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Sample records for resistance islet dysfunction

  1. Early and rapid development of insulin resistance, islet dysfunction and glucose intolerance after high-fat feeding in mice overexpressing phosphodiesterase 3B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walz, Helena A; Härndahl, Linda; Wierup, Nils

    2006-01-01

    Inadequate islet adaptation to insulin resistance leads to glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. Here we investigate whether beta-cell cAMP is crucial for islet adaptation and prevention of glucose intolerance in mice. Mice with a beta-cell-specific, 2-fold overexpression of the c...... did not reveal reduced insulin sensitivity in these tissues. Significant steatosis was noted in livers from high-fat-fed wild-type and RIP-PDE3B/2 mice and liver triacyl-glycerol content was 3-fold higher than in wild-type mice fed a control diet. Histochemical analysis revealed severe islet...... perturbations, such as centrally located alpha-cells and reduced immunostaining for insulin and GLUT2 in islets from RIP-PDE3B/2 mice. Additionally, in vitro experiments revealed that the insulin secretory response to glucagon-like peptide-1 stimulation was markedly reduced in islets from high-fat-fed RIP-PDE3B...

  2. Islet-cell dysfunction induced by glucocorticoid treatment

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    van Raalte, Daniël H; Kwa, Kelly A A; van Genugten, Renate E

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids impair glucose tolerance by inducing insulin resistance. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of glucocorticoid treatment on islet-cell function in healthy males and studied the role of the autonomic nervous system.......Glucocorticoids impair glucose tolerance by inducing insulin resistance. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of glucocorticoid treatment on islet-cell function in healthy males and studied the role of the autonomic nervous system....

  3. Sustained beta-cell dysfunction but normalized islet mass in aged thrombospondin-1 deficient mice.

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    Carl Johan Drott

    Full Text Available Pancreatic islet endothelial cells have in recent years been shown to support beta-cell mass and function by paracrine interactions. Recently, we identified an islets endothelial-specific glycoprotein, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1, that showed to be of importance for islet angiogenesis and beta-cell function in young mice. The present study aimed to investigate long-term consequences for islet morphology and beta-cell function of TSP-1 deficiency. Islet and beta-cell mass were observed increased at 10-12 weeks of age in TSP-1 deficient mice, but were normalized before 16 weeks of age when compared to wild-type controls. Islet vascularity was normal in 10-12 and 16-week-old TSP-1 deficient animals, whereas islets of one-year-old animals lacking TSP-1 were hypervascular. Beta-cell dysfunction in TSP-1 deficient animals was present at similar magnitudes between 10-12 and 52 weeks of age, as evaluated by glucose tolerance tests. The insulin secretion capacity in vivo of islets in one-year-old TSP-1 deficient animals was only ∼15% of that in wild-type animals. Using a transplantation model, we reconstituted TSP-1 in adult TSP-deficient islets. In contrast to neonatal TSP-1 deficient islets that we previously reported to regain function after TSP-1 reconstitution, adult islets failed to recover. We conclude that TSP-1 deficiency in islets causes changing vascular and endocrine morphological alterations postnatally, but is coupled to a chronic beta-cell dysfunction. The beta-cell dysfunction induced by TSP-1 deficiency is irreversible if not substituted early in life.

  4. Insulin resistance alters islet morphology in nondiabetic humans

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    Mezza, Teresa; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Sorice, Gian Pio

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by poor glucose uptake in metabolic tissues and manifests when insulin secretion fails to cope with worsening insulin resistance. In addition to its effects on skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue metabolism, it is evident that insulin resistance also affects...... pancreatic β-cells. To directly examine the alterations that occur in islet morphology as part of an adaptive mechanism to insulin resistance, we evaluated pancreas samples obtained during pancreatoduodenectomy from nondiabetic subjects who were insulin-resistant or insulin-sensitive. We also compared...... insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and incretin levels between the two groups. We report an increased islet size and an elevated number of β- and α-cells that resulted in an altered β-cell-to-α-cell area in the insulin- resistant group. Our data in this series of studies suggest that neogenesis from...

  5. Analysis of islet beta cell functions and their correlations with liver dysfunction in patients with neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD).

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    Lu, Chun-Ting; Yang, Jing; Huang, Si-Min; Feng, Lie; Li, Ze-Jian

    2017-11-01

    Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) primarily manifests in neonates or infants with hepatomegaly, liver dysfunction, and hypoglycemia. This study investigated the functions of islet beta cells and their correlations with liver dysfunction in NICCD patients.We retrospectively analyzed clinical data on liver function and islet beta cell functions for 36 patients diagnosed with NICCD and 50 subjects as the control group. The NICCD group had significantly higher total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and albumin/globulin ratio (A/G) (P insulin, C-peptide (C-P), the homeostasis model of assessment for the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), fasting beta cell function (FBCI), and the HOMA beta cell function index (HBCI) between the NICCD and control groups were not significant (P > .05). A linear correlation was found between FBG and fasting insulin (P insulin (P = .023), HOMA-IR (P = .023), FBCI (P = .049), and HBCI (P = .048) were positively correlated with increases in the ALT level. There was no difference in islet beta cell functions between the NICCD and control groups. The liver dysfunction may be correlated with islet beta cell functions in NICCD patients.

  6. Decrease in Circulating Fatty Acids Is Associated with Islet Dysfunction in Chronically Sleep-Restricted Rats

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    Shanshan Zhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that sleep restriction-induced environmental stress is associated with abnormal metabolism, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the possible lipid and glucose metabolism patterns in chronically sleep-restricted rat. Without changes in food intake, body weight was decreased and energy expenditure was increased in sleep-restricted rats. The effects of chronic sleep disturbance on metabolites in serum were examined using 1H NMR metabolomics and GC-FID/MS analysis. Six metabolites (lipoproteins, triglycerides, isoleucine, valine, choline, and phosphorylcholine exhibited significant alteration, and all the fatty acid components were decreased, which suggested fatty acid metabolism was impaired after sleep loss. Moreover, increased blood glucose, reduced serum insulin, decreased glucose tolerance, and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of islets were also observed in sleep-restricted rats. The islet function of insulin secretion could be partially restored by increasing dietary fat to sleep-disturbed rats suggested that a reduction in circulating fatty acids was related to islet dysfunction under sleep deficiency-induced environmental stress. This study provides a new perspective on the relationship between insufficient sleep and lipid/glucose metabolism, which offers insights into the role of stressful challenges in a healthy lifestyle.

  7. Insulin Resistance and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance precedes and predicts the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in susceptible humans, underscoring its important role in the complex pathogenesis of this disease. Insulin resistance contributes to multiple tissue defects characteristic of T2D, including reduced insulin-stimulated glu......Insulin resistance precedes and predicts the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in susceptible humans, underscoring its important role in the complex pathogenesis of this disease. Insulin resistance contributes to multiple tissue defects characteristic of T2D, including reduced insulin...... of defects in mitochondrial function (i.e., bioenergetics, biogenesis and dynamics). However, it remains uncertain whether mitochondrial dysfunction is primary (critical initiating defect) or secondary to the subtle derangements in glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and defective insulin secretion...... present early in the course of disease development. In this chapter, we will present the evidence linking mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and review the potential for mitochondrial targets as a therapeutic approach for T2D....

  8. Insulin Resistance and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

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    Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance precedes and predicts the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in susceptible humans, underscoring its important role in the complex pathogenesis of this disease. Insulin resistance contributes to multiple tissue defects characteristic of T2D, including reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive tissues, increased hepatic glucose production, increased lipolysis in adipose tissue, and altered insulin secretion. Studies of individuals with insulin resistance, both with established T2D and high-risk individuals, have consistently demonstrated a diverse array of defects in mitochondrial function (i.e., bioenergetics, biogenesis and dynamics). However, it remains uncertain whether mitochondrial dysfunction is primary (critical initiating defect) or secondary to the subtle derangements in glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and defective insulin secretion present early in the course of disease development. In this chapter, we will present the evidence linking mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and review the potential for mitochondrial targets as a therapeutic approach for T2D.

  9. Islet adaptation to obesity and insulin resistance in WNIN/GR-Ob rats.

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    Singh, Himadri; Ganneru, Sireesha; Malakapalli, Venkata; Chalasani, Maniprabha; Nappanveettil, Giridharan; Bhonde, Ramesh R; Venkatesan, Vijayalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    WNIN/GR-Ob mutant rat is a novel animal model to study metabolic syndrome (obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular diseases). We have investigated the islet characteristics of obese mutants at different age groups (1, 6 and 12 months) to assess the islet changes in response to early and chronic metabolic stress. Our data demonstrates altered islet cell morphology and function (hypertrophy, fibrotic lesions, vacuolation, decreased stimulation index, increased TNFα, ROS and TBARS levels) in mutants as compared to controls. Furthermore, network analysis (gene-gene interaction) studied in pancreas demonstrated increased inflammation as a key factor underlying obesity/metabolic syndrome in mutants. These observations pave way to explore this model to understand islet adaptation in response to metabolic syndrome.

  10. G protein-coupled receptor 39 deficiency is associated with pancreatic islet dysfunction

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    Holst, Birgitte; Egerod, Kristoffer L; Jin, Chunyu

    2009-01-01

    tolerance both during oral and iv glucose tolerance tests, and Gpr39(-/-) mice had decreased plasma insulin response to oral glucose. Islet architecture was normal in the Gpr39 null mice, but expression of Pdx-1 and Hnf-1alpha was reduced. Isolated, perifused islets from Gpr39 null mice secreted less......alpha, and in the present study, we addressed the importance of GPR39 for glucose homeostasis and pancreatic islets function. The expression and localization of GPR39 were characterized in the endocrine pancreas and pancreatic cell lines. Gpr39(-/-) mice were studied in vivo, especially in respect...... of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and in vitro in respect of islet architecture, gene expression, and insulin secretion. Gpr39 was down-regulated on differentiation of the pluripotent pancreatic cell line AR42J cells toward the exocrine phenotype but was along with Pdx-1 strongly up...

  11. Beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance

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    Marlon E Cerf

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance are inherently complex with their interrelation for triggering the pathogenesis of diabetes also somewhat undefined. Both pathogenic states induce hyperglycemia and therefore increase insulin demand. Beta cell dysfunction results from inadequate glucose sensing to stimulate insulin secretion therefore elevated glucose concentrations prevail. Persistently elevated glucose concentrations above the physiological range result in the manifestation of hyperglycemia. With systemic insulin resistance, insulin signaling within glucose recipient tissues is defective therefore hyperglycemia perseveres. Beta cell dysfunction supersedes insulin resistance in inducing diabetes. Both pathological states influence each other and presumably synergistically exacerbate diabetes. Preserving beta cell function and insulin signaling in beta cells and insulin signaling in the glucose recipient tissues will maintain glucose homeostasis.

  12. Gene expression in rat models for inter-generational transmission of islet dysfunction and obesity

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    Ruby C.Y. Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Paternal high fat diet (HFD consumption triggers unique gene signatures, consistent with premature aging and chronic degenerative disorders, in both white adipose tissue (RpWAT and pancreatic islets of daughters. In addition to published data in Nature, 2010, 467, 963–966 (GSE: 19877, islet and FASEB J 2014, 28, 1830–1841 (GSE: 33551, RpWAT, we describe here additional details on systems-based approaches and analysis to develop our observations. Our data provides a resource for exploring the complex molecular mechanisms that underlie intergenerational transmission of obesity.

  13. [Effects of severe hyperglycaemia in pregnancy and early overfeeding on islet development and insulin resistance].

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    Zeng, Chan-juan; Zhang, Li; Yang, Hui-xia

    2010-09-01

    Study the effects of early overfeeding in the adult offspring of mother with severely hyperglycaemia in pregnancy to islet development and insulin resistance. Thirty healthy female Wistar rats were mated with 10 male Wistar rats and the morning on which sperm were found in three different visual fields of the vaginal smear was designated pregnancy day 1. The pregnant rats were intraperitoneally administered with Streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/L) on 5th day of pregnancy, and blood glucose exceeded 20 mmol/L to induce severely gestational diabetes mellitus (SDM) model. The pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to two experimental groups: SDM (n = 16) and control (n = 8). Litter size reduction in the lactation period induced early postnatal overfeeding model. Offspring were divided into three groups according to the level of blood glucose in pregnancy and feeding patterns in lactation: (1) control group (CG): euglycemia in pregnancy, eight pups in lactation; (2) severely gestational diabetes mellitus-normal feeding (SDM-N): severely gestational diabetes mellitus, eight pups in lactation; (3) severely gestational diabetes mellitus-overfeeding (SDM-O): severely gestational diabetes mellitus, four pups lactation. At the end of the lactation period, all pups were fed standard laboratory chow adlibitum until the date of the experiments. Offspring body weight was measured weekly after ablactation. Serum insulin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and pancreatic islet morphology was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in all three groups at 26 weeks of age. (1) Blood glucose of pregnant Wistar rats: SDM (28.3 ± 5.1) mmol/L was statistically higher than control (6.3 ± 1.4) mmol/L (P 0.05). (4) Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI): at 26 weeks, the SDM-offspring has normal FPG, but more insulin was needed to keep it normal. The insulin level of SDM-O [(12

  14. Metformin Ameliorates Dysfunctional Traits of Glibenclamide- and Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion by Suppression of Imposed Overactivity of the Islet Nitric Oxide Synthase-NO System.

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    Lundquist, Ingmar; Mohammed Al-Amily, Israa; Meidute Abaraviciene, Sandra; Salehi, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Metformin lowers diabetic blood glucose primarily by reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis and increasing peripheral glucose uptake. However, possible effects by metformin on beta-cell function are incompletely understood. We speculated that metformin might positively influence insulin secretion through impacting the beta-cell nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-NO system, a negative modulator of glucose-stimulated insulin release. In short-time incubations with isolated murine islets either glibenclamide or high glucose augmented insulin release associated with increased NO production from both neural and inducible NOS. Metformin addition suppressed the augmented NO generation coinciding with amplified insulin release. Islet culturing with glibenclamide or high glucose revealed pronounced fluorescence of inducible NOS in the beta-cells being abolished by metformin co-culturing. These findings were reflected in medium nitrite-nitrate levels. A glucose challenge following islet culturing with glibenclamide or high glucose revealed markedly impaired insulin response. Metformin co-culturing restored this response. Culturing murine islets and human islets from controls and type 2 diabetics with high glucose or high glucose + glibenclamide induced a pronounced decrease of cell viability being remarkably restored by metformin co-culturing. We show here, that imposed overactivity of the beta-cell NOS-NO system by glibenclamide or high glucose leads to insulin secretory dysfunction and reduced cell viability and also, importantly, that these effects are relieved by metformin inhibiting beta-cell NO overproduction from both neural and inducible NOS thus ameliorating a concealed negative influence by NO induced by sulfonylurea treatment and/or high glucose levels. This double-edged effect of glibenclamide on the beta-cellsuggests sulfonylurea monotherapy in type 2 diabetes being avoided.

  15. Metformin Ameliorates Dysfunctional Traits of Glibenclamide- and Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion by Suppression of Imposed Overactivity of the Islet Nitric Oxide Synthase-NO System.

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    Ingmar Lundquist

    Full Text Available Metformin lowers diabetic blood glucose primarily by reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis and increasing peripheral glucose uptake. However, possible effects by metformin on beta-cell function are incompletely understood. We speculated that metformin might positively influence insulin secretion through impacting the beta-cell nitric oxide synthase (NOS-NO system, a negative modulator of glucose-stimulated insulin release. In short-time incubations with isolated murine islets either glibenclamide or high glucose augmented insulin release associated with increased NO production from both neural and inducible NOS. Metformin addition suppressed the augmented NO generation coinciding with amplified insulin release. Islet culturing with glibenclamide or high glucose revealed pronounced fluorescence of inducible NOS in the beta-cells being abolished by metformin co-culturing. These findings were reflected in medium nitrite-nitrate levels. A glucose challenge following islet culturing with glibenclamide or high glucose revealed markedly impaired insulin response. Metformin co-culturing restored this response. Culturing murine islets and human islets from controls and type 2 diabetics with high glucose or high glucose + glibenclamide induced a pronounced decrease of cell viability being remarkably restored by metformin co-culturing. We show here, that imposed overactivity of the beta-cell NOS-NO system by glibenclamide or high glucose leads to insulin secretory dysfunction and reduced cell viability and also, importantly, that these effects are relieved by metformin inhibiting beta-cell NO overproduction from both neural and inducible NOS thus ameliorating a concealed negative influence by NO induced by sulfonylurea treatment and/or high glucose levels. This double-edged effect of glibenclamide on the beta-cellsuggests sulfonylurea monotherapy in type 2 diabetes being avoided.

  16. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Protects Human Islets against Cytokine-Mediated β-Cell Dysfunction and Death: A Proteomic Study of the Pathways Involved

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    Rondas, Dieter; Bugliani, Marco; D’Hertog, Wannes

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been shown to protect pancreatic β-cells against cytokine-induced dysfunction and destruction. The mechanisms through which GLP-1 exerts its effects are complex and still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the protein expression profiles...... of human islets of Langerhans treated with cytokines (IL-1β and IFN-γ) in the presence or absence of GLP-1 by 2D difference gel electrophoresis and subsequent protein interaction network analysis to understand the molecular pathways involved in GLP-1-mediated β-cell protection. Co-incubation of cytokine......-treated human islets with GLP-1 resulted in a marked protection of β-cells against cytokine-induced apoptosis and significantly attenuated cytokine-mediated inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The cytoprotective effects of GLP-1 coincided with substantial alterations in the protein expression...

  17. Unraveling pancreatic islet biology by quantitative proteomics

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    Zhou, Jianying; Dann, Geoffrey P.; Liew, Chong W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Qian, Weijun

    2011-08-01

    The pancreatic islets of Langerhans play a critical role in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis by secreting insulin and several other important peptide hormones. Impaired insulin secretion due to islet dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis underlying both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Over the past 5 years, emerging proteomic technologies have been applied to dissect the signaling pathways that regulate islet functions and gain an understanding of the mechanisms of islet dysfunction relevant to diabetes. Herein, we briefly review some of the recent quantitative proteomic studies involving pancreatic islets geared towards gaining a better understanding of islet biology relevant to metabolic diseases.

  18. Postprandial lipemia induces pancreatic α cell dysfunction characteristic of type 2 diabetes: studies in healthy subjects, mouse pancreatic islets, and cultured pancreatic α cells.

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    Niederwanger, Andreas; Ciardi, Christian; Tatarczyk, Tobias; Khan, Mohammad I; Hermann, Martin; Mittermair, Christof; Al-Zoairy, Ramona; Salzmann, Karin; Pedrini, Michael T

    2014-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with pancreatic α cell dysfunction, characterized by elevated fasting plasma glucagon concentrations and inadequate postprandial glucose- and insulin-induced suppression of glucagon secretion. The cause and the underlying mechanisms of α cell dysfunction are unknown. Because Western dietary habits cause postprandial lipemia for a major part of a day and, moreover, increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, we tested the hypothesis that postprandial lipemia with its characteristic elevation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs) might cause pancreatic α cell dysfunction. In a crossover study with 7 healthy volunteers, 2 experiments using 2 fat-enriched meals were performed on each volunteer; meal 1 was designed to increase plasma concentrations of both TGRLs and nonesterified fatty acids and meal 2 to increase TGRLs only. Intravenous glucose boli were injected at 0800 after an overnight fast and postprandially at 1300, 3 h after ingestion of a fat-enriched meal. Glucagon concentrations were measured throughout the days of the experiments. In addition to the study in humans, in vitro experiments were performed with mouse pancreatic islets and cultured pancreatic alpha TC 1 clone 9 (αTC1c9) cells, which were incubated with highly purified TGRLs. In humans, postprandial lipemia increased plasma glucagon concentrations and led to an inadequate glucose- and insulin-induced suppression of glucagon. There was no difference between the 2 meal types. In mouse pancreatic islets and cultured pancreatic αTC1c9 cells, purified postprandial TGRLs induced abnormalities in glucagon kinetics comparable with those observed in humans. The TGRL-induced α cell dysfunction was due to reduced γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor activation in pancreatic α cells. We concluded that postprandial lipemia induces pancreatic α cell dysfunction characteristic of type 2 diabetes and, therefore, propose that pancreatic α cell dysfunction could be viewed

  19. Genipin ameliorates age-related insulin resistance through inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

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    Guan, Lili; Feng, Haiyan; Gong, Dezheng; Zhao, Xu; Cai, Li; Wu, Qiong; Yuan, Bo; Yang, Mei; Zhao, Jie; Zou, Yuan

    2013-12-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) increases with age and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are supposed to be major factors leading to age-related IR. Genipin, an extract from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit, has been reported to stimulate insulin secretion in pancreatic islet cells by regulating mitochondrial function. In this study, we first investigated the effects of genipin on insulin sensitivity and the potential mitochondrial mechanisms in the liver of aging rats. The rats were randomly assigned to receive intraperitoneal injections of either 25mg/kg genipin or vehicle once daily for 12days. The aging rats showed hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance as examined by the decreased glucose decay constant rate during insulin tolerance test (kITT). The hepatic tissues showed steatosis and reduced glycogen content. Hepatic malondialdehyde level and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were higher, and levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP were lower as compared with the normal control rats. Administration of genipin ameliorated systemic and hepatic insulin resistance, alleviated hyperinsulinemia, hyperglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis, relieved hepatic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in aging rats. Furthermore, genipin not only improved insulin sensitivity by promoting insulin-stimulated glucose consumption and glycogen synthesis, inhibited cellular ROS overproduction and alleviated the reduction of levels of MMP and ATP, but also reversed oxidative stress-associated JNK hyperactivation and reduced Akt phosphorylation in palmitate-treated L02 hepatocytes. In conclusion, genipin ameliorates age-related insulin resistance through inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. © 2013.

  20. Molecular Events Linking Oxidative Stress and Inflammation to Insulin Resistance and β-Cell Dysfunction

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    Keane, Kevin Noel; Cruzat, Vinicius Fernandes; Carlessi, Rodrigo; de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo Homem; Newsholme, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing worldwide, a consequence of the alarming rise in obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Oxidative stress and inflammation are key physiological and pathological events linking obesity, insulin resistance, and the progression of type 2 DM (T2DM). Unresolved inflammation alongside a “glucolipotoxic” environment of the pancreatic islets, in insulin resistant pathologies, enhances the infiltration of immune cells which through secretory activity cause dysfunction of insulin-secreting β-cells and ultimately cell death. Recent molecular investigations have revealed that mechanisms responsible for insulin resistance associated with T2DM are detected in conditions such as obesity and MetS, including impaired insulin receptor (IR) signalling in insulin responsive tissues, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The aim of the present review is to describe the evidence linking oxidative stress and inflammation with impairment of insulin secretion and action, which result in the progression of T2DM and other conditions associated with metabolic dysregulation. PMID:26257839

  1. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist ameliorates the insulin resistance function of islet β cells via the activation of PDX-1/JAK signaling transduction in C57/BL6 mice with high-fat diet-induced diabetes.

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    Hao, Tao; Zhang, Hongtao; Li, Sheyu; Tian, Haoming

    2017-04-01

    Long-term exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) causes glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity in islet β cells and leads to the development of metabolic dysfunctions. Reductions in pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) expression have been shown to induce type 2 diabetes mellitus by causing impairments to islet β cells. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) treatment reduces endogenous insulin resistance in HFD-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present study, the underlying mechanism by which GLP-1 exerts its function in type 2 diabetes mellitus was investigated. The effect of liraglutide (GLP-1 receptor agonist) administration on glucose tolerance, insulin release, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide level was detected in a HFD-induced diabetes C57/BL6 mouse model. Moreover, the role of liraglutide administration on the activity of PDX-1 was quantified to demonstrate the association between the two indicators. The results showed that administration of liraglutide could ameliorate the impairments to β cells due to HFD consumption. Liraglutide restored the insulin capacity and stimulated glucose disposal by improving the function and increasing the number of islet β cells. Furthermore, the hyperplasia and redundant function of islet α cells were inhibited by liraglutide treatment as well. At the molecular level, administration of liraglutide induced the expression of PDX-1, MafA, p-JAK2 and p-Stat3 in HFD model to relatively normal levels. It was suggested that the effect of liraglutide-induced activation of GLP-1 was exerted via activation of PDX-1 rather than its function in decreasing body weight. The study demonstrated that GLP-1 played an essential role in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Complement activation, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance and chronic heart failure

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    Bjerre, M.; Kistorp, C.; Hansen, T.K.

    2010-01-01

    CRP), endothelial activation (soluble E-selectin, sEsel)), endothelial damage/dysfunction (von Willebrand factor, vWf) and insulin resistance (IR) and prognosis in CHF remains unknown. Design. We investigated the association(s) between plasma sMAC, hsCRP, sEsel, vWf and IR (assessed by homeostatic model assessment...

  3. Ketosis onset type 2 diabetes had better islet β-cell function and more serious insulin resistance.

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    Lu, Hongyun; Hu, Fang; Zeng, Yingjuan; Zou, Lingling; Luo, Shunkui; Sun, Ying; Liu, Hong; Sun, Liao

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic ketosis had been identified as a characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but now emerging evidence has identified that they were diagnosed as T2DM after long time follow up. This case control study was aimed at comparing the clinical characteristic, β-cell function, and insulin resistance of ketosis and nonketotic onset T2DM and providing evidence for treatment selection. 140 cases of newly diagnosed T2DM patients were divided into ketosis (62 cases) and nonketotic onset group (78 cases). After correction of hyperglycemia and ketosis with insulin therapy, plasma C-peptide concentrations were measured at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 hours after 75 g glucose oral administration. Area under the curve (AUC) of C-peptide was calculated. Homoeostasis model assessment was used to estimate basal β-cell function (HOMA-β) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Our results showed that ketosis onset group had higher prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) than nonketotic group (P = 0.04). Ketosis onset group had increased plasma C-peptide levels at 0 h, 0.5 h, and 3 h and higher AUC(0-0.5), AUC₀₋₁, AUC₀₋₃ (P ketosis onset T2DM had better islet β-cell function and more serious insulin resistance than nonketotic onset T2DM.

  4. Renin-angiotensin system blockers protect pancreatic islets against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.

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    Eliete Dalla Corte Frantz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The associations between obesity, hypertension and diabetes are well established, and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS may provide a link among them. The effect of RAS inhibition on type 2 diabetes is still unclear; however, RAS seems to play an important role in the regulation of the pancreas and glucose intolerance of mice fed high-fat (HF diet. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice fed a HF diet (8 weeks were treated with aliskiren (50 mg/kg/day, enalapril (30 mg/kg/day or losartan (10 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks, and the protective effects were extensively compared among groups by morphometry, stereological tools, immunostaining, Western blotting and hormonal analysis. RESULTS: All RAS inhibitors significantly attenuated the increased blood pressure in mice fed a HF diet. Treatment with enalapril, but not aliskiren or losartan, significantly attenuated body mass (BM gain, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, improved the alpha and beta cell mass and prevented the reduction of plasma adiponectin. Furthermore, enalapril treatment improved the protein expression of the pancreatic islet Pdx1, GLUT2, ACE2 and Mas receptors. Losartan treatment showed the greatest AT2R expression. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that ACE inhibition with enalapril attenuated several of the deleterious effects of the HF diet. In summary, enalapril appears to be responsible for the normalization of islet morphology and function, of alpha and beta cell mass and of Pdx1 and GLUT2 expression. These protective effects of enalapril were attributed, primarily, to the reduction in body mass gain and food intake and the enhancement of the ACE2/Ang (1-7 /Mas receptor axis and adiponectin levels.

  5. Islet transplantation in rodents: do encapsulated islets really work?

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    Yngrid Ellyn Dias Maciel de Souza

    2011-06-01

    immunosuppressive agents and may enable the performance of xenotransplantation. The use of alternative donor sources, fewer islets per capsule and the appropriate deployment location, such as the peritoneal cavity, may give a future perspective to the application of immunoprotective capsules and viability in clinical practice. A variety of strategies, such as genetic engineering, co-encapsulation, improvement in oxygen supply or the establishment of hypoxia resistance will also improve the islet transplantation performance. It remains to be determined which combination of strategies with encapsulation can fulfill the promise of establishing a simple and safe transplantation as a cure for diabetes.

  6. Chemical Ablation of Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide Receptor Action by Daily (Pro3)GIP Administration Improves Glucose Tolerance and Ameliorates Insulin Resistance and Abnormalities of Islet Structure in Obesity-Related Diabetes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Victor A. Gault; Nigel Irwin; Brian D. Green; Jane T. McCluskey; Brett Greer; Clifford J. Bailey; Patrick Harriott; Finbarr P.M. O’Harte; Peter R. Flatt

    2005-01-01

    Chemical Ablation of Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide Receptor Action by Daily (Pro 3 )GIP Administration Improves Glucose Tolerance and Ameliorates Insulin Resistance and Abnormalities of Islet Structure in Obesity-Related Diabetes Victor...

  7. Ketosis Onset Type 2 Diabetes Had Better Islet β-Cell Function and More Serious Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic ketosis had been identified as a characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, but now emerging evidence has identified that they were diagnosed as T2DM after long time follow up. This case control study was aimed at comparing the clinical characteristic, β-cell function, and insulin resistance of ketosis and nonketotic onset T2DM and providing evidence for treatment selection. 140 cases of newly diagnosed T2DM patients were divided into ketosis (62 cases and nonketotic onset group (78 cases. After correction of hyperglycemia and ketosis with insulin therapy, plasma C-peptide concentrations were measured at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 hours after 75 g glucose oral administration. Area under the curve (AUC of C-peptide was calculated. Homoeostasis model assessment was used to estimate basal β-cell function (HOMA-β and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Our results showed that ketosis onset group had higher prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD than nonketotic group (P=0.04. Ketosis onset group had increased plasma C-peptide levels at 0 h, 0.5 h, and 3 h and higher AUC0–0.5, AUC0–1, AUC0–3 (P<0.05. Moreover, this group also had higher HOMA-β and HOMA-IR than nonketotic group (P<0.05. From these data, we concluded that ketosis onset T2DM had better islet β-cell function and more serious insulin resistance than nonketotic onset T2DM.

  8. High-fat diet-induced insulin resistance does not increase plasma anandamide levels or potentiate anandamide insulinotropic effect in isolated canine islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orison O Woolcott

    Full Text Available Obesity has been associated with elevated plasma anandamide levels. In addition, anandamide has been shown to stimulate insulin secretion in vitro, suggesting that anandamide might be linked to hyperinsulinemia.To determine whether high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance increases anandamide levels and potentiates the insulinotropic effect of anandamide in isolated pancreatic islets.Dogs were fed a high-fat diet (n = 9 for 22 weeks. Abdominal fat depot was quantified by MRI. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Fasting plasma endocannabinoid levels were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All metabolic assessments were performed before and after fat diet regimen. At the end of the study, pancreatic islets were isolated prior to euthanasia to test the in vitro effect of anandamide on islet hormones. mRNA expression of cannabinoid receptors was determined in intact islets. The findings in vitro were compared with those from animals fed a control diet (n = 7.Prolonged fat feeding increased abdominal fat content by 81.3±21.6% (mean±S.E.M, P<0.01. In vivo insulin sensitivity decreased by 31.3±12.1% (P<0.05, concomitant with a decrease in plasma 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (from 39.1±5.2 to 15.7±2.0 nmol/L but not anandamide, oleoyl ethanolamide, linoleoyl ethanolamide, or palmitoyl ethanolamide. In control-diet animals (body weight: 28.8±1.0 kg, islets incubated with anandamide had a higher basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as compared with no treatment. Islets from fat-fed animals (34.5±1.3 kg; P<0.05 versus control did not exhibit further potentiation of anandamide-induced insulin secretion as compared with control-diet animals. Glucagon but not somatostatin secretion in vitro was also increased in response to anandamide, but there was no difference between groups (P = 0.705. No differences in gene expression of CB1R or CB2R between groups were found.In canines, high-fat diet

  9. Prolonged Fasting Identifies Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Dysfunction as Consequence Rather Than Cause of Human Insulin Resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeks, J.; Herpen, N.A.; Mensink, M.R.; Moonen-Kornips, E.; Beurden, van D.; Hesselink, M.K.C.; Schrauwen, P.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance have been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, but it is debated whether this is a primary factor in the pathogenesis of the disease. To test the concept that mitochondrial dysfunction is secondary to the development of insulin resistance, we

  10. Microwell scaffolds for the extrahepatic transplantation of islets of Langerhans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijke Buitinga

    Full Text Available Allogeneic islet transplantation into the liver has the potential to restore normoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. However, the suboptimal microenvironment for islets in the liver is likely to be involved in the progressive islet dysfunction that is often observed post-transplantation. This study validates a novel microwell scaffold platform to be used for the extrahepatic transplantation of islet of Langerhans. Scaffolds were fabricated from either a thin polymer film or an electrospun mesh of poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate-poly(butylene terephthalate (PEOT/PBT block copolymer (composition: 4000PEOT30PBT70 and were imprinted with microwells, ∼400 µm in diameter and ∼350 µm in depth. The water contact angle and water uptake were 39±2° and 52.1±4.0 wt%, respectively. The glucose flux through electrospun scaffolds was three times higher than for thin film scaffolds, indicating enhanced nutrient diffusion. Human islets cultured in microwell scaffolds for seven days showed insulin release and insulin content comparable to those of free-floating control islets. Islet morphology and insulin and glucagon expression were maintained during culture in the microwell scaffolds. Our results indicate that the microwell scaffold platform prevents islet aggregation by confinement of individual islets in separate microwells, preserves the islet's native rounded morphology, and provides a protective environment without impairing islet functionality, making it a promising platform for use in extrahepatic islet transplantation.

  11. Roles of mitochondrial fragmentation and reactive oxygen species in mitochondrial dysfunction and myocardial insulin resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Tomoyuki [Internal Medicine III, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Saotome, Masao, E-mail: msaotome@hama-med.ac.jp [Internal Medicine III, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Nobuhara, Mamoru; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Urushida, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Hideki; Satoh, Hiroshi [Internal Medicine III, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Funaki, Makoto [Clinical Research Center for Diabetes, Tokushima University Hospital, 2-50-1 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Hayashi, Hideharu [Internal Medicine III, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Evidence suggests an association between aberrant mitochondrial dynamics and cardiac diseases. Because myocardial metabolic deficiency caused by insulin resistance plays a crucial role in heart disease, we investigated the role of dynamin-related protein-1 (DRP1; a mitochondrial fission protein) in the pathogenesis of myocardial insulin resistance. Methods and Results: DRP1-expressing H9c2 myocytes, which had fragmented mitochondria with mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ{sub m}) depolarization, exhibited attenuated insulin signaling and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) uptake, indicating insulin resistance. Treatment of the DRP1-expressing myocytes with Mn(III)tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin pentachloride (TMPyP) significantly improved insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. When myocytes were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), they increased DRP1 expression and mitochondrial fragmentation, resulting in ΔΨ{sub m} depolarization and insulin resistance. When DRP1 was suppressed by siRNA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance were restored. Our results suggest that a mutual enhancement between DRP1 and reactive oxygen species could induce mitochondrial dysfunction and myocardial insulin resistance. In palmitate-induced insulin-resistant myocytes, neither DRP1-suppression nor TMPyP restored the ΔΨ{sub m} depolarization and impaired 2-DG uptake, however they improved insulin signaling. Conclusions: A mutual enhancement between DRP1 and ROS could promote mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of insulin signal transduction. However, other mechanisms, including lipid metabolite-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, may be involved in palmitate-induced insulin resistance. - Highlights: • DRP1 promotes mitochondrial fragmentation and insulin-resistance. • A mutual enhancement between DRP1 and ROS ipromotes insulin-resistance. • Palmitate increases DRP1 expression and induces insulin-resistance

  12. Microvascular dysfunction as a link between obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Ü; Schram, M T; Houben, A J H M; Muris, D M J; Stehouwer, C D A

    2014-03-01

    Impaired microvascular dilatation from any cause and impaired insulin-mediated capillary recruitment in particular result in suboptimal delivery of glucose and insulin to skeletal muscle, and subsequently impairment of glucose disposal (insulin resistance). In addition, microvascular dysfunction, through functional and/or structural arteriolar and capillary drop-out, and arteriolar constriction, increases peripheral resistance and thus blood pressure. Microvascular dysfunction may thus constitute a pathway that links insulin resistance and hypertension. Overweight and obesity may be an important cause of microvascular dysfunction. Mechanisms linking overweight and obesity to microvascular dysfunction include changes in the secretion of adipokines leading to increased levels of free fatty acids and inflammatory mediators, and decreased levels of adiponectin all of which may impair endothelial insulin signaling. Microvascular dysfunction may thus constitute a new treatment target in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Clustering of Insulin Resistance With Vascular Dysfunction and Low-Grade Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrea Natali; Elena Toschi; Stephanie Baldeweg; Demetrio Ciociaro; Stefania Favilla; Luigi Saccà; Ele Ferrannini

    2006-01-01

    Clustering of Insulin Resistance With Vascular Dysfunction and Low-Grade Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes Andrea Natali 1 , Elena Toschi 1 , Stephanie Baldeweg 2 , Demetrio Ciociaro 1 , Stefania Favilla 1 , Luigi Saccà...

  14. LIGHT/TNFSF14 is increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and promotes islet cell dysfunction and endothelial cell inflammation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Bente; Santilli, Francesca; Scholz, Hanne; Sahraoui, Afaf; Gulseth, Hanne L; Wium, Cecilie; Lattanzio, Stefano; Formoso, Gloria; Di Fulvio, Patrizia; Otterdal, Kari; Retterstøl, Kjetil; Holven, Kirsten B; Gregersen, Ida; Stavik, Benedicte; Bjerkeli, Vigdis; Michelsen, Annika E; Ueland, Thor; Liani, Rossella; Davi, Giovanni; Aukrust, Pål

    2016-10-01

    Activation of inflammatory pathways is involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. On the basis of its role in vascular inflammation and in metabolic disorders, we hypothesised that the TNF superfamily (TNFSF) member 14 (LIGHT/TNFSF14) could be involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Plasma levels of LIGHT were measured in two cohorts of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (191 Italian and 40 Norwegian). Human pancreatic islet cells and arterial endothelial cells were used to explore regulation and relevant effects of LIGHT in vitro. Our major findings were: (1) in both diabetic cohorts, plasma levels of LIGHT were significantly raised compared with sex- and age-matched healthy controls (n = 32); (2) enhanced release from activated platelets seems to be an important contributor to the raised LIGHT levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus; (3) in human pancreatic islet cells, inflammatory cytokines increased the release of LIGHT and upregulated mRNA and protein levels of the LIGHT receptors lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) and TNF receptor superfamily member 14 (HVEM/TNFRSF14); (4) in these cells, LIGHT attenuated the insulin release in response to high glucose at least partly via pro-apoptotic effects; and (5) in human arterial endothelial cells, glucose boosted inflammatory response to LIGHT, accompanied by an upregulation of mRNA levels of HVEM (also known as TNFRSF14) and LTβR (also known as LTBR). Our findings show that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are characterised by increased plasma LIGHT levels. Our in vitro findings suggest that LIGHT may contribute to the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus by attenuating insulin secretion in pancreatic islet cells and by contributing to vascular inflammation.

  15. Insulin Resistance and Endothelial Dysfunction Constitute a Common Therapeutic Target in Cardiometabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Janus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance and other risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, promote endothelial dysfunction and lead to development of metabolic syndrome which constitutes an introduction to cardiovascular disease. The insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction cross talk between each other by numerous metabolic pathways. Hence, targeting one of these pathologies with pleiotropic treatment exerts beneficial effect on another one. Combined and expletive treatment of hypertension, lipid disorders, and insulin resistance with nonpharmacological interventions and conventional pharmacotherapy may inhibit the transformation of metabolic disturbances to fully developed cardiovascular disease. This paper summarises the common therapeutic targets for insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular inflammatory reaction at molecular level and analyses the potential pleiotropic effects of drugs used currently in management of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes.

  16. Islet Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body use glucose for energy. Islet cell transplantation transfers cells from an organ donor into the ... to make and release insulin. Researchers hope islet transplantation will help people with type 1 diabetes live ...

  17. Pancreatic Islet Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from a living donor, or using islets from pigs. Researchers have transplanted pig islets into other animals, including monkeys, by encapsulating ... are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances. Clinical trials look at ...

  18. Complement activation, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance and chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, M.; Kistorp, C.; Hansen, T.K.

    2010-01-01

    , IR was an independent predictor of sMAC in the CHF group beta = 0.37 (p complement system and thus......Objectives. Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have an exaggerated immune response, endothelial damage/dysfunction, and increased risk of diabetes mellitus (DM). The inter-relationship(s) between indices of complement activation (soluble membrane attack complex, sMAC), inflammation (hs...

  19. Microfluidic platform for assessing pancreatic islet functionality through dielectric spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heileman, K.; Daoud, J.; Hasilo, C.; Gasparrini, M.; Paraskevas, S.; Tabrizian, M.

    2015-01-01

    Human pancreatic islets are seldom assessed for dynamic responses to external stimuli. Thus, the elucidation of human islet functionality would provide insights into the progression of diabetes mellitus, evaluation of preparations for clinical transplantation, as well as for the development of novel therapeutics. The objective of this study was to develop a microfluidic platform for in vitro islet culture, allowing the multi-parametric investigation of islet response to chemical and biochemical stimuli. This was accomplished through the fabrication and implementation of a microfluidic platform that allowed the perifusion of islet culture while integrating real-time monitoring using impedance spectroscopy, through microfabricated, interdigitated electrodes located along the microchamber arrays. Real-time impedance measurements provide important dielectric parameters, such as cell membrane capacitance and cytoplasmic conductivity, representing proliferation, differentiation, viability, and functionality. The perifusion of varying glucose concentrations and monitoring of the resulting impedance of pancreatic islets were performed as proof-of-concept validation of the lab-on-chip platform. This novel technique to elucidate the underlying mechanisms that dictate islet functionality is presented, providing new information regarding islet function that could improve the evaluation of islet preparations for transplantation. In addition, it will lead to a better understanding of fundamental diabetes-related islet dysfunction and the development of therapeutics through evaluation of potential drug effects. PMID:26339324

  20. Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosicka, Iga

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type II is a metabolic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The disease is associated with occurence of insoluble, fibrillar, protein aggregates in islets of Langerhans in the pancreas - islet amyloid. The main constituent of these protein fibers is the human islet...... amyloid polypeptide, which has a propensity to form oligomeric and fibrillar aggregates consisting of stable beta-sheets. These aggregates are toxic to the pancreatic cells. In-depth knowledge of the mechanisms of islet amyloid formation is an important step towards better understanding of the etiology...... of diabetes type II, while revealing the structure(s) of islet amyloid fibrils is necessary for potential design of therapeutic agents....

  1. Pulmonary arterial dysfunction in insulin resistant obese Zucker rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cogolludo Angel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance and obesity are strongly associated with systemic cardiovascular diseases. Recent reports have also suggested a link between insulin resistance with pulmonary arterial hypertension. The aim of this study was to analyze pulmonary vascular function in the insulin resistant obese Zucker rat. Methods Large and small pulmonary arteries from obese Zucker rat and their lean counterparts were mounted for isometric tension recording. mRNA and protein expression was measured by RT-PCR or Western blot, respectively. KV currents were recorded in isolated pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells using the patch clamp technique. Results Right ventricular wall thickness was similar in obese and lean Zucker rats. Lung BMPR2, KV1.5 and 5-HT2A receptor mRNA and protein expression and KV current density were also similar in the two rat strains. In conductance and resistance pulmonary arteries, the similar relaxant responses to acetylcholine and nitroprusside and unchanged lung eNOS expression revealed a preserved endothelial function. However, in resistance (but not in conductance pulmonary arteries from obese rats a reduced response to several vasoconstrictor agents (hypoxia, phenylephrine and 5-HT was observed. The hyporesponsiveness to vasoconstrictors was reversed by L-NAME and prevented by the iNOS inhibitor 1400W. Conclusions In contrast to rat models of type 1 diabetes or other mice models of insulin resistance, the obese Zucker rats did not show any of the characteristic features of pulmonary hypertension but rather a reduced vasoconstrictor response which could be prevented by inhibition of iNOS.

  2. Invasive assessment of coronary microvascular dysfunction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the index of microvascular resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutiérrez-Barrios, Alejandro, E-mail: aleklos@hotmail.com [Cardiology Department, Jerez Hospital, Jerez (Spain); Camacho-Jurado, Francisco [Cardiology Department, Punta Europa Hospital, Algeciras (Spain); Díaz-Retamino, Enrique; Gamaza-Chulián, Sergio; Agarrado-Luna, Antonio; Oneto-Otero, Jesús; Del Rio-Lechuga, Ana; Benezet-Mazuecos, Javier [Cardiology Department, Jerez Hospital, Jerez (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Summary: We present a review of microvascular dysfunction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and an interesting case of a symptomatic familial HCM patient with inducible ischemia by single photon emission computed tomography. Coronary angiography revealed normal epicardial arteries. Pressure wire measurements of fractional flow reserve (FFR), coronary flow reserve (CFR) and index of microvascular resistance (IMR) demonstrated a significant microcirculatory dysfunction. This is the first such case that documents this abnormality invasively using the IMR. The measurement of IMR, a novel marker of microcirculatory dysfunction, provides novel insights into the pathophysiology of this condition. - Highlights: • Microvascular dysfunction is a common feature in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and represents a strong predictor of unfavorable outcome and cardiovascular mortality. • The index of microvascular resistance (IMR) is a new method for invasively assessing the state of the coronary microcirculation using a single pressure-temperature sensor-tipped coronary wire. • However assessment of IMR in HCM has not been previously reported. We report a case in which microvascular dysfunction is assessed by IMR. This index may be useful in future researches of HCM.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance, penicillin-binding protein sequences, and pilus islet carriage in relation to clonal evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A in Russia, 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayanskiy, N; Savinova, T; Alyabieva, N; Ponomarenko, O; Brzhozovskaya, E; Lazareva, A; Katosova, L; Kozlov, R

    2017-06-01

    Clonal changes of serotype 19A pneumococci have been appreciated in conjunction with growing prevalence of this serotype after implementation of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). In the present study, we characterized serotype 19A pneumococci collected in Russia within a decade preceding the implementation of PCV vaccination and described their clonal evolution. We retrospectively analyzed non-invasive serotype 19A isolates collected in 2002-2013. All isolates were subjected to multilocus sequence typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, determination of macrolide resistance genotype, molecular detection of pilus islet (PI) carriage, sequencing of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes. A total of 49 serotype 19A isolates represented 25 sequence types, of which 14 were newly described. The majority of isolates were distributed among clonal complex (CC) 663 (28%), CC230 (25%), CC156, and CC320 (14% each). CC663 and CC156 dominated in 2003, but were replaced by CC230 and CC320 later on; CC320 was only evident starting 2010. All isolates of CC663 and CC156 carried PI1; CC320 possessed both PI1 and PI2. The overall rate of altered amino acids in penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates was 13·9%, 7·2%, and 8·7% for PBP1a, PBP2b, and PBP2x, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that the clonal structure of serotype 19A pneumococci may evolve without PCV pressure.

  4. Association between intrarenal arterial resistance and diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIsaac, Richard J; Thomas, Merlin C; Panagiotopoulos, Sianna; Smith, Trudy J; Hao, Huming; Matthews, D Geoffrey; Jerums, George; Burrell, Louise M; Srivastava, Piyush M

    2008-05-23

    In comparison to the well established changes in compliance that occur at the large vessel level in diabetes, much less is known about the changes in compliance of the cardiovascular system at the end-organ level. The aim of this study was therefore to examine whether there was a correlation between resistance of the intrarenal arteries of the kidney and compliance of the left ventricle, as estimated by measurements of diastolic function, in subjects with type 2 diabetes. We studied 167 unselected clinic patients with type 2 diabetes with a kidney duplex scan to estimate intrarenal vascular resistance, i.e. the resistance index (RI = peak systolic velocity-minimum diastolic velocity/peak systolic velocity) and a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) employing tissue doppler studies to document diastolic and systolic ventricular function. Renal RI was significantly higher in subjects with diastolic dysfunction (0.72 +/- 0.05) when compared with those who had a normal TTE examination (0.66 +/- 0.06, p diastolic dysfunction including the E/Vp ratio (r = 0.41, p systolic function, hypertension, the presence and severity of chronic kidney disease, the use of renin-angiotensin inhibitors and other potentially confounding variables. Increasing vascular resistance of the intrarenal arteries was associated with markers of diastolic dysfunction in subjects with type 2 diabetes. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that vascular and cardiac stiffening in diabetes are manifestations of common pathophysiological mechanisms.

  5. Islet Amyloid Polypeptide: Structure, Function, and Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Akter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hormone islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, or amylin plays a role in glucose homeostasis but aggregates to form islet amyloid in type-2 diabetes. Islet amyloid formation contributes to β-cell dysfunction and death in the disease and to the failure of islet transplants. Recent work suggests a role for IAPP aggregation in cardiovascular complications of type-2 diabetes and hints at a possible role in type-1 diabetes. The mechanisms of IAPP amyloid formation in vivo or in vitro are not understood and the mechanisms of IAPP induced β-cell death are not fully defined. Activation of the inflammasome, defects in autophagy, ER stress, generation of reactive oxygen species, membrane disruption, and receptor mediated mechanisms have all been proposed to play a role. Open questions in the field include the relative importance of the various mechanisms of β-cell death, the relevance of reductionist biophysical studies to the situation in vivo, the molecular mechanism of amyloid formation in vitro and in vivo, the factors which trigger amyloid formation in type-2 diabetes, the potential role of IAPP in type-1 diabetes, the development of clinically relevant inhibitors of islet amyloidosis toxicity, and the design of soluble, bioactive variants of IAPP for use as adjuncts to insulin therapy.

  6. Exploiting mitochondrial dysfunction for effective elimination of imatinib-resistant leukemic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérome Kluza

    Full Text Available Challenges today concern chronic myeloid leukemia (CML patients resistant to imatinib. There is growing evidence that imatinib-resistant leukemic cells present abnormal glucose metabolism but the impact on mitochondria has been neglected. Our work aimed to better understand and exploit the metabolic alterations of imatinib-resistant leukemic cells. Imatinib-resistant cells presented high glycolysis as compared to sensitive cells. Consistently, expression of key glycolytic enzymes, at least partly mediated by HIF-1α, was modified in imatinib-resistant cells suggesting that imatinib-resistant cells uncouple glycolytic flux from pyruvate oxidation. Interestingly, mitochondria of imatinib-resistant cells exhibited accumulation of TCA cycle intermediates, increased NADH and low oxygen consumption. These mitochondrial alterations due to the partial failure of ETC were further confirmed in leukemic cells isolated from some imatinib-resistant CML patients. As a consequence, mitochondria generated more ROS than those of imatinib-sensitive cells. This, in turn, resulted in increased death of imatinib-resistant leukemic cells following in vitro or in vivo treatment with the pro-oxidants, PEITC and Trisenox, in a syngeneic mouse tumor model. Conversely, inhibition of glycolysis caused derepression of respiration leading to lower cellular ROS. In conclusion, these findings indicate that imatinib-resistant leukemic cells have an unexpected mitochondrial dysfunction that could be exploited for selective therapeutic intervention.

  7. Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation Causes Cardiac Dysfunction and the Impairment Is Attenuated by Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampá, Sara Quaglia de Campos; Mônico-Neto, Marcos; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Souza, Helton de Sá; Tufik, Sergio; Lee, Kil Sun; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Dos Santos, Alexandra Alberta; Antonio, Ednei Luiz; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Paradoxical sleep deprivation activates the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, subsequently interfering with the cardiovascular system. The beneficial effects of resistance training are related to hemodynamic, metabolic and hormonal homeostasis. We hypothesized that resistance training can prevent the cardiac remodeling and dysfunction caused by paradoxical sleep deprivation. Male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: control (C), resistance training (RT), paradoxical sleep deprivation for 96 hours (PSD96) and both resistance training and sleep deprivation (RT/PSD96). Doppler echocardiograms, hemodynamics measurements, cardiac histomorphometry, hormonal profile and molecular analysis were evaluated. Compared to the C group, PSD96 group had a higher left ventricular systolic pressure, heart rate and left atrium index. In contrast, the left ventricle systolic area and the left ventricle cavity diameter were reduced in the PSD96 group. Hypertrophy and fibrosis were also observed. Along with these alterations, reduced levels of serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), as well as increased corticosterone and angiotensin II, were observed in the PSD96 group. Prophylactic resistance training attenuated most of these changes, except angiotensin II, fibrosis, heart rate and concentric remodeling of left ventricle, confirmed by the increased of NFATc3 and GATA-4, proteins involved in the pathologic cardiac hypertrophy pathway. Resistance training effectively attenuates cardiac dysfunction and hormonal imbalance induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation.

  8. Curcumin treatment enhances islet recovery by induction of heat shock response proteins, Hsp70 and heme oxygenase-1, during cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitkar, Meghana; Bhonde, Ramesh R

    2008-01-16

    Limited recovery of islets post-cryopreservation influences graft survival and transplantation efficiency during diabetes treatment. As curcumin, a potent antioxidant/radical scavenging compound, protects islets against beta cell toxins, we hypothesized that inclusion of curcumin during cryopreservation or during post-thaw culture or both may rescue islets from cryoinjury. To test the effect of curcumin inclusion on islet recovery murine islets were isolated by the collagenase digestion, cultured for 48 h, cryopreserved using dimethylsulphoxide as cryoprotectant -- with or without curcumin (10 microM) -- and then slow cooled to -40 degrees C before immersing them in liquid nitrogen for 7 days. Following rapid thawing with sucrose gradient and 24 h post-thaw culture -- in presence or absence of curcumin (10 microM) -- islet viability and functionality were determined. Islet recovery in curcumin treated groups was significantly higher than in groups where islets were cryopreserved without curcumin. Islets cryopreserved with curcumin also showed more intact islets as well as better morphology as compared to islets cryopreserved without curcumin. Curcumin treated islets also showed significant inhibition of ROS generation as compared to islets cryopreserved without curcumin. Glucose responsiveness and insulin secretion in islets cryopreserved with curcumin was equal to that of the freshly isolated islets as against islets cryopreserved without curcumin. Elevated level of Hsp 70 and HO-1 were observed in islets cryopreserved with curcumin and may contribute to curcumin-induced islet rescue. Hence, we conclude that inclusion of curcumin into cryopreservation medium inhibits ROS generation and corresponding islet damage and dysfunction.

  9. Receptor dysfunction and hormone resistance in human diseases--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaron, C; Famuyiwa, O

    1978-01-01

    Studies of the hormone-receptor interaction have introduced a new chapter in endocrine and metabolic disorders. Receptor (R) dysfunction in human diseases, due either to an alteration in the number or affinity of the R, or to antibodies against the R, is reviewed and classified in the first part of this paper. Disorders where hormone resistance has been implicated, but where R studies are still unavailable are also presented.

  10. Clinical pancreatic islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A M James; Pokrywczynska, Marta; Ricordi, Camillo

    2017-05-01

    Clinical pancreatic islet transplantation can be considered one of the safest and least invasive transplant procedures. Remarkable progress has occurred in both the technical aspects of islet cell processing and the outcomes of clinical islet transplantation. With >1,500 patients treated since 2000, this therapeutic strategy has moved from a curiosity to a realistic treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (that is, those with hypoglycaemia unawareness, severe hypoglycaemic episodes and glycaemic lability). This Review outlines the techniques required for human islet isolation, in vitro culture before the transplant and clinical islet transplantation, and discusses indications, optimization of recipient immunosuppression and management of adjunctive immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory strategies. The potential risks, long-term outcomes and advances in treatment after the transplant are also discussed to further move this treatment towards becoming a more widely available option for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and eventually a potential cure.

  11. Insulin resistance and associated dysfunction of resistance vessels and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2005-01-01

    vascular resistance, high arterial compliance, increased cardiac output, secondary activation of counterregulatory systems (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, release of vasopressin), and resistance to vasopressors. The vasodilatory state is mediated through adrenomedullin...

  12. Association between intrarenal arterial resistance and diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews D Geoffrey

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparison to the well established changes in compliance that occur at the large vessel level in diabetes, much less is known about the changes in compliance of the cardiovascular system at the end-organ level. The aim of this study was therefore to examine whether there was a correlation between resistance of the intrarenal arteries of the kidney and compliance of the left ventricle, as estimated by measurements of diastolic function, in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods We studied 167 unselected clinic patients with type 2 diabetes with a kidney duplex scan to estimate intrarenal vascular resistance, i.e. the resistance index (RI = peak systolic velocity-minimum diastolic velocity/peak systolic velocity and a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE employing tissue doppler studies to document diastolic and systolic ventricular function. Results Renal RI was significantly higher in subjects with diastolic dysfunction (0.72 ± 0.05 when compared with those who had a normal TTE examination (0.66 ± 0.06, p Conclusion Increasing vascular resistance of the intrarenal arteries was associated with markers of diastolic dysfunction in subjects with type 2 diabetes. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that vascular and cardiac stiffening in diabetes are manifestations of common pathophysiological mechanisms.

  13. Perivascular adipose tissue, inflammation and insulin resistance: link to vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastra, Guido; Manrique, Camila

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a leading risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), however the underlying mechanisms still remain to be fully uncovered. It is now well accepted that dysfunctional adipose tissue in conditions of obesity is a critical source of inflammation that impacts the cardiovascular system and contributes to CVD. Although traditionally visceral adipose tissue has been linked to increased CVD risk, there is mounting interest in the role that fat accumulation around the vasculature plays in the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is in intimate contact with large, medium and small diameter arterial beds in several tissues, and has been shown to control vascular function as well as remodeling. PVAT does not merely mirror visceral adipose tissue changes seen in obesity, but has unique features that impact vascular biology. In lean individuals PVAT exerts vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory functions, however obesity results in PVAT inflammation, characterized by imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cells as wells as adipokines. PVAT inflammation promotes insulin resistance in the vasculature, thus resulting in impaired insulin-mediated vasodilatory responses and vascular remodeling. In this review we address current knowledge about the mechanisms that link PVAT inflammation to insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction. Indeed, PVAT emerges as a novel type of adipose tissue that participates in the pathogenesis of CVD, independently to a large extent to visceral adipose tissue.

  14. Contribution of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction in insulin resistance: Distinct or interrelated roles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieusset, J

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) regulate numerous cellular processes, and are critical contributors to cellular and whole-body homoeostasis. More important, mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress are both closely associated with hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin resistance, thereby playing crucial roles in altered glucose homoeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The accumulated evidence also suggests a potential interrelationship between alterations in both types of organelles, as mitochondrial dysfunction could participate in activation of the unfolded protein response, whereas ER stress could influence mitochondrial function. The fact that mitochondria and the ER are physically and functionally interconnected via mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) supports their interrelated roles in the pathophysiology of T2DM. However, the mechanisms that coordinate the interplay between mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress, and its relevance to the control of glucose homoeostasis, are still unknown. This review evaluates the involvement of mitochondria and ER independently in the development of peripheral insulin resistance, as well as their potential roles in the disruption of organelle crosstalk at MAM interfaces in the alteration of insulin signalling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Mesobiliverdin-IXα Enhances Rat Pancreatic Islet Yield and Function

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    Taihei eIto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to produce mesobiliverdin IXα, an analog of anti-inflammatory biliverdin IXα and to test its ability to enhance rat pancreatic islet yield for allograft transplantation into diabetic recipients. Mesobiliverdin IXα was synthesized from phycocyanobilin derived from cyanobacteria, and its identity and purity were analyzed by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Mesobiliverdin IXα was a substrate for human NADPH biliverdin reductase. Excised Lewis rat pancreata infused with mesobiliverdin IXα and biliverdin IXα-HCl (1 – 100 μM yielded islet equivalents as high as 86.7% and 36.5%, respectively, above those from non-treated controls, and the islets showed a high degree of viability based on dithizone staining. When transplanted into livers of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, islets from pancreata infused with mesobiliverdin IXα lowered non-fasting blood glucose levels in 55.6% of the recipients and in 22.2% of control recipients. In intravenous glucose tolerance tests, fasting blood glucose levels of 56 post-operative day recipients with islets from mesobiliverdin IXα infused pancreata were lower than those for controls and showed responses that indicate recovery of insulin-dependent function. In conclusion, mesobiliverdin IXα infusion of pancreata enhanced yields of functional islets capable of reversing insulin dysfunction in type 2 diabetic recipients. Since its production is scalable, mesobiliverdin IXα has clinical potential as a protectant of pancreatic islets for allograft transplantation.

  16. Allogeneic islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzorati, Simona; Pileggi, Antonello; Ricordi, Camillo

    2007-11-01

    Significant progress has been made in the field of beta-cell replacement therapies by islet transplantation in patients with unstable Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Recent clinical trials have shown that islet transplantation can reproducibly lead to insulin independence when adequate islet numbers are implanted. Benefits include improvement of glycemic control, prevention of severe hypoglycemia and amelioration of quality of life. Numerous challenges still limit this therapeutic option from becoming the treatment of choice for T1DM. The limitations are primarily associated with the low islet yield of human pancreas isolations and the need for chronic immunosuppressive therapies. Herein the authors present an overview of the historical progress of islet transplantation and outline the recent advances of the field. Cellular therapies offer the potential for a cure for patients with T1DM. The progress in beta-cell replacement treatment by islet transplantation as well as those of emerging immune interventions for the restoration of self tolerance justify great optimism for years to come.

  17. Engineering biomimetic materials for islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ethan Y; Kronenfeld, Joshua P; Stabler, Cherie L

    2015-01-01

    A closed-loop system that provides both the sensing of glucose and the appropriate dosage of insulin could dramatically improve treatment options for insulin-dependent diabetics. The intrahepatic implantation of allogeneic islets has the potential to provide this intimate control, by transplanting the very cells that have this inherent sensing and secretion capacity. Limiting islet transplantation, however, is the significant loss and dysfunction of islets following implantation, due to the poor engraftment environment and significant immunological attack. In this review, we outline approaches that seek to address these challenges via engineering biomimetic materials. These materials can serve to mimic natural processes that work toward improving engraftment, minimizing inflammation, and directing immunological responses. Biomimetic materials can serve to house cells, recapitulate native microenvironments, release therapeutic agents in a physiological manner, and/or present agents to direct cells towards desired responses. By integrating these approaches, superior platforms capable of improving long-term engraftment and acceptance of transplanted islets are on the horizon.

  18. Over-nutrition, obesity and insulin resistance in the development of β-cell dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepashree; Krueger, Charles B; Lastra, Guido

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) has increased dramatically over the last several decades, largely driven by equally worrisome growing rates of obesity. Chronic diabetic complications are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Key players in the pathophysiology of DM2 are insulin resistance and β cell dysfunction, which in turn is a result of both β cell functional abnormality as well as reduced β cell mass. The mechanisms implicated are multifactorial and include genetic and environmental factors related to obesity. Glucose homeostasis is critically dependent on a finely regulated balance between insulin sensitivity and output in the pancreas, and insulin resistance demands a corresponding rise in insulin output in order to maintain normal glycemia. However, this compensation is lost in individuals predisposed to DM2, resulting in overt hyperglycemia. Furthermore, insulin resistance related to excess adiposity is linked to several abnormalities which impact β cell function and viability. These include glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, increased oxidative stress, and inflammation. In addition, insulin signaling in the β cell is essential to its own functionality and viability, and obesity-related abnormalities in insulin signaling are known to induce failure of insulin secretion and hyperglycemia. Insulin resistance in the β cell arises from defects in phosphorylation/activation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) proteins, which result in impairment in glucose sensing, glucose stimulated insulin secretion, and also in increased loss of β cells. This review intends to provide an update on the main characteristics and mechanisms that link obesity and insulin resistance to β cell dysfunction in the pathogenesis of DM2. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers

  19. Islet organogenesis, angiogenesis and innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2011-11-01

    The pancreas is characterized by a major component, an exocrine and ductal system involved in digestion, and a minor component, the endocrine islets represented by islet micro-organs that tightly regulate glucose homoeostasis. Pancreatic organogenesis is strictly co-ordinated by transcription factors that are expressed sequentially to yield functional islets capable of maintaining glucose homoeostasis. Angiogenesis and innervation complete islet development, equipping islets to respond to metabolic demands. Proper regulation of this triad of processes during development is critical for establishing functional islets.

