin g in capital, which banking institutions are able to alleviate. Depos it contracts provide for early withdrawal, banks hold debt, and agent s who borrow from banks hold compensating balances. Institutional col lapse, or a state of the world when bank failures are experienced, is associated with a high demand for liquidity, low output, and a lower than ave...

  13. The role of water management on the oxygen transport resistance in polymer electrolyte fuel cell with ultra-low precious metal loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srouji, A. K.; Zheng, L. J.; Dross, R.; Aaron, D.; Mench, M. M.

    2017-10-01

    Limiting current measurements are used to evaluate oxygen transport resistance in the catalyst layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). The pressure independent oxygen transport resistance in the electrode is quantified for two cell architectures and two cathode Pt loadings (0.4 and 0.07 mgPt.cm-2). The compounded effect of the flow field and Pt loading is used to shed light on the nature of the observed transport resistance, especially its response to fundamentally different flow fields, which is shown to directly or indirectly scale with Pt loading in the open literature. By varying gas pressure and using low oxygen concentrations, the total oxygen transport resistance is divided into intermolecular gas diffusion (a pressure-dependent component) and a pressure independent component, which can be attributed to Knudsen diffusion or dissolution film resistance. The pressure-independent oxygen transport resistance in the catalyst layer varies between 13.3 and 34.4 s/m. It is shown that the pressure independent oxygen transport resistance increases with reduced Pt loading, but that effect is greatly exacerbated by using conventional channel/lands. The results indicate that open metallic element architecture improves the oxygen transport resistance in ultra-low Pt loading electrodes, likely due to enhanced water management at the catalyst layer.

  14. Bank regulation and banking stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    This note discusses some issues in bank closure policy from a financial stability standpoint and how these issues have evolved since we first raised the question of how a reputation-driven divergence of interests between bank regulators and taxpayers may distort bank closure policy in our 1993 paper

  15. Is shadow banking really banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan J. Noeth; Rajdeep Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    To those who don't know, the term "shadow banking" probably has a negative connotation. This primer draws parallels between what has been termed the shadow banking sector and the traditional banking sector—showing that they are similar in many ways.

  16. Resistance and elastic stiffness of RHS "T" joints: part I - axial brace loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.M.P. de Matos

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a study on the behaviour of welded "T" joints between RHS sections under brace axial loading. A finite element model was developed to investigate the influence of some geometrical variables on the joint's response. The brace load (always in tension was incremented up to joint failure, while the chord was kept unloaded. In the companion paper (part II a complementary study including chord axial loading is presented. The force-displacement curves corresponding to the different geometries are analyzed and compared, focusing on the failure loads and elastic stiffness. Different failure criteria are discussed and applied to the present curves and a comparison of the numerical results with the Eurocode 3 provisions is presented and discussed.

  17. Inspiratory high frequency airway oscillation attenuates resistive loaded dyspnea and modulates respiratory function in young healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Morris

    Full Text Available Direct chest-wall percussion can reduce breathlessness in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and respiratory function may be improved, in health and disease, by respiratory muscle training (RMT. We tested whether high-frequency airway oscillation (HFAO, a novel form of airflow oscillation generation can modulate induced dyspnoea and respiratory strength and/or patterns following 5 weeks of HFAO training (n = 20 compared to a SHAM-RMT (conventional flow-resistive RMT device (n = 15 in healthy volunteers (13 males; aged 20-36 yrs. HFAO causes oscillations with peak-to-peak amplitude of 1 cm H2O, whereas the SHAM-RMT device was identical but created no pressure oscillation. Respiratory function, dyspnoea and ventilation during 3 minutes of spontaneous resting ventilation, 1 minute of maximal voluntary hyperventilation and 1 minute breathing against a moderate inspiratory resistance, were compared PRE and POST 5-weeks of training (2 × 30 breaths at 70% peak flow, 5 days a week. Training significantly reduced NRS dyspnoea scores during resistive loaded ventilation, both in the HFAO (p = 0.003 and SHAM-RMT (p = 0.005 groups. Maximum inspiratory static pressure (cm H2O was significantly increased by HFAO training (vs. PRE; p<0.001. Maximum inspiratory dynamic pressure was increased by training in both the HFAO (vs. PRE; p<0.001 and SHAM-RMT (vs. PRE; p = 0.021 groups. Peak inspiratory flow rate (L.s(-1 achieved during the maximum inspiratory dynamic pressure manoeuvre increased significantly POST (vs. PRE; p = 0.001 in the HFAO group only. HFAO reduced inspiratory resistive loading-induced dyspnoea and augments static and dynamic maximal respiratory manoeuvre performance in excess of flow-resistive IMT (SHAM-RMT in healthy individuals without the respiratory discomfort associated with RMT.

  18. Intestinal microbiota shifts towards elevated commensal Escherichia coli loads abrogate colonization resistance against Campylobacter jejuni in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea-Maxie Haag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne enterocolitis in humans worldwide. The understanding of immunopathology underlying human campylobacteriosis is hampered by the fact that mice display strong colonization resistance against the pathogen due to their host specific gut microbiota composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since the microbiota composition changes significantly during intestinal inflammation we dissected factors contributing to colonization resistance against C. jejuni in murine ileitis, colitis and in infant mice. In contrast to healthy animals C. jejuni could stably colonize mice suffering from intestinal inflammation. Strikingly, in mice with Toxoplasma gondii-induced acute ileitis, C. jejuni disseminated to mesenteric lymphnodes, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood. In infant mice C. jejuni infection induced enterocolitis. Mice suffering from intestinal inflammation and C. jejuni susceptible infant mice displayed characteristical microbiota shifts dominated by increased numbers of commensal Escherichia coli. To further dissect the pivotal role of those distinct microbiota shifts in abrogating colonization resistance, we investigated C. jejuni infection in healthy adult mice in which the microbiota was artificially modified by feeding live commensal E. coli. Strikingly, in animals harboring supra-physiological intestinal E. coli loads, colonization resistance was significantly diminished and C. jejuni infection induced enterocolitis mimicking key features of human campylobacteriosis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Murine colonization resistance against C. jejuni is abrogated by changes in the microbiota composition towards elevated E. coli loads during intestinal inflammation as well as in infant mice. Intestinal inflammation and microbiota shifts thus represent potential risk factors for C. jejuni infection. Corresponding interplays between C. jejuni and microbiota might

  19. СRACK-RESISTANCE AND DURABILITY OF NUCLEAR-POWER STATION (NPS) LOAD-CARRYING STRUCTURES FROM FRACTURE MECHANICS POINT OF VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Leonovich

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents calculations pertaining to survivability of NPS load-carrying elements with respect to crack-resistance. These calculations reflect their resistance ability to actions of mechanical, thermal, hydro-dynamic, electro-magnetic  loads in the case when there are defects in the elements (initially technological defects or operational ones). The most dangerous defects are micro- and macro-cracks that create maximum high concentration of stresses and deformations.

  20. Launch Load Resistant Spacecraft Mechanism Bearings Made From NiTi Superelastic Intermetallic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Lewis (Chip) E., III

    2014-01-01

    Compared to conventional bearing materials (tool steel and ceramics), emerging Superelastic Intermetallic Materials (SIMs), such as 60NiTi, have significantly lower elastic modulus and enhanced strain capability. They are also immune to atmospheric corrosion (rusting). This offers the potential for increased resilience and superior ability to withstand static indentation load without damage. In this paper, the static load capacity of hardened 60NiTi 50mm bore ball-bearing races are measured to correlate existing flat-plate indentation load capacity data to an actual bearing geometry through the Hertz stress relations. The results confirmed the validity of using the Hertz stress relations to model 60NiTi contacts; 60NiTi exhibits a static stress capability (3.1GPa) between that of 440C (2.4GPa) and REX20 (3.8GPa) tool steel. When the reduced modulus and extended strain capability are taken into account, 60NiTi is shown to withstand higher loads than other bearing materials. To quantify this effect, a notional space mechanism, a 5kg mass reaction wheel, was modeled with respect to launch load capability when supported on 440C, 60NiTi and REX20 tool steel bearings. For this application, the use of REX20 bearings increased the static load capability of the mechanism by a factor of three while the use of 60NiTi bearings resulted in an order of magnitude improvement compared to the baseline 440C stainless steel bearings.

  1. Increased rate of force development and neuromuscular activity after high-load resistance training in patients undergoing dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molsted, Stig; Andersen, Jesper L; Eidemak, Inge; Harrison, Adrian P

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-load resistance training on the rate of force development and neuromuscular function in patients undergoing dialysis. Twenty-nine patients were tested before and after 16 weeks of resistance training. The rate of force development was tested using the Good Strength dynamometer chair. Muscle strength and neuromuscular function in the m. Vastus lateralis was estimated using electromyography in a one repetition maximum test during dynamic knee extension and during a 20 s isometric knee extension with 50% of the one repetition maximum load. Muscle biopsies from the m. Vastus lateralis were analysed for morphologic characteristics. One repetition maximum in knee extension increased by 46% (Pforce development increased by 21-38% (Pforce development was found to be significantly associated with larger type 2 muscle fibres (r=0.647). Muscle strength in patients undergoing dialysis was increased after 16 weeks of resistance training in parallel with changed neuromuscular function and greater rate of force development, both of which have important clinical implications in terms of improved physical performance. © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  2. Muscle activation and perceived loading during rehabilitation exercises: comparison of dumbbells and elastic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Mortensen, Ole S

    2010-01-01

    High-intensity resistance training plays an essential role in the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders. Although resistance exercises with heavy weights yield high levels of muscle activation, the efficacy of more user-friendly forms of exercise needs to be exam...

  3. Comparison of the perceived subjective exertion and total load lifted response in resistance exercises performed on stable and unstable platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Cunha Aranda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the perceived subjective exertion (PSE and total load lifted in resistance exercises performed on stable platforms (SP and unstable platforms (UP. Participants were 20 men (24.6 ± 3.4 years, 179 ± 0.1 cm, 80.6 ± 9.1 kg and 11.8 ± 3.4% fat. Each subject performed a 15 maximum repetition test in half squat exercises (soil and balance discs, pronated barbell row (soil and bosu and biceps curl (soil and balance discs in both conditions. PSE was measured using the OMNI-RES scale and the load lifted value (kg. To verify the normality of data, the Shapiro-Wilk test was used. Possible differences related to loads and PSE on the platforms were performed by the paired t test. Significance level of p <0.05 was adopted. No significant differences between PSE values on SP and UP were respectively observed in the half squat (8.2 and 8.5 / p = 0.8, pronated barbell row (8.4 and 8.4 / p = 0.7 and biceps curl (8.6 and 8.7 / p = 1.0. Higher load values on SP and UP were respectively found in half squat (83.9kg and 70.3kg / p <0.001 and pronated barbell row exercises (53.2kg and 48.6kg / p = 0.01 on SP. However, biceps curl showed dissimilar behavior (48.2kg and 47.4kg / p = 0.5. It was concluded that UP does not promote differences in PSE responses even working with smaller load or similar load.

  4. The effects of loaded and unloaded high-velocity resistance training on functional fitness among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jordan M; Gray, Michelle; Binns, Ashley

    2015-11-01

    Physical function declines up to 4% per year after the age of 65. High-velocity training is important for maintaining muscular power and ultimately, physical function; however, whether performing high-velocity training without external resistance increases functional fitness among older adults remains unclear. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate loaded and unloaded high-velocity training on lower body muscular power and functional fitness in older adults. Fifty-seven community-dwelling older adults (n = 16 males, n = 41 females) participated in this study. Inclusion criteria comprised ≥65 years of age, ≥24 on the Mini-mental state examination and no falls within past year. Two groups completed a 20-week high-velocity training intervention. The non-weighted group (UNLOAD, n = 27) performed the protocol without external load while the intervention group (LOAD, n = 30) used external loads via exercise machines. Functional fitness was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Senior Fitness Test (SFT), hand-grip and lower body power measures. Multivariate ANOVA revealed that both groups had significant improvements for average (17.21%) and peak (9.26%) lower body power, along with the SFT arm curl (16.94%), chair stand (20.10%) and 8 ft. up-and-go (15.67%). Improvements were also noticed for SPPB 8 ft. walk (25.21%). However, improvements for all functional fitness measures were independent of training group. Unloaded high-velocity training increased functional fitness and power the same as loaded training. The ability of high-velocity movements to elicit gains in functional fitness without external loads may help health professionals develop fitness programs when time/space is limiting factor. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A doxycycline-loaded polymer-lipid encapsulation matrix coating for the prevention of implant-related osteomyelitis due to doxycycline-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsemakers, Willem-Jan; Emanuel, Noam; Cohen, Or; Reichart, Malka; Potapova, Inga; Schmid, Tanja; Segal, David; Riool, Martijn; Kwakman, Paulus H S; de Boer, Leonie; de Breij, Anna; Nibbering, Peter H; Richards, R Geoff; Zaat, Sebastian A J; Moriarty, T Fintan

    2015-07-10

    Implant-associated bone infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens pose significant clinical challenges to treating physicians. Prophylactic strategies that act against resistant organisms, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are urgently required. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of a biodegradable Polymer-Lipid Encapsulation MatriX (PLEX) loaded with the antibiotic doxycycline as a local prophylactic strategy against implant-associated osteomyelitis. Activity was tested against both a doxycycline-susceptible (doxy(S)) methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) as well as a doxycycline-resistant (doxy(R)) methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In vitro elution studies revealed that 25% of the doxycycline was released from the PLEX-coated implants within the first day, followed by a 3% release per day up to day 28. The released doxycycline was highly effective against doxy(S) MSSA for at least 14days in vitro. A bolus injection of doxycycline mimicking a one day release from the PLEX-coating reduced, but did not eliminate, mouse subcutaneous implant-associated infection (doxy(S) MSSA). In a rabbit intramedullary nail-related infection model, all rabbits receiving a PLEX-doxycycline-coated nail were culture negative in the doxy(S) MSSA-group and the surrounding bone displayed a normal physiological appearance in both histological sections and radiographs. In the doxy(R) MRSA inoculated rabbits, a statistically significant reduction in the number of culture-positive samples was observed for the PLEX-doxycycline-coated group when compared to the animals that had received an uncoated nail, although the reduction in bacterial burden did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, the PLEX-doxycycline coating on titanium alloy implants provided complete protection against implant-associated MSSA osteomyelitis, and resulted in a significant reduction in the number of culture positive samples when challenged with a

  6. Fatigue and perceptual responses of heavier- and lighter-load isolated lumbar extension resistance exercise in males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Stuart

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background There is a lack of research considering acute fatigue responses to high- and low-load resistance training as well as the comparison between male and female responses. Furthermore, limited studies have considered fatigue response testing with the inclusion of perceptions of discomfort and exertion. Methods The present study included males (n = 9; 23.8 ± 6.4 years; 176.7 ± 6.2 cm; 73.9 ± 9.3 kg and females (n = 8; 21.3 ± 0.9 years; 170.5 ± 6.1 cm; 65.5 ± 10.8 kg who were assessed for differences in fatigue (i.e., loss of torque at maximal voluntary contraction (MVC immediately following isolated lumbar extension (ILEX exercise at heavy- (HL and light-(LL loads (80% and 50% MVC, respectively. Participants also reported perceptual measures of effort (RPE-E and discomfort (RPE-D between different resistance training protocols. Results Analysis of variance revealed significantly greater absolute and relative fatigue following LL compared to HL conditions (p < 0.001. Absolute fatigue significantly differed between males and females (p = 0.012, though relative fatigue was not significantly different (p = 0.160. However, effect sizes for absolute fatigue (HL; Males = −1.84, Females = −0.83; LL; Males = −3.11, Females = −2.39 and relative fatigue (HL; Males = −2.17, Females = −0.76; LL; Males = −3.36, Females = −3.08 were larger for males in both HL and LL conditions. RPE-E was maximal for all participants in both conditions, but RPE-D was significantly higher in LL compared to HL (p < 0.001 with no difference between males and females. Discussion Our data suggests that females do not incur the same degree of fatigue as males following similar exercise protocols, and indeed that females might be able to sustain longer exercise duration at the same relative loads. As such females should manipulate training variables accordingly, perhaps performing greater repetitions at a relative load, or using heavier relative

  7. Inspiratory high frequency airway oscillation attenuates resistive loaded dyspnea and modulates respiratory function in young healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Theresa; Sumners, David Paul; Green, David Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Direct chest-wall percussion can reduce breathlessness in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and respiratory function may be improved, in health and disease, by respiratory muscle training (RMT). We tested whether high-frequency airway oscillation (HFAO), a novel form of airflow oscillation generation can modulate induced dyspnoea and respiratory strength and/or patterns following 5 weeks of HFAO training (n = 20) compared to a SHAM-RMT (conventional flow-resistive RMT) device (n = 15) in healthy volunteers (13 males; aged 20-36 yrs). HFAO causes oscillations with peak-to-peak amplitude of 1 cm H2O, whereas the SHAM-RMT device was identical but created no pressure oscillation. Respiratory function, dyspnoea and ventilation during 3 minutes of spontaneous resting ventilation, 1 minute of maximal voluntary hyperventilation and 1 minute breathing against a moderate inspiratory resistance, were compared PRE and POST 5-weeks of training (2 × 30 breaths at 70% peak flow, 5 days a week). Training significantly reduced NRS dyspnoea scores during resistive loaded ventilation, both in the HFAO (p = 0.003) and SHAM-RMT (p = 0.005) groups. Maximum inspiratory static pressure (cm H2O) was significantly increased by HFAO training (vs. PRE; prespiratory manoeuvre performance in excess of flow-resistive IMT (SHAM-RMT) in healthy individuals without the respiratory discomfort associated with RMT.

  8. Removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from domestic sewage by constructed wetlands: Optimization of wetland substrates and hydraulic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Wei, Xiao-Dong; Liu, You-Sheng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; He, Liang-Ying; Su, Hao-Chang; Hu, Li-Xin; Chen, Fan-Rong; Yang, Yong-Qiang

    2016-09-15

    This study aimed to assess removal potential of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in raw domestic wastewater by various mesocosm-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) planted Cyperus alternifolius L. with different design parameters. Twelve CWs with three hydraulic loading rates (HLR 10, 20 and 30cm/day) and four substrates (oyster shell, zeolite, medical stone and ceramic) were set up in order to select the best optimized wetland. The result showed that 7 target antibiotics compounds including erythromycin-H2O, lincomycin, monensin, ofloxacin, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine and novobiocin were detected, and all selected 18 genes (three sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3), four tetracycline resistance genes (tetG, tetM, tetO and tetX), two macrolide resistance genes (ermB and ermC), three quinolone resistance genes (qnrB, qnrD and qnrS) and four chloramphenicol resistance genes (cmlA, fexA, fexB and floR)) and two integrase genes (int1 and int2) were positively detected in the domestic wastewaters. The aqueous removal rates of the total antibiotics ranged from17.9 to 98.5%, while those for the total ARGs varied between 50.0 and 85.8% by the mesocosm-scale CWs. After considering their aqueous removal rates in combination with their mass removals, the CW with zeolite as the substrate and HLR of 20cm/day was selected as the best choice. Combined chemical and biological analyses indicate that both microbial degradation and physical sorption processes were responsible for the fate of antibiotics and ARGs in the wetlands. The findings from this study suggest constructed wetlands could be a promising technology for the removal of emerging contaminants such as antibiotics and ARGs in domestic wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of turf and cleat footwear on plantar load distributions in adolescent American football players during resisted pushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeffrey B; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Griffin, Janet R; Ford, Kevin R

    2018-06-01

    Metatarsal and midfoot injuries are common in American football. Footwear design may influence injury rates by altering plantar foot loading patterns in these regions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cleat design on in-shoe plantar foot loading during a football-specific, resisted pushing task. Twenty competitive football players (age 14.7 ± 1.8 years, height 1.72 ± 0.10 m, and mass 71.8 ± 26.9 kg) completed three trials of pushing a weighted sled at maximal effort in a standard shoe (CLEAT) and artificial turf-specific shoe (TURF), with flexible in-shoe force measuring insoles. Repeated measures ANOVAs identified mean differences in maximum force and relative load under all regions of the foot. Results showed higher forces in the CLEAT under the medial (p < 0.001) and lateral (p = 0.004) midfoot, central (p = 0.007) and lateral (p < 0.001) forefoot, and lesser toes (p = 0.01), but lower forces in the hallux (p = 0.02) compared to the TURF shoe. Additionally, relative loading was higher in the CLEAT under the medial (p < 0.001) and lateral (p = 0.002) midfoot and lateral (p < 0.001) forefoot, but lower in the medial forefoot (p = 0.006) and hallux (p < 0.001) compared to the TURF shoe. The two shoes elicited distinct plantar loading profiles and may influence shoe selection decisions during injury prevention or rehabilitation practices.

  10. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-01-01

    In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspect...

  11. Simulating the arcjet thruster using a nonlinear active load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburger, Gene P.; King, Roger J.

    1992-07-01

    Arcjet thrusters are known to have distinctly nonlinear electrical characteristics with negative incremental resistance throughout their normal operating region. The 1-kW arcjet simulator proposed here accurately mimics these characteristics statically, and dynamically up to 40 kHz. Testing with a power-processing unit (PPU) and the simulator, a 1-kW arcjet, and a resistive load bank established that the simulator accurately predicted the transient behavior of the PPU-arcjet combination, while the resistive load bank did not. The simulator uses resistors and insulated-gate bipolar transistors to dissipate the PPU output power; a nonlinear feedback is applied to produce the desired v-i characteristics. This feedback is analyzed dynamically. The arcjet simulator allows development of a PPU to a higher level of confidence before beginning testing at an arcjet facility.

  12. The influence of veneering porcelain thickness of all-ceramic and metal ceramic crowns on failure resistance after cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakura, Akihiko; Lee, Heeje; Geminiani, Alessandro; Ercoli, Carlo; Feng, Changyong

    2009-02-01

    In some clinical situations, the length of either a prepared tooth or an implant abutment is shorter than ideal, and the thickness of a porcelain crown must be increased. Thickness of the coping and the veneering porcelain should be considered to prevent mechanical failure of the crown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of veneering porcelain thickness for all-ceramic and metal ceramic crowns on failure resistance after cyclic loading. All-ceramic and metal ceramic crowns (n=20) were fabricated on an implant abutment (RN Solid Abutment) for the study. Two different framework designs with 2 different incisal thicknesses of veneering porcelain (2 mm and 4 mm) were used for each all-ceramic and metal ceramic crown system, resulting in 4 experimental groups (n=10) with identically shaped crowns. The all-ceramic crown consisted of alumina (Procera AllCeram) frameworks and veneering porcelain (Cerabien), while metal ceramic crowns were made of high noble metal (Leo) frameworks and veneering porcelain (IPS Classic). All crowns were cemented on the corresponding abutments using a resin cement (Panavia 21). They were subjected to 1000 cycles of thermal cycling (5 degrees C and 55 degrees C; 5-second dwell time). The crowns were tested with a custom-designed cyclic loading apparatus which delivered simultaneous unidirectional cyclic loading at 135 degrees, vertically, at an rpm of 250, with a load of 49 N. Each specimen was loaded for 1.2 x 106 cycles or until it failed. The specimens were thoroughly evaluated for cracks and/or bulk fracture with an optical stereomicroscope (x10) and assigned a score of success, survival, or failure. The specimens without bulk fracture after cyclic loading were loaded along the long axis of the tooth, on the incisal edge, in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.5 mm/min, until fracture. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the success and survival rate between the 2 different materials (alpha=.05

  13. Seismic load resistance of reinforcing steels in the as delivered condition and after corrosion - relevant material characteristics for performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moersch, Ing. Joerg [Max Aicher Engineering GmbH, Freilassing (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    This type of accelerated corrosion test was used to study the high number of test samples in due time. The corrosion phenomena obtained in salt spray testing deviate significantly from corrosion phenomena (pitting factor) obtained in practical conditions. Salt spray testing represents practical conditions for the more uniform corrosion as a result of a severe carbonation of the concrete and/or for higher chloride contents at the surface of the rebar. At low corrosion current densities the effect of pit depth on residual mechanical performance might be underestimated. Reinforced concrete (r.c.) buildings in seismic areas shall be designed to guarantee enough ductile resources as for example a sufficient rotational capacity to allow for load re-distribution. The rotational capacity is directly dependent on the ductility of the reinforcing steel which is generally expressed as elongation at maximum load (A+g{sub t}) and the hardening ratio (R{sub m}/R{sub e}). A direct testing of the seismic load resistance of reinforcing steels is not part of the construction product standards. Therefore it was decided by European Commission to introduce this performance requirement in the mandate for the revision of EN 10080:2005. In parallel to the standardization process a research project was carried out to deliver the scientific background.

  14. Alkali resistant Ni-loaded yolk-shell catalysts for direct internal reforming in molten carbonate fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Won-Jun; Hong, Young Jun; Kim, Hak-Min; Shim, Jae-Oh; Roh, Hyun-Seog; Kang, Yun Chan

    2017-06-01

    A facile and scalable spray pyrolysis process is applied to synthesize multi-shelled Ni-loaded yolk-shell catalysts on various supports (Al2O3, CeO2, ZrO2, and La(OH)3). The prepared catalysts are applied to direct internal reforming (DIR) in a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). Even on exposure to alkali hydroxide vapors, the Ni-loaded yolk-shell catalysts remain highly active for DIR-MCFCs. The Ni@Al2O3 microspheres show the highest conversion (92%) of CH4 and the best stability among the prepared Ni-loaded yolk-shell catalysts. Although the initial CH4 conversion of the Ni@ZrO2 microspheres is higher than that of the Ni@CeO2 microspheres, the Ni@CeO2 microspheres are more stable. The catalytic performance is strongly dependent on the surface area and acidity and also partly dependent on the reducibility. The acidic nature of Al2O3 combined with its high surface area and yolk-shell structure enhances the adsorption of CH4 and resistance against alkali poisoning, resulting in efficient DIR-MCFC reactions.

  15. Resistance to the destruction of concrete in constructions of height buildings at dynamic loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinov, Mikhail; Berlinova, Marina; Tvorogov, Alexandr

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of the criterion of strength of concrete in structures of high-rise buildings under vibration and shock impacts is presented. The idea of an energy approach to ensuring the strength of concrete and the durability of building structures from reinforced concrete under the influence of shock impacts on the life of such structures is presented in a high-rise construction. A method for determining the strength and durability of concrete in load-bearing building structures made of reinforced concrete for irreversible thermodynamic processes has been developed. Dependences that determine the behavior of concrete in reinforced concrete structures of high stores on the load-bearing structures of a building under the influence of damped oscillations from the operation of air transport on the landing site are determined, taking into account the impact arising from its landing.

  16. Inspiratory High Frequency Airway Oscillation Attenuates Resistive Loaded Dyspnea and Modulates Respiratory Function in Young Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Theresa; Sumners, David Paul; Green, David Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Direct chest-wall percussion can reduce breathlessness in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and respiratory function may be improved, in health and disease, by respiratory muscle training (RMT). We tested whether high-frequency airway oscillation (HFAO), a novel form of airflow oscillation generation can modulate induced dyspnoea and respiratory strength and/or patterns following 5 weeks of HFAO training (n = 20) compared to a SHAM-RMT (conventional flow-resistive RMT) device (n = 15) in healthy volunteers (13 males; aged 20–36 yrs). HFAO causes oscillations with peak-to-peak amplitude of 1 cm H2O, whereas the SHAM-RMT device was identical but created no pressure oscillation. Respiratory function, dyspnoea and ventilation during 3 minutes of spontaneous resting ventilation, 1 minute of maximal voluntary hyperventilation and 1 minute breathing against a moderate inspiratory resistance, were compared PRE and POST 5-weeks of training (2×30 breaths at 70% peak flow, 5 days a week). Training significantly reduced NRS dyspnoea scores during resistive loaded ventilation, both in the HFAO (p = 0.003) and SHAM-RMT (p = 0.005) groups. Maximum inspiratory static pressure (cm H2O) was significantly increased by HFAO training (vs. PRE; pinspiratory dynamic pressure was increased by training in both the HFAO (vs. PRE; pinspiratory flow rate (L.s−1) achieved during the maximum inspiratory dynamic pressure manoeuvre increased significantly POST (vs. PRE; p = 0.001) in the HFAO group only. HFAO reduced inspiratory resistive loading–induced dyspnoea and augments static and dynamic maximal respiratory manoeuvre performance in excess of flow-resistive IMT (SHAM-RMT) in healthy individuals without the respiratory discomfort associated with RMT. PMID:24651392

  17. Acute caffeine ingestion's increase of voluntarily chosen resistance-training load after limited sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christian; Beaven, C Martyn; Kilduff, Liam P; Drawer, Scott

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether caffeine ingestion would increase the workload voluntarily chosen by athletes in a limited-sleep state. In a double-blind, crossover study, 16 professional rugby players ingested either a placebo or 4 mg/kg caffeine 1 hr before exercise. Athletes classified themselves into nondeprived (8 hr+) or sleep-deprived states (6 hr or less). Exercise comprised 4 sets of bench press, squats, and bent rows at 85% 1-repetition maximum. Athletes were asked to perform as many repetitions on each set as possible without failure. Saliva was collected before administration of placebo or caffeine and again before and immediately after exercise and assayed for testosterone and cortisol. Sleep deprivation produced a very large decrease in total load (p = 1.98 × 10(-7)). Caffeine ingestion in the nondeprived state resulted in a moderate increase in total load, with a larger effect in the sleep-deprived state, resulting in total load similar to those observed in the nondeprived placebo condition. Eight of the 16 athletes were identified as caffeine responders. Baseline testosterone was higher (p sleep-deprived athletes. Changes in hormones from predose to preexercise correlated to individual workload responses to caffeine. Testosterone response to exercise increased with caffeine compared with placebo, as did cortisol response. Caffeine increased voluntary workload in professional athletes, even more so under conditions of self-reported limited sleep. Caffeine may prove worthwhile when athletes are tired, especially in those identified as responders.

