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Sample records for resistance index values

  1. The value of intrarenal resistive index in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Rae [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    To determine whether the value of the intrarenal resistive index(RI) can be used to identify early kidney vasoconstriciton in patients with nonazotemic liver cirrhosis The intrarneal resistive index (RI), kidney and liver function and plasma renin activity were measured in 12 healthy control subjects, 13 cirrhotic patients without ascites and 29 cirrhotic patients with ascites. To evaluate the development of hepatorenal syndrome, patients were followed up for six months. RI was significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis (0.68{+-}0.06) than in healthy subjects (0.59{+-}0.04). In 42 cirrhotic patients, it was significantly higher in those with ascites (0.69{+-}0.05) than in those without ascites (0.64{+-}0.05) and correlated with creatinine clearance. Plasma renin activity was significantly highter in cirrhotic patients with ascites than in those without ascites and healthy subjects (p<0.05). During the six-month follow-up period, kidney dysfunction developed in 16%(7/42) of cirrhotic patiens, and in 37%(6/16) of those with an elevated RI. In contrast, only 4%(1/26) of patients with a normal RI has kidney dysfunction. The measurement of intrarenal resitive index(RI) using duplex Doppler ultrasound is a simple, noninvasive method of detecting even subtle derangements of renal hemodynamics in liver cirrhosis patients;the procedure can be used to identify those who are at higher risk of overt renal failure and to help decide whether a therapeutic approach involving paracentesis, diuretics, or nephrotoxic agents is most appropriate.

  2. Spectral Doppler Waveforms for Diagnosis of Appendicitis: Potential Utility of Point Peak Systolic Velocity and Resistive Index Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Lewis K; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Berry, Gerald J; Olcott, Eric W

    2017-12-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that appendiceal spectral Doppler waveforms can distinguish patients with and patients without appendicitis. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, Doppler waveforms were obtained from intramural appendiceal arteries identified with color Doppler imaging in 60% (93 of 155) of consecutive patients whose appendices were visualized at graded compression ultrasonography (US) performed for suspected appendicitis (53 male and 40 female; age, 1-56 years; mean, 14.5 years) over the 5-month period from November 2015 through March 2016. Point, non-angle-corrected peak systolic velocity (PSV) and resistive index (RI) values were compared between patients with and patients without appendicitis by utilizing histopathologically proven appendicitis and 6-week clinical follow-up as diagnostic reference standards. Data were assessed by using the Student t test, exact binomial distribution, two-sample test of proportions, and receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results Among the 93 patients, 36 (38.7%) had proven appendicitis (mean PSV, 19.7 cm/sec; mean RI, 0.69) and 57 patients (61.2%) did not (mean PSV, 7.1 cm/sec, P appendicitis was 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95, 1.00) for PSV and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.95; P = .011) for RI. Chosen discriminatory criteria of PSV greater than 10 cm/sec and RI greater than 0.65 yielded specificity for appendicitis of 94.7% and 96.5% with sensitivity of 88.9% and 63.9% (P = .013) and negative predictive value of 93.1% and 80.9% (P = .045), respectively. Original clinical graded compression US interpretations based on established US findings demonstrated specificity of 96.2% and sensitivity of 100.0%. Considering the subset of 20 patients whose maximum outer diameter measured 6-8 mm, the discriminatory criteria of PSV greater than 10 cm/sec and RI greater than 0.65 yielded specificity for appendicitis of 88.9% each, with sensitivity of 100.0% and 63.6% and negative predictive value of 100

  3. Optimal cut-off value for homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index of insulin-resistance in a population of patients admitted electively in a Portuguese cardiology ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timóteo, Ana Teresa; Miranda, Fernando; Carmo, Miguel Mota; Ferreira, Rui Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance is the pathophysiological key to explain metabolic syndrome. Although clearly useful, the Homeostasis Model Assessment index (an insulin resistance measurement) has not been systematically applied in clinical practice. One of the main reasons is the discrepancy in cut-off values reported in different populations. We sought to evaluate in a Portuguese population the ideal cut-off for Homeostasis Model Assessment index and assess its relationship with metabolic syndrome. We selected a cohort of individuals admitted electively in a Cardiology ward with a BMI validation cohort of 300 individuals (no exclusion criteria applied). From 7 000 individuals, and after the exclusion criteria, there were left 1 784 individuals. The 90th percentile for Homeostasis Model Assessment index was 2.33. In the validation cohort, applying that cut-off, we have 49.3% of individuals with insulin resistance. However, only 69.9% of the metabolic syndrome patients had insulin resistance according to that cut-off. By ROC curve analysis, the ideal cut-off for metabolic syndrome is 2.41. Homeostasis Model Assessment index correlated with BMI (r = 0.371, p < 0.001) and is an independent predictor of the presence of metabolic syndrome (OR 19.4, 95% CI 6.6 - 57.2, p < 0.001). Our study showed that in a Portuguese population of patients admitted electively in a Cardiology ward, 2.33 is the Homeostasis Model Assessment index cut-off for insulin resistance and 2.41 for metabolic syndrome. Homeostasis Model Assessment index is directly correlated with BMI and is an independent predictor of metabolic syndrome.