  20. Pancreatic islet transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa-Giannella Maria

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No formulation of exogenous insulin available to date has yet been able to mimic the physiological nictemeral rhythms of this hormone, and despite all engineering advancements, the theoretical proposal of developing a mechanical replacement for pancreatic β cell still has not been reached. Thus, the replacement of β cells through pancreas and pancreatic islet transplantation are the only concrete alternatives for re-establishing the endogenous insulin secretion in type 1 diabetic patients. Since only 1 to 1.5% of the pancreatic mass corresponds to endocrine tissue, pancreatic islets transplantation arises as a natural alternative. Data from the International Islet Transplant Registry (ITR from 1983 to December 2000 document a total of 493 transplants performed around the world, with progressively worse rates of post-transplant insulin independence. In 2000, the "Edmonton Protocol" introduced several modifications to the transplantation procedure, such as the use of a steroid-free immunosuppression regimen and transplantation of a mean islet mass of 11,000 islet equivalents per kilogram, which significantly improved 1-year outcomes. Although the results of a 5-year follow-up in 65 patients demonstrated improvement in glycemic instability in a significant portion of them, only 7.5% of the patients have reached insulin independence, indicating the need of further advances in the preservation of the function of transplanted islet. In addition to the scarcity of organs available for transplantation, islets transplantation still faces major challenges, specially those related to cell loss during the process of islet isolation and the losses related to the graft site, apoptosis, allorejection, autoimmunity, and immunosuppression. The main strategies to optimize islet transplantation aim at improving all these aspects. Conclusion Human islet transplantation should be regarded as an intervention that can decrease the frequency of

  1. Cardiovascular, metabolic, and coronary dysfunction in high-fat-fed obesity-resistant/prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dake, Brian L; Oltman, Christine L

    2015-03-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic leading to several comorbidities including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The hypothesis that the genetic background of the obesity-prone rat (OP) predisposes to physiologic, metabolic, and microvascular dysfunction which is exacerbated by a diet high in saturated fats was tested. Male OP and obesity-resistant (OR) rats were fed either a diet containing 10% (chow) or 45% kcal fat (HF) for 42 weeks. Weight of OP rats was greater than OR rats by 8 weeks on both diets. Blood pressure was increased in OP rats on chow and further augmented by HF diet compared to OR rats on similar diets. In contrast to weight and blood pressure, glucose clearance was similar in OR and OP rats on chow and impaired in both models on HF diet. Relaxation to acetylcholine was attenuated in OP rats compared to OR rats by 8 weeks and remained reduced throughout the study. A longer period of time was required to observe vascular dysfunction in HF-fed OR rats. When compared to OR rats, OP rats are prone to develop not only greater obesity but also hypertension and vascular dysfunction on a normal diet which is further augmented with HF diet. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  2. Ca(2+) mishandling and cardiac dysfunction in obesity and insulin resistance: role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Karla; Balderas-Villalobos, Jaime; Bello-Sanchez, Ma Dolores; Phillips-Farfán, Bryan; Molina-Muñoz, Tzindilu; Aldana-Quintero, Hugo; Gómez-Viquez, Norma L

    2014-11-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance (IR) are strongly connected to the development of subclinical cardiac dysfunction and eventually can lead to heart failure, which is the main cause of morbidity and death in patients having these metabolic diseases. It has been considered that excessive fat tissue may play a critical role in producing systemic IR and enhancing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This oxidative stress (OS) may elicit or exacerbate IR. On the other hand, evidence suggests that some of the cellular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of obesity and IR-related cardiomyopathy are excessive myocardial ROS production and abnormal Ca(2+) homeostasis. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that augmented ROS production may contribute to Ca(2+) mishandling by affecting the redox state of key proteins implicated in this process. In this review, we focus on the role of Ca(2+) mishandling in the development of cardiac dysfunction in obesity and IR and address the evidence suggesting that OS might also contribute to cardiac dysfunction by affecting Ca(2+) handling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Obesity Resistance Promotes Mild Contractile Dysfunction Associated with Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} Handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sá, Felipe Gonçalves dos Santos de; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Jacobsen, Bruno Barcellos; Ferron, Artur Junio Togneri; Estevam, Wagner Muller [Centro de Educação Física e Desportos - Departamento de Desportos - Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé [Departamento de Clínica Médica - Faculdade de Medicina - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo (Brazil); Castardeli, Edson; Cunha, Márcia Regina Holanda da [Centro de Educação Física e Desportos - Departamento de Desportos - Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Cicogna, Antonio Carlos [Departamento de Clínica Médica - Faculdade de Medicina - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo (Brazil); Leopoldo, André Soares, E-mail: andresoaresleopoldo@gmail.com [Centro de Educação Física e Desportos - Departamento de Desportos - Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2015-12-15

    Diet-induced obesity is frequently used to demonstrate cardiac dysfunction. However, some rats, like humans, are susceptible to developing an obesity phenotype, whereas others are resistant to that. To evaluate the association between obesity resistance and cardiac function, and the impact of obesity resistance on calcium handling. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups, each with 54 animals: control (C; standard diet) and obese (four palatable high-fat diets) for 15 weeks. After the experimental protocol, rats consuming the high-fat diets were classified according to the adiposity index and subdivided into obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR). Nutritional profile, comorbidities, and cardiac remodeling were evaluated. Cardiac function was assessed by papillary muscle evaluation at baseline and after inotropic maneuvers. The high-fat diets promoted increase in body fat and adiposity index in OP rats compared with C and OR rats. Glucose, lipid, and blood pressure profiles remained unchanged in OR rats. In addition, the total heart weight and the weight of the left and right ventricles in OR rats were lower than those in OP rats, but similar to those in C rats. Baseline cardiac muscle data were similar in all rats, but myocardial responsiveness to a post-rest contraction stimulus was compromised in OP and OR rats compared with C rats. Obesity resistance promoted specific changes in the contraction phase without changes in the relaxation phase. This mild abnormality may be related to intracellular Ca2+ handling.

  4. Inflammatory Response in Islet Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar A. Kanak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet cell transplantation is a promising beta cell replacement therapy for patients with brittle type 1 diabetes as well as refractory chronic pancreatitis. Despite the vast advancements made in this field, challenges still remain in achieving high frequency and long-term successful transplant outcomes. Here we review recent advances in understanding the role of inflammation in islet transplantation and development of strategies to prevent damage to islets from inflammation. The inflammatory response associated with islets has been recognized as the primary cause of early damage to islets and graft loss after transplantation. Details on cell signaling pathways in islets triggered by cytokines and harmful inflammatory events during pancreas procurement, pancreas preservation, islet isolation, and islet infusion are presented. Robust control of pre- and peritransplant islet inflammation could improve posttransplant islet survival and in turn enhance the benefits of islet cell transplantation for patients who are insulin dependent. We discuss several potent anti-inflammatory strategies that show promise for improving islet engraftment. Further understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response will provide the basis for developing potent therapeutic strategies for enhancing the quality and success of islet transplantation.

  5. Overexpression of thioredoxin in islets transduced by a lentiviral vector prolongs graft survival in autoimmune diabetic NOD mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sytwu Huey-Kang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pancreatic islet transplantation is considered an appropriate treatment to achieve insulin independence in type I diabetic patients. However, islet isolation and transplantation-induced oxidative stress and autoimmune-mediated destruction are still the major obstacles to the long-term survival of graft islets in this potential therapy. To protect islet grafts from inflammatory damage and prolong their survival, we transduced islets with an antioxidative gene thioredoxin (TRX using a lentiviral vector before transplantation. We hypothesized that the overexpression of TRX in islets would prolong islet graft survival when transplanted into diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD mice. Methods Islets were isolated from NOD mice and transduced with lentivirus carrying TRX (Lt-TRX or enhanced green fluorescence protein (Lt-eGFP, respectively. Transduced islets were transplanted under the left kidney capsule of female diabetic NOD mice, and blood glucose concentration was monitored daily after transplantation. The histology of the islet graft was assessed at the end of the study. The protective effect of TRX on islets was investigated. Results The lentiviral vector effectively transduced islets without altering the glucose-stimulating insulin-secretory function of islets. Overexpression of TRX in islets reduced hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. After transplantation into diabetic NOD mice, euglycemia was maintained for significantly longer in Lt-TRX-transduced islets than in Lt-eGFP-transduced islets; the mean graft survival was 18 vs. 6.5 days (n = 9 and 10, respectively, p Conclusion We successfully transduced the TRX gene into islets and demonstrated that these genetically modified grafts are resistant to inflammatory insult and survived longer in diabetic recipients. Our results further support the concept that the reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenger and antiapoptotic functions of TRX are critical to islet survival after

  6. Insulin resistance and associated dysfunction of resistance vessels and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2005-01-01

    This review looks at the alterations in the systemic haemodynamics of patients with chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of renal origin. Characteristic findings in patients with cirrhosis are vasodilatation with low overall systemic...... vascular resistance, high arterial compliance, increased cardiac output, secondary activation of counterregulatory systems (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, release of vasopressin), and resistance to vasopressors. The vasodilatory state is mediated through adrenomedullin...... the development of chronic liver disease, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in those with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial...

  7. [Postprandial lipemia induces endothelial dysfunction and higher insulin resistance in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2011-12-01

    To assess the effect of postprandial lipemia on endothelial function, insulin resistance, and lipid profile in healthy subjects. A prospective', interventional study in 14 healthy young men aged 18-25 years who were given a high-fat meal. Endothelial function was measured using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery, flow velocity, mean arterial pressure and serum nitrite/nitrate levels (NO(2)/NO(3)). Glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were also tested. Insulin resistance was determined by calculating the HOMA-IR index (Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance). Baseline FMD was 5.9 ± 1.1%. Postprandial lipemia reduced endothelial function by approximately 50% in the first (3.3 ± 0.5%, p=0.03) and second (3.3 ± 0.4%, p=0.04) moment respectively. This finding was associated to an increased flow rate in the brachial artery and lower NO(2)/NO(3) levels (plipemia causes changes in circulating lipid profile and induces endothelial dysfunction and higher insulin resistance. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Excessive food intake, obesity and inflammation process in Zucker fa/fa rat pancreatic islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Chentouf

    Full Text Available Inappropriate food intake-related obesity and more importantly, visceral adiposity, are major risk factors for the onset of type 2 diabetes. Evidence is emerging that nutriment-induced β-cell dysfunction could be related to indirect induction of a state of low grade inflammation. Our aim was to study whether hyperphagia associated obesity could promote an inflammatory response in pancreatic islets leading to ß-cell dysfunction. In the hyperphagic obese insulin resistant male Zucker rat, we measured the level of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and estimated their production as well as the expression of their receptors in pancreatic tissue and β-cells. Our main findings concern intra-islet pro-inflammatory cytokines from fa/fa rats: IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα expressions were increased; IL-1R1 was also over-expressed with a cellular redistribution also observed for IL-6R. To get insight into the mechanisms involved in phenotypic alterations, abArrays were used to determine the expression profile of proteins implicated in different membrane receptors signaling, apoptosis and cell cycle pathways. Despite JNK overexpression, cell viability was unaffected probably because of decreases in cleaved caspase3 as well as in SMAC/DIABLO and APP, involved in the induction and amplification of apoptosis. Concerning β-cell proliferation, decreases in important cell cycle regulators (Cyclin D1, p35 and increased expression of SMAD4 probably contribute to counteract and restrain hyperplasia in fa/fa rat islets. Finally and probably as a result of IL-1β and IL-1R1 increased expressions with sub-cellular redistribution of the receptor, islets from fa/fa rats were found more sensitive to both stimulating and inhibitory concentrations of the cytokine; this confers some physiopathological relevance to a possible autocrine regulation of β-cell function by IL-1β. These results support the hypothesis that pancreatic islets from prediabetic fa/fa rats undergo an

  9. Characterization of islet cells during development and after transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gurp, Léon

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a disease in which patients are not able to maintain blood glucose levels. This is caused by dysfunction or destruction of the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans, located in the pancreas. Beta cells are responsible for the production of insulin, a hormone that decreases the

  10. Regulation of Pancreatic Islet Gene Expression in Mouse Islets by Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Layden, Brian Thomas; Durai, Vivek; Newman, Marsha V

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic beta cells adapt to pregnancy-induced insulin resistance by unclear mechanisms. This study sought to identify genes involved in beta cell adaptation during pregnancy. To examine changes in global RNA expression during pregnancy, murine islets were isolated at a time point of increased...... beta cell proliferation (E13.5), and RNA levels were determined by 2 different assays (global gene expression array and G protein-coupled receptor array). Follow-up studies confirmed the findings for select genes. Differential expression of 110 genes was identified and follow-up studies confirmed...... the changes in select genes at both the RNA and protein level. Surfactant protein D mRNA and protein levels exhibited large increases which were confirmed in murine islets. Cytokine-induced expression of surfactant protein D in islets was also demonstrated, suggesting a possible role as an anti...

  11. Effect of endurance versus resistance training on quadriceps muscle dysfunction in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Munch, Gregers Druedal Wibe; Rugbjerg, Mette

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exercise is an important countermeasure to limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. The two major training modalities in COPD rehabilitation, endurance training (ET) and resistance training (RT), may both be efficient in improving muscle strength, exercise capacity, and health-related quality...... with no difference between the two groups. The mean (SD) proportion of glycolytic type IIa muscle fibers was reduced after ET (from 48% [SD 11] to 42% [SD 10], Peffect of either training modality on muscle...... of life, but the effects on quadriceps muscle characteristics have not been thoroughly described. METHODS: Thirty COPD patients (forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 56% of predicted, standard deviation [SD] 14) were randomized to 8 weeks of ET or RT. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before...

  12. Nutrition, insulin resistance and dysfunctional adipose tissue determine the different components of metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat that may be harmful to health. Today, obesity is a major public health problem, affecting in greater or lesser proportion all demographic groups. Obesity is estimated by body mass index (BMI) in a clinical setting, but BMI reports neither body composition nor the location of excess body fat. Deaths from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes accounted for approximately 65% of all deaths, and adiposity and mainly abdominal adiposity are associated with all these disorders. Adipose tissue could expand to inflexibility levels. Then, adiposity is associated with a state of low-grade chronic inflammation, with increased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release, which interfere with adipose cell differentiation, and the action pattern of adiponectin and leptin until the adipose tissue begins to be dysfunctional. In this state the subject presents insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, probably the first step of a dysfunctional metabolic system. Subsequent to central obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, hypertension and fatty liver are grouped in the so-called metabolic syndrome (MetS). In subjects with MetS an energy balance is critical to maintain a healthy body weight, mainly limiting the intake of high energy density foods (fat). However, high-carbohydrate rich (CHO) diets increase postprandial peaks of insulin and glucose. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are also increased, which interferes with reverse cholesterol transport lowering high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, CHO-rich diets could move fat from peripheral to central deposits and reduce adiponectin activity in peripheral adipose tissue. All these are improved with monounsaturated fatty acid-rich diets. Lastly, increased portions of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids also decrease triglyceride levels, and complement the healthy diet that is recommended in patients with MetS. PMID

  13. Genetic Associations of Type 2 Diabetes with Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Processing and Degrading Pathways in Asian Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, Vincent Kwok Lim; Ma, Ronald Ching Wan; Lee, Heung Man; Hu, Cheng; Park, Kyong Soo; Furuta, Hiroto; Wang, Ying; Tam, Claudia Ha Ting; Sim, Xueling; Ng, Daniel Peng-Keat; Liu, Jianjun; Wong, Tien-Yin; Tai, E. Shyong; Morris, Andrew P.; Tang, Nelson Leung Sang; Woo, Jean; Leung, Ping Chung; Kong, Alice Pik Shan; Ozaki, Risa; Jia, Wei Ping; Lee, Hong Kyu; Nanjo, Kishio; Xu, Gang; Ng, Maggie Chor Yin; So, Wing-Yee; Chan, Juliana Chung Ngor; Ostaptchouk, Jana; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disease characterized by beta cell dysfunctions. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is highly conserved and co-secreted with insulin with over 40% of autopsy cases of T2D showing islet amyloid formation due to IAPP aggregation. Dysregulation in IAPP processing,

  14. Induction of TAp73 by platinum-based compounds to overcome drug resistance in p53 dysfunctional chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonino, Sanne H.; Mulkens, Chantal E.; van Laar, Jacoline; Derks, Ingrid A. M.; Suo, Guangli; Croon-de Boer, Fransien; van Oers, Marinus H. J.; Eldering, Eric; Wang, Jean Y.; Kater, Arnon P.

    2015-01-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), strategies to overcome drug resistance due to p53 dysfunction are highly needed. Platinum-based compounds such as cisplatinum (CDDP) are active in fludarabine-refractory CLL through a largely unknown mechanism. We analyzed the mechanism of action of CDDP in the

  15. Functional implications of long non-coding RNAs in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena eEliasson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Type-2 diabetes (T2D is a complex disease characterized by insulin resistance in target tissues and impaired insulin release from pancreatic beta cells. As central tissue of glucose homeostasis, the pancreatic islet continues to be an important focus of research to understand the pathophysiology of the disease. The increased access to human pancreatic islets has resulted in improved knowledge of islet function, and together with advances in RNA sequencing and related technologies, revealed the transcriptional and epigenetic landscape of human islet cells. The discovery of thousands of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA transcripts highly enriched in the pancreatic islet and/or specifically-expressed in the beta-cells, points to yet another layer of gene regulation of many hitherto unknown mechanistic principles governing islet cell functions. Here we review fundamental islet physiology and propose functional implications of the lncRNAs in islet development and endocrine cell functions. We also take into account important differences between rodent and human islets in terms of morphology and function, and suggest how species-specific lncRNAs may partly influence gene regulation to define the unique phenotypic identity of an organism and the functions of its constituent cells. The implication of primate-specific lncRNAs in diabetes will be far-reaching in all aspects of diabetes research, but most importantly in the identification and development of novel targets to improve pancreatic islet cell functions as a therapeutic approach to treat T2D.

  16. Islet insulin content and release are increased in male mice with elevated endogenous GH and IGF-I, without evidence of systemic insulin resistance or alterations in β-cell mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Majumdar, Neena; Pokala, Naveen K; Gahete, Manuel D; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2015-08-01

    It is clear that elevations in circulating GH can lead to an increase in insulin levels. This increase in insulin may be due to GH-mediated insulin resistance and enhanced lipolysis. However, there is also in vitro and in vivo evidence that GH acts directly to increase β-cell proliferation and insulin production. Our laboratory recently developed an animal model with elevated endogenous GH levels associated with a small (25%), but significant, increase in IGF-I (HiGH mice). As expected, insulin levels were elevated in HiGH mice; however, whole body insulin sensitivity was not altered and glucose tolerance was improved. This metabolic phenotype suggests that modest elevations in circulating GH and IGF-I may enhance β-cell mass and/or function, in the absence of systemic insulin resistance, thus improving glucose homeostasis. To determine if β-cell mass and/or function is altered in HiGH mice. Male HiGH mice and their littermate controls were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet. Body composition and circulating metabolic endpoints were monitored overtime. The pancreas was recovered and processed for assessment of β-cell mass or in vitro basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. HiGH mice showed elevated circulating insulin and normal glucose levels, while non-esterified FFA levels and triglycerides were reduced or normal, depending on diet and age. β-cell mass did not differ between HiGH and control mice, within diet. However, islets from HiGH mice contained and released more insulin under basal conditions, as compared to control islets, while the relative glucose-stimulated insulin release did not differ. Taken together, these results suggest moderate elevations in circulating GH and IGF-I can directly increase basal insulin secretion without impacting β-cell mass, independent of changes in whole body insulin sensitivity and hyperlipidemia. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Celastrol attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation in palmitate-mediated insulin resistance in C3A hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Mohamad Hafizi; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Tan, Joo Shun; Mohamad Rosdi, Mohamad Norisham

    2017-03-15

    Accumulating evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction-induced inflammation is among the convergence points for the greatest hallmarks of hepatic insulin resistance. Celastrol, an anti-inflammatory compound from the root of Tripterygium Wilfordii has been reported to mitigate insulin resistance and inflammation in animal disease models. Nevertheless, the specific mechanistic actions of celastrol in modulating such improvements at the cellular level remain obscure. The present study sought to explore the mechanistic roles of celastrol upon insulin resistance induced by palmitate in C3A human hepatocytes. The hepatocytes exposed to palmitate (0.75mM) for 48h exhibited reduced both basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to increased mitochondrial oxidative stress with diminished fatty acid oxidation. Elevated expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways and the amplified release of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α and CRP were observed following palmitate treatment. Consistently, palmitate reduced and augmented phosphorylated Tyrosine-612 and Serine-307 of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) proteins, respectively in hepatocytes. However, celastrol at the optimum concentration of 30nM was able to reverse these deleterious occasions and protected the cells from mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Importantly, we presented evidence for the first time that celastrol efficiently prevented palmitate-induced insulin resistance in hepatocytes at least, via improved mitochondrial functions and insulin signaling pathways. In summary, the present investigation underlines a conceivable mechanism to elucidate the cytoprotective potential of celastrol in attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation against the development of hepatic insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Insulin Resistance: The Contribution of Dioxin-Like Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Kyu Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs are known to cause mitochondrial dysfunction and this in turn is linked to insulin resistance, a key biochemical abnormality underlying the metabolic syndrome. To establish the cause and effect relationship between exposure to POPs and the development of the metabolic syndrome, Koch's postulates were considered. Problems arising from this approach were discussed and possible solutions were suggested. In particular, the difficulty of establishing a cause and effect relationship due to the vagueness of the metabolic syndrome as a disease entity was discussed. Recently a bioassay, aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR trans-activation activity using a cell line expressing AhR-luciferase, showed that its activity is linearly related with the parameters of the metabolic syndrome in a population. This finding suggests the possible role of bioassays in the analysis of multiple pollutants of similar kinds in the pathogenesis of several closely related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Understanding the effects of POPs on mitochondrial function will be very useful in understanding the integration of various factors involved in this process, such as genes, fetal malnutrition and environmental toxins and their protectors, as mitochondria act as a unit according to the metabolic scaling law.

  19. Effects of PDE type 5 inhibitors on Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Resistant Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cabral de Faria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistant hypertension (RHTN is a multifactorial disease characterized by blood pressure (BP levels above goal (140/90 mmHg in spite of the concurrent use of three or more antihypertensive drugs of different classes. Moreover, it is well known that RHTN subjects have high prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD, which leads to increased risk of heart failure progression. This review gathers data from studies evaluating the effects of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5 inhibitors (administration of acute sildenafil and short-term tadalafil on diastolic function, biochemical and hemodynamic parameters in patients with RHTN. Acute study with sildenafil treatment found that inhibition of PDE-5 improved hemodynamic parameters and diastolic relaxation. In addition, short-term study with the use of tadalafil demonstrated improvement of LVDD, cGMP and BNP-32 levels, regardless of BP reduction. No endothelial function changes were observed in the studies. The findings of acute and short-term studies revealed potential therapeutic effects of IPDE-5 drugs on LVDD in RHTN patients.

  20. A systems genetics approach identifies genes and pathways for type 2 diabetes in human islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taneera, Jalal; Lang, Stefan; Sharma, Amitabh

    2012-01-01

    Close to 50 genetic loci have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but they explain only 15% of the heritability. In an attempt to identify additional T2D genes, we analyzed global gene expression in human islets from 63 donors. Using 48 genes located near T2D risk variants, we identified......, whereas GPR120 affected apoptosis in islets. Expression variation of the top 20 genes explained 24% of the variance in HbA(1c) with no claim of the direction. The data present a global map of genes associated with islet dysfunction and demonstrate the value of systems genetics for the identification...

  1. Effect of endurance versus resistance training on quadriceps muscle dysfunction in COPD: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iepsen UW

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ulrik Winning Iepsen,1 Gregers Druedal Wibe Munch,1 Mette Rugbjerg,1 Anders Rasmussen Rinnov,1 Morten Zacho,1 Stefan Peter Mortensen,1,2 Niels H Secher,3 Thomas Ringbaek,4 Bente Klarlund Pedersen,1 Ylva Hellsten,5 Peter Lange,1,4,6 Pia Thaning1,4 1The Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism and the Centre for Physical Activity Research, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, 2Department of Cardiovascular and Renal Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, 3Department of Anesthesiology, University of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Hvidovre, Hvidovre, 5Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, 6Department of Public Health, Section of Social Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Introduction: Exercise is an important countermeasure to limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. The two major training modalities in COPD rehabilitation, endurance training (ET and resistance training (RT, may both be efficient in improving muscle strength, exercise capacity, and health-related quality of life, but the effects on quadriceps muscle characteristics have not been thoroughly described.Methods: Thirty COPD patients (forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 56% of predicted, standard deviation [SD] 14 were randomized to 8 weeks of ET or RT. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training intervention to assess muscle morphology and metabolic and angiogenic factors. Symptom burden, exercise capacity (6-minute walking and cycle ergometer tests, and vascular function were also assessed.Results: Both training modalities improved symptom burden and exercise capacity with no difference between the two groups. The mean (SD proportion of glycolytic type IIa muscle fibers was reduced after ET (from 48% [SD 11] to 42% [SD 10], P<0.05, whereas there was no significant change in muscle fiber distribution with RT. There was

  2. RNA Sequencing Exposes Adaptive and Immune Responses to Intrauterine Growth Restriction in Fetal Sheep Islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Amy C; Bidwell, Christopher A; McCarthy, Fiona M; Taska, David J; Anderson, Miranda J; Camacho, Leticia E; Limesand, Sean W

    2017-04-01

    The risk of type 2 diabetes is increased in children and adults who exhibited fetal growth restriction. Placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are common obstetrical complications associated with fetal hypoglycemia and hypoxia that reduce the β-cell mass and insulin secretion. In the present study, we have defined the underlying mechanisms of reduced growth and proliferation, impaired metabolism, and defective insulin secretion previously established as complications in islets from IUGR fetuses. In an IUGR sheep model that recapitulates human IUGR, high-throughput RNA sequencing showed the transcriptome of islets isolated from IUGR and control sheep fetuses and identified the transcripts that underlie β-cell dysfunction. Functional analysis expanded mechanisms involved in reduced proliferation and dysregulated metabolism that include specific cell cycle regulators and growth factors and mitochondrial, antioxidant, and exocytotic genes. These data also identified immune responses, wnt signaling, adaptive stress responses, and the proteasome as mechanisms of β-cell dysfunction. The reduction of immune-related gene expression did not reflect a change in macrophage density within IUGR islets. The present study reports the islet transcriptome in fetal sheep and established processes that limit insulin secretion and β-cell growth in fetuses with IUGR, which could explain the susceptibility to premature islet failure in adulthood. Islet dysfunction formed by intrauterine growth restriction increases the risk for diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  3. Rat islet isolation yield and function are donor strain dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M; de Haan, BJ; Schuurs, TA; van Schilfgaarde, R; Leuvenink, HGD; KEIZER, J

    Effective rat islet isolation is pertinent for successful islet transplantation and islet studies in vitro. To determine which rat strain yields the highest number of pure and functional islets, four commonly used rat strains were compared with regard to islet yield, islet purity and islet function.

  4. Insulin resistance, serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome are linked to cardiovascular dysfunction in pediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoni, Giulia; Menegon, Veronica; Secco, Gioel Gabrio; Sonzini, Michela; Martelli, Massimiliano; Castagno, Matteo; Ricotti, Roberta; Monzani, Alice; Aronici, Michele; Grossini, Elena; Di Mario, Carlo; Bona, Gianni; Bellone, Simonetta; Prodam, Flavia

    2017-12-15

    Childhood obesity is associated with cardiovascular abnormalities but little is known on the potential correlation between early cardiovascular and metabolic alterations. Aims of this study were 1) to evaluate early cardiovascular abnormalities in a large population of obese children and adolescents compared with a normal weight counterpart, 2) to investigate their potential association with insulin resistance (IR), serum uric acid (sUA) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). This was a single-center case-control study. Eighty obese (OB) subjects (6-16years) and 20 normal weight (NW) matched controls were consecutively recruited. In the whole population we performed an anthropometric and a cardiovascular assessment. OB patients also underwent an OGTT and biochemical evaluations. OB children showed greater left atrial (LA) and ventricular (LV) dimensions and mass and higher carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), compared with NW controls. The BMI z-score, waist circumference, IR and sUA were positively related with LA and LV dimensions and mass. OB subjects with MetS (46.3%) showed greater LA diameter (p=0.001) and LV area (p=0.01) and volume (p=0.04) compared with OB children without MetS. LA diameter and LV dimensions and mass were significantly dependent on the number of criteria for MetS. Mets, sUA and IR were significant predictors of left heart dimensions and mass in obese children. Obesity and MetS are associated with abnormal cardiovascular response during childhood. Hyperuricemia can be an early marker of cardiovascular dysfunction and the routine determination of circulating levels of sUA should be implemented during risk stratification among pediatric age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A possible link between endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in hypertension. A LIFE substudy. Losartan Intervention For Endpoint-Reduction in Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Andersen, U B; Wachtell, K

    2000-01-01

    We wanted to investigate whether insulin resistance and time to steady state during isoglycemic clamp were associated with endothelial dysfunction, peripheral vascular remodeling and forearm blood flow (FBF) in patients with longstanding hypertension....

  6. Characterization of islet cells during development and after transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    van Gurp, Léon

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a disease in which patients are not able to maintain blood glucose levels. This is caused by dysfunction or destruction of the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans, located in the pancreas. Beta cells are responsible for the production of insulin, a hormone that decreases the amount of available glucose in the blood when it becomes too high. Therapeutically, diabetes patients inject themselves with insulin as an alternative, but this treatment is symptomatic. The only a...

  7. Cluster Analysis of Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose Assessments in Clinical Islet Cell Transplantation for Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takita, Morihito; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Shimoda, Masayuki; Chujo, Daisuke; Itoh, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Koji; SoRelle, Jeffery A.; Onaca, Nicholas; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Levy, Marlon F.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Cluster analysis was performed on the results of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) to discriminate islet graft function after islet cell transplantation (ICT) in patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eleven islet recipients were included in this study. The patients visited our clinic monthly after ICT and provided blood samples for fasting C-peptide (n = 270), which were used to evaluate islet graft function. They also provided their SMBG data through an automatic data collection system. The SMBG data for 3 days immediately before each clinic visit were evaluated using the following assessments: M value, mean amplitude of glycemic excursions, J index, index of glycemic control, average daily risk range, and glycemic risk assessment diabetes equation. The cluster analysis was performed for both SMBG assessments and samples. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the clusters of SMBG for assessing islet graft function. RESULTS Analysis for SMBG assessments revealed five types of clusters, which showed similar patterns according to functional or dysfunctional islet graft phase. Two clusters, the euglycemia cluster (P Cluster analysis of SMBG data as part of an automated data quality system could allow discrimination of islet graft dysfunction after ICT. This approach should be considered for islet recipients. PMID:21680718

  8. Compromised Photosynthetic Electron Flow And H2O2 Generation Correlate with Genotype-Specific Stomatal Dysfunctions During Resistance Against Powdery Mildew In Oats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez-Martín

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stomatal dysfunction known as locking has been linked to the elicitation of a hypersensitive response (HR following attack of fungal pathogens in cereals. We here assess how spatial and temporal patterns of different resistance mechanisms, such as HR and penetration resistance influence stomatal and photosynthetic parameters in oat (Avena sativa and the possible involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in the dysfunctions observed. Four oat cultivars with differential resistance responses (i.e. penetration resistance, early and late HR to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae, Bga were used. Results demonstrated that stomatal dysfunctions were genotype but not response-type dependent since genotypes with similar resistance responses when assessed histologically showed very different locking patterns. Maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm of photosystem II were compromised in most Bga–oat interactions and photoinhibition increased. However, the extent of the photosynthetic alterations was not directly related to the extent of HR. H2O2 generation is triggered during the execution of resistance responses and can influence stomatal function. Artificially increasing H2O2 by exposing plants to increased light intensity further reduced Fv/Fm ratios and augmented the patterns of stomatal dysfunctions previously observed. The latter results suggest that the observed dysfunctions and hence a cost of resistance may be linked with oxidative stress occurring during defence induced photosynthetic disruption.

  9. Inflammation-Mediated Regulation of MicroRNA Expression in Transplanted Pancreatic Islets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valia Bravo-Egana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonspecific inflammation in the transplant microenvironment results in β-cell dysfunction and death influencing negatively graft outcome. MicroRNA (miRNA expression and gene target regulation in transplanted islets are not yet well characterized. We evaluated the impact of inflammation on miRNA expression in transplanted rat islets. Islets exposed in vitro to proinflammatory cytokines and explanted syngeneic islet grafts were evaluated by miRNA arrays. A subset of 26 islet miRNAs was affected by inflammation both in vivo and in vitro. Induction of miRNAs was dependent on NF-κB, a pathway linked with cytokine-mediated islet cell death. RT-PCR confirmed expression of 8 miRNAs. The association between these miRNAs and mRNA target-predicting algorithms in genome-wide RNA studies of β-cell inflammation identified 238 potential miRNA gene targets. Several genes were ontologically associated with regulation of insulin signaling and secretion, diabetes, and islet physiology. One of the most activated miRNAs was miR-21. Overexpression of miR-21 in insulin-secreting MIN6 cells downregulated endogenous expression of the tumor suppressor Pdcd4 and of Pclo, a Ca2+ sensor protein involved in insulin secretion. Bioinformatics identified both as potential targets. The integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles revealed potential targets that may identify molecular targets for therapeutic interventions.

  10. Isolation, banking, encapsulation and transplantation of different types of Langerhans islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosiak-Iwańska, Magdalena; Sitarek, Elzbieta; Sabat, Marek; Godlewska, Ewa; Kinasiewicz, Joanna; Weryński, Andrzej

    2009-05-01

    The discovery of a cure for diabetes is a dream of many medical researchers. The transplantation of Langerhans islets is a potential treatment of choice for patients with type 1 diabetes as a source of endogenous insulin for the recipient. The aim of the experiment was to transplant Langerhans islets without immunosuppression. To protect the grafts against transplant rejection, semipermeable membranes could be used. Langerhans islets were isolated from rats and pigs and immunoisolated by encapsulation in alginate-protamine-heparin (APH) or alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate (APA) membranes. Islets were pooled in a controlled manner. Tests for cryopreservation and biocompatibility were also performed. The capsules coated with APH are more resistant than the capsules coated with APA. After transplantation of the islets immunoisolated with APA, euglycemia is maintained longer than after transplantation of the islets immunoisolated with APH. Microencapsulation protects the islets from destruction by the host. It is feasible to treat experimental diabetes by transplantation of encapsulated Langerhans islets without immunosuppression.

  11. Isolated islets in diabetes research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhonde, R; Shukla, R C; Kanitkar, M; Shukla, R; Banerjee, M; Datar, S

    2007-03-01

    This review highlights some recent developments and diversified applications of islets in diabetes research as they are rapidly emerging as a model system in biomedical and biotechnological research. Isolated islets have formed an effective in vitro model in antidiabetic drug development programme, screening of potential hypoglycaemic agents and for investigating their mechanisms of action. Yet another application of isolated islets could be to understand the mechanisms of beta cell death in vitro and to identify the sites of intervention for possible cytoprotection. Advances in immunoisolation and immunomodulation protocols have made xeno-transplantation feasible without immunosuppression thus increasing the availability of islets. Research in the areas of pancreatic and non pancreatic stem cells has given new hope to diabetic subjects to renew their islet cell mass for the possible cure of diabetes. Investigations of the factors leading to differentiation of pancreatic stem/progenitor cells would be of interest as they are likely to induce pancreatic regeneration in diabetics. Similarly search for the beta cell protective agents has a great future in preservation of residual beta cell mass left after diabetogenic insults. We have detailed various applications of islets in diabetes research in context of their current status, progress and future challenges and long term prospects for a cure.

  12. An 'alpha-beta' of pancreatic islet microribonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Louise Torp; Eliasson, Lena

    2017-01-01

    ) mechanisms regulating processing of miRNAs in islet cells, 3) presence and function of miRNAs in alpha versus beta cells - the two main cell types of islets, and 4) miRNA mediators of beta cell decompensation. It is clear that miRNAs regulate pancreatic islet development, maturation, and function in vivo....... Moreover, processing of miRNAs appears to be altered by obesity, diabetes, and aging. A number of miRNAs (such as miR-7, miR-21, miR-29, miR-34a, miR-212/miR-132, miR-184, miR-200 and miR-375) are involved in mediating beta cell dysfunction and/or compensation induced by hyperglycemia, oxidative stress......, cytotoxic cytokines, and in rodent models of fetal metabolic programming prediabetes and overt diabetes. Studies of human type 2 diabetic islets underline that these miRNA families could have important roles also in human type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, there is a genuine gap of knowledge regarding mi...

  13. Mechanisms for food polyphenols to ameliorate insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction: therapeutic implications for diabetes and its cardiovascular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Kashif M; Chandrasekaran, Sruti; Gao, Feng; Quon, Michael J

    2013-09-15

    The rising epidemic of diabetes is a pressing issue in clinical medicine worldwide from both healthcare and economic perspectives. This is fueled by overwhelming increases in the incidence and prevalence of obesity. Obesity and diabetes are characterized by both insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction that lead to substantial increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Reciprocal relationships between insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction tightly link metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes with their cardiovascular complications. Therefore, therapeutic approaches that target either insulin resistance or endothelial dysfunction alone are likely to simultaneously improve both metabolic and cardiovascular pathophysiology and disease outcomes. Moreover, combination therapies with agents targeting distinct mechanisms are likely to have additive or synergistic benefits. Conventional therapies for diabetes and its cardiovascular complications that are both safe and effective are insufficient to meet rising demand. Large, robust, epidemiologic studies demonstrate beneficial metabolic and cardiovascular health effects for many functional foods containing various polyphenols. However, precise molecular mechanisms of action for food polyphenols are largely unknown. Moreover, translation of these insights into effective clinical therapies has not been fully realized. Nevertheless, some functional foods are likely sources for safe and effective therapies and preventative strategies for metabolic diseases and their cardiovascular complications. In this review, we emphasize recent progress in elucidating molecular, cellular, and physiological actions of polyphenols from green tea (EGCG), cocoa (ECG), and citrus fruits (hesperedin) that are related to improving metabolic and cardiovascular pathophysiology. We also discuss a rigorous comprehensive approach to studying functional foods that is essential for developing novel, effective, and safe

  14. Carboplatin and taxol resistance develops more rapidly in functional BRCA1 compared to dysfunctional BRCA1 ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschots, Steven; O'Toole, Sharon; O'Leary, John J; Stordal, Britta

    2015-08-01

    A major risk factor for ovarian cancer is germline mutations of BRCA1/2. It has been found that (80%) of cellular models with acquired platinum or taxane resistance display an inverse resistance relationship, that is collateral sensitivity to the other agent. We used a clinically relevant comparative selection strategy to develop novel chemoresistant cell lines which aim to investigate the mechanisms of resistance that arise from different exposures of carboplatin and taxol on cells having BRCA1 function (UPN251) or dysfunction (OVCAR8). Resistance to carboplatin and taxol developed quicker and more stably in UPN251 (BRCA1-wildtype) compared to OVCAR8 (BRCA1-methylated). Alternating carboplatin and taxol treatment delayed but did not prevent resistance development when compared to single-agent administration. Interestingly, the sequence of drug exposure influenced the resistance mechanism produced. UPN251-6CALT (carboplatin first) and UPN251-6TALT (taxol first) have different profiles of cross resistance. UPN251-6CALT displays significant resistance to CuSO4 (2.3-fold, p=0.004) while UPN251-6TALT shows significant sensitivity to oxaliplatin (0.6-fold, p=0.01). P-glycoprotein is the main mechanism of taxol resistance found in the UPN251 taxane-resistant sublines. UPN251 cells increase cellular glutathione levels (3.0-fold, p=0.02) in response to carboplatin treatment. However, increased glutathione is not maintained in the carboplatin-resistant sublines. UPN251-7C and UPN251-6CALT are low-level resistant to CuSO4 suggesting alterations in copper metabolism. However, none of the UPN251 sublines have alterations in the protein expression of ATP7A or CTR1. The protein expression of BRCA1 and MRP2 is unchanged in the UPN251 sublines. The UPN251 sublines remain sensitive to parp inhibitors veliparib and CEP8983 suggesting that these agents are candidates for the treatment of platinum/taxane resistant ovarian cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. Adaptive changes of human islets to an obesogenic environment in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargani, S; Thévenet, J; Yuan, J E; Lefebvre, B; Delalleau, N; Gmyr, V; Hubert, T; Duhamel, A; Pattou, F; Kerr-Conte, J

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we used an immunodeficient mouse model to explore, in vivo, the longitudinal adaptation of human islets to an obesogenic environment. Non-diabetic Rag2 (-/-) mice (n = 61) were transplanted with human islets (400 islet equivalents [IEQ]) from six pancreases: four non-diabetic and two with overt metabolic dysfunction (older, high HbA(lc) or history of diabetes). Animals were fed for 12 weeks with a control or high-fat diet (HFD), and followed for weight, serum triacylglycerol, fasting blood glucose and human C-peptide. After the mice were killed, human grafts and the endogenous pancreas were analysed for endocrine volume, distribution of beta and alpha cells, and proliferation. Transplanted mice on an HFD gained significantly more weight (p < 0.001) and had higher fasting glycaemia (2-12 weeks; p = 0.0002) and consistently higher fasting human C-peptide levels (2-12 weeks; p = 0.04) compared with those on the control diet. Histology demonstrated doubling of human islet graft volume at 12 weeks in animals on the HFD and increased beta cell volume (p < 0.001), but no change in alpha cell volume. Human islet function (hyperbolic product HOMA2%BS) at 12 weeks was four times lower in HFD animals (p < 0.001 vs controls) because of insufficient beta cell adaptation to decreased (70%) sensitivity (HOMA%S). Human islets obtained from donors with metabolic dysfunction failed to adapt to the HFD. This longitudinal study provides direct evidence that human islets adapt both endocrine and beta cell mass, function and gene expression to obesity in vivo. The present model will facilitate the identification of mechanisms by which human islets adapt to obesity in vivo and the cell type(s) responsible, and factors predisposing human beta cells to decompensation.

  16. Gefitinib-mediated reactive oxygen specie (ROS) instigates mitochondrial dysfunction and drug resistance in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okon, Imoh S; Coughlan, Kathleen A; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Qiongxin; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2015-04-03

    Therapeutic benefits offered by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as gefitinib (Iressa) and erlotinib (Tarceva), are limited due to the development of resistance, which contributes to treatment failure and cancer-related mortality. The aim of this study was to elucidate mechanistic insight into cellular perturbations that accompany acquired gefitinib resistance in lung cancer cells. Several lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) cell lines were screened to characterize epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and mutation profile. To circumvent intrinsic variations between cell lines with respect to response to drug treatments, we generated gefitinib-resistant H1650 clone by long-term, chronic culture under gefitinib selection of parental cell line. Isogenic cells were analyzed by microarray, Western blot, flow cytometry, and confocal and transmission electron microscope. We observed that although chronic gefitinib treatment provided effective action against its primary target (aberrant EGFR activity), secondary effects resulted in increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Gefitinib-mediated ROS correlated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, as well as striking perturbation of mitochondrial morphology and function. However, gefitinib treatment in the presence of ROS scavenger provided a partial rescue of mitochondrial aberrations. Furthermore, withdrawal of gefitinib from previously resistant clones correlated with normalized expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition genes. These findings demonstrate that chronic gefitinib treatment promotes ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung cancer cells. Antioxidants may alleviate ROS-mediated resistance. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Characterization of the mouse pancreatic islet proteome and comparative analysis with other mouse tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Qian, Weijun; Hinault, Charlotte; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Singhal, Mudita; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-08-01

    The pancreatic islets of Langerhans and insulin-producing beta cells in particular play a central role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and the islet dysfunction is associated with the pathogenesis of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. To contribute to the understanding of the biology of the pancreatic islets we applied proteomic techniques based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Here as an initial step we present the first comprehensive proteomic characterization of pancreas islets of the mouse, the commonly used animal model for diabetes research. Two-dimensional SCX LC/RP LC-MS/MS has been applied to characterize of the mouse islet proteome, resulting in the confident identification of 17,350 different tryptic peptides covering 2,612 proteins with at least two unique peptide identifications per protein. The dataset also allowed identification of a number of post-translational modifications including several modifications relevant to oxidative stress and phosphorylation. While many of the identified phosphorylation sites corroborates with previous known sites, the oxidative modifications observed on cysteinyl residues potentially reveal novel information related to the role of oxidation stress in islet functions. Comparative analysis of the islet proteome database with 15 available proteomic datasets from other mouse tissues and cells revealed a set of 68 proteins uniquely detected only in the pancreatic islets. Besides proteins with known functions, like islet secreted peptide hormones, this unique set contains a number of proteins with yet unknown functions. The resulting peptide and protein database will be available at ncrr.pnl.gov web site of the NCRR proteomic center (ncrr.pnl.gov).

  18. Pancreatic islets and their roles in metabolic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barella, Luiz Felipe; de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas

    2014-04-01

    Experimental and epidemiologic data have confirmed that undernutrition or overnutrition during critical periods of life can result in metabolic dysfunction, leading to the development of obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes, later in life. These studies have contributed to the concept of the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD), which involves metabolic programming patterns. Beyond the earlier phases of development, puberty can be an additional period of plasticity, during which any insult can lead to changes in metabolism. Impaired brain development, associated with imbalanced autonomous nervous system activity due to metabolic programming, is pivotal to the creation of pathophysiology. Excess glucocorticoid exposure, due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis deregulation, is also involved in malprogramming in early life. Additionally, the pancreatic islets appear to play a decisive role in the setup and maintenance of these metabolic dysfunctions as key targets of metabolic programming, and epigenetic mechanisms may underlie these changes. Moreover, studies have indicated the possibility that deprogramming renders the islets able to recover their functioning after malprogramming. In this review, we discuss the key roles of the pancreatic islets as targets of malprogramming; however, we also discuss their roles as important targets for the treatment and prevention of metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mice lacking the Cβ subunit of PKA are resistant to angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Linda C; Bible, Kenneth L; Emond, Mary J; Ladiges, Warren C

    2010-11-16

    PKA is a ubiquitous, multi-subunit cellular kinase that regulates a number of different physiological responses in response to cAMP, including metabolism, cell division, and cardiac function. Numerous studies have implicated altered PKA signaling in cardiac dysfunction. Recently, it has been shown that mice lacking the catalytic β subunit of PKA (PKA Cβ) are protected from age-related problems such as weight gain and enlarged livers, and we hypothesized that these mice might also be resistant to cardiomyopathy. Angiotensin II (ang II) induced hypertension in both PKA Cβ null mice and their WT littermates. However, PKA Cβ null mice were resistant to a number of ang II-induced, cardiopathological effects observed in the WT mice, including hypertrophy, decreased diastolic performance, and enlarged left atria. The Cβ subunit of PKA plays an important role in angiotensin-induced cardiac dysfunction. The Cβ null mouse highlights the potential of the PKA Cβ subunit as a pharmaceutical target for hypertrophic cardiac disease.

  20. Pancreatic islet transplantation for treating diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shinichi; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Yonekawa, Yukihide; Okitsu, Teru; Iwanaga, Yasuhiro; Liu, Xiaoling; Nagata, Hideo; Kobayashi, Naoya; Ricordi, Camillo

    2006-01-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is one of the options for treating diabetes and has been shown to improve the quality of life of severe diabetic patients. Since the Edmonton protocol was announced, islet transplantation have advanced considerably, including islet after kidney transplantation, utilisation of non-heart-beating donors, single-donor islet transplantation and living-donor islet transplantation. These advances were based on revised immunosuppression protocols, improved pancreas procurement and islet isolation methods, and enhanced islet engraftment. Further improvements are necessary to make islet transplantation a routine clinical treatment. To synergise efforts towards a cure for type 1 diabetes, a Diabetes Research Institute (DRI) Federation is currently being established to include leading diabetes research centres worldwide, including DRIs in Miami, Edmonton and Kyoto among others.

  1. The Different Faces of the Pancreatic Islet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulreda, Midhat H; Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Cabrera, Over; Caicedo, Alejandro; Berggren, Per-Olof

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients who receive pancreatic islet transplant experience significant improvement in their quality-of-life. This comes primarily through improved control of blood sugar levels, restored awareness of hypoglycemia, and prevention of serious and potentially life-threatening diabetes-associated complications, such as kidney failure, heart and vascular disease, stroke, nerve damage, and blindness. Therefore, beta cell replacement through transplantation of isolated islets is an important option in the treatment of T1D. However, lasting success of this promising therapy depends on durable survival and efficacy of the transplanted islets, which are directly influenced by the islet isolation procedures. Thus, isolating pancreatic islets with consistent and reliable quality is critical in the clinical application of islet transplantation.Quality of isolated islets is important in pre-clinical studies as well, as efforts to advance and improve clinical outcomes of islet transplant therapy have relied heavily on animal models ranging from rodents, to pigs, to nonhuman primates. As a result, pancreatic islets have been isolated from these and other species and used in a variety of in vitro or in vivo applications for this and other research purposes. Protocols for islet isolation have been somewhat similar across species, especially, in mammals. However, given the increasing evidence about the distinct structural and functional features of human and mouse islets, using similar methods of islet isolation may contribute to inconsistencies in the islet quality, immunogenicity, and experimental outcomes. This may also contribute to the discrepancies commonly observed between pre-clinical findings and clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is prudent to consider the particular features of pancreatic islets from different species when optimizing islet isolation protocols.In this chapter, we explore the structural and functional features of pancreatic islets from

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha improves pancreatic adaptation to insulin resistance in obese mice and reduces lipotoxicity in human islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalloyer, Fanny; Vandewalle, Brigitte; Percevault, Frederic; Torpier, Gerard; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Oosterveer, Maaike; Paumelle, Rejane; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Kuipers, Folkert; Pattou, Francois; Fievet, Catherine; Staels, Bart

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha is a transcription factor controlling lipid and glucose homeostasis. PPAR alpha-deficient (-/-) mice are protected from high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. However, the impact of PPAR alpha in the pathophysiological setting of

  3. Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance and Cognitive Dysfunction: Does your metabolic profile affect your brain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper S; Møller, Katrine Dragsbæk; Christiansen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    Dementia and type 2 diabetes are both characterized by long prodromal phases challenging the study of potential risk factors and their temporal relation. The progressive relation between metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and dementia has recently been questioned, wherefore the aim...

  4. Cell loss during pseudoislet formation hampers profound improvements in islet lentiviral transduction efficacy for transplantation purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, H; Gysemans, C; Cardozo, A K; Elsner, M; Tiedge, M; Eizirik, D L; Mathieu, C

    2007-01-01

    Islet transplantation is a promising treatment in type 1 diabetes, but the need for chronic immunosuppression is a major hurdle to broad applicability. Ex vivo introduction of agents by lentiviral vectors-improving beta-cell resistance against immune attack-is an attractive path to pursue. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dissociation of islets to single cells prior to viral infection and reaggregation before transplantation would improve viral transduction efficacy without cytotoxicity. This procedure improved transduction efficacy with a LV-pWPT-CMV-EGFP construct from 11.2 +/- 4.1% at MOI 50 in whole islets to 80.0 +/- 2.8% at MOI 5. Viability (as measured by Hoechst/PI) and functionality (as measured by glucose challenge) remained high. After transplantation, the transfected pseudoislet aggregates remained EGFP positive for more than 90 days and the expression of EGFP colocalized primarily with the insulin-positive beta-cells. No increased vulnerability to immune attack was observed in vitro or in vivo. These data demonstrate that dispersion of islets prior to lentiviral transfection and reaggregation prior to transplantation is a highly efficient way to introduce genes of interest into islets for transplantation purposes in vitro and in vivo, but the amount of beta-cells needed for normalization of glycemia was more than eightfold higher when using dispersed cell aggregates versus unmanipulated islets. The high price to pay to reach stable and strong transgene expression in islet cells is certainly an important cell loss.

  5. Young capillary vessels rejuvenate aged pancreatic islets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaça, Joana; Molina, Judith; Arrojo e Drigo, Rafael; Abdulreda, Midhat H.; Jeon, Won Bae; Berggren, Per-Olof; Caicedo, Alejandro; Nam, Hong Gil

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic islets secrete hormones that play a key role in regulating blood glucose levels (glycemia). Age-dependent impairment of islet function and concomitant dysregulation of glycemia are major health threats in aged populations. However, the major causes of the age-dependent decline of islet function are still disputed. Here we demonstrate that aging of pancreatic islets in mice and humans is notably associated with inflammation and fibrosis of islet blood vessels but does not affect glucose sensing and the insulin secretory capacity of islet beta cells. Accordingly, when transplanted into the anterior chamber of the eye of young mice with diabetes, islets from old mice are revascularized with healthy blood vessels, show strong islet cell proliferation, and fully restore control of glycemia. Our results indicate that beta cell function does not decline with age and suggest that islet function is threatened by an age-dependent impairment of islet vascular function. Strategies to mitigate age-dependent dysregulation in glycemia should therefore target systemic and/or local inflammation and fibrosis of the aged islet vasculature. PMID:25404292

  6. Current status of islet cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, Hirohito; Ricordi, Camillo

    2009-01-01

    Despite substantial advances in islet isolation methods and immunosuppressive protocol, pancreatic islet cell transplantation remains an experimental procedure currently limited to the most severe cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus. The objectives of this treatment are to prevent severe hypoglycemic episodes in patients with hypoglycemia unawareness and to achieve a more physiological metabolic control. Insulin independence and long term-graft function with improvement of quality of life have been obtained in several international islet transplant centers. However, experimental trials of islet transplantation clearly highlighted several obstacles that remain to be overcome before the procedure could be proposed to a much larger patient population. This review provides a brief historical perspective of islet transplantation, islet isolation techniques, the transplant procedure, immunosuppressive therapy, and outlines current challenges and future directions in clinical islet transplantation.

  7. Sympathetic activation and endothelial dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome are not explained by either obesity or insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Elisabeth A; Teede, Helena; Sari, Carolina Ika; Jona, Eveline; Shorakae, Soulmaz; Woodington, Kiri; Hemmes, Robyn; Eikelis, Nina; Straznicky, Nora E; De Courten, Barbora; Dixon, John B; Schlaich, Markus P; Lambert, Gavin W

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition underpinned by insulin resistance and associated with increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Previous data suggest autonomic imbalance [elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and decreased heart rate variability (HRV)] as well as endothelial dysfunction in PCOS. However, it is not clear whether these abnormalities are driven by obesity and metabolic disturbance or whether they are independently related to PCOS. We examined multiunit and single-unit muscle SNS activity (by microneurography), HRV (time and frequency domain analysis) and endothelial function [ischaemic reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) using the EndoPAT device] in 19 overweight/obese women with PCOS (BMI: 31·3 ± 1·5 kg/m(2), age: 31·3 ± 1·6 years) and compared them with 21 control overweight/obese women (BMI: 33·0 ± 1·4 kg/m(2), age: 28·2 ± 1·6 years) presenting a similar metabolic profile (fasting total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, insulin sensitivity and blood pressure). Women with PCOS had elevated multiunit muscle SNS activity (41 ± 2 vs 33 ± 3 bursts per 100 heartbeats, P obesity and metabolic disturbances. Sympathetic activation and endothelial dysfunction may confer greater cardiovascular risk in women with PCOS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Sympathetic nervous dysregulation in the absence of systolic left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model of insulin resistance with hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suuronen Erik J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with cardiovascular dysfunction, derived in part from impairment of sympathetic nervous system signaling. Glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids are potent stimulants of sympathetic activity and norepinephrine (NE release. We hypothesized that sustained hyperglycemia in the high fat diet-fed streptozotocin (STZ rat model of sustained hyperglycemia with insulin resistance would exhibit progressive sympathetic nervous dysfunction in parallel with deteriorating myocardial systolic and/or diastolic function. Methods Cardiac sympathetic nervous integrity was investigated in vivo via biodistribution of the positron emission tomography radiotracer and NE analogue [11C]meta-hydroxyephedrine ([11C]HED. Cardiac systolic and diastolic function was evaluated by echocardiography. Plasma and cardiac NE levels and NE reuptake transporter (NET expression were evaluated as correlative measurements. Results The animal model displays insulin resistance, sustained hyperglycemia, and progressive hypoinsulinemia. After 8 weeks of persistent hyperglycemia, there was a significant 13-25% reduction in [11C]HED retention in myocardium of STZ-treated hyperglycemic but not euglycemic rats as compared to controls. There was a parallel 17% reduction in immunoblot density for NE reuptake transporter, a 1.2 fold and 2.5 fold elevation of cardiac and plasma NE respectively, and no change in sympathetic nerve density. No change in ejection fraction or fractional area change was detected by echocardiography. Reduced heart rate, prolonged mitral valve deceleration time, and elevated transmitral early to atrial flow velocity ratio measured by pulse-wave Doppler in hyperglycemic rats suggest diastolic impairment of the left ventricle. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that sustained hyperglycemia is associated with elevated myocardial NE content and dysregulation of sympathetic nervous system

  9. CLINICAL IMPORTANCE OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION AND INSULIN RESISTANCE SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH GOUT ASSOCIATED WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Kushnarenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the endothelium status and determine the correlation between endothelial dysfunction and glucose metabolism in men with gout associated with arterial hypertension (HT.Material and methods. Patients (n=175, all are males with gout were enrolled into the study. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed in all patients. Endothelial function was studied in tests with reactive hyperemia (endothelium-dependent reaction and nitroglycerin (endothelium independent reaction in brachial artery by ultrasonic Doppler examination. The level of nitrite-nitrate and endothelin-1 in blood serum was determined by ELISA technique. Fasting blood glucose and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed as well as fasting insulin blood level was determined by immunoenzyme method. Insulin-resistance index (HOMA-IR was calculated. Patients with HOMA- IR>2.77 were considered as insulin-resistant.Results. Patients with gout demonstrated endothelial deterioration associated with activation of nitroxid producing function, elevation in endothelin-1 serum level (1.36 fmol/ml [0.91; 2.32 fmol/ml] vs 0.19 fmol/ml [0.16; 0.27 fmol/ml] in controls, p<0.05 and impairments of endothelium-dependent vasodilation (6.4% [3.3; 7.3%] vs 17.8% [12.7; 23.9%] in controls, p<0.05. The revealed changes were the most marked in patients with gout associated with HT. The correlation between some endothelial dysfunction in- dices and glucose metabolism was observed.Conclusion. ABPM, brachial artery endothelium-dependent vasodilation and glucose metabolism status should be studied in patients with gout. Complex treatment of cardiovascular diseases in patients with gout should include ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, angiotensin receptor antagonists should be used for antihypertensive therapy.

  10. Leptin resistance extends to the coronary vasculature in prediabetic dogs and provides a protective adaptation against endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Jarrod D; Dincer, U Deniz; Dick, Gregory M; Shibata, Haruki; Akahane, Rie; Saito, Masayuki; Tune, Johnathan D

    2005-09-01

    Hyperleptinemia, associated with prediabetes, is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease and a mediator of coronary endothelial dysfunction. We previously demonstrated that acutely raising the leptin concentration to levels comparable with those observed in human obesity significantly attenuates coronary dilation/relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) both in vivo in anesthetized dogs and in vitro in isolated canine coronary rings. Accordingly, the purpose of this investigation was to extend these studies to a model of prediabetes with chronic hyperleptinemia. In the present investigation, experiments were conducted on control and high-fat-fed dogs. High-fat feeding caused a significant increase (131%) in plasma leptin concentration. Furthermore, in high-fat-fed dogs, exogenous leptin did not significantly alter vascular responses to ACh in vivo or in vitro. Coronary vasodilator responses to ACh (0.3-30.0 microg/min) and sodium nitroprusside (1.0-100.0 microg/min) were not significantly different from those observed in control dogs. Also, high-fat feeding did not induce a switch to an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor as a major mediator of muscarinic coronary vasodilation, because dilation to ACh was abolished by combined pretreatment with N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (150 microg/min ic) and indomethacin (10 mg/kg iv). Quantitative, real-time PCR revealed no significant difference in coronary artery leptin receptor gene expression between control and high-fat-fed dogs. In conclusion, high-fat feeding induces resistance to the coronary vascular effects of leptin, and this represents an early protective adaptation against endothelial dysfunction. The resistance is not due to altered endothelium-dependent or -independent coronary dilation, increased endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, or changes in coronary leptin receptor mRNA levels.

  11. CLINICAL IMPORTANCE OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION AND INSULIN RESISTANCE SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH GOUT ASSOCIATED WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Kushnarenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the endothelium status and determine the correlation between endothelial dysfunction and glucose metabolism in men with gout associated with arterial hypertension (HT.Material and methods. Patients (n=175, all are males with gout were enrolled into the study. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed in all patients. Endothelial function was studied in tests with reactive hyperemia (endothelium-dependent reaction and nitroglycerin (endothelium independent reaction in brachial artery by ultrasonic Doppler examination. The level of nitrite-nitrate and endothelin-1 in blood serum was determined by ELISA technique. Fasting blood glucose and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed as well as fasting insulin blood level was determined by immunoenzyme method. Insulin-resistance index (HOMA-IR was calculated. Patients with HOMA- IR>2.77 were considered as insulin-resistant.Results. Patients with gout demonstrated endothelial deterioration associated with activation of nitroxid producing function, elevation in endothelin-1 serum level (1.36 fmol/ml [0.91; 2.32 fmol/ml] vs 0.19 fmol/ml [0.16; 0.27 fmol/ml] in controls, p<0.05 and impairments of endothelium-dependent vasodilation (6.4% [3.3; 7.3%] vs 17.8% [12.7; 23.9%] in controls, p<0.05. The revealed changes were the most marked in patients with gout associated with HT. The correlation between some endothelial dysfunction in- dices and glucose metabolism was observed.Conclusion. ABPM, brachial artery endothelium-dependent vasodilation and glucose metabolism status should be studied in patients with gout. Complex treatment of cardiovascular diseases in patients with gout should include ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, angiotensin receptor antagonists should be used for antihypertensive therapy.

  12. Resistance in the Classroom--From Dysfunctional to Functional: A Future Necessary Skill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Susanne; Richardson, Nicola Taryn

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on resistance in primary schools, more specific grade five learners as perceived by teachers. A qualitative phenomenological interpretative approach was followed utilising focus group discussions and individual interviews. Participants included 14 teachers, purposefully selected from three private and three public schools in…

  13. Liver alanine aminotransferase, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in normotriglyceridaemic subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schindhelm, RK; Diamant, M; Bakker, SJL; van Dijk, RAJM; Scheffer, PG; Teerlink, T; Kostense, PJ; Heine, RJ

    Background Plasma levels of liver transaminases, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), are elevated in most cases of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Elevated ALT levels are associated with insulin resistance, and subjects with NAFLD have features of the metabolic syndrome that confer

  14. Chronic exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, causes mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Lim

    Full Text Available There is an apparent overlap between areas in the USA where the herbicide, atrazine (ATZ, is heavily used and obesity-prevalence maps of people with a BMI over 30. Given that herbicides act on photosystem II of the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts, which have a functional structure similar to mitochondria, we investigated whether chronic exposure to low concentrations of ATZ might cause obesity or insulin resistance by damaging mitochondrial function. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48 were treated for 5 months with low concentrations (30 or 300 microg kg(-1 day(-1 of ATZ provided in drinking water. One group of animals was fed a regular diet for the entire period, and another group of animals was fed a high-fat diet (40% fat for 2 months after 3 months of regular diet. Various parameters of insulin resistance were measured. Morphology and functional activities of mitochondria were evaluated in tissues of ATZ-exposed animals and in isolated mitochondria. Chronic administration of ATZ decreased basal metabolic rate, and increased body weight, intra-abdominal fat and insulin resistance without changing food intake or physical activity level. A high-fat diet further exacerbated insulin resistance and obesity. Mitochondria in skeletal muscle and liver of ATZ-treated rats were swollen with disrupted cristae. ATZ blocked the activities of oxidative phosphorylation complexes I and III, resulting in decreased oxygen consumption. It also suppressed the insulin-mediated phosphorylation of Akt. These results suggest that long-term exposure to the herbicide ATZ might contribute to the development of insulin resistance and obesity, particularly where a high-fat diet is prevalent.

  15. Islet amyloid polypeptide and high hydrostatic pressure: towards an understanding of the fibrillization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, D. H. J.; Smirnovas, V.; Winter, R.

    2008-07-01

    Type II Diabetes Mellitus is a disease which is characterized by peripheral insulin resistance coupled with a progressive loss of insulin secretion that is associated with a decrease in pancreatic islet β-cell mass and the deposition of amyloid in the extracellular matrix of β-cells, which lead to islet cell death. The principal component of the islet amyloid is a pancreatic hormone called islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). High-pressure coupled with FT-IR, CD, ThT fluorescence spectroscopic and AFM studies were carried out to reveal information on the aggregation pathway as well as the aggregate structure of IAPP. Our data indicate that IAPP pre-formed fibrils exhibit a strong polymorphism with heterogeneous structures very sensitive to high hydrostatic pressure, indicating a high percentage of ionic and hydrophobic interactions being responsible for the stability the IAPP fibrils.