  18. Effects of exercise intensity and creatine loading on post-resistance exercise hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Rodrigues Moreno

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Postexercise hypotension plays an important role in the non-pharmacological treat-ment of hypertension and is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure after a single exercise bout in relation to pre-exercise levels. This study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and creatine monohydrate supplementation on postexercise hypotension, as well as the possible role of blood lactate in this response. Ten normotensive subjects underwent resistance exercise sessions before (BC and after (AC creatine supplementation: 1 muscle endurance (ME consisting of 30 repetitions at 30% of one-repetition maximum; 2 hypertrophy (HP consisting of 8 repetitions at 75% of one-repetition maximum. Blood pressure was measured before and after the exercise bout. Blood lactate was measured after the exercise bout. The HP and ME sessions promoted a decrease in systolic blood pressure (∆ -19 ± 1.0 mmHg; ∆ -15 ± 0.9 mmHg, respectively, P 0.05. In conclusion, resistance exercise intensity did not influence postexercise hypotension. Creatine supplementation attenuated the decrease in blood pressure after resistance exercise. The results suggest the involvement of blood lactate in post-resistance exercise hypotension.

  19. Effects of exercise intensity and creatine loading on post-resistance exercise hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Rodrigues Moreno

    2009-01-01

    Postexercise hypotension plays an important role in the non-pharmacological treat-ment of hypertension and is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure after a single exercise bout in relation to pre-exercise levels. This study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and creatine monohydrate supplementation on postexercise hypotension, as well as the possible role of blood lactate in this response. Ten normotensive subjects underwent resistance exercise sessions before (BC and after (AC creatine supplementation: 1 muscle endurance (ME consisting of 30 repetitions at 30% of one-repetition maximum; 2 hypertrophy (HP consisting of 8 repetitions at 75% of one-repetition maximum. Blood pressure was measured before and after the exercise bout. Blood lactate was measured after the exercise bout. The HP and ME sessions promoted a decrease in systolic blood pressure (∆ -19 ± 1.0 mmHg; ∆ -15 ± 0.9 mmHg, respectively, P 0.05. In conclusion, resistance exercise intensity did not influence postexercise hypotension. Creatine supplementation attenuated the decrease in blood pressure after resistance exercise. The results suggest the involvement of blood lactate in post-resistance exercise hypotension.

  20. Comparison of the perceived subjective exertion and total load lifted response in resistance exercises performed on stable and unstable platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Cunha Aranda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n3p300   This study aimed to compare the perceived subjective exertion (PSE and total load lifted in resistance exercises performed on stable platforms (SP and unstable platforms (UP. Participants were 20 men (24.6 ± 3.4 years, 179 ± 0.1 cm, 80.6 ± 9.1 kg and 11.8 ± 3.4% fat. Each subject performed a 15 maximum repetition test in half squat exercises (soil and balance discs, pronated barbell row (soil and bosu and biceps curl (soil and balance discs in both conditions. PSE was measured using the OMNI-RES scale and the load lifted value (kg. To verify the normality of data, the Shapiro-Wilk test was used. Possible differences related to loads and PSE on the platforms were performed by the paired t test. Significance level of p <0.05 was adopted. No significant differences between PSE values on SP and UP were respectively observed in the half squat (8.2 and 8.5 / p = 0.8, pronated barbell row (8.4 and 8.4 / p = 0.7 and biceps curl (8.6 and 8.7 / p = 1.0. Higher load values on SP and UP were respectively found in half squat (83.9kg and 70.3kg / p <0.001 and pronated barbell row exercises (53.2kg and 48.6kg / p = 0.01 on SP. However, biceps curl showed dissimilar behavior (48.2kg and 47.4kg / p = 0.5. It was concluded that UP does not promote differences in PSE responses even working with smaller load or similar load

  1. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspects globally as well as in the Romanian banking system. Even if there already are several studies on web banking, this topic still remains a resourceful area for academic research in the next decade.

  2. Distributed voltage control and load sharing for inverter-interfaced microdrid with resistive lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golsorkhi, Mohammad S.; Lu, D. D C; Shafiee, Q.

    2016-01-01

    method is based upon the practical assumption of resistive network impedance. In this context, a V-I droop mechanism is adopted in the primary control level, where GPS timing is used to synchronize the control agents. A new distributed secondary control method based on consensus protocol is introduced...... without any need for additional synchronization mechanisms. An AC microgrid is prototyped to experimentally demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method....

  3. Plate buckling resistance:patch loading of longitudinally stiffened webs and local buckling

    OpenAIRE

    Clarin, Mattias

    2007-01-01

    Incremental launching of steel bridges is a demanding undertaking, on the erection site as well as on the designers desk. Not seldom, the structure itself is during the launching subjected to high concentrated forces on the lower flange when passing over the launching shoe or a intermediate support (e.g. column). These concentrated forces, commonly referred to as patch loads, may be of such magnitude that it governs the thickness of the web in the bridge girder and a small increase in web thi...

  4. Strength resistance of reinforced concrete elements of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlinov Mikhail

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for calculating reinforced concrete constructions of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads from wind, seismic, transport and equipment based on the initial assumptions of the modern phenomenological theory of a nonlinearly deformable elastic-creeping body is proposed. In the article examined the influence of reinforcement on the work of concrete in the conditions of triaxial stress-strain state, based on the compatibility of the deformation of concrete and reinforcement. Mathematical phenomenological equations have been obtained that make it possible to calculate the reinforced concrete elements working without and with cracks. A method for linearizing of these equations based on integral estimates is proposed, which provides the fixation of the vibro-creep processes in the considered period of time. Application of such a technique using the finite-difference method, step method and successive approximations will allow to find a numerical solution of the problem. Such an approach in the design of reinforced concrete constructions will allow not only more fully to take into account the real conditions of their work, revealing additional reserves of load capacity, but also to open additional opportunities for analysis and forecasting their functioning at various stages of operation.

  5. Strength resistance of reinforced concrete elements of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinov, Mikhail

    2018-03-01

    A new method for calculating reinforced concrete constructions of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads from wind, seismic, transport and equipment based on the initial assumptions of the modern phenomenological theory of a nonlinearly deformable elastic-creeping body is proposed. In the article examined the influence of reinforcement on the work of concrete in the conditions of triaxial stress-strain state, based on the compatibility of the deformation of concrete and reinforcement. Mathematical phenomenological equations have been obtained that make it possible to calculate the reinforced concrete elements working without and with cracks. A method for linearizing of these equations based on integral estimates is proposed, which provides the fixation of the vibro-creep processes in the considered period of time. Application of such a technique using the finite-difference method, step method and successive approximations will allow to find a numerical solution of the problem. Such an approach in the design of reinforced concrete constructions will allow not only more fully to take into account the real conditions of their work, revealing additional reserves of load capacity, but also to open additional opportunities for analysis and forecasting their functioning at various stages of operation.

  6. BANK GUARANTEES

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile NEME

    2012-01-01

    The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of fin...

  7. Self-Sensing of Position-Related Loads in Continuous Carbon Fibers-Embedded 3D-Printed Polymer Structures Using Electrical Resistance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Congcong; Yao, Xinhua; Shen, Hongyao; Fu, Jianzhong

    2018-03-27

    Condition monitoring in polymer composites and structures based on continuous carbon fibers show overwhelming advantages over other potentially competitive sensing technologies in long-gauge measurements due to their great electromechanical behavior and excellent reinforcement property. Although carbon fibers have been developed as strain- or stress-sensing agents in composite structures through electrical resistance measurements, the electromechanical behavior under flexural loads in terms of different loading positions still lacks adequate research, which is the most common situation in practical applications. This study establishes the relationship between the fractional change in electrical resistance of carbon fibers and the external loads at different loading positions along the fibers' longitudinal direction. An approach for real-time monitoring of flexural loads at different loading positions was presented simultaneously based on this relationship. The effectiveness and feasibility of the approach were verified by experiments on carbon fiber-embedded three-dimensional (3D) printed thermoplastic polymer beam. The error in using the provided approach to monitor the external loads at different loading positions was less than 1.28%. The study fully taps the potential of continuous carbon fibers as long-gauge sensory agents and reinforcement in the 3D-printed polymer structures.

  8. Self-Sensing of Position-Related Loads in Continuous Carbon Fibers-Embedded 3D-Printed Polymer Structures Using Electrical Resistance Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Luan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring in polymer composites and structures based on continuous carbon fibers show overwhelming advantages over other potentially competitive sensing technologies in long-gauge measurements due to their great electromechanical behavior and excellent reinforcement property. Although carbon fibers have been developed as strain- or stress-sensing agents in composite structures through electrical resistance measurements, the electromechanical behavior under flexural loads in terms of different loading positions still lacks adequate research, which is the most common situation in practical applications. This study establishes the relationship between the fractional change in electrical resistance of carbon fibers and the external loads at different loading positions along the fibers’ longitudinal direction. An approach for real-time monitoring of flexural loads at different loading positions was presented simultaneously based on this relationship. The effectiveness and feasibility of the approach were verified by experiments on carbon fiber-embedded three-dimensional (3D printed thermoplastic polymer beam. The error in using the provided approach to monitor the external loads at different loading positions was less than 1.28%. The study fully taps the potential of continuous carbon fibers as long-gauge sensory agents and reinforcement in the 3D-printed polymer structures.

  9. A RRAM Integrated 4T SRAM with Self-Inhibit Resistive Switching Load by Pure CMOS Logic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Meng-Yin; Liao, Chu-Feng; Shih, Yi-Hong; Lin, Chrong Jung; King, Ya-Chin

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports a novel full logic compatible 4T2R non-volatile static random access memory (nv-SRAM) featuring its self-inhibit data storing mechanism for in low-power/high-speed SRAM application. With compact cell area and full logic compatibility, this new nv-SRAM incorporates two STI-ReRAMs embedded inside the 4T SRAM. Data can be read/write through a cross-couple volatile structure for maintaining fast accessing speed. Data can be non-volatilely stored in new SRAM cell through a unique self-inhibit operation onto the resistive random access memory (RRAM) load, achieving zero static power during data hold.

  10. Virus load kinetics and resistance development during oseltamivir treatment in infants and children infected with Influenza A(H1N1) 2009 and Influenza B viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Barbara; von Kleist, Max; Tief, Franziska; Karsch, Katharina; Tuerk, Ewelina; Muehlhans, Susann; Louis, Florian; Skopnik, Heino; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Duwe, Susanne

    2012-09-01

    Infants and small children are the most effective transmitters of influenza, while bearing a high risk of hospitalization and adverse disease outcomes. This study aims to investigate virus load kinetics and resistance development during oseltamivir therapy in infants and children infected with influenza A(H1N1) 2009 and influenza B viruses. Virus load in nasopharyngeal samples and phenotypic/genotypic neuraminidase inhibitor resistance were determined at baseline, at day 5 and in additional follow-up samples, if available. Patient-specific viral clearance indices CLν(i) were determined along with estimates of the time required to achieve nondetectable virus load. No evidence of baseline oseltamivir resistance was detected in 36 patients infected with influenza A(H1N1) 2009 (n = 27) or influenza B (Victoria, Yamagata; n = 9) before oseltamivir therapy. On average, viral loads were lower for influenza type B (median = 5.9·10/mL) than for drug-resistant (median = 2.6·10/mL) and sensitive A(H1N1) 2009 (median = 4.8·10/mL), P = 0.04 and P = 0.09, respectively. Time required to achieve nondetectable virus load was significantly longer in drug-resistant A(H1N1) 2009 (median 15.4 days) compared with drug-sensitive A(H1N1) 2009 (P = 0.003; median 7.7 days) and drug-sensitive influenza B (P = 0.001; median 5 days). No evidence of viral rebound was observed once viral clearance was achieved. Our data indicate that influenza subtyping in combination with baseline viral load measurements might help to optimize the duration of antiviral therapy in the individual child. Lower than expected virologic response rates in patients without malabsorption or compliance issues may suggest resistance development.

  11. Metal resistance or tolerance? Acidophiles confront high metal loads via both abiotic and biotic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eDopson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All metals are toxic at high concentrations and consequently their intracellular concentrations must be regulated. Acidophilic microorganisms have an optimum growth pH < 3 and proliferate in natural and anthropogenic low pH environments. Some acidophiles are involved in the catalysis of sulfide mineral dissolution, resulting in high concentrations of metals in solution. Acidophiles are often described as highly metal resistant via mechanisms such as multiple and/or more efficient active resistance systems than are present in neutrophiles. However, this is not the case for all acidophiles and we contend that their growth in high metal concentrations is partially due to an intrinsic tolerance as a consequence of the environment in which they live. In this perspective, we highlight metal tolerance via complexation of free metals by sulfate ions and passive tolerance to metal influx via an internal positive cytoplasmic transmembrane potential. These tolerance mechanisms have been largely ignored in past studies of acidophile growth in the presence of metals and should be taken into account.

  12. Multifunctional hyaluronic acid modified graphene oxide loaded with mitoxantrone for overcoming drug resistance in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lin; Feng, Qianhua; Wang, Yating; Yang, Xiaomin; Ren, Junxiao; Shi, Yuyang; Shan, Xiaoning; Yuan, Yujie; Wang, Yongchao; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2016-01-01

    Multifunctional nanosheets (HA-GO/Pluronic) with targeted chemo-photothermal properties were successfully developed for controlled delivery of mitoxantrone (MIT) to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR). In vitro release profiles displayed that both an acidic environment and a NIR laser could trigger and accelerate the release of a drug, which ensured nanosheets were stable in blood circulation and released MIT within tumor cells under laser irradiation. HA-GO/Pluronic nanosheets were taken up into MCF-7/ADR cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis, which further facilitated escapement of P-gp efflux. Compared with MIT solution, MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic showed greater cytotoxicity and increase in cellular MIT accumulation in MCF-7/ADR cells. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest studies also revealed that MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic was more potent than MIT/GO/Pluronic and MIT solution. The anticancer efficacy in vivo was evaluated in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR-bearing mice, and inhibition of tumors by MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic with NIR laser irradiation was the most effective among all MIT formulations. In summary, the MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic system had striking functions such as P-gp reversible inhibitor and anticancer efficacy, and could present a promising platform for drug-resistant cancer treatment.

  13. Vancomycin-loaded nanobubbles: A new platform for controlled antibiotic delivery against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argenziano, Monica; Banche, Giuliana; Luganini, Anna; Finesso, Nicole; Allizond, Valeria; Gulino, Giulia Rossana; Khadjavi, Amina; Spagnolo, Rita; Tullio, Vivian; Giribaldi, Giuliana; Guiot, Caterina; Cuffini, Anna Maria; Prato, Mauro; Cavalli, Roberta

    2017-05-15

    Vancomycin (Vm) currently represents the gold standard against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. However, it is associated with low oral bioavailability, formulation stability issues, and severe side effects upon systemic administration. These drawbacks could be overcome by Vm topical administration if properly encapsulated in a nanocarrier. Intriguingly, nanobubbles (NBs) are responsive to physical external stimuli such as ultrasound (US), promoting drug delivery. In this work, perfluoropentane (PFP)-cored NBs were loaded with Vm by coupling to the outer dextran sulfate shell. Vm-loaded NBs (VmLNBs) displayed ∼300nm sizes, anionic surfaces and good drug encapsulation efficiency. In vitro, VmLNBs showed prolonged drug release kinetics, not accompanied by cytotoxicity on human keratinocytes. Interestingly, VmLNBs were generally more effective than Vm alone in MRSA killing, with VmLNB antibacterial activity being more sustained over time as a result of prolonged drug release profile. Besides, VmLNBs were not internalized by staphylococci, opposite to Vm solution. Further US association promoted drug delivery from VmLNBs through an in vitro model of porcine skin. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that proper Vm encapsulation in US-responsive NBs might be a promising strategy for the topical treatment of MRSA wound infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Zinc oxide-curcumin nanocomposite loaded collagen membrane as an effective material against methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, K R; Snigdha, S; Sugathan, Sheela; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2017-08-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles and curcumin are excellent antimicrobial agents. They have the potential to be used as alternative to antibiotics in wound infection management. In this study, ZnO-curcumin nanocomposite was synthesized and characterized. Physical adsorption of the nanocomposite onto collagen skin wound dressing was conducted and structural investigation was carried out by SEM. Antimicrobial assay, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and viability assays of different concentrations of nanocomposite loaded collagen membrane were conducted against clinically isolated methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCoNS), such as S. epidermidis, S. hemolyticus, and S. saprophyticus. The nanocomposite showed excellent anti-CoNS activity on time kill assay with the MIC value of 195 µg/mL against S. epidermidis, S. hemolyticus and 390 µg/mL against S. saprophyticus. The nanocomposite loaded collagen membrane also showed excellent in vitro antistaphylococcal activity. This study may lead to the development of antibiotic alternate strategies to control and limit the MRCoNS in wound-related infections.

  15. Resistance to impact of cross-linked denture base biopolymer materials: effect of relining, glass flakes reinforcement and cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz Perez, Luciano Elias; Lucia Machado, Ana; Eduardo Vergani, Carlos; Andrade Zamperini, Camila; Cláudia Pavarina, Ana; Vicente Canevarolo, Sebastião

    2014-09-01

    The effect of reinforcement and cyclic loading on the resistance to impact (RI) of denture base biopolymer materials was evaluated using Charpy (C) and falling-weight (FW) impact tests. Bar-shaped (60×6×2mm(3)) and denture-shaped specimens (2mm) for the C and FD tests, respectively, were prepared with Lucitone 550 (L) and Vipi Wave (V) and relined (2mm) using the same material or the autopolymerizing relining resins Tokuyama Rebase II (T) and Ufi Gel Hard (U). Bulk specimens (60×6×4mm(3)) of all materials (L, V, T and U) were also prepared and tested. To evaluate the effect of reinforcement, glass flakes were added to the powder of the relining resins T and U (5% by weight). Half of bar-shaped (n=320) and half of the denture-shaped specimens (n=480) were subjected to cyclic loading (10,000 cycles) before the impact tests. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVAs (α=0.05) and revealed that the RI of L and V were comparable and higher than those of U and T. Compared to L and V, the RI was increased by relining with T and decreased by relining with U. When relining was made using the same material (L and V) the RI was maintained. Flexural cyclic loading and the incorporation of glass flakes into the resins T and U did not cause any significant alteration in the RI. A high correlation between results from C and FW tests was observed (r=0.8854). Relining may exert effects on the RI of L and V denture base resins, which vary according to the relining material used. The high correlation between C and FW, suggests that the Charpy test, using bar-shaped specimens, can be a simple and reliable method for evaluating factors that may influence the RI of denture base polymers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A mathematical model of neuromuscular adaptation to resistance training and its application in a computer simulation of accommodating loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandjelović, Ognjen

    2010-10-01

    A large corpus of data obtained by means of empirical study of neuromuscular adaptation is currently of limited use to athletes and their coaches. One of the reasons lies in the unclear direct practical utility of many individual trials. This paper introduces a mathematical model of adaptation to resistance training, which derives its elements from physiological fundamentals on the one side, and empirical findings on the other. The key element of the proposed model is what is here termed the athlete's capability profile. This is a generalization of length and velocity dependent force production characteristics of individual muscles, to an exercise with arbitrary biomechanics. The capability profile, a two-dimensional function over the capability plane, plays the central role in the proposed model of the training-adaptation feedback loop. Together with a dynamic model of resistance the capability profile is used in the model's predictive stage when exercise performance is simulated using a numerical approximation of differential equations of motion. Simulation results are used to infer the adaptational stimulus, which manifests itself through a fed back modification of the capability profile. It is shown how empirical evidence of exercise specificity can be formulated mathematically and integrated in this framework. A detailed description of the proposed model is followed by examples of its application-new insights into the effects of accommodating loading for powerlifting are demonstrated. This is followed by a discussion of the limitations of the proposed model and an overview of avenues for future work.

  17. Use of Dried Plasma Spots for HIV-1 Viral Load Determination and Drug Resistance Genotyping in Mexican Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodriguez-Auad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring antiretroviral therapy using measurements of viral load (VL and the genotyping of resistance mutations is not routinely performed in low- to middle-income countries because of the high costs of the commercial assays that are used. The analysis of dried plasma spot (DPS samples on filter paper may represent an alternative for resource-limited settings. Therefore, we evaluated the usefulness of analyzing DPS samples to determine VL and identify drug resistance mutations (DRM in a group of HIV-1 patients. The VL was measured from 22 paired plasma and DPS samples. In these samples, the average VL was 4.7 log10 copies/mL in liquid plasma and 4.1 log10 copies/mL in DPS, with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.83. A 1.1 kb fragment of HIV pol could be amplified in 14/22 (63.6% of the DPS samples and the same value was amplified in plasma samples. A collection of ten paired DPS and liquid plasma samples was evaluated for the presence of DRM; an excellent correlation was found in the identification of DRM between the paired samples. All HIV-1 pol sequences that were obtained corresponded to HIV subtype B. The analysis of DPS samples offers an attractive alternative for monitoring ARV therapy in resource-limited settings.

  18. Antiretroviral-treated HIV-1 patients can harbour resistant viruses in CSF despite an undetectable viral load in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulie, Cathia; Grudé, Maxime; Descamps, Diane; Amiel, Corinne; Morand-Joubert, Laurence; Raymond, Stéphanie; Pallier, Coralie; Bellecave, Pantxika; Reigadas, Sandrine; Trabaud, Mary-Anne; Delaugerre, Constance; Montes, Brigitte; Barin, Francis; Ferré, Virginie; Jeulin, Hélène; Alloui, Chakib; Yerly, Sabine; Signori-Schmuck, Anne; Guigon, Aurélie; Fafi-Kremer, Samira; Haïm-Boukobza, Stéphanie; Mirand, Audrey; Maillard, Anne; Vallet, Sophie; Roussel, Catherine; Assoumou, Lambert; Calvez, Vincent; Flandre, Philippe; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève

    2017-08-01

    HIV therapy reduces the CSF HIV RNA viral load (VL) and prevents disorders related to HIV encephalitis. However, these brain disorders may persist in some cases. A large population of antiretroviral-treated patients who had a VL > 1.7 log 10 copies/mL in CSF with detectable or undetectable VL in plasma associated with cognitive impairment was studied, in order to characterize discriminatory factors of these two patient populations. Blood and CSF samples were collected at the time of neurological disorders for 227 patients in 22 centres in France and 1 centre in Switzerland. Genotypic HIV resistance tests were performed on CSF. The genotypic susceptibility score was calculated according to the last Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida et les hépatites virales Action Coordonnée 11 (ANRS AC11) genotype interpretation algorithm. Among the 227 studied patients with VL > 1.7 log 10 copies/mL in CSF, 195 had VL detectable in plasma [median (IQR) HIV RNA was 3.7 (2.7-4.7) log 10 copies/mL] and 32 had discordant VL in plasma (VL plasma compared with patients with plasma VL > 1.7 log 10 copies/mL. Resistance to antiretrovirals was observed in CSF for the two groups of patients. Fourteen percent of this population of patients with cognitive impairment and detectable VL in CSF had well controlled VL in plasma. Thus, it is important to explore CSF HIV (VL and genotype) even if the HIV VL is controlled in plasma because HIV resistance may be observed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Angiotensin receptor blockade improves cardiac mitochondrial activity in response to an acute glucose load in obese insulin resistant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Thorwald

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia increases the risk of oxidant overproduction in the heart through activation of a multitude of pathways. Oxidation of mitochondrial enzymes may impair their function resulting in accumulation of intermediates and reverse electron transfer, contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS becomes inappropriately activated during metabolic syndrome, increasing oxidant production. To combat excess oxidant production, the transcription factor, nuclear factor erythriod-2- related factor 2 (Nrf2, induces expression of many antioxidant genes. We hypothesized that angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1 blockade improves mitochondrial function in response to an acute glucose load via upregulation of Nrf2. To address this hypothesis, an oral glucose challenge was performed in three groups prior to dissection (n = 5–8 animals/group/time point of adult male rats: 1 Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO; lean strain-control, 2 insulin resistant, obese Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF, and 3 OLETF + angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB; 10 mg olmesartan/kg/d × 6 weeks. Hearts were collected at T0, T60, and T120 minutes post-glucose infusion. ARB increased Nrf2 binding 32% compared to OLETF at T60. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities were increased 45% and 66% respectively in ARB treated animals compared to OLETF. Mitochondrial enzyme activities of aconitase, complex I, and complex II increased by 135%, 33% and 66%, respectively in ARB compared to OLETF. These data demonstrate the protective effects of AT1 blockade on mitochondrial function during the manifestation of insulin resistance suggesting that the inappropriate activation of AT1 during insulin resistance may impair Nrf2 translocation and subsequent antioxidant activities and mitochondrial function. Keywords: Angiotensin II, Mitochondria, Cardiac, Antioxidant enzymes, TCA cycle

  20. Mechanistic studies of Gemcitabine-loaded nanoplatforms in resistant pancreatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papa, Anne-Laure; Basu, Sudipta; Sengupta, Poulomi; Banerjee, Deboshri; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Harfouche, Rania

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains the deadliest of all cancers, with a mortality rate of 91%. Gemcitabine is considered the gold chemotherapeutic standard, but only marginally improves life-span due to its chemical instability and low cell penetrance. A new paradigm to improve Gemcitabine’s therapeutic index is to administer it in nanoparticles, which favour its delivery to cells when under 500 nm in diameter. Although promising, this approach still suffers from major limitations, as the choice of nanovector used as well as its effects on Gemcitabine intracellular trafficking inside pancreatic cancer cells remain unknown. A proper elucidation of these mechanisms would allow for the elaboration of better strategies to engineer more potent Gemcitabine nanotherapeutics against pancreatic cancer. Gemcitabine was encapsulated in two types of commonly used nanovectors, namely poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and cholesterol-based liposomes, and their physico-chemical parameters assessed in vitro. Their mechanisms of action in human pancreatic cells were compared with those of the free drug, and with each others, using cytotoxity, apoptosis and ultrastructural analyses. Physico-chemical analyses of both drugs showed high loading efficiencies and sizes of less than 200 nm, as assessed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with a drug release profile of at least one week. These profiles translated to significant cytotoxicity and apoptosis, as well as distinct intracellular trafficking mechanisms, which were most pronounced in the case of PLGem showing significant mitochondrial, cytosolic and endoplasmic reticulum stresses. Our study demonstrates how the choice of nanovector affects the mechanisms of drug action and is a crucial determinant of Gemcitabine intracellular trafficking and potency in pancreatic cancer settings

  1. Effect of Abutment Preparation and Fatigue Loading in a Moist Environment on the Fracture Resistance of the One-Piece Zirconia Dental Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Mohamed; Vaidyanathan, Tritala K; Flinton, Robert

    One-piece zirconia dental implants have been widely used in Europe for many years. This in vitro study was done to evaluate the effect of abutment preparation and fatigue (cyclic) loading in a moist environment on the fracture resistance of the one-piece zirconia dental implant. Twenty-four Cera Root zirconium oxide dental implants, divided into three groups of eight, were used in this study: group 1 (control group): implants with no preparation, tested in a dry environment; group 2: implants with no preparation, tested in a moist environment (simulating clinical conditions); and group 3: implants after abutment preparation tested in a moist environment. All implants received IPS e.max porcelain crowns. All samples were subjected to nearly 1 million cycles of sinusoidal fatigue loading (-10 N to -200 N) in a universal testing machine. The postfatigue samples were loaded to fracture. Significant differences (α = .05) in mean fracture loads were statistically analyzed. There was no catastrophic failure of any of the implants during the fatigue tests. The mean (SD) of the fracture loads in postfatigue load-to-failure tests were: group 1: 1,202.9 (62.6); group 2: 1,164.6 (73.8); and group 3: 953.5 (103). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey-Kramer contrast revealed a statistically significant difference (P fracture load of group 3 and those of groups 1 and 2, but no significant difference (P > .05) between groups 1 and 2. While there was a statistically significant adverse effect of abutment preparation and fatigue loading in a moist environment on the postfatigue implant failure load, the load-to-fracture mean of surface-prepared implants after fatigue tests was nevertheless significantly higher than the mean fracture load of the crowns (P < .05) as well as the minimum load-bearing requirement (300 N) for anterior restorations. Abutment preparation in a one-piece zirconia implant is therefore considered clinically safe and acceptable.

  2. High level of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in patients with unsuppressed viral loads in rural northern South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etta, Elizabeth M; Mavhandu, Lufuno; Manhaeve, Cecile; McGonigle, Keanan; Jackson, Patrick; Rekosh, David; Hammarskjold, Marie-Louise; Bessong, Pascal O; Tebit, Denis M

    2017-07-27

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has significantly reduced HIV morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. However, the sustainability of cART may be compromised by the emergence of viral drug resistance mutations (DRM) and the cellular persistence of proviruses carrying these DRM. This is potentially a more serious problem in resource limited settings. DRM were evaluated in individuals with unsuppressed viral loads after first or multiple lines of cART at two sites in rural Limpopo, South Africa. Seventy-two patients with viral loads of >1000 copies/ml were recruited between March 2014 and December 2015. Complete protease (PR) and partial Reverse Transcriptase (RT) sequences were amplified from both plasma RNA and paired proviral DNA from 35 of these subjects. Amplicons were directly sequenced to determine subtype and DRM using the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Interpretation algorithm. Among the 72 samples, 69 could be PCR amplified from RNA and 35 from both RNA and DNA. Sixty-five (94.2%) viruses were subtype C, while one was subtype B (1.4%), one recombinant K/C, one recombinant C/B and one unclassified. Fifty-eight (84%) sequences carried at least one DRM, while 11 (15.9%) displayed no DRM. DRM prevalence according to drug class was: NRTI 60.8% NNRTI 65.2%, and PI 5.8%. The most common DRMs were; M184V (51.7%), K103N (50%), V106M (20.6%), D67N (13.3%), K65R (12%). The frequency of the DRM tracked well with the frequency of use of medications to which the mutations were predicted to confer resistance. Interestingly, a significant number of subjects showed predicted resistance to the newer NNRTIs, etravirine (33%) and rilpivirine (42%), both of which are not yet available in this setting. The proportion of DRM in RNA and DNA were mostly similar with the exception of the thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) D67N, K70R, K219QE; and K103N which were slightly more prevalent in DNA than RNA. Subjects who had received cART for at least

  3. SEED BANKS FOR MAGNETIC FLUX COMPRESSION GENERATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulkerson, E S

    2008-05-14

    In recent years the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been conducting experiments that require pulsed high currents to be delivered into inductive loads. The loads fall into two categories (1) pulsed high field magnets and (2) the input stage of Magnetic Flux Compression Generators (MFCG). Three capacitor banks of increasing energy storage and controls sophistication have been designed and constructed to drive these loads. One bank was developed for the magnet driving application (20kV {approx} 30kJ maximum stored energy.) Two banks where constructed as MFCG seed banks (12kV {approx} 43kJ and 26kV {approx} 450kJ). This paper will describe the design of each bank including switching, controls, circuit protection and safety.