  4. Possible values of UV index in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letić Milorad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION UV Index is an indicator of human exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV rays. The numerical values of the UV Index range from 1-11 and above. There are three levels of protection against UV radiation; low values of the UV Index - protection is not required, medium values of the UV Index - protection is recommended and high values of the UV Index - protection is obligatory. The value of the UV Index primarily depends on the elevation of the sun and total ozone column. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study is to determine the intervals of possible maximal annual values of the UV Index in Serbia in order to determine the necessary level of protection in a simple manner. METHOD For maximal and minimal expected values of total column ozone and for maximal elevation of the sun, the value of the UV Index was determined for each month in the Northern and Southern parts of Serbia. These values were compared with the forecast of the UV Index. RESULTS Maximal clear sky values of the UV Index in Serbia for altitudes up to 500m in May, June, July and August can be 9 or even 10, and not less than 5 or 6. During November, December, January and February the UV Index can be 4 at most. During March, April, September and October the expected values of the UV Index are maximally 7 and not less than 3. The forecast of the UV Index is within these limits in 98% of comparisons. CONCLUSION The described method of determination of possible UV Index values showed a high agreement with forecasts. The obtained results can be used for general recommendations in the protection against UV radiation.

  5. The value of the renal resistive index in the measurement of renal perfusion before and after extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy in correlation to the scintigraphy, to the magnetic resonance perfusion imaging and to big-endothelin values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palwein-Prettner, L.

    1999-07-01

    Purpose: the goal of this study was to evaluate effects of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on the renal perfusion using the resistive index (RI), perfusion scintigraphy, magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging and plasma big-endothelin (big-ET-1) values. Method/materials: In 21 patients divided in 3 age-groups the RI was measured before and 1,3,6 and 24 hours after ESWL. Big-ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptid was correlated with the RI values. The RI and Big-ET-1 results was compared to the results of the MR perfusion imaging and the scintigraphy, the gold-standard method. Results: The RI of the treated kidneys increased significantly from 0,64±0,05 to 0,72±0,08 after the ESWL (p<0,001) and in the untreated kidneys from 0,63±0,05 to 0,68±0,09 (p=0,003). The hightest age group shows the most significant increase. The Big-ET-values also increased only in this age group significantly from 0,78±0,24 fmol/l to 1,58±0,52 fmol/l. In the scintigraphy the decrease of the renal plasma flow (RPF) in this age group was most significant. The MR perfusion Imaging shows in all age groups significant decrease (p<0,001). Conclusion: we conclude that the ESWL causes considerable renal parenchymal damage only in the elderly patients. The following changes in renal perfusion were measured very sensitively with the RI which had a good correlation to the results of the perfusion scintigraphy and the MR perfusion imaging. Further studies with larger series have to evaluate these results. (author)

  6. Glycemic Index values of some Jaffna fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selladurai Pirasath

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus has recently increased in developing countries. Scientific data on glycemic index values of common meals is essential to modify the diets for diabetes mellitus patients. This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic index (GI values of fruits such as ‘Kathali’ (Yellow plantain, ‘Kappal’ (Golden plantain, and ‘Itharai’ (Green plantain varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya. The results will be helpful to physicians and the general public to decide the benefits ofthe consumption of fruits, particularly by diabetic and coronary heart disease patients.Methods: Healthy volunteers (20 Nos. of 21.05(±0.92 years, 53.90 (±9.36 kg body weights, 153.92 (±9.15 m heights, and 20.55 (±2.22 kgm-2body mass indexes were selected with their written consent. After overnight fasting, 75g glucose and each test fruit containing 75g digestible carbohydrate were administered at different instances and blood glucose levels were measured half hourly for two hours. The glycemic response and GI values were calculated and analyzed by Randomized Complete Block Design using SAS analytical package.Results: The mean GI values of the ‘Kathali’, ‘Kappal’, ‘Itharai’ varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya were 54.45 (±9.26, 50.43 (±5.79, 48.47 (±10.13, 65.36 (±8.00 and 34.80 (±12.78 % respectively. The GI value of papaya differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits. The GI value of ‘Itharai’ variety of plantain differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits except the ‘Kappal’ varietyof plantain.Conclusion: The three varieties of plantains and papaya were low GI fruits, and jack fruit was found to be an intermediate GI fruit. The presence of dietary fiber, esp. soluble fiber, reduces the glycemicresponse and glycemic index of foods.