  16. Feasibility of islet magnetic resonance imaging using ferumoxytol in intraportal islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Man; Oh, Seung-Hoon; Oh, Bae Jun; Shim, Wooyoung; Choi, Jin Myung; Yoo, Dongkyeom; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Jung Hee; Lee, Dong Yun; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2015-06-01

    There is a clinical need for an alternative labeling agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in islet transplantation. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of islet MRI using ferumoxytol, which is the only clinically-available ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide. We compared islet function and viability of control islets and islets labeled with ferumoxytol and/or a heparin-protamine complex (HPF). Efficacy of ferumoxytol labeling was assessed in both ex vivo and in vivo models. Labeling for 48 h with HPF, but not up to 800 μg/mL ferumoxytol, deranged ex vivo islet viability and function. The T2∗ relaxation time was optimal when islets were labeled with 800 μg/mL of ferumoxytol for 48 h. Prussian blue stain, iron content assay, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) supported internalization of ferumoxytol particles. However, the labeling intensity in the ex vivo MRI of islets labeled with ferumoxytol was much weaker than that of islets labeled with ferucarbotran. In syngeneic intraportal islet transplantation, there was a correlation between the total area of visualized islets and the transplanted islet mass. In conclusion, islet MRI using ferumoxytol was feasible in terms of in vitro and in vivo efficacy and safety. However, the weak labeling efficacy is still a hurdle for the clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Resistin - the link between adipose tissue dysfunction and insulin resistance in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherneva Radostina Vlaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistin is an adipocytokine, associated with obesity and inflammation. Its exact role in insulin resistance and diabetes in the general population is still controversial. The relation between resistin plasma levels, insulin resistance and risk of impaired glucose metabolism in OSA patients has not been investigated. Materials and methods Plasma levels of resistin were measured in 67 patients with OSA and impaired glucose metabolism. 34,7% (23/67 had diabetes; 40% (27/67 patients had impаired glucose tolerance(IGT; 25,3%(17/67 had normal glucose metabolism (NGM. The association between resistin, BMI, obesity, markers of insulin resistance, oxidative stress and sleep study characteristics was analysed. The different groups of patients were compared in regards to glucometabolic parameters and biomarkers of oxidative stress – isoprostanes and insulin resistance – free fatty acids (FFA. Results Plasma levels of resistin were higher in patients with diabetes (6,12 ±5,93ng/ml, compared to those with IGT (3,85±2,81ng/ml, p-0,021 and NGM (3,77±3,23, p-0,043. Resistin did not differ between patients with IGT and NGM (p-0,954. In OSA patients with BMI>40 resistin plasma levels correlated neither to the clinical parameters (BMI, IRI, HOMA-I, HbA1C, AHI, desaturation index, nor to the biomarkers of oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Free fatty acids (0,232>0,177mmol/l, p-0,037 were higher in diabetics in comparison to NGM. Conclusions Plasma resistin levels in OSA patients with BMI>40 are independent of insulin resistance and are not associated with the parameters, characterising the oxidative stress or severity of OSA. Resistin could be used in a multiple panel of clinical and biomarkers to discern patients with diabetes from those with IGT; in OSA patients with BMI >40 resistin together with HbA1C could discern patients with diabetes from those with NGM. In OSA patients with BMI >40 FFA and HbA1C are useful clinical

  18. Peripheral insulin resistance rather than beta cell dysfunction accounts for geographical differences in impaired fasting blood glucose among sub-Saharan African individuals : findings from the RODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeks, Karlijn A C; Stronks, Karien; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Addo, Juliet; Bahendeka, Silver; Beune, Erik; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Danquah, Ina; Galbete, Cecilia; Henneman, Peter; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Osei, Kwame; Schulze, Matthias B; Spranger, Joachim; Smeeth, Liam; Agyemang, Charles

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction account for differences in impaired fasting blood glucose (IFBG) levels in sub-Saharan African individuals living in different locations in Europe and Africa. We also aimed to

  19. Role of pro-inflammatory cytokines of pancreatic islets and prospects of elaboration of new methods for the diabetes treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślak, Marek; Wojtczak, Andrzej; Cieślak, Michał

    2015-01-01

    Several relations between cytokines and pathogenesis of diabetes are reviewed. In type 1 and type 2 diabetes an increased synthesis is observed and as well as the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which cause the damage of pancreatic islet cells and, in type 2 diabetes, the development of the insulin resistance. That process results in the disturbed balance between pro-inflammatory and protective cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), as well as recently discovered pancreatic derived factor PANDER are involved in the apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells. Inside β-cells, cytokines activate different metabolic pathways leading to the cell death. IL-1β activates the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), affects the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and activates the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). TNF-α and IFN-γ in a synergic way activate calcium channels, what leads to the mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of caspases. Neutralization of pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially interleukin 1β with the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and/or IL-1β antibodies might cause the extinction of the inflammatory process of pancreatic islets, and consequently normalize concentration of glucose in blood and decrease the insulin resistance. In type 1 diabetes interleukin-6 participates in regulation of balance between Th17 and regulatory T cells. In type 2 diabetes and obesity, the long-duration increase of IL-6 concentration in blood above 5 pg/ml leads to the chronic and permanent increase in expression of SOCS3, contributing to the increase in the insulin resistance in cells of the skeletal muscles, liver and adipose tissue.

  20. Enhanced rat beta-cell proliferation in 60% pancreatectomized islets by increased glucose metabolic flux through pyruvate carboxylase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y Q; Han, J; Epstein, P N; Long, Y S

    2005-03-01

    Islet beta-cell proliferation is a very important component of beta-cell adaptation to insulin resistance and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, we know little about the mechanisms of beta-cell proliferation. We now investigate the relationship between pyruvate carboxylase (PC) pathway activity and islet cell proliferation 5 days after 60% pancreatectomy (Px). Islet cell number, protein, and DNA content, indicators of beta-cell proliferation, were increased two- to threefold 5 days after Px. PC and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activities increased only approximately 1.3-fold; however, islet pyruvate content and malate release from isolated islet mitochondria were approximately threefold increased in Px islets. The latter is an indicator of pyruvate-malate cycle activity, indicating that most of the increased pyruvate was converted to oxaloacetate (OAA) through the PC pathway. The contents of OAA and malate, intermediates of the pyruvate-malate cycle, were also increased threefold. PDH and citrate content were only slightly increased. Importantly, the changes in cell proliferation parameters, glucose utilization, and oxidation and malate release were partially blocked by in vivo treatment with the PC inhibitor phenylacetic acid. Our results suggest that enhanced PC pathway in Px islets may have an important role in islet cell proliferation.

  1. Apelin is a novel islet peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringström, Camilla; Nitert, Marloes Dekker; Bennet, Hedvig

    2010-01-01

    Apelin, a recently discovered peptide with wide tissue distribution, regulates feeding behavior, improves glucose utilization, and inhibits insulin secretion. We examined whether apelin is expressed in human islets, as well as in normal and type 2 diabetic (T2D) animal islets. Further, we studied...... islet apelin regulation and the effect of apelin on insulin secretion. Apelin expression and regulation was examined in human and animal specimens using immunocytochemistry, in situ hybridization, and real-time PCR. Insulin secretion was studied in INS-1 (832/13) clonal beta cells. APJ......-receptor expression was studied using real-time PCR. In human and murine islets apelin was predominantly expressed in beta cells and alpha cells; a subpopulation of the PP cells in human islets also harbored apelin. In porcine and feline islets apelin was mainly expressed in beta cells. APJ-receptor expression...

  2. Erectile dysfunction, obesity, insulin resistance, and their relationship with testosterone levels in eugonadal patients in an andrology clinic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblovits, Pablo; Costanzo, Pablo R; Valzacchi, Gastón J Rey; Gueglio, Guillermo; Layus, Alberto O; Kozak, Andrea E; Balzaretti, Marta I; Litwak, León E

    2010-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with metabolic and endocrine diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome (MS), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Insulin resistance (IR), present in patients with obesity, MS, and DM2, causes disturbances in the signaling pathways required for nitric oxide production, with subsequent endothelial dysfunction. In addition, IR appears to alter testosterone production. We evaluated in eugonadal patients with ED: 1) the presence of obesity and IR, 2) testosterone levels and their association with obesity and IR, and 3) the degree of ED according to the presence of IR. In a prospective study, 78 eugonadal patients with ED (group P) were recruited and compared with 17 men without ED as a control group (group C). Erectile function was evaluated according to the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5). IR was measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). IR was defined as HOMA of 3 or greater. Patients with ED had significantly higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), HOMA values, and prevalence of IR when compared with group C. Total (TT) and bioavailable testosterone (BT) levels were lower in group P compared with group C. There was a significant negative correlation between HOMA and IIEF-5, HOMA and TT, WC and IIEF-5, WC and TT, and WC and BT. Group P patients with IR had higher WCs and lower IIEF-5 scores when compared with patients in group P without IR. In conclusion, patients with ED showed a higher BMI, WC, and HOMA and lower levels of TT and BT. There is a negative correlation between erectile function and IR and abdominal obesity. The TT levels are lower in patients with increased BMI, WC, and IR. However, a negative correlation was shown only between BT (biologically active fraction) and abdominal obesity.

  3. Endothelin-1 stimulates insulin secretion by direct action on the islets of Langerhans in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, S; Thomsen, J L; Brock, B

    1996-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor peptide, is secreted in response to insulin. Elevated circulating ET-1 levels have been found in patients with diabetes mellitus and vascular dysfunction. The question arises whether ET-1 acts as a direct modulator of insulin...... secretion. To test this, we studied the effects of ET-1 on isolated mouse islets of Langerhans. ET-1 (1 nmol/l-1 mumol/l) dose-dependently stimulated insulin secretion from islets incubated in the presence of 16.7 mmol/l glucose (p ... was found at 3.3 mmol/l glucose. Furthermore, ET-1 induced a large, transient increase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during islet perifusion in the presence (p

  4. Amelioration of Mitochondrial Dysfunction-Induced Insulin Resistance in Differentiated 3T3-L1 Adipocytes via Inhibition of NF-κB Pathways

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    Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathways is among the inflammatory mechanism involved in the development of insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissues derived from obese animal and human subjects. Nevertheless, little is known about the roles of NF-κB pathways in regulating mitochondrial function of the adipose tissues. In the present study, we sought to investigate the direct effects of celastrol (potent NF-κB inhibitor upon mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Celastrol ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction by altering mitochondrial fusion and fission in adipocytes. The levels of oxidative DNA damage, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation were down-regulated. Further, the morphology and quantification of intracellular lipid droplets revealed the decrease of intracellular lipid accumulation with reduced lipolysis. Moreover, massive production of the pro-inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β were markedly depleted. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity was restored with the enhancement of insulin signaling pathways. This study signified that the treatments modulated towards knockdown of NF-κB transcription factor may counteract these metabolic insults exacerbated in our model of synergy between mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NF-κB inhibition modulates mitochondrial dysfunction induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  5. Pancreatic islet macroencapsulation using microwell porous membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Groot Nibbelink, Milou; van Lente, Jéré; Buitinga, Mijke; Engelse, Marten A; de Koning, Eelco J P; Karperien, Marcel; van Apeldoorn, Aart; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2017-08-23

    Allogeneic islet transplantation into the liver in combination with immune suppressive drug therapy is widely regarded as a potential cure for type 1 diabetes. However, the intrahepatic system is suboptimal as the concentration of drugs and nutrients there is higher compared to pancreas, which negatively affects islet function. Islet encapsulation within semipermeable membranes is a promising strategy that allows for the islet transplantation outside the suboptimal liver portal system and provides environment, where islets can perform their endocrine function. In this study, we develop a macroencapsulation device based on thin microwell membranes. The islets are seeded in separate microwells to avoid aggregation, whereas the membrane porosity is tailored to achieve sufficient transport of nutrients, glucose and insulin. The non-degradable, microwell membranes are composed of poly (ether sulfone)/polyvinylpyrrolidone and manufactured via phase separation micro molding. Our results show that the device prevents aggregation and preserves the islet's native morphology. Moreover, the encapsulated islets maintain their glucose responsiveness and function after 7 days of culture (stimulation index above 2 for high glucose stimulation), demonstrating the potential of this novel device for islet transplantation.

  6. Improving Islet Engraftment by Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet cell transplantation is currently the only feasible long-term treatment option for patients with type 1 diabetes. However, the majority of transplanted islets experience damage and apoptosis during the isolation process, a blood-mediated inflammatory microenvironment in the portal vein upon islet infusion, hypoxia induced by the low oxygenated milieu, and poor-revascularization-mediated lack of nutrients, and impaired hormone modulation in the local transplanted site. Strategies using genetic modification methods through overexpression or silencing of those proteins involved in promoting new formation of blood vessels or inhibition of apoptosis may overcome these hurdles and improve islet engraftment outcomes.

  7. Combined lipidomic and proteomic analysis of isolated human islets exposed to palmitate reveals time-dependent changes in insulin secretion and lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Roomp

    Full Text Available Studies on the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have linked the accumulation of lipid metabolites to the development of beta-cell dysfunction and impaired insulin secretion. In most in vitro models of T2DM, rodent islets or beta-cell lines are used and typically focus is on specific cellular pathways or organs. Our aim was to, firstly, develop a combined lipidomics and proteomics approach for lipotoxicity in isolated human islets and, secondly, investigate if the approach could delineate novel and/ or confirm reported mechanisms of lipotoxicity. To this end isolated human pancreatic islets, exposed to chronically elevated palmitate concentrations for 0, 2 and 7 days, were functionally characterized and their levels of multiple targeted lipid and untargeted protein species determined. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from the islets increased on day 2 and decreased on day 7. At day 7 islet insulin content decreased and the proinsulin to insulin content ratio doubled. Amounts of cholesterol, stearic acid, C16 dihydroceramide and C24:1 sphingomyelin, obtained from the lipidomic screen, increased time-dependently in the palmitate-exposed islets. The proteomic screen identified matching changes in proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis indicating up-regulated cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis in the islets. Furthermore, proteins associated with immature secretory granules were decreased when palmitate exposure time was increased despite their high affinity for cholesterol. Proteins associated with mature secretory granules remained unchanged. Pathway analysis based on the protein and lipid expression profiles implicated autocrine effects of insulin in lipotoxicity. Taken together the study demonstrates that combining different omics approaches has potential in mapping of multiple simultaneous cellular events. However, it also shows that challenges exist for effectively combining lipidomics and proteomics in primary cells. Our

  8. Islet β–Cell Transcriptome and Integrated-omics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, David M.; Cura, Anthony J.; Harlan, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review β cells represent one of many cell types in heterogeneous pancreatic islets and play the central role in maintaining glucose homeostasis, such that disrupting β cell function leads to diabetes. This review summarizes methods for isolating and characterizing β cells, and describes integrated “omics” approaches used to define the β cell by its transcriptome and proteome. Recent Findings RNA Sequencing and mass spectrometry-based protein identification have now identified RNA and protein profiles for mouse and human pancreatic islets and β cells, and for β cell lines. Recent publications have outlined these profiles and, more importantly, have begun to assign the presence or absence of specific genes and regulatory molecules to β cell function and dysfunction. Overall, researchers have focused on understanding the pathophysiology of diabetes by connecting genome, transcriptome, proteome, and regulatory RNA profiles with findings from genome wide association studies (GWAS). Summary Studies employing these relatively new techniques promise to identify specific genes or regulatory RNAs with altered expression as β cell function begins to deteriorate in the spiral toward the development of diabetes. The ultimate goal is to identify potential therapeutic targets to prevent β cell dysfunction and thereby better treat the individual with diabetes. PMID:24526012

  9. Rapid development of cardiac dysfunction in a canine model of insulin resistance and moderate obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Josiane L; Nelson, Michael D; Kolka, Cathryn M; Bediako, Isaac Asare; Paszkiewicz, Rebecca L; Smith, Laura; Szczepaniak, Edward W; Stefanovski, Darko; Szczepaniak, Lidia S; Bergman, Richard N

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of obesity and diabetes continues to rise at an alarming rate. A major cause of the morbidity and mortality associated with obesity and diabetes is heart disease, yet the mechanisms that lead to cardiovascular complications remain unclear. We performed cardiac MRI to assess left ventricular morphology and function during the development of moderate obesity and insulin resistance in a well-established canine model (n = 26). To assess the influence of dietary fat composition, we randomised animals to a traditional lard diet (rich in saturated and monounsaturated fat; n = 12), a salmon oil diet (rich in polyunsaturated fat; n = 8) or a control diet (n = 6). High-fat feeding with lard increased body weight and fasting insulin and markedly reduced insulin sensitivity. Lard feeding also significantly reduced left ventricular function, evidenced by a worsening of circumferential strain and impairment in left ventricular torsion. High-fat feeding with salmon oil increased body weight; however, salmon oil feeding did not impair insulin sensitivity or cardiac function. These data emphasise the importance of dietary fat composition on both metabolic and cardiac function, and have important implications for the relationship between diet and health.

  10. High glucose suppresses human islet insulin biosynthesis by inducing miR-133a leading to decreased polypyrimidine tract binding protein-expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fred, Rikard G; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus H; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prolonged periods of high glucose exposure results in human islet dysfunction in vitro. The underlying mechanisms behind this effect of high glucose are, however, unknown. The polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) is required for stabilization of insulin mRNA and the PTB mRNA 3....../PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human islets were cultured for 24 hours in the presence of low (5.6 mM) or high glucose (20 mM). Islets were also exposed to sodium palmitate or the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IFN-gamma, since saturated free fatty acids and cytokines also cause islet dysfunction. RNA was then isolated...... protein levels and insulin biosynthesis rates were decreased in response to high glucose. The miR-133a inhibitor prevented the high glucose-induced decrease in PTB and insulin biosynthesis, and the miR-133a precursor decreased PTB levels and insulin biosynthesis similarly to high glucose. CONCLUSION...

  11. Mitigating hypoxic stress on pancreatic islets via in situ oxygen generating biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, Maria M; Geusz, Ryan; Stabler, Cherie L

    2017-06-01

    A major obstacle in the survival and efficacy of tissue engineered transplants is inadequate oxygenation, whereby unsupportive oxygen tensions result in significant cellular dysfunction and death within the implant. In a previous report, we developed an innovative oxygen generating biomaterial, termed OxySite, to provide supportive in situ oxygenation to cells and prevent hypoxia-induced damage. Herein, we explored the capacity of this biomaterial to mitigate hypoxic stress in both rat and nonhuman primate pancreatic islets by decreasing cell death, supporting metabolic activity, sustaining aerobic metabolism, preserving glucose responsiveness, and decreasing the generation of inflammatory cytokines. Further, the impact of supplemental oxygenation on in vivo cell function was explored by the transplantation of islets previously co-cultured with OxySite into a diabetic rat model. Transplant outcomes revealed significant improvement in graft efficacy for OxySite-treated islets, when transplanted within an extrahepatic site. These results demonstrate the potency of the OxySite material to mitigate activation of detrimental hypoxia-induced pathways in islets during culture and highlights the importance of in situ oxygenation on resulting islet transplant outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Insulin resistance adds to endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive patients and in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizek, B; Poredos, P

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate whether endothelium-dependent (nitric oxide-mediated) dilation of the brachial artery (BA) is impaired in patients being treated for essential hypertension (EH), and whether this abnormality can be detected in normotensive offspring of subjects with EH (familial trait, FT); and to investigate the interrelationship between flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) and hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance. Cross-sectional study. Angiology department at a teaching hospital. The study encompassed 172 subjects, of whom 46 were treated hypertonics aged 40-55 (49) years, and 44 age-matched, normotensive volunteers as controls. We also investigated 41 normotonics with FT aged 20-30 (25) years and 41 age-and sex-matched controls without FT. Using high-resolution ultrasound, BA diameters at rest, during reactive hyperaemia (endothelium-dependent dilation) and after sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) application (endothelium-independent dilation) were measured. In hypertonics FMD was significantly lower than in controls [2.4 (2.9) vs. 7.4 (2.5)%; P < 0.00005], as was GTN-induced dilation [12.1 (4.3) vs. 16.1 (4.6)%; P=0.0007]. In subjects with FT, FMD was also decreased compared with the control group [5.8 (4.1) vs. 10.0 (3.0)%; P < 0.00005]. The response to GTN was comparable in both groups of young subjects. FMD was negatively related to insulin concentration in all subjects studied (P < 0.00005). In treated patients with EH, flow-mediated dilation of the BA as well as endothelium-independent dilation are decreased. In individuals with FT the endothelial function of the peripheral arteries is also altered in the absence of elevated blood pressure. Endothelial dysfunction is related to hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance, which could be one of the pathogenetic determinants of EH and its complications.

  13. Diastolic dysfunction is associated with insulin resistance, but not with aldosterone level in normotensive offspring of hypertensive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizek, Bogomir; Poredos, Pavel; Trojar, Andrej; Zeljko, Tadej

    2008-01-01

    We investigated left ventricular (LV) morphology and function in association with insulin level/insulin resistance (IR) and aldosterone level in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension (familial trait, FT). The study encompassed 76 volunteers of whom 44 were normotensive with FT (aged 28-39 years) and 32 age-matched controls without FT. LV mass and function were measured using conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. LV diastolic function was reported as peak septal annular velocities (E(m) and E(m)/A(m) ratio) in tissue Doppler imaging. Fasting insulin and aldosterone were determined. In subjects with FT, the LV mass was higher than in controls (92.14 +/- 24.02 vs. 70.08 +/- 20.58 g; p < 0.001). The study group had a worse LV diastolic function than control subjects (lower E(m) and E(m)/A(m) ratio; p < 0.001). In subjects with FT, the E(m)/A(m) ratio was independently associated with IR (partial p = 0.029 in multivariate model, R(2) = 0.51), but not with LV mass. The aldosterone level was comparable in both groups. In normotensive individuals with FT, LV morphological and functional abnormalities were found. LV dysfunction but not an increase in LV mass is associated with IR. The aldosterone level is probably not responsible for the development of early hypertensive heart disease. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The exenatide analogue AC3174 attenuates hypertension, insulin resistance, and renal dysfunction in Dahl salt-sensitive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Rayne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptors improves insulin sensitivity and induces vasodilatation and diuresis. AC3174 is a peptide analogue with pharmacologic properties similar to the GLP-1 receptor agonist, exenatide. Hypothetically, chronic AC3174 treatment could attenuate salt-induced hypertension, cardiac morbidity, insulin resistance, and renal dysfunction in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS rats. Methods DSS rats were fed low salt (LS, 0.3% NaCl or high salt (HS, 8% NaCl diets. HS rats were treated with vehicle, AC3174 (1.7 pmol/kg/min, or GLP-1 (25 pmol/kg/min for 4 weeks via subcutaneous infusion. Other HS rats received captopril (150 mg/kg/day or AC3174 plus captopril. Results HS rat survival was improved by all treatments except GLP-1. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was lower in LS rats and in GLP-1, AC3174, captopril, or AC3174 plus captopril HS rats than in vehicle HS rats (p Conclusions Thus, AC3174 had antihypertensive, cardioprotective, insulin-sensitizing, and renoprotective effects in the DSS hypertensive rat model. Furthermore, AC3174 improved animal survival, an effect not observed with GLP-1.

  15. Islet Amyloid in Whole Pancreas Transplants for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM): Possible Role of Type 2 DM for Graft Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Fradejas, M; Kandil, D; Papadimitriou, J C; del Pino Flórez Rial, M; Prieto Sánchez, E; Drachenberg, C B

    2015-09-01

    Long-term results with whole pancreas (WPTx) and islet transplantation (IT) continue to be suboptimal. Graft failure with undetectable C-peptide level is attributed to graft sclerosis (chronic rejection), recurrence of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), or insufficient islet mass. In contrast, graft failure with measurable C-peptide has overlapping clinical features with Type 2 DM (suggesting persistent but insufficient β cell function), but is poorly understood. In general, the morphological substrate for islet failure is unclear because grafted islets are not routinely evaluated. We present two patients with graft failure at 5 and 8 years after successful WPTx for Type 1 DM, presenting with preserved C-peptide levels. On histopathology, the islets had preserved both α and β cell populations but also prominent accumulation of islet amyloid (IA), the morphological hallmark of Type 2 DM. IA previously reported in IT, represents fibrillary aggregates of islet amyloid polypeptide, a hormone normally cosecreted with insulin. Accumulation of IA correlates quantitatively with the development of hyperglycemia and is known to cause β cell dysfunction and loss. Accumulation of IA and development of Type 2 DM should be considered and studied as a potential cause of long-term islet failure in IT and WPTx. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  16. A novel high-throughput assay for islet respiration reveals uncoupling of rodent and human islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob D Wikstrom

    Full Text Available The pancreatic beta cell is unique in its response to nutrient by increased fuel oxidation. Recent studies have demonstrated that oxygen consumption rate (OCR may be a valuable predictor of islet quality and long term nutrient responsiveness. To date, high-throughput and user-friendly assays for islet respiration are lacking. The aim of this study was to develop such an assay and to examine bioenergetic efficiency of rodent and human islets.The XF24 respirometer platform was adapted to islets by the development of a 24-well plate specifically designed to confine islets. The islet plate generated data with low inter-well variability and enabled stable measurement of oxygen consumption for hours. The F1F0 ATP synthase blocker oligomycin was used to assess uncoupling while rotenone together with myxothiazol/antimycin was used to measure the level of non-mitochondrial respiration. The use of oligomycin in islets was validated by reversing its effect in the presence of the uncoupler FCCP. Respiratory leak averaged to 59% and 49% of basal OCR in islets from C57Bl6/J and FVB/N mice, respectively. In comparison, respiratory leak of INS-1 cells and C2C12 myotubes was measured to 38% and 23% respectively. Islets from a cohort of human donors showed a respiratory leak of 38%, significantly lower than mouse islets.The assay for islet respiration presented here provides a novel tool that can be used to study islet mitochondrial function in a relatively high-throughput manner. The data obtained in this study shows that rodent islets are less bioenergetically efficient than human islets as well as INS1 cells.

  17. Factors influencing insulin secretion from encapsulated islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, BJ; Faas, MM; de Vos, P

    2003-01-01

    Adequate regulation of glucose levels by a microencapsulated pancreatic islet graft requires a minute-to-minute regulation of blood glucose. To design such a transplant, it is mandatory to have sufficient insight in factors influencing the kinetics of insulin secretion by encapsulated islets. The

  18. Diabetes mellitus in the BB/W rat. Insulitis in pancreatic islet grafts after transplantation in diabetic recipients.

    OpenAIRE

    Weringer, E. J.; Like, A. A.

    1986-01-01

    Spontaneous diabetes mellitus in the BioBreeding/Worcester (BB/W) rat is preceded by lymphocytic insulitis which destroys pancreatic beta cells. Cultured major histocompatibility complex identical pancreatic islets and adrenal cortex derived from diabetes-resistant BB/W donors were transplanted into diabetic recipients with hyperglycemia of variable duration. Islet grafts were the targets of BB/W immune attack and revealed lymphocytic insulitis after transplantation into diabetic recipients e...

  19. Requirements for success in clinical islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricordi, Camillo; Inverardi, Luca; Kenyon, Norma S; Goss, John; Bertuzzi, Federico; Alejandro, Rodolfo

    2005-05-27

    A few groups have endured the challenges of time, anecdotal success stories, logistic and funding impediments, to bring the field of clinical islet transplantation where it stands today. The recent improvement in clinical results has paralleled a renewed interest in islet transplantation and an increasing number of centers have entered the field. Selected institutions have now clearly demonstrated that insulin independence can be a reproducible and achievable goal. Other centers struggle with mixed results, while occasional early failures of islet transplants are still observed. This center effect underlines not just a learning curve, but also the complexity of the approach, which requires multidisciplinary expertise and attention to critical variables that need to be closely monitored to assure adequate clinical outcomes. The future success and large scale applicability of islet transplantation will rely on the synergistic research progress in critical areas that contribute to the sequential and integrated approach required for success in clinical islet transplantation.

  20. Loss of β-Cell Identity Occurs in Type 2 Diabetes and Is Associated With Islet Amyloid Deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, H. Siebe; Song, Heein; Ellenbroek, Johanne H.; Roefs, Maaike M.; Engelse, Marten A.; Bos, Erik; Koster, Abraham J.; Rabelink, Ton J.; Hansen, Barbara C.; Clark, Anne; Carlotti, Francoise; de Koning, Eelco J. P.

    Loss of pancreatic islet beta-cell mass and beta-cell dysfunction are central in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We recently showed that mature human insulin-containing beta-cells can convert into glucagon-containing alpha-cells ex vivo. This loss of beta-cell identity was characterized

  1. Loss of β-cell identity occurs in type 2 diabetes and is associated with islet amyloid deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, H Siebe; Song, Heein; Ellenbroek, Johanne H; Roefs, Maaike M; Engelse, Marten A; Bos, Erik; Koster, Abraham J; Rabelink, Ton J; Hansen, Barbara C; Clark, Anne; Carlotti, Françoise; de Koning, Eelco J P

    2015-01-01

    Loss of pancreatic islet β-cell mass and β-cell dysfunction are central in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We recently showed that mature human insulin-containing β-cells can convert into glucagon-containing α-cells ex vivo. This loss of β-cell identity was characterized by the presence

  2. The Dynamic Roles of Visfatin and Obestatin Serum Concentration in Pancreatic Beta Cells Dysfunction (HOMA-beta and Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR in Centrally Obese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Winata Putera

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem in the world today. Obesity is closely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiological studies have shown that obese persons are in a state of insulin resistance, however, most of them do not progress to type 2 diabetes. This occurs because the beta cell function is still good enough for maintaining normal glucose level. Obestatin and visfatin are cytokines that are known to have a role in beta cell function. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between visfatin and obestatin and Homeostasis Model Assessment of beta cell function (HOMA-β and Homeostasis Model Assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 80 central obesity men with waist circumference >90 cm, age 30-65 years old. Visfatin and obestatin were measured by ELISA method. Beta pancreas cell dysfunction and insulin resistance were calculated by HOMA model. RESULTS: Our study showed a correlation between visfatin and HOMA-β (r=0.244 and p=0.029 and visfatin with HOMA-IR (r=0.287 and p=0.001 and no correlation was found between obestatin with HOMA-β (r=0.010 and p=0.990 and obestatin with HOMA-IR (r=0.080 and p=0.480. We also found visfatin and obestatin concentrations were fluctuative depending on the measurements of the waist circumferences. CONCLUSIONS: High visfatin and low obestatin concentration were independently associated with increased beta pancreas cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. KEYWORDS: obesity. visfatin, obestatin, beta cell dysfunction (HOMA-β, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR.

  3. An Islet-Targeted Genome-Wide Association Scan Identifies Novel Genes Implicated in Cytokine-Mediated Islet Stress in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Poonam R; Mackey, Aaron J; Dejene, Eden A; Ramadan, James W; Langefeld, Carl D; Palmer, Nicholette D; Taylor, Kent D; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Watanabe, Richard M; Rich, Stephen S; Nunemaker, Craig S

    2015-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies in human type 2 diabetes (T2D) have renewed interest in the pancreatic islet as a contributor to T2D risk. Chronic low-grade inflammation resulting from obesity is a risk factor for T2D and a possible trigger of β-cell failure. In this study, microarray data were collected from mouse islets after overnight treatment with cytokines at concentrations consistent with the chronic low-grade inflammation in T2D. Genes with a cytokine-induced change of >2-fold were then examined for associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) using data from the Genetics Underlying Diabetes in Hispanics (GUARDIAN) Consortium. Significant evidence of association was found between AIRg and single nucleotide polymorphisms in Arap3 (5q31.3), F13a1 (6p25.3), Klhl6 (3q27.1), Nid1 (1q42.3), Pamr1 (11p13), Ripk2 (8q21.3), and Steap4 (7q21.12). To assess the potential relevance to islet function, mouse islets were exposed to conditions modeling low-grade inflammation, mitochondrial stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, glucotoxicity, and lipotoxicity. RT-PCR revealed that one or more forms of stress significantly altered expression levels of all genes except Arap3. Thapsigargin-induced ER stress up-regulated both Pamr1 and Klhl6. Three genes confirmed microarray predictions of significant cytokine sensitivity: F13a1 was down-regulated 3.3-fold by cytokines, Ripk2 was up-regulated 1.5- to 3-fold by all stressors, and Steap4 was profoundly cytokine sensitive (167-fold up-regulation). Three genes were thus closely associated with low-grade inflammation in murine islets and also with a marker for islet function (AIRg) in a diabetes-prone human population. This islet-targeted genome-wide association scan identified several previously unrecognized candidate genes related to islet dysfunction during the development of T2D.

  4. Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Rachel B.; Cai, Qing; Hong, Ji-Young; Plank, Jennifer L.; Aamodt, Kristie; Prasad, Nripesh; Aramandla, Radhika; Dai, Chunhua; Levy, Shawn E.; Pozzi, Ambra; Labosky, Patricia A.; Wright, Christopher V. E.; Brissova, Marcela; Powers, Alvin C.

    2014-01-01

    Neurovascular alignment is a common anatomical feature of organs, but the mechanisms leading to this arrangement are incompletely understood. Here, we show that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling profoundly affects both vascularization and innervation of the pancreatic islet. In mature islets, nerves are closely associated with capillaries, but the islet vascularization process during embryonic organogenesis significantly precedes islet innervation. Although a simple neuronal meshwork interconnects the developing islet clusters as they begin to form at E14.5, the substantial ingrowth of nerve fibers into islets occurs postnatally, when islet vascularization is already complete. Using genetic mouse models, we demonstrate that VEGF regulates islet innervation indirectly through its effects on intra-islet endothelial cells. Our data indicate that formation of a VEGF-directed, intra-islet vascular plexus is required for development of islet innervation, and that VEGF-induced islet hypervascularization leads to increased nerve fiber ingrowth. Transcriptome analysis of hypervascularized islets revealed an increased expression of extracellular matrix components and axon guidance molecules, with these transcripts being enriched in the islet-derived endothelial cell population. We propose a mechanism for coordinated neurovascular development within pancreatic islets, in which endocrine cell-derived VEGF directs the patterning of intra-islet capillaries during embryogenesis, forming a scaffold for the postnatal ingrowth of essential autonomic nerve fibers. PMID:24574008

  5. Small Islets Transplantation Superiority to Large Ones: Implications from Islet Microcirculation and Revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising therapy to regain glycemic control in diabetic patients. The selection of ideal grafts is the basis to guarantee short-term effectivity and longevity of the transplanted islets. Contradictory to the traditional notion, recent findings implied the superiority of small islets for better transplantation outcomes rather than the large and intact ones. However, the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Recent evidences emphasized the major impact of microcirculation on islet β-cell mass and function. And potentials in islet graft revascularization are crucial for their survival and preserved function in the recipient. In this study, we verified the distinct histological phenotype and functionality of small islets versus large ones both in vitro and in vivo. With efforts to exploring the differences in microcirculation and revascularization of islet grafts, we further evaluated local expressions of angiotensin and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A at different levels. Our findings reveal that, apart from the higher density of insulin-producing β-cells, small islets express less angiotensin and more angiotrophic VEGF-A. We therefore hypothesized a logical explanation of the small islet superiority for transplantation outcome from the aspects of facilitated microcirculation and revascularization intrinsically in small islets.

  6. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Turkmen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction (ED, insulin resistance (IR, and inflammation are risk factors for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD. ADPKD patients may have increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and decreased coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR was introduced as a marker to determine inflammation in various disorders. We aimed to investigate the relationship between NLR and IR, CFVR, CIMT, and the left ventricular mass index (LVMI in normotensive ADPKD patients. Twentynine ADPKD patients (age 38.8 ± 10.2 years; 8 men and 21 women and 19 healthy controls (age 33.8 ± 7.4 years; 8 men and 11 women were included in this cross-sectional study. CFVR was calculated with echocardiography as the ratio of hyperemic to baseline diastolic peak coronary flow velocities. CIMT was measured in the distal common carotid artery by using a 10-MHz linear echocardiography probe. HOMA-IR was calculated NLR was calculated as the ratio of the neutrophil and lymphocyte counts. Age, sex, body mass index, and levels of glucose, creatinine, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP, microalbuminuria, and creatinine clearance were similar between ADPKD patients and healthy subjects. NLR, CIMT, LVMI, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher and CFVR values were significantly lower in patients with ADPKD compared to that in healthy subjects. NLR showed positive correlation with CIMT, HOMA, insulin, glucose, and HDL cholesterol levels, while it was inversely correlated with CFVR and albumin level in all subjects. In patients with ADPKD, NLR showed positive correlation with HDL cholesterol level and inverse correlation with LVMI and albumin level. NLR that was found to be increased in patients with ADPKD may be a readily available marker of inflammation and ED.

  7. Wheat germ supplementation alleviates insulin resistance and cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction in an animal model of diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Babajide; Simenson, Ashley J; O'Hara, Crystal; Wu, Lei; Gou, Xin; Peterson, Sandra K; Lin, Daniel; Smith, Brenda J; Lucas, Edralin A

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with insulin resistance (IR), along with mitochondrial dysfunction to metabolically active tissues and increased production of reactive O2 species (ROS). Foods rich in antioxidants such as wheat germ (WG), protect tissues from damage due to ROS and modulate some negative effects of obesity. This study examined the effects of WG supplementation on markers of IR, mitochondrial substrate metabolism and innate antioxidant markers in two metabolically active tissues (i.e. liver and heart) of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat-high-sucrose (HFS) diet. Male C57BL/6 mice, 6-week-old, were randomised into four dietary treatment groups (n 12 mice/group): control (C, 10 % fat kcal), C+10 % WG, HFS (60 % fat kcal) or HFS+10 % WG (HFS+WG). After 12 weeks of treatment, HFS+WG mice had significantly less visceral fat (-16 %, P=0·006) compared with the HFS group. WG significantly reduced serum insulin (P=0·009), the insulinotropic hormone, gastric inhibitory peptide (P=0·0003), and the surrogate measure of IR, homoeostatic model assessment of IR (P=0·006). HFS diet significantly elevated (45 %, P=0·02) cardiac complex 2 mitochondrial VO2, suggesting increased metabolic stress, whereas WG stabilised this effect to the level of control. Consequently, genes which mediate antioxidant defense and mitochondrial biogenesis (superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2) and PPARγ coactivator 1-α (Pgc1a), respectively) were significantly reduced (Pheart of the HFS group, whereas WG supplementation tended to up-regulate both genes. WG significantly increased hepatic gene expression of Sod2 (P=0·048) but not Pgc1a. Together, these results showed that WG supplementation in HFS diet, reduced IR and improved cardiac mitochondrial metabolic functions.

  8. Increased expression of toll-like receptor 4 and inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 in particular, in islets from a mouse model of obesity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Mette; Buschard, Karsten; Hansen, Ann Maria Kruse

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has received much attention in the recent years due to its role in development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Its expression is elevated in fat and muscle from insulin-resistant mice. Several cells of the pancreatic islets, including β-cells and res......Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has received much attention in the recent years due to its role in development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Its expression is elevated in fat and muscle from insulin-resistant mice. Several cells of the pancreatic islets, including β...... old) and control db/+ (4 and 15 weeks old) mice were examined for mRNA expression of TLR4 and selected cytokines using qPCR. In addition, cytokine secretion from islets was quantified. TLR4 is expressed in islets from lean and obese mice, displaying a 7.4-fold higher level in 15 weeks old db...

  9. Novel role of curcumin in the prevention of cytokine-induced islet death in vitro and diabetogenesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitkar, M; Gokhale, K; Galande, S; Bhonde, R R

    2008-11-01

    Oxidative stress caused by cytokine exposure is a major cause of pancreatic islet death in vitro and of diabetogenesis. Antioxidant compounds may prevent cytokine-induced damage to islet cells. Hence, we studied the potential of curcumin, an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound, in vitro to protect islets against pro-inflammatory cytokines and in vivo to prevent the progression of diabetes induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLD-STZ). Pancreatic islets from C57/BL6J mice were pretreated with curcumin (10 microM) and then exposed to a combination of cytokines. Islet viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), NO, inducible NO synthase and NF-kappaB translocation were studied. Curcumin pretreated (7.5 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) C57/BL6J mice were given MLD-STZ (40 mg kg(-1)), and various parameters of diabetes induction and progression were monitored. Curcumin protected islets from cytokine-induced islet death in vitro by scavenging ROS and normalized cytokine-induced NF-kappaB translocation by inhibiting phosphorylation of inhibitor of kappa B alpha (IkappaBalpha). In vivo, curcumin also prevented MLD-STZ, as revealed by sustained normoglycaemia, normal glucose clearance and maintained pancreatic GLUT2 levels. Pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the serum and pancreas were raised in STZ-treated animals, but not in animals pretreated with curcumin before STZ. Here, we have demonstrated for the first time that curcumin in vitro protects pancreatic islets against cytokine-induced death and dysfunction and in vivo prevents STZ-induced diabetes.

  10. Protection of Human Pancreatic Islets from Lipotoxicity by Modulation of the Translocon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Cassel

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is characterized by peripheral insulin resistance and pancreatic beta cell dysfunction. Elevated free fatty acids (FFAs may impair beta cell function and mass (lipotoxicity. Altered calcium homeostasis may be involved in defective insulin release. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is the major intracellular calcium store. Lipotoxicity induces ER stress and in parallel an ER calcium depletion through unknown ER calcium leak channels. The main purposes of this study is first to identify one of these channels and secondly, to check the opportunity to restore beta cells function (i.e., insulin secretion after pharmacological inhibition of ER calcium store depletion. We investigated the functionality of translocon, an ER calcium leak channel and its involvement on FFAs-induced alterations in MIN6B1 cells and in human pancreatic islets. We evidenced that translocon acts as a functional ER calcium leak channel in human beta cells using anisomycin and puromycin (antibiotics, respectively blocker and opener of this channel. Puromycin induced a significant ER calcium release, inhibited by anisomycin pretreatment. Palmitate treatment was used as FFA model to induce a mild lipotoxic effect: ER calcium content was reduced, ER stress but not apoptosis were induced and glucose induced insulin secretion was decreased in our beta cells. Interestingly, translocon inhibition by chronic anisomycin treatment prevented dysfunctions induced by palmitate, avoiding reticular calcium depletion, ER stress and restoring insulin secretion. Our results provide for the first time compelling evidence that translocon actively participates to the palmitate-induced ER calcium leak and insulin secretion decrease in beta cells. Its inhibition reduces these lipotoxic effects. Taken together, our data indicate that TLC may be a new potential target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Homogenization of heterogeneously coupled bistable ODE's - applied to excitation waves in pancreatic islets of Langerhans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2004-01-01

    We consider a lattice of coupled identical differential equations. The coupling is between nearest neighbors and of resistance type, but the strength of coupling varies from site to site. Such a lattice can, for example, model an islet of Langerhans, where the sites in the lattice model individua...

  12. Resistance Training in Type II Diabetes Mellitus: Impact on Areas of Metabolic Dysfunction in Skeletal Muscle and Potential Impact on Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Wood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Type II Diabetes mellitus (T2DM is increasing rapidly and will continue to be a major healthcare expenditure burden. As such, identification of effective lifestyle treatments is paramount. Skeletal muscle and bone display metabolic and functional disruption in T2DM. Skeletal muscle in T2DM is characterized by insulin resistance, impaired glycogen synthesis, impairments in mitochondria, and lipid accumulation. Bone quality in T2DM is decreased, potentially due to the effects of advanced glycation endproducts on collagen, impaired osteoblast activity, and lipid accumulation. Although exercise is widely recognized as an important component of treatment for T2DM, the focus has largely been on aerobic exercise. Emerging research suggests that resistance training (strength training may impose potent and unique benefits in T2DM. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of resistance training in treating the dysfunction in skeletal muscle and the potential role for resistance training in treating the associated dysfunction in bone.

  13. Pancreatic islet transplantation. Experimental and clinical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet

    1987-01-01

    The deteriorating complications of diabetes mellitus (i.e. nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy) have encouraged several attempts of causal therapy apart from a diversity of insulin therapies. These attempts include whole organ or segmental pancreas transplantation. In recent years, increasing...... interest has been shown in transplantation of isolated islets either directly, introduced intraportally, intramuscularly, inter alia, or encapsulated in artificial devices providing an immuno-isolation. Clinical application has revealed promising results concerning the immunological aspects. However......, quantitative assessment points to a difficulty in achieving satisfactory amounts of islets to attain normoglycaemia. Work with fetal pancreata has shown these to possess a growth potential in vitro thus, possibly, aiding the quantification of islets in transplantation models. In the field of pancreatic islet...

  14. Transplantation sites for human and murine islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Rebecca A; Cheng, Kim; Lalwani, Amit; Swarbrick, Michael M; Thomas, Helen E; Loudovaris, Thomas; Kay, Tom W; Hawthorne, Wayne J; O'Connell, Philip J; Gunton, Jenny E

    2017-10-01

    Beta cell replacement is a potential cure for type 1 diabetes. In humans, islet transplants are currently infused into the liver via the portal vein, although this site has disadvantages. Here, we investigated alternative transplantation sites for human and murine islets in recipient mice, comparing the portal vein with quadriceps muscle and kidney, liver and spleen capsules. Murine islets were isolated from C57BL6/J mice and transplanted into syngeneic recipients. Human islets were isolated and transplanted into either severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) or recombination-activating gene 1 (RAG-1) immunodeficient recipient mice. All recipient mice were 8-12 weeks of age and had been rendered diabetic (defined as blood glucose concentrations ≥20 mmol/l on two consecutive days before transplantation) by alloxan tetrahydrate treatment. Islets were transplanted into five different sites (portal vein, quadriceps muscle, kidney, liver and spleen capsules). Blood glucose concentrations were monitored twice weekly until mice were killed. Dose-response studies were also performed to determine the minimum number of islets required to cure diabetes ('cure' is defined for this study as random fed blood glucose of <15 mmol/l). For transplantation of murine islets into the different sites, the kidney yielded 100% success, followed by muscle (70%), portal vein (60%), spleen capsule (29%) and liver capsule (0%). For human islets, transplantation into the kidney cured diabetes in 75-80% of recipient mice. Transplantation into muscle and portal vein had intermediate success (both 29% at 2000 islet equivalents), while transplantation into liver and spleen capsule failed (0%). With increased islet mass, success rates for muscle grafts improved to 52-56%. For both human and murine islets, equivalent or superior glucose lowering results were obtained for transplantation into skeletal muscle, compared with the portal vein. Unfortunately, kidney grafts are not feasible in human

  15. SGLT2-inhibitor and DPP-4 inhibitor improve brain function via attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction, insulin resistance, inflammation, and apoptosis in HFD-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa-Nguanmoo, Piangkwan; Tanajak, Pongpan; Kerdphoo, Sasiwan; Jaiwongkam, Thidarat; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-10-15

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (vildagliptin) has been shown to exert beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and neuroprotection in obese-insulin resistance. Recent studies demonstrated the neuroprotection of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (dapagliflozin) in diabetes. However, the comparative effects of both drugs and a combination of two drugs on metabolic dysfunction and brain dysfunction impaired by the obese-insulin resistance have never been investigated. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups, and received either a normal-diet (ND, n=8) or a high-fat diet (HFD, n=32) for 16weeks. At week 13, the HFD-fed rats were divided into four subgroups (n=8/subgroup) to receive either a vehicle, vildagliptin (3mg/kg/day) dapagliflozin (1mg/kg/day) or combined drugs for four weeks. ND rats were given a vehicle for four weeks. Metabolic parameters and brain function were investigated. The results demonstrated that HFD rats developed obese-insulin resistance and cognitive decline. Dapagliflozin had greater efficacy on improved peripheral insulin sensitivity and reduced weight gain than vildagliptin. Single therapy resulted in equally improved brain mitochondrial function, insulin signaling, apoptosis and prevented cognitive decline. However, only dapagliflozin improved hippocampal synaptic plasticity. A combination of the drugs had greater efficacy in improving brain insulin sensitivity and reducing brain oxidative stress than the single drug therapy. These findings suggested that dapagliflozin and vildagliptin equally prevented cognitive decline in the obese-insulin resistance, possibly through some similar mechanisms. Dapagliflozin had greater efficacy than vildagliptin for preserving synaptic plasticity, thus combined drugs could be the best therapeutic approach for neuroprotection in the obese-insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) elevation and arginase up-regulation contribute to endothelial dysfunction related to insulin resistance in rats and morbidly obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Assar, Mariam; Angulo, Javier; Santos-Ruiz, Marta; Ruiz de Adana, Juan Carlos; Pindado, María Luz; Sánchez-Ferrer, Alberto; Hernández, Alberto; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio

    2016-06-01

    The presence of insulin resistance (IR) is determinant for endothelial dysfunction associated with obesity. Although recent studies have implicated the involvement of mitochondrial superoxide and inflammation in the defective nitric oxide (NO)-mediated responses and subsequent endothelial dysfunction in IR, other mechanisms could compromise this pathway. In the present study, we assessed the role of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and arginase with respect to IR-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in human morbid obesity and in a non-obese rat model of IR. We show that both increased ADMA and up-regulated arginase are determinant factors in the alteration of the l-arginine/NO pathway associated with IR in both models and also that acute treatment of arteries with arginase inhibitor or with l-arginine significantly alleviate endothelial dysfunction. These results help to expand our knowledge regarding the mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction that are related to obesity and IR and establish potential therapeutic targets for intervention. Insulin resistance (IR) is determinant for endothelial dysfunction in human obesity. Although we have previously reported the involvement of mitochondrial superoxide and inflammation, other mechanisms could compromise NO-mediated responses in IR. We evaluated the role of the endogenous NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and arginase with respect to IR-induced impairment of l-arginine/NO-mediated vasodilatation in human morbid obesity and in a non-obese rat model of IR. Bradykinin-induced vasodilatation was evaluated in microarteries derived from insulin-resistant morbidly obese (IR-MO) and non-insulin-resistant MO (NIR-MO) subjects. Defective endothelial vasodilatation in IR-MO was improved by l-arginine supplementation. Increased levels of ADMA were detected in serum and adipose tissue from IR-MO. Serum ADMA positively correlated with IR score and negatively with pD2 for bradykinin. Gene

  17. Islet Oxygen Consumption Rate (OCR Dose Predicts Insulin Independence in Clinical Islet Autotransplantation.

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    Klearchos K Papas

    Full Text Available Reliable in vitro islet quality assessment assays that can be performed routinely, prospectively, and are able to predict clinical transplant outcomes are needed. In this paper we present data on the utility of an assay based on cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR in predicting clinical islet autotransplant (IAT insulin independence (II. IAT is an attractive model for evaluating characterization assays regarding their utility in predicting II due to an absence of confounding factors such as immune rejection and immunosuppressant toxicity.Membrane integrity staining (FDA/PI, OCR normalized to DNA (OCR/DNA, islet equivalent (IE and OCR (viable IE normalized to recipient body weight (IE dose and OCR dose, and OCR/DNA normalized to islet size index (ISI were used to characterize autoislet preparations (n = 35. Correlation between pre-IAT islet product characteristics and II was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis.Preparations that resulted in II had significantly higher OCR dose and IE dose (p<0.001. These islet characterization methods were highly correlated with II at 6-12 months post-IAT (area-under-the-curve (AUC = 0.94 for IE dose and 0.96 for OCR dose. FDA/PI (AUC = 0.49 and OCR/DNA (AUC = 0.58 did not correlate with II. OCR/DNA/ISI may have some utility in predicting outcome (AUC = 0.72.Commonly used assays to determine whether a clinical islet preparation is of high quality prior to transplantation are greatly lacking in sensitivity and specificity. While IE dose is highly predictive, it does not take into account islet cell quality. OCR dose, which takes into consideration both islet cell quality and quantity, may enable a more accurate and prospective evaluation of clinical islet preparations.

  18. Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction Precedes Cognitive Decline and Neurodegeneration in Diabetic Insulin Resistant Mouse Model: An Implication for Causal Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryusuke Takechi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic insulin resistance and pro-diabetic diet are reported to increase dementia risk through unknown mechanisms. Emerging evidence suggests that the integrity of blood-brain barrier (BBB is central to the onset and progression of neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. Therefore, the current study investigated the effect of pro-diabetic diets on cognitive dysfunction in association to BBB integrity and its putative mechanisms. In C57BL/6J mice chronically ingested with a diet enriched in fat and fructose (HFF, Morris Water Maze (MWM test indicated no significant cognitive decline after 4 weeks of HFF feeding compared to low-fat (LF fed control. However, at this stage, BBB dysfunction accompanied by heightened neuroinflammation in cortex and hippocampal regions was already evident. After 24 weeks, HFF fed mice showed significantly deteriorated cognitive function concomitant with substantial neurodegeneration, which both showed significant associations with increased BBB permeability. In addition, the data indicated that the loss of BBB tight junctions was significantly associated with heightened inflammation and leukocyte infiltration. The data collectively suggest that in mice maintained on pro-diabetic diet, the dysfunctional BBB associated to inflammation and leukocyte recruitment precedes the neurodegeneration and cognitive decline, possibly indicating causal association.

  19. Doppler Versus Thermodilution-Derived Coronary Microvascular Resistance to Predict Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction or Stable Angina Pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rupert P; de Waard, Guus A; De Silva, Kalpa; Lumley, Matthew; Asrress, Kaleab; Arri, Satpal; Ellis, Howard; Mir, Awais; Clapp, Brian; Chiribiri, Amedeo; Plein, Sven; Teunissen, Paul F; Hollander, Maurits R; Marber, Michael; Redwood, Simon; van Royen, Niels; Perera, Divaka

    2017-10-10

    Coronary microvascular resistance is increasingly measured as a predictor of clinical outcomes, but there is no accepted gold-standard measurement. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of 2 invasive indices of microvascular resistance, Doppler-derived hyperemic microvascular resistance (hMR) and thermodilution-derived index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR), at predicting microvascular dysfunction. A total of 54 patients (61 ± 10 years) who underwent cardiac catheterization for stable coronary artery disease (n = 10) or acute myocardial infarction (n = 44) had simultaneous intracoronary pressure, Doppler flow velocity and thermodilution flow data acquired from 74 unobstructed vessels, at rest and during hyperemia. Three independent measurements of microvascular function were assessed, using predefined dichotomous thresholds: (1) coronary flow reserve (CFR), the average value of Doppler- and thermodilution-derived CFR; (2) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) derived myocardial perfusion reserve index; and (3) CMR-derived microvascular obstruction. hMR correlated with IMR (rho = 0.41, p microvascular obstruction were 0.83 and 0.72, respectively (p = 0.22, sensitivity and specificity 78% and 74% vs 44% and 91%). We conclude that these 2 invasive indices of coronary microvascular resistance only correlate modestly and so cannot be considered equivalent. In our study, the correlation between independent invasive and noninvasive measurements of microvascular function was better with hMR than with IMR. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pseudoislets as primary islet replacements for research: report on a symposium at King's College London, London UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Shanta J; Arden, Catherine; Bergsten, Peter; Bone, Adrian J; Brown, James; Dunmore, Simon; Harrison, Moira; Hauge-Evans, Astrid; Kelly, Catriona; King, Aileen; Maffucci, Tania; Marriott, Claire E; McClenaghan, Neville; Morgan, Noel G; Reers, Christina; Russell, Mark A; Turner, Mark D; Willoughby, Emma; Younis, Mustafa Y G; Zhi, Z L; Jones, Peter M

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory-based research aimed at understanding processes regulating insulin secretion and mechanisms underlying β-cell dysfunction and loss in diabetes often makes use of rodents, as these processes are in many respects similar between rats/mice and humans. Indeed, a rough calculation suggests that islets have been isolated from as many as 150,000 rodents to generate the data contained within papers published in 2009 and the first four months of 2010. Rodent use for islet isolation has been mitigated, to a certain extent, by the availability of a variety of insulin-secreting cell lines that are used by researchers world-wide. However, when maintained as monolayers the cell lines do not replicate the robust, sustained secretory responses of primary islets which limits their usefulness as islet surrogates. On the other hand, there have been several reports that configuration of MIN6 β-cells, derived from a mouse insulinoma, as three-dimensional cell clusters termed ‘pseudoislets’ largely recapitulates the function of primary islet β-cells. The Diabetes Research Group at King’s College London has been using the MIN6 pseudoislet model for over a decade and they hosted a symposium on “Pseudoislets as primary islet replacements for research”, which was funded by the UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), in London on 15th and 16th April 2010. This small, focused meeting was conceived as an opportunity to consolidate information on experiences of working with pseudoislets between different UK labs, and to introduce the theory and practice of pseudoislet culture to laboratories working with islets and/or β-cell lines but who do not currently use pseudoislets. This short review summarizes the background to the development of the cell line-derived pseudoislet model, the key messages arising from the symposium and emerging themes for future pseudoislet research.

  1. FACTORS THAT AFFECTING HUMAN ISLET ISOLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Yasunaru; Ricordi, Camillo; Miki, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Pileggi, Antonello; Khan, Aisha; Alejandro, Rodolfo; Inverardi, Luca; Ichii, Hirohito

    2008-01-01

    More than 10,000 IEQ/kg recipient weight islets are often necessary to achieve insulin independence in patients with type 1 diabetes. Several studies have identified high BMI donor and pancreas size are important factors for the success of human islet isolation. However, donor shortage underscores the need to improve isolation outcomes from lower BMI pancreas donors and/or small pancreata. Aim of this study was to identify the critical factors affecting isolation outcome. The data from 207 isolations performed from 2002 to 2006 were analyzed with respect to donor characteristics, pancreas condition and processing variables. More than 3,000 IEQ/g pancreas weight were considered as an acceptable isolation outcome (AIO). AIO were obtained from donors with a BMI>30kg/m2 (p=0.002). The pancreatic surface integrity was also a significant factor towards AIO (p=0.02). Moreover, a longer digestion time (p=0.04) and the proportion of trapped islet negatively affected AIO rates (p=0.004). As previously reported, pancreata from high BMI donors were suitable for islet isolation and transplantation, as they yielded higher total islet particle numbers and higher IEQ/g. Although BMI and pancreas size are not controllable due to organ donor shortage, factors such as pancreatic surface integrity, shorter digestion and lower proportions of trapped islet were found to be significant factors to obtain higher rates of AIO. The development of better protocol and systematic training of processing and procurement teams will be of assistance in increasing the number of successful human islet isolations. PMID:18374062

  2. Sensing and Sensibility: Single-Islet-based Quality Control Assay of Cryopreserved Pancreatic Islets with Functionalized Hydrogel Microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanyu; Shu, Zhiquan; Gao, Dayong; Shen, Amy Q

    2016-01-21

    Despite decades of research and clinical studies of islet transplantations, finding simple yet reliable islet quality assays that correlate accurately with in vivo potency is still a major challenge, especially for real-time and single-islet-based quality assessment. Herein, proof-of-concept studies of a cryopreserved microcapsule-based quality control assays are presented for single islets. Individual rat pancreatic islets and fluorescent oxygen-sensitive dye (FOSD) are encapsulated in alginate hydrogel microcapsules via a microfluidic device. To test the susceptibility of the microcapsules and the FOSD to cryopreservation, the islet microcapsules containing FOSD are cryopreserved and the islet functionalities (adenosine triphosphate, static insulin release measurement, and oxygen consumption rate) are assessed after freezing and thawing steps. The cryopreserved islet capsules with FOSD remain functional after encapsulation and freezing/thawing procedures, validating a simple yet reliable individual-islet-based quality control method for the entire islet processing procedure prior to transplantation. This work also demonstrates that the functionality of cryopreserved islets can be improved by introducing trehalose into the routinely used cryoprotectant dimethyl sulfoxide. The functionalized alginate hydrogel microcapsules with embedded FOSD and optimized cryopreservation protocol presented in this work serve as a versatile islet quality assay and offer tremendous promise for tackling existing challenges in islet transplantation procedures. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Central arterial stiffness and diastolic dysfunction are associated with insulin resistance and abdominal obesity in young women but polycystic ovary syndrome does not confer additional risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, E; Coulson, R; Dunstan, F; Evans, W D; Blundell, H L; Luzio, S D; Dunseath, G; Halcox, J P; Fraser, A G; Rees, D A

    2014-09-01

    Are arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness and diastolic dysfunction increased in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) independently of the effects of obesity? Insulin resistance and central obesity are associated with subclinical cardiovascular dysfunction in young women, but a diagnosis of PCOS does not appear to confer additional risk at this age. Some studies have shown that young women with PCOS may have increased measures of cardiovascular risk, including arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness and myocardial dysfunction. However, it is difficult to establish how much of this risk is due to PCOS per se and how much is due to obesity and insulin resistance, which are common in PCOS and themselves associated with greater vascular risk. This cross-sectional study comprised 84 women with PCOS and 95 healthy volunteers, aged 16-45 years. The study was conducted in a university hospital. Subjects underwent a comprehensive assessment of body composition (including computed tomography (CT) assessment of visceral fat; VF), measurements of arterial stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity; aPWV), common carotid intima-media thickness (ccIMT), diastolic function (longitudinal tissue velocity; e':a') and endocrinological measures. A sample size of 80 in each group gave 80% power for detecting a difference of 0.45 m/s in aPWV or a difference of 0.25 in e':a'. After adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), PCOS subjects had a greater insulin response (insulin area under the curve-IAUC) following glucose challenge (adjusted difference [AD] 35 900 pmol min/l, P women meeting the Rotterdam criteria for PCOS diagnosis; hence our findings may not be generalizable to older patients or those meeting other definitions of the syndrome. Biochemical hyperandrogenism was based solely on measurement of total testosterone. Cases and controls were not matched in advance for age and BMI, although the influence of these variables on the cardiovascular

  4. Radio-immunoassay of somatostatin from isolated rat pancreatic islets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonen, B.; Florholmen, J.; Giaever, A.K.; Burhol, P. (Tromsoe Univ. (Norway))

    1989-04-01

    Certain aspects of radio-immunoassay of somatostatin from isolated rat pancreatic islets are described. Somatostatin-14, and not somatostatin-28, is secreted from isolated rat pancreatic islets. Less somatostatin secretion is measured per islet owing to purity of tracer in the radio-immunoassay. Theophylline apparently cross-reacts with somatostatin in the assay described, and this has to be taken into consideration when studying somatostatin release induced by theophylline in isolated islets. (author).

  5. The impact of IUGR on pancreatic islet development and β-cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Brit H; Limesand, Sean W; Rozance, Paul J

    2017-11-01

    Placental insufficiency is a primary cause of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). IUGR increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) throughout life, which indicates that insults from placental insufficiency impair β-cell development during the perinatal period because β-cells have a central role in the regulation of glucose tolerance. The severely IUGR fetal pancreas is characterized by smaller islets, less β-cells, and lower insulin secretion. Because of the important associations among impaired islet growth, β-cell dysfunction, impaired fetal growth, and the propensity for T2DM, significant progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiology of IUGR and programing events in the fetal endocrine pancreas. Animal models of IUGR replicate many of the observations in severe cases of human IUGR and allow us to refine our understanding of the pathophysiology of developmental and functional defects in islet from IUGR fetuses. Almost all models demonstrate a phenotype of progressive loss of β-cell mass and impaired β-cell function. This review will first provide evidence of impaired human islet development and β-cell function associated with IUGR and the impact on glucose homeostasis including the development of glucose intolerance and diabetes in adulthood. We then discuss evidence for the mechanisms regulating β-cell mass and insulin secretion in the IUGR fetus, including the role of hypoxia, catecholamines, nutrients, growth factors, and pancreatic vascularity. We focus on recent evidence from experimental interventions in established models of IUGR to understand better the pathophysiological mechanisms linking placental insufficiency with impaired islet development and β-cell function. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. Niacin-induced hyperglycemia is partially mediated via niacin receptor GPR109a in pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihua; So, Wing Yan; Li, Stephen Y T; Cheng, Qianni; Boucher, Barbara J; Leung, Po Sing

    2015-03-15

    The widely used lipid-lowering drug niacin is reported to induce hyperglycemia during chronic and high-dose treatments, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Recently, the niacin receptor [G-protein-coupled receptor, (GPR) 109a], has been localized to islet cells while its potential role therein remains unclear. We, therefore, aimed at investigating how GPR109a regulates islet beta-cell function and its downstream signaling using high-fat diet-induced obese mice and INS-1E beta cells. Eight-week niacin treatment elevated blood glucose concentration in obese mice with increased areas under the curve at oral glucose and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests. Additionally, niacin treatment significantly decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) but induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg) and GPR109a expression in isolated pancreatic islets; concomitantly, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were transiently increased, with decreases in GSIS, intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), but with increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (Ucp2), Pparg and Gpr109a in INS-1E cells. Corroborating these findings, the decreases in GSIS, ΔΨm and cAMP production and increases in ROS, Pparg and GPR109a expression were abolished in INS-1E cells by GPR109a knockdown. Our data indicate that niacin-induced pancreatic islet dysfunction is probably modulated through activation of the islet beta-cell GPR109a-induced ROS-PPARγ-UCP2 pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Compensatory hyperinsulinemia in high-fat diet-induced obese mice is associated with enhanced insulin translation in islets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Ayumi, E-mail: akanno@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Asahara, Shun-ichiro, E-mail: asahara@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Masuda, Katsuhisa, E-mail: katsuhisa.m.0707@gmail.com [Division of Medical Chemistry, Department of Biophysics, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe 654-0142 (Japan); Matsuda, Tomokazu, E-mail: tomokazu@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Kimura-Koyanagi, Maki, E-mail: koyanagi@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Seino, Susumu, E-mail: seino@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Molecular and Metabolic Medicine, Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Ogawa, Wataru, E-mail: ogawa@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Kido, Yoshiaki, E-mail: kido@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Medical Chemistry, Department of Biophysics, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe 654-0142 (Japan)

    2015-03-13

    A high-fat diet (HF) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia. Animal studies have shown compensatory mechanisms in pancreatic β-cells after high fat load, such as increased pancreatic β-cell mass, enhanced insulin secretion, and exocytosis. However, the effects of high fat intake on insulin synthesis are obscure. Here, we investigated whether insulin synthesis was altered in correlation with an HF diet, for the purpose of obtaining further understanding of the compensatory mechanisms in pancreatic β-cells. Mice fed an HF diet are obese, insulin resistant, hyperinsulinemic, and glucose intolerant. In islets of mice fed an HF diet, more storage of insulin was identified. We analyzed insulin translation in mouse islets, as well as in INS-1 cells, using non-radioisotope chemicals. We found that insulin translational levels were significantly increased in islets of mice fed an HF diet to meet systemic demand, without altering its transcriptional levels. Our data showed that not only increased pancreatic β-cell mass and insulin secretion but also elevated insulin translation is the major compensatory mechanism of pancreatic β-cells. - Highlights: • More stored insulin was recognized in islets of mice fed a high-fat diet. • Insulin translation was not enhanced by fatty acids, but by insulin demand. • Insulin transcription was not altered in islets of mice fed a high-fat diet. • Insulin translation was markedly enhanced in islets of mice fed a high-fat diet. • Non-radioisotope chemicals were used to measure insulin translation in mouse islets.