  4. Effect of torsional loading of nickel-titanium instruments on cyclic fatigue resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Gary Shun-Pan; Oh, Seung-Hei; Ha, Jung-Hong; Kim, Sung Kyo; Park, Se-Hee; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of torsional preload on the cyclic fatigue life of nickel-titanium rotary instruments. ProFile (#25/0.06) (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and ProTaper (F1; Dentsply Maillefer) were used. Each file was preloaded at 4 conditions (ie, no preloading and 25%, 50%, and 75% of mean ultimate torsional strength) of torsional prestress before the fatigue test. The torsional preloads were applied by securing 5 mm of the file tip while keeping the file straight, rotating it clockwise until the preset torque, and then returning to the original position. This motion was repeated until a preset number (10, 30, or 50) of repetitions were reached (n = 12). After torsional preloading, the number of cycles to failure was evaluated in a simulated canal. Data were analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance and the Duncan post hoc comparison. The fractured fragment surfaces were examined under a scanning electron microscope for the topographic features of fractured instruments. For both instruments, there was a significant effect because of the extent of torsional preloads. The 50% and 75% torsionally preloaded ProFile and all ProTaper preloading groups had a higher number of cycles to failure than the other group(s). There was little difference in the lateral view appearance between new and torsionally preloaded files. After cyclic fatigue testing, all preloaded instruments showed numerous microcracks adjacent to the fracture site on lateral view examination. The microcracks did not seem to follow the machining grooves on the instrument surface but rather ran irregularly. The torsional preloads within the superelastic limit of the material may improve the cyclic fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium rotary instruments. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparison of the resistance of Temporary Edge Protection Systems to static and dynamic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, M. N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporary Edge Protection Systems (TEPS are designed to withstand the impact of a worker that walks, stumbles, and falls against them. This is by nature a dynamic action; however, many standards evaluate TEPS when the surface or slope is slightly inclined (less than 10°, applying static requirements. The performance requirements demanded by these standards are assumed to be equivalent to the impact of a worker, however this point has not been tested. In this study, TEPS with tubular steel guardrails and wooden boards of different quality under two types of loads are evaluated using the static requirements detailed in standard EN 13374. TEPS are subjected to an impact energy of 180 J, simulating a worker of 90 kg walking at a speed of 2 m/s. The results demonstrate that the static requirements of EN 13374 are more demanding than the impact of 180 J in all the systems under study.Los sistemas provisionales de protección de borde (SPPB están diseñados para detener el impacto de un trabajador que camina, tropieza y golpea contra ellas. Esto supone una acción de naturaleza dinámica. Sin embargo, muchas normas evalúan SPPB utilizando requisitos de tipo estático cuando la superficie de trabajo está poco inclinada (menos de 10° suponiendo que equivalen al impacto de un trabajador. No obstante, este aspecto no se ha confirmado experimentalmente. En este trabajo SPPB con barandillas de tubos de acero y de tablas de madera se han evaluado usando los requisitos estáticos definidos por la norma EN 13374. Posteriormente, se han sometido a una energía de impacto de 180 J, que simula a un trabajador de 90 kg caminando a una velocidad de 2 m/s. Los resultados demuestran que los requisitos estáticos de la norma EN 13374 son más exigentes que el impacto de 180 J en todos los sistemas estudiados.

  6. Electronic Banking And Bank Performance In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... The findings of this study have motivated new recommendations for bank customers, bank management and shareholders with regard to electronic banking adoption for banking operations. Keywords: Electronic banking, returns on assets (ROA), returns on Equity (ROE), difference between means and ...

  7. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit Banks...

  8. Channel Bank Cohesion and the Maintenance of Suspension Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, K. B. J.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    always submerged. The toe is more compacted and more resistant to erosion than the subaerially-exposed upper bank. We find mounting evidence that sand-bedded rivers are much like gravel-bedded river; they are near-threshold channels in which the suspended load does not play a controlling role in the determination of equilibrium hydraulic geometry.

  9. Systematic evaluation of multifunctional paclitaxel-loaded polymeric mixed micelles as a potential anticancer remedy to overcome multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiulong; Zhao, Xiufeng; Chen, Qing; Yin, Xiaoyi; Xin, Xiu; Li, Kexin; Qiao, Mingxi; Hu, Haiyang; Chen, Dawei; Zhao, Xiuli

    2017-03-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumor cells is becoming the main reason for the failure of chemotherapy and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated drug efflux has demonstrated to be the key factor for MDR. To address this issue, a novel pH-responsive mixed micelles drug delivery system composed of dextran-g-poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-g-histidine (HDP) and folate acid-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 2000 (FA-TPGS2K) copolymers has been designed for the delivery of antitumor agent, paclitaxel (PTX) via FA-receptor mediated cell endocytosis, into PTX-resistant breast cancer MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/PTX). PTX-loaded FA-TPGS2K/HDP mixed micelles were characterized to have a small size distribution, high loading content and excellent pH-responsive drug release profiles. Compared with HDP micelles, FA-TPGS2K/HDP mixed micelles showed a higher cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and MCF-7/PTX cells due to the synergistic effect of FA-receptor mediated cell endocytosis, pH-responsive drug release and TPGS mediated P-gp inhibition. P-gp expression level, ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential change have been measured, the results indicated blank FA-TPGS2K/HDP mixed micelles could inhibit the P-gp activity by reducing the mitochondrial membrane potential and depleting ATP content but not down-regulating the P-gp expression. In vivo antitumor activities demonstrated FA-TPGS2K/HDP mixed micelles could reach higher antitumor activity compared with HDP micelles for MCF-7/PTX tumor cells. Histological assay also indicated that FA-TPGS2K/HDP mixed micelles showed strongly apoptosis inducing effect, anti-proliferation effect and anti-angiogenesis effect. All these evidences demonstrated this pH-sensitive FA-TPGS2K/HDP micelle-based drug delivery system is a promising approach for overcoming MDR. In this work, a novel FA-TPGS2K copolymer has been synthesized and used it to construct mixed micelles with HDP copolymer to overcome MDR effect. Furthermore, a series in vitro and in vivo evaluations

  10. Bank development; bank development efficiency; bank management; bank.

    OpenAIRE

    Самородов, Б. В.

    2014-01-01

    In the paper the theoretical research of determination of the essence of “management of bank financial development” is realized. The analysis is performed on the basis of substantial considering and comparing the philosophy and economical definitions of the components of its definition.

  11. Phenomenon of Swiss banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Swiss banking is a 'generic name' for a system based on private banking and banking secrecy. In the introductory chapter we highlight the difference between Swiss banking and banking in the Switzerland's system. In the second chapter we present a more detailed description of the institution of banking secrecy, while in the third chapter we present the exceptions to it. The fourth chapter elaborates on the present and the future of Swiss banking. It is argued whether in the present circumstances banking secrecy has become disruptive to the further development of both Swiss banking and banking in Switzerland and whether Swiss banking will come to an end in the future.

  12. Time to task failure of the contralateral untrained limb after high load-low repetition eccentric and low load-high repetition resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosratollah Hedayatpour

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Cross-training is the process whereby training of one limb gives rise to enhancements in the performance of the opposite, untrained limb and may be dependent on type of muscle contractions performed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether unilateral resistance training using eccentric contraction is more effective than concentric resistance training to improve time to task failure in the contralateral untrained limb. Methods:Subjects completed 12 weeks of resistance training consisting of 36 sessions, using unilateral leg exercise. Sustained isometric knee extension performed at 50% of maxmal force until task failure for the contralateral untrained leg. Surface electromyography (EMG signals were simultaneously recorded from contralateral untrained quadriceps (vastusmedialis, rectus femoris, and vastuslateralis. Results: Time to task failure of the contralateraluntrained leg and associated EMG activitiessignificantly increased after 12 weeks ofunilateral resistance training(p<0.05. However, percent increase in time to task failure and EMG amplitude after eccentric resistance training was significantly higher than concentric resistance training (p<0.05. Conclusion: This study concluded that unilateral eccentric resistancetraining is superior to concentric resistance training to increase time to task failure in the contralateral untrained limb.

  13. Evaluation of Safety Index and Calibration of Load and Resistance Factors for Reinforced Concrete Beams under Bending, Shear and Torsion Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Jafari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of designing of the structural members is withstanding the members or structures against the different loading conditions such that the safety of the system could be preserved. The conventional method for designing of reinforced concrete members in Iranian concrete code is based on load and resistance factor. Although, load and resistance parameters are random variables, and in the mentioned Code the constant values have been designated for them during the designing procedure. Accounting these factors as the constants parameters will ultimately be led to the unsafe and uneconomical designs. The main purpose of this paper is probability-based designing of reinforcement concrete beams under simultaneous effects of bending, shear and torsion actions. For this purpose, analytical relations of the limit states for combination of bending, shear and torsion have been developed. Using the method, the structural designers could be fulfilled the designing of the RC beams based on the importance of structures and the required safety indexes of the owners.  The next goal of this investigation is evaluation and calibration of load and resistance factors for desired safety index. The economic and fully probabilistic designing of concrete beams for simultaneous effects of bending, shear and torsion are available by implementing the proposed design procedures. In order to calculate the safety indexes a computer program has been written in the MATLAB environment, and the Monte Carlo simulation technique has been utilized.

  14. In Vitro Assessment of Retention and Resistance Failure Loads of Teeth Restored with a Complete Coverage Restoration and Different Core Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiagali, Vasileia; Kirmanidou, Yvoni; Pissiotis, Argirios; Michalakis, Konstantinos

    2017-11-16

    To investigate in vitro the retention and the resistance form, as well as the failure modes of maxillary premolars restored with cast metal crowns and different core materials. Sixty human extracted maxillary premolars were selected according to their size and were embedded in PMMA resin blocks. After removing a part of their clinical crowns, the teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups of 20 teeth and were either left unrestored, or they were restored with amalgam or composite resin. All teeth were prepared for a cast metal complete coverage restoration. The restorations were cemented on the prepared teeth with a resin-modified glass ionomer luting agent (GC Fuji Plus). All specimens were subjected to static loading at 1 mm/min by a universal testing machine, until failure. Half the specimens of each group were subjected to tensile loading along the long axis of the teeth. The other half were subjected to compressive loading at a 30° angle. Failure loads and failure modes for each tooth were recorded. The statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey's HSD test. One-way ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences among the 3 tested groups (p material presented the highest failure loads for both the tensile and the compressive loading tests, with mean loads of 381.02 Ν and 741.21 Ν, respectively. Mean tensile and compressive failure loads for the amalgam group were 277.34 Ν and 584.75 Ν, while the composite resin group presented the lowest tensile and compressive failure values, which were 250.77 Ν and 465.78 Ν, respectively. The compression loading test resulted in the same failure mode for all specimens, which included unfavorable fracture of the teeth in combination with detachment of the cast metal complete coverage restorations. The tensile loading test resulted in different failure modes between the groups that used a core material and the group with no core material. Teeth that lost more than half of their

  15. Chitosan-Dextran sulfate coated doxorubicin loaded PLGA-PVA-nanoparticles caused apoptosis in doxorubicin resistance breast cancer cells through induction of DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharth, Sumit; Nayak, Anmada; Nayak, Deepika; Bindhani, Birendra Kumar; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

    2017-05-19

    To overcome the toxicity, pharmacokinetics and drug resistance associated with doxorubicin (DOX), a strategy was developed by encapsulating DOX- loaded-PLGA-PVA- nanoparticles within chitosan-dextran sulfate nanoparticles (CS-DS) [CS-DS-coated-DOX-loaded -PLGA-PVA-NP] and study the sensitivity against DOX- resistance- breast cancer cells (MCF-7-DOX-R). These CS-DS and PLGA-PVA double coated DOX are spherical, stable, polydispersed and have zeta potential +2.89 mV. MCF-7- DOX-R cells were derived by exposing increasing doses of DOX in MCF-7 cells. These cells were resistance to 500 nM of DOX while parental cells were susceptible at 150 nM. The double coated NP caused more cytotoxicity in cancer and MCF-7-DOX-R cells without affecting the normal cells in comparison to DOX-loaded-PLGA-PVA-NP. These NP enhances the uptake of DOX in MCF-7-DOX-R cells and caused apoptosis by increasing apoptotic nuclei, Bax/Bcl-xL ratio, cleaved product PARP-1, tumor suppressor gene p21, p53, topoisomerase inhibition activity, DNA damage and decreasing the migratory potential of cells. An increased S phase arrest was noted in DOX and DOX- loaded- PLGA-PVA-NP treated cells but reduction of S phase and simultaneous increase of Sub-G1 was observed in double coated-NP. Thus, data revealed that CS-DS- DOX- loaded PLGA-PVA- NP caused DOX-resistance cell death by inducing inhibition of topoisomerase activity followed by DNA damage.

  16. Influence of load and sliding velocity on wear resistance of solid-lubricant composites of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Buslovich, D. G.; Alexenko, V. O.; Ivanova, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    To determine the limits of the operation loading intervals appropriate for the use of solid lubricant UHMWPE composites in tribounits for mechanical engineering and medicine, the tribotechnical properties of UHMWPE blends with the optimum solid lubricant filler content (polytetrafluoroethylene, calcium stearate, molybdenum disulfide, colloidal graphite, boron nitride) are studied under dry sliding friction at different velocities (V = 0.3 and 0.5 m/s) and loads (P = 60 and 140 N). It is shown that the wear resistance of solid lubricant UHMWPE composites at moderate sliding velocities (V = 0.3 m/s) and loads (P = 60 N) increases 2-3 times in comparison with pure UHMWPE, while at high load P = 140 N wear resistance of both neat UHMWPE and its composites is reduced almost twice. At high sliding velocities and loads (up to P = 140 N), multiple increasing of the wear of pure UHMWPE and its composites takes place (by the factor of 5 to 10). The operational conditions of UHMWPE composites in tribounits in engineering and medicine are discussed.

  17. Development of a hybrid paclitaxel-loaded arsenite nanoparticle (HPAN) delivery system for synergistic combined therapy of paclitaxel-resistant cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fei-yan; Zhang, Yu [Nanchang University, College of Chemistry (China); Chen, Xiang-yu [Xiangya No.2 Hospital of Central South University, Department of Radiology (China); Li, Jia-qian; Xiao, Xiao-ping; Yu, Lu-lu; Tang, Qun, E-mail: tangqun@ncu.edu.cn [Nanchang University, Institute for Advanced Study (China)

    2017-04-15

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major reason for failure of chemotherapy in a variety of human tumors. For instance, paclitaxel (PTX) has been widely used as a first-line anticancer drug, but resistance to PTX is becoming increasingly serious. Herein, we propose a strategy of combined therapy to overcome MDR of PTX by introducing a hybrid paclitaxel-loaded gadolinium arsenite nanoparticle (HPAN), where PTX was conjugated with rod-shaped gadolinium arsenite (GdAsO{sub x}) nanoparticle (NP). Triggered by endogenous inorganic phosphate (Pi), the hybrid nanoparticles readily collapse, thereby releasing PTX and arsenic trioxide (ATO). An MTT assay indicated IC50 values for HPAN one order of magnitude lower than for a simple equivalent mixture of PTX and ATO against PTX-resistant human colon cancer cells (HCT 166), indicating remarkable synergistic effect. Species type-dependent cellular uptake, induced apoptosis, and cell cycle modulation were also evaluated. Cellular uptake tests indicate that the HPAN presents higher PTX intracellular loading for the PTX-resistant cells and longer intracellular retention time, displaying resistance to drug efflux from the cancer cell than pristine PTX or the equivalent mixture of PTX and ATO. Cell cycle and apoptosis tests consistently proved that addition of HPAN resulted in higher G2/M and apoptosis in PTX-resistant cells. In vivo anticancer experiments evidenced that HPAN had better therapeutic effect on the resistant tumor in the murine xenograft model than pristine PTX or a mixture of PTX and ATO. Our results suggest that HPAN might enhance the therapeutic index and overcome PTX resistance and also demonstrate that the combined therapy is not only related to the species of combined agents but also their physiochemical states.

  18. Development of a hybrid paclitaxel-loaded arsenite nanoparticle (HPAN) delivery system for synergistic combined therapy of paclitaxel-resistant cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei-yan; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Xiang-yu; Li, Jia-qian; Xiao, Xiao-ping; Yu, Lu-lu; Tang, Qun

    2017-04-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major reason for failure of chemotherapy in a variety of human tumors. For instance, paclitaxel (PTX) has been widely used as a first-line anticancer drug, but resistance to PTX is becoming increasingly serious. Herein, we propose a strategy of combined therapy to overcome MDR of PTX by introducing a hybrid paclitaxel-loaded gadolinium arsenite nanoparticle (HPAN), where PTX was conjugated with rod-shaped gadolinium arsenite (GdAsOx) nanoparticle (NP). Triggered by endogenous inorganic phosphate (Pi), the hybrid nanoparticles readily collapse, thereby releasing PTX and arsenic trioxide (ATO). An MTT assay indicated IC50 values for HPAN one order of magnitude lower than for a simple equivalent mixture of PTX and ATO against PTX-resistant human colon cancer cells (HCT 166), indicating remarkable synergistic effect. Species type-dependent cellular uptake, induced apoptosis, and cell cycle modulation were also evaluated. Cellular uptake tests indicate that the HPAN presents higher PTX intracellular loading for the PTX-resistant cells and longer intracellular retention time, displaying resistance to drug efflux from the cancer cell than pristine PTX or the equivalent mixture of PTX and ATO. Cell cycle and apoptosis tests consistently proved that addition of HPAN resulted in higher G2/M and apoptosis in PTX-resistant cells. In vivo anticancer experiments evidenced that HPAN had better therapeutic effect on the resistant tumor in the murine xenograft model than pristine PTX or a mixture of PTX and ATO. Our results suggest that HPAN might enhance the therapeutic index and overcome PTX resistance and also demonstrate that the combined therapy is not only related to the species of combined agents but also their physiochemical states.

  19. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  20. Effect of WO3 nanoparticle loading on the microstructural, mechanical and corrosion resistance of Zn matrix/TiO2-WO3 nanocomposite coatings for marine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, A. P. I.; Daniyan, A. A.; Umoru, L. E.; Fayomi, O. S. I.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, for marine application purposes, we evaluated the effect of process parameter and particle loading on the microstructure, mechanical reinforcement and corrosion resistance properties of a Zn-TiO2-WO3 nanocomposite produced via electrodeposition. We characterized the morphological properties of the composite coatings with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). We carried out mechanical examination using a Dura Scan hardness tester and a CERT UMT-2 multi-functional tribological tester. We evaluated the corrosion properties by linear polarization in 3.5% NaCl. The results show that the coatings exhibited good stability and the quantitative particle loading greatly enhanced the structural and morphological properties, hardness behavior and corrosion resistance of the coatings. We observed the precipitation of this alloy on steel is greatly influenced by the composite characteristics.

  1. Phenomenon of Swiss banking

    OpenAIRE

    Milenković Ivan; Milenković Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Swiss banking is a 'generic name' for a system based on private banking and banking secrecy. In the introductory chapter we highlight the difference between Swiss banking and banking in the Switzerland's system. In the second chapter we present a more detailed description of the institution of banking secrecy, while in the third chapter we present the exceptions to it. The fourth chapter elaborates on the present and the future of Swiss banking. It is argued whether in the present circumstanc...

  2. Four weeks of high- versus low-load resistance training to failure on the rate of torque development, electromechanical delay, and contractile twitch properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, N Dm; Housh, T J; Buckner, S L; Bergstrom, H C; Smith, C M; Cochrane, K C; Hill, E C; Miramonti, A A; Schmidt, R J; Johnson, G O; Cramer, J T

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 4-weeks of high- versus low-load resistance training to failure on rate of torque development (RTD), electromechanical delay (EMD), and contractile twitch characteristics. Fifteen men (mean±SD; age=21.7±2.4 yrs) were randomly assigned to either a high- (80% 1RM; n=7) or low-load (30% 1RM; n=8) training group and completed elbow flexion resistance training to failure 3 times per week for 4 weeks. The participants were tested at baseline, 2-, and 4-weeks of training. Peak RTD (pRTDV) and RTD at 0-30 (RTD30V), 0-50 (RTD50V), 0-100 (RTD100V), and 0-200 (RTD200V) ms, integrated EMG amplitude (iEMG) at 0-30, 0-50, and 0-100 ms, and EMD were quantified during maximal voluntary isometric muscle actions. Peak twitch torque, peak RTD, time to peak twitch, 1/2 relaxation time and the peak relaxation rate were quantified during evoked twitches. Four weeks of high-load, but not low-load resistance training, increased RTD200V. There were also increases in iEMG during the first 30 ms of muscle activation for the high- and low-load groups, which may have indirectly indicated increases in early phase motor unit recruitment and/or firing frequency. There were no significant training-induced adaptations in EMD or contractile twitch properties.

  3. Low-Load Very High-Repetition Resistance Training Attenuates Bone Loss at the Lumbar Spine in Active Post-menopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Vaughan P; McKean, Mark R; Slater, Gary J; Kerr, Ava; Burkett, Brendan J

    2015-06-01

    This study determined the effect of 6 months of low-load very high-repetition resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in nonosteoporotic middle-aged and older women. Fifty healthy, active community-dwelling women aged 56-75 years took part in the two-group, repeated-measures randomized controlled trial. Participants either undertook 6 months of low-load very high-repetition resistance training in the form of BodyPump™ or served as control participants. Outcome measures included BMD at the lumbar spine, hip, and total body; total fat mass; fat-free soft tissue mass and maximal isotonic strength. Significant group-by-time interactions were found for lumbar spine BMD and maximal strength in favor of the BodyPump™ group. No favorable effects were found for hip BMD, total body BMD, total fat mass, or fat-free soft tissue mass. Three participants withdrew from the intervention group due to injury or fear of injury associated with training. Under the conditions used in this research, low-load very high-repetition resistance training is effective at attenuating losses in lumbar spine BMD compared to controls in healthy, active women aged over 55 years but did not influence hip and total body BMD or fat mass and fat-free soft tissue mass.

  4. MICROBIAL LOAD AND MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FEACES AND BODY SURFACES OF COCKROACHES IN AN URBAN AREA OF SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of pathogenic bacteria isolated from the faeces and body surfaces of cockroaches in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria. The cockroaches collected from residential areas and hospital vicinities were screened for microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern using standard protocols. A total of twenty- three microorganisms namely Klebsiella aerogenes, Bacillius cereus, Proteus spp, Staphyloccocus aureus, S. saprophyticus, Enteroccocus faecalis, Staphylococus epididermis, E. coli, Listeria monoctogene, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Psuedomonas species, Seretia mensence, Candida albicans, Candida spp., Aspergilius spp., A. flavus, A. fumigates, Mucor species and Penicilium species were isolated. The microbial load of the microorganisms was significantly higher in the isolates from hospital as compared with the residential area (p<0.05 with the exception of Canidida species, Mucor and Penicillium which had higher or equal microbial load at the residential areas. All the pathogenic bacteria isolated had multiple resistance to antibiotics most importantly, Ampicillin, Augumentin, Amoxicillin and Septrin (30μg. Efforts geared towards controlling the insects will be indispensable in curbing the wide spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens in the study area.

  5. Comparison of the fracture resistances of glass fiber mesh- and metal mesh-reinforced maxillary complete denture under dynamic fatigue loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of reinforcing materials on the fracture resistances of glass fiber mesh- and Cr–Co metal mesh-reinforced maxillary complete dentures under fatigue loading. MATERIALS AND METHODS Glass fiber mesh- and Cr–Co mesh-reinforced maxillary complete dentures were fabricated using silicone molds and acrylic resin. A control group was prepared with no reinforcement (n = 15 per group). After fatigue loading was applied using a chewing simulator, fracture resistance was measured by a universal testing machine. The fracture patterns were analyzed and the fractured surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS After cyclic loading, none of the dentures showed cracks or fractures. During fracture resistance testing, all unreinforced dentures experienced complete fracture. The mesh-reinforced dentures primarily showed posterior framework fracture. Deformation of the all-metal framework caused the metal mesh-reinforced denture to exhibit the highest fracture resistance, followed by the glass fiber mesh-reinforced denture (Pdenture primarily maintained its original shape with unbroken fibers. River line pattern of the control group, dimples and interdendritic fractures of the metal mesh group, and radial fracture lines of the glass fiber group were observed on the fractured surfaces. CONCLUSION The glass fiber mesh-reinforced denture exhibits a fracture resistance higher than that of the unreinforced denture, but lower than that of the metal mesh-reinforced denture because of the deformation of the metal mesh. The glass fiber mesh-reinforced denture maintains its shape even after fracture, indicating the possibility of easier repair. PMID:28243388

  6. Banking system trust, bank trust, and bank loyalty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esterik-Plasmeijer, P.; van Raaij, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test a model of banking system trust as an antecedent of bank trust and bank loyalty. Six determinants of trust and loyalty are included: competence, stability, integrity, customer orientation, transparency, and value congruence. The study provides insights

  7. Prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance in treated patients with viral load >50 copies/mL: a 2014 French nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assoumou, L; Charpentier, C; Recordon-Pinson, P; Grudé, M; Pallier, C; Morand-Joubert, L; Fafi-Kremer, S; Krivine, A; Montes, B; Ferré, V; Bouvier-Alias, M; Plantier, J-C; Izopet, J; Trabaud, M-A; Yerly, S; Dufayard, J; Alloui, C; Courdavault, L; Le Guillou-Guillemette, H; Maillard, A; Amiel, C; Vabret, A; Roussel, C; Vallet, S; Guinard, J; Mirand, A; Beby-Defaux, A; Barin, F; Allardet-Servent, A; Ait-Namane, R; Wirden, M; Delaugerre, C; Calvez, V; Chaix, M-L; Descamps, D; Reigadas, S

    2017-06-01

    Surveillance of HIV-1 resistance in treated patients with a detectable viral load (VL) is important to monitor, in order to assess the risk of spread of resistant viruses and to determine the proportion of patients who need new antiretroviral drugs with minimal cross-resistance. The HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase genes were sequenced in plasma samples from 782 consecutive patients on failing antiretroviral regimens, seen in 37 specialized centres in 2014. The genotyping results were interpreted using the ANRS v24 algorithm. Prevalence rates were compared with those obtained during a similar survey conducted in 2009. The protease and RT sequences were obtained in 566 patients, and the integrase sequence in 382 patients. Sequencing was successful in 60%, 78%, 78% and 87% of patients with VLs of 51-200, 201-500, 501-1000 and >1000 copies/mL, respectively. Resistance to at least one antiretroviral drug was detected in 56.3% of samples. Respectively, 3.9%, 8.7%, 1.5% and 3.4% of patients harboured viruses that were resistant to any NRTI, NNRTI, PI and integrase inhibitor (INI). Resistance rates were lower in 2014 than in 2009. Resistance was detected in 48.5% of samples from patients with a VL between 51 and 200 copies/mL. In France in 2014, 90.0% of patients in AIDS care centres were receiving antiretroviral drugs and 12.0% of them had VLs >50 copies/mL. Therefore, this study suggests that 6.7% of treated patients in France might transmit resistant strains. Resistance testing may be warranted in all treated patients with VL > 50 copies/mL. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Progressive Abduction Loading Therapy with Horizontal-Plane Viscous Resistance Targeting Weakness and Flexion Synergy to Treat Upper Limb Function in Chronic Hemiparetic Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael D; Carmona, Carolina; Drogos, Justin; Dewald, Julius P A

    2018-01-01

    Progressive abduction loading therapy has emerged as a promising exercise therapy in stroke rehabilitation to systematically target the loss of independent joint control (flexion synergy) in individuals with chronic moderate/severe upper-extremity impairment. Preclinical investigations have identified abduction loading during reaching exercise as a key therapeutic factor to improve reaching function. An augmentative approach may be to additionally target weakness by incorporating resistance training to increase constitutive joint torques of reaching with the goal of improving reaching function by "overpowering" flexion synergy. The objective was, therefore, to determine the therapeutic effects of horizontal-plane viscous resistance in combination with progressive abduction loading therapy. 32 individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke were randomly allocated to two groups. The two groups had equivalent baseline characteristics on all demographic and outcome metrics including age (59 ± 11 years), time poststroke (10.1 ± 7.6 years), and motor impairment (Fugl-Meyer, 26.7 ± 6.5 out of 66). Both groups received therapy three times/week for 8 weeks while the experimental group included additional horizontal-plane viscous resistance. Quantitative standardized progression of the intervention was achieved using a robotic device. The primary outcomes of reaching distance and velocity under maximum abduction loading and secondary outcomes of isometric strength and a clinical battery were measured at pre-, post-, and 3 months following therapy. There was no difference between groups on any outcome measure. However, for combined groups, there was a significant increase in reaching distance (13.2%, effect size; d  = 0.56) and velocity (13.6%, effect size; d  = 0.27) at posttesting that persisted for 3 months and also a significant increase in abduction, elbow extension, and external rotation strength at posttesting that did not persist 3

  9. Effects of resistance training with moderate vs heavy loads on muscle mass and strength in the elderly: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, R; Alegre, L M

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of heavy (∼80% of one repetition maximum, 1RM) vs light-moderate load (∼45% 1RM) resistance training (RT) programs in inducing strength gains and skeletal muscle hypertrophy in elderly people. To assess the role of training volumes, studies in which training protocols were matched for mechanical work were independently analyzed. In all 15 studies included (448 subjects, age 67.8 years), when comparing heavy with light-moderate loads, strength gains tended to be larger following RT with higher intensities of load, with the resulting total population effect being μ = 0.430 (P = 0.060). Effect sizes were substantially smaller in "work-matched" studies (μ = 0.297, P = 0.003). Training with higher loads also provoked marginally larger gains in muscle size, although the degree of training-induced muscle hypertrophy was generally small (0.056 lower than traditionally recommended intensities of load may suffice to induce substantial gains in muscle strength in elderly cohorts. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comparison of designing simple steel frame & coaxial brace systems by contrast of blast, using two methods of load & resistance coefficients & performance surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hassanvand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, because of the increasing terrorist attacks around the urban areas, designing buildings by contrast of resulted loads of blast came into consideration particularly in some sensitive buildings & vital arteries. When a blast occurs, the resulted emissions in environment leads to appearance of several penalties and endangers to the human life. Steel structures generally are designed on the basis of standard seismic and gravity loads, it is necessary to investigate the implantation of these structures under the impact of the loads originated from blast. This article presents numerical studies of two-dimensional structural models with 2 and 5 stories which are including simple steel frame system in addition to CBF. The models were analyzed by nonlinear dynamic analysis method using the instruction UFC 3-340-02 in two adverse levels of blast loads by SAP 2000 software. In this study structural models are designed and analyzed using two designing methods: the basic performance design, and Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD. Finally, two set of results are compared in detail.