  7. Normative values for the Foot Posture Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redmond Anthony C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI is a validated method for quantifying standing foot posture, and is being used in a variety of clinical settings. There have however, been no normative data available to date for comparison and reference. This study aimed to establish normative FPI reference values. Methods Studies reporting FPI data were identified by searching online databases. Nine authors contributed anonymised versions of their original datasets comprising 1648 individual observations. The datasets included information relating to centre, age, gender, pathology (if relevant, FPI scores and body mass index (BMI where available. FPI total scores were transformed to interval logit scores as per the Rasch model and normal ranges were defined. Comparisons between groups employed t-tests or ANOVA models as appropriate and data were explored descriptively and graphically. Results The main analysis based on a normal healthy population (n = 619 confirmed that a slightly pronated foot posture is the normal position at rest (mean back transformed FPI raw score = +4. A 'U' shaped relationship existed for age, with minors and older adults exhibiting significantly higher FPI scores than the general adult population (F = 51.07, p t = -1.44, p = 0.149. No relationship was found between the FPI and BMI. Systematic differences from the adult normals were confirmed in patients with neurogenic and idiopathic cavus (F = 216.981, p Conclusion A set of population norms for children, adults and older people have been derived from a large sample. Foot posture is related to age and the presence of pathology, but not influenced by gender or BMI. The normative values identified may assist in classifying foot type for the purpose of research and clinical decision making.

  8. The renal arterial resistive index and stage of chronic kidney disease in patients with renal allograft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Stine O; Thiesson, Helle C; Poulsen, Lene N

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the optimal threshold value of renal arterial resistive index as assessed by Doppler ultrasonography determining chronic kidney disease stage 4 or higher in patients with renal allograft.......The study investigated the optimal threshold value of renal arterial resistive index as assessed by Doppler ultrasonography determining chronic kidney disease stage 4 or higher in patients with renal allograft....

  9. Triglycerides and glucose index: a useful indicator of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Gisela; Benozzi, Silvia Fabiana; Perruzza, Fernando; Pennacchiotti, Graciela Laura

    2014-12-01

    Insulin resistance assessment requires sophisticated methodology of difficult application. Therefore, different estimators for this condition have been suggested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the triglycerides and glucose (TyG) index as a marker of insulin resistance and to compare it to the triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C), in subjects with and without metabolic syndrome (MS). An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted on 525 adults of a population from Bahia Blanca, Argentina, who were divided into two groups: with MS (n=89) and without MS (n=436). The discriminating capacities for MS of the TyG index, calculated as Ln (TG [mg/dL] x glucose [mg/dL]/2), and the TG/HDL-C ratio were evaluated. Pre-test probability for MS was 30%. The mean value of the TyG index was higher in the group with MS as compared to the group without MS and its correlation with the TG/HDL-C ratio was good. The cut-off values for MS in the overall population were 8.8 for the TyG index (sensitivity=79%, specificity=86%), and 2.4 for the TG/HDL-C ratio (sensitivity=88%, specificity=72%). The positive likelihood ratios and post-test probabilities for these parameters were 5.8 vs 3.1 and 72% vs 58% respectively. The cut-off point for the TyG index was 8.8 in men and 8.7 in women; the respective values for TG/C-HDL were 3.1 in men and 2.2 in women. The TyG index was a good discriminant of MS. Its simple calculation warrants its further study as an alternative marker of insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Renal Resistive Index: not only kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nicolò, Pierpaolo; Granata, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    From growing data from the literature emerges that so-called ecoDoppler "Renal" Resistive Indexes (RRI) are not only specific markers of kidney damage and indicators of renal functional prognosis but they always express more clearly a strong link with the systemic circulation. In fact, some cardiovascular parameters such as aortic pulse pressure, aortic stiffness, abdominal aortic calcifications and clinical settings for instance heart failure progression have shown a great association with RRI. Relationships between renal and inflammatory indexes in hypertensive patients have been found and data from the literature on kidney transplants underline the capability of the graft RRI to change according to host hemodynamic features. The purpose of this article is to explain the emerging pathophysiological aspects of this relationship between renal microcirculation and cardiovascular system by emphasizing the importance for the ultrasonographer and for the nephrologist of not overlooking a global vision of the patient before interpreting the RRI.

  11. Kernel-type estimators for the extreme value index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wolf, P.P.; Lopuhaa, H.P.; Groeneboom, P.