  8. Insulin Resistance: A Proinflammatory State Mediated by Lipid-Induced Signaling Dysfunction and Involved in Atherosclerotic Plaque Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Mach

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The dysregulation of the insulin-glucose axis represents the crucial event in insulin resistance syndrome. Insulin resistance increases atherogenesis and atherosclerotic plaque instability by inducing proinflammatory activities on vascular and immune cells. This condition characterizes several diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and other endocrinopathies, but also cancer. Recent studies suggest that the pathophysiology of insulin resistance is closely related to interferences with insulin-mediated intracellular signaling on skeletal muscle cells, hepatocytes, and adipocytes. Strong evidence supports the role of free fatty acids (FFAs in promoting insulin resistance. The FFA-induced activation of protein kinase C (PKC delta, inhibitor kappaB kinase (IKK, or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK modulates insulin-triggered intracellular pathway (classically known as PI3-K-dependent. Therefore, reduction of FFA levels represents a selective target for modulating insulin resistance.

  9. Effects of the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate on high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Ju; Ridgeway, Simone D; Kim, Jeong-A

    2013-12-01

    Insulin resistance, a hallmark of metabolic disorders, is a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Impairment of insulin responsiveness in vascular endothelium contributes to insulin resistance. The reciprocal relationship between insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction augments the pathophysiology of metabolism and cardiovascular functions. The most abundant green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), has been shown to have vasodilator action in vessels by activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). However, it is not known whether EGCG has a beneficial effect in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced endothelial dysfunction. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a normal chow diet (NCD) or HFD with or without EGCG supplement (50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 10 wk. Mice fed a HFD with EGCG supplement gained less body weight and showed improved insulin sensitivity. In vehicle-treated HFD mice, endothelial function was impaired in response to insulin but not to acetylcholine, whereas the EGCG-treated HFD group showed improved insulin-stimulated vasodilation. Interestingly, EGCG intake reduced macrophage infiltration into aortic tissues in HFD mice. Treatment with EGCG restored the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of eNOS, insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), and protein kinase B (Akt), which was inhibited by palmitate (200 μM, 5 h) in primary bovine aortic endothelial cells. From these results, we conclude that supplementation of EGCG improves glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and endothelial function. The results suggest that EGCG may have beneficial health effects in glucose metabolism and endothelial function through modulating HFD-induced inflammatory response.

  10. Controlled aggregation of primary human pancreatic islet cells leads to glucose-responsive pseudoislets comparable to native islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink, J.; Spijker, S.; Carlotti, F.; Lange, L.; Engelse, M.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Koning, E.; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical islet transplantation is a promising treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes. However, pancreatic islets vary in size and shape affecting their survival and function after transplantation because of mass transport limitations. To reduce diffusion restrictions and improve islet cell

  11. Transdisciplinary approach to restore pancreatic islet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotino, Carmen; Molano, R Damaris; Ricordi, Camillo; Pileggi, Antonello

    2013-12-01

    The focus of our research is on islet immunobiology. We are exploring novel strategies that could be of assistance in the treatment and prevention of type 1 diabetes, as well as in the restoration of metabolic control via transplantation of insulin producing cells (i.e., islet cells). The multiple facets of diabetes and β-cell replacement encompass different complementary disciplines, such as immunology, cell biology, pharmacology, and bioengineering, among others. Through their interaction and integration, a transdisciplinary dimension is needed in order to address and overcome all aspects of the complex puzzle toward a successful clinical translation of a biological cure for diabetes.

  12. Peripheral insulin resistance rather than beta cell dysfunction accounts for geographical differences in impaired fasting blood glucose among sub-Saharan African individuals: findings from the RODAM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Karlijn A C; Stronks, Karien; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Addo, Juliet; Bahendeka, Silver; Beune, Erik; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Danquah, Ina; Galbete, Cecilia; Henneman, Peter; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Osei, Kwame; Schulze, Matthias B; Spranger, Joachim; Smeeth, Liam; Agyemang, Charles

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction account for differences in impaired fasting blood glucose (IFBG) levels in sub-Saharan African individuals living in different locations in Europe and Africa. We also aimed to identify determinants associated with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction among this population. Data from the cross-sectional multicentre Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM) study were analysed. Participants included Ghanaian individuals without diabetes, aged 18-96 years old, who were residing in Amsterdam (n = 1337), Berlin (n = 502), London (n = 961), urban Ghana (n = 1309) and rural Ghana (n = 970). Glucose and insulin were measured in fasting venous blood samples. Anthropometrics were assessed during a physical examination. Questionnaires were used to assess demographics, physical activity, smoking status, alcohol consumption and energy intake. Insulin resistance and beta cell function were determined using homeostatic modelling (HOMA-IR and HOMA-B, respectively). Logistic regression analysis was used to study the contribution of HOMA-IR and inverse HOMA-B (beta cell dysfunction) to geographical differences in IFBG (fasting glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/l). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify determinants associated with HOMA-IR and inverse HOMA-B. IFBG was more common in individuals residing in urban Ghana (OR 1.41 [95% CI 1.08, 1.84]), Amsterdam (OR 3.44 [95% CI 2.69, 4.39]) and London (OR 1.58 [95% CI 1.20 2.08), but similar in individuals living in Berlin (OR 1.00 [95% CI 0.70, 1.45]), compared with those in rural Ghana (reference population). The attributable risk of IFBG per 1 SD increase in HOMA-IR was 69.3% and in inverse HOMA-B was 11.1%. After adjustment for HOMA-IR, the odds for IFBG reduced to 0.96 (95% CI 0.72, 1.27), 2.52 (95%CI 1.94, 3.26) and 1.02 (95% CI 0.78, 1.38) for individuals in Urban Ghana

  13. Islet amyloid polypeptide and insulin expression are controlled differently in primary and transformed islet cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, O D; Michelsen, Bo Thomas; Westermark, P

    1991-01-01

    The pancreatic beta-cell is a major site of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) biosynthesis, and the peptide is coreleased with insulin. We have analyzed the expression of IAPP (mRNA and protein) in various cell types in normal and transformed murine islet cell cultures by Northern blot analyses...... of these cells. IAPP mRNA was confined to the beta-cell phenotype when analyzing the phenotypically stable in vivo tumor lines, MSL-G2-IN (insulinoma) and MSL-G-AN (glucagonoma), and the transgenic mouse islet cell lines, beta-Tc and alpha-Tc. However, IAPP and insulin expression were completely uncoupled...... and immunocytochemistry. IAPP is primarily coexpressed with insulin in the beta-cell of GH-promoted primary rat islet cell cultures. Additionally, a small population of non-beta-cells exhibited a prominent IAPP expression, and double staining experiments showed colocalization with glucagon or somatostatin in some...

  14. Isolation of Human Islets for Autologous Islet Transplantation in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bottino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas that causes permanent changes in the function and structure of the pancreas. It is most commonly a complication of cystic fibrosis or due to a genetic predisposition. Chronic pancreatitis generally presents symptomatically as recurrent abdominal pain, which becomes persistent over time. The pain eventually becomes disabling. Once specific medical treatments and endoscopic interventions are no longer efficacious, total pancreatectomy is the alternative of choice for helping the patient achieve pain control. While daily administrations of digestive enzymes cannot be avoided, insulin-dependent diabetes can be prevented by transplanting the isolated pancreatic islets back to the patient. The greater the number of islets infused, the greater the chance to prevent or at least control the effects of surgical diabetes. We present here a technical approach for the isolation and preservation of the islets proven to be efficient to obtain high numbers of islets, favoring the successful treatment of young patients.

  15. A Practical Guide to Rodent Islet Isolation and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Jeffrey D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pancreatic islets of Langerhans secrete hormones that are vital to the regulation of blood glucose and are, therefore, a key focus of diabetes research. Purifying viable and functional islets from the pancreas for study is an intricate process. This review highlights the key elements involved with mouse and rat islet isolation, including choices of collagenase, the collagenase digestion process, purification of islets using a density gradient, and islet culture conditions. In addition, this paper reviews commonly used techniques for assessing islet viability and function, including visual assessment, fluorescent markers of cell death, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and intracellular calcium measurements. A detailed protocol is also included that describes a common method for rodent islet isolation that our laboratory uses to obtain viable and functional mouse islets for in vitro study of islet function, beta-cell physiology, and in vivo rodent islet transplantation. The purpose of this review is to serve as a resource and foundation for successfully procuring and purifying high-quality islets for research purposes.

  16. Clinical Allogeneic and Autologous Islet Cell Transplantation: Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Matsumoto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Islet cell transplantation is categorized as a β-cell replacement therapy for diabetic patients who lack the ability to secrete insulin. Allogeneic islet cell transplantation is for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, and autologous islet cell transplantation is for the prevention of surgical diabetes after a total pancreatectomy. The issues of allogeneic islet cell transplantation include poor efficacy of islet isolation, the need for multiple donor pancreata, difficulty maintaining insulin independence and undesirable side effects of immunosuppressive drugs. Those issues have been solved step by step and allogeneic islet cell transplantation is almost ready to be the standard therapy. The donor shortage will be the next issue and marginal and/or living donor islet cell transplantation might alleviate the issue. Xeno-islet cell transplantation, β-cell regeneration from human stem cells and gene induction of the naïve pancreas represent the next generation of β-cell replacement therapy. Autologous islet cell transplantation after total pancreatectomy for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis with severe abdominal pain is the standard therapy, even though only limited centers are able to perform this treatment. Remote center autologous islet cell transplantation is an attractive option for hospitals performing total pancreatectomies without the proper islet isolation facilities.

  17. Striated Muscle as Implantation Site for Transplanted Pancreatic Islets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Espes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation is an attractive treatment for selected patients with brittle type 1 diabetes. In the clinical setting, intraportal transplantation predominates. However, due to extensive early islet cell death, the quantity of islets needed to restore glucose homeostasis requires in general a minimum of two donors. Moreover, the deterioration of islet function over time results in few insulin-independent patients after five-year followup. Specific obstacles to the success of islet transplantation include site-specific concerns for the liver such as the instant blood mediated inflammatory reaction, islet lipotoxicity, low oxygen tension, and poor revascularization, impediments that have led to the developing interest for alternative implantation sites over recent years. Within preclinical settings, several alternative sites have now been investigated and proven favorable in various aspects. Muscle is considered a very promising site and has physiologically properties and technical advantages that could make it optimal for islet transplantation.

  18. Glucose Oscillations Can Activate an Endogenous Oscillator in Pancreatic Islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P McKenna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic islets manage elevations in blood glucose level by secreting insulin into the bloodstream in a pulsatile manner. Pulsatile insulin secretion is governed by islet oscillations such as bursting electrical activity and periodic Ca2+ entry in β-cells. In this report, we demonstrate that although islet oscillations are lost by fixing a glucose stimulus at a high concentration, they may be recovered by subsequently converting the glucose stimulus to a sinusoidal wave. We predict with mathematical modeling that the sinusoidal glucose signal's ability to recover islet oscillations depends on its amplitude and period, and we confirm our predictions by conducting experiments with islets using a microfluidics platform. Our results suggest a mechanism whereby oscillatory blood glucose levels recruit non-oscillating islets to enhance pulsatile insulin output from the pancreas. Our results also provide support for the main hypothesis of the Dual Oscillator Model, that a glycolytic oscillator endogenous to islet β-cells drives pulsatile insulin secretion.

  19. Separation of empty microcapsules after microencapsulation of porcine neonatal islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soojeong; Yoo, Young Je

    2013-12-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is used to treat diabetes mellitus that has minimal complications and avoids hypoglycemic shock. Conformal microencapsulation of pancreatic islets improves their function by blocking immunogenic molecules while protecting fragile islets. However, production of empty alginate capsules during microencapsulation causes enlargement of the transplantation volume of the encapsulated islets and interferes with efficient transfer of nutrients and insulin. In this study, empty alginate capsules were separated after microencapsulation of neonatal porcine islet-like cell clusters (NPCC) using density-gradient centrifugation. Densities of NPCC and alginate capsules were determined using Percoll. Encapsulation products following alginate removal were 97 % of products, with less than 10 % of the capsules remaining empty. The viability of this process compared with manually-selected encapsulated islets indicates the separation process does not harm islets.

  20. Successful islet transplantation from nonheartbeating donor pancreata using modified Ricordi islet isolation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shinichi; Okitsu, Teru; Iwanaga, Yasuhiro; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Nagata, Hideo; Yonekawa, Yukihide; Yamada, Yuichiro; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Shibata, Toshiya; Kasai, Yasunari; Maekawa, Taira; Wada, Hiromi; Nakamura, Takayuki; Tanaka, Koichi

    2006-08-27

    Current success of islet transplantation has led to donor shortage and the need for marginal donor utilization to alleviate this shortage. The goal of this study was to improve the efficacy of islet transplantation using nonheartbeating donors (NHBDs). First, we used porcine pancreata for the implementation of several strategies and applied to human pancreata. These strategies included ductal injection with trypsin inhibitor for protection of pancreatic ducts, ET-Kyoto solution for pancreas preservation, and Iodixanol for islet purification. These strategies significantly improved both porcine and human islet isolation efficacy. Average 399,469+/-36,411 IE human islets were obtained from NHBDs (n=13). All islet preparations met transplantation criteria and 11 out of 13 cases (85%) were transplanted into six type 1 diabetic patients for the first time in Japan. All islets started to secrete insulin and all patients showed better blood glucose control without hypoglycemic loss of consciousness. The average HbA1c levels of the six recipients significantly improved from 7.5+/-0.4% at transplant to 5.1+/-0.2% currently (P<0.0003). The average insulin amounts of the six recipients significantly reduced from 49.2+/-3.3 units at transplant to 11+/-4.4 units (P<0.0005) and five out of six patients reduced to less than half dose. The first patient is now insulin free, the first such case in Japan. This demonstrates that our current protocol makes it feasible to use NHBDs for islet transplant into type 1 diabetic patients efficiently.

  1. Detection of Intrahepatic Human Islets Following Combined Liver-Islet Allotransplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricordi, Camillo; Tzakis, Andreas; Alejandro, Rodolfo; Zeng, Yijun; Demetris, Anthony J.; Carroll, Patricia; Fung, John J.; Mintz, Daniel H.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This article describes the localization of intact insulin-containing intrahepatic islets after combined liver-islet allotransplantation. The patient was a 36-year-old woman who underwent upper abdominal exenteration for neuroendocrine carcinoma; 289,000 islets were transplanted via portal vein infusion immediately after complete revascularization of the liver. Immunosuppression was with low-dose FK-506. OKT3 and steroids were used to treat one rejection episode 2 weeks after transplantation, but the patient subsequently developed multiple infections and died 109 days after transplantation. At autopsy, the transplanted liver did not show any sign of rejection and well-preserved islets were present in portal triads sampled from the anterior inferior edge of the right lobe. Immunohistochemical labeling confirmed the presence of insulin-containing cells. This finding indicated that human islets can survive after intrahepatic allotransplantation, despite positive cross-match with no HLA antigen match, suggesting that upper abdominal exenteration and liver transplantation may constitute a protective factor for the survival of allogeneic human islets. PMID:1641394

  2. A Syntenic Cross Species Aneuploidy Genetic Screen Links RCAN1 Expression to β-Cell Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, Heshan; Duffield, Michael D; Fadista, Joao; Jessup, Claire F; Kashmir, Vinder; Genders, Amanda J; McGee, Sean L; Martin, Alyce M; Saiedi, Madiha; Morton, Nicholas; Carter, Roderick; Cousin, Michael A; Kokotos, Alexandros C; Oskolkov, Nikolay; Volkov, Petr; Hough, Tertius A; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Busciglio, Jorge; Coskun, Pinar E; Becker, Ann; Belichenko, Pavel V; Mobley, William C; Ryan, Michael T; Chan, Jeng Yie; Laybutt, D Ross; Coates, P Toby; Yang, Sijun; Ling, Charlotte; Groop, Leif; Pritchard, Melanie A; Keating, Damien J

    2016-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance and hypoinsulinemia due to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Reduced mitochondrial function is thought to be central to β-cell dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced insulin secretion are also observed in β-cells of humans with the most common human genetic disorder, Down syndrome (DS, Trisomy 21). To identify regions of chromosome 21 that may be associated with perturbed glucose homeostasis we profiled the glycaemic status of different DS mouse models. The Ts65Dn and Dp16 DS mouse lines were hyperglycemic, while Tc1 and Ts1Rhr mice were not, providing us with a region of chromosome 21 containing genes that cause hyperglycemia. We then examined whether any of these genes were upregulated in a set of ~5,000 gene expression changes we had identified in a large gene expression analysis of human T2D β-cells. This approach produced a single gene, RCAN1, as a candidate gene linking hyperglycemia and functional changes in T2D β-cells. Further investigations demonstrated that RCAN1 methylation is reduced in human T2D islets at multiple sites, correlating with increased expression. RCAN1 protein expression was also increased in db/db mouse islets and in human and mouse islets exposed to high glucose. Mice overexpressing RCAN1 had reduced in vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and their β-cells displayed mitochondrial dysfunction including hyperpolarised membrane potential, reduced oxidative phosphorylation and low ATP production. This lack of β-cell ATP had functional consequences by negatively affecting both glucose-stimulated membrane depolarisation and ATP-dependent insulin granule exocytosis. Thus, from amongst the myriad of gene expression changes occurring in T2D β-cells where we had little knowledge of which changes cause β-cell dysfunction, we applied a trisomy 21 screening approach which linked RCAN1 to β-cell mitochondrial dysfunction in T2D.

  3. A Syntenic Cross Species Aneuploidy Genetic Screen Links RCAN1 Expression to β-Cell Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshan Peiris

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a complex metabolic disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance and hypoinsulinemia due to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Reduced mitochondrial function is thought to be central to β-cell dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced insulin secretion are also observed in β-cells of humans with the most common human genetic disorder, Down syndrome (DS, Trisomy 21. To identify regions of chromosome 21 that may be associated with perturbed glucose homeostasis we profiled the glycaemic status of different DS mouse models. The Ts65Dn and Dp16 DS mouse lines were hyperglycemic, while Tc1 and Ts1Rhr mice were not, providing us with a region of chromosome 21 containing genes that cause hyperglycemia. We then examined whether any of these genes were upregulated in a set of ~5,000 gene expression changes we had identified in a large gene expression analysis of human T2D β-cells. This approach produced a single gene, RCAN1, as a candidate gene linking hyperglycemia and functional changes in T2D β-cells. Further investigations demonstrated that RCAN1 methylation is reduced in human T2D islets at multiple sites, correlating with increased expression. RCAN1 protein expression was also increased in db/db mouse islets and in human and mouse islets exposed to high glucose. Mice overexpressing RCAN1 had reduced in vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and their β-cells displayed mitochondrial dysfunction including hyperpolarised membrane potential, reduced oxidative phosphorylation and low ATP production. This lack of β-cell ATP had functional consequences by negatively affecting both glucose-stimulated membrane depolarisation and ATP-dependent insulin granule exocytosis. Thus, from amongst the myriad of gene expression changes occurring in T2D β-cells where we had little knowledge of which changes cause β-cell dysfunction, we applied a trisomy 21 screening approach which linked RCAN1 to β-cell mitochondrial

  4. Acute Frontal Lobe Dysfunction Following Prefrontal Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in a Patient with Treatment-Resistant Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilhem Carle

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to treat numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders has been thoroughly studied for the last two decades. Here, we report for the first time, the case of a 65-year-old woman suffering from treatment-resistant depression who developed an acute frontal lobe syndrome following eight sessions of low-frequency rTMS (LF-rTMS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while also treated with sertraline and mianserin. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying such an unexpected acute frontal lobe dysfunction are discussed in relation to the therapeutic use of LF-rTMS in combination with pharmacotherapy in depressed patients.

  5. Human pancreatic islet progenitor cells demonstrate phenotypic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    exploring alternative sources of insulin-producing cells for cell based therapy in diabetes. Since in vitro culture of islet β-cells demonstrates loss in insulin (Beattie et al. 1999), several attempts have been made to identify stem / progenitor cells capable of differentiation into insulin-producing cells. Embryonic stem cells, which ...

  6. Human pancreatic islet progenitor cells demonstrate phenotypic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-04-24

    Apr 24, 2009 ... Phenotypic plasticity is a phenomenon that describes the occurrence of 2 or more distinct phenotypes under diverse conditions. This article discusses the work carried out over the past few years in understanding the potential of human pancreatic islet-derived progenitors for cell replacement therapy in ...

  7. Islet transplantation in type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kort, H.; de Koning, E.; Rabelink, T.; Bruijn, J.A.; Bajema, I.

    2011-01-01

    Hanneke de Kort, research fellow1, Eelco J de Koning, associate professor, head of clinical islet transplantation programme234, Ton J Rabelink, professor of medicine, chair of department of nephrology2, Jan A Bruijn, professor immunopathology1, Ingeborg M Bajema, renal and transplantation

  8. Emergence of late-onset placental dysfunction: relationship to the change in uterine artery blood flow resistance between the first and third trimesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llurba, Elisa; Turan, Ozhan; Kasdaglis, Tania; Harman, Chris R; Baschat, Ahmet A

    2013-06-01

    To test if emergence of third-trimester (T3) placental dysfunction is related to the impedance change in uterine artery blood flow resistance between the first trimester (T1) and T3. Mean T1 and T3 uterine artery (mUtA) pulsatility index (PI) was measured in 1098 singletons. Each patient's individual mUtA-PI change was calculated ([(T3 PI - T1 PI/interval in days)] × 100; ΔmUtA-PI). This parameter and T1 and T3 mUtA-PI z-scores were related to placenta-related disease (PRD) and to constitutionally small neonates (CS). Forty-seven (5%) women had PRD and 83 (8.7%) delivered a CS neonate. T1 and T3 mUtA-PI z-scores were higher with PRD (0.418 versus -0.097 and 1.06 versus -0.13, p Change in mUtA-PI (ΔmUtA PI) was similar for patients with PRD. However, the prevalence of PRD doubled with rising ΔmUtA-PI (11.1% versus 5.2%, p = 0.041). T3 uterine artery Doppler performs significantly better in detecting patients at risk for late-onset PRD than T1 or the gestational age change in uterine artery Doppler resistance This suggests that a proportion of late emerging PRD is not amenable to early screening by uterine artery Doppler. Further research is essential to identify the optimal screening strategy for late-onset placental dysfunction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis versus steatosis: adipose tissue insulin resistance and dysfunctional response to fat ingestion predict liver injury and altered glucose and lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Giovanni; Cassader, Maurizio; De Michieli, Franco; Rosina, Floriano; Orlandi, Fabio; Gambino, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ranges from simple steatosis (SS) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Though liver-related risk seems confined to NASH, it is currently unclear whether NASH has a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes than SS as a result of the coexistence of obesity and other cardiometabolic confounders. Adipose tissue is an emerging modulator of liver disease in NAFLD and of cardiometabolic disease in the general population. We evaluated in SS and NASH (1) glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular risk profile and (2) the effect of adipose tissue dysfunction, assessed in fasting conditions and postprandially, on liver injury, glucose and lipoprotein metabolism, and markers of early atherosclerosis. Forty nonobese, nondiabetic, normolipidemic biopsy-proven NAFLD patients (20 with SS and 20 with NASH) and 40 healthy subjects, matched for overall/abdominal adiposity and metabolic syndrome, underwent an oral fat load test, with measurement of plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokeratin-18 fragments, and an oral glucose tolerance test with minimal model analysis to yield glucose homeostasis parameters. Circulating endothelial adhesion molecules were measured, and adipose tissue insulin resistance (adipose IR) index and visceral adiposity index were calculated. Despite similar fasting values, compared to SS, NASH showed a more atherogenic postprandial lipoprotein profile, an altered adipokine response (i.e., higher resistin increase and an adiponectin fall), and hepatocyte apoptosis activation after fat ingestion. Adipose IR index, endothelial adhesion molecules, and hepatic insulin resistance progressively increased across NAFLD stages. NASH, but not SS, showed an impaired pancreatic β-cell function. On multiple regression analysis, adipose IR index and postprandial adiponectin independently predicted liver histology and altered cardiometabolic parameters. Adipose

  10. Effects of methyl mercury on the activity and gene expression of mouse Langerhans islets and glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Faheem; Bahadar, Haji; Niaz, Kamal; Baeeri, Maryam; Rahimifard, Mahban; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona; Ghasemi-Niri, Seyedeh Farnaz; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a well-known heavy metal and causes various toxic effects. It is abundantly present in fish in the form of methyl mercury (MeHg). Also, various other forms of mercury can enter human body either from environment like inhalation or through dental amalgams. The present study was designed to assess MeHg induced toxicity in mouse plasma and pancreatic islets with respect to insulin secretion, oxidative balance, glucose tolerance, gene expression, caspases 3 and 9 activities. MeHg was dissolved in tap water and administered at doses 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg/day, for 4 weeks. In mice, MeHg significantly caused increase in plasma insulin as well as C-peptides. Glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are main consequences of our study that correlate with the gene expression changes of glucose homeostasis as well. MeHg caused increase lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner in plasma as well as pancreatic islets. In addition, total thiol molecules and ferrous reducing antioxidant power in MeHg treated group was decreased in plasma as well as pancreatic islets. Caspases 3 and 9 activities of pancreatic islets were upregulated in MeHg exposed animals. Reactive oxygen species were extremely high in pancreatic islets of MeHg treated groups. MeHg disrupted gluconeogenesis/glycogenolysis pathways and insulin secretory functions of islets by targeting GDH, GLUT2 and GCK genes of pancreatic islets. In conclusion, the current study revealed that insulin pathways, oxidative balance and glucose metabolism encoded genetic makeup are susceptible to MeHg toxicity and the subsequent oxidative stress and alternations in gene expression could lead toward functional abnormalities in other organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Roles of Adipokines, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance in Modest Obesity and Early Metabolic Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yea Eun Kang

    Full Text Available The roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in obesity-associated insulin resistance have been explored in both animal and human studies. However, our current understanding of obesity-associated insulin resistance relies on studies of artificial metabolic extremes. The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in human patients with modest obesity and early metabolic dysfunction. We obtained omental adipose tissue and fasting blood samples from 51 females undergoing gynecologic surgery. We investigated serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines as well as the mRNA expression of proinflammatory and macrophage phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue using ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR. We measured adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage infiltration using immunohistochemical analysis. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR and body mass index. The levels of expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue were also higher in the obese group (body mass index ≥ 25. The expression of mRNA MCP-1 in visceral adipose tissue was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.428, p = 0.037 but not with HOMA-IR, whereas TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue was correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.462, p = 0.035 but not with body mass index. There was no obvious change in macrophage phenotype or macrophage infiltration in patients with modest obesity or early metabolic dysfunction. Expression of mRNA CD163/CD68 was significantly related to mitochondrial-associated genes and serum inflammatory cytokine levels of resistin and leptin. These results suggest that changes in the production of inflammatory biomolecules precede increased immune cell infiltration and induction of a macrophage phenotype switch in visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, serum resistin and

  12. Evidence for Loss in Identity, De-Differentiation, and Trans-Differentiation of Islet β-Cells in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Chad S; Stein, Roland W

    2017-01-01

    The two main types of diabetes mellitus have distinct etiologies, yet a similar outcome: loss of islet β-cell function that is solely responsible for the secretion of the insulin hormone to reduce elevated plasma glucose toward euglycemic levels. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) has traditionally been characterized by autoimmune-mediated β-cell death leading to insulin-dependence, whereas type 2 diabetes (T2D) has hallmarks of peripheral insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and cell death. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that, especially during T2D, key components of β-cell failure involves: (1) loss of cell identity, specifically proteins associated with mature cell function (e.g., insulin and transcription factors like MAFA, PDX1, and NKX6.1), as well as (2) de-differentiation, defined by regression to a progenitor or stem cell-like state. New technologies have allowed the field to compare islet cell characteristics from normal human donors to those under pathophysiological conditions by single cell RNA-Sequencing and through epigenetic analysis. This has revealed a remarkable level of heterogeneity among histologically defined "insulin-positive" β-cells. These results not only suggest that these β-cell subsets have different responses to insulin secretagogues, but that defining their unique gene expression and epigenetic modification profiles will offer opportunities to develop cellular therapeutics to enrich/maintain certain subsets for correcting pathological glucose levels. In this review, we will summarize the recent literature describing how β-cell heterogeneity and plasticity may be influenced in T2D, and various possible avenues of therapeutic intervention.

  13. β-CELL SPECIFIC CYTOPROTECTION BY PROLACTIN ON HUMAN ISLETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Ricordi, Camillo; Mita, Atsuyoshi; Miki, Atsushi; Sakuma, Yasunaru; Damaris Molano, R.; Fornoni, Alessia; Pileggi, Antonello; Inverardi, Luca; Ichii, Hirohito

    2008-01-01

    Many cytoprotective agents have been reported to improve islet isolation and transplantation outcomes. However, several cytoprotective agents may improve all cell subsets within an islet preparation, and selected non- β-cells components may have a negative effect on β-cell function and survival (e.g., acinar cells). In this study, we examined the effect of prolactin (PRL) supplementation to the culture medium, to determine whether it could exert β-cell-selective cytoprotection (islet viability and function) towards a possible use of PRL during pre transplant islet culture. Materials and Methods Human islets pre-cultured or not with recombinant human PRL (500 μg/L) for 48 hours. Non-β-cells and β-cell-specific fractional viability and cellular composition were assessed by FACS and Laser Scanning Cytometry (LSC). Islet potency was assessed in vivo by transplantation into chemically-induced diabetic immunodeficient mice. Results The relative viable β-cell mass and the relative islet β-cell content in PRL group were 28% higher (p=0.018) and 19% higher (p=0.029) than control group, respectively. All transplanted mice achieved normoglycemia in both groups, indicating that PRL treatment did not alter islet function. Conclusions PRL treatment improves β-cell-specific viability and survival in human islets in vitro. The development of novel β-cell-specific cytoprotective strategies will be of assistance in improving islet transplantation. PMID:18374075

  14. Improved yield of canine islet isolation from deceased donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Stephen; Williams, S Janette; Otte, Vern; Barchman, Sally; Jones, Cheryl; Ramachandran, Karthik; Stehno-Bittel, Lisa

    2017-08-22

    Canine diabetes is a strikingly prevalent and growing disease, and yet the standard treatment of a twice-daily insulin injection is both cumbersome to pet owners and only moderately effective. Islet transplantation has been performed with repeated success in canine research models, but has unfortunately not been made available to companion animals. Standard protocols for islet isolation, developed primarily for human islet transplantation, include beating-heart organ donation, vascular perfusion of preservation solutions, specialized equipment. Unfortunately, these processes are prohibitively complex and expensive for veterinary use. The aim of the study was to develop a simplified approach for isolating canine islets that is compatible with the financial and logistical restrictions inherent to veterinary medicine for the purpose of translating islet transplantation to a clinical treatment for canine diabetes. Here, we describe simplified strategies for isolating quality islets from deceased canine donors without vascular preservation and with up to 90 min of cold ischemia time. An average of more than 1500 islet equivalents per kg of donor bodyweight was obtained with a purity of 70% (N = 6 animals). Islets were 95% viable and responsive to glucose stimulation for a week. We found that processing only the body and tail of the pancreas increased isolation efficiency without sacrificing islet total yield. Islet yield per gram of tissue increased from 773 to 1868 islet equivalents when the head of the pancreas was discarded (N = 3/group). In summary, this study resulted in the development of an efficient and readily accessible method for obtaining viable and functional canine islets from deceased donors. These strategies provide an ethical means for obtaining donor islets.

  15. Vagotomy ameliorates islet morphofunction and body metabolic homeostasis in MSG-obese rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubaczeuski, C.; Balbo, S.L. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina e Metabolismo, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Ribeiro, R.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, RJ (Brazil); Vettorazzi, J.F.; Santos-Silva, J.C.; Carneiro, E.M. [Laboratório de Pâncreas Endócrino e Metabolismo, Departamento de Biologia Estrutural e Funcional, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bonfleur, M.L. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina e Metabolismo, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2015-02-24

    The parasympathetic nervous system is important for β-cell secretion and mass regulation. Here, we characterized involvement of the vagus nerve in pancreatic β-cell morphofunctional regulation and body nutrient homeostasis in 90-day-old monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats. Male newborn Wistar rats received MSG (4 g/kg body weight) or saline [control (CTL) group] during the first 5 days of life. At 30 days of age, both groups of rats were submitted to sham-surgery (CTL and MSG groups) or subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (Cvag and Mvag groups). The 90-day-old MSG rats presented obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hypertriglyceridemia. Their pancreatic islets hypersecreted insulin in response to glucose but did not increase insulin release upon carbachol (Cch) stimulus, despite a higher intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization. Furthermore, while the pancreas weight was 34% lower in MSG rats, no alteration in islet and β-cell mass was observed. However, in the MSG pancreas, increases of 51% and 55% were observed in the total islet and β-cell area/pancreas section, respectively. Also, the β-cell number per β-cell area was 19% higher in MSG rat pancreas than in CTL pancreas. Vagotomy prevented obesity, reducing 25% of body fat stores and ameliorated glucose homeostasis in Mvag rats. Mvag islets demonstrated partially reduced insulin secretion in response to 11.1 mM glucose and presented normalization of Cch-induced Ca{sup 2+} mobilization and insulin release. All morphometric parameters were similar among Mvag and CTL rat pancreases. Therefore, the higher insulin release in MSG rats was associated with greater β-cell/islet numbers and not due to hypertrophy. Vagotomy improved whole body nutrient homeostasis and endocrine pancreatic morphofunction in Mvag rats.

  16. Optimizing Porcine Islet Isolation to Markedly Reduce Enzyme Consumption Without Sacrificing Islet Yield or Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdcraft, Robert W; Green, Michael L; Breite, Andrew G; Circle, Lisa; Meyer, Eric D; Adkins, Hollie; Harbeck, Steven G; Smith, Barry H; Gazda, Lawrence S

    2016-07-01

    Human allogeneic islet transplantation for treatment of type 1 diabetes provides numerous clinical benefits, such as fewer episodes of hypoglycemic unawareness and tighter control of blood glucose levels. Availability of human pancreas for clinical and research use, however, is severely limited. Porcine pancreas offers an abundant source of tissue for optimization of islet isolation methodology and future clinical transplantation, thereby increasing patient access to this potentially lifesaving procedure. Porcine islet isolations were performed using varying amounts of collagenase (7.5, 3.75, or 2.5 Wunsch units per gram tissue) and neutral protease activity (12 000, 6000, or 4000 neutral protease units per gram tissue) and perfusion volumes (1.7 or 0.85 mL/g tissue) to assess their effects on isolation outcomes. Retention of dissociative enzymes within the pancreas during perfusion and digestion was evaluated, along with distribution of the perfusion solution within the tissue. Reducing enzyme usage by as much as 67% and perfusion volume by 50% led to equally successful islet isolation outcomes when compared with the control group (48 ± 7% of tissue digested and 1088 ± 299 islet equivalents per gram of pancreas vs 47 ± 11% and 1080 ± 512, respectively). Using margin-marking dye in the perfusion solution to visualize enzyme distribution demonstrated that increasing perfusion volume did not improve tissue infiltration. Current protocols for porcine islet isolation consume excessive amounts of dissociative enzymes, elevating cost and limiting research and development. These data demonstrate that islet isolation protocols can be optimized to significantly reduce enzyme usage while maintaining yield and function and thus accelerating progress toward clinical application.

  17. Cellular islet autoimmunity associates with clinical outcome of islet cell transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkert A L Huurman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Islet cell transplantation can cure type 1 diabetes (T1D, but only a minority of recipients remains insulin-independent in the following years. We tested the hypothesis that allograft rejection and recurrent autoimmunity contribute to this progressive loss of islet allograft function.Twenty-one T1D patients received cultured islet cell grafts prepared from multiple donors and transplanted under anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG induction and tacrolimus plus mycophenolate mofetil (MMF maintenance immunosuppression. Immunity against auto- and alloantigens was measured before and during one year after transplantation. Cellular auto- and alloreactivity was assessed by lymphocyte stimulation tests against autoantigens and cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor assays, respectively. Humoral reactivity was measured by auto- and alloantibodies. Clinical outcome parameters--including time until insulin independence, insulin independence at one year, and C-peptide levels over one year--remained blinded until their correlation with immunological parameters. All patients showed significant improvement of metabolic control and 13 out of 21 became insulin-independent. Multivariate analyses showed that presence of cellular autoimmunity before and after transplantation is associated with delayed insulin-independence (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively and lower circulating C-peptide levels during the first year after transplantation (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02, respectively. Seven out of eight patients without pre-existent T-cell autoreactivity became insulin-independent, versus none of the four patients reactive to both islet autoantigens GAD and IA-2 before transplantation. Autoantibody levels and cellular alloreactivity had no significant association with outcome.In this cohort study, cellular islet-specific autoimmunity associates with clinical outcome of islet cell transplantation under ATG-tacrolimus-MMF immunosuppression. Tailored immunotherapy targeting cellular

  18. Achievement of insulin independence in three consecutive type-1 diabetic patients via pancreatic islet transplantation using islets isolated at a remote islet isolation center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, John A; Schock, Angela P; Brunicardi, F Charles; Goodpastor, Sarah E; Garber, Alan J; Soltes, George; Barth, Merle; Froud, Tatiana; Alejandro, Rodolfo; Ricordi, Camillo

    2002-12-27

    As a result of advances in both immunosuppressive protocols and pancreatic islet isolation techniques, insulin independence has recently been achieved in several patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus via pancreatic islet transplantation (PIT). Although the dissemination of immunosuppressive protocols is quite easy, transferring the knowledge and expertise required to isolate a large number of quality human islets for transplantation is a far greater challenge. Therefore, in an attempt to centralize the critical islet processing needed for islet transplantation and to avoid the development of another islet processing center, we have established a collaborative islet transplant program between two geographically distant transplant centers. Three consecutive patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus with a history of severe hypoglycemia and metabolic instability underwent PIT at the Methodist Hospital (TMH), Houston, Texas, using pancreatic islets. All pancreatic islets were isolated from pancreata procured in Houston and subsequently transported for isolation to the Human Islet Cell Processing Facility of the Diabetes Research Institute (DRI) at the University of Miami, Miami, Florida. Pancreatic islets were isolated at DRI after enzymatic ductal perfusion (Liberase-HI) by the automated method (Ricordi Chamber) using endotoxin-free and xenoprotein-free media. After purification, the islets were immediately transported back to TMH and transplanted via percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization. Immunosuppression consisted of sirolimus, tacrolimus, and daclizumab. After donor cross-clamp in Houston, donor pancreata arrived at DRI and the isolation process began within 6.5 hr in all cases (median, 5.4 hr; range, 4.8-6.5 hr). At the completion of the isolation process, the islets were immediately transported back to TMH and transplanted. All three patients attained sustained insulin independence after transplantation of 395,567, 394,381, and 563,206 pancreatic islet

  19. Islet transplantation in diabetic rats normalizes basal and exercise-induced energy metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, Harmina; Benthem, L.; Suylichem, P.T.R. van; Leest, J. van der; Strubbe, J.H.; Steffens, A.B.

    Transplantation of islets of Langerhans in diabetic rats normalizes resting glucose and insulin levels, but it remains unclear whether islet transplantation restores resting and exercise-induced energy metabolism. Therefore, we compared energy metabolism in islet transplanted rats with energy

  20. The Efficacy of Intraperitoneal Pancreatic Islet Isografts in the Reversal of Diabetes in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritschy, Wilbert M.; Straaten, Jeanette F.M. van; Vos, Paul de; Strubbe, Jan H.; Wolters, Gerrit H.J.; Schilfgaarde, Reinout van

    1991-01-01

    The peritoneal cavity is of renewed interest for pancreatic islet transplantation, since it is the preferable site for transplantation of immunoisolated islets. In this study we investigated the minimum islet graft volume needed to restore normoglycemia after free intraperitoneal isogenic

  1. File list: Pol.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 RNA polymerase Pancreas Pancreatic islets h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 RNA polymerase Pancreas Pancreatic islets h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets.bed ...

  3. Possible modulatory effect of endogenous islet catecholamines on insulin secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardino Juan J

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The possible participation of endogenous islet catecholamines (CAs in the control of insulin secretion was tested. Methods Glucose-induced insulin secretion was measured in the presence of 3-Iodo-L-Tyrosine (MIT, a specific inhibitor of tyrosine-hydroxylase activity, in fresh and precultured islets isolated from normal rats. Incubated islets were also used to measure CAs release in the presence of low and high glucose, and the effect of α2-(yohimbine [Y] and idazoxan [I] and α1-adrenergic antagonists (prazosin [P] and terazosin [T] upon insulin secretion elicited by high glucose. Results Fresh islets incubated with 16.7 mM glucose released significantly more insulin in the presence of 1 μM MIT (6.66 ± 0.39 vs 5.01 ± 0.43 ng/islet/h, p Conclusion Our results suggest that islet-originated CAs directly modulate insulin release in a paracrine manner.

  4. Quantification of diastolic dysfunction via the age dependence of diastolic function - impact of insulin resistance with and without type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bibra, H; Paulus, W J; St John Sutton, M; Leclerque, C; Schuster, T; Schumm-Draeger, P-M

    2015-03-01

    The alarming prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction requires quantification of diastolic dysfunction (DDF). Myocardial diastolic velocity E' implies that age is the most important determinant. We tested the hypothesis that age allows for quantification of DDF and assessment of the structural and metabolic determinants in patients with and without type 2 diabetes (D). This prospective, cross-sectional study assessed cardiovascular, metabolic and ultrasound data in 409 consecutive patients (Diabetes Center, Bogenhausen-Munich) between 20 and 90 years without known cardiac disease and either with (n=204) or without D but with common prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, including a subgroup of healthy individuals (H, n=94). In H, E' related to age as: E'norm=-0.163∗years+19.69 (R(2)=0.77, pDDF was quantitated as E'-E' norm. Compared to nondiabetics, D patients were older, had greater BMI, lower E', more cardiovascular risk and greater DDF. In nondiabetics, grading of DDF by E-E'norm correlated with grading by filling pressure E/E'. Determinants of DDF by multivariate analysis included pulse wave velocity, diastolic blood pressure and the triglyceride/HDL ratio (a marker of insulin resistance) in nondiabetics and in D the same risk factors in reverse sequence and heart rate. Neither left atrial size nor left ventricular mass had significant impact. The physiological impact of age on myocardial function consists of a 1% annual reduction in E' and enables precise quantification of diastolic dysfunction thereby unmasking the importance of metabolic risk for DDF. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Addition of metformin to sildenafil treatment for erectile dysfunction in eugonadal nondiabetic men with insulin resistance. A prospective, randomized, double-blind pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Valzacchi, Gastón J; Costanzo, Pablo R; Finger, Luis A; Layus, Alberto O; Gueglio, Guillermo M; Litwak, León E; Knoblovits, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Erection depends largely on the release of nitric oxide (NO) by vascular endothelial cells. Insulin resistance (IR) is a metabolic abnormality that produces endothelial dysfunction characterized by decreased synthesis and release of NO. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of treatment with metformin on the response to sildenafil in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and IR enrolled in a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind placebo study. We included 30 male patients with ED, IR, and poor response to sildenafil. Exclusion criteria included pharmacologic, anatomic, or endocrine ED; diabetes; prostatic surgery; or chronic illnesses. Erectile function was rated according to the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5); IR was measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA; IR = HOMA ≥ 3). Patients were randomized to receive metformin (n = 17) or placebo (n = 13). After treatment with metformin, patients with ED showed a significant increase in IIEF-5 score and a significant decrease in HOMA, both occurring at month 2 (IIEF-5: 17.0 ± 6.0 vs 14.3 ± 3.9, P = .01; HOMA: 3.9 ± 1.6 vs 5.5 ± 2.4, P = .01) to 4 of treatment (IIEF-5: 19.8 ± 3.8 vs 14.3 ± 3.9, P = .005; HOMA: 4.5 ± 1.9 vs 5.5 ± 2.4, P = .04), with no changes in these parameters in patients with ED receiving placebo. Patients treated with metformin had more adverse events than those who received placebo: 61.5% compared with 7.7%, P = .03, respectively. Adverse events were mild, mainly gastrointestinal, and did not cause discontinuation of treatment. Treatment with metformin in patients with ED and poor response to sildenafil reduced the IR and improved erectile function.

  6. The complement system is dysfunctional in metabolic disease: Evidences in plasma and adipose tissue from obese and insulin resistant subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2017-10-26

    The relationship between chronic low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and other obesity-associated metabolic disturbances is increasingly recognized. The possible mechanisms that trigger these immunologic alterations remain to be fully understood. The complement system is a crucial element of immune defense system, being important in the activation of innate and adaptative immune response, promoting the clearance of apoptotic and damaged endogenous cells and participating in processes of tissue development, degeneration, and regeneration. Circulating components of the complement system appear to be dysregulated in obesity-associated metabolic disturbances. The activation of the complement system is also evident in adipose tissue from obese subjects, in association with subclinical inflammation and alterations in glucose metabolism. The possible contribution of some components of the complement system in the development of insulin resistance and obesity-associated metabolic disturbances, and the possible role of complement system in adipose tissue physiology is reviewed here. The modulation of the complement system could constitute a potential target in the pathophysiology and therapy of obesity and associated metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative Assessment of Islets of Langerhans Encapsulated in Alginate

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Amy S.; O'Sullivan, Esther; D'Aoust, Laura N.; Omer, Abdulkadir; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Fisher, Robert J.; Weir, Gordon C.; Colton, Clark K.

    2011-01-01

    Improved methods have recently been developed for assessing islet viability and quantity in human islet preparations for transplantation, and these measurements have proven useful for predicting transplantation outcome. The objectives of this study were to adapt these methods for use with microencapsulated islets, to verify that they provide meaningful quantitative measurements, and to test them with two model systems: (1) barium alginate and (2) barium alginate containing a 70% (w/v) perfluo...

  8. Tacrolimus inhibits the revascularization of isolated pancreatic islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Nishimura

    Full Text Available AIMS: Immunosuppressive drugs could be crucial factors for a poor outcome after islet allotransplantation. Unlike rapamycin, the effects of tacrolimus, the current standard immunosuppressant used in islet transplantation, on graft revascularization remain unclear. We examined the effects of tacrolimus on islet revascularization using a highly sensitive imaging system, and analyzed the gene expression in transplanted islets by introducing laser microdissection techniques. METHODS: Islets isolated from C57BL/6-Tg (CAG-EGFP mice were transplanted into the nonmetallic dorsal skinfold chamber on the recipients. Balb/c athymic mice were used as recipients and were divided into two groups: including a control group (n = 9 and tacrolimus-treated group (n = 7. The changes in the newly-formed vessels surrounding the islet grafts were imaged and semi-quantified using multi-photon laser-scanning microscopy and a Volocity system. Gene expression in transplanted islets was analyzed by the BioMark dynamic system. RESULTS: The revascularization process was completed within 14 days after pancreatic islet transplantation at subcutaneous sites. The newly-formed vascular volume surrounding the transplanted islets in the tacrolimus-treated group was significantly less than that in the control group (p<0.05. Although the expression of Vegfa (p<0.05 and Ccnd1 (p<0.05 was significantly upregulated in the tacrolimus-treated group compared with that of the control group, no differences were observed between the groups in terms of other types of gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates that tacrolimus inhibits the revascularization of isolated pancreatic islets without affecting the characteristics of the transplanted grafts. Further refinements of this immunosuppressive regimen, especially regarding the revascularization of islet grafts, could improve the outcome of islet allotransplantation.

  9. Transplanted human pancreatic islets after long-term insulin independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Y D; Gupta, Shashank; Morel, P

    2013-01-01

    Long-term insulin independence after islets of Langerhans transplantation is rarely achieved. The aims of this study were to identify the histological and immunological features of islets transplanted in a type 1 diabetic patient who died of a cerebral hemorrhage after >13 years insulin independe......Long-term insulin independence after islets of Langerhans transplantation is rarely achieved. The aims of this study were to identify the histological and immunological features of islets transplanted in a type 1 diabetic patient who died of a cerebral hemorrhage after >13 years insulin...... independence. Islets were pooled from two donors with respectively one and five HLA mismatches. Insulin-positive islets were found throughout the right and left liver, and absent in the pancreas. Two- and three-dimensional analysis showed that islets lost their initial rounded and compact morphology, had...... microdissection samples, compared to 1/23 for the least matched donor. This case report demonstrates that allogeneic islets can survive over 13 years while maintaining insulin independence. Allogeneic islets had unique morphologic features and implanted in the liver regardless of their size. Finally, our results...

  10. Pancreatic islet autotransplantation with total pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Tamotsu; Adachi, Tomohiko; Ono, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Takayuki; Kitasato, Amane; Eguchi, Susumu

    2013-07-01

    Achieving pain relief and improving the quality of life are the main targets of treatment for patients with chronic pancreatitis. The use of total pancreatectomy to treat chronic pancreatitis is a radical and in some ways ideal strategy. However, total pancreatectomy is associated with severe diabetic control problems. Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation can relieve severe pain and prevent the development of postsurgical diabetes. With islet autotransplantation, patients with chronic pancreatitis receive their own islet cells and therefore do not require immunosuppressive therapy. In the future, total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation may be considered a treatment option for chronic pancreatitis patients.

  11. CT features of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eelkema, E.A.; Stephens, D.H.; Ward, E.M.; Sheedy, P.F. II

    1984-11-01

    To determine the computed tomographic (CT) characteristics of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas, the CT scans of 27 patients with that disease were reviewed. The pancreatic tumor was identified as a mass in 26 patients (96%) Of the 25 tumors evaluated with contrast enhancement, 20 became partially diffusely hyperdense relative to nearby normal pancreatic tissue. Hepatic metastases were identified in 15 patients (56%), regional lymphadenopathy in 10 (37%), atrophy of the gland proximal to the tumor in six (22%), dilatation of the biliary ducts in five (19%), and dilatation of the pancreatic duct in four (15%). The CT appearances of the nonfunctioning islet cell tumors were compared with those of 100 ordinary (ductal) pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Although the two types of tumors were sometimes indistinguishable, features found to be more characteristic of islet cell carcinoma included a pancreatic mass of unusually large size, calcification within the tumor, and contrast enhancement of either the primary tumor or hepatic metastases. Involvement of the celiac axis or proximal superior mesenteric artery was limited to ductal carcinoma.

  12. Altered islet morphology but normal islet secretory function in vitro in a mouse model with microvascular alterations in the pancreas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kostromina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our previous studies have shown that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 signaling is important for the development of pancreatic microvasculature via its regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A. Pancreas-specific STAT3-KO mice exhibit glucose intolerance and impaired insulin secretion in vivo, along with microvascular alterations in the pancreas. However, the specific role of STAT3 signaling in the regulation of pancreatic islet development and function is not entirely understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the role of STAT3 signaling in the formation and maintenance of pancreatic islets, we studied pancreas-specific STAT3-KO mice. Histological analysis showed that STAT3 deficiency affected pancreatic islet morphology. We found an increased proportion of small-sized islets and a reduced fraction of medium-sized islets, indicating abnormal islet development in STAT3-KO mice. Interestingly, the islet area relative to the whole pancreas area in transgenic and control mice was not significantly different. Immunohistochemical analysis on pancreatic cryosections revealed abnormalities in islet architecture in STAT3-KO mice: the pattern of peripheral distribution of glucagon-positive α-cells was altered. At the same time, islets belonging to different size categories isolated from STAT3-KO mice exhibited normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in perifusion experiments in vitro when compared to control mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that STAT3 signaling in the pancreas is required for normal islet formation and/or maintenance. Altered islet size distribution in the KO mice does not result in an impaired islet secretory function in vitro. Therefore, our current study supports that the glucose intolerance and in vivo insulin secretion defect in pancreas-specific STAT3-KO mice is due to altered microvasculature in the pancreas, and not intrinsic beta-cell function.

  13. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells enhance insulin secretion from human islets via N-cadherin interaction and prolong function of transplanted encapsulated islets in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Montanari, Elisa; Meier, Raphael P. H.; Mahou, Redouan; Seebach, Jörg D.; Wandrey, Christine; Gerber-Lemaire, Sandrine; Buhler, Leo H.; Gonelle-Gispert, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Background Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) enhance viability and function of islets of Langerhans. We aimed to examine the interactions between human MSC and human islets of Langerhans that influence the function of islets. Methods Human MSC and human islets (or pseudoislets, obtained after digestion and reaggregation of islet cells) were cocultured with or without cellular contact and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion assays were performed to assess cell function. The expressi...

  14. Quantitative assessment of islet cell products: estimating the accuracy of the existing protocol and accounting for islet size distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Peter; Wang, Xiaojing; Khan, Aisha; Bernal, Andres; Fraker, Chris; Inverardi, Luca; Ricordi, Camillo

    2009-01-01

    The ability to consistently and reliably assess the total number and the size distribution of isolated pancreatic islet cells from a small sample is of crucial relevance for the adequate characterization of islet cell preparations used for research or transplantation purposes. Here, data from a large number of isolations were used to establish a continuous probability density function describing the size distribution of human pancreatic islets. This function was then used to generate a polymeric microsphere mixture with a composition resembling those of isolated islets, which, in turn, was used to quantitatively assess the accuracy, reliability, and operator-dependent variability of the currently utilized manual standard procedure of quantification of islet cell preparation. Furthermore, on the basis of the best fit probability density function, which corresponds to a Weibull distribution, a slightly modified scale of islet equivalent number (IEQ) conversion factors is proposed that incorporates the size distribution of islets and accounts for the decreasing probability of finding larger islets within each size group. Compared to the current calculation method, these factors introduce a 4-8% downward correction of the total IEQ estimate, but they reflect a statistically more accurate contribution of differently sized islets.

  15. Serotonin- and Dopamine-Related Gene Expression in db/db Mice Islets and in MIN6 β-Cells Treated with Palmitate and Oleate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Cataldo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs concentration, often reported in diabetes, leads to impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS through not yet well-defined mechanisms. Serotonin and dopamine might contribute to NEFA-dependent β-cell dysfunction, since extracellular signal of these monoamines decreases GSIS. Moreover, palmitate-treated β-cells may enhance the expression of the serotonin receptor Htr2c, affecting insulin secretion. Additionally, the expression of monoamine-oxidase type B (Maob seems to be lower in islets from humans and mice with diabetes compared to nondiabetic islets, which may lead to increased monoamine concentrations. We assessed the expression of serotonin- and dopamine-related genes in islets from db/db and wild-type (WT mice. In addition, the effect of palmitate and oleate on the expression of such genes, 5HT content, and GSIS in MIN6 β-cell was determined. Lower Maob expression was found in islets from db/db versus WT mice and in MIN6 β-cells in response to palmitate and oleate treatment compared to vehicle. Reduced 5HT content and impaired GSIS in response to palmitate (−25%; p<0.0001 and oleate (−43%; p<0.0001 were detected in MIN6 β-cells. In conclusion, known defects of GSIS in islets from db/db mice and MIN6 β-cells treated with NEFAs are accompanied by reduced Maob expression and reduced 5HT content.

  16. Periodontitis aggravated pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in diabetic mice through interleukin-12 regulation on Klotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihua; Zhang, Qiuli

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that periodontitis can contribute to adipose tissue inflammation and subsequent systemic insulin resistance in the obese rat model. However, the related inflammatory mechanism is not yet clear. The present study aims to investigate the effects of periodontitis on the function of pancreatic β-cells with pro-inflammatory cytokines-related immune mechanism in a mouse model. C57BL/6-db/db and inbred C57BL/6 mice were chosen here to establish a mouse model with periodontitis, which was induced by ligatures for 8 weeks. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was introduced to evaluate the function of pancreatic islets and β-cells. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and Klotho were also measured, and the correlation between immunostimulation and Klotho level was deeply investigated in vitro. Pancreatic β-cell failure, with insulin resistance, was observed in db/db mice, while periodontitis could aggravate β-cell dysfunction-related features. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-12 and Klotho showed a negatively synergistic change, whereas the expression of Klotho was also inhibited under IL-12 treatment in MIN6 β-cells or isolated islets. Furthermore, IL-12-induced immune stimulation and also decreased insulin secretion were proven to be reversed by Klotho overexpression. Periodontitis aggravated pancreatic β-cell failure in diabetic mice. Further in vitro studies showed IL-12 regulation on Klotho, while Klotho also acted as an inhibitor on IL-12, indicating the potential of Klotho for preserving pancreatic β-cell function in diabetes.

  17. Metabolic profile of pancreatic acinar and islet tissue in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszynski, T M; Mueller, K R; Gruessner, A C; Papas, K K

    2014-01-01

    The amount and condition of exocrine impurities may affect the quality of islet preparations, especially during culture. In this study, the objective was to determine the oxygen demand and viability of islet and acinar tissue post-isolation and whether they change disproportionately while in culture. We compared the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) normalized to DNA (OCR/DNA, a measure of fractional viability in units of nmol/min/mg DNA), and the percent change in OCR and DNA recoveries between adult porcine islet and acinar tissue from the same preparation (paired) over 6-9 days of standard culture. Paired comparisons were done to quantify differences in OCR/DNA between islet and acinar tissue from the same preparation, at specified time points during culture. The mean (±SE) OCR/DNA was 74.0 ± 11.7 units higher for acinar (vs islet) tissue on the day of isolation (n = 16, P culture. DNA and OCR recoveries decreased at different rates for acinar versus islet tissue over 6-9 days in culture (n = 6). DNA recovery decreased to 24 ± 7% for acinar and 75 ± 8% for islets (P = .002). Similarly, OCR recovery decreased to 16 ± 3% for acinar and remained virtually constant for islets (P = .005). Differences in the metabolic profile of acinar and islet tissue should be considered when culturing impure islet preparations. OCR-based measurements may help optimize pre-islet transplantation culture protocols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Composition of Alginate-Polyethylene Glycol Microcapsules and Transplant Site on Encapsulated Islet Graft Outcomes in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Chiara; Manzoli, Vita; Abreu, Maria M; Verheyen, Connor A; Seskin, Michael; Najjar, Mejdi; Molano, R Damaris; Torrente, Yvan; Ricordi, Camillo; Tomei, Alice A

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the effects of capsule composition and transplantation site on graft outcomes of encapsulated islets will aid in the development of more effective strategies for islet transplantation without immunosuppression. Here, we evaluated the effects of transplanting alginate (ALG)-based microcapsules (Micro) in the confined and well-vascularized epididymal fat pad (EFP) site, a model of the human omentum, as opposed to free-floating in the intraperitoneal cavity (IP) in mice. We also examined the effects of reinforcing ALG with polyethylene glycol (PEG). To allow transplantation in the EFP site, we minimized capsule size to 500 ± 17 μm. Unlike ALG, PEG resists osmotic stress, hence we generated hybrid microcapsules by mixing PEG and ALG (MicroMix) or by coating ALG capsules with a 15 ± 2 μm PEG layer (Double). We found improved engraftment of fully allogeneic BALB/c islets in Micro capsules transplanted in the EFP (median reversal time [MRT], 1 day) versus the IP site (MRT, 5 days; P < 0.01) in diabetic C57BL/6 mice and of Micro encapsulated (MRT, 8 days) versus naked (MRT, 36 days; P < 0.01) baboon islets transplanted in the EFP site. Although in vitro viability and functionality of islets within MicroMix and Double capsules were comparable to Micro, addition of PEG to ALG in MicroMix capsules improved engraftment of allogeneic islets in the IP site, but resulted deleterious in the EFP site, probably due to lower biocompatibility. Our results suggest that capsule composition and transplant site affect graft outcomes through their effects on nutrient availability, capsule stability, and biocompatibility.

  19. Distinct differences in the responses of the human pancreatic β-cell line EndoC-βH1 and human islets to proinflammatory cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Bryndon J.; McGraw, Jennifer A.; Broniowska, Katarzyna A.; Annamalai, Mani; Chen, Jing; Bushkofsky, Justin R.; Davis, Dawn B.; Mathews, Clayton E.

    2015-01-01

    While insulinoma cells have been developed and proven to be extremely useful in studies focused on mechanisms controlling β-cell function and viability, translating findings to human β-cells has proven difficult because of the limited access to human islets and the absence of suitable insulinoma cell lines of human origin. Recently, a human β-cell line, EndoC-βH1, has been derived from human fetal pancreatic buds. The purpose of this study was to determine whether human EndoC-βH1 cells respond to cytokines in a fashion comparable to human islets. Unlike most rodent-derived insulinoma cell lines that respond to cytokines in a manner consistent with rodent islets, EndoC-βH1 cells fail to respond to a combination of cytokines (IL-1, IFN-γ, and TNF) in a manner consistent with human islets. Nitric oxide, produced following inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, is a major mediator of cytokine-induced human islet cell damage. We show that EndoC-βH1 cells fail to express iNOS or produce nitric oxide in response to this combination of cytokines. Inhibitors of iNOS prevent cytokine-induced loss of human islet cell viability; however, they do not prevent cytokine-induced EndoC-βH1 cell death. Stressed human islets or human islets expressing heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) are resistant to cytokines, and, much like stressed human islets, EndoC-βH1 cells express HSP70 under basal conditions. Elevated basal expression of HSP70 in EndoC-βH1 cells is consistent with the lack of iNOS expression in response to cytokine treatment. While expressing HSP70, EndoC-βH1 cells fail to respond to endoplasmic reticulum stress activators, such as thapsigargin. These findings indicate that EndoC-βH1 cells do not faithfully recapitulate the response of human islets to cytokines. Therefore, caution should be exercised when making conclusions regarding the actions of cytokines on human islets when using this human-derived insulinoma cell line. PMID:26084699

  20. Low Level Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Decrease Connexin36 Gap Junction Coupling in Mouse and Human Islets through Nitric Oxide-mediated Protein Kinase Cδ*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Nikki L.; Walter, Rachelle L.; Hemmati, Alireza; Westacott, Matthew J.; Benninger, Richard K. P.

    2016-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to the decline in islet function during the development of diabetes. Cytokines can disrupt insulin secretion and calcium dynamics; however, the mechanisms underlying this are poorly understood. Connexin36 gap junctions coordinate glucose-induced calcium oscillations and pulsatile insulin secretion across the islet. Loss of gap junction coupling disrupts these dynamics, similar to that observed during the development of diabetes. This study investigates the mechanisms by which pro-inflammatory cytokines mediate gap junction coupling. Specifically, as cytokine-induced NO can activate PKCδ, we aimed to understand the role of PKCδ in modulating cytokine-induced changes in gap junction coupling. Isolated mouse and human islets were treated with varying levels of a cytokine mixture containing TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ. Islet dysfunction was measured by insulin secretion, calcium dynamics, and gap junction coupling. Modulators of PKCδ and NO were applied to determine their respective roles in modulating gap junction coupling. High levels of cytokines caused cell death and decreased insulin secretion. Low levels of cytokine treatment disrupted calcium dynamics and decreased gap junction coupling, in the absence of disruptions to insulin secretion. Decreases in gap junction coupling were dependent on NO-regulated PKCδ, and altered membrane organization of connexin36. This study defines several mechanisms underlying the disruption to gap junction coupling under conditions associated with the development of diabetes. These mechanisms will allow for greater understanding of islet dysfunction and suggest ways to ameliorate this dysfunction during the development of diabetes. PMID:26668311

  1. Gap junction coupling and calcium waves in the pancreatic islet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Richard K P; Zhang, Min; Head, W Steven; Satin, Leslie S; Piston, David W

    2008-12-01

    The pancreatic islet is a highly coupled, multicellular system that exhibits complex spatiotemporal electrical activity in response to elevated glucose levels. The emergent properties of islets, which differ from those arising in isolated islet cells, are believed to arise in part by gap junctional coupling, but the mechanisms through which this coupling occurs are poorly understood. To uncover these mechanisms, we have used both high-speed imaging and theoretical modeling of the electrical activity in pancreatic islets under a reduction in the gap junction mediated electrical coupling. Utilizing islets from a gap junction protein connexin 36 knockout mouse model together with chemical inhibitors, we can modulate the electrical coupling in the islet in a precise manner and quantify this modulation by electrophysiology measurements. We find that after a reduction in electrical coupling, calcium waves are slowed as well as disrupted, and the number of cells showing synchronous calcium oscillations is reduced. This behavior can be reproduced by computational modeling of a heterogeneous population of beta-cells with heterogeneous levels of electrical coupling. The resulting quantitative agreement between the data and analytical models of islet connectivity, using only a single free parameter, reveals the mechanistic underpinnings of the multicellular behavior of the islet.