  11. Treatment efficacy, treatment failures and selection of macrolide resistance in patients with high load of Mycoplasma genitalium during treatment of male urethritis with josamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guschin, Alexander; Ryzhikh, Pavel; Rumyantseva, Tatiana; Gomberg, Mikhail; Unemo, Magnus

    2015-02-03

    Azithromycin has been widely used for Mycoplasma genitalium treatment internationally. However, the eradication efficacy has substantially declined recent decade. In Russia, josamycin (another macrolide) is the recommended first-line treatment for M. genitalium infections, however, no data regarding treatment efficacy with josamycin and resistance in M. genitalium infections have been internationally published. We examined the M. genitalium prevalence in males attending an STI clinic in Moscow, Russia from December 2006 to January 2008, investigated treatment efficacy with josamycin in male urethritis, and monitored the M. genitalium DNA eradication dynamics and selection of macrolide resistance in M. genitalium during this treatment. Microscopy and real-time PCRs were used to diagnose urethritis and non-viral STIs, respectively, in males (n = 320). M. genitalium positive patients were treated with recommended josamycin regimen and treatment efficacy was monitored using quantitative real-time PCR. Macrolide resistance mutations were identified using sequencing of the 23S rRNA gene. Forty-seven (14.7%) males were positive for M. genitalium only and most (85.1%) of these had symptoms and signs of urethritis. Forty-six (97.9%) males agreed to participate in the treatment efficacy monitoring. All the pre-treatment M. genitalium specimens had wild-type 23S rRNA. The elimination of M. genitalium DNA was substantially faster in patients with lower pre-treatment M. genitalium load, and the total eradication rate was 43/46 (93.5%). Of the six patients with high pre-treatment M. genitalium load, three (50%) remained positive post-treatment and these positive specimens contained macrolide resistance mutations in the 23S rRNA gene, i.e., A2059G (n = 2) and A2062G (n = 1). M. genitalium was a frequent cause of male urethritis in Moscow, Russia. The pre-treatment M. genitalium load might be an effective predictor of eradication efficacy with macrolides (and possibly

  12. 17 CFR 247.741 - Exemption for banks effecting transactions in money market funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... no-load; or (ii) If the class or series of securities is not no-load (A) The bank or, if applicable... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption for banks effecting... EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATION R-EXEMPTIONS AND DEFINITIONS RELATED TO THE EXCEPTIONS FOR BANKS...

  13. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  14. Banking governance: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mihăiţă Duţă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Banks are companies like any other. However, banks are distinguished by certain intrinsic characteristics of companies that have a different impact on the motivation of stakeholders. Among these features, we mention:partnership and shareholders governance agreements; banks are heavily regulated companies; banking assets is the main source of haze banking and information asymmetry; between the bank and depositors there is a problem of moral hazard.

  15. ROMANIAN BANKS LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATRANCEA MARIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.

  16. Internet Banking integration within the banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Marian MATEI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Banking developed due to increasing demand of online banking transactions. The biggest advantages of Internet Banking consist of complex banking solutions, 24 hours availability, quick and secure access to the back-end application through Internet. These advantages are due to the use of SOA (service-oriented architecture. SOA appeared as a necessity of companies to integrate big and independent portions of applications, in order to obtain an homogeneous functionality of the system. For the Internet Banking applications, SOA proved to be the optimal architectural solution, for a smoth integration between banking services from the front-end to the back-end.This paper intend to offer an insite analyse of the Internet Banking applications architecture integrated with other banking systems. A SOA oriented analyse will establish the scope of the integration architecture.

  17. In vitro evaluation of the fracture resistance and microleakage of porcelain laminate veneers bonded to teeth with composite fillings after cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadighpour, Leyla; Geramipanah, Farideh; Allahyari, Somayeh; Fallahi Sichani, Babak; Kharazi Fard, Mohamd Javad

    2014-08-01

    There is insufficient data regarding the durability of porcelain laminate veneers bonded to existing composite fillings. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fracture resistance and microleakage of porcelain laminate veneers bonded to teeth with existing composite fillings. Thirty maxillary central incisors were divided into three groups (for each group, n=10): intact teeth (NP), teeth with class III composite fillings (C3) and teeth with class IV cavities (C4). Porcelain laminate veneers were made using IPS-Empress ceramic and bonded with Panavia F2 resin cement. The microleakage of all of the specimens was tested before and after cyclic loading (1 × 10(6) cycles, 1.2 Hz). The fracture resistance values (N) were measured using a universal testing machine, and the mode of failure was also examined. The statistical analyses were performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests (α=.05). There was a significant difference in the mean microleakage of group C4 compared with group NT (P=.013). There was no significant difference in the fracture loads among the groups. The microleakage and failure loads of porcelain laminate veneers bonded to intact teeth and teeth with standard class III composite fillings were not significantly different.

  18. Effect of elbow flexion angles on stress distribution of the proximal ulnar and radius bones under a vertical load: measurement using resistance strain gauges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhi-Tao; Yuan, Feng; Li, Bing; Ma, Ning

    2014-07-31

    This study aimed to explore the surface stress at the proximal ends of the ulna and radius at different elbow flexion angles using the resistance strain method. Eight fresh adult cadaveric elbows were tested. The forearms were fixed in a neutral position. Axial load increment experiments were conducted at four different elbow flexion angles (0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°). Surface stain was measured at six sites (tip, middle, and base of the coronoid process; back ulnar notch; olecranon; and anterolateral margin of the radial head). With the exception of the ulnar olecranon, the load-stress curves at each measurement site showed an approximately linear relationship under the four working conditions studied. At a vertical load of 500 N, the greatest stress occurred at the middle of the coronoid process when the elbow flexion angles were 0° and 15°. When the flexion angles were 30° and 45°, the greatest stress occurred at the base of the coronoid process. The stress on the radial head was higher than those at the measurement sites of the proximal end of the ulna. The resistance strain method for measuring elbow joint surface stress benefits biomechanics research on the elbow joint. Elbow joint surface stress distributions vary according to different elbow flexion angles.

  19. Rotary MR Damper for Launch/Landing Load Isolation and Resistive Crew Exercise for Exploration Spaceflight Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a rotary MR (magneto rheologic) Damper to integrate into exploration spacecraft crew seats to be used as an exercise device and launch/landing load isolation...

  20. E-BANKING- MODERN BANKING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRANDA PETRONELLA VLAD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available E-banking is the first of those banking services that really economize time, because it allows to the user to accomplish from behind the computer many operations in the bank account, represents the computational solution that allows to the holder to have

  1. Electronic Banking And Bank Performance In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... powerful vehicle for research. Banks can provide information and services online which customers can pay for and receive. Banking processes are made more efficient and cost effective by integrating other aspects of banking operations such as management and financial control. Ovia. [6] posits that on-line ...

  2. Electromyographical and Perceptual Responses to Different Resistance Intensities in a Squat Protocol: Does Performing Sets to Failure With Light Loads Produce the Same Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, David P; Kraemer, William J; Joseph, Michael F; Comstock, Brett A; Denegar, Craig R; Flanagan, Shawn D; Newton, Robert U; Szivak, Tunde K; DuPont, William H; Hooper, David R; Häkkinen, Keijo; Maresh, Carl M

    2016-03-01

    This investigation examined peak motor unit activity during sets that differed in resistance (50, 70, or 90% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]). Ten resistance-trained men (age, 23 ± 3 years; height, 187 ± 7 cm; body mass, 91.5 ± 6.9 kg; squat 1RM, 141 ± 28 kg) were assessed by electromyography (EMG) on the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles in a randomized within-subject experiment consisting of 2 test visits: a drop-set day and a single-set day using only the 50% of 1RM intensity performed to failure. At the start of each day, subjects performed 2 submaximal repetition sets (50% 1RM × 10 repetitions and 70% 1RM × 7 repetitions). On the drop-set day, subjects performed 3 consecutive maximal repetition sets at 90%, 70%, and 50% 1RM to failure with no rest periods in between. On the single-set day, subjects performed a maximal repetition set at 50% 1RM to failure. Overall, the maximal repetition sets to failure at 50% and 70% 1RM resulted in higher peak EMG amplitude than during submaximal repetition sets with the same resistance. However, peak EMG amplitude was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater in the maximal 90% 1RM set than all other sets performed. When sets were performed to failure, ratings of perceived exertion (CR-10) did not differ over the intensity range of loads and suggests that perception is not capable of accurately detecting the actual amount of motor unit activation. The results of this investigation indicate that using higher external resistance is a more effective means of increasing motor unit activity than increasing the number of repetitions performed with lighter weights even when the end point is muscular failure. Accordingly, previous recommendations for the use of heavier loads during resistance training programs to stimulate the maximal development of strength and hypertrophy are further supported.

  3. Folate decorated dual drug loaded nanoparticle: role of curcumin in enhancing therapeutic potential of nutlin-3a by reversing multidrug resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasi Das

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor in children. Malfunctioning of many signaling pathways regulating cell survival or apoptosis, make the disease more vulnerable. Notably, resistance to chemotherapy mediated by MRP-1, lung-resistance protein (LRP is the most challenging aspect to treat this disease. Presently, much attention has been given to the recently developed anticancer drug nutlin-3a because of its non-genotoxic nature and potency to activate tumor suppressor protein p53. However, being a substrate of multidrug resistance protein MRP1 and Pgp its application has become limited. Currently, research has step towards reversing Multi drug resistance (MDR by using curcumin, however its clinical relevance is restricted by plasma instability and poor bioavailability. In the present investigation we tried to encapsulate nutlin-3a and curcumin in PLGA nanoparticle (NPs surface functionalized with folate to enhance therapeutic potential of nutlin-3a by modulating MDR. We document that curcumin can inhibit the expression of MRP-1 and LRP gene/protein in a concentration dependent manner in Y79 cells. In vitro cellular cytotoxicity, cell cycle analysis and apoptosis studies were done to compare the effectiveness of native drugs (single or combined and single or dual drug loaded nanoparticles (unconjugated/folate conjugated. The result demonstrated an augmented therapeutic efficacy of targeted dual drug loaded NPs (Fol-Nut-Cur-NPs over other formulation. Enhanced expression or down regulation of proapoptotic/antiapoptotic proteins respectively and down-regulation of bcl2 and NFκB gene/protein by Fol-Nut-Cur-NPs substantiate the above findings. This is the first investigation exploring the role of curcumin as MDR modulator to enhance the therapeutic potentiality of nutlin-3a, which may opens new direction for targeting cancer with multidrug resistance phenotype.

  4. Load and resistance factor design calibration to determine a resistance factor for the modification of the Kansas Department of Transportation-Engineering News Record formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report contains the results of a study describing the development of resistance factors for use : with the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) Engineering News Record (ENR) formula for driven : piles. KDOT has verified driven pile resista...

  5. Managing resistance to information system (IS) change at the pre-implementation stage from the senior management perspective : a case of a commercial bank in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Nguyen Hoang

    2016-01-01

    User resistance to information system (IS) change is an important issue in the IS literature. However, despite a large body of user adoption literature, there is far less literature addressing user resistance to IS change, especially in organisational contexts. Moreover, there are still left a number of open questions regarding the why and how resistance takes place. Particularly, previous research failed to explain these questions for two reasons. First, none of the previous research explain...

  6. Kinerja Beberapa Bank Syariah Berdasar Tingkat Efisiensi Melalui Pengukuran DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinaestri Cahyaningsih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find out the efficiency of Islamic Banking in 2015-2016 period. Samples both input and output from 4 Islamic Banking were used in this research included deposit, asset, personnel load, financing, and operational profit. Every changes of variable in that data can show the condition of Islamic Banking. The method uses in this research is called by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA with intermediation approach. The result shows that only Bukopin Islamic Banking and BNI Islamic Banking who have reached 100 percent efficiency during this research period. The highest inefficiency is experienced by Mandiri Islamic Banking. Mandiri Islamic Banking was insufficiency during this research period.  Meanwhile, the BCA Islamic Banking underwent inefficiency three times in 2016

  7. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with different heights of crown ferrule restored with prefabricated carbon fiber post and composite resin core by intermittent loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Jonas Alves; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Lins do Valle, Accácio; Zogheib, Lucas Villaça

    2008-11-01

    This study evaluated the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with prefabricated carbon fiber posts and varying quantities of coronal dentin. Sixty freshly extracted upper canines were randomly divided into groups of 10 teeth each. The specimens were exposed to 250,000 cycles in a controlled chewing simulator. All intact specimens were subjected to a static load (N) in a universal testing machine at 45 degrees to the long axis. Data were analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (alpha = .05). Significant differences (P carbon fiber post and composite resin core.

  8. BANKING BUSINESS MODELS IN UKRAINIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Onyshchenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to work out and characterize bank business models that are formed in Ukraine. Methodology. Our research we will spend among banks that are functioning on the Ukrainian financial market and are not on the stage of liquidation, so the sample under study in our work is comprised of 131 banks which are different in their ownership structure and size. The core of the methodology is a statistical clustering algorithm that allows identifying the groups of banks (clusters with similar business models as banks with similar business model strategies have made similar choices regarding the composition of their assets and liabilities. The cluster analyses were taken on the base of seven chosen indicators: bank loans, bank liabilities, enterprise loans, enterprise liabilities, household loans, household liabilities and trading assets. Results. The traditional business model of bank is worked out. The bank business models that are functioning in Ukraine are identified on the base of cluster analyses using balance sheet characteristics of 131 Ukrainian banks. We find that in Ukraine were formed three types of bank business models: “Focused retail”, “Diversified retail” and “Corporative retail”. The description of each model is given. Practical implications. More detailed research of distinguished models allows not only to find out the main advantages and disadvantages of each bank model, but also the main problems that follow the development of Ukrainian banking sector. Identifying of bank models and their studying simplifies searching and elaboration of regulatory instruments as there is a two-way causation between regulation and bank business models. This implies a symbiotic relationship between regulation and bank business models: business models respond to regulation which in turn responds to the evolution of new business models. Value/originality. Such survey is conducted at the first time among Ukrainian banks. The

  9. Comparison of the loads and antibiotic-resistance profiles of Enterococcus species from conventional and organic chicken carcasses in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y-J; Park, J-H; Seo, K-H

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in poultry meat are a threat to public health. In this study, we compared the Enterococcus spp. loads and antibiotic-resistance profiles between carcasses of conventionally and organically raised chickens. A total of 144 chicken carcasses (72 conventional and 72 organic) was collected from local retail markets in Seoul, South Korea. Overall, 77.7% (112 of 144; 75% conventional and 80% organic) of chicken carcasses were positive for Enterococcus. The mean loads of Enterococcus spp. were greater in conventional chicken carcasses, at 2.9 ± 0.4 log CFU/mL, than those in organic chicken carcasses, at 1.78 ± 0.3 log CFU/mL (p organic chicken carcasses) was randomly selected for further analysis. The predominant species was Enterococcus faecalis in both conventional and organic chicken carcasses (57.7 and 76.9%, respectively; P > 0.05). Rates of resistance to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, which are used in veterinary medicine in South Korea, were significantly higher in conventional chicken carcasses than in organic chicken carcasses. However, we found no difference between the rates of resistance to antibiotics such as vancomycin and tigecycline, which were not registered for use in veterinary medicine in South Korea, of Enterococcus isolates from conventional and organic chicken carcasses. In addition, although multidrug resistant isolates were obtained from both types of chicken samples, the prevalence of samples positive for Enterococcus was significantly higher in conventional chicken carcasses than in organic chicken carcasses (P organic chicken carcasses. A high level of gentamicin resistance was observed in isolates from not only conventional (5.8%) but also organic chicken (1.9%) carcasses, with no significant difference in rates between them (P > 0.05). Despite this, our results suggest that organic food certification is effective in reducing fecal contamination and the burden of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus spp. in

  10. Progressive resistance-loaded voluntary wheel running increases hypertrophy and differentially affects muscle protein synthesis, ribosome biogenesis, and proteolytic markers in rat muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, C B; Holland, A M; Kephart, W C; Mumford, P W; Lowery, R P; Kavazis, A N; Wilson, J M; Roberts, M D

    2018-02-01

    We examined if 6 weeks of progressive resistance-loaded voluntary wheel running in rats induced plantaris, soleus, and/or gastrocnemius hypertrophy and/or affected markers of translational efficiency, ribosome biogenesis, and markers of proteolysis. For 6 weeks, 8 male Sprague-Dawley rats (~9-10 weeks of age, ~300-325 g) rats were assigned to the progressive resistance-loaded voluntary wheel running model (EX), and ten rats were not trained (SED). For EX rats, the wheel-loading paradigm was as follows - days 1-7: free-wheel resistance, days 8-15: wheel resistance set to 20%-25% body mass, days 16-24: 40% body mass, days 25-32: 60% body mass, days 33-42: 40% body mass. Following the intervention, muscles were analysed for markers of translational efficiency, ribosome biogenesis, and muscle proteolysis. Raw gastrocnemius mass (+13%, p < .01), relative (body mass-corrected) gastrocnemius mass (+16%, p < .001), raw plantaris mass (+13%, p < .05), and relative plantaris mass (+15%, p < .01) were greater in EX vs. SED rats. In spite of gastrocnemius hypertrophy, EX animals presented a 54% decrease in basal muscle protein synthesis levels (p < .01), a 125% increase in pan 4EBP1 levels (p < .001) and a 31% decrease in pan eIF4E levels (p < .05). However, in relation to SED animals, EX animals presented a 70% increase in gastrocnemius c-Myc protein levels (p < .05). Most markers of translational efficiency and ribosome biogenesis were not altered in the plantaris or soleus muscles of EX vs. SED animals. Gastrocnemius F-box protein 32 and poly-ubiquinated protein levels were approximately 150% and 200% greater in SED vs. EX rats (p < .001). These data suggest that the employed resistance training model increases hind limb muscle hypertrophy, and this may be mainly facilitated through reductions in skeletal muscle proteolysis, rather than alterations in ribosome biogenesis or translational efficiency. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Small finance banks: Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent innovation in the Indian banking structure has been the formation of a new banking institution—small finance banks (SFBs. These banks are expected to penetrate into financial inclusion by providing basic banking and credit services with a differentiated banking model to the larger population. In this context the new SFBs have multiple challenges in coming out with a new, differentiated business model. The challenges include building low cost liability portfolio, technology management, and balancing the regulatory compliances. This paper also presents the top of mind views of three senior executives of new small finance banks.

  12. Dynamic behavior of PEM FCPPs under various load conditions and voltage stability analysis for stand-alone residential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunoglu, M.; Onar, O. C.; Alam, M. S.

    In this paper, dynamic behavior and performance of a fuel cell power plant (FCPP) which operates in parallel with a battery bank is tested under classified load conditions, such as mostly resistive, mostly inductive, resistive-inductive and non-linear loads. Thereafter, voltage stability analysis is performed using the dynamic response of the FCPP for stand-alone residential applications. Simulation results are obtained using the MATLAB ® and Simulink ® software packages, based on the mathematical and dynamic electrical models of the system. Using the experimental results, a validated model has been realized and voltage stability analysis is performed through this model.

  13. DACHPt-Loaded Nanoparticles Self-assembled from Biodegradable Dendritic Copolymer Polyglutamic Acid-b-D-α-Tocopheryl Polyethylene Glycol 1000 Succinate for Multidrug Resistant Lung Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-I Tsai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinical applications of platinum-based antitumor agents are still largely limited by severe side effects as well as multidrug resistance (MDR. To solve these problems, we developed an 1,2-diaminocyclohexane-platinum(II (DACHPt-loaded nanoparticle (NP-TPGS-Pt by self-assembly of poly(amidoamine-polyglutamic acid-b-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PAM-PGlu-b-TPGS and DACHPt. NP-TPGS-Pt showed robust stability and pH-responsive DACHPt release profile in vitro similar to the PEG-containing nanoparticle (NP-PEG-Pt. Meanwhile, in contrast with NP-PEG-Pt, NP-TPGS-Pt exhibited efficient nanoparticle-based cellular uptake by the Pt-resistant A549/DDP human lung cancer cells and caused much more cytotoxicity than free Oxaliplatin and NP-PEG-Pt. Finally, this NP-TPGS-Pt was proved to perform outstanding inhibition of Pt-resistant tumor growth, much superior than free Oxaliplatin and NP-PEG-Pt. Thus, this NP-TPGS-Pt provides a novel powerful nanomedicine platform for combatting multidrug resistant cancer.

  14. Differentiation of stress load resistant calves by the help of insulin-like growth factor–I (IGF–I in serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Petrák

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Animals do not respond uniformly to stress load. It leads to energy losses and body damage during stressor exposure. One of the hormones activated by stress, providing the repair of the body during and after load, is growth hormone. It acts directly on cells, but mainly through insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I, which protects cells from apoptosis and promotes their growth and proliferation. Changes in concentrations of IGF-I in the circulation during psychical load at individual excitatory types of calves (EHb+ highly reactive, EHb° medium reactive and EHb- low reactive are not known. Calves type EHb+ and EHb° are more resistant to stress than EHbtype calves. The aim of our study was to measure the levels of IGF-I immediately after the application of psychical form of load with the calves differentiated according to different types of excitation. Differentiation of excitatory types of calves was done after 20 minute habituation test. Habituation test was performed in habituation chamber. Immediately before and after habituation calves were taken blood from jugular vein by syringe. Blood sampling was allowed to clot in a refrigerator at 4 °C and after 4 to 6 hours, it was centrifuged at 1200 rpm for 10 min. Then serum was drawn in from the syringe and frozen in aliquots volume in eppendorf vessel until further processing at -20 °C. Serum samples of calves were treated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA - test. The highest levels of IGF-I in all types of calves were in the resting blood collection. Within of individual type of excitation in a concentration IGF-I before and after load significant difference was not found. After application of psychical form of stress the concentration of IGF-I in blood of the calves declined.

  15. GenBank

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Rapp, Barbara A.; Wheeler, David L.

    2002-01-01

    The GenBank sequence database incorporates publicly available DNA sequences of more than 105 000 different organisms, primarily through direct submission of sequence data from individual laboratories and large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the BankIt (web) or Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Data exchange with the EMBL Data Library and the DNA Data Bank of Japan helps ensure comprehensive worldwide coverage. GenBank...

  16. FEATURES OF SELECTION OF CAPACITOR BANKS IN ELECTRIC NETWORKS WITH INTERHARMONIC SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Sayenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of a methodology for selecting capacitor bank parameters designed to compensate for reactive power, if there are sources of interharmonics in the electrical network. Development of a methodology for selecting the parameters of capacitor banks that are part of resonant filters of higher harmonics and interharmonics. Methodology. For the research, we used the decomposition of the non-sinusoidal voltage (current curve into the sum of the harmonic components with frequencies as multiple of the fundamental frequency - higher harmonics, and not multiple fundamental frequencies - interharmonics. Results. Expressions are obtained for checking the absence of inadmissible overloads of capacitor banks by voltage and current in the presence of voltage (current in the curve, along with higher harmonics, of the discrete spectrum of interharmonics. When selecting capacitor banks, both for reactive power compensation and for filter-compensating devices, the necessity of constructing the frequency characteristics of the input and mutual resistances of the electrical network for analyzing possible resonant phenomena is confirmed. Originality. The expediency of simplified calculation of the voltage variation at the terminals of the banks of the capacitors of the higher harmonics filters and interharmonics due to the presence of the reactor in the filters is substantiated. Practical value. The use of the proposed approaches will make it possible to resolve a number of issues related to the choice of parameters of capacitor banks in networks with nonlinear loads, including: ensuring reliable operation of capacitor banks when their parameters deviate from their nominal values, as well as deviations in the parameters of the supply network and sources of harmonic distortion; ensuring the absence of resonant phenomena at frequencies of both higher harmonics and interharmonics.

  17. Effect of luting agent on the load to failure and accelerated-fatigue resistance of lithium disilicate laminate veneers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, Marco M. M.; Ozcan, Mutlu; Carualho, Marco; Lazari, Priscilla; Cune, Marco S.; Razavi, Peywand; Magne, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the luting agent on the application of laminate veneers (LVs) in an accelerated fatigue and load-to-failure test after thermo-cyclic aging. Methods. Sound maxillary central incisors (N = 40) were randomly divided into four groups

  18. Electromagnetic and mechanical characteristion of ITER CS-MC conductors affected by transverse cyclic loading, part 2: Interstrand contact resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Arend; Noordman, Niels H.W.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Mitchell, Neil; Bruzzone, Pierluigi

    1999-01-01

    A special cryogenic press has been built to study the mechanical and electrical properties of full-size ITER multistrand Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor samples under transverse, mechanical loading. This simulates the transverse magnetic force that occurs when the conductors are used in a coil. The

  19. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by the...

  20. Usnic acid-loaded biocompatible magnetic PLGA-PVA microsphere thin films fabricated by MAPLE with increased resistance to staphylococcal colonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grumezescu, V; Grumezescu, A M; Ficai, A; Vasile, B S; Holban, A M; Lazar, V; Chifiriuc, C M; Socol, G; Truscă, R; Bleotu, C; Mogosanu, G D

    2014-01-01

    Due to their persistence and resistance to the current therapeutic approaches, Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-associated infections represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the hospital environment. Since (+)-usnic acid (UA), a secondary lichen metabolite, possesses antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive cocci, including S. aureus, the aim of this study was to load magnetic polylactic-co-glycolic acid-polyvinyl alcohol (PLGA-PVA) microspheres with UA, then to obtain thin coatings using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation and to quantitatively assess the capacity of the bio-nano-active modified surface to control biofilm formation by S. aureus, using a culture-based assay. The UA-loaded microspheres inhibited both the initial attachment of S. aureus to the coated surfaces, as well as the development of mature biofilms. In vitro bioevalution tests performed on the fabricated thin films revealed great biocompatibility, which may endorse them as competitive candidates for the development of improved non-toxic surfaces resistant to S. aureus colonization and as scaffolds for stem cell cultivation and tissue engineering. (paper)

  1. Amphiphilic Cargo-Loaded Nanocarrier Enhances Antibiotic Uptake and Perturbs Efflux: Effective Synergy for Mitigation of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Durairaj; Das, Gopal; Ramesh, Aiyagari

    2017-07-20

    A pyridinium-amphiphile-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanocarrier (C1-PNC) was developed as an adjuvant in order to break the resistance and restore the susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cells to therapeutic antibiotics. Notably, against a clinical MRSA strain, C1-PNC was found to render 8- and 6-fold decreases in the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC 90 ) of gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Mechanistic studies on MRSA planktonic cells revealed that in the case of gentamicin, C1-PNC promotes enhanced cellular uptake of the antibiotic, whereas the propensity of C1-PNC to inhibit efflux pump activity could be leveraged to enhance cellular accumulation of ciprofloxacin, leading to effective killing of MRSA cells. Interestingly, the combinatorial dosing regimen of C1-PNC and the antibiotics was nontoxic to cultured HEK293 cells. This nontoxic amphiphile-loaded nanomaterial holds considerable promise as an adjuvant for antibiotic-mediated alleviation of MRSA biofilms. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Crack initiation behavior of notched specimens on heat resistant steel under service type loading at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cui

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cracks at notches deserve special consideration in the design of steam turbine components. This work is addressed to investigate the crack initiation behavior a 10%Cr rotor steel with the help of notched specimens under service-type loading. A significant drifting down of the peak-values of axial deformation under constant amplitude load was observed. Crack initiation was evaluated with the help of the relationship between irreversible deformation energy and cycle number. Further, metallographic examinations were employed to characterize the superposition of creep and fatigue damage mechanisms. Both Neuber-hypothesis and von Mises equivalent strain at notch root were applied for lifetime prediction. Finally, the effectiveness of both methods is validated by comparing with experimental results

  3. Increased rate of force development and neuromuscular activity after high-load resistance training in patients undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Andersen, Jesper L.; Eidemak, Inge

    2013-01-01

    development was tested using the Good Strength dynamometer chair. Muscle strength and neuromuscular function in the m. Vastus lateralis was estimated using electromyography in a one repetition maximum test during dynamic knee extension and during a 20s isometric knee extension with 50% of the one repetition...... maximum load. Muscle biopsies from the m. Vastus lateralis were analysed for morphologic characteristics. ResultsOne repetition maximum in knee extension increased by 46% (P...

  4. Dynamic power load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joncas, K. P.; Birnbach, S.; Lambert, M., III

    1973-01-01

    Two independent models simulate dynamic and steady-state responses of electrical and electronic equipment under power load. One is resistance/capacitance/inductance network, and the other is variable resistance analog device. Resistance, inductance, and/or capacitance are selected by iterative process; time-domain response is compared with that of real equipment to select optimal values.

  5. AC loss, interstrand resistance and mechanical properties of prototype EU DEMO TF conductors up to 30 000 load cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagotyntsev, K.; Nijhuis, A.

    2018-01-01

    Two prototype Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors conductors were designed and manufactured for the toroidal field (TF) magnet system of the envisaged European DEMO fusion reactor. The AC loss, contact resistance and mechanical properties of two sample conductors were tested in the Twente Cryogenic

  6. Effects of different volume-equated resistance training loading strategies on muscular adaptations in well-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Peterson, Mark D; Contreras, Bret; Sonmez, G T; Alvar, Brent A

    2014-10-01

    Regimented resistance training has been shown to promote marked increases in skeletal muscle mass. Although muscle hypertrophy can be attained through a wide range of resistance training programs, the principle of specificity, which states that adaptations are specific to the nature of the applied stimulus, dictates that some programs will promote greater hypertrophy than others. Research is lacking, however, as to the best combination of variables required to maximize hypertophic gains. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscular adaptations to a volume-equated bodybuilding-type training program vs. a powerlifting-type routine in well-trained subjects. Seventeen young men were randomly assigned to either a hypertrophy-type resistance training group that performed 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum (RM) with 90 seconds rest or a strength-type resistance training (ST) group that performed 7 sets of 3RM with a 3-minute rest interval. After 8 weeks, no significant differences were noted in muscle thickness of the biceps brachii. Significant strength differences were found in favor of ST for the 1RM bench press, and a trend was found for greater increases in the 1RM squat. In conclusion, this study showed that both bodybuilding- and powerlifting-type training promote similar increases in muscular size, but powerlifting-type training is superior for enhancing maximal strength.

  7. Bank, Banking System, Macroprudential Supervision, Stability of Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Vasilyeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of financial development during last decade causes transformation of banking sector functioning. In particular, among the most significant changes over this period should be noted the next ones: convergence of financial market segments and appearance of cross-sector financial products, an increase of prevailing of financial sector in comparison with real economy and level of their interdependent, an intensification of crisis processes in financial and especially banking sector and a significant increase of the scale of the crisis consequences etc. thus, in such vulnerable conditions it is become very urgent to identify the relevant factors that can influence on the stability of banking sector, because its maintenance seems to be one of the most important preconditions of the stability of the national economy as a whole. Purpose of the article is to analyze key performance indicators of the Ukrainian banking system, clarify its main problems, identify relevant factors of the stability of the Ukrainian banking system and the character of their influence on the dependent variable. Realization of the mentioned above tasks was ensured by regression analysis (OLS regression. Analysis of key indicators that characterize current situation in the Ukrainian banking system found out the existence of numerous endogenous and exogenous problems, which, in turn, cause worsening most of analyzed indicators during 2013-2015. Unfavorable situation in Ukrainian banking system determined the necessity of identification of relevant factors of banking system stability to avoid transmission of financial shocks. According to the results of regression analysis on the stability of banking sector positively influence such factors as increase of interest margin to gross income ratio, reserves to assets ratio, number of branches, ratio of non-performing loans to total loans. Meanwhile, negative impact on stability of banking system has an increase of liquid

  8. Bank Syariah Sebagai Alternatif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adang Sudjana

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The principle of not allowing interest practices (riba has saved the Syariah Bank and their customers from the effects of monetary crisis. In view of Islamic Principles, interest is forbidden. Therefore, all transactions of syariah banking are based on sale-purchase pattern. Besides, all good banking aspects as applied in conventional banking such as, 5 Cs (capital, collateral, capacity, character, and condition are also applied properly in the line of ukhrawi aspects in managing fund of syariah banking.  The practice of “mark-up” in project funded by syariah bank seems to be very difficult.

  9. Effects of Moderate-Volume, High-Load Lower-Body Resistance Training on Strength and Function in Persons with Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K. Schilling

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Resistance training research has demonstrated positive effects for persons with Parkinson's disease (PD, but the number of acute training variables that can be manipulated makes it difficult to determine the optimal resistance training program. Objective. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of an 8-week resistance training intervention on strength and function in persons with PD. Methods. Eighteen men and women were randomized to training or standard care for the 8-week intervention. The training group performed 3 sets of 5–8 repetitions of the leg press, leg curl, and calf press twice weekly. Tests included leg press strength relative to body mass, timed up-and-go, six-minute walk, and Activities-specific Balance Confidence questionnaire. Results. There was a significant group-by-time effect for maximum leg press strength relative to body mass, with the training group significantly increasing their maximum relative strength (P.05. Conclusions. Moderate volume, high-load weight training is effective for increasing lower-body strength in persons with PD.

  10. Regional Banks in the Russian Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vitalyevich Leonov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the lack of a uniform definition of «a regional bank», problems of their activities are widely discussed in the context of increasing regulation of the banking sector and creation of conditions for accelerated development of certain regions. The author analyses the Russian-language scientific literature in order to define «a regional bank» and systematize its key differences from other commercial banks. The researcher shows that the allocation of regional banks in a separate group should be related to specific features of the environment and not by endogenous factors associated with the selection of activities and balance sheet structure. The low level of financial market development and concentration of specific undiversified risks are the principal qualifiers differentiating between regional banks and other credit institutions in Russia. As classification criteria the author uses following: spatial representation (the bank does not have structural subdivisions in Moscow and the ownership structure (among the bank’s owners there are no national and international financial groups that have a direct impact on the operations of the bank

  11. GenBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — GenBank is the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences. GenBank is designed to provide and encourage access...

  12. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  13. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... nationalism does not trump economic rationality. An orthodox CB renders the central banking function redundant in terms of interest rate and exchange rate determination. FDI in banking could perform the same role for the supervisory function of central banks. We use the case of Estonia to illustrate...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  14. International Islamic Banking

    OpenAIRE

    saleem, shahid

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory and to some extent descriptive analysis is to highlight the Islamic banking & finance theory, and to explain the practical disparity all over the Muslim Umma along with commonalities of Islamic banking in them. Islamic banking has been now become a value proposition which transcends cultures and will do speedily in next decades despite of cutting throat competition expected in global banking scenario. The size of Islamic Financial Industry has now reached size ...

  15. GenBank

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L.

    2006-01-01

    GenBank (R) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 240 000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan...

  16. Audit of a bank

    OpenAIRE

    Ambros, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    The goal of my thesis "Audit of a bank" is to identify and describe the area of external and internal audit in banking and to focus on specifics of bank audit in comparison to external audit of commercial enterprise. The first part is focused on audit of financial statements. In the second part are described the specifics of banking segment. Third part describes internal audit and cooperation between external and internal audit. In the last part there are described methods applied during the ...

  17. Framing a Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2012-01-01

    Danish bank, Danske Bank, during the 2008 financial crisis and hence in shaping its image projected to the public. Through the study of a number of semantic frames adopted by the Danish print press and those adopted by the Bank, this article will argue for the constructions of the press putting...... considerable strain on the Bank and its image, leading it to reconsider its previous strategy of denial of responsibility...

  18. Modern bank's credit risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šabović Šerif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Credit risk is the most important risk banks have to face with. It occurs due to an obligation created because of debtors' capital and interest rate nonpayment. Debtors obligations non-fulfilment may lead to great losses and insolvency in bank's business. Credit risk is the crucial reason of bank's insolvency. Over 80% of bank's balance sheet is exposed to credit risk.

  19. The Fate of Failed Bank Material and Implications for Lateral Retreat: Lake Tahoe Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Thomas, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to deterministically predict the critical conditions for streambank failure in alluvial materials has improved markedly in recent years. Analytic tools such as the Bank-Stability and Toe-Erosion Model (BSTEM) account for a broad range of controlling processes and factors including hydraulic erosion of the bank toe, positive and negative pore-water pressures, layers of varying geotechnical resistance and root reinforcement. When failure is predicted, the failed mass is assumed to be transported away from the section by the flow, either as a single mass or as dispersed aggregates. Field observations indicate, however, that in cases where cohesive strength is high, either due to the effective cohesion of the soil skeleton or due to dense mats of fine roots, the failed block comes to rest in the vicinity of the bank toe. In this case, the resistance of the bank-toe region to hydraulic scour may be increased markedly and resistance to geotechnical failure may also be increased by buttressing. Conversely, deposition of blocks at bank toes may cause flow acceleration and scour landward of the block, resulting in further undercutting of the bank mass. Failure to account for these processes can lead to errors in predicting of rates of failure frequency, lateral retreat and streambank loadings.Once deposited at the bank toe, failed blocks can be eroded by hydraulic forces either as a mass and/or by erosion of aggregates comprising the block. Field research on the nature of hydraulic resistance and block erosion has been conducted along selected reaches of the Upper Truckee River (UTR) and Trout Creek, Lake Tahoe Basin, California. Block materials are generally characterized by lower apparent cohesive strength than their in situ counterparts due to the lower values of matric suction owing to their proximity to the water surface. Still, submerged jet-test device conducted in root-permeated blocks show critical shear stresses one to two orders of magnitude greater

  20. A randomized cross-over trial to detect differences in arm volume after low- and heavy-load resistance exercise among patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer at risk for arm lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Hayes, Sandi; Adamsen, Lis

    2016-01-01

    changes after resistance exercise with heavy loads in this population. The purpose of this study is to determine acute changes in arm volume after a session of low- and heavy-load resistance exercise among women undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer at risk for arm lymphedema. METHODS......-20 repetition maximum) and heavy-load (three sets of 5-8 repetition maximum) upper-extremity resistance exercise session with a one week wash-out period between sessions. OUTCOME: Changes in extracellular fluid (L-Dex score) and arm volume (ml) will be assessed using bioimpedance spectroscopy and dual-energy x...... was calculated based on changes in L-Dex scores between baseline and 72-hours post exercise sessions. DISCUSSION: Findings from this study are relevant for exercise prescription guidelines, as well as recommendations regarding participating in activities of daily living for women following surgery for breast...

  1. Essays on banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosk, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation studies how banks collect and process information. The first chapter studies how the organizational structure of banks affects the processing of information. The second chapter studies how banks use private information collected over the lending relationship in credit negotiations.

  2. Banking in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Cull, R.; Berger, A.; Molyneux, P.; Wilson, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes stock of the current state of banking systems across Sub-Saharan Africa and discusses recent developments including innovations that might help Africa leapfrog more traditional banking models. Using an array of different data, the paper documents that African banking systems are

  3. Bank profitability during recessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Wilko; de Haan, Leo; Hoeberichts, Marco; van Oordt, Maarten R C; Swank, Job

    This paper contributes to the literature on the relation between bank profitability and economic activity. When allowing for stronger co-movement of bank profit with economic activity during deep recessions, we find a much larger impact of output growth on bank profitability than commonly found in

  4. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  5. Enhancement of Fracture Resistance by Multiple Cracks in Layered Structures under Mode I and Mix Mode Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios; Sørensen, Bent F.

    beams bonded together with a thermoset adhesive, more delamination cracks could be developed next to the main/primary adhesive/laminate crack. An analytical model, based on the J integral, was developed for multiple delaminations [3]. It is shown that the maximum possible increase (upper limit......Layered structures are susceptible to delamination because they often exhibit low interlaminar fracture resistance. Through-thickness stresses e.g. due to manufacturing defects or geometric discontinuities, can result in growing interlaminar cracks which may lead to loss of structural integrity [1...

  6. From the semicircular vault to the flattened vault in masonry bridges. The influence of rise/span ratio and the resistant backfill in the breaking load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Urruchi-Rojo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The shape of the vaults in masonry bridges has evolved during the history, so that we can find bibliography where, besides recommending one way of build instead of others depending on the period, is also prescribed the way to carry out the backfill of the extrados. All of this emerged initially as a result of the experiences acquired during the construction and the observation of bridges. Hence, during the 18th century new formulations started to arise, but they led to one result in some cases and to the opposite in others. This article tries to make a comparison between some of these formulations, as well as carrying out an analysis of the influence of both, the lowering rise/span ratio of the vaults and the presence of a resistant backfill in its extrados, on the variation of the breaking load.

  7. The Ability of Tourist Natural Trails to Resist Tourism Load and Possibilities for Reducing the Environmental Impacts : Case Study of the Slovak Paradise National Park (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janočková Jana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The strictly protected natural area of Sucha Bela Gorge, located in the Slovak Paradise National Park, Slovakia, is exposed to environmental degradation by heavy tourist loads. Although educational and technical measures have been put in place, there is ongoing debate whether and how to limit the intensity of tourist visits. This study evaluates the ability of the trail leading through the gorge to resist trampling disturbance and to minimise the environmental impacts in the wider area of Sucha Bela by keeping tourists from moving off the designated areas. Aspects of trail layout, geological and geomorphological structures, terrain altering during the summer season, and acceptable tourist flow were investigated.The results show the current development would be acceptable in the case of limited off-trail movement. It therefore seems appropriate to review the trail allocation and marking, and to focus on environmental education rather than on limiting tourist visits.

  8. Folate and CD44 receptors dual-targeting hydrophobized hyaluronic acid paclitaxel-loaded polymeric micelles for overcoming multidrug resistance and improving tumor distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhua; Sun, Jin; Lian, He; Cao, Wen; Wang, Yongjun; He, Zhonggui

    2014-05-01

    The drug efflux mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter is one of the important factors responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR), and then the efficient intracellular drug delivery is an important strategy to overcome MDR of tumor cells. We describe and compare CD44 receptor single-targeting and folate (FA), CD44 receptors dual-targeting hyaluronic acid-octadecyl (HA-C18 ) micellar formulations to overcome MDR of tumor cells and to improve tumor distribution. In comparison with Taxol solution, the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel (PTX) loaded in HA-C18 and FA-HA-C18 micelles against drug-resistant tumor cells was improved significantly because of the increased intracellular delivery by active receptor-mediated endocytosis. Compared with the single-targeting micelles, dual-targeting micelles possessed better MDR-overcoming performance. Pharmacokinetic study demonstrated HA-C18 and FA-HA-C18 PTX-loaded micelles possessed much longer circulation and moderately larger AUC than Taxol solution. Above all, the tumor distribution in MCF-7 tumor-bearing mice of PTX encapsulated in HA-C18 and FA-HA-C18 micelles were 2.8 and 4.0 times higher than that of Taxol solution. It was concluded that dual-targeting FA-HA-C18 micelles demonstrate excellent MDR-overcoming ability and improved tumor distribution, and provide a novel effective nanoplatform for anticancer drug delivery in cancer chemotherapy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  9. Tumour cell lysate-loaded dendritic cell vaccine induces biochemical and memory immune response in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, D; Salazar, L; Espinoza, E; Pereda, C; Castellón, E; Valdevenito, R; Huidobro, C; Inés Becker, M; Lladser, A; López, M N; Salazar-Onfray, F

    2013-09-17

    Recently, we produced a tumour antigen-presenting cells (TAPCells) vaccine using a melanoma cell lysate, called TRIMEL, as an antigen source and an activation factor. Tumour antigen-presenting cells induced immunological responses and increased melanoma patient survival. Herein, we investigated the effect of TAPCells loaded with prostate cancer cell lysates (PCCL) as an antigen source, and TRIMEL as a dendritic cell (DC) activation factor; which were co-injected with the Concholepas concholepas haemocyanin (CCH) as an adjuvant on castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. The lysate mix capacity, for inducing T-cell activation, was analysed by flow cytometry and Elispot. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction against PCCL, frequency of CD8(+) memory T cells (Tm) in blood and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in serum were measured in treated patients. The lysate mix induced functional mature DCs that were capable of activating PCCL-specific T cells. No relevant adverse reactions were observed. Six out of 14 patients showed a significant decrease in levels of PSA. DTH(+) patients showed a prolonged PSA doubling-time after treatment. Expansion of functional central and effector CD8(+) Tm were detected. Treatment of CRPC patients with lysate-loaded TAPCells and CCH as an adjuvant is safe: generating biochemical and memory immune responses. However, the limited number of cases requires confirmation in a phase II clinical trial.

  10. Prevalence, quantitative load, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. from broiler ceca and broiler skin samples in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokboonmongkol, C; Patchanee, P; Gölz, G; Zessin, K-H; Alter, T

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler flocks by testing cecal contents at slaughter and to detect and quantify Campylobacter on broiler carcass skin samples of the corresponding slaughter batches, to determine antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Campylobacter isolates, and to genotype selected Campylobacter jejuni isolates using multilocus sequence typing analysis. Ninety-eight broiler flocks were included in the study. Intact ceca were randomly taken at the time of evisceration throughout a slaughter batch to detect Campylobacter spp. at the broiler flock level and one whole carcass per slaughter batch was taken for the detection of Campylobacter spp. on broiler skin. The prevalences of Campylobacter spp. in broiler ceca and broiler skin samples were 11.2% (11/98) and 51% (50/98), respectively. Even though most Campylobacter-positive broiler skin samples were contaminated with only up to 230 most probable number per gram, a substantial share (13.3%) showed very high Campylobacter numbers on the broiler skin samples (most probable number = ∞; lower confidence limit T(0) 580/g). From 32 C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates tested, the highest antimicrobial resistance rates were found for ciprofloxacin (81.2%), followed by tetracycline (40.6%), ampicillin (31.2%), and erythromycin (9.4%). All tested strains were sensitive to gentamicin. By multilocus sequence typing analysis, a total of 9 different sequence types were identified among 16 C. jejuni isolates. Campylobacter jejuni isolated from cecal content and carcass skin of the same farm or slaughter batch showed corresponding allelic profiles. Our data suggest that intense cross-contamination during the slaughter process led to a strong increase of Campylobacter prevalence on broiler skin compared with the prevalence in broiler ceca. To reduce Campylobacter prevalences on broiler skin, on-farm biosecurity measures need to be accompanied by control measures

  11. The Response of Performance to Merger Strategy in Indonesian Banking Industry: Analyses on Bank Mandiri, Bank Danamon, and Bank Permata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murti Lestari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the responses of performances of BankMandiri, Bank Danamon, and Bank Permata to merger strategy.This paper harnesses the quantitative approach with structuralbreak analysis method and impulse response function. Theplausible findings indicate that the merger of Bank Permataproduces a better performance response in comparison to theconsolidation of Bank Mandiri and the merger of Bank Danamon.The merger of Bank Permata does not result in performanceshocks, and the structural break does not prevail either. On theother hand, the consolidation of Bank Mandiri and the mergerof Bank Danamon result in structural breaks, particularly in thespread performance. In order to return to the stable position, themergers of Bank Mandiri and Bank Danamon require a longertime than does the merger of Bank Permata. This researchindicates that for large banks, the mergers and acquisitions(retaining one existing bank will deliver a better performanceresponse than will the consolidations (no existing bank. Keywords: impulse response function; merger; structural break

  12. BANKING WITHOUT INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ilieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increased global awareness of Islamic finance. This topic is mainly opened with respect to the great financial crisis that mostly hit the banking system and the financial markets and caused many bank bankruptcies and state interventions. This paper analyzes the basic principles of Islamic banking. The absolute prohibition of receiving and giving interest (Riba and profit-and-loss sharing (PLS paradigms are elaborated in detail; they are primarily based on mudarabah (profit-sharing and musyarakah (joint venture concepts which nowadays are becoming an accepted way of doing business in several Western multinational banks. An overall comparison of the advantages of Islamic vs. conventional banking is also given. Islamic finance technology solutions have matured and they will face various challenges in the following decades, due to conventional banks offering, increasingly, Islamic products. The need for a more comprehensive environment and regulatory framework is emphasized, so that Islamic banking development can be ensured.

  13. BANKING UNION - ROMANIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina Ioana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis showed that banks were not able to face the loss, because there is no framework for a resolution, so that it intervened with money from taxpayers. So, it has been highlighted the need to update the regulations applicable to the banking sector. Creating a single supervisory mechanism in the fall of 2014 was a time reference point to achieve a banking union in Europe. Banking Union is one of the four foundations for a genuine Economic and Monetary Union. The paper’s purpose is to analyze the Banking Union structure, based on three pillars: (i The Single Supervisory Mechanism - the transfer of the main responsibility regarding banking supervision from national to European level, (ii The Single Resolution Mechanism - introduction of common provisions to ensure legal support required to manage bank failures problem, (iii The Deposit Guarantee Schemes - harmonization of deposit guarantee rules. These measures were adopted at European Union level to ensure the stability of the European banking system and to prevent future crises. Because countries that are not part of the euro area are not required to join the Banking Union, the dilemma of these countries lies in the decision to join the Banking Union quickly or to wait. It is the case of Romania, also, so, this paper analyze the opportunity of Romania's accession to the Banking Union before adopting the euro. There are analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the Banking Union, showing that, in the context of single currency introduction, Romania's participation is required. So far, there are reduced debates regarding the need, advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the European Banking Union, the top representatives of the National Bank of Romania being among the few who expressed their views in public and published papers on the subject.

  14. Modification of meander migration by bank failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, D.; Langendoen, E. J.; Abad, J. D.; García, M. H.

    2014-05-01

    Meander migration and planform evolution depend on the resistance to erosion of the floodplain materials. To date, research to quantify meandering river adjustment has largely focused on resistance to erosion properties that vary horizontally. This paper evaluates the combined effect of horizontal and vertical floodplain material heterogeneity on meander migration by simulating fluvial erosion and cantilever and planar bank mass failure processes responsible for bank retreat. The impact of stream bank failures on meander migration is conceptualized in our RVR Meander model through a bank armoring factor associated with the dynamics of slump blocks produced by cantilever and planar failures. Simulation periods smaller than the time to cutoff are considered, such that all planform complexity is caused by bank erosion processes and floodplain heterogeneity and not by cutoff dynamics. Cantilever failure continuously affects meander migration, because it is primarily controlled by the fluvial erosion at the bank toe. Hence, it impacts migration rates and meander shapes through the horizontal and vertical distribution of erodibility of floodplain materials. Planar failures are more episodic. However, in floodplain areas characterized by less cohesive materials, they can affect meander evolution in a sustained way and produce preferential migration patterns. Model results show that besides the hydrodynamics, bed morphology and horizontal floodplain heterogeneity, floodplain stratigraphy can significantly affect meander evolution, both in terms of migration rates and planform shapes. Specifically, downstream meander migration can either increase or decrease with respect to the case of a homogeneous floodplain; lateral migration generally decreases as result of bank protection due to slump blocks; and the effect on bend skewness depends on the location and volumes of failed bank material caused by cantilever and planar failures along the bends, with possible achievement of

  15. Wave basin model tests of technical-biological bank protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, J.

    2012-04-01

    Sloped embankments of inland waterways are usually protected from erosion and other negative im-pacts of ship-induced hydraulic loads by technical revetments consisting of riprap. Concerning the dimensioning of such bank protection there are several design rules available, e.g. the "Principles for the Design of Bank and Bottom Protection for Inland Waterways" or the Code of Practice "Use of Standard Construction Methods for Bank and Bottom Protection on Waterways" issued by the BAW (Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute). Since the European Water Framework Directive has been put into action special emphasis was put on natural banks. Therefore the application of technical-biological bank protection is favoured. Currently design principles for technical-biological bank protection on inland waterways are missing. The existing experiences mainly refer to flowing waters with no or low ship-induced hydraulic loads on the banks. Since 2004 the Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute has been tracking the re-search and development project "Alternative Technical-Biological Bank Protection on Inland Water-ways" in company with the Federal Institute of Hydrology. The investigation to date includes the ex-amination of waterway sections where technical- biological bank protection is applied locally. For the development of design rules for technical-biological bank protection investigations shall be carried out in a next step, considering the mechanics and resilience of technical-biological bank protection with special attention to ship-induced hydraulic loads. The presentation gives a short introduction into hydraulic loads at inland waterways and their bank protection. More in detail model tests of a willow brush mattress as a technical-biological bank protec-tion in a wave basin are explained. Within the scope of these tests the brush mattresses were ex-posed to wave impacts to determine their resilience towards hydraulic loads. Since the

  16. Effect of flow-resistive inspiratory loading on pulmonary and respiratory muscle function in sub-elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shei, Ren J; Lindley, Martin; Chatham, Ken; Mickleborough, Timothy D

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week swim training and inspiratory muscle training program on respiratory muscle and pulmonary function in competitively trained sub-elite swimmers. A double-blind, parallel-group experimental design was employed to compare the effects of swim training alone, swim training with sham-inspiratory muscle training, and swim training with true inspiratory muscle training. Twenty-four competitively trained sub-elite swimmers combined swim training with either flow-resistive inspiratory muscle training set at 80% sustained maximal inspiratory pressure with progressively increased work-rest ratios until task failure for 3 days/week (swim training with inspiratory muscle training, N.=8), or swim training with sham-inspiratory muscle training (N.=8), or acted as controls (swim training only, N.=8). Measures of pulmonary and respiratory muscle function were assessed at the beginning and end of the 12-week study period. At baseline, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in respiratory muscle and pulmonary function between groups. Following the 12-week training period, the swim training with inspiratory muscle training group demonstrated improvements in maximal inspiratory pressure, sustained maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal inspiratory muscle power output, inspiratory muscle work capacity, inspiratory time of contraction, time to fatigue, maximal voluntary ventilation in 12 seconds, and forced inspiratory volume in 1-second (Prespiratory muscle function were observed in the swim training only or swim training with sham-inspiratory muscle training groups (P>0.05). Inspiratory muscle training in conjunction with swim training improves respiratory muscle function in sub-elite swimmers when compared to swim training only.

  17. Collection methods and contamination of bank milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Tyson, J E; Edwards, W H; Rosenfeld, A M; Beer, A E

    1982-01-01

    Bank milk collected by manual expression was less likely to be contaminated than milk collected by other methods. Contamination with coliforms and gentamicin-resistant Gram-negative rods was related to the pumps used by donors in their homes. Stringent precautions reduced but did not eliminate contamination.

  18. Adopting Internet Banking in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo; Betty A. Dankwah

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at the benefits, challenges and barriers in adopting Internet banking at a major bank in Ghana. The development of the Internet is changing the way financial services are provided in Ghana. The Internet banking facility has resulted in new ways of delivering banking services. The research is a case study based on the staffs that has worked with the bank for more than three years. In evaluating benefits, challenges and barriers to the bank in adopting Internet banking, intervi...

  19. Transmitted drug resistance in the CFAR network of integrated clinical systems cohort: prevalence and effects on pre-therapy CD4 and viral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Art F Y; Aldous, Jeannette L; Mathews, W Christopher; Kitahata, Mari; Kahn, James S; Saag, Michael S; Rodríguez, Benigno; Boswell, Stephen L; Frost, Simon D W; Haubrich, Richard H

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genomes often carry one or more mutations associated with drug resistance upon transmission into a therapy-naïve individual. We assessed the prevalence and clinical significance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in chronically-infected therapy-naïve patients enrolled in a multi-center cohort in North America. Pre-therapy clinical significance was quantified by plasma viral load (pVL) and CD4+ cell count (CD4) at baseline. Naïve bulk sequences of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) were screened for resistance mutations as defined by the World Health Organization surveillance list. The overall prevalence of TDR was 14.2%. We used a Bayesian network to identify co-transmission of TDR mutations in clusters associated with specific drugs or drug classes. Aggregate effects of mutations by drug class were estimated by fitting linear models of pVL and CD4 on weighted sums over TDR mutations according to the Stanford HIV Database algorithm. Transmitted resistance to both classes of reverse transcriptase inhibitors was significantly associated with lower CD4, but had opposing effects on pVL. In contrast, position-specific analyses of TDR mutations revealed substantial effects on CD4 and pVL at several residue positions that were being masked in the aggregate analyses, and significant interaction effects as well. Residue positions in RT with predominant effects on CD4 or pVL (D67 and M184) were re-evaluated in causal models using an inverse probability-weighting scheme to address the problem of confounding by other mutations and demographic or risk factors. We found that causal effect estimates of mutations M184V/I (-1.7 log₁₀pVL) and D67N/G (-2.1[³√CD4] and 0.4 log₁₀pVL) were compensated by K103N/S and K219Q/E/N/R. As TDR becomes an increasing dilemma in this modern era of highly-active antiretroviral therapy, these results have immediate significance for the clinical management of HIV-1 infections and

  20. Transmitted drug resistance in the CFAR network of integrated clinical systems cohort: prevalence and effects on pre-therapy CD4 and viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art F Y Poon

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 genomes often carry one or more mutations associated with drug resistance upon transmission into a therapy-naïve individual. We assessed the prevalence and clinical significance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR in chronically-infected therapy-naïve patients enrolled in a multi-center cohort in North America. Pre-therapy clinical significance was quantified by plasma viral load (pVL and CD4+ cell count (CD4 at baseline. Naïve bulk sequences of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase (RT were screened for resistance mutations as defined by the World Health Organization surveillance list. The overall prevalence of TDR was 14.2%. We used a Bayesian network to identify co-transmission of TDR mutations in clusters associated with specific drugs or drug classes. Aggregate effects of mutations by drug class were estimated by fitting linear models of pVL and CD4 on weighted sums over TDR mutations according to the Stanford HIV Database algorithm. Transmitted resistance to both classes of reverse transcriptase inhibitors was significantly associated with lower CD4, but had opposing effects on pVL. In contrast, position-specific analyses of TDR mutations revealed substantial effects on CD4 and pVL at several residue positions that were being masked in the aggregate analyses, and significant interaction effects as well. Residue positions in RT with predominant effects on CD4 or pVL (D67 and M184 were re-evaluated in causal models using an inverse probability-weighting scheme to address the problem of confounding by other mutations and demographic or risk factors. We found that causal effect estimates of mutations M184V/I (-1.7 log₁₀pVL and D67N/G (-2.1[³√CD4] and 0.4 log₁₀pVL were compensated by K103N/S and K219Q/E/N/R. As TDR becomes an increasing dilemma in this modern era of highly-active antiretroviral therapy, these results have immediate significance for the clinical management of HIV-1

  1. Effects of 4 weeks of low-load unilateral resistance training, with and without blood flow restriction, on strength, thickness, V wave, and H reflex of the soleus muscle in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomer-Poveda, David; Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Vera-Ibáñez, Antonio; Viñuela-García, Manuel; Márquez, Gonzalo

    2017-07-01

    To test the effects of 4 weeks of unilateral low-load resistance training (LLRT), with and without blood flow restriction (BFR), on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), muscle thickness, volitional wave (V wave), and Hoffmann reflex (H reflex) of the soleus muscle. Twenty-two males were randomly distributed into three groups: a control group (CTR; n = 8); a low-load blood flow restriction resistance training group (BFR-LLRT; n = 7), who were an inflatable cuff to occlude blood flow; and a low-load resistance training group without blood flow restriction (LLRT; n = 7). The training consisted of four sets of unilateral isometric LLRT (25% of MVC) three times a week over 4 weeks. MVC increased 33% (P changed in either of the legs tested in the CTR group (MVC -1 and -5%, and muscle thickness 1.9 and 1.2%, for the control and trained leg, respectively). Moreover, V wave and H reflex did not change significantly in all the groups studied (V wave /M wave ratio -7.9 and -2.6%, and H max /M max ratio -3.8 and -4%, for the control and trained leg, respectively). Collectively, the present data suggest that in spite of the changes occurring in soleus strength and thickness, 4 weeks of low-load resistance training, with or without BFR, does not cause any change in neural drive or motoneuronal excitability.