  2. Induction of Protective Genes Leads to Islet Survival and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation is the most valid approach to the treatment of type 1 diabetes. However, the function of transplanted islets is often compromised since a large number of β cells undergo apoptosis induced by stress and the immune rejection response elicited by the recipient after transplantation. Conventional treatment for islet transplantation is to administer immunosuppressive drugs to the recipient to suppress the immune rejection response mounted against transplanted islets. Induction of protective genes in the recipient (e.g., heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, A20/tumor necrosis factor alpha inducible protein3 (tnfaip3, biliverdin reductase (BVR, Bcl2, and others or administration of one or more of the products of HO-1 to the donor, the islets themselves, and/or the recipient offers an alternative or synergistic approach to improve islet graft survival and function. In this perspective, we summarize studies describing the protective effects of these genes on islet survival and function in rodent allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantation models and the prevention of onset of diabetes, with emphasis on HO-1, A20, and BVR. Such approaches are also appealing to islet autotransplantation in patients with chronic pancreatitis after total pancreatectomy, a procedure that currently only leads to 1/3 of transplanted patients being diabetes-free.

  3. Pancreas++ : Automated Quantification of Pancreatic Islet Cells in Microscopy Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu eChen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic image analysis of pancreatic Islet of Langerhans morphology is crucial for the investigation of diabetes and metabolic diseases. Besides the general size of the islet, the percentage and relative position of glucagon-containing alpha-, and insulin-containing beta-cells is also important for pathophysiological analyses, especially in rodents. Hence, the ability to identify, quantify and spatially locate peripheral and ‘involuted’ alpha-cells in the islet core is an important analytical goal. There is a dearth of software available for the automated and sophisticated positional-quantification of multiple cell types in the islet core. Manual analytical methods for these analyses, while relatively accurate, can suffer from a slow throughput rate as well as user-based biases. Here we describe a newly developed pancreatic islet analytical software program, Pancreas++, which facilitates the fully-automated, non-biased, and highly reproducible investigation of islet area and alpha- and beta-cell quantity as well as position within the islet for either single or large batches of fluorescent images. We demonstrate the utility and accuracy of Pancreas++ by comparing its performance to other pancreatic islet size and cell type (alpha, beta quantification methods. Our Pancreas++ analysis was significantly faster than other methods, while still retaining low error rates and a high degree of result correlation with the manually generated reference standard.

  4. Islet and Stem Cell Encapsulation for Clinical Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Rahul; Alexander, Michael; Robles, Lourdes; Foster 3rd, Clarence E.; Lakey, Jonathan R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, improvements in islet isolation techniques have made islet transplantation an option for a certain subset of patients with long-standing diabetes. Although islet transplants have shown improved graft function, adequate function beyond the second year has not yet been demonstrated, and patients still require immunosuppression to prevent rejection. Since allogeneic islet transplants have experienced some success, the next step is to improve graft function while eliminating the need for systemic immunosuppressive therapy. Biomaterial encapsulation offers a strategy to avoid the need for toxic immunosuppression while increasing the chances of graft function and survival. Encapsulation entails coating cells or tissue in a semipermeable biocompatible material that allows for the passage of nutrients, oxygen, and hormones while blocking immune cells and regulatory substances from recognizing and destroying the cell, thus avoiding the need for systemic immunosuppressive therapy. Despite advances in encapsulation technology, these developments have not yet been meaningfully translated into clinical islet transplantation, for which several factors are to blame, including graft hypoxia, host inflammatory response, fibrosis, improper choice of biomaterial type, lack of standard guidelines, and post-transplantation device failure. Several new approaches, such as the use of porcine islets, stem cells, development of prevascularized implants, islet nanocoating, and multilayer encapsulation, continue to generate intense scientific interest in this rapidly expanding field. This review provides a comprehensive update on islet and stem cell encapsulation as a treatment modality in type 1 diabetes, including a historical outlook as well as current and future research avenues. PMID:25148368

  5. Approaches for imaging islets: recent advances and future prospects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlgren, U.; Gotthardt, M.

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of improved technologies for imaging of the pancreas is a key element in addressing several aspects of diabetes pathogenesis. In this respect, the development of a protocol that allows for non-invasive scoring of human islets, or islet beta-cells, is of particular importance. The

  6. Encapsulation of pancreatic islets for transplantation in diabetes : the untouchable islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, P; Marchetti, P

    The aim of encapsulation of pancreatic islets is to transplant in the absence of immunosuppression. It is based on the principle that transplanted tissue is protected from the host immune system by an artificial membrane. Encapsulation allows for application of insulin-secreting cells of animal or

  7. Erectile Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of things can interfere with sexual feelings and cause or worsen erectile dysfunction. These include: Depression, anxiety or other mental health conditions Stress Relationship problems due to stress, poor communication or other concerns ...

  8. Erectile Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/men/erectile-dysfunction.html. Accessed Nov. ... medicine and a synthesis of the main available therapies. Diabetes & Metabolism. 2012;38:1. Nippoldt TB (expert opinion). ...

  9. Orgasmic dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dysfunction is when a woman either cannot reach orgasm, or has trouble reaching orgasm when she is sexually excited. When sex is ... to 15% of women have never had an orgasm. Surveys suggest that up to one half of ...

  10. Erectile dysfunction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giuliano, F; Droupy, S

    2013-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most commonly studied sexual disorder. ED is defined by a consistent or recurrent inability to attain and/or maintain penile erection sufficient for sexual activity...

  11. Erectile Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rigid. Medications The oral medications for erectile dysfunction, sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), and vardenafil (Levitra), relax the muscles ... to begin working; the erection helping effects of sildenafil and vardenafil last for about 8 hours and ...

  12. Erectile dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafi, Faysal A.; Jenkins, Lawrence; Albersen, Maarten; Corona, Giovanni; Isidori, Andrea M.; Goldfarb, Shari; Maggi, Mario; Nelson, Christian J.; Parish, Sharon; Salonia, Andrea; Tan, Ronny; Mulhall, John P.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a multidimensional but common male sexual dysfunction that involves an alteration in any of the components of the erectile response, including organic, relational and psychological. Roles for nonendocrine (neurogenic, vasculogenic and iatrogenic) and endocrine pathways have been proposed. Owing to its strong association with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, cardiac assessment may be warranted in men with symptoms of erectile dysfunction. Minimally invasive interventions to relieve the symptoms of erectile dysfunction include lifestyle modifications, oral drugs, injected vasodilator agents and vacuum erection devices. Surgical therapies are reserved for the subset of patients who have contraindications to these nonsurgical interventions, those who experience adverse effects from (or are refractory to) medical therapy and those who also have penile fibrosis or penile vascular insufficiency. Erectile dysfunction can have deleterious effects on a man’s quality of life; most patients have symptoms of depression and anxiety related to sexual performance. These symptoms, in turn, affect his partner’s sexual experience and the couple’s quality of life. This Primer highlights numerous aspects of erectile dysfunction, summarizes new treatment targets and ongoing preclinical studies that evaluate new pharmacotherapies, and covers the topic of regenerative medicine, which represents the future of sexual medicine. PMID:27188339

  13. Restructuring of pancreatic islets and insulin secretion in a postnatal critical window.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Aguayo-Mazzucato

    Full Text Available Function and structure of adult pancreatic islets are determined by early postnatal development, which in rats corresponds to the first month of life. We analyzed changes in blood glucose and hormones during this stage and their association with morphological and functional changes of alpha and beta cell populations during this period. At day 20 (d20, insulin and glucose plasma levels were two- and six-fold higher, respectively, as compared to d6. Interestingly, this period is characterized by physiological hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, where peripheral insulin resistance and a high plasmatic concentration of glucagon are also observed. These functional changes were paralleled by reorganization of islet structure, cell mass and aggregate size of alpha and beta cells. Cultured beta cells from d20 secreted the same amount of insulin in 15.6 mM than in 5.6 mM glucose (basal conditions, and were characterized by a high basal insulin secretion. However, beta cells from d28 were already glucose sensitive. Understanding and establishing morphophysiological relationships in the developing endocrine pancreas may explain how events in early life are important in determining adult islet physiology and metabolism.

  14. High fat programming of beta cell compensation, exhaustion, death and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2015-03-01

    Programming refers to events during critical developmental windows that shape progeny health outcomes. Fetal programming refers to the effects of intrauterine (in utero) events. Lactational programming refers to the effects of events during suckling (weaning). Developmental programming refers to the effects of events during both fetal and lactational life. Postnatal programming refers to the effects of events either from birth (lactational life) to adolescence or from weaning (end of lactation) to adolescence. Islets are most plastic during the early life course; hence programming during fetal and lactational life is most potent. High fat (HF) programming is the maintenance on a HF diet (HFD) during critical developmental life stages that alters progeny metabolism and physiology. HF programming induces variable diabetogenic phenotypes dependent on the timing and duration of the dietary insult. Maternal obesity reinforces HF programming effects in progeny. HF programming, through acute hyperglycemia, initiates beta cell compensation. However, HF programming eventually leads to chronic hyperglycemia that triggers beta cell exhaustion, death and dysfunction. In HF programming, beta cell dysfunction often co-presents with insulin resistance. Balanced, healthy nutrition during developmental windows is critical for preserving beta cell structure and function. Thus early positive nutritional interventions that coincide with the development of beta cells may reduce the overwhelming burden of diabetes and metabolic disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effect of alcohol on insulin secretion and viability of human pancreatic islets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. There are controversial data in the literature on the topic of effects of alcohol on insulin secretion, apoptosis, and necrosis of the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. The goal of this research was to determine how alcohol affects the insulin secretion and viability of human adult pancreatic islets in vitro during a seven-day incubation. Methods. Human pancreatic tissue was digested with Collagenase XI, using a non-automated method. Cultures were incubated in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI medium containing alcohol (10 μl of alcohol in 100 ml of medium. Insulin stimulation index (SI and viability of the islets were determined on the first, third, and seventh day of cultivation. Results. Analysis of the viability of the islets showed that there wasn’t significant difference between the control and the test group. In the test group, viability of the cultures declined with the time of incubation. SI of the test group was higher compared to the control group, by 50% and 25% on the first and third day of cultivation, respectively. On the seventh day, insulin secretion was reduced by 25%. The difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. In the test group, significant decline in insulin secretion was found on the third and seventh day of incubation (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion. Alcohol can increase or decrease insulin secretion of islets cultures, which may result in an inadequate response of pancreatic β-cells to blood glucose, leading to insulin resistance, and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 41002

  16. Induction of insulin and islet amyloid polypeptide production in pancreatic islet glucagonoma cells by insulin promoter factor 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, P; Jensen, J; Andersen, F G

    1996-01-01

    ) 371, 606-609]. In adults, IPF1 expression is restricted to the beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans. We report here that IPF1 induces expression of a subset of beta-cell-specific genes (insulin and islet amyloid polypeptide) when ectopically expressed in clones of transformed pancreatic islet alpha...... in both alpha- and beta-cells. We conclude that IPF1 is a potent transcriptional activator of endogenous insulin genes in non-beta islet cells, which suggests an important role of IPF1 in beta-cell maturation.......-cells. In contrast, expression of IPF1 in rat embryo fibroblasts factor failed to induce insulin and islet amyloid polypeptide expression. This is most likely due to the lack of at least one other essential insulin gene transcription factor, the basic helix-loop-helix protein Beta 2/NeuroD, which is expressed...

  17. Three-Vessel Assessment of Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction in Patients With Clinical Suspicion of Ischemia: Prospective Observational Study With the Index of Microcirculatory Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuhei; Lee, Joo Myung; Fearon, William F; Lee, Jang Hoon; Nishi, Takeshi; Choi, Dong-Hyun; Zimmermann, Frederik M; Jung, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Doh, Joon-Hyung; Nam, Chang-Wook; Shin, Eun-Seok; Koo, Bon-Kwon

    2017-11-01

    Difficulty directly visualizing the coronary microvasculature as opposed to the epicardial coronary artery makes its assessment challenging. The goal of this study is to measure the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) in all 3 major coronary vessels to identify the clinical and angiographic predictors of an abnormal IMR. Ninety-three patients who underwent coronary physiological assessment in all 3 major coronary vessels were prospectively enrolled (59.8±9.4 years with 77.4% men). IMR was corrected using Yong's formula and coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) was defined using vessel-specific cutoffs. A global IMR was calculated as the sum of the IMR in all 3 major epicardial vessels. Angiographic epicardial disease severity was assessed with vessel-specific and overall SYNTAX score. Median IMR and fractional flow reserve was 17.2 (Q1-Q3: 13.3-22.9) and 0.92 (0.85-0.97). The majority of patients (59.1%) had no CMD, 23.7% had 1-vessel CMD, 14.0% had 2-vessel CMD, and 3.2% had 3-vessel CMD. CMD was observed at a similar rate in the territories supplied by all 3 major coronary vessels (left anterior descending coronary artery 28.0%, left circumflex artery 19.4%, and right coronary artery 23.7%; P =0.39). Fractional flow reserve had a weak, positive correlation with IMR (ρ=0.16; P CMD. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01621438. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Chronic Pulsatile Hyperglycemia Reduces Insulin Secretion and Increases Accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Fetal Sheep Islets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alice S.; Chen, Xiaochuan; Macko, Antoni R.; Anderson, Miranda J.; Kelly, Amy C.; Hart, Nathaniel J.; Lynch, Ronald M.; Limesand, Sean W.

    2012-01-01

    Children from diabetic pregnancies have a greater incidence of Type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to determine if exposure to mild-moderate hyperglycemia, modeling managed diabetic pregnancies, affects fetal β-cell function. In sheep fetuses β-cell responsiveness was examined after two weeks of sustained hyperglycemia with 3 pulses/day, mimicking postprandial excursions, and compared to saline-infused controls (n=10). Two pulsatile hyperglycemia treatments were studied: mild (mPHG, n=5) with +15% sustained and +55% pulse; and moderate (PHG, n=10) with +20% sustained and +100% pulse. Fetal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucose potentiated arginine insulin secretion were lower (Pinsulin) but not mPHG fetuses (1.21±0.08 and 4.25±0.56 ng/ml) compared to controls (1.58±0.25 and 4.51±0.56 ng/ml). Islet insulin content was 35% lower in PHG and 35% higher in mPHG versus controls (PInsulin secretion and maximally stimulated insulin release were also reduced (Pinsulin content. Isolated PHG islets also had 63% greater (Pinsulin resistance. Our findings show that PHG induced dysregulation of islet ROS handling and decreased islet insulin content, but these outcomes are independent. The β-cell outcomes were dependent on the severity of hyperglycemia because mPHG fetuses had no distinguishable impairments in ROS handling or insulin secretion but greater insulin content. PMID:22182602

  19. Protective efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B12 against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharjee Ankita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although cigarette smoking is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, few studies have examined the effect of nicotine on the adult endocrine pancreas. In this study, male Wister rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg/kg body weight/day with or without supplementation of folic acid (36 μg/kg body weight/day or vitamin B12 (0.63 μg/kg body weight/day alone or in combination. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and HBA1C level and different oxidative and anti-oxidative stress parameters were measured and pancreatic tissue sections were stained with eosin-haematoxylene. Data were analysed by nonparametric statistics. The results revealed that nicotine induced prediabetes condition with subsequent damage to pancreatic islets in rats. Nicotine also caused oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue as evidenced by increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde level and decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione level. Compared to vitamin B12 supplementation, folic acid blunted the nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets with higher efficacy. Further, folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination were able to confer significant protection on pancreatic islets against nicotine induced toxicity. These results suggest that supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination may be a possible strategy of detoxification against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat.

  20. Effects of Composition of Alginate-Polyethylene Glycol Microcapsules and Transplant Site on Encapsulated Islet Graft Outcomes in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Chiara; Manzoli, Vita; Abreu, Maria M.; Verheyen, Connor A.; Seskin, Michael; Najjar, Mejdi; Molano, R. Damaris; Torrente, Yvan; Ricordi, Camillo; Tomei, Alice A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Understanding the effects of capsule composition and transplantation site on graft outcomes of encapsulated islets will aid in the development of more effective strategies for islet transplantation without immunosuppression. Methods Here, we evaluated the effects of transplanting alginate (ALG)-based microcapsules (Micro) in the confined and well-vascularized epididymal fat pad (EFP) site, a model of the human omentum, as opposed to free-floating in the intraperitoneal cavity (IP) in mice. We also examined the effects of reinforcing ALG with polyethylene glycol (PEG). To allow transplantation in the EFP site, we minimized capsule size to 500 ± 17 μm. Unlike ALG, PEG resists osmotic stress, hence we generated hybrid microcapsules by mixing PEG and ALG (MicroMix) or by coating ALG capsules with a 15 ± 2 μm PEG layer (Double). Results We found improved engraftment of fully allogeneic BALB/c islets in Micro capsules transplanted in the EFP (median reversal time [MRT], 1 day) versus the IP site (MRT, 5 days; P Micro encapsulated (MRT, 8 days) versus naked (MRT, 36 days; P Micro, addition of PEG to ALG in MicroMix capsules improved engraftment of allogeneic islets in the IP site, but resulted deleterious in the EFP site, probably due to lower biocompatibility. Conclusions Our results suggest that capsule composition and transplant site affect graft outcomes through their effects on nutrient availability, capsule stability, and biocompatibility. PMID:27525644

  1. Photoacoustic imaging of angiogenesis in subdermal islet transplant sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Pawlick, Rena; Bruni, Antonio; Rafiei, Yasmin; Pepper, Andrew R.; Gala-Lopez, Boris; Choi, Min; Malcolm, Andrew; Zemp, Roger J.; Shapiro, A. M. James

    2016-03-01

    Exogenous insulin administration is the mainstay treatment therapy for patients with Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, for select patients, clinical islet transplantation is an alternative therapeutic treatment. In this procedure, islets are transplanted into the hepatic portal vein, and despite improved success within the last decade, obstacles are still associated with this approach. It has been discovered that the subcutaneous space may be an effective alternative site for islet transplantation, and may provide advantages of easy access and potential for simple monitoring. The ability to monitor islet viability and the transplant microenvironment may be key to future success in islet transplantation. A subcutaneous device-less technique has been developed to facilitate angiogenesis in the islet transplant site, however, a method for monitoring the potential engraftment site have yet to be explored fully. Here we demonstrate the ability to track angiogenesis in mice with 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-catheter implant on both sides of the abdomen using a FujiFilm VisualSonics Vevo-LAZR system. Quantitative analysis on vessel densities exhibited gradual vessel growth successfully induced by catheter implantation. Our study demonstrates the ability of employing photoacoustic and micro-ultrasound imaging to track angiogenesis around the catheter site prior to islet transplantation.

  2. Has the gap between pancreas and islet transplantation closed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niclauss, Nadja; Morel, Philippe; Berney, Thierry

    2014-09-27

    Both pancreas and islet transplantations are therapeutic options for complicated type 1 diabetes. Until recent years, outcomes of islet transplantation have been significantly inferior to those of whole pancreas. Islet transplantation is primarily performed alone in patients with severe hypoglycemia, and recent registry reports have suggested that results of islet transplantation alone in this indication may be about to match those of pancreas transplant alone in insulin independence. Figures of 50% insulin independence at 5 years for either procedure have been cited. In this article, we address the question whether islet transplantation has indeed bridged the gap with whole pancreas. Looking at the evidence to answer this question, we propose that although pancreas may still be more efficient in taking recipients off insulin than islets, there are in fact numerous "gaps" separating both procedures that must be taken into the equation. These "gaps" relate to organ utilization, organ allocation, indication for transplantation, and morbidity. In-depth analysis reveals that islet transplantation, in fact, has an edge on whole pancreas in some of these aspects. Accordingly, attempts should be made to bridge these gaps from both sides to achieve the same level of success with either procedure. More realistically, it is likely that some of these gaps will remain and that both procedures will coexist and complement each other, to ensure that β cell replacement can be successfully implemented in the greatest possible number of patients with type 1 diabetes.

  3. Islet Microencapsulation: Strategies and Clinical Status in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omami, Mustafa; McGarrigle, James J; Reedy, Mick; Isa, Douglas; Ghani, Sofia; Marchese, Enza; Bochenek, Matthew A; Longi, Maha; Xing, Yuan; Joshi, Ira; Wang, Yong; Oberholzer, José

    2017-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that results from the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells in the islets of Langerhans. Islet cell transplantation has become a successful therapy for specific patients with T1DM with hypoglycemic unawareness. The reversal of T1DM by islet transplantation is now performed at many major medical facilities throughout the world. However, many challenges must still be overcome in order to achieve continuous, long-term successful transplant outcomes. Two major obstacles to this therapy are a lack of islet cells for transplantation and the need for life-long immunosuppressive treatment. Microencapsulation is seen as a technology that can overcome both these limitations of islet cell transplantation. This review depicts the present state of microencapsulated islet transplantation. Microencapsulation can play a significant role in overcoming the need for immunosuppression and lack of donor islet cells. This review focuses on microencapsulation and the clinical status of the technology in combating T1DM.

  4. Laryngeal Dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull, James H; Backer, Vibeke; Gibson, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    The larynx is one of the most highly innervated organs in humans and serves a number of vitally important, complex, and highly evolved biological functions. On a day-to-day basis, the larynx functions autonomously, addressing several roles including airway protection, swallowing, and phonation....... In some situations the larynx appears to adopt a functional state that could be considered maladaptive or "dysfunctional." This laryngeal dysfunction can underpin and account for a number of respiratory symptoms that otherwise appear incongruous with a clinical disease state and/or contribute...

  5. Core-shell hydrogel microcapsules for improved islets encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Minglin; Chiu, Alan; Sahay, Gaurav; Doloff, Joshua C; Dholakia, Nimit; Thakrar, Raj; Cohen, Joshua; Vegas, Arturo; Chen, Delai; Bratlie, Kaitlin M; Dang, Tram; York, Roger L; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Weir, Gordon C; Anderson, Daniel G

    2013-05-01

    Islets microencapsulation holds great promise to treat type 1 diabetes. Currently used alginate microcapsules often have islets protruding outside capsules, leading to inadequate immuno-protection. A novel design of microcapsules with core-shell structures using a two-fluid co-axial electro-jetting is reported. Improved encapsulation and diabetes correction is achieved in a single step by simply confining the islets in the core region of the capsules. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Microencapsulation of Pancreatic Islets for Use in a Bioartificial Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Emmanuel C.; McQuilling, John P.; Farney, Alan C.

    2013-01-01

    Islet transplantation is the most exciting treatment option for individuals afflicted with Type 1 diabetes. However, the severe shortage of human pancreas and the need to use risky immunosuppressive drugs to prevent transplant rejection remain two major obstacles for the routine use of islet transplantation in diabetic patients. Successful development of a bioartificial pancreas using the approach of microencapsulation with perm-selective coating of islets with biopolymers for graft immunoisolation holds tremendous promise for diabetic patients because it has great potential to overcome these two barriers. In this chapter, we provide a detailed description of the microencapsulation process. PMID:23494435

  7. A Multicenter Study: North American Islet Donor Score in Donor Pancreas Selection for Human Islet Isolation for Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling-Jia; Kin, Tatsuya; O'Gorman, Doug; Shapiro, A M James; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Takita, Morihito; Levy, Marlon F; Posselt, Andrew M; Szot, Gregory L; Savari, Omid; Barbaro, Barbara; McGarrigle, James; Yeh, Chun Chieh; Oberholzer, Jose; Lei, Ji; Chen, Tao; Lian, Moh; Markmann, James F; Alvarez, Alejandro; Linetsky, Elina; Ricordi, Camillo; Balamurugan, A N; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Wilhelm, Joshua J; Hering, Bernhard J; Bottino, Rita; Trucco, Massimo; Liu, Chengyang; Min, Zaw; Li, Yanjing; Naji, Ali; Fernandez, Luis A; Ziemelis, Martynas; Danobeitia, Juan S; Millis, J Michael; Witkowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Selection of an optimal donor pancreas is the first key task for successful islet isolation. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study in 11 centers in North America to develop an islet donor scoring system using donor variables. The data set consisting of 1,056 deceased donors was used for development of a scoring system to predict islet isolation success (defined as postpurification islet yield >400,000 islet equivalents). With the aid of univariate logistic regression analyses, we developed the North American Islet Donor Score (NAIDS) ranging from 0 to 100 points. The c index in the development cohort was 0.73 (95% confidence interval 0.70-0.76). The success rate increased proportionally as the NAIDS increased, from 6.8% success in the NAIDS < 50 points to 53.7% success in the NAIDS ≥ 80 points. We further validated the NAIDS using a separate set of data consisting of 179 islet isolations. A comparable outcome of the NAIDS was observed in the validation cohort. The NAIDS may be a useful tool for donor pancreas selection in clinical practice. Apart from its utility in clinical decision making, the NAIDS may also be used in a research setting as a standardized measurement of pancreas quality.

  8. Comparison between doppler ultrasound resistive index, serum creatinine, and histopathologic changes in patients with kidney transplant dysfunction in early posttransplantation period: A single center study with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajal N Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the relationship between resistive index (RI measured by Doppler ultrasound, serum creatinine (SCr, and histopathological changes on biopsy during kidney trans- plant dysfunction in early postoperative period, we studied 47 kidney transplant patients; 61% of the patients had acute transplant rejection, 19% had acute tubular necrosis, 4% had calcineurin inhibitor toxicity, 11% had normal morphology in biopsy, and 5% had changes compatible with pyelonephritis. None of the study patients had interstitial fibrosis or tubular atrophy on biopsy. We found that the sensitivity and specificity of RI in diagnosing transplant dysfunction was highly variable depending on the selected cutoff value. Sensitivity of RI decreased and its specificity increased with increasing the RI thresholds. Using an RI threshold of 0.7 resulted in a high sensitivity of 78% at a cost of very low specificity 40%, whereas using an RI threshold of 0.9 resulted in 100% specificity at a cost of very low sensitivity 16%. Acceptable specificity was only achieved at the expense of very low sensitivity, resulting in poor utility of RI as a screening tool for dysfunction. We found that there were no significant differences in the mean RI value between patients with and without biopsy-proven transplant dysfunction. However, we found a significant correlation between SCr value and RI of 0.383, P = 0.007.

  9. Comparison between doppler ultrasound resistive index, serum creatinine, and histopathologic changes in patients with kidney transplant dysfunction in early posttransplantation period: A single center study with review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kajal N; Patel, Nitin A; Gandhi, Shruti P

    2016-05-01

    To determine the relationship between resistive index (RI) measured by Doppler ultrasound, serum creatinine (SCr), and histopathological changes on biopsy during kidney trans- plant dysfunction in early postoperative period, we studied 47 kidney transplant patients; 61% of the patients had acute transplant rejection, 19% had acute tubular necrosis, 4% had calcineurin inhibitor toxicity, 11% had normal morphology in biopsy, and 5% had changes compatible with pyelonephritis. None of the study patients had interstitial fibrosis or tubular atrophy on biopsy. We found that the sensitivity and specificity of RI in diagnosing transplant dysfunction was highly variable depending on the selected cutoff value. Sensitivity of RI decreased and its specificity increased with increasing the RI thresholds. Using an RI threshold of 0.7 resulted in a high sensitivity of 78% at a cost of very low specificity 40%, whereas using an RI threshold of 0.9 resulted in 100% specificity at a cost of very low sensitivity 16%. Acceptable specificity was only achieved at the expense of very low sensitivity, resulting in poor utility of RI as a screening tool for dysfunction. We found that there were no significant differences in the mean RI value between patients with and without biopsy-proven transplant dysfunction. However, we found a significant correlation between SCr value and RI of 0.383, P = 0.007.

  10. Glucose metabolism, islet architecture, and genetic homogeneity in imprinting of [Ca2+](i and insulin rhythms in mouse islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig S Nunemaker

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We reported previously that islets isolated from individual, outbred Swiss-Webster mice displayed oscillations in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+](i that varied little between islets of a single mouse but considerably between mice, a phenomenon we termed "islet imprinting." We have now confirmed and extended these findings in several respects. First, imprinting occurs in both inbred (C57BL/6J as well as outbred mouse strains (Swiss-Webster; CD1. Second, imprinting was observed in NAD(PH oscillations, indicating a metabolic component. Further, short-term exposure to a glucose-free solution, which transiently silenced [Ca2+](i oscillations, reset the oscillatory patterns to a higher frequency. This suggests a key role for glucose metabolism in maintaining imprinting, as transiently suppressing the oscillations with diazoxide, a K(ATP-channel opener that blocks [Ca2+](i influx downstream of glucose metabolism, did not change the imprinted patterns. Third, imprinting was not as readily observed at the level of single beta cells, as the [Ca2+](i oscillations of single cells isolated from imprinted islets exhibited highly variable, and typically slower [Ca2+](i oscillations. Lastly, to test whether the imprinted [Ca2+](i patterns were of functional significance, a novel microchip platform was used to monitor insulin release from multiple islets in real time. Insulin release patterns correlated closely with [Ca2+](i oscillations and showed significant mouse-to-mouse differences, indicating imprinting. These results indicate that islet imprinting is a general feature of islets and is likely to be of physiological significance. While islet imprinting did not depend on the genetic background of the mice, glucose metabolism and intact islet architecture may be important for the imprinting phenomenon.

  11. Fully Automated Islet Cell Counter (ICC) for the Assessment of Islet Mass, Purity, and Size Distribution by Digital Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Peter; Bernal, Andres; Echeverri, Felipe; Tamayo-Garcia, Alejandro; Linetsky, Elina; Ricordi, Camillo

    2016-10-01

    For isolated pancreatic islet cell preparations, it is important to be able to reliably assess their mass and quality, and for clinical applications, it is part of the regulatory requirement. Accurate assessment, however, is difficult because islets are spheroid-like cell aggregates of different sizes (<50 to 500 μm) resulting in possible thousandfold differences between the mass contribution of individual particles. The current standard manual counting method that uses size-based group classification is known to be error prone and operator dependent. Digital image analysis (DIA)-based methods can provide less subjective, more reproducible, and better-documented islet cell mass (IEQ) estimates; however, so far, none has become widely accepted or used. Here we present results obtained using a compact, self-contained islet cell counter (ICC3) that includes both the hardware and software needed for automated islet counting and requires minimal operator training and input; hence, it can be easily adapted at any center and could provide a convenient standardized cGMP-compliant IEQ assessment. Using cross-validated sample counting, we found that for most human islet cell preparations, ICC3 provides islet mass (IEQ) estimates that correlate well with those obtained by trained operators using the current manual SOP method ( r2 = 0.78, slope = 1.02). Variability and reproducibility are also improved compared to the manual method, and most of the remaining variability (CV = 8.9%) results from the rearrangement of the islet particles due to movement of the sample between counts. Characterization of the size distribution is also important, and the present digitally collected data allow more detailed analysis and coverage of a wider size range. We found again that for human islet cell preparations, a Weibull distribution function provides good description of the particle size.

  12. Erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Mohit; Goldstein, Irwin

    2011-06-29

    Erectile dysfunction may affect 30% to 50% of men aged 40 to 70 years, with age, smoking, and obesity being the main risk factors, although 20% of cases have psychological causes. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of phosphodiesterase inhibitors in men with erectile dysfunction of any cause? What are the effects of phosphodiesterase inhibitors on erectile dysfunction in men with diabetes, with cardiovascular disease, with spinal cord injury, and with prostate cancer or undergoing prostatectomy? What are the effects of drug treatments other than phosphodiesterase inhibitors in men with erectile dysfunction of any cause? What are the effects of devices, psychological/behavioural treatments, and alternative treatments in men with erectile dysfunction of any cause? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 81 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: alprostadil (intracavernosal, intraurethral, topical), cognitive behavioural therapy, ginseng, papaverine, papaverine plus phentolamine (bimix), papaverine plus phentolamine plus alprostadil (trimix), penile prostheses, phosphodiesterase inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil), psychosexual counselling, vacuum devices, and yohimbine.

  13. Islet alloautotransplantation: Allogeneic pancreas transplantation followed by transplant pancreatectomy and islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhoff, M F; Dubbeld, J; van Erkel, A R; van der Boog, P J M; Rabelink, T J; Engelse, M A; de Koning, E J P

    2017-11-21

    Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation is an important treatment option for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to complications, in up to 10% of patients, allograft pancreatectomy is necessary shortly after transplantation. Usually the donor pancreas is discarded. Here, we report on a novel procedure to rescue endocrine tissue after allograft pancreatectomy. A 39-year-old woman with T1D and ESRD who had undergone SPK transplantation required emergency allograft pancreatectomy due to bleeding at the vascular anastomosis. Islets were isolated from the removed pancreas allograft, and almost 480 000 islet equivalents were infused into the portal vein. The patient recovered fully. After 3 months, near-normal mixed meal test (fasting glucose 7.0 mmol/L, 2-hour glucose 7.5 mmol/L, maximal stimulated C-peptide 3.25 nmol/L, without insulin use in the preceding 36 hours) was achieved. Glycated hemoglobin while taking a low dose of long-acting insulin was 32.7 mmol/mol hemoglobin (5.3%). When a donor pancreas is lost after transplantation, rescue β cell therapy by islet alloautotransplantation enables optimal use of scarce donor pancreata to optimize glycemic control without additional HLA alloantigen exposure. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  14. Integrative analysis of a cross-loci regulation network identifies App as a gene regulating insulin secretion from pancreatic islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhidong Tu

    Full Text Available Complex diseases result from molecular changes induced by multiple genetic factors and the environment. To derive a systems view of how genetic loci interact in the context of tissue-specific molecular networks, we constructed an F2 intercross comprised of >500 mice from diabetes-resistant (B6 and diabetes-susceptible (BTBR mouse strains made genetically obese by the Leptin(ob/ob mutation (Lep(ob. High-density genotypes, diabetes-related clinical traits, and whole-transcriptome expression profiling in five tissues (white adipose, liver, pancreatic islets, hypothalamus, and gastrocnemius muscle were determined for all mice. We performed an integrative analysis to investigate the inter-relationship among genetic factors, expression traits, and plasma insulin, a hallmark diabetes trait. Among five tissues under study, there are extensive protein-protein interactions between genes responding to different loci in adipose and pancreatic islets that potentially jointly participated in the regulation of plasma insulin. We developed a novel ranking scheme based on cross-loci protein-protein network topology and gene expression to assess each gene's potential to regulate plasma insulin. Unique candidate genes were identified in adipose tissue and islets. In islets, the Alzheimer's gene App was identified as a top candidate regulator. Islets from 17-week-old, but not 10-week-old, App knockout mice showed increased insulin secretion in response to glucose or a membrane-permeant cAMP analog, in agreement with the predictions of the network model. Our result provides a novel hypothesis on the mechanism for the connection between two aging-related diseases: Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes.

  15. Methylated trivalent arsenicals are potent inhibitors of glucose stimulated insulin secretion by murine pancreatic islets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douillet, Christelle [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2302 MHRC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States); Currier, Jenna [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States); Saunders, Jesse [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2302 MHRC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States); Bodnar, Wanda M. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7431 (United States); Matoušek, Tomáš [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v.v.i., Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Stýblo, Miroslav, E-mail: styblo@med.unc.edu [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2302 MHRC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Epidemiologic evidence has linked chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) with an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Laboratory studies have identified several mechanisms by which iAs can impair glucose homeostasis. We have previously shown that micromolar concentrations of arsenite (iAs{sup III}) or its methylated trivalent metabolites, methylarsonite (MAs{sup III}) and dimethylarsinite (DMAs{sup III}), inhibit the insulin-activated signal transduction pathway, resulting in insulin resistance in adipocytes. Our present study examined effects of the trivalent arsenicals on insulin secretion by intact pancreatic islets isolated from C57BL/6 mice. We found that 48-hour exposures to low subtoxic concentrations of iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but not basal insulin secretion. MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} were more potent than iAs{sup III} as GSIS inhibitors with estimated IC{sub 50} ≤ 0.1 μM. The exposures had little or no effects on insulin content of the islets or on insulin expression, suggesting that trivalent arsenicals interfere with mechanisms regulating packaging of the insulin transport vesicles or with translocation of these vesicles to the plasma membrane. Notably, the inhibition of GSIS by iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} could be reversed by a 24-hour incubation of the islets in arsenic-free medium. These results suggest that the insulin producing pancreatic β-cells are among the targets for iAs exposure and that the inhibition of GSIS by low concentrations of the methylated metabolites of iAs may be the key mechanism of iAs-induced diabetes. - Highlights: ► Trivalent arsenicals inhibit glucose stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. ► MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} are more potent inhibitors than arsenite with IC{sub 50} ∼ 0.1 μM. ► The arsenicals have little or no effects on insulin expression in pancreatic islets. ► The inhibition of

  16. Modulation of the pancreatic islet-stress axis as a novel potential therapeutic target in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Barbara; Barthel, Andreas; Reichel, Andreas; Block, Norman L; Ludwig, Stefan; Schally, Andrew V; Bornstein, Stefan R

    2014-01-01

    Loss of pancreatic islet function and insulin-producing beta cell mass is a central hallmark in the pathogenesis of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. While in type 1 diabetes this phenomenon is due to an extensive destruction of beta cells caused by an autoimmune process, the mechanisms resulting in beta cell failure in type 2 diabetes are different and less clear. Also, beta cell destruction in type 1 diabetes occurs early and is the initial step in the pathogenetic process, while beta cell loss in type 2 diabetes after an initial phase of hyperinsulinemia due to the underlying insulin resistance occurs relatively late and it is less pronounced. Since diabetes mellitus is the most frequent endocrine disease, with an increasing high prevalence worldwide, huge efforts have been made over the past many decades to identify predisposing genetic, environmental, and nutritional factors in order to develop effective strategies to prevent the disease. In parallel, extensive studies in different cell systems and animal models have helped to elucidate our understanding of the physiologic function of islets and to gain insight into the immunological and non-immunological mechanisms of beta cell destruction and failure. Furthermore, currently emerging concepts of beta cell regeneration (e.g., the restoration of the beta cell pool by regenerative, proliferative and antiapoptotic processes, and recovery of physiologic islet function) apparently is yielding the first promising results. Recent insights into the complex endocrine and paracrine mechanisms regulating the physiologic function of pancreatic islets, as well as beta cell life and death, constitute an essential part of this new and exciting area of diabetology. For example, understanding of the physiological role of glucagon-like peptide 1 has resulted in the successful clinical implementation of incretin-based therapies over the last years. Further, recent data suggesting paracrine effects of growth hormone

  17. Fibrillar dimer formation of islet amyloid polypeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Chi-cheng [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); de Pablo, Juan J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-05-08

    Amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a 37-residue hormone co-produced with insulin, have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Residues 20 – 29 of hIAPP have been proposed to constitute the amyloidogenic core for the aggregation process, yet the segment is mostly unstructured in the mature fibril, according to solid-state NMR data. Here we use molecular simulations combined with bias-exchange metadynamics to characterize the conformational free energies of hIAPP fibrillar dimer and its derivative, pramlintide. We show that residues 20 – 29 are involved in an intermediate that exhibits transient β-sheets, consistent with recent experimental and simulation results. By comparing the aggregation of hIAPP and pramlintide, we illustrate the effects of proline residues on inhibition of the dimerization of IAPP. The mechanistic insights presented here could be useful for development of therapeutic inhibitors of hIAPP amyloid formation.

  18. OBSTACLES IN THE APPLICATION OF MICROENCAPSULATION IN ISLET TRANSPLANTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVOS, P; WOLTERS, GHJ; FRITSCHY, WM; VANSCHILFGAARDE, R

    Several factors stand in the way of successful clinical transplantation of alginate-polylysine-alginate microencapsulated pancreatic islets. These obstacles can be classified into three categories. The first regards the technical aspects of the production process. Limiting factors are the

  19. Assimilating Dokdo: The Islets in Korean Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Palmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sovereignty over the Tokto Islets is heatedly contested between South Korea and Japan. The Korean government and citizenry have responded to this dispute by inserting the islets into their national collective memory in multifarious ways in an attempt to strengthen their nation’s claim to Tokto. The islets are included in the material culture and public memory of the nation in ways that make them part of everyday life for millions of Koreans. Korea’s claim to Tokto is currently taught in schools, presented in museums, found in popular songs, and exploited by businesses for profit. The deeper Tokto becomes entrenched in Korean society, the less likely a compromise can be reached with Japan over the islets.

  20. A 3D map of the islet routes throughout the healthy human pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; Gagniuc, Paul A.; Gubceac, Elvira; Mardare, Liliana; Popescu, Irinel; Dima, Simona; Militaru, Manuella

    2015-01-01

    Islets of Langerhans are fundamental in understanding diabetes. A healthy human pancreas from a donor has been used to asses various islet parameters and their three-dimensional distribution. Here we show that islets are spread gradually from the head up to the tail section of the pancreas in the form of contracted or dilated islet routes. We also report a particular anatomical structure, namely the cluster of islets. Our observations revealed a total of 11 islet clusters which comprise of small islets that surround large blood vessels. Additional observations in the peripancreatic adipose tissue have shown lymphoid-like nodes and blood vessels captured in a local inflammatory process. Our observations are based on regional slice maps of the pancreas, comprising of 5,423 islets. We also devised an index of sphericity which briefly indicates various islet shapes that are dominant throughout the pancreas. PMID:26417671

  1. Expression and regulation of nampt in human islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Kover

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt is a rate-limiting enzyme in the mammalian NAD+ biosynthesis of a salvage pathway and exists in 2 known forms, intracellular Nampt (iNampt and a secreted form, extracellular Nampt (eNampt. eNampt can generate an intermediate product, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN, which has been reported to support insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. Nampt has been reported to be expressed in the pancreas but islet specific expression has not been adequately defined. The aim of this study was to characterize Nampt expression, secretion and regulation by glucose in human islets. Gene and protein expression of Nampt was assessed in human pancreatic tissue and isolated islets by qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence/confocal imaging respectively. Variable amounts of Nampt mRNA were detected in pancreatic tissue and isolated islets. Immunofluorescence staining for Nampt was found in the exocrine and endocrine tissue of fetal pancreas. However, in adulthood, Nampt expression was localized predominantly in beta cells. Isolated human islets secreted increasing amounts of eNampt in response to high glucose (20 mM in a static glucose-stimulated insulin secretion assay (GSIS. In addition to an increase in eNampt secretion, exposure to 20 mM glucose also increased Nampt mRNA levels but not protein content. The secretion of eNampt was attenuated by the addition of membrane depolarization inhibitors, diazoxide and nifedipine. Islet-secreted eNampt showed enzymatic activity in a reaction with increasing production of NAD+/NADH over time. In summary, we show that Nampt is expressed in both exocrine and endocrine tissue early in life but in adulthood expression is localized to endocrine tissue. Enzymatically active eNampt is secreted by human islets, is regulated by glucose and requires membrane depolarization.

  2. Connexin 36 mediates blood cell flow in mouse pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Kurt W; Head, W Steve; Piston, David W

    2014-02-01

    The insulin-secreting β-cells are contained within islets of Langerhans, which are highly vascularized. Blood cell flow rates through islets are glucose-dependent, even though there are no changes in blood cell flow within in the surrounding exocrine pancreas. This suggests a specific mechanism of glucose-regulated blood flow in the islet. Pancreatic islets respond to elevated glucose with synchronous pulses of electrical activity and insulin secretion across all β-cells in the islet. Connexin 36 (Cx36) gap junctions between islet β-cells mediate this synchronization, which is lost in Cx36 knockout mice (Cx36(-/-)). This leads to glucose intolerance in these mice, despite normal plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity. Thus, we sought to investigate whether the glucose-dependent changes in intraislet blood cell flow are also dependent on coordinated pulsatile electrical activity. We visualized and quantified blood cell flow using high-speed in vivo fluorescence imaging of labeled red blood cells and plasma. With the use of a live animal glucose clamp, blood cell flow was measured during either hypoglycemia (∼50 mg/dl) or hyperglycemia (∼300 mg/dl). In contrast to the large glucose-dependent islet blood velocity changes observed in wild-type mice, only minimal differences are observed in both Cx36(+/-) and Cx36(-/-) mice. This observation supports a novel model where intraislet blood cell flow is regulated by the coordinated electrical activity in the islet β-cells. Because Cx36 expression and function is reduced in type 2 diabetes, the resulting defect in intraislet blood cell flow regulation may also play a significant role in diabetic pathology.

  3. Automated Analysis of Microscopic Images of Isolated Pancreatic Islets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Habart, D.; Švihlík, J.; Schier, Jan; Cahová, M.; Girman, P.; Zacharovová, K.; Berková, Z.; Kříž, J.; Fabryová, E.; Kosinová, L.; Papáčková, Z.; Kybic, J.; Saudek, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 12 (2016), s. 2145-2156 ISSN 0963-6897 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10440S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : enumeration of islets * image processing * image segmentation * islet transplantation * machine-learning * quality control Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 3.006, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/schier-0465945.pdf

  4. A preclinical evaluation of alternative site for islet allotransplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengshi Wang

    Full Text Available The bone marrow cavity (BMC has recently been identified as an alternative site to the liver for islet transplantation. This study aimed to compare the BMC with the liver as an islet allotransplantation site in diabetic monkeys. Diabetes was induced in Rhesus monkeys using streptozocin, and the monkeys were then divided into the following three groups: Group1 (islets transplanted in the liver with immunosuppressant, Group 2 (islets transplanted in the tibial BMC, and Group 3 (islets transplanted in the tibial BMC with immunosuppressant. The C-peptide and blood glucose levels were preoperatively measured. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT was conducted to assess graft function, and complete blood cell counts were performed to assess cell population changes. Cytokine expression was measured using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA and MILLIPLEX. Five monkeys in Group 3 exhibited a significantly increased insulin-independent time compared with the other groups (Group 1: 78.2 ± 19.0 days; Group 2: 58.8 ± 17.0 days; Group 3: 189.6 ± 26.2 days and demonstrated increases in plasma C-peptide 4 months after transplantation. The infusion procedure was not associated with adverse effects. Functional islets in the BMC were observed 225 days after transplantation using the dithizone (DTZ and insulin/glucagon stains. Our results showed that allogeneic islets transplanted in the BMC of diabetic Rhesus monkeys remained alive and functional for a longer time than those transplanted in the liver. This study was the first successful demonstration of allogeneic islet engraftment in the BMC of non-human primates (NHPs.

  5. Three Cases of Alopecia Following Clinical Islet Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Dalyce M; Koh, Angela; Imes, Sharleen; Shapiro, AM James; Senior, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Successful clinical islet allotransplantation requires control of both allo- and auto-immunity by using immunosuppressant drugs which have a number of side effects. The development of the autoimmune condition alopecia areata following successful islet transplantation is therefore unexpected. Three cases of alopecia affecting female islet transplant recipients are described. In all cases, alopecia developed approximately 7 years after initial transplant. All had received daclizumab, sirolimus and tacrolimus with their initial transplants, but all were receiving a combination of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil at the time alopecia developed. Two subjects had received thymoglobulin for a subsequent islet infusion and prior to the onset of alopecia. The progression of alopecia has been halted or reversed in all cases. Tacrolimus has been continued in 2 cases (one as monotherapy) while cyclosporine was used in place of tacrolimus in the third case. These three cases represent a crude incidence of alopecia in islet transplant candidates (pre-transplant) of alopecia might be expected in a proportion of individuals with type 1 diabetes, the risk may be increased after islet transplantation, and may be associated with the use of anti-TNF drugs, lymphodepleting antibodies or higher dose tacrolimus. PMID:21199356

  6. Existence of islet regenerating factors within the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitkar, Meghana; Bhonde, Ramesh

    2004-01-01

    Reduction in the functional mass of beta-cells is a common denominator in most forms of diabetes. Since the replicative potential of beta-cells is limited, the search for factors that trigger islet neogenesis becomes imperative. Here we tested the hypothesis that regenerating factors for the pancreas are either secreted by or present within the pancreatic milieu itself. For this purpose, we intraperitoneally injected pancreatic cell culture supernatant (PCCS), from normal pancreas, into streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice for 15 consecutive days. The PCCS-treated mice showed sustained reversal in 77.77% of experimental diabetic mice as evidenced by restoration of normoglycemia, increase in serum insulin levels and occurrence of neo islets in histopathological studies during a two month follow up, as opposed to the control diabetic mice which remained hyperglycemic throughout. In order to examine the potential of PCCS to bring about the regeneration of islets, we treated intra-islet precursor cells with PCCS in vitro, which led to the neogenesis of islets as evidenced by dithiozone and insulin immunostaining. These findings substantiate our hypothesis and make the search for regenerative factors converge towards the pancreas and its immediate surroundings. Such regenerative approaches, in combination with other therapeutic strategies to promote islet neogenesis may, in future, provide a cure and/or better means for the control and management of diabetes.

  7. Neurotransmitters act as paracrine signals to regulate insulin secretion from the human pancreatic islet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Menegaz, Danusa; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    In this symposium review we discuss the role of neurotransmitters as paracrine signals that regulate pancreatic islet function. A large number of neurotransmitters and their receptors has been identified in the islet, but relatively little is known about their involvement in islet biology. Interestingly, neurotransmitters initially thought to be present in autonomic axons innervating the islet are also present in endocrine cells of the human islet. These neurotransmitters can thus be released as paracrine signals to help control hormone release. Here we propose that the role of neurotransmitters may extend beyond controlling endocrine cell function to work as signals modulating vascular flow and immune responses within the islet. PMID:24591573

  8. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α regulates β cell function in mouse and human islets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kim; Ho, Kenneth; Stokes, Rebecca; Scott, Christopher; Lau, Sue Mei; Hawthorne, Wayne J.; O’Connell, Philip J.; Loudovaris, Thomas; Kay, Thomas W.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Okada, Terumasa; Wang, Xiaohui L.; Yim, Sun Hee; Shah, Yatrik; Grey, Shane T.; Biankin, Andrew V.; Kench, James G.; Laybutt, D. Ross; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Kahn, C. Ronald; Gunton, Jenny E.

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor that regulates cellular stress responses. While the levels of HIF-1α protein are tightly regulated, recent studies suggest that it can be active under normoxic conditions. We hypothesized that HIF-1α is required for normal β cell function and reserve and that dysregulation may contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we show that HIF-1α protein is present at low levels in mouse and human normoxic β cells and islets. Decreased levels of HIF-1α impaired glucose-stimulated ATP generation and β cell function. C57BL/6 mice with β cell–specific Hif1a disruption (referred to herein as β-Hif1a-null mice) exhibited glucose intolerance, β cell dysfunction, and developed severe glucose intolerance on a high-fat diet. Increasing HIF-1α levels by inhibiting its degradation through iron chelation markedly improved insulin secretion and glucose tolerance in control mice fed a high-fat diet but not in β-Hif1a-null mice. Increasing HIF-1α levels markedly increased expression of ARNT and other genes in human T2D islets and improved their function. Further analysis indicated that HIF-1α was bound to the Arnt promoter in a mouse β cell line, suggesting direct regulation. Taken together, these findings suggest an important role for HIF-1α in β cell reserve and regulation of ARNT expression and demonstrate that HIF-1α is a potential therapeutic target for the β cell dysfunction of T2D. PMID:20440072

  9. Immunocytochemical Identification of Four Cell Types in the Pancreatic Islets of the Japanese Serow, Capricornis crispus : COMMUNICATION : Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    YASURO, ATOJI; YASUAKI, TAKADA; YOSHITAKA, SUZUKI; Makoto, Sugimura; Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Gifu University; Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University

    1990-01-01

    The pancreatic islet of the Japanese serow was immunocytochemically examined. The islets were classified into large and small types, and both types of islets showed a similar composition of endocrine cells. The B cells were prominent and located at the periphery or throughout the islet . The A cells were less numerous and D and PP cells were sparse . The PP islets showing a majority of the PP cells were sometimes found. The large and small islets were detected irrespective of age of animals. ...

  10. Pancreatic islet cell reaggregation systems: efficiency of cell reassociation and endocrine cell topography of rat islet-like aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, S G; Wobken, J D; Williams, F G; Bauer, G E

    1994-07-01

    Single cells isolated from rat islets of Langerhans were cultured under conditions that support reassociation into islet-like aggregates. Comparisons were made of enzymatic methods of islet dissociation, rotational or static culture conditions, and culture at basal or stimulatory glucose concentrations. Over a period of 4 days the aggregates progressed through three stages of organization: cell coalescence to cellular chains, rearrangement of chains into small spheroids, and growth of spheroids. The numerical yield of aggregates was optimum after islets were dissociated with dispase. Culture under rotation resulted in the production of more aggregates of significantly larger diameter than under static conditions. Medium glucose concentrations of 4 and 11 mM supported cell reassociation under rotator culture, but no aggregation occurred under static culture at the basal (4 mM) glucose level. Aggregates resulting from 4-day rotator culture exhibited endocrine cell distributions similar to intact islets. Islet aggregates released insulin in response to glucose, but nonaggregated cells, maintained in culture, did not. The present comparisons reveal significant variability in the cellular composition, rate of formation, and yield of aggregates, and suggest that the methodology for producing aggregates should be carefully considered in experimental design.

  11. Characterization of pancreatic ductal cells in human islet preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, Hirohito; Miki, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Molano, Ruth D; Barker, Scott; Mita, Atsuyoshi; Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Klein, Dagmar; Pastori, Ricardo; Alejandro, Rodolfo; Inverardi, Luca; Pileggi, Antonello; Ricordi, Camillo

    2008-11-01

    Substantial amounts of nonendocrine cells are implanted as part of human islet grafts, and a possible influence of nonendocrine cells on clinical islet transplantation outcome has been postulated. There are currently no product release criteria specific for nonendocrine cells due to lack of available methods. The aims of this study were to develop a method for the evaluation of pancreatic ductal cells (PDCs) for clinical islet transplantation and to characterize them regarding phenotype, viability, and function. We assessed 161 human islet preparations using laser scanning cytometry (LSC/iCys) for phenotypic analysis of nonendocrine cells and flow cytometry (FACS) for PDC viability. PDC and beta-cells obtained from different density fractions during the islet cell purification were compared in terms of viability. Furthermore, we examined PDC ability to produce proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tissue factor (TF) relevant to islet graft outcome. Phenotypic analysis by LSC/iCys indicated that single staining for CK19 or CA19-9 was not enough for identifying PDCs, and that double staining for amylase and CK19 or CA19-9 allowed for quantitative evaluation of acinar cells and PDC content in human islet preparation. PDC showed a significantly higher viability than beta-cells (PDC vs beta-cell: 75.5+/-13.9 and 62.7+/-18.7%; P<0.0001). Although beta-cell viability was independent of its density, that of PDCs was higher as the density from which they were recovered increased. There was no correlation between PDCs and beta-cell viability (R(2)=0.0078). PDCs sorted from high-density fractions produced significantly higher amounts of proinflammatory mediators and VEGF, but not TF. We conclude that PDCs isolated from different fractions had different viability and functions. The precise characterization and assessment of these cells in addition to beta-cells in human islet cell products may be of assistance in understanding

  12. Pancreatic Islet Survival and Engraftment Is Promoted by Culture on Functionalized Spider Silk Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ulrika; Ria, Massimiliano; Åvall, Karin; Dekki Shalaly, Nancy; Zaitsev, Sergei V; Berggren, Per-Olof; Hedhammar, My

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of pancreatic islets is one approach for treatment of diabetes, however, hampered by the low availability of viable islets. Islet isolation leads to disruption of the environment surrounding the endocrine cells, which contributes to eventual cell death. The reestablishment of this environment is vital, why we herein investigated the possibility of using recombinant spider silk to support islets in vitro after isolation. The spider silk protein 4RepCT was formulated into three different formats; 2D-film, fiber mesh and 3D-foam, in order to provide a matrix that can give the islets physical support in vitro. Moreover, cell-binding motifs from laminin were incorporated into the silk protein in order to create matrices that mimic the natural cell environment. Pancreatic mouse islets were thoroughly analyzed for adherence, necrosis and function after in vitro maintenance on the silk matrices. To investigate their suitability for transplantation, we utilized an eye model which allows in vivo imaging of engraftment. Interestingly, islets that had been maintained on silk foam during in vitro culture showed improved revascularization. This coincided with the observation of preserved islet architecture with endothelial cells present after in vitro culture on silk foam. Selected matrices were further evaluated for long-term preservation of human islets. Matrices with the cell-binding motif RGD improved human islet maintenance (from 36% to 79%) with preserved islets architecture and function for over 3 months in vitro. The islets established cell-matrix contacts and formed vessel-like structures along the silk. Moreover, RGD matrices promoted formation of new, insulin-positive islet-like clusters that were connected to the original islets via endothelial cells. On silk matrices with islets from younger donors (<35 year), the amount of newly formed islet-like clusters found after 1 month in culture were almost double compared to the initial number of islets

  13. Pancreatic Islet Survival and Engraftment Is Promoted by Culture on Functionalized Spider Silk Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ulrika; Dekki Shalaly, Nancy; Zaitsev, Sergei V.; Berggren, Per-Olof; Hedhammar, My

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of pancreatic islets is one approach for treatment of diabetes, however, hampered by the low availability of viable islets. Islet isolation leads to disruption of the environment surrounding the endocrine cells, which contributes to eventual cell death. The reestablishment of this environment is vital, why we herein investigated the possibility of using recombinant spider silk to support islets in vitro after isolation. The spider silk protein 4RepCT was formulated into three different formats; 2D-film, fiber mesh and 3D-foam, in order to provide a matrix that can give the islets physical support in vitro. Moreover, cell-binding motifs from laminin were incorporated into the silk protein in order to create matrices that mimic the natural cell environment. Pancreatic mouse islets were thoroughly analyzed for adherence, necrosis and function after in vitro maintenance on the silk matrices. To investigate their suitability for transplantation, we utilized an eye model which allows in vivo imaging of engraftment. Interestingly, islets that had been maintained on silk foam during in vitro culture showed improved revascularization. This coincided with the observation of preserved islet architecture with endothelial cells present after in vitro culture on silk foam. Selected matrices were further evaluated for long-term preservation of human islets. Matrices with the cell-binding motif RGD improved human islet maintenance (from 36% to 79%) with preserved islets architecture and function for over 3 months in vitro. The islets established cell-matrix contacts and formed vessel-like structures along the silk. Moreover, RGD matrices promoted formation of new, insulin-positive islet-like clusters that were connected to the original islets via endothelial cells. On silk matrices with islets from younger donors (<35 year), the amount of newly formed islet-like clusters found after 1 month in culture were almost double compared to the initial number of islets

  14. Effect of Over 10-Year Cryopreserved Encapsulated Pancreatic Islets Of Langerhans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinasiewicz, Joanna; Antosiak-Iwanska, Magdalena; Godlewska, Ewa; Sitarek, Elzbieta; Sabat, Marek; Fiedor, Piotr; Granicka, Ludomira

    2017-08-28

    Immunoisolation of pancreatic islets of Langerhans performed by the encapsulation process may be a method to avoid immunosuppressive therapy after transplant. The main problem related to islet transplant is shortage of human pancreata. Resolution of this obstacle may be cryopreservation of encapsulated islets, which enables collection of sufficient numbers of isolated islets required for transplant and long-term storage. Here, we assessed the ability of encapsulated islets to function after long-term banking at low temperature. Islets of Langerhans isolated from rat, pig, and human pancreata were encapsulated within alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microcapsules. Cryopreservation was carried out using a controlled method of freezing (Kriomedpol freezer; Kriomedpol, Warsaw, Poland), and samples were stored in liquid nitrogen. After 10 years, the samples were thawed with the rapid method (with 0.75 M of sucrose) and then cultured. We observed that microcapsules containing islets maintained their shape and integrity after thawing. During culture, free islets were defragmented into single cells, whereas encapsulated islets were still round in shape and compact. After 1, 4, and 7 days of culture of encapsulated islets, the use of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide tests showed increased mitochondrial activity. After they were thawed, the insulin secretion capacity was comparable with that obtained with fresh islets. Cryopreservation and storage of free and microencapsulated islets were possible for about 10 years, although only encapsulated islets retained viability and secretory properties.

  15. Quantitative Assessment of Islets of Langerhans Encapsulated in Alginate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy S.; O'Sullivan, Esther; D'Aoust, Laura N.; Omer, Abdulkadir; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Fisher, Robert J.; Weir, Gordon C.

    2011-01-01

    Improved methods have recently been developed for assessing islet viability and quantity in human islet preparations for transplantation, and these measurements have proven useful for predicting transplantation outcome. The objectives of this study were to adapt these methods for use with microencapsulated islets, to verify that they provide meaningful quantitative measurements, and to test them with two model systems: (1) barium alginate and (2) barium alginate containing a 70% (w/v) perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion, which presents challenges to use of these assays and is of interest in its own right as a means for reducing oxygen supply limitations to encapsulated tissue. Mitochondrial function was assessed by oxygen consumption rate measurements, and the analysis of data was modified to account for the increased solubility of oxygen in the PFC-alginate capsules. Capsules were dissolved and tissue recovered for nuclei counting to measure the number of cells. Capsule volume was determined from alginate or PFC content and used to normalize measurements. After low oxygen culture for 2 days, islets in normal alginate lost substantial viable tissue and displayed necrotic cores, whereas most of the original oxygen consumption rate was recovered with PFC alginate, and little necrosis was observed. All nuclei were recovered with normal alginate, but some nuclei from nonrespiring cells were lost with PFC alginate. Biocompatibility tests revealed toxicity at the islet periphery associated with the lipid emulsion used to provide surfactants during the emulsification process. We conclude that these new assay methods can be applied to islets encapsulated in materials as complex as PFC-alginate. Measurements made with these materials revealed that enhancement of oxygen permeability of the encapsulating material with a concentrated PFC emulsion improves survival of encapsulated islets under hypoxic conditions, but reformulation of the PFC emulsion is needed to reduce toxicity

  16. Quantitative assessment of islets of Langerhans encapsulated in alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy S; O'Sullivan, Esther; D'Aoust, Laura N; Omer, Abdulkadir; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Fisher, Robert J; Weir, Gordon C; Colton, Clark K

    2011-04-01

    Improved methods have recently been developed for assessing islet viability and quantity in human islet preparations for transplantation, and these measurements have proven useful for predicting transplantation outcome. The objectives of this study were to adapt these methods for use with microencapsulated islets, to verify that they provide meaningful quantitative measurements, and to test them with two model systems: (1) barium alginate and (2) barium alginate containing a 70% (w/v) perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion, which presents challenges to use of these assays and is of interest in its own right as a means for reducing oxygen supply limitations to encapsulated tissue. Mitochondrial function was assessed by oxygen consumption rate measurements, and the analysis of data was modified to account for the increased solubility of oxygen in the PFC-alginate capsules. Capsules were dissolved and tissue recovered for nuclei counting to measure the number of cells. Capsule volume was determined from alginate or PFC content and used to normalize measurements. After low oxygen culture for 2 days, islets in normal alginate lost substantial viable tissue and displayed necrotic cores, whereas most of the original oxygen consumption rate was recovered with PFC alginate, and little necrosis was observed. All nuclei were recovered with normal alginate, but some nuclei from nonrespiring cells were lost with PFC alginate. Biocompatibility tests revealed toxicity at the islet periphery associated with the lipid emulsion used to provide surfactants during the emulsification process. We conclude that these new assay methods can be applied to islets encapsulated in materials as complex as PFC-alginate. Measurements made with these materials revealed that enhancement of oxygen permeability of the encapsulating material with a concentrated PFC emulsion improves survival of encapsulated islets under hypoxic conditions, but reformulation of the PFC emulsion is needed to reduce toxicity.

  17. Toll-like receptor 4-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to endothelial dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impairment of vasodilator action of insulin is associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated as one of the mechanisms for pathophysiology of various cardiometabolic syndromes, including insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. ...

  18. Factors influencing the properties and performance of microcapsules for immunoprotection of pancreatic islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schilfgaarde, R; de Vos, P

    There are several approaches of immunoprotection of pancreatic islets for the purpose of successful allo- or xenotransplantation in the absence of immunosuppressive medication. Extravasculair approaches are either mac roencapsulation (large numbers of islets together in one device) or

  19. Targeting recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors to enhance gene transfer to pancreatic islets and liver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loiler, S A; Conlon, T J; Song, S; Tang, Q; Warrington, K H; Agarwal, A; Kapturczak, M; Li, C; Ricordi, C; Atkinson, M A; Muzyczka, N; Flotte, T R

    2003-01-01

    .... Here we report that nonserotype 2 AAV capsids can mediate more efficient transduction of islet cells, with AAV1 being the most efficient serotype in murine islets, suggesting that receptor abundance could be limiting...

  20. Islet Xenotransplantation and Xeno-antigenicity: studies in a preclinical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.M. Rood (Pleunie)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractShortage of human donor organs is the major limiting factor for clinical islet allotransplantation. Xenotransplantation, using the pig as the source of islets is considered a potential solution to this problem. Since the development of pigs homozygous for

  1. Membrane based macroencapsulation devices for improved pancreatic islet survival and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skrzypek, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis is about the development of novel membrane based macroencapsulation devices for improved pancreatic islet survival and function. To improve pancreatic islets functionality by avoiding their aggregation within macroencapsulation devices, we developed a novel

  2. Improved insulin sensitivity and islet function after PPARdelta activation in diabetic db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzell, Maria Sörhede; Wulff, Erik Max; Olsen, Grith Skytte; Sauerberg, Per; Gotfredsen, Carsten F; Ahrén, Bo

    2010-01-25

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Several reports have shown that PPARdelta is involved in lipid metabolism, increasing fat oxidation and depleting lipid accumulation. Whether PPARdelta is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism is not completely understood. In this study, we examined effects of long-term PPARdelta activation on glycemic control, islet function and insulin sensitivity in diabetic db/db mice. Male db/db mice were administered orally once daily with a selective and partial PPARdelta agonist (NNC 61-5920, 30 mg/kg) for eight weeks; control mice received vehicle. Fasting and non-fasting plasma glucose were reduced, reflected in reduced hemoglobinA(1c) (3.6+/-1.6% vs. 5.4+/-1.8 in db/db controls, P<0.05) and furthermore, the AUC(glucose) after oral glucose (3g/kg) was reduced by 67% (P<0.05) after long-term PPARdelta activation. Following intravenous glucose (1g/kg), glucose tolerance was improved after PPARdelta activation (K(G) 1.3+/-0.6 vs. -0.05+/-0.7 %/min, P=0.048). Insulin sensitivity, measured as the glucose clearance after intravenous injection of glucose (1g/kg) and insulin (0.75 or 1.0 U/kg), during inhibition of endogenous insulin secretion by diazoxide (25mg/kg), was improved (K(G) 2.9+/-0.6 vs. 1.3+/-0.3 %/min in controls, P<0.05) despite lower insulin levels. Furthermore, islets isolated from PPARdelta agonist treated mice demonstrated improved glucose responsiveness as well as improved cellular topography. In conclusion, PPARdelta agonism alleviates insulin resistance and improves islet function and topography, resulting in improved glycemia in diabetic db/db mice. This suggests that activation of PPARdelta improves glucose metabolism and may therefore potentially be target for treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  3. Transient Suppression of TGFβ Receptor Signaling Facilitates Human Islet Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiangwei; Fischbach, Shane; Song, Zewen; Gaffar, Iljana; Zimmerman, Ray; Wiersch, John; Prasadan, Krishna; Shiota, Chiyo; Guo, Ping; Ramachandran, Sabarinathan; Witkowski, Piotr; Gittes, George K

    2016-04-01

    Although islet transplantation is an effective treatment for severe diabetes, its broad application is greatly limited due to a shortage of donor islets. Suppression of TGFβ receptor signaling in β-cells has been shown to increase β-cell proliferation in mice, but has not been rigorously examined in humans. Here, treatment of human islets with a TGFβ receptor I inhibitor, SB-431542 (SB), significantly improved C-peptide secretion by β-cells, and significantly increased β-cell number by increasing β-cell proliferation. In addition, SB increased cell-cycle activators and decreased cell-cycle suppressors in human β-cells. Transplantation of SB-treated human islets into diabetic immune-deficient mice resulted in significant improvement in blood glucose control, significantly higher serum and graft insulin content, and significantly greater increases in β-cell proliferation in the graft, compared with controls. Thus, our data suggest that transient suppression of TGFβ receptor signaling may improve the outcome of human islet transplantation, seemingly through increasing β-cell number and function.

  4. Semiquantitative determination of circulating islet cell surface antibodies in diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohgawara, Hisako; Machiyama, Etsuko; Hirata, Yukimasa (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1982-09-01

    Circulating pancreatic islet cell antibodies have been demonstrated in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD). The islet cell surface antibodies (ICSA) were determined by an indirect immunofluorescence test using a suspension of viable islet cells, and similar cytoplasmic antibodies which require the use of group O human pancreas were also found in the serum of some patients. A strong association exists between the presence of islet cell antibodies and the onset of insulin-dependent diabetes. The quantitative determination of circulating ICSA using /sup 125/I-protein A, which binds to IgG attached to the islet cell surface, was essentially as described by Lernmark et al. In the present study, we determined the circulating ICSA in diabetes, especially in IDD. The ICSA were estimated in various sera from both indirect immunofluorescence and /sup 125/I-protein A. Controls bound <2,000 cpm /sup 125/I-protein A. Sera from 4 IDD patients with circulating ICSA demonstrated by immunofluorescence showed >3,000 cpm /sup 125/I-protein A binding activity, and that from 5 patients without ICSA bound <2,000 cpm. Sera from newly-diagnosed diabetics who had severe hyperglycemia showed <2,000 cpm, with or without ICSA.

  5. Preservation of beta cell function in adult human pancreatic islets for several months in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunstedt, J; Andersson, A; Frimodt-Møller, C

    1979-01-01

    Islets of Langerhans were isolated from four human kidney donors, aged 16 to 21 years by the collagenase method described for isolation of rodent islets. So far the human islets have been kept in tissue culture, without attachment, in medium RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% calf serum for more tha...

  6. Genetically Engineered Human Islets Protected From CD8-mediated Autoimmune Destruction In Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaldumbide, Arnaud; Alkemade, Gonnie; Carlotti, Francoise; Nikolic, Tatjana; Abreu, Joana R. F.; Engelse, Marten A.; Skowera, Anja; de Koning, Eelco J.; Peakman, Mark; Roep, Bart O.; Hoeben, Rob C.; Wiertz, Emmanuel J. H. J.

    Islet transplantation is a promising therapy for type 1 diabetes, but graft function and survival are compromised by recurrent islet autoimmunity. Immunoprotection of islets will be required to improve clinical outcome. We engineered human beta cells to express herpesvirus-encoded immune-evasion

  7. Fabrication of three-dimensional bioplotted hydrogel scaffolds for islets of Langerhans transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioli, G.; van Gurp, L.; van Krieken, P.P.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Engelse, M.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes; de Koning, E.; Alblas, J.; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.

    2015-01-01

    In clinical islet transplantation, allogeneic islets of Langerhans are transplanted into the portal vein of patients with type 1 diabetes, enabling the restoration of normoglycemia. After intra-hepatic transplantation several factors are involved in the decay in islet mass and function mainly caused

  8. Technique of endoscopic biopsy of islet allografts transplanted into the gastric submucosal space in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Fujita (Tetsuji); K.M. McGrath (Kevin); R. Bottino (Rita); E.M. Dons (Eefje); C. Long (Cassandra); G. Kumar (Goutham); B. Ekser; G.J. Echeverri (Gabriel); A. Hata (Akira); K. Haruma (Ken); D.K.C. Cooper (David); H. Hara (Hidetaka)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, islet cells are transplanted into the liver via portal vein infusion. One disadvantage of this approach is that it is not possible to adequately biopsy the islets in the liver to assess for rejection. Islet transplantation (Tx) into the gastric submucosal space (GSMS) can be

  9. Serum Cytokines as Biomarkers in Islet Cell Transplantation for Type 1 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Torren, Cornelis R; Verrijn Stuart, Annemarie A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304817589; Lee, DaHae; Meerding, Jenny; van de Velde, Ursule; Pipeleers, Daniel; Gillard, Pieter; Keymeulen, Bart; de Jager, Wilco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304816906; Roep, Bart O

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Islet cell transplantation holds a potential cure for type 1 diabetes, but many islet recipients do not reach long-lasting insulin independence. In this exploratory study, we investigated whether serum cytokines, chemokines and adipokines are associated with the clinical outcome of islet

  10. File list: ALL.Pan.20.AllAg.Islet_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: ALL.Pan.10.AllAg.Islet_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: ALL.Pan.05.AllAg.Islet_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pan.05.AllAg.Islet_tumor mm9 All antigens Pancreas Islet tumor SRX751769,SRX751...768,SRX751770 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Pan.05.AllAg.Islet_tumor.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Pan.50.AllAg.Islet_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pan.50.AllAg.Islet_tumor mm9 All antigens Pancreas Islet tumor SRX751769,SRX751...768,SRX751770 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Pan.50.AllAg.Islet_tumor.bed ...

  14. SPECT of Transplanted Islets of Langerhans by Dopamine 2 Receptor Targeting in a Rat Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, S.M.A.; Kroon, I. van der; Joosten, L.; Frielink, C.; Boerman, O.C.; Broek, S.A. van den; Brom, M.; Gotthardt, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation can be a more permanent treatment for type 1 diabetes compared to daily insulin administration. Quantitative and longitudinal noninvasive imaging of viable transplanted islets might help to further improve this novel therapy. Since islets express dopamine 2 (D2)

  15. File list: InP.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 Input control Pancreas Pancreatic islets SR...5,SRX340795,SRX340793,SRX340803,SRX026707,SRX375320 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 All antigens Pancreas Pancreatic islets ERX...SRX026707,SRX375320,SRX026708,SRX026713 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 Input control Pancreas Pancreatic islets SR...3,SRX340803,SRX375327,SRX340794,SRX026707,SRX375320 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 TFs and others Pancreas Pancreatic islets S...RX026702,SRX026719,SRX026720,SRX026721,SRX026714,SRX026706 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets.bed ...

  19. File list: His.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 Histone Pancreas Pancreatic islets SRX37532...0804,SRX340799,SRX340802,SRX340809,SRX026708,SRX026713 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Pan.50.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets.bed ...

  20. File list: NoD.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: DNS.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 DNase-seq Pancreas Pancreatic islets ERX873...854,ERX873852,SRX026725,SRX026723,SRX026724 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Pan.20.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets hg19 All antigens Pancreas Pancreatic islets SRX...ERX321646,ERX321661,SRX375319,SRX026706,SRX026709,SRX026718 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Pan.10.AllAg.Pancreatic_islets.bed ...

  3. Rescue purification maximizes the use of human islet preparations for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, Hirohito; Pileggi, Antonello; Molano, R Damaris; Baidal, David A; Khan, Aisha; Kuroda, Yoshikazu; Inverardi, Luca; Goss, John A; Alejandro, Rodolfo; Ricordi, Camillo

    2005-01-01

    The relative inefficiency of the islet purification process may hamper obtaining enough islets for transplantation even with adequate pre-purification counts. In this study, we determined the effect of an additional purification step on total islet yields and pancreas utilization at our center. Twenty-five pancreata were processed using the automated method followed by continuous gradient purification (CGP), and the less pure islet fractions were subjected to additional rescue gradient purification (RGP). CGP and RGP islets were combined and transplanted into patients with type 1 diabetes. CGP and RGP islets showed no significant differences in cell viability, insulin secretion in vitro and function when transplanted into chemically diabetic mice. Mean RGP contribution to the final preparation was 27.9 +/- 19.9%. In 12 of 25 preparations, CGP yielded <5000 IEQ/kg of recipient body weight, and inclusion of RGP islets to the final preparation allowed to obtain the minimal islet number required for transplantation. Transplanted islets resulted in sustained C-peptide production, HbA1(C) normalization and insulin-independence or reduced insulin requirements. Taken together, our data suggest that RGP islets are comparable in terms of viability and potency to CGP islets. RGP may be of assistance in maximizing the number of islet preparations successfully used in transplant protocols.

  4. File list: DNS.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: His.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: His.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 Histone Pancreas Islets of Langerhans SRX...SRX751761 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  7. File list: Oth.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 TFs and others Pancreas Islets of Langerhans... SRX081539,SRX188610,SRX081538 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 RNA polymerase Pancreas Islets of Langerhans... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 All antigens Pancreas Islets of Langerhans...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 RNA polymerase Pancreas Islets of Langerhans... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  11. File list: ALL.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 All antigens Pancreas Islets of Langerhans...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 RNA polymerase Pancreas Islets of Langerhans... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 TFs and others Pancreas Islets of Langerhans... SRX081539,SRX188610,SRX081538 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  14. File list: Unc.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 Unclassified Pancreas Islets of Langerhans... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 RNA polymerase Pancreas Islets of Langerhans... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 TFs and others Pancreas Islets of Langerhans... SRX081539,SRX188610,SRX081538 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  17. File list: His.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 Histone Pancreas Islets of Langerhans SRX...SRX751761 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  18. File list: DNS.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 DNase-seq Pancreas Islets of Langerhans h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  19. File list: Unc.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 Unclassified Pancreas Islets of Langerhans... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: ALL.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 All antigens Pancreas Islets of Langerhans...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  2. File list: Unc.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 Unclassified Pancreas Islets of Langerhans... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  3. File list: DNS.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Unc.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 Unclassified Pancreas Islets of Langerhans... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: His.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: DNS.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 DNase-seq Pancreas Islets of Langerhans h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Pan.05.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  8. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and β-Cell Failure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongmin Alex Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is the most common human endocrine disease and is characterized by peripheral insulin resistance and pancreatic islet β-cell failure. Accumulating evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction is a central contributor to β-cell failure in the evolution of T2DM. As reviewed elsewhere, reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by β-cell mitochondria as a result of metabolic stress activate several stress-response pathways. This paper focuses on mechanisms whereby ROS affect mitochondrial structure and function and lead to β-cell failure. ROS activate UCP2, which results in proton leak across the mitochondrial inner membrane, and this leads to reduced β-cell ATP synthesis and content, which is a critical parameter in regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In addition, ROS oxidize polyunsaturated fatty acids in mitochondrial cardiolipin and other phospholipids, and this impairs membrane integrity and leads to cytochrome c release into cytosol and apoptosis. Group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β appears to be a component of a mechanism for repairing mitochondrial phospholipids that contain oxidized fatty acid substituents, and genetic or acquired iPLA2β-deficiency increases β-cell mitochondrial susceptibility to injury from ROS and predisposes to developing T2DM. Interventions that attenuate ROS effects on β-cell mitochondrial phospholipids might prevent or retard development of T2DM.

  9. Islet secretory defect in insulin receptor substrate 1 null mice is linked with reduced calcium signaling and expression of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA)-2b and -3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rohit N; Roper, Michael G; Dahlgren, Gabriella; Shih, David Q; Kauri, Lisa M; Peters, Jennifer L; Stoffel, Markus; Kennedy, Robert T

    2004-06-01

    Mice with deletion of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 (IRS-1 knockout [KO] mice) show mild insulin resistance and defective glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and reduced insulin synthesis. To further define the role of IRS-1 in islet function, we examined the insulin secretory defect in the knockouts using freshly isolated islets and primary beta-cells. IRS-1 KO beta-cells exhibited a significantly shorter increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) than controls when briefly stimulated with glucose or glyceraldehyde and when l-arginine was used to potentiate the stimulatory effect of glucose. These changes were paralleled by a lower number of exocytotic events in the KO beta-cells in response to the same secretagogues, indicating reduced insulin secretion. Furthermore, the normal oscillations in intracellular Ca(2+) and O(2) consumption after glucose stimulation were dampened in freshly isolated KO islets. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed a dramatically reduced islet expression of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA)-2b and -3 in the mutants. These data provide evidence that IRS-1 modulation of insulin secretion is associated with Ca(2+) signaling and expression of SERCA-2b and -3 genes in pancreatic islets and provides a direct link between insulin resistance and defective insulin secretion.

  10. Hydrogel encapsulation environments functionalized with extracellular matrix interactions increase islet insulin secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Laney M.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2009-01-01

    The individual and synergistic effects of extracellular matrix interactions on isolated islet function in culture were investigated within a three-dimensional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel encapsulation environment. First, we observed similar glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from unencapsulated murine islets and islets photoencapsulated in PEG gels. Then islets were encapsulated in gels containing the basement membrane proteins collagen type IV and laminin, individually and in combination, at a total protein concentration of 100 μg/ml, and islet insulin secretion in response to high glucose was measured over time. Specific laminin interactions were investigated via islet encapsulation with adhesive peptide sequences found in laminin as well as via functional blocking of cell surface receptors known to bind laminin. Over 32 days, islet interactions with collagen type IV and laminin localized within the three-dimensional extracellular environment contributed to two-fold and four-fold increases in insulin secretion, respectively, relative to islets encapsulated without matrix proteins. Hydrogel compositions containing both matrix proteins and > 75% laminin further increased islet insulin secretion to approximately six-fold that of islets encapsulated in the absence of matrix proteins. Encapsulation with the peptide sequence IKVAV resulted in increased islet insulin secretion, but not to the extent observed in the presence of whole laminin. Increased insulin secretion in the presence of laminin was eliminated when islets were exposed to functionally blocking anti-α6 integrin antibody prior to islet encapsulation with laminin. Our results demonstrate the potential of specific matrix interactions within an islet encapsulation microenvironment to promote encapsulated islet function. PMID:18773957

  11. Fibroblasts accelerate islet revascularization and improve long-term graft survival in a mouse model of subcutaneous islet transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Perez-Basterrechea

    Full Text Available Pancreatic islet transplantation has been considered for many years a promising therapy for beta-cell replacement in patients with type-1 diabetes despite that long-term clinical results are not as satisfactory. This fact points to the necessity of designing strategies to improve and accelerate islets engraftment, paying special attention to events assuring their revascularization. Fibroblasts constitute a cell population that collaborates on tissue homeostasis, keeping the equilibrium between production and degradation of structural components as well as maintaining the required amount of survival factors. Our group has developed a model for subcutaneous islet transplantation using a plasma-based scaffold containing fibroblasts as accessory cells that allowed achieving glycemic control in diabetic mice. Transplanted tissue engraftment is critical during the first days after transplantation, thus we have gone in depth into the graft-supporting role of fibroblasts during the first ten days after islet transplantation. All mice transplanted with islets embedded in the plasma-based scaffold reversed hyperglycemia, although long-term glycemic control was maintained only in the group transplanted with the fibroblasts-containing scaffold. By gene expression analysis and histology examination during the first days we could conclude that these differences might be explained by overexpression of genes involved in vessel development as well as in β-cell regeneration that were detected when fibroblasts were present in the graft. Furthermore, fibroblasts presence correlated with a faster graft re-vascularization, a higher insulin-positive area and a lower cell death. Therefore, this work underlines the importance of fibroblasts as accessory cells in islet transplantation, and suggests its possible use in other graft-supporting strategies.

  12. The Peri-islet Basement Membrane, a Barrier to Infiltrating Leukocytes in Type 1 Diabetes in Mouse and Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korpos, Eva; Kadri, Nadir; Kappelhoff, Reinhild

    2013-01-01

    demonstrate global loss of peri-islet BM and IM components only at sites of leukocyte infiltration into the islet. Stereological analyses reveal a correlation between incidence of insulitis and the number of islets showing loss of peri-islet BM versus islets with intact BMs, suggesting that leukocyte...... penetration of the peri-islet BM is a critical step. Protease- and protease inhibitor-specific microarray analyses (CLIP-CHIP) of laser-dissected leukocyte infiltrated and noninfiltrated pancreatic islets and confirmatory quantitative real time PCR and protein analyses identified cathepsin S, W, and C...... activity at sites of leukocyte penetration of the peri-islet BM in association with a macrophage subpopulation in NOD mice and human type 1 diabetic samples and, hence, potentially a novel therapeutic target specifically acting at the islet penetration stage. Interestingly, the peri-islet BM and underlying...

  13. The Dynamic Roles of Visfatin and Obestatin Serum Concentration in Pancreatic Beta Cells Dysfunction (HOMA-beta) and Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) in Centrally Obese Men

    OpenAIRE

    Bayu Winata Putera; Cynthia Retna Sartika; Andi Wijaya

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem in the world today. Obesity is closely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiological studies have shown that obese persons are in a state of insulin resistance, however, most of them do not progress to type 2 diabetes. This occurs because the beta cell function is still good enough for maintaining normal glucose level. Obestatin and visfatin are cytokines that are known to have a role in beta cell function. The aim of thi...

  14. Real-time, multidimensional in vivo imaging used to investigate blood flow in mouse pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Lara R; Wells, K Sam; Head, W Steve; McCaughey, Michael; Ford, Eric; Brissova, Marcela; Piston, David W; Powers, Alvin C

    2008-11-01

    The pancreatic islets of Langerhans are highly vascularized micro-organs that play a key role in the regulation of blood glucose homeostasis. The specific arrangement of endocrine cell types in islets suggests a coupling between morphology and function within the islet. Here, we established a line-scanning confocal microscopy approach to examine the relationship between blood flow and islet cell type arrangement by real-time in vivo imaging of intra-islet blood flow in mice. These data were used to reconstruct the in vivo 3D architecture of the islet and time-resolved blood flow patterns throughout the islet vascular bed. The results revealed 2 predominant blood flow patterns in mouse islets: inner-to-outer, in which blood perfuses the core of beta cells before the islet perimeter of non-beta cells, and top-to-bottom, in which blood perfuses the islet from one side to the other regardless of cell type. Our approach included both millisecond temporal resolution and submicron spatial resolution, allowing for real-time imaging of islet blood flow within the living mouse, which has not to our knowledge been attainable by other methods.

  15. Retention of gene expression in porcine islets after agarose encapsulation and long-term culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumpala, Pradeep R., E-mail: pdumpala@rixd.org [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States); Holdcraft, Robert W.; Martis, Prithy C.; Laramore, Melissa A. [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States); Parker, Thomas S.; Levine, Daniel M. [The Rogosin Institute, 505 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Smith, Barry H. [The Rogosin Institute, 505 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Gazda, Lawrence S. [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States)

    2016-08-05

    Agarose encapsulation of porcine islets allows extended in vitro culture, providing ample time to determine the functional capacity of the islets and conduct comprehensive microbiological safety testing prior to implantation as a treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the effect that agarose encapsulation and long-term culture may have on porcine islet gene expression is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the transcriptome of encapsulated porcine islets following long-term in vitro culture against free islets cultured overnight. Global gene expression analysis revealed no significant change in the expression of 98.47% of genes. This indicates that the gene expression profile of free islets is highly conserved following encapsulation and long-term culture. Importantly, the expression levels of genes that code for critical hormones secreted by islets (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin) as well as transcripts encoding proteins involved in their packaging and secretion are unchanged. While a small number of genes known to play roles in the insulin secretion and insulin signaling pathways are differentially expressed, our results show that overall gene expression is retained following islet isolation, agarose encapsulation, and long-term culture. - Highlights: • Effect of agarose encapsulation and 8 week culture on porcine islets was analyzed. • Transcriptome analysis revealed no significant change in a majority (98%) of genes. • Agarose encapsulation allows for long-term culture of porcine islets. • Islet culture allows for functional and microbial testing prior to clinical use.

  16. Immunoisolation of Murine Islet Allografts in Vascularized Sites Through Conformal Coating with Polyethylene Glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoli, Vita; Villa, Chiara; Bayer, Allison L; Morales, Laura; Molano, R Damaris; Torrente, Yvan; Ricordi, Camillo; Hubbell, Jeffrey A; Tomei, Alice A

    2017-10-25

    Islet encapsulation may allow transplantation without immunosuppression but thus far islets in large microcapsules transplanted in the peritoneal cavity failed to reverse diabetes in humans. We showed that islet transplantation in confined well-vascularized sites like the epididymal fat pad (EFP) improved graft outcomes, but only conformal coated (CC) islets can be implanted in these sites in curative doses. Here, we showed that CC using polyethylene glycol (PEG) and alginate (ALG) was not immunoisolating because of its high permselectivity and strong allogeneic T cell responses. We refined the CC composition and explored PEG and islet-like extracellular matrix (MG) islet encapsulation (PEG MG) to improve capsule immunoisolation by decreasing its permselectivity and immunogenicity while allowing physiological islet function. Though diabetes reversal efficiency of allogeneic but not syngeneic CC islets was lower than naked islets, we showed that CC (PEG MG) islets from fully MHC-mismatched Balb/c mice supported long-term (> 100 days) survival after transplantation into diabetic C57BL/6 recipients in the EFP site (750-1000 IEQ / mouse) in absence of immunosuppression. Lack of immune cell penetration and T cell allogeneic priming was observed. These studies support the use of CC (PEG MG) for islet encapsulation and transplantation in clinically-relevant sites without chronic immunosuppression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Pancreatic islet insulin secretion and metabolism in adult rats malnourished during neonatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Francisco B; Capito, Kirsten; Kofod, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Pancreatic islets were isolated from rats that had been nursed by dams fed with a control or an 8.7% protein diet during the first 12 d of the lactation period. Glucose-induced insulin secretion from islets in the 8.7% protein group was reduced 50%. The islet insulin and DNA content were similar......, whereas the pancreatic insulin content was reduced by 30 % in the rats fed 8.7 % protein. In order to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the attenuation of insulin secretion, measurements were performed of the activity of several islet enzymes that had previously been supposed to be involved...... in the coupling of glucose stimulation to insulin secretion. Islet glucose oxidation was unaffected, but glucose-stimulated hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol was reduced by one-third in the islets of rats fed 8.7% protein. The activity of mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase was similar in islets of rats...

  18. Successful treatment of brittle diabetes following total pancreatectomy by islet allotransplantation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Angela; Imes, Sharleen; Shapiro, Andrew Mark James; Senior, Peter A

    2013-07-10

    Allotransplantation of islets can successfully treat subjects with type 1 diabetes complicated by severe hypoglycemia and erratic glycemic control. Insulin independence is often lost over time due to several factors, including recurrent autoimmunity. Brittle diabetes (frequent hypoglycemia and labile glycemic control) is common after pancreatectomy. This is ameliorated by auto-islet transplantation in pancreatectomized patients who have better glycemic control, even without insulin independence. We herein report a case where islet allotransplantation was carried out in a patient who had undergone total pancreatectomy. Following two islet infusions, he became insulin independent with excellent glycemic control and remains so currently, more than four years after his second islet infusion. Side effects from immunosuppressive therapy were minimal. Islet allotransplantation can be considered in selected individuals post-pancreatectomy. The absence of autoimmunity may be advantageous for long term graft function relative to islet allotransplantation in type 1 diabetic recipients.

  19. Ultrastructural studies of time-course and cellular specificity of interleukin-1 mediated islet cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup-Poulsen, T; Egeberg, J; Nerup, J

    1987-01-01

    Previous electron-microscopic studies of isolated islets of Langerhans exposed to the monokine interleukin-1 for 7 days have indicated that interleukin-1 is cytotoxic to all islet cells. To study the time-course and possible cellular specificity of interleukin-1 cytotoxicity to islets exposed...... to interleukin-1 for short time periods, isolated rat or human islets were incubated with or without 25 U/ml highly purified human interleukin-1 for 24 h. Samples of rat islets were taken after 5 min, 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h and samples of human islets after 5 min, 30 min and 24 h...... of incubation and examined by electron microscopy in a blinded fashion. Already after 30 min, accumulation of opaque intracytoplasmic bodies without apparent surrounding membranes, and autophagic vacuoles were seen in about 20% of the beta cells examined in rat islets exposed to interleukin-1. After 16 h...

  20. Altered Expression of Somatostatin Receptors in Pancreatic Islets from NOD Mice Cultured at Different Glucose Concentrations In Vitro and in Islets Transplanted to Diabetic NOD Mice In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ludvigsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatostatin acts via five receptors (sst1-5. We investigated if the changes in pancreatic islet sst expression in diabetic NOD mice compared to normoglycemic mice are a consequence of hyperglycemia or the ongoing immune reaction in the pancreas. Pancreatic islets were isolated from NOD mice precultured for 5 days and further cultured for 3 days at high or low glucose before examined. Islets were also isolated from NOD mice and transplanted to normal or diabetic mice in a number not sufficient to cure hyperglycemia. After three days, the transplants were removed and stained for sst1-5 and islet hormones. Overall, changes in sst islet cell expression were more common in islets cultured in high glucose concentration in vitro as compared to the islet transplantation in vivo to diabetic mice. The beta and PP cells exhibited more frequent changes in sst expression, while the alpha and delta cells were relatively unaffected by the high glucose condition. Our findings suggest that the glucose level may alter sst expressed in islets cells; however, immune mechanisms may counteract such changes in islet sst expression.

  1. Muscular, cardiac, ventilatory and metabolic dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis: Implications for screening, clinical care and endurance and resistance exercise therapy, a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wens, Inez; Eijnde, Bert O; Hansen, Dominique

    2016-08-15

    In the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), exercise training is now considered a cornerstone. However, most clinicians tend to focus on neurologic deficits only, and thus prefer to prescribe rehabilitation programs specifically to counteract these deficits. However, the present comprehensive review shows that patients with MS (pwMS) also experience significant muscular, cardiac, ventilatory and metabolic dysfunction, which significantly contribute, next to neurologic deficits, to exercise intolerance. In addition, these anomalies also might increase the risk for frequent hospitalization and morbidity and can reduce life expectancy. Unfortunately, the impact of exercise intervention on these anomalies in pwMS are mostly unknown. Therefore, it is suggested that pwMS should be screened systematically for muscular, cardiac, ventilatory and metabolic function during exercise testing. The detection of such anomalies should lead to adaptations and optimisation of exercise training prescription and clinical care/medical treatment of pwMS. In addition, future studies should focus on the impact of exercise intervention on muscular, cardiac, ventilatory and metabolic (dys)function in pwMS, to contribute to improved treatment and care. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Rituximab selectively suppresses specific islet antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Herold, Kevan; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; McGee, Paula L; Bundy, Brian; Pugliese, Alberto; Krischer, Jeff; Eisenbarth, George S

    2011-10-01

    The TrialNet Study Group evaluated rituximab, a B-cell-depleting monoclonal antibody, for its effect in new-onset patients with type 1A diabetes. Rituximab decreased the loss of C-peptide over the first year of follow-up and markedly depleted B lymphocytes for 6 months after administration. This article analyzes the specific effect of rituximab on multiple islet autoantibodies. A total of 87 patients between the ages of 8 and 40 years received either rituximab or a placebo infusion weekly for four doses close to the onset of diabetes. Autoantibodies to insulin (IAAs), GAD65 (GADAs), insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA2As), and ZnT8 (ZnT8As) were measured with radioimmunoassays. The primary outcome for this autoantibody analysis was the mean level of autoantibodies during follow-up. Rituximab markedly suppressed IAAs compared with the placebo injection but had a much smaller effect on GADAs, IA2As, and ZnT8As. A total of 40% (19 of 48) of rituximab-treated patients who were IAA positive became IAA negative versus 0 of 29 placebo-treated patients (P IAAs were markedly suppressed by rituximab in all patients for 1 year and for four patients as long as 3 years despite continuing insulin therapy. Independent of rituximab treatment, the mean level of IAAs at study entry was markedly lower (P = 0.035) for patients who maintained C-peptide levels during the first year of follow-up in both rituximab-treated and placebo groups. A single course of rituximab differentially suppresses IAAs, clearly blocking IAAs for >1 year in insulin-treated patients. For the patients receiving insulin for >2 weeks prior to rituximab administration, we cannot assess whether rituximab not only blocks the acquisition of insulin antibodies induced by insulin administration and/or also suppresses preformed insulin autoantibodies. Studies in prediabetic non-insulin-treated patients will likely be needed to evaluate the specific effects of rituximab on levels of IAAs.

  3. Pancreas and islet cell transplantation: now and then.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, D E

    1996-08-01

    Pancreas transplantation currently can be offered with the same probability of success as other solid organ transplants. In diabetic uremic recipients of kidney transplants, the addition of a pancreas is routine in many centers. For selected patients with labile diabetes and hypoglycemia unawareness, a successful pancreas transplant can dramatically improve quality of life. Islet transplantation is an alternative to pancreas transplantation that can reduce surgical morbidity, but is much less successful at the moment. The theoretical, immunological advantages of islet transplantation have not yet been realized. Part of the problem lies in the reduced beta cell mass that occurs with organ dispersal and islet purification. Diabetogenic immunosuppressants need to be eliminated in order to allow optimal function of what is engrafted. The immunosuppressants (eg, mycophenolate mofetil, rapamycin) give this possibility. Whether islet transplantation will replace pancreas transplantation remains problematic. Ultimately, and neither should be needed for Type I diabetes, since autoimmune diseases should be preventable by appropriate manipulation of the immune system in those identified at risk. Our personal goals as transplanters should be obsolescence.

  4. Beating diabetes: strategies to improve pancreatic islet transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink, J.

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease that is caused by nearly complete destruction of insulin producing beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans, affecting approximately 25 million people worldwide. Prior to the discovery of insulin, diabetes most certainly led to death. To date, patients with type 1

  5. Pancreatic islet-cell viability, functionality and oxidative status ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indiscriminate use of antibiotics to combat infectious diseases is one of the commonest forms of misuse of drugs. Antibiotics seem to have a correlation with diabetes and pancreatic function. There are controversial reports about the effect of antibiotics on the pancreatic islets; some suggesting their harmless action, some ...

  6. Survival of encapsulated islets : More than a membrane story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkai, Uriel; Rotem, Avi; de Vos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    At present, proven clinical treatments but no cures are available for diabetes, a global epidemic with a huge economic burden. Transplantation of islets of Langerhans by their infusion into vascularized organs is an experimental clinical protocol, the first approach to attain cure. However, it is

  7. Loss of β-Cell Identity Occurs in Type 2 Diabetes and Is Associated With Islet Amyloid Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spijker, H Siebe; Song, Heein; Ellenbroek, Johanne H; Roefs, Maaike M; Engelse, Marten A; Bos, Erik; Koster, Abraham J; Rabelink, Ton J; Hansen, Barbara C; Clark, Anne; Carlotti, Françoise; de Koning, Eelco J P

    2015-08-01

    Loss of pancreatic islet β-cell mass and β-cell dysfunction are central in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We recently showed that mature human insulin-containing β-cells can convert into glucagon-containing α-cells ex vivo. This loss of β-cell identity was characterized by the presence of β-cell transcription factors (Nkx6.1, Pdx1) in glucagon(+) cells. Here, we investigated whether the loss of β-cell identity also occurs in vivo, and whether it is related to the presence of (pre)diabetes in humans and nonhuman primates. We observed an eight times increased frequency of insulin(+) cells coexpressing glucagon in donors with diabetes. Up to 5% of the cells that were Nkx6.1(+) but insulin(-) coexpressed glucagon, which represents a five times increased frequency compared with the control group. This increase in bihormonal and Nkx6.1(+)glucagon(+)insulin(-) cells was also found in islets of diabetic macaques. The higher proportion of bihormonal cells and Nkx6.1(+)glucagon(+)insulin(-) cells in macaques and humans with diabetes was correlated with the presence and extent of islet amyloidosis. These data indicate that the loss of β-cell identity occurs in T2DM and could contribute to the decrease of functional β-cell mass. Maintenance of β-cell identity is a potential novel strategy to preserve β-cell function in diabetes. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  8. Obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome: a study in WNIN/Ob rats from a pancreatic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Vijayalakshmi; Madhira, Soundarya L; Malakapalli, Venkata M; Chalasani, Maniprabha; Shaik, Sarfaraz N; Seshadri, Vasudevan; Kodavalla, Venkaiah; Bhonde, Ramesh R; Nappanveettil, Giridharan

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in pancreatic milieu to adapt to physiological shifts occurring in conditions of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) have been documented, though mechanisms leading to such a state have remained elusive so far. The data presented here tries to look at the gravity of metabolic insult during the early and prolonged phases of obesity/insulin resistance (IR) depicted in WNIN/Ob strain of rats-an obese euglycemic mutant rat model developed indigenously at our institute which is highly vulnerable for a variety of degenerative diseases. The present results in situ show the participation of several confounding factors in the pancreatic milieu that collectively coprecipitates for a state of profound inflammation in the pancreas (among Mutant compared to Lean/Control) which gets worsened with age. These include hypertrophy, macrophage infiltration (CD11b/TNFα/IL6), apoptosis, β-cell vacuolation, hyperinsulinemia (HI), and stress markers (RL-77/HSP104/TBARS) all of which correlated well with indices for obesity (2-3 fold), IR (1.5-3 fold), and HI (2-3 fold). Further, supportive data was also obtained from in vitro studies using islet cell cultures amongst phenotypes. Taken together, these results advocate that inflammation was the major precipitating factor to cause islet cell dysfunctions (in situ and in vitro) in these Mutant rats compared to their Lean littermates and parental Control.

  9. Glycemia, Hypoglycemia, and Costs of Simultaneous Islet-Kidney or Islet After Kidney Transplantation Versus Intensive Insulin Therapy and Waiting List for Islet Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Philipp A; Locher, Rebecca; Zuellig, Richard A; Tschopp, Oliver; Ajdler-Schaeffler, Evelyne; Kron, Philipp; Oberkofler, Christian; Brändle, Michael; Spinas, Giatgen A; Lehmann, Roger

    2015-10-01

    Long-term data of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) after simultaneous islet-kidney (SIK) or islet-after-kidney transplantation (IAK) are rare and have never been compared to intensified insulin therapy (IIT). Twenty-two patients with T1D and end-stage renal failure undergoing islet transplantation were compared to 70 patients matched for age and diabetes duration treated with IIT and to 13 patients with kidney transplantation alone or simultaneous pancreas-kidney after loss of pancreas function (waiting list for IAK [WLI]). Glycemic control, severe hypoglycemia, insulin requirement, and direct medical costs were analyzed. Glycated hemoglobin decreased significantly from 8.2 ± 1.5 to 6.7 ± 0.9% at the end of follow-up (mean 7.2 ± 2.5 years) in the SIK/IAK and remained constant in IIT (7.8 ± 1.0% and 7.6 ± 1.0) and WLI (7.8 ± 0.8 and 7.9 ± 1.0%). Daily insulin requirement decreased from 0.53 ± 0.15 to 0.29 ± 0.26 U/kg and remained constant in IIT (0.59 ± 0.19 and 0.58 ± 0.23 U/kg) and in WLI (0.76 ± 0.28 and 0.73 ± 0.11 U/kg). Severe hypoglycemia dropped in SIK/IAK from 4.5 ± 9.7 to 0.3 ± 0.7/patient-year and remained constant in IIT (0.1 ± 0.7 and 0.2 ± 0.8/patient-year). Detailed cost analysis revealed US $57,525 of additional cost for islet transplantation 5 years after transplantation. Based on a 5- and 10-year analysis, cost neutrality is assumed to be achieved 15 years after transplantation. This long-term cohort with more than 7 years of follow-up shows that glycemic control in patients with T1D after SIK/IAK transplantation improved, and the rate of severe hypoglycemia decreased significantly as compared to control groups. Cost analysis revealed that islet transplantation is estimated to be cost neutral at 15 years after transplantation.

  10. Microencapsulation of islets within alginate/poly(ethylene glycol) gels cross-linked via Staudinger ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, K K; Gattás-Asfura, K M; Stabler, C L

    2011-02-01

    Functionalized alginate and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymers were used to generate covalently linked alginate-PEG (XAlgPEG) microbeads of high stability. The cell-compatible Staudinger ligation scheme was used to cross-link phosphine-terminated PEG chemoselectively to azide-functionalized alginate, resulting in XAlgPEG hydrogels. XAlgPEG microbeads were formed by co-incubation of the two polymers, followed by ionic cross-linking of the alginate using barium ions. The enhanced stability and gel properties of the resulting XAlgPEG microbeads, as well as the compatibility of these polymers for the encapsulation of islets and beta cells lines, were investigated. The data show that XAlgPEG microbeads exhibit superior resistance to osmotic swelling compared with traditional barium cross-linked alginate (Ba-Alg) beads, with a five-fold reduction in observed swelling, as well as resistance to dissolution via chelation solution. Diffusion and porosity studies found XAlgPEG beads to exhibit properties comparable with standard Ba-Alg. XAlgPEG microbeads were found to be highly cell compatible with insulinoma cell lines, as well as rat and human pancreatic islets, where the viability and functional assessment of cells within XAlgPEG are comparable with Ba-Alg controls. The remarkable improved stability, as well as demonstrated cellular compatibility, of XAlgPEG hydrogels makes them an appealing option for a wide variety of tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Discovery of molecular pathways mediating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 protection against cytokine-induced inflammation and damage of human and male mouse islets of Langerhans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolden-Kirk, Heidi; Rondas, D; Bugliani, M

    2014-01-01

    . The aim of this study was to clarify the molecular mechanisms by which 1,25(OH)2D3 contributes to β-cell protection against cytokine-induced β-cell dysfunction and death. Human and mouse islets were exposed to IL-1β and interferon-γ in the presence or absence of 1,25(OH)2D3. Effects on insulin secretion...... and β-cell survival were analyzed by glucose-stimulated insulin release and electron microscopy or Hoechst/propidium iodide staining, respectively. Gene expression profiles were assessed by Affymetrix microarrays. Nuclear factor-κB activity was tested, whereas effects on secreted chemokines....../cytokines were confirmed by ELISA and migration studies. Cytokine exposure caused a significant increase in β-cell apoptosis, which was almost completely prevented by 1,25(OH)2D3. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D3 restored insulin secretion from cytokine-exposed islets. Microarray analysis of murine islets revealed...

  12. The effect of alginate and hyaluronate on the viability and function of immunoisolated neonatal rat islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, F; Laue, C; Schrezenmeir, J

    1999-11-01

    Recent observations suggest that the extracellular matrix plays a role as regards the viability and morphological integrity in long-term culture of Langerhans islets. For the present study we encapsulated neonatal rat islets without extracellular matrix (WEM), with alginate solution (AL) and with hyaluronate solution (HY) into cuprophane hollow fibers. Function was tested after week 1 and 5. The insulin release of WEM encapsulated islets decreased significantly during the culture period. In contrast to this, AL and HY embedded islets had stable secretion values throughout the whole cultivation. Histological examination confirmed that viability of HY and of AL embedded islets differed significantly from that of WEM encapsulated islets. Furthermore, HY seems to be a more advantageous environment to immunoisolated islets than AL. Both the insulin secretion values and the viability of HY embedded islets were higher than of AL embedded islets. We conclude that an extracellular matrix is important for immunoisolated islets, to maintain their function and morphological integrity and that HY is especially suitable for this application.

  13. Device design and materials optimization of conformal coating for islets of Langerhans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, Alice A; Manzoli, Vita; Fraker, Christopher A; Giraldo, Jaime; Velluto, Diana; Najjar, Mejdi; Pileggi, Antonello; Molano, R Damaris; Ricordi, Camillo; Stabler, Cherie L; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2014-07-22

    Encapsulation of islets of Langerhans may represent a way to transplant islets in the absence of immunosuppression. Traditional methods for encapsulation lead to diffusional limitations imposed by the size of the capsules (600-1,000 μm in diameter), which results in core hypoxia and delayed insulin secretion in response to glucose. Moreover, the large volume of encapsulated cells does not allow implantation in sites that might be more favorable to islet cell engraftment. To address these issues, we have developed an encapsulation method that allows conformal coating of islets through microfluidics and minimizes capsule size and graft volume. In this method, capsule thickness, rather than capsule diameter, is constant and tightly defined by the microdevice geometry and the rheological properties of the immiscible fluids used for encapsulation within the microfluidic system. We have optimized the method both computationally and experimentally, and found that conformal coating allows for complete encapsulation of islets with a thin (a few tens of micrometers) continuous layer of hydrogel. Both in vitro and in vivo in syngeneic murine models of islet transplantation, the function of conformally coated islets was not compromised by encapsulation and was comparable to that of unencapsulated islets. We have further demonstrated that the structural support conferred by the coating materials protected islets from the loss of function experienced by uncoated islets during ex vivo culture.

  14. Alginate Microencapsulation of Human Islets Does Not Increase Susceptibility to Acute Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Hals

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation in diabetes is hampered by the need of life-long immunosuppression. Encapsulation provides partial immunoprotection but could possibly limit oxygen supply, a factor that may enhance hypoxia-induced beta cell death in the early posttransplantation period. Here we tested susceptibility of alginate microencapsulated human islets to experimental hypoxia (0.1–0.3% O2 for 8 h, followed by reoxygenation on viability and functional parameters. Hypoxia reduced viability as measured by MTT by 33.8±3.5% in encapsulated and 42.9±5.2% in nonencapsulated islets (P<0.2. Nonencapsulated islets released 37.7% (median more HMGB1 compared to encapsulated islets after hypoxic culture conditions (P<0.001. Glucose-induced insulin release was marginally affected by hypoxia. Basal oxygen consumption was equally reduced in encapsulated and nonencapsulated islets, by 22.0±6.1% versus 24.8±5.7%. Among 27 tested cytokines/chemokines, hypoxia increased the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8/CXCL8 in both groups of islets, whereas an increase of MCP-1/CCL2 was seen only with nonencapsulated islets. Conclusion. Alginate microencapsulation of human islets does not increase susceptibility to acute hypoxia. This is a positive finding in relation to potential use of encapsulation for islet transplantation.

  15. The preservation of islet with alginate encapsulation in the process of transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Zhang, Ying; Xiu, Zhilong; Wang, Yu; Chen, Li; Wang, Shujun; Li, Shen; Guo, Xin; Ma, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of insulin secretion by transplantation of isolated islets is a treatment for type Ι diabetes mellitus. One of the major issues with clinical treatment of islet transplantation is how to maintain islet viability during transportation from the donor to the patient. We developed a method that uses alginate encapsulation to protect islets from mechanical damage during shipment. We tested several variables for their impact on islet viability during transportation and used the significant variable to build a response surface methodology (RSM) model by the Box-Behnken design method. This type of model is a mathematical and statistical technique that we used to optimize the conditions for islet viability during shipment. In this study, the factors that significantly affected islet survival rate were incubation time, serum concentration, and preservation time. Then, an empirical model was built to optimize conditions of the islets for shipping according to the responses of the effect factors with RSM. This model can be used to predict the islet survival rate and can serve as a guide for optimizing the transportation method of islets and increasing the success rate of the transplant procedure. Copyright © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. The Spleen Is an Ideal Site for Inducing Transplanted Islet Graft Expansion in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Itoh

    Full Text Available Alternative islet transplantation sites have the potential to reduce the marginal number of islets required to ameliorate hyperglycemia in recipients with diabetes. Previously, we reported that T cell leukemia homeobox 1 (Tlx1+ stem cells in the spleen effectively regenerated into insulin-producing cells in the pancreas of non-obese diabetic mice with end-stage disease. Thus, we investigated the spleen as a potential alternative islet transplantation site. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice received syngeneic islets into the portal vein (PV, beneath the kidney capsule (KC, or into the spleen (SP. The marginal number of islets by PV, KC, or SP was 200, 100, and 50, respectively. Some plasma inflammatory cytokine levels in the SP group were significantly lower than those of the PV group after receiving a marginal number of islets, indicating reduced inflammation in the SP group. Insulin contents were increased 280 days after islet transplantation compared with those immediately following transplantation (p<0.05. Additionally, Tlx1-related genes, including Rrm2b and Pla2g2d, were up-regulated, which indicates that islet grafts expanded in the spleen. The spleen is an ideal candidate for an alternative islet transplantation site because of the resulting reduced inflammation and expansion of the islet graft.

  17. Intrinsic islet heterogeneity and gap junction coupling determine spatiotemporal Ca²⁺ wave dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Richard K P; Hutchens, Troy; Head, W Steven; McCaughey, Michael J; Zhang, Min; Le Marchand, Sylvain J; Satin, Leslie S; Piston, David W

    2014-12-02

    Insulin is released from the islets of Langerhans in discrete pulses that are linked to synchronized oscillations of intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)]i). Associated with each synchronized oscillation is a propagating calcium wave mediated by Connexin36 (Cx36) gap junctions. A computational islet model predicted that waves emerge due to heterogeneity in β-cell function throughout the islet. To test this, we applied defined patterns of glucose stimulation across the islet using a microfluidic device and measured how these perturbations affect calcium wave propagation. We further investigated how gap junction coupling regulates spatiotemporal [Ca(2+)]i dynamics in the face of heterogeneous glucose stimulation. Calcium waves were found to originate in regions of the islet having elevated excitability, and this heterogeneity is an intrinsic property of islet β-cells. The extent of [Ca(2+)]i elevation across the islet in the presence of heterogeneity is gap-junction dependent, which reveals a glucose dependence of gap junction coupling. To better describe these observations, we had to modify the computational islet model to consider the electrochemical gradient between neighboring β-cells. These results reveal how the spatiotemporal [Ca(2+)]i dynamics of the islet depend on β-cell heterogeneity and cell-cell coupling, and are important for understanding the regulation of coordinated insulin release across the islet. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intrinsic Islet Heterogeneity and Gap Junction Coupling Determine Spatiotemporal Ca2+ Wave Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Richard K.P.; Hutchens, Troy; Head, W. Steven; McCaughey, Michael J.; Zhang, Min; Le Marchand, Sylvain J.; Satin, Leslie S.; Piston, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is released from the islets of Langerhans in discrete pulses that are linked to synchronized oscillations of intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i). Associated with each synchronized oscillation is a propagating calcium wave mediated by Connexin36 (Cx36) gap junctions. A computational islet model predicted that waves emerge due to heterogeneity in β-cell function throughout the islet. To test this, we applied defined patterns of glucose stimulation across the islet using a microfluidic device and measured how these perturbations affect calcium wave propagation. We further investigated how gap junction coupling regulates spatiotemporal [Ca2+]i dynamics in the face of heterogeneous glucose stimulation. Calcium waves were found to originate in regions of the islet having elevated excitability, and this heterogeneity is an intrinsic property of islet β-cells. The extent of [Ca2+]i elevation across the islet in the presence of heterogeneity is gap-junction dependent, which reveals a glucose dependence of gap junction coupling. To better describe these observations, we had to modify the computational islet model to consider the electrochemical gradient between neighboring β-cells. These results reveal how the spatiotemporal [Ca2+]i dynamics of the islet depend on β-cell heterogeneity and cell-cell coupling, and are important for understanding the regulation of coordinated insulin release across the islet. PMID:25468351

  19. PARACRINE AND AUTOCRINE INTERACTIONS IN THE HUMAN ISLET: MORE THAN MEETS THE EYE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    The pancreatic islet secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon to regulate glucose metabolism. To generate an adequate secretory response, islet endocrine cells must receive multiple regulatory signals relaying information about changes in the internal and external environments. Islet cells also need to be made aware about the functional status of neighboring cells through paracrine interactions. All this information is used to orchestrate a hormonal response that contributes to glucose homeostasis. Several neurotransmitters have been proposed to work as paracrine signals in the islet. Most of these, however, have yet to meet the criteria to be considered bona fide paracrine signals, in particular in human islets. Here, we review recent findings describing autocrine and paracrine signaling mechanisms in human islets. These recent results are showing an increasingly complex picture of paracrine interactions in the human islet and emphasize that results from other species cannot be readily extrapolated to the human context. Investigators are unveiling new signaling mechanisms or finding new roles for known paracrine signals in human islets. While it is too early to provide a synthesis, the field of islet research is defining the paracrine and autocrine components that will be used to generate models about how islet function is regulated. Meanwhile, the identified signaling pathways can be proposed as therapeutic targets for treating diabetes, a devastating disease affecting millions worldwide. PMID:23022232

  20. PD-L1 Deficiency within Islets Reduces Allograft Survival in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxia Ma

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation may potentially cure type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. However, immune rejection, especially that induced by the alloreactive T-cell response, remains a restraining factor for the long-term survival of grafted islets. Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1 is a negative costimulatory molecule. PD-L1 deficiency within the donor heart accelerates allograft rejection. Here, we investigate whether PD-L1 deficiency in donor islets reduces allograft survival time.Glucose Stimulation Assays were performed to evaluate whether PD-L1 deficiency has detrimental effects on islet function. Islets isolated from PDL1-deficient mice or wild- type (WT mice (C57BL/6j were implanted beneath the renal capsule of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic BALB/c mice. Blood glucose levels and graft survival time after transplantation were monitored. Moreover, we analyzed the residual islets, infiltrating immune cells and alloreactive cells from the recipients.PD-L1 deficiency within islets does not affect islet function. However, islet PD-L1 deficiency increased allograft rejection and was associated with enhanced inflammatory cell infiltration and recipient T-cell alloreactivity.This is the first report to demonstrate that PD-L1 deficiency accelerated islet allograft rejection and regulated recipient alloimmune responses.

  1. Upgrading pretransplant human islet culture technology requires human serum combined with media renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr-Conte, Julie; Vandewalle, Brigitte; Moerman, Ericka; Lukowiak, Bruno; Gmyr, Valery; Arnalsteen, Laurent; Caiazzo, Robert; Sterkers, Adrien; Hubert, Thomas; Vantyghem, Marie Christine; Pattou, François

    2010-05-15

    BACKGROUND.: The original Edmonton protocol used fresh islets, but for obvious logistic advantages most transplant centers have implemented pretransplant culture in human albumin. The aim of this study was to improve current pretransplant human islet culture techniques. METHODS.: Clinical-grade purified human islets from a total of 24 donors were directly resuspended after isolation in CMRL 1066-based media at 37 degrees C, and media additions and renewal were tested. At days 1 and 5 of culture, in vitro quality controls included islet viability, insulin content and function, apoptosis, and in vivo islet potency assay in nude mice. RESULTS.: Replacing human albumin with human AB serum improved 1- and 5-day preservation of islet function and viability which was further enhanced with antioxidant Stem Ease, leading to the iCulture medium (enriched CMRL: pyruvate, zinc sulfate, insulin, transferrin, selenium, 2.5% human AB serum and Stem Ease). Major damage occurs in the first day of culture and frequent media renewal (25% vol/hr) in this period further improved viability, apoptosis, islet recovery, and function in vitro and in vivo, compared with only changing medium after overnight culture. CONCLUSIONS.: The described human islet culture technique (iCulture medium+renewal) seems to be the best choice for clinical human islet culture when short (1 day) or long (5 days) periods are used. Media choice and dilution play a major role in the function and survival of human islets in culture.

  2. INDEFINITE SURVIVAL OF RAT ISLET ALLOGRAFTS FOLLOWING INFUSION OF DONOR BONE MARROW WITHOUT CYTOABLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricordi, Camillo; Murase, Norico; Rastellini, Cristiana; Behboo, Roubik; Demetris, Anthony J.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    We have tested the effect of donor bone marrow cell (DBMC) infusion on the survival of pancreatic islet allografts in the rat, without the use of cytoablative recipient conditioning. Lewis and diabetic Brown Norway rats were used as donors and recipients, respectively. Donor islets were placed beneath the left renal capsule. Infusion of DBMC and temporary immunosuppression followed by delayed islet transplantation resulted in indefinite survival of all islet grafts (MST >180 days). Control animals demonstrated recurrent hyperglycemia (islet allografts rejection). Donor bone marrow derived cells were detected in the spleen and cervical lymph nodes of BN recipients of LEW bone marrow but not in the recipients of islet transplants alone. Second set full thickness skin grafts were performed in normal BN and in recipients of a previously successful ITX. Donor specific skin grafts were accepted in the animals that had received DBMC 40 days before the islet allograft, while animals receiving DBMC at the time of the islet allograft rejected the donor specific skin graft similarly to the controls. However, these animals did not reject a second set donor-specific islet transplant. The results indicate that radiation conditioning of the recipients was not necessary to induce microchimerism and graft acceptance in this rodent model of islet allotransplantation. PMID:8665077

  3. The intrauterine metabolic environment modulates the gene expression pattern in fetal rat islets: prevention by maternal taurine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusens, B; Sparre, T; Kalbe, L; Bouckenooghe, T; Theys, N; Kruhøffer, M; Orntoft, T F; Nerup, J; Remacle, C

    2008-05-01

    Events during fetal life may in critical time windows programme tissue development leading to organ dysfunction with potentially harmful consequences in adulthood such as diabetes. In rats, the beta cell mass of progeny from dams fed with a low-protein (LP) diet during gestation is decreased at birth and metabolic perturbation lasts through adulthood even though a normal diet is given after birth or after weaning. Maternal and fetal plasma taurine levels are suboptimal. Maternal taurine supplementation prevents these induced abnormalities. In this study, we aimed to reveal changes in gene expression in fetal islets affected by the LP diet and how taurine may prevent these changes. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed an LP diet (8% [wt/wt] protein) supplemented or not with taurine in the drinking water or a control diet (20% [wt/wt] protein). At 21.5 days of gestation, fetal pancreases were removed, digested and cultured for 7 days. Neoformed islets were collected and transcriptome analysis was performed. Maternal LP diet significantly changed the expression of more than 10% of the genes. Tricarboxylic acid cycle and ATP production were highly targeted, but so too were cell proliferation and defence. Maternal taurine supplementation normalised the expression of all altered genes. Development of the beta cells and particularly their respiration is modulated by the intrauterine environment, which may epigenetically modify expression of the genome and programme the beta cell towards a pre-diabetic phenotype. This mis-programming by maternal LP diet was prevented by early taurine intervention.

  4. Baicalein Protects against Type 2 Diabetes via Promoting Islet β-Cell Function in Obese Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In both type 1 (T1D and type 2 diabetes (T2D, the deterioration of glycemic control over time is primarily caused by an inadequate mass and progressive dysfunction of β-cell, leading to the impaired insulin secretion. Here, we show that dietary supplementation of baicalein, a flavone isolated from the roots of Chinese herb Scutellaria baicalensis, improved glucose tolerance and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS in high-fat diet (HFD- induced middle-aged obese mice. Baicalein had no effect on food intake, body weight gain, circulating lipid profile, and insulin sensitivity in obese mice. Using another mouse model of type 2 diabetes generated by high-fat diet (HFD feeding and low doses of streptozotocin injection, we found that baicalein treatment significantly improved hyperglycemia, glucose tolerance, and blood insulin levels in these middle-aged obese diabetic mice, which are associated with the improved islet β-cell survival and mass. In the in vitro studies, baicalein significantly augmented GSIS and promoted viability of insulin-secreting cells and human islets cultured either in the basal medium or under chronic hyperlipidemic condition. These results demonstrate that baicalein may be a naturally occurring antidiabetic agent by directly modulating pancreatic β-cell function.

  5. Chronically decreased oxygen tension in rat pancreatic islets transplanted under the kidney capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, P O; Palm, F; Andersson, A; Liss, P

    2000-03-15

    A factor of potential importance in the failure of islet grafts is poor or inadequate engraftment of the islets in the implantation organ. This study measured the oxygen tension and blood perfusion in 1-, 2-, and 9-month-old islet grafts. The partial pressure of oxygen was measured in pancreatic islets transplanted beneath the renal capsule of diabetic and nondiabetic recipient rats with a modified Clark electrode (outer tip diameter 2-6 microm). The size of the graft (250 islets) was by purpose not large enough to cure the diabetic recipients. The oxygen tension in islets within the pancreas was also recorded. Blood perfusion was measured with the laser-Doppler technique. Within native pancreatic islets, the partial pressure of oxygen was approximately 40 mm Hg (n=8). In islets transplanted to nondiabetic animals, the oxygen tension was approximately 6-7 mm Hg 1, 2, and 9 months posttransplantation. No differences could be seen between the different time points after transplantation. In the diabetic recipients, an even more pronounced decrease in graft tissue oxygen tension was recorded. The mean oxygen tension in the superficial renal cortex surrounding the implanted islets was similar in all groups (approximately 15 mm Hg). Intravenous administration of glucose (0.1 gxkg(-1)x min(-1)) did not affect the oxygen tension in any of the investigated tissues. The islet graft blood flow was similar in all groups, measuring approximately 50% of the blood flow in the kidney cortex. The oxygen tension in islets implanted beneath the kidney capsule is markedly lower than in native islets up to 9 months after transplantation. Moreover, persistent hyperglycemia in the recipient causes an even further decrease in graft oxygen tension, despite similar blood perfusion. To what extent this may contribute to islet graft failure remains to be determined.

  6. Effect of nicotinamide on early graft failure following intraportal islet transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Da-Yeon; Park, Jae Berm; Joo, Sung-Yeon; Joh, Jae-Won; Kwon, Choon-Hyuck; Kwon, Ghee-Young

    2009-01-01

    Intraportal islet transplantation (IPIT) may potentially cure Type 1 diabetes mellitus; however, graft failure in the early post-transplantation period presents a major obstacle. In this study, we tested the ability of nicotinamide to prevent early islet destruction in a syngeneic mouse model. Mice (C57BL/6) with chemically-induced diabetes received intraportal transplants of syngeneic islet tissue in various doses. Islets were cultured for 24 h in medium with or without 10 mM nicotinamide supplementation. Following IPIT, islet function was confirmed by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and hepatectomy. The effects of nicotinamide were evaluated by blood glucose concentration, serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) concentration, and immunohistology at 3 h and 24 h after IPIT. Among the various islet doses, an infusion of 300 syngeneic islets treated with nicotinamide exhibited the greatest differences in glucose tolerance between recipients of treated and untreated (i.e., control) islets. One day after 300 islet equivalent (IEQ) transplantation, islets treated with nicotinamide were better granulated than the untreated islets (P = 0.01), and the recipients displayed a slight decrease in serum MCP-1 concentration, as compared to controls. After 15 days, recipients of nicotinamide-pretreated islets showed higher levels of graft function (as measured by IPGTT) than controls. The pretreatment also prolonged graft survival (> 100 days) and function; these were confirmed by partial hepatectomy, which led to the recurrence of diabetes. Pretreatment of islet grafts with nicotinamide may prevent their deterioration on the early period following IPIT in a syngeneic mouse model. PMID:19641379

  7. Islet cell antibodies (ICA) identify autoimmunity in children with new onset diabetes mellitus negative for other islet cell antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Cecilia; Kolmodin, Martin; Ivarsson, Sten-Anders; Carlsson, Annelie; Forsander, Gun; Lindblad, Bengt; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Kockum, Ingrid; Marcus, Claude; Samuelsson, Ulf; Ortqvist, Eva; Lernmark, Ake; Elding Larsson, Helena; Törn, Carina

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether islet cell antibodies (ICA) could be identified in children with newly onset diabetes mellitus but negative for autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), islet antigen-2 (IA-2A), insulin (IAA), or any of the three variants with arginine (R), tryptophan (W), or glutamine (Q) at position 325 of the zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8A). A population-based analysis of autoantibodies was performed from 1 May 2005 to 2 September 2010 in Swedish children newly diagnosed with diabetes. ICA was analyzed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and if positive, reanalyzed in the classical ICA immunofluorescence assay, in 341 samples among 3545 children who had been tested negative for all of GADA, IA-2A, IAA, or ZnT8A (R, W, Q). An isolated positivity for ICA was identified in 5.0% (17/341) of the newly diagnosed children. The levels of ICA in positive subjects ranged from 3 to 183 JDF-U (median 30). This finding increased the diagnostic sensitivity of islet autoimmunity as 3204/3545 patients (90.4%) were islet autoantibody positive without the ICA analyses and 3221 patients (90.9%) were positive with the inclusion of ICA. The finding of an isolated positivity for ICA despite negativity for GADA, IA-2A, IAA, and ZnT8A (R, W, Q) suggests that still another yet unidentified autoantigen(s) may contribute to the ICA immunofluorescence. Hence, ICA is important to analyze in type 1 diabetes children and adolescents that would otherwise be islet autoantibody negative. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Clock-controlled output gene Dbp is a regulator of Arnt/Hif-1β gene expression in pancreatic islet β-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakabayashi, Hiroko; Ohta, Yasuharu, E-mail: yohta@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Susuki, Yosuke; Taguchi, Akihiko; Tanabe, Katsuya; Kondo, Manabu; Hatanaka, Masayuki; Nagao, Yuko; Tanizawa, Yukio, E-mail: tanizawa@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •Arnt mRNA expressed in a circadian manner in mouse pancreatic islets. •Expressions of Dbp and Arnt damped in the islets of a diabetic model mouse. •DBP and E4BP4 regulate Arnt promoter activity by direct binding. •Arnt may have a role in connecting circadian rhythm and metabolism. -- Abstract: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)/hypoxia inducible factor-1β (HIF-1β) has emerged as a potential determinant of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and type 2 diabetes in humans. An 82% reduction in Arnt expression was observed in islets from type 2 diabetic donors as compared to non-diabetic donors. However, few regulators of Arnt expression have been identified. Meanwhile, disruption of the clock components CLOCK and BMAL1 is known to result in hypoinsulinemia and diabetes, but the molecular details remain unclear. In this study, we identified a novel molecular connection between Arnt and two clock-controlled output genes, albumin D-element binding protein (Dbp) and E4 binding protein 4 (E4bp4). By conducting gene expression studies using the islets of Wfs1{sup −/−} A{sup y}/a mice that develop severe diabetes due to β-cell apoptosis, we demonstrated clock-related gene expressions to be altered in the diabetic mice. Dbp mRNA decreased by 50%, E4bp4 mRNA increased by 50%, and Arnt mRNA decreased by 30% at Zeitgever Time (ZT) 12. Mouse pancreatic islets exhibited oscillations of clock gene expressions. E4BP4, a D-box negative regulator, oscillated anti-phase to DBP, a D-box positive regulator. We also found low-amplitude circadian expression of Arnt mRNA, which peaked at ZT4. Over-expression of DBP raised both mRNA and protein levels of ARNT in HEK293 and MIN6 cell lines. Arnt promoter-driven luciferase reporter assay in MIN6 cells revealed that DBP increased Arnt promoter activity by 2.5-fold and that E4BP4 competitively inhibited its activation. In addition, on ChIP assay, DBP and E4BP4 directly bound to D-box elements within the

  9. Mechanisms of pancreatic islet cell destruction. Dose-dependent cytotoxic effect of soluble blood mononuclear cell mediators on isolated islets of Langerhans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup-Poulsen, T; Bendtzen, K; Nerup, J

    1986-01-01

    reconstituted with tuberculin or phytohaemagglutinin did not impair islet function. Electron microscopy demonstrated that supernatants were cytotoxic to islet cells. The cytotoxic mononuclear cell mediator(s) was non-dialysable, sensitive to heating to 56 degrees C, labile even when stored at -70 degrees C...