  2. Banks, regions and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Alessandrini

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards the banking sectors in all the industrialised countries have been experiencing intense restructuring, aggregation and consolidation, radically changing their ownership structures and geography. Whatever the reasons behind such restructuring processes, the globalisation of the credit markets, the consolidation of banking structures, the removal of barriers to the free location of banks and their penetration of peripheral markets pose two main questions. Will integration of the banking systems lead to a narrowing or a widening of the development gap between regions? What relations will there be between financial centres and the periphery, and how will financial labour be divided between national (international banks and local (regional banks? The aim of this paper is to address such questions in the light of recent developments in the theoretical and empirical literature on financial integration.

  3. Enhanced Bank-Stability Modeling With Coupled Geotechnical, Hydraulic and Near-Bank Groundwater Sub-Models: Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. E.; Simon, A.; Bankhead, N.

    2008-12-01

    Physically-based, deterministic bank-stability models have recently been developed to effectively simulate the driving and resisting forces governing streambank erosion. Significant advances have been made in the manner in which groundwater flow through variably saturated porous media, planar and circular geotechnical failures and fluvial sediment transport are simulated. However, to date, coupling these models has required tedious exporting and conversion of geometries and results and manual remeshing. In this presentation, we introduce the first fully integrated suite of models that deterministically simulate the controlling hydrologic, hydraulic and geotechnical processes that govern streambank erosion and channel-width adjustment. The model suite incorporates routines that: 1. Permit the user to enter between 5 and 23 points to describe the bank cross-sectional geometry; 2. Automatically generate a mesh by which to implicitly discretize the 2-D Richards equation utilizing finite volumes. The resulting pentadiagonal matrix is solved iteratively with Stone's Strongly Implicit Procedure (SIP). Timesteps are automatically adjusted to minimize mass balance and truncation errors; 3. Evaluate the force-equilibrium factor of safety (Fs), permitting the simulation of planar and cantilever shear failures with a horizontal slice method and planar shear failures with tension cracks with a rigorous vertical slice method. A random walk approach is adopted to search for the minimum Fs; 4. Estimate the increase in cohesion due to vegetation with a global load-sharing Fibre Bundle Model; and 5. Simulate the erosion of the bank face and bank toe with an excess shear stress approach. Management options to increase slope stability (through the addition of vegetation) and reduce channel- boundary erodibility (through the addition of natural and artificial structures) are also incorporated. We illustrate the efficacy of the modeling approach with a series of case studies in which

  4. Danske Bank - Imagekrise

    OpenAIRE

    Agerlin, Anne; Holmqvist, Maja

    2014-01-01

    This report examines and analyses the difference between Danske Bank's perception of themselves and the world's perception of the bank. The difference is illustrated, because tendency shows that boundaries have an effect on Danske Bank's image. We search through collected articles in a social constructivist perspective to handle both Danske Bank’s perception and the world’s perception. The empirical foundation has made it possible to process and interpret the stated problems. The adaptation i...

  5. GenBank

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    GenBank? is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 300 000 organisms named at the genus level or lower, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank? staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Molecular Biology Labo...

  6. GenBank

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Dennis A.; Cavanaugh, Mark; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2012-01-01

    GenBank? (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for almost 260 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assig...

  7. Banking: shop and compare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer A; DeJarnette, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    There are many reasons to take a critical look at the practice's banking relationship(s)--technology advancements, security measures, improvements in available services, recent banking enhancements designed specifically for medical practices, the impact of the financial crisis on bank ratings and stability, changing practice needs, opportunities for operational automation at the practice--and it is just simply smart to periodically evaluate and compare the features, pricing, and potential savings offered by vendors.

  8. Shareholder activism in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Raluca

    2015-01-01

    This paper conducts the first assessment of shareholder activism in banking and its effects on risk and performance. The focus is on the conflicts among bank shareholders, managers, and creditors (e.g., regulators, deposit insurer, taxpayers, depositors). This paper finds activism may generally be a destabilizing force, increasing bank risk-taking, but creating market value for shareholders, and leaving operating returns unchanged, consistent with the empirical dominance of the Shareholder-Cr...

  9. Effects of the different frequencies and loads of ultrasonic surface rolling on surface mechanical properties and fretting wear resistance of HIP Ti–6Al–4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G., E-mail: ligang_scut@outlook.com; Qu, S.G., E-mail: qusg@scut.edu.cn; Pan, Y.X.; Li, X.Q.

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Effects of MUSR frequency and load on surface properties of HIP Ti-6Al-4V investigated. • The grains in surface-modified layer were refined and appeared twins and many dense dislocations. • The hardened layer depth and surface residual stress of MUSR- treated samples were significantly improved. • MUSR- treated samples showed the good fretting friction and wear resistance. • The best microstructure and properties of surface-modified layer obtained by sample treated by 30 kHz and 900 N. - Abstract: The main purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of the different frequencies and loads of multi-pass ultrasonic surface rolling (MUSR) on surface layer mechanical properties, microstructure and fretting friction and wear characteristics of HIP (hot isostatic pressing) Ti–6Al–4 V alloy. Some microscopic analysis methods (SEM, TEM and EDS) were used to characterize the modified surface layer of material after MUSR treatment. The results indicated that the material in sample surface layer experienced a certain extent plastic deformation, and accompanied by some dense dislocations and twins generation. Moreover surface microhardness and residual stress of samples treated by MUSR were also greatly improved compared with the untreated. The fretting friction and wear properties of samples treated by MUSR in different conditions are tested at 10 and 15 N in dry friction conditions. It could be found that friction coefficient and wear volume loss were significantly declined in the optimal result. The main wear mechanism of MUSR-treated samples included abrasive wear, adhesion and spalling.

  10. The delivery of poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) nanoparticles loaded with non-toxic drug to overcome drug resistance for the treatment of neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhulekar, Jhilmil

    Neuroblastoma is a rare cancer of the sympathetic nervous system. A neuroblastoma tumor develops in the nerve tissue and is diagnosed in infants and children. Approximately 10.2 per million children under the age of 15 are affected in the United States and is slightly more common in boys. Neuroblastoma constitutes 6% of all childhood cancers and has a long-term survival rate of only 15%. There are approximately 700 new cases of neuroblastoma each year in the United States. With such a low rate of survival, the development of more effective treatment methods is necessary. A number of therapies are available for the treatment of these tumors; however, clinicians and their patients face the challenges of systemic side effects and drug resistance of the tumor cells. The application of nanoparticles has the potential to provide a safer and more effective method of delivery drugs to tumors. The advantage of using nanoparticles for drug delivery is the ability to specifically or passively target tumors while reducing the harmful side effects of chemotherapeutics. Drug delivery via nanoparticles can also allow for lower dosage requirements with controlled release of the drugs, which can further reduce systemic toxicity. The aim of this research was to develop a polymeric nanoparticle drug delivery system for the treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma. Nanoparticles composed of a poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymer were formulated to deliver a non-toxic drug in combination with Temozolomide, a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of neuroblastoma. The non-toxic drug acts as an inhibitor to the DNA-repair protein present in neuroblastoma cells that is responsible for inducing drug resistance in the cells, which would potentially allow for enhanced temozolomide activity. A variety of studies were completed to prove the nanoparticles' low toxicity, loading abilities, and uptake into cells. Additionally, studies were performed to determine the

  11. The 79,370-bp conjugative plasmid pB4 consists of an IncP-1beta backbone loaded with a chromate resistance transposon, the strA-strB streptomycin resistance gene pair, the oxacillinase gene bla(NPS-1), and a tripartite antibiotic efflux system of the resistance-nodulation-division family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauch, A; Schlüter, A; Bischoff, N; Goesmann, A; Meyer, F; Pühler, A

    2003-02-01

    Plasmid pB4 is a conjugative antibiotic resistance plasmid, originally isolated from a microbial community growing in activated sludge, by means of an exogenous isolation method with Pseudomonas sp. B13 as recipient. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of pB4. The plasmid is 79,370 bp long and contains at least 81 complete coding regions. A suite of coding regions predicted to be involved in plasmid replication, plasmid maintenance, and conjugative transfer revealed significant similarity to the IncP-1beta backbone of R751. Four resistance gene regions comprising mobile genetic elements are inserted in the IncP-1beta backbone of pB4. The modular 'gene load' of pB4 includes (1) the novel transposon Tn 5719 containing genes characteristic of chromate resistance determinants, (2) the transposon Tn 5393c carrying the widespread streptomycin resistance gene pair strA-strB, (3) the beta-lactam antibiotic resistance gene bla(NPS-1) flanked by highly conserved sequences characteristic of integrons, and (4) a tripartite antibiotic resistance determinant comprising an efflux protein of the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein (MFP), and an outer membrane factor (OMF). The components of the RND-MFP-OMF efflux system showed the highest similarity to the products of the mexCD-oprJ determinant from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosome. Functional analysis of the cloned resistance region from pB4 in Pseudomonas sp. B13 indicated that the RND-MFP-OMF efflux system conferred high-level resistance to erythromycin and roxithromycin resistance on the host strain. This is the first example of an RND-MFP-OMF-type antibiotic resistance determinant to be found in a plasmid genome. The global genetic organization of pB4 implies that its gene load might be disseminated between bacteria in different habitats by the combined action of the conjugation apparatus and the mobility of its component elements.

  12. Bank-toe processes in incised channels: the role of apparent cohesion in the entrainment of failed bank materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Anna L.; Simon, Andrew; Downs, Peter W.; Thorne, Colin R.

    2001-01-01

    Numerous processes may instigate bank retreat and the consequent collection of failed cohesive materials at the bank toe. Cohesion between the failed material and the substrate can provide additional strength to resist direct fluvial entrainment. Failed, cohesive material can act as a form of natural bank-toe protection by consuming and diverting flow energy that may otherwise be used to further scour the basal zone of incising channels.Investigations in Goodwin Creek, Mississippi, have revealed the existence of apparent cohesion between failed, cohesive blocks and their underlying surface. The method used to assess this cohesion involved a pulley system mounted on a tripod and supporting a load cell. Mean and maximum apparent-cohesion values of 1·08 kPa and 2·65 kPa, respectively, were measured in this way, identifying a source that bonds blocks to the underlying surface. Cohesion values and types vary spatially and temporally. Tensiometric tests beneath blocks suggest that cohesion resulting from matric suction alone may be as much as 3·5 kPa in summer and 1·8 kPa in winter.Apparent cohesion is believed to have been sufficient to help prevent removal of the largest blocks by a peak flow of 66·4m3/s on 23 September 1997. Maximum excess shear stress required to entrain a D75 block can be augmented by as much as 97% by the presence of apparent cohesion at the block-substrate interface when compared with a condition with zero apparent cohesion at the block underside. Given these findings, it is no longer sufficient to estimate block entrainment in the basal area from block size or bed roughness alone, as in a Shields-type approach.

  13. Bank profitability: Insights from the rural banking industry in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Adusei, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the profitability of 112 rural banks (special unit banks created to promote rural financial intermediation in Ghana). The results generally show that bank size, funding risk, diversification, liquidity risk, and bank stability are significant predictors of rural bank profitability. Whereas an improvement in the funding risk of a rural bank in a particular period portends a drop in its profitability in the future, an improvement in the size, diversification, liquidity risk,...

  14. Methods of Payment to Banks: e-Banking. Comparative Study on Three Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Petronella VLAD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accounts at any time; information about foreign exchange rates; view and print account statements; the definition of beneficiaries of direct payments by the client.

  15. A PROPOSAL FOR AN ASSESSMENT METHOD OF THE DYNAMIC RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE SLAB VIADUCTS SUBJECTED TO IMPACT LOADS CAUSED BY MINING TREMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz RUSEK

    Full Text Available The article presents a method for assessing dynamic resistance of existing reinforced concrete slab road viaducts subjected to mining tremors. For this purpose there are formulated six criteria to determine the maximum permissible value of the component ground vibrations (ax,dop, ay,dop, az,dop.Within each criterion, a reference is made to the most critical components, for which for which the Author has formulated strength and kinematic conditions, reflecting the behaviour of the structure under dynamic excitation caused by mining tremor. The permissible range of structural behaviour was set by comparing the effects of load combinations adopted at the design stage with a seismic combination proposed in [12]. In the field of dynamic analysis the response spectrum method was used, taking into account the guidelines for the adaptation of Eurocode 8 for the calculation the response of construction to the influence of mining tremors. Finally, in accordance with the established procedure calculations were carried out and and results are presented for a sample reinforced concrete slab road viaduct.

  16. Relationship between macroeconomic aggregates and bank performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Ranka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is relations between some macroeconomic aggregates and performance of banks. This paper show analysis of trends in gross domestic product, exchange rates, interest rates, inflation load, developments in the balance of payments. On the business side, performance is achieved insight into the liquidity, capital adequacy, and the amount of non-performable loans. The aim of the research is to refute or confirm the interconnectedness of movement values of macroeconomic aggregates and bank performance. The analysis confirmed the association of two set variables. The negative value movements of macroeconomic aggregates directly or indirectly have an impact on the quality of performance of the banking sector. Therefore, it is necessary to define an adequate strategy of the economy, would not it safer to carry out the process of adapting to new developments in the market, such as the global financial crisis, the rise in unproductive enterprises, distrust customers etc.

  17. Essays on historical banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwarkasing, N.R.D.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation studies the British banking sector from the end of the 19th century until the beginning of the 20th century. The British banking sector at that time was one of the most developed ones and was characterized by the fact that very little regulation existed concerning, amongst others,

  18. nigeria's banking sector reforms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NESG PUBLICATIONS

    institution in the financial market. This is due to the very nature of banks whose failure is viewed to have greater effect on the economy than the failure of other types of businesses (Ogunleye (2005: 3). Along with the traditional banks, Non-. Financial Institutions (NBFIs) also play intermediation role in the financial system by ...

  19. The macroeconomics of banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kwaak, C.G.F.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the macroeconomic effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in an environment where commercial banks are undercapitalized after a financial crisis and have large holdings of (risky) government bonds on their balance sheets. An undercapitalized banking system cannot perfectly

  20. iBank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermundo, Cesar B.; Bermundo, Alex B.; Ballester, Rex C.

    2012-01-01

    iBank is a project that utilizes a software to create an item Bank that store quality questions, generate test and print exam. The items are from analyze teacher-constructed test questions that provides the basis for discussing test results, by determining why a test item is or not discriminating between the better and poorer students, and by…

  1. Competition in EU banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonghe, Olivier; Diepstraten, Maaike; Schepens, Glenn; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses recent EU-wide movements in bank competition and concentration. We start with a concise overview of the most frequently used competition and concentration measures. Given that different measures may capture different aspects of bank competition, we focus on the differences and

  2. International fuel bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group discusses the establishment of an international bank for nuclear fuels. The statements by representatives of seven countries discuss the specific features of a bank of this kind which is set up to facilitate access to nuclear fuels but also to permit a more rigid control in the sense of the non-proliferation philosophy

  3. Destroy The Bank! (case)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Van der Star; dr. A. Maas

    2016-01-01

    DZ Bank faces some significant challenges for the near future. One of them is the way payments are being made. This case is about Stefan, the Strategic Management Consultant of DZ Bank. He struggles with innovations and new technologies, such as Bitcoins. What does this mean for the future of the

  4. Three essays on banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlahu, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on banking and concentrates on two topics. The first two essays deal with strategic behavior of borrowers. The third essay explores the relation between bank capital and risk-taking. The first essay, Collective Strategic Defaults: Bailouts and Repayment

  5. Organization of eye bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation

  6. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital

  7. Geographic diversification in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Yiwei; van Lelyveld, Iman

    2014-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2007-2009 crisis, banks claiming positive diversification benefits are being met with skepticism. Nevertheless, diversification might be important and sizable for some large internationally active banking groups. We use a universally applicable correlation matrix approach to

  8. THE BANKING SECTOR - INFLUENCE FACTORS OF BANKING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela CIOCAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines how the banking system is organised in Romania. By comparing the organization of the banking system in Romania with banking systems of certain countries in the European Union, banks typology is highlighted at the international level. The aim of this paper is to highlight the factors influencing the Romanian banking system, the banking system role in the economy as well as the objectives of Romanian banking system. This paper examines indicators as: return on equity, return on assets, leverage effect, profit rate and the rate of assets utilization, in order to identify the methods of quantifying the performance of the Romanian banking system, by reference to two commercial banks, namely Transilvania Bank and Intesa Sanpaolo Bank. After the analysis and calculation of these indicators, we can notice a good situation of the banks concerned. In order to improve Romanian banking system are under consideration: reducing the costs of banking intermediation, raising the coverage levels at European level and reducing the compulsory reserves. After the analysis of organization the banking system in Romania and comparing banking systems at the level of some countries of the European Union we can conclude that national banking system has its own particularities, in terms of banks name, types of activities covered under this name as well as those at European Union level.

  9. Bank profitability: Insights from the rural banking industry in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Adusei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the profitability of 112 rural banks (special unit banks created to promote rural financial intermediation in Ghana. The results generally show that bank size, funding risk, diversification, liquidity risk, and bank stability are significant predictors of rural bank profitability. Whereas an improvement in the funding risk of a rural bank in a particular period portends a drop in its profitability in the future, an improvement in the size, diversification, liquidity risk, and stability of a rural bank signifies an improvement in the future profitability of the bank.

  10. GREEN BANKING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrascu Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the green banking in Romania, a new approach of conducting the banking business through considering the corporate social responsibility and environmental aspects. Nowadays, it is difficult to face the globalization and competition in order to asssure the implementation of the green banking practices. The aim of the present study is to identify corporations that have sustainability concerns. To achieve this objective, we set some hypothesis and after this we showed that the corporations are more likely to be included in the list of top banks in the world. Our study is relevant for future research in this area, because of the importance of such aspects in corporations nowadays.The conclusions of our study is that green banking practices in Romania is in an incipient stage

  11. Competition in investment banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.

  12. Factors Affecting Internet Banking Success: A Comparative Investigation between Indonesia and South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Aries Susanto; Hwansoo Lee; Hangjung Zo; Andrew P. Ciganek

    2013-01-01

    Internet banking is a prominent example of Internet-based applications. Previous research has found that satisfaction, trust, commitment, and loyalty are important factors for Internet banking success. Resistance to adopt Internet banking is often attributed to the role of trust, security, and privacy in e-commerce systems. This study proposes a framework to examine behaviors toward Internet banking services in Indonesia and South Korea. A research model was empirically tested with data captu...

  13. BANKING SUPERVISION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU; Vasile ILIE

    2013-01-01

    The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences ca...

  14. Bank and sovereign debt risk

    OpenAIRE

    Darracq Paries, Matthieu; Faia, Ester; Rodriguez-Palenzuela, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Euro area data show a positive connection between sovereign and bank risk, which increases with banks' and sovereign long run fragility. We build a macro model with banks subject to incentive problems and liquidity risk (in the form of liquidity based banks' runs) which provides a link between endogenous bank capital and macro and policy risk. Our banks also invest in risky government bonds used as capital buffer to self-insure against liquidity risk. The model can replicate the positive conn...

  15. Increasing the competitiveness of banks

    OpenAIRE

    Badaeva V.; Makukhina Y.

    2017-01-01

    The article examines about the essence of competitiveness of banks, the ways of improving it, competitive advantages and factors which influence the effectiveness and competitiveness of banking institutions.

  16. Global Banking: Transformation, Innovation & Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobov Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the main transformation processes in banking sector: globalization, concentration of capital, formation of a new model of banking and new banking culture. It is shown that the driving forces of these processes are competition and innovation. The interpretation of the bank of the future as a sum of four concepts is offered: “Bank = technology”, “Bank = client”, “Bank = product”, “Bank = life”. It is hypothesized that a person in the digital economy can be described as Homo financial (a person with financial literacy and financial thinking.

  17. Electronic Banking And Bank Performance In Nigeria | Abaenewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the profitability performance of Nigerian banks following the full adoption of electronic banking system. The study became necessary as a result of increased penetration of electronic banking which has redefined the banking operations in Nigeria and around the world. Judgmental sampling method ...

  18. Customer satisfaction with retail banking services in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narteh, Bedman; Kuada, John

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a study of the determinants of customer satisfaction of retail banking services in Ghana and discusses the strategic implications of the findings for the retail banks. We reviewed the extant literature to identify theoretical determinants of customer satisfaction in retail......, core and tangible dimensions of service to be the major determinants of customer satisfaction in retail banking in Ghana. Technology also loaded onto the core and tangible dimensions of service quality...... banking and their measurement scales. These were adapted to build a conceptual framework for the empirical investigation conducted. Data were collected using a questionnaire administered through personal interviews to 650 customers of retail banks and the results were factor analysed. We found relational...

  19. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Gentil, Paulo; Moro, Tatiana; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint exercises (MJ) on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years) exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc.) and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years) with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.). The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load) was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ), bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ), knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ) and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ). In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition. PMID:29312007

  20. Structural load combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane eqrthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 or 1.0 x 10 -5 during a lifetime of 40 years. 23 refs., 9 tabs

  1. Protein Data Bank (PDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...

  2. Environmental Data Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1962-06-01

    In an effort to determine the environment to which the equipment designed by Sandia Corporation will be exposed, a "Data Bank" of environmental information was compiled. Measured quantities resulting from actual uses were continually being summarized.

  3. Reliability data banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, A.G.; Bendell, A.

    1991-01-01

    Following an introductory chapter on Reliability, what is it, why it is needed, how it is achieved and measured, the principles of reliability data bases and analysis methodologies are the subject of the next two chapters. Achievements due to the development of data banks are mentioned for different industries in the next chapter, FACTS, a comprehensive information system for industrial safety and reliability data collection in process plants are covered next. CREDO, the Central Reliability Data Organization is described in the next chapter and is indexed separately, as is the chapter on DANTE, the fabrication reliability Data analysis system. Reliability data banks at Electricite de France and IAEA's experience in compiling a generic component reliability data base are also separately indexed. The European reliability data system, ERDS, and the development of a large data bank come next. The last three chapters look at 'Reliability data banks, - friend foe or a waste of time'? and future developments. (UK)

  4. Banking on technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, Carole J

    2007-04-01

    New technology is being used by banks to help providers improve their revenue cycle through: Digital lockbox service. Remote deposit. Web-based payment. Automated payment processing at the point of service.

  5. Mitigation Banking Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mitigation bank is an aquatic resource area that has been restored, established, enhanced, or preserved for the purpose of providing compensation for unavoidable impacts to aquatic resources permitted under Section 404

  6. Banking on the Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I analyse the narratives of four Danish central bank governors from the late nineteenth century until the mid-1990s. By conducting a historical analysis informed by neo-institutional theory, I show how these central bank governors were continuously involved in public debates over...... the appropriateness and desirability of their decisions and policies. In these debates, interpretations and reproductions of Danish national identity were central to the governors' claims to legitimacy. I argue that past narratives of the Danish central bank and its governors enabled and framed future legitimacy...... claims and that the central bank and its governors gradually became embedded in national identity. Thus, the article highlights the historical development of the co-configuring relationship between Danish national identity and the legitimacy of monetary organization....

  7. Banking in southern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarević Žarko

    2014-01-01

    The nations discussed here (Italy, Spain, Portugal and Greece) have in common - with the exception of Italy, that is - that they used to be on the margins of European economic and social developments. Only Italy succeeded in industrialising itself already prior to World War I. This fundamental trait also determined the developmental path of modern-era banking. Hereby, two important points in the course of development of banking in the Southern European countries need to be emphasised. To begi...

  8. Load Bearing Equipment for Bone and Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Griffith, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Resistance exercise on ISS has proven effective in maintaining bone mineral density and muscle mass. Exploration missions require exercise with similar high loads using equipment with less mass and volume and greater safety and reliability than resistance exercise equipment used on ISS (iRED, ARED, FWED). Load Bearing Equipment (LBE) uses each exercising person to create and control the load to the partner.

  9. Role of Foreign Banks in Integration of Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Šubić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic development of financial industry in some last ten years that, considering the kind of financial agents, remained bank-oriented represents a suficient reason to investigate the causes that brought to the present structure of banking system. After having presented theoretical bases of the integration forms and banks connection, the paper analyzes the influence of foreign banks on the development of Croatian bank system. Thus, beside the knowledge of quantitative changes in the banking system, the paper researched the motivations of the banks regarding integration that, among other things, brought to creating the effects of scale and scope economies. However, the concentrations among banks can lead to creation of negative externalities that later become potential dangers for the banking. Pre-cognitions on development of banking system are used to create projection of future banking development while the data basis of the countries from the region enabled the comparative analysis of banks integration in these countries. The conclusion is that the foreign banks have been the largest promoters of bank integration in the Republic of Croatia contributing also to qualitative development of banking market and to deepening of financial market spectrum.

  10. Mobile banking: New trend in the contemporary banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanader Dušica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1990s and early 2000s, banking has undergone and is still undergoing some considerable changes, adjusting itself to the new circumstances and challenges in its environment. Modern information technologies have granted an opportunity to banks to expand their operations and adjust their offer of products and services, placing them through the new communication channels. The increasing reliance on mobile devices, especially the so-called smart phones, has facilitated the development of a new form of banking, known as mobile banking. Mobile banking is a specific channel of electronic banking, enabling clients to communicate with the bank via mobile devices. The bank's products and services are, thus, available to the clients at any time and at any place, and the banking sector is expected to perfectly understand the needs of today's clients, before implementing mobile banking. The research in this paper focuses on mobile banking, as a segment of electronic banking, which has developed under the influence of modern information technologies. The paper elaborates on the main characteristics of mobile banking, its advantages, but also its drawbacks that the banks and their clients are facing in the process of its utilization (or its implementation in practice. Moreover, the paper presents the trends of using mobile banking in the world and in Serbia, along with the tendencies for developing new services.

  11. 12 CFR 7.1003 - Money lent at banking offices or at other than banking offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Money lent at banking offices or at other than banking offices. 7.1003 Section 7.1003 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1003 Money lent at banking offices or at other than...

  12. A Cohort Study to Evaluate the Feasibility of Low Load/High Repetition Elastic Band Resistance Training for People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Andre; Lindström, Britta; Wadell, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Resistance training is an important component of pulmonary rehabilitation in people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). A vast majority or resistance training studies in COPD have focused on increasing muscular strength with use of weight machines and has been found to be a feasible approach in COPD. However, regarding feasibility of resistance training equipment other than weight machines, such as elastic resistance equipment, information is scarce. In addition, li...

  13. Can consumers bank on mergers?

    OpenAIRE

    Kerton, Robert / R

    2003-01-01

    How big do banks need to be to gain all the economies of scale? The largest Canadian banks already achieve scale economies and further increases in size can make them "too big to fail." Available evidence indicates normal monopoly risks will be passed on to Canadian firms and consumers if the largest banks merge. Improved service will make Canada's banks world competitive. Despite the banks' enthusiasm for heft to enter the US market, policy measures exist to prevent mergers that are contr...

  14. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  15. The main directions of banking products promotion in the banking marketing system in Russian commercial banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markova O.M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article is devoted to the research of directions of client-oriented approach application during bank products promotion in Russian banks. Attention is paid to the development of electronic banking, social networks through which consumers receive the necessary information about beneficial offers and special conditions for providing banking services.

  16. 20 kA PFN capacitor bank with solid-state switching. [pulse forming network for plasma studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posta, S. J.; Michels, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    A compact high-current pulse-forming network capacitor bank using paralleled silicon controlled rectifiers as switches is described. The maximum charging voltage of the bank is 1kV and maximum load current is 20 kA. The necessary switch equalization criteria and performance with dummy load and an arc plasma generator are described.

  17. Bank Diversification Effects on Bank Performance and Risk Profile of Bank in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Lukmawijaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relationship of Indonesian bank diversification towards its long term performance and risk profile with Indonesian bank data from 2009 to 2013. Non-interest income to total operating income of the bank measures its bank diversification level. Bank value is measured by the adjusted Tobin's Q and risk profile which is broken down into total risk, idiosyncratic risk, and systematic risk. The result shows that bank non-interest income diversification has a positive influence on its franchise value. There is, however, no strong evidence that diversification can lower a bank's risk profile.

  18. Banking in southern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Žarko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nations discussed here (Italy, Spain, Portugal and Greece have in common - with the exception of Italy, that is - that they used to be on the margins of European economic and social developments. Only Italy succeeded in industrialising itself already prior to World War I. This fundamental trait also determined the developmental path of modern-era banking. Hereby, two important points in the course of development of banking in the Southern European countries need to be emphasised. To begin with, if the lands of the North-Western Europe were large capital exporters, then the South European nations were the importers of this capital. The role of foreign capital, i.e., foreign banks, was great and irreplaceable in the development of banking. The second element in common was a large role of state in the economy in general. Under the circumstances of underdeveloped entrepreneurial environment, the state, through its economic activities, would become the driving force of overall economic and social development. This was also or especially the case with banking. Role played by the state only began to diminish towards the end of the 1980s, in the course of the processes of deregulation and liberalisation both at the international level as well as within the then European Economic Community or subsequent European Union. Already during the preparatory processes prior to the admission into the European Economic Community, Spain, Greece and Portugal, and, however, Italy as well, but due to European Directives it had to abide by, began comprehensive processes of restructuring their national banking systems. Since the second half of the 1980s, banking systems were subjected to liberalisation, deregulation and privatisation.