  10. Importance of Aggregated Islet Amyloid Polypeptide for the Progressive Beta-Cell Failure in Type 2 Diabetes and in Transplanted Human Islets

    OpenAIRE

    Westermark, Gunilla T.; Per Westermark

    2009-01-01

    Original Publication: Gunilla Westermark and Per Westermark, Importance of Aggregated Islet Amyloid Polypeptide for the Progressive Beta-Cell Failure in Type 2 Diabetes and in Transplanted Human Islets, 2008, EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES RESEARCH, (2008), 528354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2008/528354 Copyright: Authors

  11. Stimulation of vascularization of a subcutaneous scaffold applicable for pancreatic islet-transplantation enhances immediate post-transplant islet graft function but not long-term normoglycemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Alexandra M; Li, Shiri; Swart, Daniël H; Hertsig, Don T; de Haan, Bart J; Kamps, Jan A A M; Schwab, Leendert; van Apeldoorn, Aart; de Koning, Eelco; Faas, Marijke M; Lakey, Jonathan R T; de Vos, Paul

    The liver as transplantation site for pancreatic islets is associated with significant loss of islets, which can be prevented by grafting in a prevascularized, subcutaneous scaffold. Supporting vascularization of a scaffold to limit the period of ischemia is challenging and was developed here by

  12. Insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and differences in curves of plasma glucose and insulin in the intermediate points of the standard glucose tolerance test in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; González Albarrán, Olga; Guisado Vasco, Pablo; Lamas Ferreiro, Adelaida; Máiz Carro, Luis

    2015-02-01

    diabetes has become a co-morbidity with a negative impact on nutritional status, lung function and survival in cystic fibrosis. To identify any changes in intermediate points after a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, and insulin resistance in cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. It was carried out a retrospective analysis in a cohort of 64 patients affected of cystic fibrosis, older than 14 years, using the first pathological OGTT. Peripheral insulin resistance was measured using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA- IR), and pancreatic β-cell function was calculated according to Wareham. Time to maximum plasma insulin and glucose levels and area under the curve (AUC0-120) were also measured. Twenty-eight women and 36 men with a mean age of 26.8 years were enrolled, of whom 26.7% had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 18.3% cystic fibrosis-related diabetes without fasting hyperglycemia (CFRD w/o FPG), 10% indeterminate (INDET), and 45% impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). HOMA-IR values were not significantly different between the diagnostic categories. Patients with any pathological change had worse β cell function, with a significant delay in insulin secretion, although there were no differences in total insulin production (AUC0-120). Time to maximum glucose levels was significantly shorter in NGT patients as compared to other categories, with glucose AUC0-120 being higher in the different diagnostic categories as compared to NGT. In over half the cases, peak blood glucose levels during a standard OGTT are reached in the intermediate time points, rather than at the usual time of 120minutes. Patients with cystic fibrosis and impaired glucose metabolism have a delayed insulin secretion during the standard OGTT due to loss of first-phase insulin secretion, with no differences in total insulin production. Absence of significant changes in HOMA-IR suggests that β-cell dysfunction is the main pathogenetic

  13. IKKβ inhibition prevents fat-induced beta cell dysfunction in vitro and in vivo in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivovic, Aleksandar; Oprescu, Andrei I; Koulajian, Khajag; Mori, Yusaku; Eversley, Judith A; Zhang, Liling; Nino-Fong, Rodolfo; Lewis, Gary F; Donath, Marc Y; Karin, Michael; Wheeler, Michael B; Ehses, Jan; Volchuk, Allen; Chan, Catherine B; Giacca, Adria

    2017-10-01

    We have previously shown that oxidative stress plays a causal role in beta cell dysfunction induced by fat. Here, we address whether the proinflammatory kinase inhibitor of (nuclear factor) κB kinase β (IKKβ), which is activated by oxidative stress, is also implicated. Fat (oleate or olive oil) was infused intravenously in Wistar rats for 48 h with or without the IKKβ inhibitor salicylate. Thereafter, beta cell function was evaluated in vivo using hyperglycaemic clamps or ex vivo in islets isolated from fat-treated rats. We also exposed rat islets to oleate in culture, with or without salicylate and 4(2'-aminoethyl)amino-1,8-dimethylimidazo(1,2-a)quinoxaline; BMS-345541 (BMS, another inhibitor of IKKβ) and evaluated beta cell function in vitro. Furthermore, oleate was infused in mice treated with BMS and in beta cell-specific Ikkb-null mice. 48 h infusion of fat impaired beta-cell function in vivo, assessed using the disposition index (DI), in rats (saline: 1.41 ± 0.13; oleate: 0.95 ± 0.11; olive oil [OLO]: 0.87 ± 0.15; p vivo (i.e., insulin secretion, units are pmol insulin islet-1 h-1) in rat islets (saline: 1.51 ± 0.13; oleate: 1.03 ± 0.10; OLO: 0.91 ± 0.13; p vivo and by salicylate in rat islets ex vivo (oleate + salicylate: 1.74 ± 0.31; OLO + salicylate: 1.54 ± 0.29). In cultured islets, 48 h exposure to oleate impaired beta-cell function ([in pmol insulin islet-1 h-1] control: 0.66 ± 0.12; oleate: 0.23 ± 0.03; p vivo ([in pmol insulin islet-1 h-1] control saline: 0.16 ± 0.02; control oleate: 0.10 ± 0.02; knockout oleate: 0.17 ± 0.04; p vivo (DI: control saline: 3.86 ± 0.40; control oleate: 1.95 ± 0.29; knockout oleate: 2.96 ± 0.24; p vivo and in vivo.

  14. A Systematic Review of Oxidative Stress and Safety of Antioxidants in Diabetes: Focus on Islets and Their Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayakumar Karunakaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress plays an important role in diabetic complications, especially β-cell dysfunction and failure. Under physiological conditions, reactive oxygen species serve as second messengers that facilitate signal transduction and gene expression in pancreatic β-cells. However, under pathological conditions, an imbalance in redox homeostasis leads to aberrant tissue damage and β-cell death due to a lack of antioxidant defense systems. Taking into account the vulnerability of islets to oxidative damage, induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes or exogenous antioxidant administration has been proposed as a way to protect β-cells against diabetic insults. Here, we consider recent insights into how the redox response becomes deregulated under diabetic conditions, as well as the therapeutic benefits of antioxidants, which may provide clues for developing strategies aimed at the treatment or prevention of diabetes associated with β-cell failure.

  15. Distinct cell clusters touching islet cells induce islet cell replication in association with over-expression of Regenerating Gene (REG protein in fulminant type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Aida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic islet endocrine cell-supporting architectures, including islet encapsulating basement membranes (BMs, extracellular matrix (ECM, and possible cell clusters, are unclear. PROCEDURES: The architectures around islet cell clusters, including BMs, ECM, and pancreatic acinar-like cell clusters, were studied in the non-diabetic state and in the inflamed milieu of fulminant type 1 diabetes in humans. RESULT: Immunohistochemical and electron microscopy analyses demonstrated that human islet cell clusters and acinar-like cell clusters adhere directly to each other with desmosomal structures and coated-pit-like structures between the two cell clusters. The two cell-clusters are encapsulated by a continuous capsule composed of common BMs/ECM. The acinar-like cell clusters have vesicles containing regenerating (REG Iα protein. The vesicles containing REG Iα protein are directly secreted to islet cells. In the inflamed milieu of fulminant type 1 diabetes, the acinar-like cell clusters over-expressed REG Iα protein. Islet endocrine cells, including beta-cells and non-beta cells, which were packed with the acinar-like cell clusters, show self-replication with a markedly increased number of Ki67-positive cells. CONCLUSION: The acinar-like cell clusters touching islet endocrine cells are distinct, because the cell clusters are packed with pancreatic islet clusters and surrounded by common BMs/ECM. Furthermore, the acinar-like cell clusters express REG Iα protein and secrete directly to neighboring islet endocrine cells in the non-diabetic state, and the cell clusters over-express REG Iα in the inflamed milieu of fulminant type 1 diabetes with marked self-replication of islet cells.

  16. Important role of heparan sulfate in postnatal islet growth and insulin secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Iwao; Noguchi, Naoya [Department of Advanced Biological Sciences for Regeneration (Kotobiken Medical Laboratories), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Nata, Koji [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Iwate Medical University School of Pharmacy, Yahaba-cho 028-3603 (Japan); Yamada, Shuhei; Kaneiwa, Tomoyuki; Mizumoto, Shuji [Laboratory of Proteoglycan Signaling and Therapeutics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Life Science, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Ikeda, Takayuki [Department of Advanced Biological Sciences for Regeneration (Kotobiken Medical Laboratories), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Sugihara, Kazushi; Asano, Masahide [Division of Transgenic Animal Science, Advanced Science Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeo [Department of Advanced Biological Sciences for Regeneration (Kotobiken Medical Laboratories), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Yamauchi, Akiyo [Department of Biochemistry, Nara Medical University, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Shervani, Nausheen Jamal; Uruno, Akira [Department of Advanced Biological Sciences for Regeneration (Kotobiken Medical Laboratories), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kato, Ichiro [Department of Biochemistry, University of Toyama Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Unno, Michiaki [Department of Surgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Sugahara, Kazuyuki [Laboratory of Proteoglycan Signaling and Therapeutics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Life Science, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Takasawa, Shin [Department of Biochemistry, Nara Medical University, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); and others

    2009-05-22

    Heparan sulfate (HS) binds with several signaling molecules and regulates ligand-receptor interactions, playing an essential role in embryonic development. Here we showed that HS was intensively expressed in pancreatic islet {beta}-cells after 1 week of age in mice. The enzymatic removal of HS in isolated islets resulted in attenuated glucose-induced insulin secretion with a concomitant reduction in gene expression of several key components in the insulin secretion machinery. We further depleted islet HS by inactivating the exostosin tumor-like 3 gene specifically in {beta}-cells. These mice exhibited abnormal islet morphology with reduced {beta}-cell proliferation after 1 week of age and glucose intolerance due to defective insulin secretion. These results demonstrate that islet HS is involved in the regulation of postnatal islet maturation and required to ensure normal insulin secretion.

  17. Current Status of Immunomodulatory and Cellular Therapies in Preclinical and Clinical Islet Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Chhabra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical islet transplantation is a -cell replacement strategy that represents a possible definitive intervention for patients with type 1 diabetes, offering substantial benefits in terms of lowering daily insulin requirements and reducing incidences of debilitating hypoglycemic episodes and unawareness. Despite impressive advances in this field, a limiting supply of islets, inadequate means for preventing islet rejection, and the deleterious diabetogenic and nephrotoxic side effects associated with chronic immunosuppressive therapy preclude its wide-spread applicability. Islet transplantation however allows a window of opportunity for attempting various therapeutic manipulations of islets prior to transplantation aimed at achieving superior transplant outcomes. In this paper, we will focus on the current status of various immunosuppressive and cellular therapies that promote graft function and survival in preclinical and clinical islet transplantation with special emphasis on the tolerance-inducing capacity of regulatory T cells as well as the -cells regenerative capacity of stem cells.

  18. Affinity-purified human interleukin I is cytotoxic to isolated islets of Langerhans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup-Poulsen, T; Bendtzen, K; Nerup, J

    1986-01-01

    Addition of highly purified human Interleukin-1 to the culture medium of isolated rat islets of Langerhans for 6 days led to 88% inhibition of glucose-induced insulin-release, reduction of islet contents of insulin and glucagon to 31% and 8% respectively, and disintegration of the islets. These e......Addition of highly purified human Interleukin-1 to the culture medium of isolated rat islets of Langerhans for 6 days led to 88% inhibition of glucose-induced insulin-release, reduction of islet contents of insulin and glucagon to 31% and 8% respectively, and disintegration of the islets....... These effects were dose-dependent and reproducible when using three different Interleukin-1 preparations. Highly purified human Interleukin-2, Lymphotoxin, Leucocyte Migration Inhibitory Factor and Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor were ineffective. These findings suggest that Interleukin-1 may play...

  19. Neurotransmitters act as paracrine signals to regulate insulin secretion from the human pancreatic islet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Menegaz, Danusa; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2014-08-15

    In this symposium review we discuss the role of neurotransmitters as paracrine signals that regulate pancreatic islet function. A large number of neurotransmitters and their receptors has been identified in the islet, but relatively little is known about their involvement in islet biology. Interestingly, neurotransmitters initially thought to be present in autonomic axons innervating the islet are also present in endocrine cells of the human islet. These neurotransmitters can thus be released as paracrine signals to help control hormone release. Here we propose that the role of neurotransmitters may extend beyond controlling endocrine cell function to work as signals modulating vascular flow and immune responses within the islet. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  20. Exercise Increases Insulin Content and Basal Secretion in Pancreatic Islets in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Hung Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise appears to improve glycemic control for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D. However, the mechanism responsible for this improvement is unknown. We hypothesized that exercise has a direct effect on the insulin-producing islets. Eight-week-old mice were divided into four groups: sedentary diabetic, exercised diabetic, sedentary control, and exercised control. The exercised groups participated in voluntary wheel running for 6 weeks. When compared to the control groups, the islet density, islet diameter, and β-cell proportion per islet were significantly lower in both sedentary and exercised diabetic groups and these alterations were not improved with exercise. The total insulin content and insulin secretion were significantly lower in sedentary diabetics compared to controls. Exercise significantly improved insulin content and insulin secretion in islets in basal conditions. Thus, some improvements in exercise-induced glycemic control in T1D mice may be due to enhancement of insulin content and secretion in islets.

  1. Design of bioartificial pancreas with functional micro/nano-based encapsulation of islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepsutlu, Burcu; Nazli, Caner; Bal, Tugba; Kizilel, Seda

    2014-01-01

    Type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM), a devastating health issue in all over the world, has been treated by successful transplantation of insulin secreting pancreatic islets. However, serious limitations such as the requirement of immunosuppressive drugs for recipient patients, side effects as a result of long-term use of drugs, and reduced functionality of islets at the transplantation site remain. Bioartificial pancreas that includes islets encapsulated within semi-permeable membrane has been considered as a promising approach to address these requirements. Many studies have focused on micro or nanobased islet immunoisolation systems and tested the efficacy of encapsulated islets using in vitro and in vivo platforms. In this review, we address current progress and obstacles for the development of a bioartificial pancreas using micro/nanobased systems for encapsulation of islets.

  2. Overcoming the challenges now limiting islet transplantation: a sequential, integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Antonello; Cobianchi, Lorenzo; Inverardi, Luca; Ricordi, Camillo

    2006-10-01

    Steady improvements in islet cell processing technology and immunosuppressive protocols have made pancreatic islet transplantation a clinical reality for the treatment of patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Recent trials are showing that improved glycemic metabolic control, prevention of severe hypoglycemia, and better quality of life can be reproducibly achieved after transplantation of allogeneic islets in patients with unstable T1DM. Despite these encouraging results, challenges ahead comprise obtaining adequate islet cells for transplant, enhancing islets engraftment, sustaining beta cell mass and function over time, and defining effective immune interventions, among others. In order to overcome the current hurdles to the widespread application of islet transplantation there is a need for implementation of integrated, sequential therapeutic approaches.

  3. Comparison of Insulin Resistance and β-Cell Dysfunction Between the Young and the Elderly in Normal Glucose Tolerance and Prediabetes Population: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G; Shi, L; Cai, L; Lin, W; Huang, H; Liang, J; Li, L; Lin, L; Tang, K; Chen, L; Lu, J; Bi, Y; Wang, W; Ning, G; Wen, J

    2017-02-01

    Insulin resistance and β-cell function are different between the young and elderly diabetes individuals, which are not well elaborated in the nondiabetic persons. The aims of this study were to compare insulin resistance and β-cell function between young and old adults from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to prediabetes [which was subdivided into isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT), and a combination of both (IFG/IGT)], and compare the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the above prediabetes subgroups between different age groups after 3 years. A total of 1 374 subjects aged below 40 or above 60 years old with NGT or prediabetes were finally included in this study. Insulin resistance and β-cell function from homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and interactive, 24-variable homeostatic model of assessment (iHOMA2) were compared between different age groups. The rate of transition to diabetes between different age groups in all pre-diabetes subgroups was also compared. Compared with the old groups, young i-IFG and IFG/IGT groups exhibit higher log HOMA-IR and log HOMA2-S, whereas the young i-IGT groups experienced comparable log HOMA-IR and log HOMA2-S when compared with old i-IFG and IFG/IGT groups. Three prediabetes subgroups all had similar log HOMA-B and log HOMA2-B between different age groups. In addition, the prevalence of diabetes in young i-IFG was statistically higher than that in old i-IFG after 3 years. Age is negatively related to log HOMA2-B in both age groups. Considering an age-related deterioration of β-cell function, young i-IFG, young i-IGT, and young IFG/IGT all suffered a greater impairment in insulin secretion than the old groups. Young i-IFG and IFG/IGT have more severe insulin resistance than the old groups. In addition, young i-IFG characterized with a higher incidence of DM than the old i-IFG. These disparities highlight that the prevention to slow progression from prediabetes to

  4. Evaluation of Alginate Microcapsules for Use in Transplantation of Islets of Langerhans

    OpenAIRE

    King, Aileen

    2001-01-01

    Transplantation of islets of Langerhans is a potential treatment of type 1 diabetes that aims to restore normal glucose homeostasis. Microencapsulation of islets could enable transplantation in the absence of immunosuppression, which would be beneficial as the side effects associated with immunosuppression outweigh the potential benefits of islet transplantation. Alginate is a polysaccharide that can be harvested from brown algae and is often used for microencapsulation of cells. The aim of t...

  5. Fabrication of three-dimensional bioplotted hydrogel scaffolds for islets of Langerhans transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Marchioli, G.; van Gurp, L.; van Krieken, P.P.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Engelse, M.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes; de Koning, E.; Alblas, J.; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.

    2015-01-01

    In clinical islet transplantation, allogeneic islets of Langerhans are transplanted into the portal vein of patients with type 1 diabetes, enabling the restoration of normoglycemia. After intra-hepatic transplantation several factors are involved in the decay in islet mass and function mainly caused by an immediate blood mediated inflammatory response, lack of vascularization, and allo- and autoimmunity. Bioengineered scaffolds can potentially provide an alternative extra-hepatic transplantat...

  6. Can pancreatic duct-derived progenitors be a source of islet regeneration?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Bing [Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Hei Long Jiang Province 150001 (China); Zhan, Xiao-Rong, E-mail: xiaorongzhan@sina.com [Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Hei Long Jiang Province 150001 (China); Yi, Ran [Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Hei Long Jiang Province 150001 (China); Yang, Baofeng [Department of Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Biomedicine and Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Hei Long Jiang Province 150001 (China)

    2009-06-12

    The regenerative process of the pancreas is of interest because the main pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus is an inadequate number of insulin-producing {beta}-cells. The functional mass of {beta}-cells is decreased in type 1 diabetes, so replacing missing {beta}-cells or triggering their regeneration may allow for improved type 1 diabetes treatment. Therefore, expansion of the {beta}-cell mass from endogenous sources, either in vivo or in vitro, represents an area of increasing interest. The mechanism of islet regeneration remains poorly understood, but the identification of islet progenitor sources is critical for understanding {beta}-cell regeneration. One potential source is the islet proper, via the dedifferentiation, proliferation, and redifferentiation of facultative progenitors residing within the islet. Neogenesis, or that the new pancreatic islets can derive from progenitor cells present within the ducts has been reported, but the existence and identity of the progenitor cells have been debated. In this review, we focus on pancreatic ductal cells, which are islet progenitors capable of differentiating into islet {beta}-cells. Islet neogenesis, seen as budding of hormone-positive cells from the ductal epithelium, is considered to be one mechanism for normal islet growth after birth and in regeneration, and has suggested the presence of pancreatic stem cells. Numerous results support the neogenesis hypothesis, the evidence for the hypothesis in the adult comes primarily from morphological studies that have in common the production of damage to all or part of the pancreas, with consequent inflammation and repair. Although numerous studies support a ductal origin for new islets after birth, lineage-tracing experiments are considered the 'gold standard' of proof. Lineage-tracing experiments show that pancreatic duct cells act as progenitors, giving rise to new islets after birth and after injury. The identification of differentiated pancreatic ductal

  7. Unexpected phylogeographic affinities of Psammodromus algirus from Conigli islet (Lampedusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Carretero

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The only Italian population of the lacertid Psammodromus algirus is found in Conigli islet whereas the species is absent from the nearby island of Lampedusa. The phylogeographic relationships of this population were investigated. Mitochondrial DNA (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA fragment sequences were analysed and compared with already published sequences from the whole species range. In all the analyses, the sample from Conigli grouped with those from Morocco and not with the closer Tunisian ones. Such surprising result poses serious doubts to the traditional interpretation of the enigmatic distribution pattern of this species in Italy suggesting a recent colonisation of the islet from NW Africa, probably human-mediated, rather than a land crossing from Tunisia during the Pleistocene.

  8. The effect of prednisone on pancreatic islet autografts in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yijun; Ricordi, Camillo; Lendoire, Javier; Carroll, Patricia B.; Alejandro, Rodolfo; Bereiter, Debora R.; Tzakis, Andreas; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Prednisone was shown to induce hyperglycemia in dogs submitted to total pancreatectomy and pancreatic islet autotransplantation. The hyperglycemia caused by a 10-day course of prednisone, 1 mg/kg/day, starting on the day of operation was reversible within 1 week after steroid discontinuance. Three weeks after prednisone was stopped, there was no detectable adverse effect on glucose homeostasis as judged by fasting blood sugar levels and intravenous glucose tolerance test results. Four months after transplantation, glucose disappearance was delayed in animals previously treated with the prednisone compared with those previously treated with prednisone plus insulin or control animals. This was accompanied by lower insulin values on intravenous glucose tolerance testing and suggests a long-term subtle effect on islet function. The mechanism of the steroid effect is not known. However, this model could be used to test the diabetogenicity of other immunosuppressive agents including cyclosporine, FK 506, and azathioprine. PMID:8417496

  9. Pleiotropic effects of GIP on islet function involve osteopontin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyssenko, Valeriya; Eliasson, Lena; Kotova, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The incretin hormone GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) promotes pancreatic β-cell function by potentiating insulin secretion and β-cell proliferation. Recently, a combined analysis of several genome-wide association studies (Meta-analysis of Glucose and Insulin-Related Traits Con...... Consortium [MAGIC]) showed association to postprandial insulin at the GIP receptor (GIPR) locus. Here we explored mechanisms that could explain the protective effects of GIP on islet function....

  10. Islet Brain 1 Protects Insulin Producing Cells against Lipotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Saška Brajkovic; Mourad Ferdaoussi; Valérie Pawlowski; Hélène Ezanno; Valérie Plaisance; Erik Zmuda; Tsonwin Hai; Jean-Sébastien Annicotte; Gérard Waeber; Amar Abderrahmani

    2015-01-01

    Chronic intake of saturated free fatty acids is associated with diabetes and may contribute to the impairment of functional beta cell mass. Mitogen activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 also called islet brain 1 (IB1) is a candidate gene for diabetes that is required for beta cell survival and glucose-induced insulin secretion (GSIS). In this study we investigated whether IB1 expression is required for preserving beta cell survival and function in response to palmitate. Chronic exp...

  11. Reprogramming mouse embryo fibroblasts to functional islets without genetic manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandravanshi, Bhawna; Bhonde, Ramesh

    2018-02-01

    The constant quest for generation of large number of islets aimed us to explore the differentiation potential of mouse embryo fibroblast cells. Mouse embryo fibroblast cells isolated from 12- to 14-day-old pregnant mice were characterized for their surface markers and tri-lineage differentiation potential. They were subjected to serum-free media containing a cocktail of islet differentiating reagents and analyzed for the expression of pancreatic lineage transcripts. The islet-like cell aggregates (ICAs) was confirmed for their pancreatic properties via immunofluorecence for C-peptide, glucagon, and somatostain. They were positive for CD markers-Sca1, CD44, CD73, and CD90 and negative for hematopoietic markers-CD34 and CD45 at both transcription and translational levels. The transcriptional analysis of the ICAs at different day points exhibited up-regulation of islet markers (Insulin, PDX1, HNF3, Glucagon, and Somatostatin) and down-regulation of MSC-markers (Vimentin and Nestin). They positively stained for dithizone, C-peptide, insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin indicating intact insulin producing machinery. In vitro glucose stimulation assay revealed three-fold increase in insulin secretion as compared to basal glucose with insulin content being the same in both the conditions. The preliminary in vivo data on ICA transplantation showed reversal of diabetes in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. Our results demonstrate for the first time that mouse embryo fibroblast cells contain a population of MSC-like cells which could differentiate into insulin producing cell aggregates. Hence, our study could be extrapolated for isolation of MSC-like cells from human, medically terminated pregnancies to generate ICAs for treating type 1 diabetic patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Diabetes and sexual dysfunction: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiorino MI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Ida Maiorino,1 Giuseppe Bellastella,1 Katherine Esposito2 1Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological, Metabolic and Geriatric Sciences, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in nearly all countries. It has been associated with sexual dysfunction, both in males and in females. Diabetes is an established risk factor for sexual dysfunction in men, as a threefold increased risk of erectile dysfunction was documented in diabetic men, as compared with nondiabetic men. Among women, evidence regarding the association between diabetes and sexual dysfunction are less conclusive, although most studies have reported a higher prevalence of female sexual dysfunction in diabetic women as compared with nondiabetic women. Female sexual function appears to be more related to social and psychological components than to the physiological consequence of diabetes. Hyperglycemia, which is a main determinant of vascular and microvascular diabetic complications, may participate in the pathogenetic mechanisms of sexual dysfunction in diabetes. Moreover, diabetic people may present several clinical conditions, including hypertension, overweight and obesity, metabolic syndrome, cigarette smoking, and atherogenic dyslipidemia, which are themselves risk factors for sexual dysfunction, both in men and in women. The adoption of healthy lifestyles may reduce insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress – all of which are desirable achievements in diabetic patients. Improved well-being may further contribute to reduce and prevent sexual dysfunction in both sexes. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diabetes complications, erectile dysfunction, female sexual dysfunction, lifestyle changes

  13. Effect of alginate encapsulation on the cellular transcriptome of human islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, Vijayaganapathy; Quayum, Nayeem; Joglekar, Mugdha V; Jensen, Jan; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A; Oberholzer, Jose; Guillemin, Gilles J; Tuch, Bernard E

    2011-11-01

    Encapsulation of human islets may prevent their immune rejection when transplanted into diabetic recipients. To assist in understanding why clinical outcomes with encapsulated islets were not ideal, we examined the effect of encapsulation on their global gene (mRNA) and selected miRNAs (non-coding (nc)RNA) expression. For functional studies, encapsulated islets were transplanted into peritoneal cavity of diabetic NOD-SCID mice. Genomics analysis and transplantation studies demonstrate that islet origin and isolation centres are a major source of variation in islet quality. In contrast, tissue culture and the encapsulation process had only a minimal effect, and did not affect islet viability. Microarray analysis showed that as few as 29 genes were up-regulated and 2 genes down-regulated (cut-off threshold 0.1) by encapsulation. Ingenuity analysis showed that up-regulated genes were involved mostly in inflammation, especially chemotaxis, and vascularisation. However, protein expression of these factors was not altered by encapsulation, raising doubts about the biosignificance of the gene changes. Encapsulation had no effect on levels of islet miRNAs. In vivo studies indicate differences among the centres in the quality of the islets isolated. We conclude that microencapsulation of human islets with barium alginate has little effect on their transcriptome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of surface modification chemistries in mouse, porcine, and human islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SoRelle, Jeffrey A; Kanak, Mazhar A; Itoh, Takeshi; Horton, Joshua M; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Kane, Robert R

    2015-03-01

    Beta cell replacement therapy, the transplantation of isolated pancreatic islets by intraportal infusion, offers patients with brittle type 1 diabetes blood glucose regulation with a minimally invasive technique. Chemical modification of islets prior to transplantation, providing a nanothin barrier that potentially includes active protective compounds, has been proposed as a strategy to minimize the inflammatory and immune reactions that often significantly limit graft function and duration. Chemical modification also has the potential to allow the use of alternative sources of islets, such as porcine islets, for transplantation. This investigation compared three orthogonal covalent islet modification techniques across three species (human, porcine, and murine), using multiple measures to determine biocompatibility and effectiveness. All three conjugation chemistries were well tolerated, and the overall efficiency, gross uniformity, and stability of the surface modifications were dependent upon the conjugation chemistry as well as the islet source (human, porcine, or murine). Notably, the reductive modification of surface disulfides was shown to afford intense and long-lasting modification of human islets. This study demonstrates that murine, human, and porcine islets tolerate a variety of covalent modifications, that these modifications are relatively stable, and that the murine islet model may not be predictive for some chemical contexts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Macro- or microencapsulation of pig islets to cure type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrane, Denis; Gianello, Pierre

    2012-12-21

    Although allogeneic islet transplantation can successfully cure type 1 diabetes, it has limited applicability. For example, organs are in short supply; several human pancreas donors are often needed to treat one diabetic recipient; the intrahepatic site may not be the most appropriate site for islet implantation; and immunosuppressive regimens, which are associated with side effects, are often required to prolong survival of the islet graft. An alternative source of insulin-producing cells would therefore be of major interest. Pigs represent a possible alternative source of beta cells. Grafting of pig islets may appear difficult because of the immunologic species barrier, but pig islets have been shown to function in primates for at least 6 mo with clinically incompatible immunosuppression. Therefore, a bioartificial pancreas made of encapsulated pig islets may resolve issues associated with islet allotransplantation. Although several groups have shown that encapsulated pig islets are functional in small-animal models, less is known about the use of bioartificial pancreases in large-animal models. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of encapsulated pig islets, to determine obstacles to implantation in humans and possible solutions to overcome these obstacles.

  16. Transcriptional Regulation of Chemokine Genes: A Link to Pancreatic Islet Inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Burke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced expression of chemotactic cytokines (aka chemokines within pancreatic islets likely contributes to islet inflammation by regulating the recruitment and activation of various leukocyte populations, including macrophages, neutrophils, and T-lymphocytes. Because of the powerful actions of these chemokines, precise transcriptional control is required. In this review, we highlight what is known about the signals and mechanisms that govern the transcription of genes encoding specific chemokine proteins in pancreatic islet β-cells, which include contributions from the NF-κB and STAT1 pathways. We further discuss increased chemokine expression in pancreatic islets during autoimmune-mediated and obesity-related development of diabetes.

  17. Mouse pancreatic islet macrophages use locally released ATP to monitor beta cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Jonathan R; Makhmutova, Madina; Almaça, Joana; Stertmann, Julia; Aamodt, Kristie; Brissova, Marcela; Speier, Stephan; Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2017-09-07

    Tissue-resident macrophages sense the microenvironment and respond by producing signals that act locally to maintain a stable tissue state. It is now known that pancreatic islets contain their own unique resident macrophages, which have been shown to promote proliferation of the insulin-secreting beta cell. However, it is unclear how beta cells communicate with islet-resident macrophages. Here we hypothesised that islet macrophages sense changes in islet activity by detecting signals derived from beta cells. To investigate how islet-resident macrophages respond to cues from the microenvironment, we generated mice expressing a genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicator in myeloid cells. We produced living pancreatic slices from these mice and used them to monitor macrophage responses to stimulation of acinar, neural and endocrine cells. Islet-resident macrophages expressed functional purinergic receptors, making them exquisite sensors of interstitial ATP levels. Indeed, islet-resident macrophages responded selectively to ATP released locally from beta cells that were physiologically activated with high levels of glucose. Because ATP is co-released with insulin and is exclusively secreted by beta cells, the activation of purinergic receptors on resident macrophages facilitates their awareness of beta cell secretory activity. Our results indicate that islet macrophages detect ATP as a proxy signal for the activation state of beta cells. Sensing beta cell activity may allow macrophages to adjust the secretion of factors to promote a stable islet composition and size.

  18. Deleterious effect of dithizone-DMSO staining on insulin secretion in rat and human pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conget, J I; Sarri, Y; González-Clemente, J M; Casamitjana, R; Vives, M; Gomis, R

    1994-03-01

    Dithizone (DTZ) is a selective stain for pancreatic islets which facilitates their identification, being of special interest in human islet isolation assessment. Nevertheless, there are few studies concerning its potential toxic effects on islet function. In our study, we have evaluated the effects of DTZ (dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO] 1% w/v) at three different concentrations (2, 10, and 100 micrograms/ml) on insulin response to glucose in human and rat islets. Likewise, we studied the effect of incubation time, in the presence of DTZ at the above-mentioned concentrations, on insulin release. Only when DTZ was employed at low concentrations and for a short period of incubation (10 min) was there no impairment of pancreatic islet function. Moreover, even at this low concentration, DTZ became deleterious for islet function when the incubation period with the dye was prolonged for 30 min. Culture (24 h) of previously stained islets produced a partial recovery of insulin response. In conclusion, our findings indicate (a) DTZ should not be employed to collect islets for functional studies because of its deleterious effect on beta-cell function, (b) DTZ's deleterious effects on beta-cell function should be considered if this dye is used to purify islets by fluorescence-activated cell sorting for transplantation.

  19. The lizard fauna of Guam's fringing islets: Island biogeography, phylogenetic history, and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, G.; Rodda, G.H.; Fritts, T.H.; Sharp, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    We sampled the lizard fauna of twenty-two small islets fringing the Pacific island of Guam and used these data to shed light on the processes responsible for present-day diversity. Habitat diversity, measured by islet area and vegetation complexity, was significantly correlated with the number of species found on an islet. However, islet distance and elevation were not significant predictors of diversity. Distribution patterns were slightly different for the two major families in our sample, Scincidae and Gekkonidae: skinks needed larger islets to maintain a population than did geckos. Presence/absence patterns were highly and significantly nested, and population density was correlated with the number of islets on which a species was found. An area cladogram was poorly supported and showed no faunal similarity between nearby islands. These patterns indicate that extinctions on most islets were due mostly to non-catastrophic, long-acting biological causes. The presence on the islets of species extirpated on Guam and the lack of significant nestedness on islands with greater maximum elevation highlight the impact that predators (primarily brown treesnakes) can have. Our findings also show that small reserves will not suffice to protect endangered lizard faunas, and that the islets may serve as a short-term repository of such species until snake-free areas can be established on Guam.

  20. Impact of Pancreatic Rat Islet Density on Cell Survival during Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rodriguez-Brotons

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In bioartificial pancreases (BP, the number of islets needed to restore normoglycaemia in the diabetic patient is critical. However, the confinement of a high quantity of islets in a limited space may impact islet survival, particularly in regard to the low oxygen partial pressure (PO2 in such environments. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of islet number in a confined space under hypoxia on cell survival. Rat islets were seeded at three different concentrations (150, 300, and 600 Islet Equivalents (IEQ/cm2 and cultured in normal atmospheric pressure (160 mmHg as well as hypoxic conditions (15 mmHg for 24 hours. Cell viability, function, hypoxia-induced changes in gene expression, and cytokine secretion were then assessed. Notably, hypoxia appeared to induce a decrease in viability and increasing islet density exacerbated the observed increase in cellular apoptosis as well as the loss of function. These changes were also associated with an increase in inflammatory gene transcription. Taken together, these data indicate that when a high number of islets are confined to a small space under hypoxia, cell viability and function are significantly impacted. Thus, in order to improve islet survival in this environment during transplantation, oxygenation is of critical importance.

  1. Survival of free and encapsulated human and rat islet xenografts transplanted into the mouse bone marrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael P H Meier

    Full Text Available Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow and 10 days (kidney capsule. Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation.

  2. Clinical islet isolation outcomes with a highly purified neutral protease for pancreas dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Doug; Kin, Tatsuya; Pawlick, Rena; Imes, Sharleen; Senior, Peter A; Shapiro, A M James

    2013-01-01

    Pancreas dissociation is a critical initial component of the islet isolation procedure and introduces high variability based on factors including the enzyme type, specificity and potency. Product refinement and alterations to the application strategies have improved isolation outcomes over time; however, islet utilization from donor organs remains low. In this study we evaluate a low endotoxin-high activity grade neutral protease in clinical islet isolation. The use of a non-collagenolytic enzyme, either thermolysin or high active neutral protease, was randomized in clinical islet isolations to evaluate efficacy. Additionally a retrospective comparison to neutral protease NB was conducted. The thermolysin group had lower trapped islet population and increased purity and post-culture islet mass in comparison to high active grade neutral protease. Comparison of neutral protease NB GMP grade to high active neutral protease displayed no measurable difference in islet mass or viability and transplantation outcomes at 1 mo post-transplant were favorable for both groups. High activity neutral protease can generate clinical grade islets and may prove beneficial to islet function and viability based on a reduced endotoxin load but dosing of neutral protease requires ongoing optimization.

  3. Increased Yield and Improved Transplantation Outcome of Mouse Islets with Bovine Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Bertera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and transplantation of rodent islets are frequently used as a tool for predicting the behavior of new protocols for islet allotransplants in type 1 diabetes patients. Bovine serum albumin (BSA is recognized as a protease inhibitor possibly protecting function and viability in islets. For this study, the addition of 0.2% BSA to the isolation protocol resulted in a 30% increase in islet yields while other parameters, such as viability and function, retained high islet quality. In vivo, a minimal mass of 70 BSA treated islets showed their ability to control glycemia levels in diabetic mice by bringing the average blood glucose to 153±13.2 mg/dL compared to 288±22.6 mg/dL without BSA. Our results show that the simple addition of BSA to the isolation protocol constitutes a reliable and reproducible method for increasing islet yield. Also adding BSA to the transplantation medium improves islet function in vivo. The method outlined here can reduce the overall number of animals needed per experiment and also reduce the time and resources needed for islet preparation.

  4. Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction Page ( 1 ) Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is one of the most common problems of the foot and ankle. It occurs when the posterior tibial tendon becomes inflamed or torn. As a result, the ...

  5. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medically as female sexual dysfunction. Many women experience problems with sexual function at some point. Female sexual dysfunction can occur at any stage of life. It can be lifelong or be acquired later in life. It can ...

  6. Ghrelin is dispensable for embryonic pancreatic islet development and differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonathon T.; Mastracci, Teresa L.; Vinton, Carol; Doyle, Michelle L.; Anderson, Keith R.; Loomis, Zoe L.; Schrunk, Jessica M.; Minic, Angela D.; Prabakar, Kamalaveni R.; Pugliese, Alberto; Sun, Yuxian; Smith, Roy G.; Sussel, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that has been implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Ghrelin is predominantly produced in the stomach, but is also expressed in many other tissues where its functions are not well characterized. In the rodent and human pancreas, ghrelin levels peak at late gestation and gradually decline postnatally. Several studies have suggested that ghrelin regulates beta cell function during embryonic development and in the adult. In addition, in a number of mouse models, ghrelin cells appear to replace insulin and glucagon-producing cells in the islet. In this analysis, we investigated whether the absence or overexpression of ghrelin influenced the development and differentiation of the pancreatic islet during embryonic development. These studies revealed that ghrelin is dispensable for normal pancreas development during gestation. Conversely, we demonstrated that elevated ghrelin in the Nkx2.2 null islets is not responsible for the absence of insulin- and glucagon-producing cells. Finally, we have also determined that in absence of insulin, ghrelin cells form in their normal numbers and ghrelin is expressed at wild type levels. PMID:19268691

  7. Melatonin and Pancreatic Islets: Interrelationships between Melatonin, Insulin and Glucagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschke, Elmar; Bähr, Ina; Mühlbauer, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin exerts its influence in the periphery through activation of two specific trans-membrane receptors: MT1 and MT2. Both isoforms are expressed in the islet of Langerhans and are involved in the modulation of insulin secretion from β-cells and in glucagon secretion from α-cells. De-synchrony of receptor signaling may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. This notion has recently been supported by genome-wide association studies identifying particularly the MT2 as a risk factor for this rapidly spreading metabolic disturbance. Since melatonin is secreted in a clearly diurnal fashion, it is safe to assume that it also has a diurnal impact on the blood-glucose-regulating function of the islet. This factor has hitherto been underestimated; the disruption of diurnal signaling within the islet may be one of the most important mechanisms leading to metabolic disturbances. The study of melatonin–insulin interactions in diabetic rat models has revealed an inverse relationship: an increase in melatonin levels leads to a down-regulation of insulin secretion and vice versa. Elucidation of the possible inverse interrelationship in man may open new avenues in the therapy of diabetes. PMID:23535335

  8. Islet Specific Wnt Activation in Human Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hee Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wnt pathway effector gene TCF7L2 has been linked to type II diabetes, making it important to study the role of Wnt signaling in diabetes pathogenesis. We examined the expression of multiple Wnt pathway components in pancreases from normal individuals and type II diabetic individuals. Multiple members of the Wnt signaling pathway, including TCF7L2, Wnt2b, β-catenin, pGSK3β, TCF3, cyclinD1, and c-myc, were undetectable or expressed at low levels in islets from nondiabetic individuals, but were also upregulated specifically in islets of type II diabetic patients. Culture of pancreatic tissue and islet isolation led to Wnt activation that was reversed by the Wnt antagonist sFRP, demonstrating that Wnt activation in that setting was due to soluble Wnt factors. These data support a model in which the Wnt pathway plays a dynamic role in the pathogenesis of type II diabetes and suggest manipulation of Wnt signaling as a new approach to β-cell-directed diabetes therapy.

  9. Pancreas and islet transplantation: psychological themes pre- and posttransplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sue; Simonds, Laura M; Smith, Richard M

    2015-04-01

    To date, islet and whole pancreas transplantation have been largely researched and reported separately. Therefore, for the first time, this review seeks to examine together the recently reported psychological issues as they relate to the two different types of transplantation. In relation to pancreas transplantation, recent findings indicate potential issues relating to energy levels, including sleep problems; mood problems (anxiety, depression, traumatic stress); social interactions; and identity issues. Similarly, the research on islet allotransplantation (ITA) indicates mood disruptions associated with Type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM), which seem to improve as a result of treatment with ITA. The review indicates a need for more research to guide effective intervention to optimize psychological recovery post islet and/or pancreas transplantation for patients with T1DM. Effective psychological intervention for this group relies on researchers eliciting more detailed knowledge of pretransplant psychosocial issues, not only in relation to how these might vary by transplant group, but also in relation to patient health status vis-à-vis microvascular complications and glycaemic control, and how these issues change across the whole transplant journey.

  10. Pancreatic islet transplantation after upper abdominal exenteration and liver replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzakis, Andreas G.; Ricordi, Camillo; Alejandro, Rodolfo; Zeng, Yijun; Fung, John J.; Todo, Satoru; Demetris, Anthony J.; Mintz, Daniel H.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Nine patients who became diabetic after upper-abdominal exenteration and liver transplantation were given pancreatic islet-cell grafts obtained from the liver donor (eight cases), a third-party donor (one), or both (four). Two patients were diabetic when they died of infections after 48 and 109 days, as was a third patient who died of tumour recurrence after 178 days. The other 6 are alive 101–186 days postoperatively, and five are insulin-free or on insulin only during night-time parenteral alimentation. C-peptide increased 1·7 to 3·3 fold in response to intravenous glucose in these five patients who have had glycosylated haemoglobin in the high normal range. However, the kinetics of the C-peptide responses to intravenous glucose in all eight patients tested revealed an absent first-phase release and a delayed peak response consistent with transplantation and/or engraftment of a suboptimal islet cell mass. The longest survivor, who requires neither parenteral alimentation nor insulin, is the first unequivocal example of successful clinical islet-cell transplantation. PMID:1974944

  11. Improvement of subcutaneous bioartificial pancreas vascularization and function by coencapsulation of pig islets and mesenchymal stem cells in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vériter, Sophie; Gianello, Pierre; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Beaurin, Gwen; Ghyselinck, Audrey; Aouassar, Najima; Jordan, Bénédicte; Gallez, Bernard; Dufrane, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient oxygenation can limit the long-term survival of encapsulated islets in subcutaneous tissue. Transplantation of coencapsulated pig islets with adipose or bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs or BM-MSCs, respectively) was investigated with regard to implant vascularization, oxygenation, and diabetes correction in primates. The in vivo impact of MSCs on graft oxygenation and neovascularization was assessed in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes that were subcutaneously transplanted with islets coencapsulated with AMSCs (n = 8) or BM-MSCs (n = 6). Results were compared to islets encapsulated alone (n = 8). STZ diabetic primates were subcutaneously transplanted with islets coencapsulated with BM-MSCs (n = 4) or AMSCs (n = 6). Recipients were monitored metabolically and immunologically, and neoangiogenesis was assessed on explanted grafts. Results were compared with primates transplanted with islets encapsulated alone (n = 5). The cotransplantation of islets with BM-MSCs or AMSCs in diabetic rats showed significantly higher graft oxygenation than islets alone (3% and 3.6% O2 for islets + BM-MSCs or AMSCs, respectively, vs. 2.2% for islets alone). A significantly better glycated hemoglobin correction (28 weeks posttransplantation) was found for primates transplanted with islets and MSCs (7.4% and 8.1%, respectively) in comparison to islets encapsulated alone (10.9%). Greater neoangiogenesis was found in the periphery of coencapsulated islets and AMSCs in comparison to islets alone (p pig islets with MSCs can improve significantly the islets' survival/function in vitro. The coencapsulation of islets with MSCs improves implant oxygenation and neoangiogenesis. However, the cotransplantation of islets with MSCs improves only slightly the long-term function of a subcutaneous bioartificial pancreas in a primate preclinical model.

  12. Dynamic Profiling of Insulin Secretion and ATP Generation in Isolated Human and Mouse Islets Reveals Differential Glucose Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Pingitore

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Rodent islets are often used for basic science research but they do not always recapitulate signalling events in human islets. This study evaluated the glucose-dependent responses of human and mouse islets in terms of dynamic insulin secretion, metabolic coupling and the role of glucose transporters. Methods: Glucose-induced insulin secretion from isolated mouse and human islets was profiled by perifusion and islet ATP levels were measured by chemoluminescence assay. Glucose transporter expression was determined by qPCR and western blotting. Results: Human islets show a left-shifted glucose concentration-insulin secretion profile compared to mouse islets. These data are consistent with glucose transporter expression, with human islets expressing mainly GLUT1 and GLUT3, and GLUT2 being the predominant transporter in mouse islets. Using the GLUT1 inhibitor STF-31 we unveiled an important role for GLUT1 for differences in glucose-induced insulin secretion profiles observed between the two species. Conclusion: The high affinity of GLUT1/3 for glucose reflects the left-shifted glucose-induced insulin secretory response of human islets and the impairment of insulin secretion from human islets after STF-31 treatment indicates an important role for GLUT1 in human islet stimulus-secretion coupling. Our data provide further insight into key differences between insulin secretion regulation in mouse and human islets.

  13. Commercially available gas-permeable cell culture bags may not prevent anoxia in cultured or shipped islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgoustiniatos, E S; Hering, B J; Rozak, P R; Wilson, J R; Tempelman, L A; Balamurugan, A N; Welch, D P; Weegman, B P; Suszynski, T M; Papas, K K

    2008-03-01

    Prolonged anoxia has deleterious effects on islets. Gas-permeable cell culture devices can be used to minimize anoxia during islet culture and especially during shipment when elimination of gas-liquid interfaces is required to prevent the formation of damaging gas bubbles. Gas-permeable bags may have several drawbacks, such as propensity for puncture and contamination, difficult islet retrieval, and significantly lower oxygen permeability than silicone rubber membranes (SRM). We hypothesized that oxygen permeability of bags may be insufficient for islet oxygenation. We measured oxygen transmission rates through the membrane walls of three different types of commercially available bags and through SRM currently used for islet shipment. We found that the bag membranes have oxygen transmission rates per unit area about 100-fold lower than SRM. We solved the oxygen diffusion-reaction equation for 150-microm diameter islets seeded at 3000 islet equivalents per cm2, a density adequate to culture and ship an entire human or porcine islet preparation in a single gas-permeable device, predicting that about 40% of the islet volume would be anoxic at 22 degrees C and about 70% would be anoxic at 37 degrees C. Islets of larger size or islets accumulated during shipment would be even more anoxic. The model predicted no anoxia in islets similarly seeded in devices with SRM bottoms. We concluded that commercially available bags may not prevent anoxia during islet culture or shipment; devices with SRM bottoms are more suitable alternatives.

  14. Female offspring born to obese and insulin-resistant dams are not at increased risk for obesity and metabolic dysfunction during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburasayn, Hanin; Al Batran, Rami; Gopal, Keshav; Almutairi, Malak; Eshreif, Amina; Eaton, Farah; Ussher, John R

    2018-01-01

    The percentage of women who are obese at the time of conception or during pregnancy is increasing, with animal and human studies demonstrating that offspring born to obese dams or mothers are at increased risk for obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Our goal was to confirm in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome in the dam, whether the offspring would be at increased risk of obesity. Conversely, we observed that male offspring born to dams with metabolic syndrome had no alterations in their body mass profiles, whereas female offspring born to dams with metabolic syndrome were heavier at weaning, but exhibited no perturbations in energy metabolism. Moreover, they gained weight at a reduced rate versus female offspring born to healthy dams, and thus weighed less at study completion. Hence, our findings suggest that factors other than increased adiposity and insulin resistance during pregnancy are responsible for the increased risk of obesity in children born to obese mothers.

  15. Organic Nitrates and Nitrate Resistance in Diabetes: The Role of Vascular Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress with Emphasis on Antioxidant Properties of Pentaerithrityl Tetranitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Oelze

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic nitrates represent a class of drugs which are clinically used for treatment of ischemic symptoms of angina as well as for congestive heart failure based on the idea to overcome the impaired NO bioavailability by “NO” replacement therapy. The present paper is focused on parallels between diabetes mellitus and nitrate tolerance, and aims to discuss the mechanisms underlying nitrate resistance in the setting of diabetes. Since oxidative stress was identified as an important factor in the development of tolerance to organic nitrates, but also represents a hallmark of diabetic complications, this may represent a common principle for both disorders where therapeutic intervention should start. This paper examines the evidence supporting the hypothesis that pentaerithrityl tetranitrate may represent a nitrate for treatment of ischemia in diabetic patients. This evidence is based on the considerations of parallels between diabetes mellitus and nitrate tolerance as well as on preliminary data from experimental diabetes studies.

  16. Role of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in glucose control: diverse functions in islets, adipocytes and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Masanori; Yada, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    The novel satiety factor nesfatin-1 and its precursor NUCB2 are the neuropeptides widely expressed in the central nervous system. Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 is also localized in peripheral tissues and regulates the glucose and energy metabolism on multiple processes. Nesfatin-1 potentiates both insulin release from pancreatic β-cells and insulin action in liver, contributing to energy storage. Furthermore, nesfatin-1/NUCB2 regulates adipocyte differentiation. The polymorphism of the NUCB2 gene is associated with obesity. Thus, nesfatin- 1/NUCB2 plays a role in integrating feeding, glucose homeostasis, and energy storage/expenditure. Dysfunction of expression, secretion and/or action of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 might be involved in the type 2 diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 and its regulatory processes may provide novel targets for treating associated diseases of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we review the by now published studies on nesfatin-1/NUCB2 localization and action in islets and discuss the physiological and pathophysiological roles of the nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in glucose and energy metabolism.

  17. Construction of RNAi lentiviral vector targeting mouse Islet-1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-shen ZHI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To construct and select RNAi lentiviral vectors that can silence mouse Islet-1 gene effectively.Methods Three groups of RNAi-target of mouse Islet-1 gene were designed,and corresponding shRNA oligo(sh1,sh2 and sh3 were synthesized,and then they were respectively inserted to the PLVTHM vector that had been digested by endonuclease.Agarose gel electrophoresis and sequencing were used to select and indentify the positive clones.The positive clones were extracted and then mixed with E.coli to amplify positive clones.The amplified clones were then infected into 293T along with the other 3 helper plasmids to produce lentiviral vector.After the construction of the lentiviral vector,plaque formation test was performed to determine the titer of lentiviral vector.The lentiviral vectors were then infected into C3H10T1/2 cells.The transfect efficiency of the lentiviral vectors was determined with flow cytometry with detection of green fluorescent protein(GFP.Q-PCR was employed to detect the RNAi efficiency of the lentiviral vectors.Results Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the clones with right gene at the target size were successfully established;gene sequencing showed that the right DNA fragments had been inserted;plaque formation test showed that the titer of the virus solution was 3.87×108TU/ml;the transfect efficiency of the lentiviral vector infected into C3H10T1/2 cells was 90.36%.All the 3 groups of shRNA targets(sh1,sh2 and sh3 showed an inhibitory effect on Islet-1 gene,and the sh1 showed the highest inhibitory effect(76.8%,as compared with that of normal cells(P < 0.05.Conclusion The RNAi lentiviral vector that can effectively silence the mouse Islet-1 gene has been constructed successfully,which may lay a foundation for further investigation of Islet-1 gene.

  18. Regulation of the JNK3 signaling pathway during islet isolation: JNK3 and c-fos as new markers of islet quality for transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saida Abdelli

    Full Text Available Stress conditions generated throughout pancreatic islet processing initiate the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways and beta-cell destruction. Our goal is to identify relevant and preferably beta-specific markers to assess the activation of beta-cell stress and apoptotic mechanisms, and therefore the general quality of the islet preparation prior to transplantation. Protein expression and activation were analyzed by Western blotting and kinase assays. ATP measurements were performed by a luminescence-based assay. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR was measured based on standard protocols using fiber optic sensors. Total RNA was used for gene expression analyzes. Our results indicate that pancreas digestion initiates a potent stress response in the islets by activating two stress kinases, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK and p38. JNK1 protein levels remained unchanged between different islet preparations and following culture. In contrast, levels of JNK3 increased after islet culture, but varied markedly, with a subset of preparations bearing low JNK3 expression. The observed changes in JNK3 protein content strongly correlated with OCR measurements as determined by the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rho [Formula: see text] in the matching islet samples, while inversely correlating with c-fos mRNA expression [Formula: see text]. In conclusion, pancreas digestion recruits JNK and p38 kinases that are known to participate to beta-cell apoptosis. Concomitantly, the islet isolation alters JNK3 and c-fos expression, both strongly correlating with OCR. Thus, a comparative analysis of JNK3 and c-fos expression before and after culture may provide for novel markers to assess islet quality prior to transplantation. JNK3 has the advantage over all other proposed markers to be islet-specific, and thus to provide for a marker independent of non-beta cell contamination.

  19. Microvascular Dysfunction and Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, T. Michael; Faraci, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of vascular risk factors on cognitive function has garnered much interest in recent years. The appropriate distribution of oxygen, glucose and other nutrients by the cerebral vasculature is critical for proper cognitive performance. The cerebral microvasculature is a key site of vascular resistance and a preferential target for small vessel disease. While deleterious effects of vascular risk factors on microvascular function are known, the contribution of this dysfunction to cognitive deficits is less clear. In this review, we summarize current evidence for microvascular dysfunction in brain. We highlight effects of select vascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes and hyperhomocysteinemia) on the pial and parenchymal circulation. Lastly, we discuss potential links between microvascular disease and cognitive function, highlighting current gaps in our understanding. PMID:26988697

  20. Staining and in vitro toxicity of dithizone with canine, porcine, and bovine islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S A; Borland, K M; Sherman, S D; Rusack, T C; Chick, W L

    1994-01-01

    Dithizone (DTZ) is a recognized diabetogenic agent in vivo, and a supravital stain commonly used for identification of islets to be used for transplantation. In the present studies, we compared DTZ staining of freshly isolated and cultured canine, bovine, and porcine islets, and the effect of DTZ on the function and viability of islets. Incubation with DTZ resulted in staining of canine and porcine islets, but no discernible staining with bovine islets. Insulin content of porcine, canine, and bovine islet was 2.0 +/- 0.2, 2.2 +/- 0.3, and 1.9 +/- 0.2 mU/EIN, indicating a lack of correspondence of DTZ staining and insulin content. Seven days of culture with canine islets resulted in > or = 50% reduction of DTZ stained cells. Exposure to DTZ at 50 micrograms/mL resulted in a maximal number of stained cells in preparations of purified islets (80-85%; counted after dispersion), a lower percentage of cells stained faintly at 20 micrograms/mL (50-55%), with no discernible staining at 10 micrograms/mL. Prolonged exposure of islets (4-48 h) to 20 micrograms/mL DTZ led to reduced insulin secretion and islet cell death. Incubation of canine or porcine islets with 100 micrograms/mL of DTZ for 0.5 h resulted in a dramatic loss of viability and diminished insulin secretory function, which was not reversed with continued culture. The concentration dependence of toxic effects paralleled the concentration dependence of cellular staining. The minimally effective staining concentration (20 micrograms/mL) also resulted in a loss of viability. An additional assessment of DTZ toxicity was made using the RIN-38 beta-cell line, which shows no discernible staining with DTZ.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on carbohydrate metabolism, insulin secretion, and pancreatic islets morphology of adult male offspring in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, H; Ghasemi, A; Roghani, M; Zahediasl, S

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal hypothyroidism has serious effects on growth, development, and metabolism. This study aims to investigate the effects of the neonatal hypothyroidism on carbohydrate metabolism, islet insulin secretion and morphology of the pancreatic islets in adult male offspring. Lactating mothers of Wistar rats consumed 0.02% solution of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during the weaning period (neonatal hypothyroid group), while mothers of the control group drank merely tap water. Body weight and survival of pups were followed up. Intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed in adult male offspring and 5-6 weeks later, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was evaluated. During the glucose tolerance test, plasma glucose level of the neonatal hypothyroid group (13.18 ± 0.59 mmol/l) was significantly higher at 5 min compared to the control group (11.54 ± 0.47 mmol/l), whereas plasma insulin concentrations and GSIS of the groups was not significantly different. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance of adult male offspring of the hypothyroid group (9.1 ± 1.0) was significantly higher as compared to the control group (4.5 ± 0.6). Area (14,613.0 ± 2646.3 μm2) and the diameter of the islets (147 ± 3.0 μm) of the neonatal hypothyroid group were significantly lower, as compared to the control group (32,886.3 ± 4690.3 and 206.6 ± 5.9 μm2 and μm, respectively). Neonatal hypothyroidism can alter carbohydrate metabolism in euthyroid adult offspring, which may increase susceptibility to the development of glucose intolerance and occurrence of Type 2 diabetes later in life.

  2. Polyphenol-rich virgin olive oil reduces insulin resistance and liver inflammation and improves mitochondrial dysfunction in high-fat diet fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Adriano; Pirozzi, Claudio; Mollica, Maria Pia; Trinchese, Giovanna; Di Guida, Francesca; Cavaliere, Gina; Calignano, Antonio; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Berni Canani, Roberto; Meli, Rosaria

    2017-03-01

    Virgin olive oil is an essential component of the Mediterranean diet. Its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are mainly linked to phenolic contents. This study aims to evaluate the beneficial effects of a polyphenol-rich virgin olive oil (HPCOO) or olive oil without polyphenols (WPOO) in rats fed high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups based on the different types of diet: (I) standard diet (STD); (II) HFD; (III) HFD containing WPOO, and (IV) HFD containing HPCOO. HPCOO and WPOO induced a significant improvement of HFD-induced impaired glucose homeostasis (by hyperglycemia, altered oral glucose tolerance, and HOMA-IR) and inflammatory status modulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-10) and adipokines. Moreover, HPCOO and less extensively WPOO, limited HFD-induced liver oxidative and nitrosative stress and increased hepatic fatty acid oxidation. To study mitochondrial performance, oxidative capacity and energy efficiency were also evaluated in isolated liver mitochondria. HPCOO, but not WPOO, reduced H2 O2 release and aconitase activity by decreasing degree of coupling, which plays a major role in the control of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species emission. HPCOO limits HFD-induced insulin resistance, inflammation, and hepatic oxidative stress, preventing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progression. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Dietary Salba (Salvia hispanica L) seed rich in α-linolenic acid improves adipose tissue dysfunction and the altered skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism in dyslipidemic insulin-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M E; Ferreira, M R; Chicco, A; Lombardo, Y B

    2013-10-01

    This work reports the effect of dietary Salba (chia) seed rich in n-3 α-linolenic acid on the morphological and metabolic aspects involved in adipose tissue dysfunction and the mechanisms underlying the impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of rats fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD). Rats were fed a SRD for 3 months. Thereafter, half the rats continued with SRD while in the other half, corn oil (CO) was replaced by chia seed for 3 months (SRD+chia). In control group, corn starch replaced sucrose. The replacement of CO by chia seed in the SRD reduced adipocyte hypertrophy, cell volume and size distribution, improved lipogenic enzyme activities, lipolysis and the anti-lipolytic action of insulin. In the skeletal muscle lipid storage, glucose phosphorylation and oxidation were normalized. Chia seed reversed the impaired insulin stimulated glycogen synthase activity, glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate and GLUT-4 protein levels as well as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Curcumin enhances recovery of pancreatic islets from cellular stress induced inflammation and apoptosis in diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Kahkashan; Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@jcbose.ac.in

    2015-02-01

    The phytochemical, curcumin, has been reported to play many beneficial roles. However, under diabetic conditions, the detail mechanism of its beneficial action in the glucose homeostasis regulatory organ, pancreas, is poorly understood. The present study has been designed and carried out to explore the role of curcumin in the pancreatic tissue of STZ induced and cellular stress mediated diabetes in eight weeks old male Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal dose of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight). Post to diabetes induction, animals were treated with curcumin at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for eight weeks. Underlying molecular and cellular mechanism was determined using various biochemical assays, DNA fragmentation, FACS, histology, immunoblotting and ELISA. Treatment with curcumin reduced blood glucose level, increased plasma insulin and mitigated oxidative stress related markers. In vivo and in vitro experimental results revealed increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL1-β and IFN-γ), reduced level of cellular defense proteins (Nrf-2 and HO-1) and glucose transporter (GLUT-2) along with enhanced levels of signaling molecules of ER stress dependent and independent apoptosis (cleaved Caspase-12/9/8/3) in STZ administered group. Treatment with curcumin ameliorated all the adverse changes and helps the organ back to its normal physiology. Results suggest that curcumin protects pancreatic beta-cells by attenuating inflammatory responses, and inhibiting ER/mitochondrial dependent and independent pathways of apoptosis and crosstalk between them. This uniqueness and absence of any detectable adverse effect proposes the possibility of using this molecule as an effective protector in the cellular stress mediated diabetes mellitus. - Highlights: • STZ induced cellular stress plays a vital role in pancreatic dysfunction. • Cellular stress causes inflammation, pancreatic islet cell death and diabetes. • Deregulation of Nrf-2

  5. Adenosine dysfunction in epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boison, Detlev

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular levels of the brain’s endogenous anticonvulsant and neuroprotectant adenosine largely depend on an astrocyte-based adenosine cycle, comprised of ATP release, rapid degradation of ATP into adenosine, and metabolic reuptake of adenosine through equilibrative nucleoside transporters and phosphorylation by adenosine kinase (ADK). Changes in ADK expression and activity therefore rapidly translate into changes of extracellular adenosine, which exerts its potent anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects by activation of pre- and postsynaptic adenosine A1 receptors. Increases in ADK increase neuronal excitability, whereas decreases in ADK render the brain resistant to seizures and injury. Importantly, ADK was found to be overexpressed and associated with astrogliosis and spontaneous seizures in rodent models of epilepsy, as well as in human specimen resected from patients with hippocampal sclerosis and temporal lobe epilepsy. Several lines of evidence indicate that overexpression of astroglial ADK and adenosine deficiency are pathological hallmarks of the epileptic brain. Consequently, adenosine augmentation therapies constitute a powerful approach for seizure prevention, which is effective in models of epilepsy that are resistant to conventional antiepileptic drugs. The adenosine kinase hypothesis of epileptogenesis suggests that adenosine dysfunction in epilepsy undergoes a biphasic response: An acute surge of adenosine that can be triggered by any type of injury might contribute to the development of astrogliosis via adenosine receptor –dependent and –independent mechanisms. Astrogliosis in turn is associated with overexpression of ADK, which was shown to be sufficient to trigger spontaneous recurrent electrographic seizures. Thus, ADK emerges as a promising target for the prediction and prevention of epilepsy. PMID:22700220

  6. Effective removal of alginate-poly-L-lysine microcapsules from pancreatic islets by use of trypsin-EDTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M; Leuvenink, HGD; Fekken, S; Schuurs, TA; van Schilfgaarde, R; KEIZER, J

    2003-01-01

    Although the transplantation of alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate encapsulated islets of Langerhans usually is successful, graft survival is still limited. Molecular analysis by RT-PCR of the encapsulated islets may provide insight into the mechanisms that affect islets during graft failure. However,

  7. Growth hormone and prolactin stimulate the expression of rat preadipocyte factor-1/delta-like protein in pancreatic islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, C; Tornehave, D; Lindberg, Karen

    1997-01-01

    GH and PRL have been shown to stimulate proliferation and insulin production in islets of Langerhans. To identify genes regulated by GH/PRL in islets, we performed differential screening of a complementary DNA library from neonatal rat islets cultured for 24 h with human GH (hGH). One hGH-induced...

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: InP.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 Input control Pancreas Islets of Langerhans... SRX188611,SRX751762,SRX751753,SRX751756,SRX751759,SRX751765 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Pan.10.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  13. File list: NoD.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 No description Pancreas Islets of Langerhans... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Pan.20.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans mm9 Input control Pancreas Islets of Langerhans... SRX188611,SRX751753,SRX751756,SRX751762,SRX751765,SRX751759 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Pan.50.AllAg.Islets_of_Langerhans.bed ...