  19. Low elastic modulus Ti–Ta alloys for load-bearing permanent implants: Enhancing the biodegradation resistance by electrochemical surface engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesteven, Jazmin [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Kannan, M. Bobby, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Walter, Rhys; Khakbaz, Hadis [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Choe, Han-Choel [Department of Dental Materials, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro degradation behaviour of titanium–tantalum (Ti–Ta) alloys (10–30 wt.% Ta) was investigated and compared with conventional implant materials, i.e., commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) and titanium–aluminium–vanadium (Ti6Al4V) alloy. Among the three Ti–Ta alloys studied, the Ti20Ta (6.3 × 10{sup −4} mm/y) exhibited the lowest degradation rate, followed by Ti30Ta (1.2 × 10{sup −3} mm/y) and Ti10Ta (1.4 × 10{sup −3} mm/y). All the Ti–Ta alloys exhibited lower degradation rate than that of Cp-Ti (1.8 × 10{sup −3} mm/y), which suggests that Ta addition to Ti is beneficial. As compared to Ti6Al4V alloy (8.1 × 10{sup −4} mm/y), the degradation rate of Ti20Ta alloy was lower by ∼ 22%. However, the Ti30Ta alloy, which has closer elastic modulus to that of natural bone, showed ∼ 48% higher degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Hence, to improve the degradation performance of Ti30Ta alloy, an intermediate thin porous layer was formed electrochemically on the alloy followed by calcium phosphate (CaP) electrodeposition. The coated Ti30Ta alloy (3.8 × 10{sup −3} mm/y) showed ∼ 53% lower degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Thus, the study suggests that CaP coated Ti30Ta alloy can be a viable material for load-bearing permanent implants. - Highlights: • In vitro degradation of titanium–tantalum (Ti–Ta) alloys was studied. • Ta addition to Ti is beneficial for better degradation resistance. • Ti–Ta alloys perform better than commercially pure Ti. • Calcium phosphate coated Ti–Ta alloy is superior to Ti6Al4V alloy.

  20. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ or multi-joint exercises (MJ on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc. and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.. The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ, bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ, knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ. In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  1. Pengaruh Kualitas Layanan Mobile Banking (M-Banking Terhadap Kepuasan Nasabah di Indonesia [Effect of Mobile Banking (M-Banking Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Wardhana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aim was to assess the influence of the service quality of mobile banking (m-banking against customer satisfaction at the greatest banks in Indonesia. Elements of the quality of mobile banking services (m-banking were speed, security, accuracy, and trust. The population of this study was bank customers from eight of the greatest bank in Indonesia -- Bank Mandiri, Bank BRI, Bank BCA, Bank BNI, Bank CIMB Niaga, Bank Danamon, Bank Permata, and Bank Panin -- who used mobile banking which totaled 19.9 million customers with the size of the sample being 400 respondents. The sampling method used nonprobability sampling by incidental sampling. The results by using a structural equation modeling (SEM found significant influences between service quality of mobile banking (m-banking partially and simultaneously to customer satisfaction.

  2. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...... the fatigue loads, the rotor, blades and tower moments are presented. The fatigue loads are evaluated using rainflow counting described in detail in Ref. [1]. The 1Hz equivalent load ranges are calculated at different wind speeds. All information regarding the instrumentation is collected in [ref 4] and [ref...

  3. Alternative banking: theory and evidence from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Von Mettenheim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since financial liberalization in the 1980s, non-profit maximizing, stakeholder-oriented banks have outperformed private banks in Europe. This article draws on empirical research, banking theory and theories of the firm to explain this apparent anomaly for neo-liberal policy and contemporary market-based banking theory. The realization of competitive advantages by alternative banks (savings banks, cooperative banks and development banks has significant implications for conceptions of bank change, regulation and political economy.

  4. A significant reduction in the frequency of HIV-1 drug resistance in Québec from 2001 to 2011 is associated with a decrease in the monitored viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Charest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV drug resistance represents a major threat for effective treatment. We assessed the trends in the frequency of drug resistance mutations and the monitored viral load (VL in treatment-naïve (TN and treatment-experienced (TE individuals infected with HIV-1 in Québec, Canada, between 2001 and 2011. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Resistance data were obtained from 4,105 and 5,086 genotypic tests performed on TN and TE patients, respectively. Concomitantly, 274,161 VL tests were carried out in the Province. Changes over time in drug resistance frequency and in different categories of VL were assessed using univariate logistic regression. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between the rates of certain mutations and antiretroviral prescriptions. From 2001 to 2011, the proportion of undetectable VL test results continually increased, from 42.1% to 75.9%, while a significant decrease in the frequency of resistance mutations associated with protease inhibitors [PI (from 54% to 16%], nucleoside [NRTI (from 78% to 37% and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NNRTI (from 44% to 31%] was observed in TE patients. In TN individuals, the overall frequency of transmitted drug resistance was 13.1%. A multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the introduction of co-formulated emtricitabine/tenofovir or emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz was positively associated with the decrease of the frequency of the M184I/V mutations observed overtime (p = 0.0004. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significant decrease in the frequency of drug resistance mutations in TE patients, concomitant with a decrease in the proportion of patients with detectable viremia. These findings may be related to both the increased potencies and adherence to therapy associated with newer antiretroviral regimens. Nevertheless, our data demonstrate that broad use of antiretrovirals does not increase the level of circulating drug resistant

  5. Bank Customers Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebubeogu Amarachukwu Felix

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bachelor of Science Hon in Information Technology. The Design and development of this Bank customers Management system provides a more secured approach in managing bank customers information which strengthens the relationships between banks and their customers by providing the right solutions that uses a multi-level security to improve customer satisfaction. The technology used in developing this project is ASP.NET and the programming language used to develop this project is C and the IDE used is Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 professional in designing the front end while the back end uses Microsoft SQL Server 2012.

  6. Customer loyalty in Internet banking

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, M.; Schuster, C.

    2008-01-01

    In the recent years the way to do banking has changed. Internet banking has grown and a lot of niche banks working mainly with the Internet as a medium has entered the Swedish bank market. How to keep the customer loyal online in a very competitive environment has become a main question for the banks. The aim of this dissertation is to test what factors impact bank customer loyalty in an online environment. A positivistic research philosophy, a deductive research approach, an explanatory pur...

  7. Abundances of tetracycline, sulphonamide and beta-lactam antibiotic resistance genes in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different waste load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laht, Mailis; Karkman, Antti; Voolaid, Veiko; Ritz, Christian; Tenson, Tanel; Virta, Marko; Kisand, Veljo

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), an environment where resistance genes can potentially spread and exchange between microbes. Several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were quantified using qPCR in three WWTPs of decreasing capacity located in Helsinki, Tallinn, and Tartu, respectively: sulphonamide resistance genes (sul1 and sul2), tetracycline resistance genes (tetM and tetC), and resistance genes for extended spectrum beta-lactams (blaoxa-58, blashv-34, and blactx-m-32). To avoid inconsistencies among qPCR assays we normalised the ARG abundances with 16S rRNA gene abundances while assessing if the respective genes increased or decreased during treatment. ARGs were detected in most samples; sul1, sul2, and tetM were detected in all samples. Statistically significant differences (adjusted pchange in the relative abundance of resistance genes, while the raw abundances fell by several orders of magnitude. Standard water quality variables (biological oxygen demand, total phosphorus and nitrogen, etc.) were weakly related or unrelated to the relative abundance of resistance genes. Based on our results we conclude that there is neither considerable enrichment nor purification of antibiotic resistance genes in studied conventional WWTPs.

  8. Nuclear Plant Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, C.P.; Turner, M.R.; Spore, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Data Bank (NPDB) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to assist analysts in the rapid and accurate creation of input decks for reactor transient analysis. The NPDB will reduce the time and cost of the creation or modification of a typical input deck. This data bank will be an invaluable tool in the timely investigation of recent and ongoing nuclear reactor safety analysis. This paper discusses the status and plans for the NPDB development and describes its anticipated structure and capabilities

  9. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  10. Cyber risk in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Linert, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with the cyber risk in banking industry. Its main goal is to stress the imporatance of cyber risk both verbally and numericaly and review the approach of banks to this risk. The first part of this thesis specifies what cyber risk is and how it fits among other operational risks, presents the common cyber-attacks and archetypes of cyber criminals, later it delves into the cyber risk in Czech Republic and at the end of this part it mentions the legislation that covers ...

  11. Determinants of bank profitability: Evidence from the Greek banking sector

    OpenAIRE

    Alexiou Constantinos; Sofoklis Voyazas

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability, using an empirical framework that incorporates the traditional Structure-Conduct- Performance (SCP) hypothesis. A panel data approach has been adopted and effectively applied to six Greek banks. The evidence generated suggests that for any consistent or systematic size the profitability relationship is relatively weak. Most of the bank-specific determinants were found to significantly af...

  12. The influence of bank employees on bank customer relationship management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rootman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite extensive research in services marketing, much is still unknown to specific service providers on the influence of their employees on their services. This paper attempts to address this limitation and investigates the influence of employees on the customer relationship management (CRM of banks. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of selected independent variables, namely attitude and knowledgeability, on the CRM of banks. Design/Methodology/Approach: An empirical investigation was conducted with a structured questionnaire with items that related to banks' CRM in terms of attitude and knowledgeability. The sample consisted of 290 banking clients in the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan area and the response rate was 91.03%. Findings: Significant positive relationships exist between both the knowledgeability, and attitude of bank employees and a bank's CRM. These relationships imply that more extensive knowledgeability and more positive attitudes of bank employees lead to improved, maintained relationships between a bank and its clients. Employees play an important role in banks’ client relationships. Implications: Banks should focus on increasing their employees' knowledgeability and improving their attitude to ensure higher levels of CRM. This paper provides strategies for banks and could create greater awareness among South African banks of the advantages of CRM, how their employees influence their CRM, and ways to adapt to these influences. Originality/Value: No study has focused exclusively on CRM within banks in South Africa. Prior research focused on customer service and service quality; both possible results of superior CRM. However, this research differs, as it identifies the variables influencing CRM in banks in South Africa. It is proposed that this paper will be beneficial for South African banks, as the recommendations may be used to ensure higher levels of CRM in banks.

  13. Comparison of designing simple steel frame & coaxial brace systems by contrast of blast, using two methods of load & resistance coefficients & performance surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    P. Hassanvand; M. H. Rasoul Abadi; A. S. Moghadam; M. Hosseini

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, because of the increasing terrorist attacks around the urban areas, designing buildings by contrast of resulted loads of blast came into consideration particularly in some sensitive buildings & vital arteries. When a blast occurs, the resulted emissions in environment leads to appearance of several penalties and endangers to the human life. Steel structures generally are designed on the basis of standard seismic and gravity loads, it is necessary to investigate the implantation of t...

  14. PATHWAYS TO SUSTAINABLE BANKING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan (Santamarian Oana Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the way of creating of the banking value in the future. In this context, the development of a banking management system, based on sustainable principles represents one of the provocations of these days.Starting from literature in the sustainable banking management field in this paper are presented several relevant issues related to risk management in the context of sustainable banking financing: the need to implement the sustainable management principles in financial and banking industry; the role of banks in sustainable development of society; social and environmental risk management policies, events that have shaped the role of the banking sector in sustainable development; international standards regarding sustainable banking management such us: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projects’ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. Furthermore, we developed a practical case study related to the implementation of sustainable banking management at Bank of America.

  15. 12 CFR 211.22 - Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations. 211.22 Section 211.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) Foreign Banking...

  16. Abundances of Tetracycline, Sulphonamide and Beta-Lactam Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Conventional Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) with Different Waste Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voolaid, Veiko; Ritz, Christian; Tenson, Tanel; Virta, Marko; Kisand, Veljo

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), an environment where resistance genes can potentially spread and exchange between microbes. Several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were quantified using qPCR in three WWTPs of decreasing capacity located in Helsinki, Tallinn, and Tartu, respectively: sulphonamide resistance genes (sul1 and sul2), tetracycline resistance genes (tetM and tetC), and resistance genes for extended spectrum beta-lactams (blaoxa-58, blashv-34, and blactx-m-32). To avoid inconsistencies among qPCR assays we normalised the ARG abundances with 16S rRNA gene abundances while assessing if the respective genes increased or decreased during treatment. ARGs were detected in most samples; sul1, sul2, and tetM were detected in all samples. Statistically significant differences (adjusted pbiological oxygen demand, total phosphorus and nitrogen, etc.) were weakly related or unrelated to the relative abundance of resistance genes. Based on our results we conclude that there is neither considerable enrichment nor purification of antibiotic resistance genes in studied conventional WWTPs. PMID:25084517

  17. Capital Adequacy in Banks: Reflections on Selected Banks in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In principle, bank capital serves two functions. First, it represents the value of shareholder's equity, and secondly, it is the value of the buffer stock available to absorb unexpected losses. Because of this second function, it is argued that a bank's capital must be adequate. Adequate capital is the foundation of any banking ...

  18. An Evaluation of Banks' Liability in Robbery Incidents at Banks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the issue of armed robbery attack at the bank premises brings to the fore two issues which are of paramount interest to the banker, customer and the general public. The issues are: (a) is the family of a bank customer killed by armed robbers in the banking hall during a transaction entitled to compensation? (b) Is a ...

  19. National Wetland Mitigation Banking Study Wetland Migitation Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    require advance mitigation. The Acequia Mitigation Bank in Idaho, for example, requires that mitigation must be complete and successful before...20. Georgia - Georgia Department of Transportation (single client DOT bank) 21. Idaho - Acequia (single client DOT bank) 22. Idaho - Mud Lake...21. Acequia Cassia County, ID ID Transportation Dept. (ITD) ITD ITD currently public - ITD 22. Mud Lake Wildlife Management Area

  20. Evolution of central banking? De Nederlandsche Bank 1814-1852

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays the role of central bank is unquestioned and nearly ubiquitous. But was this always the case? This thesis analyses how De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) developed into a central bank during the first four decades of its existence. Its establishment in 1814 was the result of a combination of both

  1. Bank service management in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John; Narteh, Bedman

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana......This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana...

  2. BANKING SUPERVISION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences can be fatal. To ensure long-term stability of the banking system, supervisory regulations were constituted in order to prevent banks focusing on achieving rapidly high profits and protect the interests of depositors. Starting from this point, this paper will carry out a study on existing models of supervision in the European Union’s Member States. A comparison between them will support identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.

  3. Banking on Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

  4. UBS BANK INFORMATION

    CERN Multimedia

    UBS, CERN branch

    2002-01-01

    UBS SA, formerly Société de Banque Suisse (Swiss Bank Corporation), which has been providing banking services on the CERN site since 1954, is delighted to continue its financial partnership with the CERN personnel. Recent trends in payment methods - a decline in the use of cash combined with an increase in the use of 'virtual money', credit or payment cards and e-banking - have led UBS SA to place greater emphasis on customer services compared with conventional, over-the-counter transactions. Since our customers' banking habits have also changed, we will be implementing the following changes at our CERN offices: Building 500: conversion work will shortly be commencing to provide a comfortable and well-appointed customer services area offering, in particular, greater privacy, as well as two counters. Throughout the work, every measure will be taken to minimise inconvenience to our customers. Building 504: owing to the improvements to be made to our Building 500 premises, we will hencef...

  5. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg

    This chapter argues that the work of the European Banking Union remains incomplete in one important respect, the structural re-organization of large European financial firms that would make “resolution” of a systemically important financial firm a credible alternative to bail-out or some other sort...

  6. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    This chapter argues that the work of the European Banking Union remains incomplete in one important respect, the structural re-organization of large European financial firms that would make “resolution” of a systemically important financial firm a credible alternative to bail-out or some other sort...

  7. De-globalising bank regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2013-01-01

    The recent crisis has promoted a rethinking of financial globalisation, a revision that has also partially interested some official circles. National supervisors have often reacted to the crises of cross-border banks by ring fencing local interests. Some proposals (e.g. the Vickers Report and the Fed’s subsidiarisation of US establishments of foreign banks) de facto imply a partial de-globalisation of both banks and their supervision. Orthodox regulators and large banks point, on the contrary...

  8. Central Banking after the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick S. Mishkin

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores where central banking is heading after the recent financial crisis. First it discusses the central bank consensus before the crisis and then outlines the key facts learned from the crisis that require changes in the way central banks conduct their business. Finally, it discusses four main areas in which central banks are altering their policy frameworks: 1) the interaction between monetary and financial stability policies, 2) nonconventional monetary policy, 3) risk manage...

  9. Auditing and bank capital regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Simpson Prescott

    2004-01-01

    Auditing is introduced into a model of bank capital regulation. Deterministic and stochastic auditing strategies are studied. Contrary to intuition, auditing of bank risk should be focused on the safest banks because they hold the least amount of capital. Risky banks, which hold more capital, need to be audited less. The importance of auditing by regulators and penalties for non-compliance are discussed in light of the Basel II capital regulation proposals. Emphasis is placed on the importanc...

  10. 78 FR 38978 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  11. 75 FR 67969 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Doc No: 2010-27868] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control... of a bank or bank holding company. The factors that are considered in acting on the notices are set...

  12. 77 FR 58141 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  13. 76 FR 75548 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  14. 76 FR 75882 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  15. 78 FR 300 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ...: 2012-31575] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12... bank or bank holding company. The factors that are considered in acting on the notices are set forth in...

  16. 77 FR 37406 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  17. 77 FR 27458 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank ] or bank holding company. The factors...

  18. 77 FR 19665 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  19. 77 FR 58379 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  20. 75 FR 71130 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  1. 76 FR 32361 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  2. 77 FR 73031 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  3. 77 FR 3475 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... No: 2012-1314] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control... bank or bank holding company. The factors that are considered in acting on the notices are set forth in...

  4. 78 FR 35271 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  5. 77 FR 60118 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  6. 78 FR 45535 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  7. 77 FR 16839 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  8. 77 FR 9250 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  9. 78 FR 76305 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  10. 78 FR 41929 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  11. 75 FR 51814 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... No: 2010-20809] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control... a bank or bank holding company. The factors that are considered in acting on the notices are set...

  12. 78 FR 3897 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  13. 75 FR 53968 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that are...

  14. 76 FR 19099 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  15. 77 FR 4323 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  16. 75 FR 39016 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that are...

  17. 76 FR 72205 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  18. 78 FR 49268 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  19. 76 FR 40730 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  20. 75 FR 9414 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that are...

  1. 78 FR 13877 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  2. 77 FR 68121 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  3. 77 FR 54917 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  4. 75 FR 70262 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  5. 78 FR 27389 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  6. 78 FR 43883 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  7. 77 FR 66463 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  8. 78 FR 62301 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  9. 77 FR 50689 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  10. 77 FR 33459 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  11. 78 FR 39729 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  12. 76 FR 23599 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  13. 75 FR 5322 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that are...

  14. 78 FR 3425 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  15. 75 FR 33810 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that are...

  16. 75 FR 3904 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that are...

  17. 78 FR 51726 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  18. 77 FR 31612 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  19. 78 FR 53457 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  20. 77 FR 43824 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  1. 77 FR 72864 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  2. 76 FR 10595 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  3. 76 FR 10899 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  4. 75 FR 71440 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  5. 77 FR 34385 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  6. 76 FR 81939 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  7. 75 FR 77876 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  8. 78 FR 76834 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  9. 77 FR 16223 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  10. 76 FR 70722 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  11. 77 FR 60702 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  12. 77 FR 64801 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  13. 77 FR 284 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  14. 78 FR 24747 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...

  15. 75 FR 54148 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Doc No: 2010-22050] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank... acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that are considered in acting on the notices are set...

  16. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  17. Bank Relationship and Firm Profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines how bank relationships affect firm performance. An empirical implication of recent theoretical models is that firms maintaining multiple bank relationships are less profitable than their single-bank peers. We investigate this empirical implication using a data set containing

  18. Islamic economics, banking and finance.

    OpenAIRE

    Dastgir, Shabbir

    2015-01-01

    The normal operations of commercial banks in Western economies do not conform to the religious requirements of the Islamic faith. In this article, Shabbir Dastgir explores the differences and outlines how the worldwide industry in Islamic\\ud banking has developed new banking practices.

  19. Determinants of bank profitability: Evidence from the Greek banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexiou Constantinos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability, using an empirical framework that incorporates the traditional Structure-Conduct- Performance (SCP hypothesis. A panel data approach has been adopted and effectively applied to six Greek banks. The evidence generated suggests that for any consistent or systematic size the profitability relationship is relatively weak. Most of the bank-specific determinants were found to significantly affect bank profitability. A more ambiguous picture emerged when the macroeconomic factors were considered.

  20. Contribution of Internet Banking toward Profitability of Banking in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Karimzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the Internet in the banking industry on the one hand is closely related to a change in the structure of the organization and nature of operations in banking industry itself, and on the other hand, to the emergence of computer as a significant organizational tool. Banks have always been starving to introduce new technologies to reduce operational costs and expand their businesses. This study is an attempt to investigate the contribution of Internet banking on the performance of the banking system in India. Return on Assets (ROA and Return on Equity (ROE ratios are used to test this effect. The regression analysis showed that there is a significant effect of Internet banking services on the profitability of banks in terms of ROA and ROE in India.

  1. Bank Insolvency Procedures and Market Discipline in European Banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    Predetermined, operational procedures for dealing with banks in distress are conspicuously absent across the world with very few exceptions. Instead governments and regulatory authorities intervene when banks approach failure. Bail-outs of important creditors, sometimes including shareholders......, and blanket guarantees for creditors become the norm. We argue that efficient incentives of banks' creditors, as well as of shareholders and managers, require predetermined rules for dealing with banks in distress, and a group of creditors that are credibly non-insured. Cross-border banking increases the need...... for pre-determined bank insolvency procedures that could enable banks to expand cross-border in branches. In the empirical part we show that credibility of non-insurance is maximized with a partial deposit insurance scheme, and that the coverage can be decreased if effective rule-based distress resolution...

  2. Sediment Transport On The Vegetated Bank of The Soil Bioengineering Test Flume At The Wien River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, H.; Rauch, H. P.; Schreiber, J.; Vollsinger, St.

    Soil bioengineering structures are frequently used to protect river banks. Studies by WEITZER / DOPPLER / FLORINETH (1998) on measuring the pull-out resistance and by OPLATKA (1998) on the effective flow acting on willows show that a high hydraulic load by itself does not lead to failure or dislodging of the plants but that the slopeSs instability is caused by the erosion of bed material. The onset of erosion is indicated by a critical shear stress, determined by the combination of a number of factors such as flow velocity, lift force, turbulence, grain size, grain shape, stratifica- tion of the river bed material and the type and density of the vegetation. Investigations into the stability of a variety of soil bioengineering structures (brush mattress with wil- lows, branch layers, fascine layers) are carried out at the soil bioengineering test flume along the Wien river, where artificial flooding runs expose the plant/soil complex to extreme hydraulic loads. Marked, surveyed and weighed gravel material of different grain diameters (10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mm) and variable layer arrangements is put into the bed or bank of the test flume to determine the critical shear stress. The exact grain position is identified before and after each artificial flooding, so that the mean sediment transport path can be determined for each grain diameter. By comparing sed- iment transport paths for different grain sizes, a critical grain diameter can be defined for each soil bioengineering structure. The critical grain diameter thus obtained is used as an input parameter in calculating the critical shear stress from bed load transport equations. Based on the data thus collected and their analysis it is possible to present and interpret initial findings.

  3. Electronically Controlled Resistor Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Walter L.

    1987-01-01

    Resistance quickly varied in small steps over wide range. Device with no moving parts provides variable electrical resistance. Used with analog or digital circuity to provide electronic selection of large number of resistance values for testing, simulation, control, or other purposes. Nearest electromechanical equivalent of all-electronic device is potentiometer driven by servomotor.

  4. Restrictive loads powered by separate or by common electrical sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, J.

    1989-01-01

    In designing a multiple load electrical system, the designer may wish to compare the performance of two setups: a common electrical source powering all loads, or separate electrical sources powering individual loads. Three types of electrical sources: an ideal voltage source, an ideal current source, and solar cell source powering resistive loads were analyzed for their performances in separate and common source systems. A mathematical proof is given, for each case, indicating the merit of the separate or common source system. The main conclusions are: (1) identical resistive loads powered by ideal voltage sources perform the same in both system setups, (2) nonidentical resistive loads powered by ideal voltage sources perform the same in both system setups, (3) nonidentical resistive loads powered by ideal current sources have higher performance in separate source systems, and (4) nonidentical resistive loads powered by solar cells have higher performance in a common source system for a wide range of load resistances.

  5. 12 CFR 204.121 - Bankers' banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal Home Loan Bank, or in the National Credit Union Administration Central Liquidity Facility if the... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bankers' banks. 204.121 Section 204.121 Banks... REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) Interpretations § 204.121 Bankers' banks. (a)(1) The...

  6. Load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, H.

    1995-01-01

    Slides used in a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about the changing needs for load forecasting were presented. Technological innovations and population increase were said to be the prime driving forces behind the changing needs in load forecasting. Structural changes, market place changes, electricity supply planning changes, and changes in planning objectives were other factors discussed. It was concluded that load forecasting was a form of information gathering, that provided important market intelligence

  7. Ownership concentration and bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Kitakogelu Ozili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether ownership concentration influences bank profitability in a developing country context. We focus on bank ownership concentration measured as the amount of direct equity held by a majority shareholder categorised into: high ownership concentration, moderate ownership concentration and disperse ownership. We find that banks with high ownership concentration have higher return on assets, higher net interest margin and higher recurring earning power while banks with dispersed ownership have lower return on assets but have higher return on equity. Also, higher cost efficiency improves the return on assets of widely-held banks and the return on equity of banks with moderate ownership. The findings have implications. JEL: Code: G3, G34, G31, Keywords: Corporate governance, Ownership structure, Agency theory, Profitability, Firm performance, Banks, Return on asset, Return on equity

  8. Can taxes tame the banks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereux, Michael P.; Johannesen, Niels; Vella, John

    In the wake of the financial crisis, a number of countries have introduced levies on bank borrowing with the aim of reducing risk in the financial sector. This paper studies the behavioral responses to the bank levies and evaluates the policy. We find that the levies induced banks to borrow less...... but also to hold more risky assets. The reduction in funding risk clearly dominates for banks with high capital ratios but is exactly offset by the increase in portfolio risk for banks with low capital ratios. This suggests that while the levies have reduced the total risk of relatively safe banks......, they have done nothing to curb the risk of relatively risky banks, which presumably pose the greatest threat to financial stability...

  9. INFORMATION FROM THE BANK

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The UBS will be integrating its two computer platforms during the weekend of 24 April.This operation involves changing your account card and Eurocheque card, which will be sent to you by post.Those who receive their bank correspondence at CERN may obtain their codes from the branch there.The security and rapidity of this procedure will be helped by the presentation of an identity document.Despite the precautions taken, problems may be experienced with the operation of the cash-points during that weekend.The bank's staff would like to offer apologies in advance for any difficulties and are at your disposal for any information you may need.UBS

  10. Danske Bank vildleder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2014-01-01

    EN VIDEO på Danske Banks hjemmeside fremstiller banker som neutrale formidlere af penge. Den giver et misvisende indtryk af passivitet og harmløshed og strider stærkt mod de fleste menneskers oplevelse af banker som særdeles aktive, næsten aggressive I årene op til finanskrisen 2008, og stærktmed......EN VIDEO på Danske Banks hjemmeside fremstiller banker som neutrale formidlere af penge. Den giver et misvisende indtryk af passivitet og harmløshed og strider stærkt mod de fleste menneskers oplevelse af banker som særdeles aktive, næsten aggressive I årene op til finanskrisen 2008, og...

  11. Polyphase Filter Banks for Embedded Sample Rate Changes in Digital Radio Front-Ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awan, Mehmood-Ur-Rehman; Le Moullec, Yannick; Koch, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents efficient processing engines for software-defined radio (SDR) front-ends. These engines, based on a polyphase channelizer, perform arbitrary sample-rate changes, frequency selection, and bandwidth control. This paper presents an M-path polyphase filter bank based on a modified N....... A non-maximally-decimated polyphase filter bank (where the number of data loads is not equal to the number of M subfilters) processes M subfilters in a time period that is less than or greater than the M data loads. A polyphase filter bank with five different resampling modes is used as a case study...

  12. GenBank.

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, D; Lipman, D J; Ostell, J

    1993-01-01

    The GenBank sequence database has undergone an expansion in data coverage, annotation content and the development of new services for the scientific community. In addition to nucleotide sequences, data from the major protein sequence and structural databases, and from U.S. and European patents is now included in an integrated system. MEDLINE abstracts from published articles describing the sequences provide an important new source of biological annotation for sequence entries. In addition to ...

  13. Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies

    OpenAIRE

    Danezis, G.; Meiklejohn, S.

    2016-01-01

    Current cryptocurrencies, starting with Bitcoin, build a decentralized blockchain-based transaction ledger, maintained through proofs-of-work that also serve to generate a monetary supply. Such decentralization has benefits, such as independence from national political control, but also significant limitations in terms of computational costs and scalability. We introduce RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on...

  14. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Virtual blood bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fai Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  16. Virtual blood bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kit Fai

    2011-01-01

    Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time. PMID:21383930

  17. Individual Responses for Muscle Activation, Repetitions, and Volume during Three Sets to Failure of High- (80% 1RM versus Low-Load (30% 1RM Forearm Flexion Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel D. M. Jenkins

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compared electromyographic (EMG amplitude, the number of repetitions completed, and exercise volume during three sets to failure of high- (80% 1RM versus low-load (30% 1RM forearm flexion resistance exercise on a subject-by-subject basis. Fifteen men were familiarized, completed forearm flexion 1RM testing. Forty-eight to 72 h later, the subjects completed three sets to failure of dumbbell forearm flexion resistance exercise with 80% (n = 8 or 30% (n = 7 1RM. EMG amplitude was calculated for every repetition, and the number of repetitions performed and exercise volume were recorded. During sets 1, 2, and 3, one of eight subjects in the 80% 1RM group demonstrated a significant linear relationship for EMG amplitude versus repetition. For the 30% 1RM group, seven, five, and four of seven subjects demonstrated significant linear relationships during sets 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The mean EMG amplitude responses show that the fatigue-induced increases in EMG amplitude for the 30% 1RM group and no change in EMG amplitude for the 80% 1RM group resulted in similar levels of muscle activation in both groups. The numbers of repetitions completed were comparatively greater, while exercise volumes were similar in the 30% versus 80% 1RM group. Our results, in conjunction with those of previous studies in the leg extensors, suggest that there may be muscle specific differences in the responses to high- versus low-load exercise.