  15. A VERSATILE ALGINATE DROPLET GENERATOR APPLICABLE FOR MICROENCAPSULATION OF PANCREATIC-ISLETS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLTERS, GHJ; FRITSCHY, WM; GERRITS, D; VANSCHILFAGAARDE, R

    1992-01-01

    Alginate beads for immunoisolation of pancreatic islets by microencapsulation should be small, smooth, and spherical in order to ensure that around the islets a strong alginate-polylysine-alginate capsule will be formed with optimal biocompatibility and diffusion of nutrients and hormones. However,

  16. Functional and immunohistochemical evaluation of porcine neonatal islet-like cell clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T B; Yderstraede, K B; Schrøder, H D

    2003-01-01

    Porcine neonatal islet-like cell clusters (NICCs) may be an attractive source of insulin-producing tissue for xenotransplantation in type I diabetic patients. We examined the functional and immunohistochemical outcome of the islet grafts in vitro during long-term culture and in vivo after...

  17. An imidazoline compound completely counteracts interleukin-1[beta] toxic effects to rat pancreatic islet [beta] cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaccio, Gianpaolo; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Pisanti, Francesco A

    2002-01-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that interleukin (IL)-1beta decreases insulin and DNA contents in pancreatic islet beta cells, causing structural damage, that it is toxic to cultured human islet beta cells and that it is able to induce apoptosis in these cells....

  18. Land snails of the islet of Misali, off Pemba Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Bruggen, van A.C.

    2013-01-01

    A litter sample collected during a short stay on the islet of Misali, off Pemba Island, contained several species that have not been reported before for that islet, three of which are described as new to science: Afripupa misaliensis (Vertiginidae), Pupisoma misaliensis (Valloniidae), Microcystina

  19. Microencapsulation of islets with living cells using polyDNA-PEG-lipid conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, Yuji; Minh, Luan Nguyen; Kawamoto, Takuo; Iwata, Hiroo

    2010-04-21

    Microencapsulation of islets with a semipermeable membrane, i.e., bioartificial pancreas, is a promising way to transplant islets without the need for immunosuppressive therapy for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type I diabetes). However, materials composing a bioartificial pancreas are not ideal and might activate defense reactions against foreign materials. In this study, we propose an original method for microencapsulation of islets with living cells using an amphiphilic poly(ethylene glyocol)-conjugated phospholipid derivative (PEG-lipid) and DNA hybridization. PolyA and polyT were introduced onto the surfaces of the islets and HEK 293 cells, respectively, using amphiphilic PEG-lipid derivatives. PolyA20 modified HEK cells were immobilized onto the islet surface where polyT20-PEG-lipid was incorporated. The cells spread and proliferated on the islet surface, and the islet surface was completely encapsulated with a cell layer after culture. The encapsulated islets retained the ability to control insulin release in response to glucose concentration changes.

  20. Selection of polymers for application in scaffolds applicable for human pancreatic islet transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Alexandra M; de Haan, Bart J; Paredes-Juarez, Genaro A; Wolters, Anouk H G; Kuipers, Jeroen; Giepmans, Ben N G; Schwab, Leendert; Engelse, Marten A; van Apeldoorn, Aart A; de Koning, Eelco; Faas, Marijke M; de Vos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The liver is currently the site for transplantation of islets in humans. This is not optimal for islets, but alternative sites in humans are not available. Polymeric scaffolds in surgically accessible areas are a solution. As human donors are rare, the polymers should not interfere with functional

  1. A Retrievable, Efficacious Polymeric Scaffold for Subcutaneous Transplantation of Rat Pancreatic Islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Alexandra M; Hertsig, Don T; Schwab, Leendert; van Apeldoorn, Aart A; de Koning, Eelco; Faas, Marijke M; de Haan, Bart J; de Vos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aim on developing a polymeric ectopic scaffold in a readily accessible site under the skin. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The liver as transplantation site for pancreatic islets is associated with significant loss of islets. Several extrahepatic sites were tested in experimental animals,

  2. A Retrievable, Efficacious Polymeric Scaffold for Subcutaneous Transplantation of Rat Pancreatic Islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Alexandra M; Hertsig, Don T; Schwab, Leendert; van Apeldoorn, Aart A; de Koning, Eelco; Faas, Marijke M; de Haan, Bart J; de Vos, Paul

    OBJECTIVE: We aim on developing a polymeric ectopic scaffold in a readily accessible site under the skin. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The liver as transplantation site for pancreatic islets is associated with significant loss of islets. Several extrahepatic sites were tested in experimental animals,

  3. Identification of transplanted pancreatic islet cells by radioactive dithizone-[131I]-histamine conjugate. Preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnuszek, P; Licińska, I; Mrozek, A; Wardawa, A; Fiedor, P S; Mazurek, A P

    2000-01-01

    The unique mechanism of dithizone action in the interior of the viable pancreatic islet suggests the possible development of a specific radiopharmaceutical that may have a potential clinical application in the diagnosis of the pancreatic organ allografts or islets rejection. The radiodiagnostic properties of the newly developed radioactive analogue of dithizone, i.e. Dithizone-[(131)I]-Histamine conjugate have been evaluated in the present study. The four islet cells transplantation models were chosen for this purpose. The most important feature of the Dithizone-[(131)I]-Histamine conjugate is its possessed ability of zinc chelation. As was presented in the recent study, the conjugate stains pink-reddish the isolated pancreatic islets in vitro. Among the studied transplantation models, only the islets grafting under testis capsule enabled determination of the pancreatic islets in rats by radioactive Dithizone-[(131)I]-Histamine conjugate. The level of the radioactivity in the recipient testis (right) was almost two times higher compared to the controls (0.24 vs. 0.13% ID/g, respectively). These preliminary data demonstrate the ability of the developed radioactive analogue of dithizone for in vivo identification of transplanted pancreatic islets, and suggests a potential clinical application of the radiodithizone in the diagnosis of the pancreatic islet rejection.

  4. Iodixanol Density Gradient Preparation in University of Wisconsin Solution for Porcine Islet Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P.M. Van der Burg

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously published as Graham, J.M. (2002 Purification of Islets of Langerhans from porcine pancreas. TheScientificWorldJOURNAL 2, 1657–1661. ISSN 1537-744X; DOI 10.1100/tsw.2002.847.Generally, prior to the purification of isolated pancreatic islets, the collagenase-digested tissue is incubated in the University of Wisconsin solution (UWS; ~320 mOsm for osmotic stabilization to preserve or improve the density differences between islets and acinar fragments. The adverse effects arising from the subsequent pelleting and resuspension of the islets in a second, different (often highly hyperosmotic purification solution are avoided in the protocol described here; preparation of the purification medium is simply achieved by mixing the UWS preincubated islets with a second UWS containing the inert impermeant iodixanol. Flotation of the islets isolated from juvenile porcine pancreases through this mildly hypertonic (~380 mOsm gradient of iodixanol-UWS achieves a much higher recovery of islets of an improved viability than the customary method using a Ficoll gradient. The method has been extended to human islet purification.

  5. Differential expression of neural cell adhesion molecule and cadherins in pancreatic islets, glucagonomas, and insulinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, C J; Christgau, S; Williamson, M R

    1992-01-01

    in a process where cell adhesion molecules are involved. In this study we have analyzed the expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and cadherin molecules in neonatal, young, and adult rat islet cells as well as in glucagonomas and insulinomas derived from a pluripotent rat islet cell tumor. Whereas...

  6. Characterization of the Human Pancreatic Islet Proteome by Two-Dimensional LC/MS/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, Thomas O.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Fontes, Ghislaine; Qian, Weijun; Camp, David G.; Poitout, Vincent J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-12-01

    Research to elucidate the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus has traditionally focused on the genetic and immunological factors associated with the disease, and, until recently, has not considered the target cell. While there have been reports detailing proteomic analyses of established islet cell lines or isolated rodent islets, the information gained is not always easily extrapolated to humans. Therefore, extensive characterization of the human islet proteome could result in better understanding of islet biology and lead to more effective treatment strategies. We have applied a two-dimensional LC-MS/MS-based analysis to the characterization of the human islet proteome, resulting in the detection of 29,021 unique peptides corresponding to 4,925 proteins. As expected, major islet hormones (insulin, glucagon, somatostatin), beta-cell enriched secretory products (IAPP), ion channels (K-ATP channel), and transcription factors (PDX-1, Nkx 6.1, HNF-1 beta) were detected. In addition, significant proteome coverage of metabolic enzymes and cellular pathways was obtained, including the insulin signaling cascade and the MAP kinase, NF-κβ, and JAK/STAT pathways. This work represents the most extensive characterization of the human islet proteome to date and provides a peptide reference library that may be utilized in future studies of islet biology and type 1 diabetes.

  7. Functional and immunohistochemical evaluation of porcine neonatal islet-like cell clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T B; Yderstraede, K B; Schrøder, H D

    2003-01-01

    Porcine neonatal islet-like cell clusters (NICCs) may be an attractive source of insulin-producing tissue for xenotransplantation in type I diabetic patients. We examined the functional and immunohistochemical outcome of the islet grafts in vitro during long-term culture and in vivo after transpl...

  8. The efficacy of an immunoisolating membrane system for islet xenotransplantation in minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tova Neufeld

    Full Text Available Developing a device that protects xenogeneic islets to allow treatment and potentially cure of diabetes in large mammals has been a major challenge in the past decade. Using xenogeneic islets for transplantation is required in light of donor shortage and the large number of diabetic patients that qualify for islet transplantation. Until now, however, host immunoreactivity against the xenogeneic graft has been a major drawback for the use of porcine islets. Our study demonstrates the applicability of a novel immunoprotective membrane that allows successful xenotransplantation of rat islets in diabetic minipigs without immunosuppressive therapy. Rat pancreatic islets were encapsulated in highly purified alginate and integrated into a plastic macrochamber covered by a poly-membrane for subcutaneous transplantation. Diabetic Sinclair pigs were transplanted and followed for up to 90 days. We demonstrated a persistent graft function and restoration of normoglycemia without the need for immunosuppressive therapy. This concept could potentially offer an attractive strategy for a more widespread islet replacement therapy that would restore endogenous insulin secretion in diabetic patients without the need for immunosuppressive drugs and may even open up an avenue for safe utilization of xenogeneic islet donors.

  9. Successful suppression of the early rejection of pig islets in monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkelijkhuizen, JKRA; Bouwman, E; van der Burg, MPM; Ringers, J; Ossevoort, MA; Kuhn, EM; Frost, P; Jonker, M

    2000-01-01

    Primary nonfunction (PNF) is seen very frequently after xenogeneic transplantation of islets of Langerhans. In a pig-to-rat model we recently observed that no PNF occurs when the islets are kept in culture at 37 degreesC fur 1-2 weeks prior to transplantation. In order to investigate the rejection

  10. Residue specific effects of human islet polypeptide amyloid on self-assembly and on cell toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khemtemourian, L.P.; Guillemain, Ghislaine; Foufelle, Fabienne; Killian, J Antoinette

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized histopathologically by the presence of fibrillary amyloid deposits in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), the 37-residue pancreatic hormone, is the major constituent of these amyloid deposits. The propensity of IAPP

  11. Beta-cell function in isolated human pancreatic islets in long-term tissue culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1981-01-01

    Human pancreatic islets were isolated by collagenase treatment of pancreatic tissue obtained from 27 individuals aged 12 to 69 years. The islets were maintained free floating in tissue culture medium RPMI 1640 supplemented with calf or human serum. In two cases the insulin production was followed...

  12. HUMAN ISLET ISOLATION AND ALLOTRANSPLANTATION IN 22 CONSECUTIVE CASES1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricordi, Camillo; Tzakis, Andreas G.; Carroll, Patricia B.; Zeng, Yijun; Rodriguez Rilo, Horacio L.; Alejandro, Rodolfo; Shapiro, Ron; Fung, John J.; Demetris, Anthony J.; Mintz, Daniel H.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides our initial experience in islet isolation and intrahepatic allotransplantation in 21 patients. In group 1, 10 patients underwent combined liver-islet allotransplantation following upper-abdominal exenteration for cancer. In group 2, 4 patients received a combined liver-islet allograft for cirrhosis and diabetes. One patient had plasma C-peptide >3 pM and was therefore excluded from analysis. In group 3, 7 patients received 8 combined cadaveric kidney-islet grafts (one retransplant) for end-stage renal disease secondary to type 1 diabetes mellitus. The islets were separated by a modification of the automated method for human islet isolation and the preparations were infused into the portal vein. Immunosuppression was with FK506 (group 1) plus steroids (groups 2 and 3). Six patients in group 1 did not require insulin treatment for 5 to >16 months. In groups 2 and 3 none of the patients became insulin-independent, although decreased insulin requirement and stabilization of diabetes were observed. Our results indicate that rejection is still a major factor limiting the clinical application of islet transplantation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, although other factors such as steroid treatment may contribute to deteriorate islet engraftment and/or function. PMID:1738936

  13. Bioengineering the Endocrine Pancreas: Intraomental Islet Transplantation Within a Biologic Resorbable Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Dora M; Molano, R Damaris; Fotino, Carmen; Ulissi, Ulisse; Gimeno, Jennifer; Mendez, Armando J; Kenyon, Norman M; Kenyon, Norma S; Andrews, David M; Ricordi, Camillo; Pileggi, Antonello

    2016-05-01

    Transplantation of pancreatic islets is a therapeutic option to preserve or restore β-cell function. Our study was aimed at developing a clinically applicable protocol for extrahepatic transplantation of pancreatic islets. The potency of islets implanted onto the omentum, using an in situ-generated adherent, resorbable plasma-thrombin biologic scaffold, was evaluated in diabetic rat and nonhuman primate (NHP) models. Intraomental islet engraftment in the biologic scaffold was confirmed by achievement of improved metabolic function and preservation of islet cytoarchitecture, with reconstitution of rich intrainsular vascular networks in both species. Long-term nonfasting normoglycemia and adequate glucose clearance (tolerance tests) were achieved in both intrahepatic and intraomental sites in rats. Intraomental graft recipients displayed lower levels of serum biomarkers of islet distress (e.g., acute serum insulin) and inflammation (e.g., leptin and α2-macroglobulin). Importantly, low-purity (30:70% endocrine:exocrine) syngeneic rat islet preparations displayed function equivalent to that of pure (>95% endocrine) preparations after intraomental biologic scaffold implantation. Moreover, the biologic scaffold sustained allogeneic islet engraftment in immunosuppressed recipients. Collectively, our feasibility/efficacy data, along with the simplicity of the procedure and the safety of the biologic scaffold components, represented sufficient preclinical testing to proceed to a pilot phase I/II clinical trial. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  14. [Hypothalamic dysfunction in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande-Lee, Simone; Velloso, Licio A

    2012-08-01

    Obesity, defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair life quality, is one of the major public health problems worldwide. It results from an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure. The control of energy balance in animals and humans is performed by the central nervous system (CNS) by means of neuroendocrine connections, in which circulating peripheral hormones, such as leptin and insulin, provide signals to specialized neurons of the hypothalamus reflecting body fat stores, and induce appropriate responses to maintain the stability of these stores. The majority of obesity cases are associated with central resistance to both leptin and insulin actions. In experimental animals, high-fat diets can induce an inflammatory process in the hypothalamus, which impairs leptin and insulin intracellular signaling pathways, and results in hyperphagia, decreased energy expenditure and, ultimately, obesity. Recent evidence obtained from neuroimaging studies and assessment of inflammatory markers in the cerebrospinal fluid of obese subjects suggests that similar alterations may be also present in humans. In this review, we briefly present the mechanisms involved with the loss of homeostatic control of energy balance in animal models of obesity, and the current evidence of hypothalamic dysfunction in obese humans.

  15. Liver focal fatty changes at ultrasound after islet transplantation: an early sign of altered graft function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, M; Angeli, E; Maffi, P; Losio, C; Pozzi, P; Paties, C; Cellina, M; De Cobelli, F; Fiorina, P; Secchi, A; Del Maschio, A

    2010-08-01

    Few longitudinal imaging studies of liver-engrafted islets after islet transplantation are available for islet-transplant-alone (ITA) and islet-after-kidney (IAK) transplanted patients. Particularly controversial is the link between islet function and the appearance of islet-induced liver focal fatty changes. Aims of this study were to assess liver focal fatty changes at ultrasound after islet transplantation and their relationship with islet function. The timing of first ultrasound detection of liver focal fatty changes and the prevalence and duration of these changes were assessed in 30 IAK transplanted patients, in five ITA patients and, retrospectively, in full-, partial- and no-function groups, according to islet function evaluated 1 year after transplantation. Patients with persistent ultrasound detected liver focal fatty changes underwent liver biopsy. Ultrasound positive and negative patients with functioning islets were compared for islet-function and C-peptide-levels during the follow-up. Variations of cholesterol/triglycerides and other metabolic parameters were also recorded at 1 year. Liver focal fatty changes at ultrasound were found in 12 patients (10/30 IAK, 2/5 ITA). First detection was at 6 months in eight cases and at 12 months in four cases. Liver ultrasound changes were of more than 1 year duration in eight cases. Steatosis was found histologically in 8/8 patients. At 12 months, liver ultrasound changes were detected to a greater extent in patients with partial islet function (10/12, eight IAK, two ITA) compared with patients with full islet function. C-peptide-levels were significantly lower in ultrasound-positive than in ultrasound-negative patients. At 18 months, ultrasound- positive patients were more prone to worsening of their function (9/12) compared with ultrasound-negative patients (3/18). No statistically significant differences of cholesterol/triglycerides levels were found in either the total number of patients or the IAK and ITA

  16. Antigen-Encoding Bone Marrow Terminates Islet-Directed Memory CD8+ T-Cell Responses to Alleviate Islet Transplant Rejection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coleman, Miranda; Jessup, Claire F.; Bridge, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    graft rejection alleviated. The immunological mechanisms of protection are mediated through deletion and induction of unresponsiveness in targeted memory T-cell populations. The data demonstrate that hematopoietic stem cell–mediated gene therapy effectively terminates antigen-specific memory T...... in islet transplantation, and this will extend to application of personalized approaches using stem cell–derived replacement β-cells. New approaches are required to limit memory autoimmune attack of transplanted islets or replacement β-cells. Here, we show that transfer of bone marrow encoding cognate......-cell responses, and this can alleviate destruction of antigen-expressing islets. This addresses a key challenge facing islet transplantation and, importantly, the clinical application of personalized β-cell replacement therapies using patient-derived stem cells....

  17. A pumpless microfluidic device driven by surface tension for pancreatic islet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yuan; Nourmohammadzadeh, Mohammad; Elias, Joshua E Mendoza; Chan, Manwai; Chen, Zequn; McGarrigle, James J; Oberholzer, José; Wang, Yong

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel pumpless microfluidic array driven by surface tension for studying the physiology of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Efficient fluid flow in the array is achieved by surface tension-generated pressure as a result of inlet and outlet size differences. Flow properties are characterized in numerical simulation and further confirmed by experimental measurements. Using this device, we perform a set of biological assays, which include real-time fluorescent imaging and insulin secretion kinetics for both mouse and human islets. Our results demonstrate that this system not only drastically simplifies previously published experimental protocols for islet study by eliminating the need for external pumps/tubing and reducing the volume of solution consumption, but it also achieves a higher analytical spatiotemporal resolution due to efficient flow exchanges and the extremely small volume of solutions required. Overall, the microfluidic platform presented can be used as a potential powerful tool for understanding islet physiology, antidiabetic drug development, and islet transplantation.

  18. Alginate microencapsulation of human islets does not increase susceptibility to acute hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hals, I K; Rokstad, A M; Strand, B L; Oberholzer, J; Grill, V

    2013-01-01

    Islet transplantation in diabetes is hampered by the need of life-long immunosuppression. Encapsulation provides partial immunoprotection but could possibly limit oxygen supply, a factor that may enhance hypoxia-induced beta cell death in the early posttransplantation period. Here we tested susceptibility of alginate microencapsulated human islets to experimental hypoxia (0.1-0.3% O2 for 8 h, followed by reoxygenation) on viability and functional parameters. Hypoxia reduced viability as measured by MTT by 33.8 ± 3.5% in encapsulated and 42.9 ± 5.2% in nonencapsulated islets (P microencapsulation of human islets does not increase susceptibility to acute hypoxia. This is a positive finding in relation to potential use of encapsulation for islet transplantation.

  19. Complex Patterns of Metabolic and Ca2+ Entrainment in Pancreatic Islets by Oscillatory Glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Gram; Mosekilde, Erik; Polonsky, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    demonstration of metabolic entrainment in islets, and we found that entrainment of metabolic oscillations requires voltage-gated Ca2+ influx. We identified diverse patterns of 1:2 entrainment and showed that islet synchronization during entrainment involves adjustments of both oscillatory phase and period. All......Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is pulsatile and driven by intrinsic oscillations in metabolism, electrical activity, and Ca2+in pancreatic islets. Periodic variations in glucose can entrain islet Ca2+ and insulin secretion, possibly promoting interislet synchronization. Here, we used...... experimental findings could be recapitulated by our recently developed mathematical model, and simulations suggested that interislet variability in 1:2 entrainment patterns reflects differences in their glucose sensitivity. Finally, our simulations and recordings showed that a heterogeneous group of islets...

  20. Intra- and Inter-islet Synchronization of Metabolically Driven Insulin Secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Gram; Bertram, Richard; Sherman, Arthur

    2005-01-01

    Insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells is pulsatile with a period of 5-10 min and is believed to be responsible for plasma insulin oscillations with similar frequency. To observe an overall oscillatory insulin pro. le it is necessary that the insulin secretion from individual beta......-cells is synchronized within islets, and that the population of islets is also synchronized. We have recently developed a model in which pulsatile insulin secretion is produced as a result of calcium-driven electrical oscillations in combination with oscillations in glycolysis. We use this model to investigate possible...... mechanisms for intra-islet and inter-islet synchronization. We show that electrical coupling is sufficient to synchronize both electrical bursting activity and metabolic oscillations. We also demonstrate that islets can synchronize by mutually entraining each other by their effects on a simple model "liver...

  1. Alginate Microencapsulation of Human Islets Does Not Increase Susceptibility to Acute Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hals, I. K.; Rokstad, A. M.; Strand, B. L.; Oberholzer, J.; Grill, V.

    2013-01-01

    Islet transplantation in diabetes is hampered by the need of life-long immunosuppression. Encapsulation provides partial immunoprotection but could possibly limit oxygen supply, a factor that may enhance hypoxia-induced beta cell death in the early posttransplantation period. Here we tested susceptibility of alginate microencapsulated human islets to experimental hypoxia (0.1–0.3% O2 for 8 h, followed by reoxygenation) on viability and functional parameters. Hypoxia reduced viability as measured by MTT by 33.8 ± 3.5% in encapsulated and 42.9 ± 5.2% in nonencapsulated islets (P microencapsulation of human islets does not increase susceptibility to acute hypoxia. This is a positive finding in relation to potential use of encapsulation for islet transplantation. PMID:24364039

  2. Supravital dithizone staining in the isolation of human and rat pancreatic islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, W A; Christie, M R; Kahn, R

    1989-01-01

    no effect on insulin release in tissue culture, on acute responses to stimulatory glucose concentrations or on the insulin content of cells. These results suggest that dithizone staining can assist in the identification of islets from the human pancreas and may prove to be a useful tool in developing......Dithizone, a zinc chelating agent, is known to selectively stain the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. In the present study, we have used this stain to aid the identification of islets in material obtained by collagenase digestion of human pancreas. Islets were shown to rapidly and reversibly...... stain red on incubation with dithizone solution. Tissue selected on the basis of dithizone staining was shown to contain insulin-positive cells and to accumulate insulin in the medium during a subsequent period in tissue culture. Experiments with rat islets indicated that the dithizone treatment had...

  3. Pulmonary dysfunction and hepatopulmonary syndrome in cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Krag, Aleksander; Madsen, Jan L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary dysfunction including the hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an important complication to cirrhosis and portal hypertension. However, the precise relation to liver dysfunction and the prevalence of HPS are unclear. AIMS: We therefore aimed to assess (i) the prevalence of HPS......, Pportal hypertension (post-sinusoidal resistance, P

  4. Stimulation of vascularization of a subcutaneous scaffold applicable for pancreatic islet-transplantation enhances immediate post-transplant islet graft function but not long-term normoglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Smink, Alexandra M.; Shiri, Li; Swart, Daniël H; Hertsig, Don T; de Haan, Bart J.; Kamps, Jan A A M; Schwab, Leendert; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; de Koning, Eelco; Faas, Marijke M.; Lakey, Jonathan R.T.; Vos, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The liver as transplantation site for pancreatic islets is associated with significant loss of islets, which can be prevented by grafting in a prevascularized, subcutaneous scaffold. Supporting vascularization of a scaffold to limit the period of ischemia is challenging and was developed here by applying liposomes for controlled release of angiogenic factors. The angiogenic capacity of platelet?derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, acidic fibroblast growth factor...

  5. Women's health implications of ovulatory dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, NMP

    2016-01-01

    The association between ovulatory dysfunction and the occurrence of future CVD events remains largely unsettled.The association between PCOS and cardiometabolic abnormalities (e.g. obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance) has indeed been clearly established, and was reaffirmed in the current

  6. Amiloride derivatives enhance insulin release in pancreatic islets from diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Head W Steven

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amiloride derivatives, commonly used for their diuretic and antihypertensive properties, can also cause a sustained but reversible decrease of intracellular pH (pHi. Using dimethyl amiloride (DMA on normal rodent pancreatic islets, we previously demonstrated the critical influence of islet pHi on insulin secretion. Nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion (NSIS requires a specific pHi-range, and is dramatically enhanced by forced intracellular acidification with DMA. Furthermore, DMA can enable certain non-secretagogues to stimulate insulin secretion, and induce time-dependent potentiation (TDP of insulin release in mouse islets where this function is normally absent. The present study was performed to determine whether pHi-manipulation could correct the secretory defect in islets isolated from mice with type 2 diabetes. Methods Using two mouse models of type 2 diabetes, we compared a pHi-regulation, and b NSIS with and without treatment with amiloride derivatives, in islets isolated from diabetic mice and wild type mice. Results A majority of the islets from the diabetic mice showed a slightly elevated basal pHi and/or poor recovery from acid/base load. DMA treatment produced a significant increase of NSIS in islets from the diabetic models. DMA also enabled glucose to induce TDP in the islets from diabetic mice, albeit to a lesser degree than in normal islets. Conclusion Islets from diabetic mice show some mis-regulation of intracellular pH, and their secretory capacity is consistently enhanced by DMA/amiloride. Thus, amiloride derivatives show promise as potential therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes.

  7. Assessment of DNA synthesis in Islet-1{sup +} cells in the adult murine heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberger, Florian, E-mail: f.weinberger@uke.de; Mehrkens, Dennis, E-mail: dennis.mehrkens@uk-koeln.de; Starbatty, Jutta, E-mail: starbatty@uke.uni-hamburg.de; Nicol, Philipp, E-mail: Philipp.Nicol@gmx.de; Eschenhagen, Thomas, E-mail: t.eschenhagen@uke.de

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Islet-1 was expressed in the adult heart. • Islet-1-positive cells did not proliferate in the adult heart. • Sinoatrial node cells did not proliferate in the adult heart. - Abstract: Rationale: Islet-1 positive (Islet-1{sup +}) cardiac progenitor cells give rise to the right ventricle, atria and outflow tract during murine cardiac development. In the adult heart Islet-1 expression is limited to parasympathetic neurons, few cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, within the proximal aorta and pulmonary artery and sinoatrial node cells. Its role in these cells is unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that Islet-1{sup +} cells retain proliferative activity and may therefore play a role in regenerating specialized regions in the heart. Methods and results: DNA synthesis was analyzed by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine ({sup 3}H-thymidine) in Isl-1-nLacZ mice, a transgenic model with an insertion of a nuclear beta-galactosidase in the Islet-1 locus. Mice received daily injections of {sup 3}H-thymidine for 5 days. DNA synthesis was visualized throughout the heart by dipping autoradiography of cryosections. Colocalization of an nLacZ-signal and silver grains would indicate DNA synthesis in Islet-1{sup +} cells. Whereas Islet{sup −} non-myocyte nuclei were regularly marked by accumulation of silver grains, colocalization with nLacZ-signals was not detected in >25,000 cells analyzed. Conclusions: Islet-1{sup +} cells are quiescent in the adult heart, suggesting that, under normal conditions, even pacemaking cells do not proliferate at higher rates than normal cardiac myocytes.

  8. A simple method using a polymethylpenten chamber for isolation of human pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrane, Denis; Goebbels, Rose-Marie; Guiot, Yves; Squifflet, Jean-Paul; Henquin, Jean-Claude; Gianello, Pierre

    2005-04-01

    Isolation of large numbers of intact and functional human islets remains difficult and expensive. We describe a novel method using a polymethylpenten chamber (PMPC) and compare its efficacy to the classic method using a stainless steel chamber (SSC). Five pancreases obtained from cadaveric donors were processed with the SSC method, and the islets were purified with a Cobe cell separator. The next 15 pancreases (similar donor characteristics) were distended with Liberase HI, minced, and digested in a PMPC whose thermic properties did not require continuous heating to maintain temperature of the prewarmed medium at 37 degrees C. The digestion was done in 2 phases to avoid damaging the first freed islets. Digested tissue was filtered on a column of 6-mm glass beads and 500-microm mesh screen, so that tissue volume was small enough to permit purification on discontinuous Ficoll gradients in tubes. With the PMPC method, the extent of digestion (+/-70%), yield (approximately 5000 IEQ/g), and final purity (73%) and viability (84%) of the islets was similar to those with the SSC, but the proportion of large islets (>150 microm in diameter) was higher. Cell composition (beta vs. non-beta cells) of isolated islets was not different from that of islets in situ in the same pancreas. Islet function, assessed by perifusion, showed an excellent average stimulation index of approximately 13-fold (15 vs. 1 mmol/L glucose, without cAMP-raising agent). This new method for isolation of human islets uses simple, low-cost, and potentially disposable material and requires a team of only 2 persons. The technique is as efficient as the classic SSC method and provides islets with excellent integrity and insulin-secreting capacity.

  9. Synergistic Effect of Neutral Protease and Clostripain on Rat Pancreatic Islet Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendo, Mami; Maeda, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Youhei; Murayama, Kazutaka; Watanabe, Kimiko; Imura, Takehiro; Inagaki, Akiko; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Katoh, Yasutake; Ebina, Masayuki; Fujimori, Keisei; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Satomi, Susumu; Goto, Masafumi

    2015-07-01

    Islet isolation currently requires collagenase, neutral protease and other components. Thermolysin (TL) from Bacillus thermoproteolyticus is the gold standard neutral protease. However, we speculated that neutral protease derived from Clostridium histolyticum (Ch; ChNP) would be biologically superior for islet isolation. Tryptic-like activity has also been reported to be important. Therefore, we focused on clostripain (CP), since it is one of the main proteases in Clostridium histolyticum which possesses tryptic-like activity. We then examined the synergistic effects of highly purified ChNP and CP on rat islet isolation. The same amount of collagenase was used in all four groups (TL, ChNP, TL+CP and ChNP+CP; n = 12/group). The efficiency was evaluated by the islet yield and function. An immunohistochemical analysis, in vitro digestion assay for each enzyme component and evaluation of the activation of endogenous exocrine proteases during islet isolation were also performed. The islet yield of the TL group was significantly higher than that of the ChNP group (P < 0.01). The islet yield was dose dependently increased in the ChNP+CP group, but was decreased in the TL + CP group. The islet yield in the ChNP + CP group was significantly higher than that in the TL group, but their islet function was similar. Different specificities for laminin, especially laminin-511, were observed in the TL, ChNP, and CP groups. Clostripain had a strong synergistic effect with ChNP, but not with TL. Therefore, ChNP and CP, in combination with collagenase derived from the same bacteria, may effectively increase the isolation efficiency without affecting the quality of islets.

  10. Mitis group streptococci express variable pilus islet 2 pili.

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    Dorothea Zähner

    Full Text Available Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguinis are members of the Mitis group of streptococci and agents of oral biofilm, dental plaque and infective endocarditis, disease processes that involve bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. Their close relative, the human pathogen S. pneumoniae uses pilus-islet 2 (PI-2-encoded pili to facilitate adhesion to eukaryotic cells.PI-2 pilus-encoding genetic islets were identified in S. oralis, S. mitis, and S. sanguinis, but were absent from other isolates of these species. The PI-2 islets resembled the genetic organization of the PI-2 islet of S. pneumoniae, but differed in the genes encoding the structural pilus proteins PitA and PitB. Two and three variants of pitA (a pseudogene in S. pneumoniae and pitB, respectively, were identified that showed ≈20% difference in nucleotide as well as corresponding protein sequence. Species-independent combinations of pitA and pitB variants indicated prior intra- and interspecies horizontal gene transfer events. Polyclonal antisera developed against PitA and PitB of S. oralis type strain ATCC35037 revealed that PI-2 pili in oral streptococci were composed of PitA and PitB. Electronmicrographs showed pilus structures radiating >700 nm from the bacterial surface in the wild type strain, but not in an isogenic PI-2 deletion mutant. Anti-PitB-antiserum only reacted with pili containing the same PitB variant, whereas anti-PitA antiserum was cross-reactive with the other PitA variant. Electronic multilocus sequence analysis revealed that all PI-2-encoding oral streptococci were closely-related and cluster with non-PI-2-encoding S. oralis strains.This is the first identification of PI-2 pili in Mitis group oral streptococci. The findings provide a striking example of intra- and interspecies horizontal gene transfer. The PI-2 pilus diversity provides a possible key to link strain-specific bacterial interactions and/or tissue tropisms with

  11. The tick (Acari: Ixodidae) fauna of Herald's Beacon Islet, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Mackenzie L; Mintram, Kate

    2017-01-01

    A rare opportunity to travel to Herald's Beacon Islet with permission from the Australian government to collect ticks allowed for a survey of the tick fauna of the island to be undertaken for the first time. The avian fauna of the island, which serve as hosts, was also recorded and includes one new species record for the island. The seabird soft tick Ornithodoros capensis Neumann and the seabird hard tick Amblyomma loculosum Neumann were found to be present on the island. Images of the ticks present on the island are presented along with morphological characters for their identification.

  12. [Higher Brain Dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Haruo

    2015-01-01

    The technical term "higher brain dysfunction" is used widely in Japan. However, it is not always clear what "higher" means. The author thinks that the term "higher" is understood as being associated with a meaning. In this article, the differences between higher brain dysfunctions and elementary brain dysfunctions are discussed from the point of view of lesion localization and the consistency of symptoms. The psychiatric approach is indispensable for the assessment of higher brain dysfunction. A simple test for mild Alzheimer-type dementia is also introduced.

  13. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from pancreatic islets and bone marrow into islet-like cell phenotype.

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    Cristina Zanini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regarding regenerative medicine for diabetes, accessible sources of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs for induction of insular beta cell differentiation may be as important as mastering the differentiation process itself. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present work, stem cells from pancreatic islets (human islet-mesenchymal stem cells, HI-MSCs and from human bone marrow (bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, BM-MSCs were cultured in custom-made serum-free medium, using suitable conditions in order to induce differentiation into Islet-like Cells (ILCs. HI-MSCs and BM-MSCs were positive for the MSC markers CD105, CD73, CD90, CD29. Following this induction, HI-MSC and BM-MSC formed evident islet-like structures in the culture flasks. To investigate functional modifications after induction to ILCs, ultrastructural analysis and immunofluorescence were performed. PDX1 (pancreatic duodenal homeobox gene-1, insulin, C peptide and Glut-2 were detected in HI-ILCs whereas BM-ILCs only expressed Glut-2 and insulin. Insulin was also detected in the culture medium following glucose stimulation, confirming an initial differentiation that resulted in glucose-sensitive endocrine secretion. In order to identify proteins that were modified following differentiation from basal MSC (HI-MSCs and BM-MSCs to their HI-ILCs and BM-ILCs counterparts, proteomic analysis was performed. Three new proteins (APOA1, ATL2 and SODM were present in both ILC types, while other detected proteins were verified to be unique to the single individual differentiated cells lines. Hierarchical analysis underscored the limited similarities between HI-MSCs and BM-MSCs after induction of differentiation, and the persistence of relevant differences related to cells of different origin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Proteomic analysis highlighted differences in the MSCs according to site of origin, reflecting spontaneous differentiation and commitment. A more detailed understanding of

  14. Abnormal anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells

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    Yun-Fang eJia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of central serotonin (5-HT system has been proposed to be one of the underlying mechanisms for anxiety and depression, and the association of diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders has been noticed by the high prevalence of anxiety/depression in patients with diabetes mellitus. This promoted us to examine these behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice and those also suffering with diabetes mellitus. Mice lacking either 5-HT or central serotonergic neurons were generated by conditional deletion of Tph2 or Lmx1b respectively. Simultaneous depletion of both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells was achieved by administration of diphtheria toxin (DT in Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DT receptor (DTR mice. The central 5-HT-deficient mice showed reduced anxiety-like behaviors as they spent more time in and entered more often into the light box in the light/dark box test compared with controls; similar results were observed in the elevated plus maze test. However, they displayed no differences in the immobility time of the forced swimming and tail suspension tests suggesting normal depression-like behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice. As expected, DT-treated Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DTR mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet endocrine cells exhibited several classic diabetic symptoms. Interestingly, they displayed increased anxiety-like behaviors but reduced immobility time in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Furthermore, the hippocampal neurogenesis was dramatically enhanced in these mice. These results suggest that the deficiency of central 5-HT may not be sufficient to induce anxiety/depression-like behaviors in mice, and the enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis may contribute to the altered depression-like behaviors in the 5-HT-deficient mice with diabetes. Our current investigation provides a novel insight into understanding the relationship between diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders.

  15. Augmented β-Cell Function and Mass in Glucocorticoid-Treated Rodents Are Associated with Increased Islet Ir-β/AKT/mTOR and Decreased AMPK/ACC and AS160 Signaling

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    André O. P. Protzek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC therapies may adversely cause insulin resistance (IR that lead to a compensatory hyperinsulinemia due to insulin hypersecretion. The increased β-cell function is associated with increased insulin signaling that has the protein kinase B (AKT substrate with 160 kDa (AS160 as an important downstream AKT effector. In muscle, both insulin and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling phosphorylate and inactivate AS160, which favors the glucose transporter (GLUT-4 translocation to plasma membrane. Whether AS160 phosphorylation is modulated in islets from GC-treated subjects is unknown. For this, two animal models, Swiss mice and Wistar rats, were treated with dexamethasone (DEX (1 mg/kg body weight for 5 consecutive days. DEX treatment induced IR, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia in both species, but glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia only in rats. DEX treatment caused increased insulin secretion in response to glucose and augmented β-cell mass in both species that were associated with increased islet content and increased phosphorylation of the AS160 protein. Protein AKT phosphorylation, but not AMPK phosphorylation, was found significantly enhanced in islets from DEX-treated animals. We conclude that the augmented β-cell function developed in response to the GC-induced IR involves inhibition of the islet AS160 protein activity.

  16. Protection of Human Pancreatic Islets from Lipotoxicity by Modulation of the Translocon

    OpenAIRE

    Cassel, R; Ducreux, S.; Alam, M. R.; Dingreville, F.; Berlé, C.; Burda-Jacob, K.; Chauvin, M. A.; Chikh, K.; Païta, L.; R Al-Mawla; Crola Da Silva, C.; Rieusset, J.; Thivolet, C; Van Coppenolle, F; Madec, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by peripheral insulin resistance and pancreatic beta cell dysfunction. Elevated free fatty acids (FFAs) may impair beta cell function and mass (lipotoxicity). Altered calcium homeostasis may be involved in defective insulin release. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major intracellular calcium store. Lipotoxicity induces ER stress and in parallel an ER calcium depletion through unknown ER calcium leak channels. The main purposes of this study is first to i...

  17. Dynamics and Synchrony of Pancreatic beta-cells and Islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2006-01-01

    Pancreatic beta-cells secrete insulin in response to raised glucose levels. Malfunctioning of this system plays an important role in the metabolic disease diabetes. The biological steps from glucose stimulus to the final release of insulin are incompletely understood, and a more complete descript......Pancreatic beta-cells secrete insulin in response to raised glucose levels. Malfunctioning of this system plays an important role in the metabolic disease diabetes. The biological steps from glucose stimulus to the final release of insulin are incompletely understood, and a more complete...... description of these processes and their interactions would provide important input in the search for a better treatment of the disease. The thesis describes several aspects of mathematical modeling of beta-cells relevant for the understanding of glucose stimulated insulin secretion. It consists...... biological hypotheses. The subjects addressed are: Quasi-steady-state approximations of enzyme reactions, the effect of noise on bursting electrical behavior, exciation wave propagation in pancreatic islets, intra- and inter-islet synchronization and pulsatile insulin secretion, and mitochondrial dynamics....

  18. Islet Brain 1 Protects Insulin Producing Cells against Lipotoxicity

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    Saška Brajkovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic intake of saturated free fatty acids is associated with diabetes and may contribute to the impairment of functional beta cell mass. Mitogen activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 also called islet brain 1 (IB1 is a candidate gene for diabetes that is required for beta cell survival and glucose-induced insulin secretion (GSIS. In this study we investigated whether IB1 expression is required for preserving beta cell survival and function in response to palmitate. Chronic exposure of MIN6 and isolated rat islets cells to palmitate led to reduction of the IB1 mRNA and protein content. Diminution of IB1 mRNA and protein level relied on the inducible cAMP early repressor activity and proteasome-mediated degradation, respectively. Suppression of IB1 level mimicked the harmful effects of palmitate on the beta cell survival and GSIS. Conversely, ectopic expression of IB1 counteracted the deleterious effects of palmitate on the beta cell survival and insulin secretion. These findings highlight the importance in preserving the IB1 content for protecting beta cell against lipotoxicity in diabetes.

  19. Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation: summary of an NIDDK workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellin, Melena D; Gelrud, Andres; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Dunn, Ty B; Humar, Abhinav; Morgan, Katherine A; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Rastellini, Cristiana; Rickels, Michael R; Schwarzenberg, Sarah J; Andersen, Dana K

    2015-01-01

    A workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases focused on research gaps and opportunities in total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) for the management of chronic pancreatitis. The session was held on July 23, 2014 and structured into 5 sessions: (1) patient selection, indications, and timing; (2) technical aspects of TPIAT; (3) improving success of islet autotransplantation; (4) improving outcomes after total pancreatectomy; and (5) registry considerations for TPIAT. The current state of knowledge was reviewed; knowledge gaps and research needs were specifically highlighted. Common themes included the need to identify which patients best benefit from and when to intervene with TPIAT, current limitations of the surgical procedure, diabetes remission and the potential for improvement, opportunities to better address pain remission, GI complications in this population, and unique features of children with chronic pancreatitis considered for TPIAT. The need for a multicenter patient registry that specifically addresses the complexities of chronic pancreatitis and total pancreatectomy outcomes and postsurgical diabetes outcomes was repeatedly emphasized.

  20. New stepwise cooling system for short-term porcine islet preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Fujita, Yasutaka; Takita, Morihito; Shimoda, Masayuki; Sugimoto, Koji; Jackson, Andrew; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Shimada, Mitsuo; Levy, Marlon F; Matsumoto, Shinichi

    2010-10-01

    Porcine islets are the most suitable for xeno-islet transplantation. However, it is necessary to establish an effective preservation method against its fragility. Recently, we developed a new cooling and preservation (Keep and Fresh [KFC]; FUJIYA Co, Tokushima, Japan) system, which can maintain viability of hepatocyte. In this study, we examined the KFC for porcine islet preservation. Isolated porcine islets were preserved in CMRL 1066 culture media with bovine serum at 37°C, 22°C, and 4°C and KFC for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Islet recovery rate, purity, and viability were evaluated. After 24-hour preservation, the recovery rate was the highest in the KFC, but no significant difference was found. After 48-hour preservation, the recovery rate by the KFC was 73.9% ± 17.3%, which was significantly higher than the other groups (48.7% ± 28.6% at 37°C, P KFC group, purities and viabilities were the highest among the groups after 24-, 48-, and 72-hour preservation. The KFC system significantly improved porcine islet preservation; therefore, the KFC might be useful for porcine islet preservation.

  1. Prolonged Survival of Subcutaneous Allogeneic Islet Graft by Donor Chimerism without Immunosuppressive Treatment

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    Brend Ray-Sea Hsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether tolerance-induced protection of islets in the renal subcapsular space can also prevent subcutaneous allogeneic islets from being rejected. We used bone marrow stem cells from C57BL/6 (H2b mice to construct donor chimerism in conditioned diabetic BALB/c (H2d mice and investigated the effect of donor chimerism on engraftment and survival of subcutaneously transplanted allogeneic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. We also studied the anti-inflammatory effect of mesenchymal stem cell on islet engraftment. Full but not low-grade or no donor chimerism was associated with successful engraftment of allogeneic islets and restoration of normoglycemia in the treated diabetic mice. The temporary hyperglycemia was 11 ± 1 versus 19 ± 5 days (p<0.05 for the mice with full donor chimerism with transplanted islets in the renal subcapsular space versus the subcutaneous space, respectively. Cotransplantation of mesenchymal stem cell did not enhance alloislet engraftment. Full multilineage donor chimerism was associated with a higher transient expansion of CD11b+ and Gr-1+ myeloid progenitor cells and effector memory CD4 and CD8 T cells. In conclusion, full donor chimerism protected both renal subcapsular and subcutaneous allogeneic islets in this rodent transplantation model.

  2. Comparison of the portal vein and kidney subcapsule as sites for primate islet autotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajab, Amer; Buss, Jill; Diakoff, Elizabeth; Hadley, Gregg A; Osei, Kwame; Ferguson, Ronald M

    2008-01-01

    To date, the portal vein has been the primary site for clinical islet transplantation. Despite success, potential complications such as portal vein thrombosis still exist. The kidney subcapsule has been used successfully in rodent models of islet transplantation. We hypothesized that the kidney subcapsule as a site for islet transplantation in the nonhuman primate model would be as effective as the portal vein. Diabetes was induced in the primate Macaca fascicularis via a total pancreatectomy. Animals were kept under anesthesia during the isolation procedure. Islet isolation was performed using intraductal infusion with Liberase HI and mechanical digestion in the Ricordi chamber, and were purified using a continuous Ficoll gradient. Purified islets were autotransplanted either into the portal vein (n = 6) or the left kidney subcapsule (n = 5) of pancreatectomized animals. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed prior to pancreatectomy and 10 days following transplantation. Three animals underwent pancreatectomy and served as diabetic controls. Of the six animals receiving islets in the portal vein, one developed portal vein thrombosis. All remaining autotransplanted animals in this group remained normoglycemic with glucose-induced insulin secretion that was not different from that prior to pancreatectomy. Of the five animals undergoing transplantation into the kidney subcapsule, only one maintained normoglycemia and elicited insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulation. The other four animals remained hyperglycemic. We conclude that the portal vein is superior to the kidney subcapsule as a site for islet transplantation in nonhuman primates 10 days posttransplantation.

  3. Application of Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Cell Culture for Pancreas Islet Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutzky, Lynne P.

    1998-01-01

    Type I insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in both pediatric and adult populations, despite significant advances in medical management. While insulin therapy treats symptoms of acute diabetes, it fails to prevent chronic complications such as microvascular disease, blindness, neuropathy, and chronic renal failure. Strict control of blood glucose concentrations delays but does not prevent the onset and progression of secondary complications. Although, whole pancreas transplantation restores physiological blood glucose levels, a continuous process of allograft rejection causes vascular and exocrine-related complications. Recent advances in methods for isolation and purification of pancreatic islets make transplantation of islet allografts an attractive alternative to whole pancreas transplantation. However, immunosuppressive drugs are necessary to prevent rejection of islet allografts and many of these drugs are known to be toxic to the islets. Since auto-transplants of isolated islets following total pancreatectomy survive and function in vivo, it is apparent that a major obstacle to successful clinical islet transplantation is the immunogenicity of the islet allografts.

  4. Ontogeny of neuro-insular complexes and islets innervation in the human pancreas.

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    Alexandra E. Proshchina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of the neuro-insular complexes (NIC and the islets innervation in human pancreas has not been studied in detail. Our aim was to describe the developmental dynamics and distribution of the nervous system structures in the endocrine part of human pancreas. We used doublestaining with antibodies specific to pan-neural markers (neuron-specific enolase (NSE and S100 protein and to hormones of pancreatic endocrine cells. NSE and S100-positive nerves and ganglia were identified in the human fetal pancreas from gestation week (gw 10 onwards. Later the density of S100 and NSE-positive fibers increased. In adults this network was sparse. The islets innervation started to form from gw 14. NSE-containing endocrine cells were identified from gw 12 onwards. Additionally, S100-positive cells were detected both in the periphery and within some of the islets starting at gw 14. The analysis of islets innervation has shown that the fetal pancreas contained neuro-insular complexes and the number of these complexes was reduced in adults. The highest density of neuro-insular complexes is detected during middle and late fetal periods, when the mosaic islets, typical for adults, form. The close integration between the developing pancreatic islets and the nervous system structures may play an important role not only in the hormone secretion, but also in the islets morphogenesis.

  5. Layered PEGDA hydrogel for islet of Langerhans encapsulation and improvement of vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioli, Giulia; Zellner, Lisa; Oliveira, Catarina; Engelse, Marten; Koning, Eelco de; Mano, Joao; Karperien; Apeldoorn, Aart van; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2017-11-18

    Islets of Langerhans need to maintain their round morphology and to be fast revascularized after transplantation to preserve functional insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulation. For this purpose, a non-cell-adhesive environment is preferable for their embedding. Conversely, nutrient and oxygen supply to islets is guaranteed by capillary ingrowth within the construct and this can only be achieved in a matrix that provides adhesion cues for cells. In this study, two different approaches are explored, which are both based on a layered architecture, in order to combine these two opposite requirements. A non-adhesive islet encapsulation layer is based on polyethyleneglycole diacrylate (PEGDA). This first layer is combined with a second hydrogel based on thiolated-gelatin, thiolated-heparin and thiolated-hyaluronic acid providing cues for endothelial cell adhesion and acting as a growth factor releasing matrix. In an alternative approach, a conformal PEGDA coating is covalently applied on the surface of the islets. The coated islets are subsequently embedded in the previously mentioned hydrogel containing thiolated glycosaminoglycans. The suitability of this approach as a matrix for controlled growth factor release has been demonstrated by studying the controlled release of VEGF and bFGF for 14 days. Preliminary tube formation has been quantified on the growth factor loaded hydrogels. This approach should facilitate blood vessel ingrowth towards the embedded islets and maintain islet round morphology and functionality upon implantation.

  6. Effects of woodland islets introduced in a Mediterranean agricultural landscape on local bird communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Razola

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses whether the afforestation approach consisting in the introduction of woodland islets in “agricultural seas” can reconcile the restoration of woody vegetation and the persistence of open-habitat bird populations, providing further opportunities for other forest species to enrich bird diversity at the landscape level. We compared the species richness and abundance of bird communities in a field with 16 introduced woodland islets and in a nearby abandoned field located in central Spain during spring and winter time. The woodland islets presented higher accumulated species richness as well as a higher probability of finding new species if sampling effort were increased only in winter time. These trends were the opposite during spring time. Mean species richness and mean bird abundance were lower at the woodland islets than at the abandoned field in both seasons. We found a higher abundance of open-habitat specialist species in the abandoned field. Woodland islets favoured the wintering of chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita. We did not find any effects on the only forest specialist species (blue tit Parus caeruleus in spring. Bird richness and abundance were higher in edge islets than in inner islets. The introduction of larger and mixed plantations connected by hedgerows and a management that favoured the development of big trees, a lower tree density and a diverse shrub layer could promote bird diversity, allowing forest specialists and open-habitat species to coexist at the landscape scale.

  7. Islet microenvironment, modulated by vascular endothelial growth factor-A signaling, promotes β cell regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissova, Marcela; Aamodt, Kristie; Brahmachary, Priyanka; Prasad, Nripesh; Hong, Ji-Young; Dai, Chunhua; Mellati, Mahnaz; Shostak, Alena; Poffenberger, Greg; Aramandla, Radhika; Levy, Shawn E.; Powers, Alvin C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Pancreatic islet endocrine cell and endothelial cell (EC) interactions mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) signaling are important for islet differentiation and the formation of highly vascularized islets. To dissect how VEGF-A signaling modulates intra-islet vasculature, islet microenvironment, and β cell mass, we transiently increased VEGF-A production by β cells. VEGF-A induction dramatically increased the number of intra-islet ECs but led to β cell loss. After withdrawal of the VEGF-A stimulus, β cell mass, function, and islet structure normalized as a result of a robust, but transient, burst in proliferation of pre-existing β cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (MΦs) recruited to the site of β cell injury were crucial for the β cell proliferation, which was independent of pancreatic location and circulating factors such as glucose. Identification of the signals responsible for the proliferation of adult, terminally differentiated β cells will improve strategies aimed at β cell regeneration and expansion. PMID:24561261

  8. Anti-inflammatory thalidomide improves islet grafts survival and functions in a xenogenic environment.

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    Chunguang Chen

    Full Text Available Thalidomide possesses both anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties. This study investigates its potential application in islet transplantation with a xenogenic transplantation model. Transplantation was performed using C57Bl/6 mice and NMRI nu/nu mice as recipients of porcine islets. Moreover, islet graft vasculature and inflammation were investigated to identify the mechanisms of thalidomide action. In the immunocompetent environment of C57Bl/6 mice, a fast graft rejection was observed. The group treated with thalidomide 200 mg/kg BW per day achieved and maintained euglycemia in the complete observation period for 42 days. The treated mice had more functional islet graft mass with less leukocyte infiltration. The pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha and VEGF content in islet grafted kidneys was significantly lowered by the treatment. By comparison, thalidomide was not effective in improving graft survival in immunocompromised nude mice. It strongly inhibited the VEGF and TNF-alpha-induced endothelial proliferation of isolated pig islets in a dose dependent manner. The magnitude of thalidomide's inhibitory effect was nearly identical to the effect of VEGF- receptor 2 inhibitor SU416 and anti-TNF-receptor 1 neutralizing antibody, and was reversed by sphingosine-1-phosphate. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory effect of thalidomide improved islet graft survival and function in a transplantation model with a maximum immune barrier.

  9. G-protein-coupled receptors and islet function-implications for treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzell, Maria Sörhede; Ahrén, Bo

    2007-12-01

    Islet function is regulated by a number of different signals. A main signal is generated by glucose, which stimulates insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon secretion. The glucose effects are modulated by many factors, including hormones, neurotransmitters and nutrients. Several of these factors signal through guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCR). Examples of islet GPCR are GPR40 and GPR119, which are GPCR with fatty acids as ligands, the receptors for the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), the receptors for the islet hormones glucagon and somatostatin, the receptors for the classical neurotransmittors acetylcholine (ACh; M(3) muscarinic receptors) and noradrenaline (beta(2)- and alpha(2)-adrenoceptors) and for the neuropeptides pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP; PAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptors), cholecystokinin (CCK(A) receptors) and neuropeptide Y (NPY Y1 receptors). Other islet GPCR are the cannabinoid receptor (CB(1) receptors), the vasopressin receptors (V1(B) receptors) and the purinergic receptors (P(2Y) receptors). The islet GPCR couple mainly to adenylate cyclase and to phospholipase C (PLC). Since important pharmacological strategies for treatment of type 2 diabetes are stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of glucagon secretion, islet GPCR are potential drug targets. This review summarizes knowledge on islet GPCR.

  10. Islet cell transplantation for the treatment of type 1 diabetes: recent advances and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruni A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthony Bruni, Boris Gala-Lopez, Andrew R Pepper, Nasser S Abualhassan, AM James Shapiro Clinical Islet Transplant Program and Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Islet transplantation is a well-established therapeutic treatment for a subset of patients with complicated type I diabetes mellitus. Prior to the Edmonton Protocol, only 9% of the 267 islet transplant recipients since 1999 were insulin independent for >1 year. In 2000, the Edmonton group reported the achievement of insulin independence in seven consecutive patients, which in a collaborative team effort propagated expansion of clinical islet transplantation centers worldwide in an effort to ameliorate the consequences of this disease. To date, clinical islet transplantation has established improved success with insulin independence rates up to 5 years post-transplant with minimal complications. In spite of marked clinical success, donor availability and selection, engraftment, and side effects of immunosuppression remain as existing obstacles to be addressed to further improve this therapy. Clinical trials to improve engraftment, the availability of insulin-producing cell sources, as well as alternative transplant sites are currently under investigation to expand treatment. With ongoing experimental and clinical studies, islet transplantation continues to be an exciting and attractive therapy to treat type I diabetes mellitus with the prospect of shifting from a treatment for some to a cure for all. Keywords: islet transplantation, type I diabetes mellitus, Edmonton Protocol, engraftment, immunosuppression

  11. Estimation of donor usability for islet isolation with the modified Ricordi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, S; Noguchi, H; Hatanaka, N; Kobayashi, N; Jackson, A; Naziruddin, B; Levy, M F

    2008-03-01

    The quality of donor pancreata is important for successful islet isolation. However, in some countries like Japan, the number of donor pancreata is low. Therefore, marginal donor pancreata have been used with less restrictive donor criteria. In order to use marginal donor pancreata, we established the modified Ricordi method. According to the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) in 2005, more than 6000 pancreata were not clinically usable in the United States. In this study, we reevaluated donor usability based on the Japanese islet donor criteria. We reviewed donor charts with well-documented cases in Texas from 2005 to 2006. We counted the number of pancreata for pancreas transplantation or islet transplantation. If not used clinically, the reason was also reviewed. Donors were reevaluated based on the Japanese islet donor criteria. We reviewed 236 donor charts, including 29 pancreata used for whole pancreas transplantations and 13 for islet isolation; therefore, 194 pancreata were not used. Among the 194 cases, we were able to identify the reasons that the pancreata were not used in 186 cases. When we applied the Japanese acceptance criteria, an additional 82 of 186 cases (44%) seemed suitable for islet isolations. With the modified Ricordi method, more than 2500 donor pancreata might be used for islet isolation in the United States when the Japanese criteria are applied.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of mouse islet grafts labeled with novel chitosan-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyuhn-Huarng Juang

    Full Text Available OBJECT: To better understand the fate of islet isografts and allografts, we utilized a magnetic resonance (MR imaging technique to monitor mouse islets labeled with a novel MR contrast agent, chitosan-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (CSPIO nanoparticles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After being incubated with and without CSPIO (10 µg/ml, C57BL/6 mouse islets were examined under transmission electron microscope (TEM and their insulin secretion was measured. Cytotoxicity was examined in α (αTC1 and β (NIT-1 and βTC cell lines as well as islets. C57BL/6 mice were used as donors and inbred C57BL/6 and Balb/c mice were used as recipients of islet transplantation. Three hundred islets were transplanted under the left kidney capsule of each mouse and then MR was performed in the recipients periodically. At the end of study, the islet graft was removed for histology and TEM studies. RESULTS: After incubation of mouse islets with CSPIO (10 µg/mL, TEM showed CSPIO in endocytotic vesicles of α- and β-cells at 8 h. Incubation with CSPIO did not affect insulin secretion from islets and death rates of αTC1, NIT-1 and βTC cell lines as well as islets. After syngeneic and allogeneic transplantation, grafts of CSPIO-labeled islets were visualized on MR scans as persistent hypointense areas. At 8 weeks after syngeneic transplantation and 31 days after allogeneic transplantation, histology of CSPIO-labeled islet grafts showed colocalized insulin and iron staining in the same areas but the size of allografts decreased with time. TEM with elementary iron mapping demonstrated CSPIO distributed in the cytoplasm of islet cells, which maintained intact ultrastructure. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that after syngeneic and allogeneic transplantation, islets labeled with CSPIO nanoparticles can be effectively and safely imaged by MR.

  13. Biodritin microencapsulated human islets of Langerhans and their potential for type 1 diabetes mellitus therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Lisbôa, A C V; Mares-Guia, T R; Grazioli, G; Goldberg, A C; Sogayar, M C

    2008-03-01

    Microencapsulation of pancreatic islets with polymeric compounds constitutes an attractive alternative therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. The major limiting factor is the availability of a biocompatible and mechanically stable polymer. We investigated the potential of Biodritin, a novel polymer constituted of alginate and chondroitin sulfate, for islet microencapsulation. Biodritin microcapsules were obtained using an air jet droplet generator and gelated with barium or calcium chloride. Microencapsulated rat insulinoma RINm5F cells were tested for viability using the [3-(4,5-dimetyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazoliumbromide] [MTT] colorimetric assay. Microencapsulated rat pancreatic islets were coincubated with macrophages derived from mouse peritoneal liquid to assess the immunomodulatory potential of the microcapsules, using quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR). Biodritin biocompatibility was demonstrated by subcutaneous injection of empty microcapsules into immunocompetent Wistar rats. Insulin secretion by microencapsulated human pancreatic islets was evaluated using an electrochemoluminescent assay. Microencapsulated human islets transplanted into chemically induced diabetic mice were monitored for reversal of hyperglycemia. The metabolic activity of microencapsulated RINm5F cells persisted for at least 15 days. Interleukin-1beta expression by macrophages was observed during coculture with islets microencapsulated with Biodritin-CaCl2, but not with Biodritin-BaCl2. No statistical difference in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was observed between nonencapsulated and microencapsulated islets. Upon microencapsulated islet transplantation, the blood glucose level of diabetic mice normalized; they remained euglycemic for at least 60 days, displaying normal oral glucose tolerance tests. This study demonstrated that Biodritin can be used for islet microencapsulation and reversal of diabetes; however, further investigations are required to assess its

  14. The use of the BD oxygen biosensor system to assess isolated human islets of langerhans: oxygen consumption as a potential measure of islet potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraker, Chris; Timmins, Mark R; Guarino, Richard D; Haaland, Perry D; Ichii, Hirohito; Molano, Damaris; Pileggi, Antonello; Poggioli, Raffaella; Presnell, Sharon C; Inverardi, Luca; Zehtab, Mitra; Ricordi, Camillo

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR) is a potential tool for the assessment of metabolic potency of isolated islets of Langerhans prior to clinical transplantation. We used a commercially available 96-well plate fluoroprobe, the BD Oxygen Biosensor System (OBS), to estimate OCR in 27 human islet preparations, and compared these results to those of concurrent mouse transplantations. OCR was estimated both from the dO2 at steady state and from the transient rate of change of dO2 during the initial culture period immediately after seeding ("dO2 slope"). To demonstrate the validity of the OBS-derived values, it was shown that they scaled linearly with islet equivalent number/DNA concentration and with each other. These measurements were obtained for each preparation of islets incubated in media supplemented with either low (2.2 mM) or high (22 mM) glucose. Concurrently, one to three athymic nude mice were transplanted with 2,000 IEQs under the kidney capsule. The OCR Index, defined as the ratio of the DNA-normalized "dO2 slope" in high glucose to that in low glucose, proved highly predictive of mouse transplant results. Of the 69 mice transplanted, those receiving islets where the OCR Index exceeded 1.27 were 90% likely to reverse within 3 days, whereas those receiving islets with an OCR Index below 1.27 took significantly longer, often failing to reverse at all over a 35-day time period. These results suggest that the OBS could be a useful tool for the pretransplant assessment of islet cell potency.

  15. Circadian dysfunction induces leptin resistance in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circadian disruption is associated with obesity, implicating the central clock in body weight control. Our comprehensive screen of wild-type and three circadian mutant mouse models, with or without chronic jet lag, shows that distinct genetic and physiologic interventions differentially disrupt over...

  16. Development of a human pancreatic islet-transplant program through a collaborative relationship with a remote islet-isolation center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, John A; Goodpastor, Sarah E; Brunicardi, F Charles; Barth, Merle H; Soltes, George D; Garber, Alan J; Hamilton, Dale J; Alejandro, Rodolfo; Ricordi, Camillo

    2004-02-15

    With the development of the Edmonton Protocol, pancreatic islet transplantation (PIT) now offers insulin-dependent diabetic patients metabolic stability. The PIT Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, pancreatic islet isolation (PII) techniques, and clinical PIT protocols are challenging and make PIT program development daunting. Review of the establishment of a PIT program through a collaborative relationship with a remote PIT/PII center. Four key elements are required: (1) development of a collaborative relationship with an established PIT/PII center, (2) achievement of institutional review board and FDA approval at both centers, (3) generation of standard operating procedures, and (4) development of a multidisciplinary PIT team. Securing a collaborative relationship with an experienced PIT/PII center permitted our program to develop in less than 18 months. Twenty-two PITs were completed in the first clinical year. Collaboration with an experienced PIT/PII center allows developing programs to focus on patient safety and care, prudent use of pancreata, and consolidates PII expertise and experience.

  17. Cytotoxicity of human pI 7 interleukin-1 for pancreatic islets of Langerhans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, K; Mandrup-Poulsen, T; Nerup, J

    1986-01-01

    and recombinant IL-1 derived from the predominant pI 7 form of human IL-1, consistently inhib