  18. Abundances of tetracycline, sulphonamide and beta-lactam antibiotic resistance genes in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different waste load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laht, Mailis; Karkman, Antti; Voolaid, Veiko

    2014-01-01

    abundances with 16S rRNA gene abundances while assessing if the respective genes increased or decreased during treatment. ARGs were detected in most samples; sul1, sul2, and tetM were detected in all samples. Statistically significant differences (adjusted peffluent were......Antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), an environment where resistance genes can potentially spread and exchange between microbes. Several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were quantified using qPCR in three WWTPs of decreasing capacity located...... detected in only four cases. Effluent values for blaoxa-58 and tetC decreased in the two larger plants while tetM decreased in the medium-sized plant. Only blashv-34 increased in the effluent from the medium-sized plant. In all other cases the purification process caused no significant change...

  19. Using a micro computer based test bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    Utilizing a micro computer based test bank offers a training department many advantages and can have a positive impact upon training procedures and examination standards. Prior to data entry, Training Department management must pre-review the examination questions and answers to ensure compliance with examination standards and to verify the validity of all questions. Management must adhere to the TSD format since all questions require an enabling objective numbering scheme. Each question is entered under the enabling objective upon which it is based. Then the question is selected via the enabling objective. This eliminates any instructor bias because a random number generator chooses the test question. However, the instructor may load specific questions to create an emphasis theme for any test. The examination, answer and cover sheets are produced and printed within minutes. The test bank eliminates the large amount of time that is normally required for an instructor to formulate an examination. The need for clerical support is reduced by the elimination of typing examinations and also by the software's ability to maintain and generate student/course lists, attendance sheets, and grades. Software security measures limit access to the test bank, and the impromptu method used to generate and print an examination enhance its security

  20. Planning Change in an Organization; MCB Bank Limited, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleem Fazal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily based on a case study of a leading bank in Pakistan, that is, MCB Bank Ltd. Four established change models have been applied to the bank to find out how a change comes in/ is brought in, managed, and how it affects organizational environment and its stakeholders, particularly customers and employees. The four established change models applied are the change management approach by Ansoff and McDonnell; the change management model by Kurt Lewin; the 7S framework by Thoman J. Peters and Robert H. Waterman; and the change management model developed by Stephanie Elam. The study covers a change management aspect such as strategic intervention technique; a need for change management; resource implication; planning change; strategies in change management; system effectiveness; managing resistance to change; leadership issues; cultural issues; people issues; external environment issues; workable approach to overcome change resistance; appropriate model and implementing the model.

  1. Determinación del límite de rotura de un cable por Método de los Elementos Finitos. // Determination of resistance load on steel wire rope by Finite Elements Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aguilar Parés

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En ocasiones, se desconocen las características originales de un cable de acero. En estos casos, generalmente se estima ellímite de rotura de un cable a partir del límite de rotura de un alambre del cable. En el presente trabajo, se propone emplearun método para estimar el límite de rotura del cable en base al modelado del cordón mediante elementos finitos. En elcontenido se explica detalladamente el procedimiento y es ejemplificado. El procedimiento es iniciado con el dibujo delcable en un programa de diseño gráfico parámetrico y posteriormente se describen las características generales delmodelado con un programa especializado en el Método de Elementos Finitos. En el análisis se incluye la influencia delcontacto entre los alambres que forman el cordón. Por último, se comparan los resultados obtenidos para el límite de roturadel cable con los datos declarados por el fabricante. Con este procedimiento fueron obtenidos valores mediante modeladodel cable con diferencias entre el 11% al 2,5% en relación al límite de rotura declarado por los fabricantes. Las diferenciasfueron evidenciadas en dependencia de la calidad del mallado empleado.Palabras claves: Cables de acero, elementos finitos, carga límite de rotura._________________________________________________________________________Abstract:In occasions, the original characteristics of steel wire rope are unknown. In these cases, could be estimated the resistanceof the wire rope knowing the wire resistance. In this proposal method for estimating the resistance load of steel wire thecord of the wire rope is modelling using finite elements. Procedure is explained and a sample with a selected wire rope ispresented. It is started with the drawing of the wire rope by professional software. General characteristics of themodelling are described with FEM software. In the analysis, the contact influence in the wires of the cord is included.Lastly, the obtained results of the resistance

  2. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR FROM ONLINE BANKING TO MOBILE BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chian-Son Yu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Through investigating factors that influence consumers to make a transition from online to mobile banking, this empirical study shows that relative attitude and relative subjective norm positively motivated respondents to switch from Internet to mobile banking while relative perceived behavior control deterred respondents from transitioning. Empirical results also demonstrated that Internet banking is superior to mobile banking in terms of consumer relative compatibility, self-efficacy, resource facilitating conditions, and technology facilitating conditions. Meanwhile, mobile banking emerged as superior to Internet banking for other constructs. By adding a comparative concept into an extended decomposed theory of planned behavior (DTPB model, this study may expand the applicable domain of current social psychology theories from the adoption of single products or services to the choice between competing products or services that achieve similar purposes and functions.

  3. Strategic positioning in banking industry: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedieh Mashoof

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Strategic positioning has always been a key tool for managers to analyze the position of the firm in different attributes in comparison with competitors. With regard to fierce competition in banking industry, the aim of this study is to analyze the position of Bank Melli Iran with 5 public and private rivals in 6 attributes. The sample of this study was 387 Bank Melli Iran customers. The results of this study were in 14 perceptual maps in which the positions of Bank Melli Iran attributes have been shown compared with bank’s key competitors. The results showed that Bank Melli Iran had strong position and came to the first place in attributes like price, physical equipment and location and security. Moreover, Bank Melli Iran has to improve its position in attributes with no better position.

  4. Global Banking System Regulatory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Mozhovyi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The international and domestic experience shows that the main factors of financial destabilization during the financial crises are in the banking sector. The article reveals that the vulnerability of the financial system is connected with functions, deposit and credit transactions, risks distribution and ensuring liquidity; banks act as a major factor in stabilisation measures in the current context of globalization processes, since the economic stability of banking activities relates directly to all the entities and only stable banking system can withstand the crisis phenomena. Therefore, as a result of the analysis, it is proved that not only reduction of risks of banks is needed, but also introduction of the effective supervision system over implementation of the requirements and standards to prevent these risks. According to modern international approaches, banks use the so-called prudential supervision, which is based on the risk management assessment policy on the part of the Bank’s management, and regulatory bodies contribute to implementation of such policy. The authors have concluded that not only modern specificity of banks, but also the impact of supervision systems and regulation of modern trends in development of the banking should be analysed. Application of the general regulatory principles and banking risks methodology is required. The task of supervision is distribution of reliable risk management practices in the banking system, taking into account national peculiarities of development.

  5. The effect of loading efficiency on the groundwater response to water level changes in shallow lakes and streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The loading efficiency (sometimes called the tidal efficiency) is often neglected when simulating the head response in an aquifer to water level changes in lakes and streams. This is not appropriate when the lake or stream only partially penetrates the aquifer. In such cases, the aquifer extends below the lake or stream and is hydraulically connected through a semiconfining layer of lower permeability. The loading efficiency is the ratio between the instantaneous head response below a lake or stream and the water level change in the lake or stream. In sand and clay, whose particles are not cemented together, the instantaneous head response below a stream or lake is nearly equal to the stage change, and the loading efficiency is close to 1. New semianalytic solutions are presented for the groundwater response to water level changes in shallow lakes and streams that account for the loading efficiency of the aquifer. It is shown that the loading efficiency may have a significant effect on the head response. The effect is larger for larger values of the vertical resistance of the semiconfining layer and larger width of the stream and is much more pronounced in confined aquifers than in unconfined aquifers. The importance of the loading efficiency declines with time and with distance from the lake or stream. Graphs are presented that may be used to determine whether a certain combination of parameters gives a significant difference in the head at the lake shore or river bank when the loading efficiency is taken into account.

  6. Umbilical cord blood banks. Ethical aspects. Public versus private banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar Lucea, Justo

    2012-01-01

    The creation of umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks raises interesting medical, social, economic and ethical issues. This paper reviews the ethical problems specifically. In this respect, it evaluates: a) whether there are advantages to the use of UCB compared to bone marrow, b) whether or not it is ethical to create UCB banks, c) whether their creation is ethically acceptable in terms of their clinical usefulness or d) the use made of them for therapeutic purposes, and finally e) whether their creation is ethically justified from a cost/profitability point of view. We focus primarily on evaluating the ethical controversy between public and private banks, particularly on whether it is ethical to bank autologous blood in private UCB banks, on the basis of its limited possibilities for use by the cord blood donor. We can conclude that, from an ethical point of view, autologous blood banks have limited acceptance among specialised researchers, scientific societies and other public institutions. Therefore, we believe that it is ethically more acceptable to support the creation of public UCB banks for medical and social reasons and, above all, based on the principle of justice and human solidarity. Nevertheless, there is no definitive ethical argument why a couple, according to their autonomy and freedom, cannot bank their child's UCB in a private bank. An equally acceptable solution could be the creation of mixed banks, such as that proposed by the Virgin Health Bank or like the Spanish system where autologous samples can be stored in public banks but with the proviso that if at any time the stored sample is required by any person other than the donor, it would have to be given to them.

  7. Asian development bank: can it become an actual development bank?

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Haider A.

    2012-01-01

    The Asian Development Bank(ADB) was founded in the mid-sixties. In addition to the Asian countries, it also has members from among the wealthy countries in North America, Europe and Oceania. Over the years, ADB has grown in size and prestige among the regional development banks. As Khan (2004, 2007 and 2012) argues, within a hybrid workable global financial architecture, regional development banks like the ADB can play a constructive role.

  8. Heavy-Load Lifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Oturai, Peter; Steele, Megan L

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite a paucity of evidence, prevention guidelines typically advise avoidance of heavy lifting in an effort to protect against breast cancer-related lymphedema. This study compared acute responses in arm swelling and related symptoms after low- and heavy-load resistance exercise among...... women at risk of lymphedema while receiving adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy. METHODS: This is a randomized, cross-over equivalence trial. Women receiving adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy for breast cancer who had undergone axillary lymph node dissection (n=21) participated in low- (60-65% 1...... repetition maximum (RM), two sets of 15-20 repetitions) and heavy-load (85-90% 1RM, three sets of 5-8 repetition) upper-extremity resistance exercise separated by a one-week wash-out period. Swelling was determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, with breast cancer...

  9. The Atlas load protection switch

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, H A; Dorr, G; Martínez, M; Gribble, R F; Nielsen, K E; Pierce, D; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    Atlas is a high-energy pulsed-power facility under development to study materials properties and hydrodynamics experiments under extreme conditions. Atlas will implode heavy liner loads (m~45 gm) with a peak current of 27-32 MA delivered in 4 mu s, and is energized by 96, 240 kV Marx generators storing a total of 23 MJ. A key design requirement for Atlas is obtaining useful data for 95601130f all loads installed on the machine. Materials response calculations show current from a prefire can damage the load requiring expensive and time consuming replacement. Therefore, we have incorporated a set of fast-acting mechanical switches in the Atlas design to reduce the probability of a prefire damaging the load. These switches, referred to as the load protection switches, short the load through a very low inductance path during system charge. Once the capacitors have reached full charge, the switches open on a time scale short compared to the bank charge time, allowing current to flow to the load when the trigger pu...

  10. Institutionalization of Information Security: Case of the Indonesian Banking Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Muhamad Faisal Fariduddin Attar

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the institutionalization of information security in the banking sector. This study is important to pursue since it explicates the internalization of information security governance and practices and how such internalization develops an organizational resistance towards security breach. The study argues that information…

  11. The aspects and activities of international banking

    OpenAIRE

    Madzova, Violeta; Davcev, Ljupco

    2012-01-01

    Banking is an information based industry and banks develop relationships with and obtain information on their customers. Following them abroad, therefore, is a motivating factor for banks to continue providing banking services. Liberalization, international trade agreements and reduced trade barriers and more open markets have allowed banks to expand internationally. The range of services that a bank offers results from the strategy and is influenced from the sources of the bank. Intern...

  12. Greece and the Missing Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The Greek Crisis is a crisis rather than a problem due to the vulnerability of Greek banks. While the banks have deep problems, this column argues that these would have been mitigated if a fully operational banking union were in place. A full banking union requires joint banking supervision, joint...... bank resolution, and joint deposit insurance. The EZ only has the first so far. Completing the banking union must be part of any long-term solution....

  13. Determinants of Islamic Banks Acceptance in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Shariq; Sha, Nadia; Uddin, Mohammed Ahmar

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses about the inception of Islamic Banking in Oman. This paper would discuss the Islamic Banking Regulatory Framework (IBRF) under which the Islamic banking system is operating. The two full fledged banks which are working in Oman are Alizz Islamic Bank, Bank Nizwa and there are 6 Islamic windows which are working in Oman. The study would be related to the factors which influence the customers’ attraction towards Islamic Banking in Oman.

  14. THE GROWTH OF ISLAMIC BANKING IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Fika Fitriasari

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the growth of Islamic banking industry in Indonesia. Islamic banking to perform progressive and strong performance from the banking indicators. Bank Indonesia estimates that the Islamic banking industry will achieve a growth higher than the national banking system in general. In the development of Islamic banking there are still some challenges to be solved especially for a small market share, lack of human resources, and the lack of product developmen...

  15. Systemic Risk, Bank's Capital Buffer, and Leverage

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Buddi

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures individual bank's impact on banking systemic risk and examines the effect of individual bank's capital buffer and leverage to bank's systemic risk impact in Indonesia during 2010-2014. Using Merton's distance-to-default to measure systemic risk, the study shows a significant negative relationship between bank's capital buffer and systemic risk. High capital buffer tends to lowering bank's impact on systemic risk. Bank's leverage level also influences its contribution to sy...

  16. Antimicrobial activity of a new synthetic peptide loaded in polylactic acid or poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J.; Flórez, J.; Torres, R.; Urquiza, M.; Gutiérrez, J. A.; Guzmán, F.; Ortiz, C. C.

    2017-03-01

    Nanocarrier systems are currently being developed for peptide, protein and gene delivery to protect them in the blood circulation and in the gastrointestinal tract. Polylactic acid (PLA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with a new antimicrobial GIBIM-P5S9K peptide were obtained by the double emulsion solvent extraction/evaporation method. PLA- and PLGA-NPs were spherical with sizes between 300 and 400 nm for PLA and 200 and 300 nm for PLGA and 20 mV. The peptide-loading efficiency of PLA-NP and PLGA-NPs was 75% and 55%, respectively. PLA- and PLGA-NPs released around 50% of this peptide over 8 h. In 10% human sera the size of peptide loaded PLA- and PLGA-NPs increased between 25.2% and 39.3%, the PDI changed from 3.2 to 5.1 and the surface charge from -7.15 to 14.6 mV. Both peptide loaded PLA- and PLGA-NPs at 0.5 μM peptide concentration inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas. aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). In contrast, free peptide inhibited at 10 μM but did not inhibit at 0.5 and 1 μM. These PLA- and PLGA-NPs presented <10% hemolysis indicating that they are hemocompatible and promising for delivery and protection system of GIBIM-P5S9K peptide.

  17. Information technology for brain banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Peer

    2018-01-01

    Implementing and maintaining the information technology (IT) infrastructure of a brain bank can be a daunting task for any brain bank coordinator, particularly when access to both funds and IT professionals is limited. Many questions arise when attempting to determine which IT products are most suitable for a brain bank. The requirements of each brain bank must be assessed carefully to ensure that the chosen IT infrastructure will be able to meet those requirements successfully and will be able to expand and adapt as the size of the brain bank increases. This chapter provides some valuable insights to be considered when implementing the IT infrastructure for a brain bank and discusses the pros and cons of various approaches and products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. BEATING BANKS THROUGH KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica CALU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, in the last decade, a significant number of solutions favorable to consumers with foreign currency denominated loans were obtained in courts against the banks or non-bank financial institutions. The judges noted the unfairness of the contractual terms inserted in the loans agreement and absolute nullity of these clauses. Also, in the context of the global economic and financial crisis triggered by the collapse of the banking system with the consequence of depreciation and/or sudden and high fluctuation of domestic currencies against the “safe-heaven currencies”, the theory of unpredictability becomes a particularly important institution. This paper deals with the concepts of „abusive clauses”, „unfair commercial practices” and „providing untruthful information to consumers to influence their choices”. It is also presenting a view of good faith and equity on the performance of contract and the “distribution of the risk” of the contract in the conditions of applying to the “unpredictability theory” in the context of terms of law doctrine and the relevant case law. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that by applying the theory of unpredictability to the occurrence of currency risk associated with loans in foreign currency and by subjecting to examination by court to the clauses whereby the consumer must assume the risk given by the changing of the circumstances of the execution of the contract can be obtain by the consumer or a rebalancing of the understanding of the parties or the cancellation clause which significantly unbalanced the consumer's obligation to bear any risk.

  19. Global Banking System Regulatory Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Oleh Mozhovyi; Olena Pavliuk

    2017-01-01

    The international and domestic experience shows that the main factors of financial destabilization during the financial crises are in the banking sector. The article reveals that the vulnerability of the financial system is connected with functions, deposit and credit transactions, risks distribution and ensuring liquidity; banks act as a major factor in stabilisation measures in the current context of globalization processes, since the economic stability of banking activities ...

  20. Banking crises and government intervention

    OpenAIRE

    García-Palacios, Jaime H.; Hasman, Augusto; Samartín, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Intervention has taken different forms in different countries and periods of time. Moreover, recent episodes showed that in front of an imminent crisis, the promise of no interventions made by governments is barely credible. In this paper we address the problem of resolving banking crises from the government perspective, taking into account the fact that preventing banking crises is crucial for the government. In addition, we introduce the moral hazard problem, inherent in the banking system,...

  1. Current trends of banking innovations

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Karminskiy; O.R. Zhdanova

    2013-01-01

    The current stage of the global banking system development takes place in an increasingly competitive environment and unstable financial markets. One of the key factors of bank's successful development is a policy of continuous innovative behavior. Nowadays innovation is a key factor of bankingnstability, competitiveness and sustainable growth.The aim of the article. The main goal of this article is to examine key trends of banking innovations and innovative in Russia. Experience in the devel...

  2. Bank performance and corporate culture

    OpenAIRE

    Stentella Lopes, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis has three chapters and focuses on the performance of banks and on corporate culture. The first two chapters focus on bank performance and economic expectations. Specifically, the first chapter sheds light on the consistency between investors’ reaction to merger announcement and bankers’ expectation on merger gains. The second chapter analyses the link between high expectations for future economic success and bank performance. The third chapter focuses on corporate culture and it s...

  3. Sources of Regional Banks Capitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Miroshnichenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Searching of sources to increase the capitalization of Russian banks is an important economic problem for both the national and regional economy. Moreover, a strong capital base allows to credit institutions to meet the demands of economic agents for banking service. The research focuses on the choice of sources of regulatory capital for the banks of Tyumen region in the context of changing supervisory requirements in the period of 2005–2016, in different phases of the business cycle. We apply econometric methods of statistical information using IBM SPSS Statistics software. We have calculated the individual correlations of regional banks’ capital with gross domestic product (GDP (excluding gross regional product (GRP and GRP (with the exception of the effect of GDP. These calculations have shown that the capital of regional banks is related only to GDP. The increase in the capital of regional banks is accompanied by a change in its structure: the share of authorized capital has halved, and the share of subordinated debt has grown. All sources of capital, other than the reserve fund, are related to GDP. Authorized capital is associated with the profit of profitable lending institutions; retained earnings in the capital of regional banks — with the aggregated amount of risks of the banking system of the Russian Federation. Subordinated debt, like capital as a whole, is negatively affected by the profitability of the banking sector. The change in the capital of regional banks is determined by the change in retained earnings, subordinated debt and reserve fund. Modelling of these relations has allowed to obtain a system of equations. This system synthesizes linear regression models of changing the capital of regional banks in the context of their sourcing. The results of this study are significant for theoretical justification and practical development of a balanced financial policy of regional banks. Our research will contribute to

  4. Credit risk management in banks

    OpenAIRE

    Pětníková, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this diploma thesis is managing credit risk in banks, as the most significant risk faced by banks. The aim of this work is to define the basic techniques, tools and methods that are used by banks to manage credit risk. The first part of this work focuses on defining these procedures and describes the entire process of credit risk management, from the definition of credit risk, describing credit strategy and policy, organizational structure, defining the most used credit risk mi...

  5. Tissue bank: Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Human degenerative diseases and congenital defects are common throughout the world. Many people suffer also from burns, fractures and nerve damage resulting from traumatic accidents and outbreaks of violence which occur all too frequently, especially in poorer countries. Far too many people are impaired for life because they have no access to treatment or simply cannot afford it. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Division of Nuclear Medicine, to improve facilities at the Sri Lanka Tissue Bank. (IAEA)

  6. Image data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacigalupo, J.; Guillen, G.; Gerez, J.

    1998-01-01

    A project intending to demonstrate the factibility of an image data bank using the commonly available technology was designed.Images obtained in a digital way were classified and stored in an informatics network.An electronic archive focusing the critical care aspects and suitable for clinical use was created.Utilizing the resources of our own and with no high cost in money.Updating a digital medical imagery system is possible with local resources.Modernization in information management is possible in the intensive Care Medicine areas

  7. National serum bio bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poli, F.; Facchiano, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Italian Bio bank is hosted at 'Ospedale Maggiore. Policlinico' of Milan. This structure occupies an area of 300 sq meters and includes laboratories and a cryogenic area. This facility has been built a in compliance with the standards defined by the Foundation for Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT) mostly related to adequacy of spaces, equipment and governmental and institutional policies for bio safety. The Cryogenic area follows written procedures in the event of an ambient disaster and for safety personnel and of the samples stored

  8. The ENZYME data bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairoch, A

    1994-09-01

    The ENZYME data bank is a repository of information relative to the nomenclature of enzymes. It is primarily based on the recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) and it contains the following data for each type of characterized enzyme for which an EC (Enzyme Commission) number has been provided: EC number Recommended name Alternative names (if any) Catalytic activity Cofactors (if any) Pointers to the SWISS-PROT protein sequence entrie(s) that correspond to the enzyme (if any) Pointers to human disease(s) associated with a deficiency of the enzyme (if any).

  9. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  10. Resistencia de dientes restaurados con postes prefabricados ante cargas de máxima intercuspidación, masticación y bruxismo Resistance of teeth restored with prefabricated posts to maximum intercuspidation loads, mastication and bruxism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Correa Vélez

    2013-03-01

    teeth restored with prefabricated posts to maximum static intercuspidation loads, cyclical mastication loads and bruxism, and analyze the effect of periodontal loss on resistance by restorations. Methods: using the finite element method, an in vitro study was conducted of teeth with periodontal loss rehabilitated with prefabricated glass fiber, carbon and titanium posts. Reconstruction of the teeth was based on tomographic images from a periodontically healthy patient. Results: it was shown that rehabilitations did not tend to yield to static loads, irrespective of post material or the degree of periodontal loss. For bruxism and 4 mm periodontal loss, dentin durability was 60 000 cycles, irrespective of post material. For mastication loads and a healthy periodont, dentin failure occurs at 100 000 cycles with titanium posts, 200 000 cycles with carbon fiber posts, and 1 100 000 cycles with glass fiber posts. For 2 mm periodontal loss, dentin durability decreased to 4 000 cycles with titanium posts, 5 000 cycles with carbon fiber posts, and 7 000 cycles with glass fiber posts. For 4 mm periodontal loss, dentin durability is estimated at 1 000 cycles, irrespective of post material. Conclusions: restorations with glass fiber, carbon and titanium prefabricated posts do not yield to maximum static intercuspidation loads, irrespective of the degree of periodontal loss. Prefabricated posts exhibit endless resistance to cyclic loads. Dentin is the structure most severely affected by such events.

  11. Jordan Banks Financial Soundness Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Kutum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to examine the Jordanian banks using financial soundness indicators. This is to establish if Jordanian banks were affected because of the 2007/2008 financial crisis and determine the underlying reasons. The research paper was conducted on 25 banks in Jordan listed in the countries securities exchange. The research methodology used consisted of examining the banks financial records in order to derive four crucial Basel III ratio such as the capital adequacy ratio, the leverage ratio, the liquidity ratio and finally the Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans %. The results revealed that out of the four hypotheses under examination Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Capital Adequacy Ratio, Jordan Banks does not meet Basel financial Indicators for Liquidity Ratio , Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Leverage Ratio and Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans ratio. Only one hypothesis was accepted based on the research outcomes. The rest of the hypothesis was rejected since the average trend line did not go below the Basel III required ratio level. The general outcome of the research revealed that Jordanian banks were not affected significantly by the financial crisis.

  12. Breaking e-Banking CAPTCHAs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shujun; Shah, Syed Amier Haider; Khan, Muhammad Asad Usman; Khayam, Syed Ali; Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza; Schmitz, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Many financial institutions have deployed CAPTCHAs to protect their services (e.g., e-banking) from automated attacks. In addition to CAPTCHAs for login, CAPTCHAs are also used to prevent malicious manipulation of e-banking transactions by automated Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) attackers. Despite serious financial risks, security of e-banking CAPTCHAs is largely unexplored. In this paper, we report the first comprehensive study on e-banking CAPTCHAs deployed around the world. A new set of image p...

  13. Banking industry liberalisation in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis A. Adjei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic liberalisation is characterised by the entry of foreign companies and the emergence of new domestic institutions to compete with the existing institutions of lending, and there is a view that the process leads to greater efficiency, especially because foreign banks bring new expertise. Extracting information from accounts lodged with Ghana Central Bank, this paper ranks the cost efficiency of banks, Theil decomposition of the cost efficiency scores allows for a comparison of performance between banks under different types of ownership. There is pronounced differences in efficiency scores within and between groups by type of ownership, but foreign ownership, per se, is not the determining factor.

  14. Capacitor Bank 'CHANDI' for Plasma Target Production for Liner Plasma Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, R.; Sharma, S.K.; Debnath, K.; Shyam, A.

    2006-01-01

    A capacitor bank is fabricated to drive (JXB) Plasma gun to generate hot plasma (target) for liner plasma investigation. The bank will also be used for driving other pintch experiments. The bank consists of 8 capacitors connected in parallel, each having capacitance of 178 μF giving a total of 1424uF. The bank is charged at 15 kV using a 28 kV power supply charging the capacitors in 65 seconds utilizing full wave charging technique. The total energy of the bank is 160kJ at 15kV. A modeling of power supply was done so that all the components involved are utilized to their operating limit safely. Moreover to give fault protection to the capacitor bank we have implemented the neutral control technique in the power supply. The capacitor bank is discharged to the inductive load through an ignitron switch of very high coulomb rating and capable of withstanding high voltages at its electrodes. The cables used for connecting capacitor bank with ignitron switch are used in parallel to give them collective capability of bearing capacitor discharge currents. These cables are capable of holding high DC voltages (40kV), which appear at the time of charging of the bank. The bank is tested and is operational

  15. In vitro evaluation of the fracture resistance and microleakage of porcelain laminate veneers bonded to teeth with composite fillings after cyclic loading

    OpenAIRE

    Sadighpour, Leyla; Geramipanah, Farideh; Allahyari, Somayeh; Fallahi Sichani, Babak; Kharazi Fard, Mohamd Javad

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE There is insufficient data regarding the durability of porcelain laminate veneers bonded to existing composite fillings. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fracture resistance and microleakage of porcelain laminate veneers bonded to teeth with existing composite fillings. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty maxillary central incisors were divided into three groups (for each group, n=10): intact teeth (NP), teeth with class III composite fillings (C3) and teeth with class IV cav...

  16. Plasma induced material defects and threshold values for thermal loads in high temperature resistant alloys and in refractory metals for first wall application in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Hoven, H.; Kny, E.; Koizlik, K.; Linke, J.; Nickel, H.; Wallura, E.

    1986-10-01

    Materials for the application in the first wall of fusion reactors of the tokamak type are subjected to pulsed heat fluxes which range from some 0.5 MW m -2 to 10 MW m -2 during normal plasma operation, and which can exceed 1000 MW m -2 during total plasma disruptions. The structural defects and material fatigue caused by this types of plasma wall interaction are investigated and the results are plotted in threshold loading curves. Additionally, the results are, as far as possible, compared with quantitative, theoretical calculations. These procedures allow a semiquantitative evaluation of the applicability of the mentioned metals in the first wall of fusion reactors. (orig.) [de

  17. High load of multi-drug resistant nosocomial neonatal pathogens carried by cockroaches in a neonatal intensive care unit at Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Birkneh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 400 Blatella germanica roaches were aseptically collected for five consecutive months. Standard laboratory procedures were used to process the samples. Results From the external and gut homogenates, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella ozaenae, Enterobacter aeruginosa, Salmonella C1, Non Group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. and Shigella flexneri were isolated. Multi-drug resistance was seen in all organisms. Resistance to up to all the 12 antimicrobials tested was observed in different pathogens. Conclusion Cockroaches could play a vector role for nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit and environmental control measures of these vectors is required to reduce the risk of infection. A high level of drug resistance pattern of the isolated pathogens was demonstrated.

  18. High load of multi-drug resistant nosocomial neonatal pathogens carried by cockroaches in a neonatal intensive care unit at Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Birkneh; Worku, Bogale; Tachbele, Erdaw; Terefe, Simegn; Kloos, Helmut; Legesse, Worku

    2012-03-16

    Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica) in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 400 Blatella germanica roaches were aseptically collected for five consecutive months. Standard laboratory procedures were used to process the samples. From the external and gut homogenates, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella ozaenae, Enterobacter aeruginosa, Salmonella C1, Non Group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. and Shigella flexneri were isolated. Multi-drug resistance was seen in all organisms. Resistance to up to all the 12 antimicrobials tested was observed in different pathogens. Cockroaches could play a vector role for nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit and environmental control measures of these vectors is required to reduce the risk of infection. A high level of drug resistance pattern of the isolated pathogens was demonstrated.

  19. Common source-multiple load vs. separate source-individual load photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of system performance is made for two possible system setups: (1) individual loads powered by separate solar cell sources; and (2) multiple loads powered by a common solar cell source. A proof for resistive loads is given that shows the advantage of a common source over a separate source photovoltaic system for a large range of loads. For identical loads, both systems perform the same.

  20. Banking efficiency under corporate social responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohene-Asare, Kwaku; Asmild, Mette

    2012-01-01

    This paper expands the banking efficiency literature by developing a banking intermediation model that captures both profit-maximizing and Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) of banks. Using a data set of 21 banks for each year 2006-2008, we evaluate the relative efficiency of Ghanaian banks...