    2003-01-01

    A large part of the theory of extreme value index estimation is developed for positive extreme value indices. The best-known estimator of a positive extreme value index is probably the Hill estimator. This estimator belongs to the category of moment estimators, but can also be interpreted as a

  12. Assessment of resistive index in acute epididymitis on doppler sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Seung Mun; Cho, Kyoung Sik; Choi, Hyo Kyeong; Lee, Moon Gyu; Auh, Yong Ho; Kim, Chung Soo

    1995-01-01

    This study was aimed to review findings of gray-scale ultrasonography and to assess the diagnostic value of the resistive index (RI) in patients with acute epididymitis by comparing with that in normal volunteers. Gray-scale ultrasonogram was reviewed in nine patients with acute epididymitis for echogenicity, size and reactive hydrocele. Normal values of resistive index (RI) were obtained in 20 epididymides from 10 volunteers (aged 20-28, mean 23.7). Nine patients of epididymitis (aged 18-67, mean 37.2) were examinated with color Doppler sonography and RI was measured at 11 sites on epididymal arteries. For the prediction of acute epididymitis, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were calculated at the cut-off value of RI in 0.65 and 0.70. Gray-scale ultrasonography showed echogenicity that was variable among the 9 cases (hyperechoic 2 cases, isoechoic 2, hypoechoic 5), enlargement of epididymis in 8, and reactive hydrocele in 8 cases. Normal volunteers displayed color Doppler signals in 14 out of 20. The range of RI in normal volunteers were between 0.64 and 1.00 (mean, 0.79 ± SD 0.10). In patients with acute epididymitis, color Doppler signals were detected in all patients. The range of RI in epididymitis were 0.40-0.68 (mean, 0.56 ± SD 0.10). At cut-off RI value of 0.65, accuracy was 88%, sensitivity 81.1%, and specificity 92.7%. At cut-off value of 0.70 accuracy was 92%, sensitivity 100%, and specificity 85.7%. In addition to the findings of gray-scale ultrasonography, resistive index and color flow changes are valuable in diagnosing acute epididymitis

  13. Assessment of resistive index in acute epididymitis on doppler sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seung Mun; Cho, Kyoung Sik; Choi, Hyo Kyeong; Lee, Moon Gyu; Auh, Yong Ho; Kim, Chung Soo [Asan Medical Center University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    This study was aimed to review findings of gray-scale ultrasonography and to assess the diagnostic value of the resistive index (RI) in patients with acute epididymitis by comparing with that in normal volunteers. Gray-scale ultrasonogram was reviewed in nine patients with acute epididymitis for echogenicity, size and reactive hydrocele. Normal values of resistive index (RI) were obtained in 20 epididymides from 10 volunteers (aged 20-28, mean 23.7). Nine patients of epididymitis (aged 18-67, mean 37.2) were examinated with color Doppler sonography and RI was measured at 11 sites on epididymal arteries. For the prediction of acute epididymitis, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were calculated at the cut-off value of RI in 0.65 and 0.70. Gray-scale ultrasonography showed echogenicity that was variable among the 9 cases (hyperechoic 2 cases, isoechoic 2, hypoechoic 5), enlargement of epididymis in 8, and reactive hydrocele in 8 cases. Normal volunteers displayed color Doppler signals in 14 out of 20. The range of RI in normal volunteers were between 0.64 and 1.00 (mean, 0.79 {+-} SD 0.10). In patients with acute epididymitis, color Doppler signals were detected in all patients. The range of RI in epididymitis were 0.40-0.68 (mean, 0.56 {+-} SD 0.10). At cut-off RI value of 0.65, accuracy was 88%, sensitivity 81.1%, and specificity 92.7%. At cut-off value of 0.70 accuracy was 92%, sensitivity 100%, and specificity 85.7%. In addition to the findings of gray-scale ultrasonography, resistive index and color flow changes are valuable in diagnosing acute epididymitis.

  14. Study on PWSCC Susceptibility Index Considering Threshold Value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Chung, June Ho; Kim, Tae Ryong

    2013-01-01

    Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) of alloy 600 base metal is unique aging mechanism that is occurring in primary water environment in nuclear power plant. To manage PWSCC phenomenon, priority ranking is designated by using PWSCC susceptibility index. Westinghouse model is well used method in PWSCC susceptibility index calculation and the past Alloy 600 aging management program is also made by using PWSCC susceptibility index in Korea. In this paper, Westinghouse model was reviewed and the improvement of PWSCC susceptibility index considering threshold value is discussed. Normalization process using a reference value or a threshold value was introduced in calculation of PWSCC susceptibility index. The result shows the meaningful value of similar order of magnitude, while the component ranking was not changed so much from the original Westinghouse model. It can be concluded that the normalization process can be implemented in Alloy 600 aging management program

  15. A novel surrogate index for hepatic insulin resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vangipurapu, J

    2011-03-01

    In epidemiological and genetic studies surrogate indices are needed to investigate insulin resistance in different insulin-sensitive tissues. Our objective was to develop a surrogate index for hepatic insulin resistance.

  16. Adding Value to Scholarly Journals through a Citation Indexing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, A. N.; Abrizah, A.; Raj, R. G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to relate the problems identified about scholarly journal publishing in Malaysia to establish motivation for the system development; to describe the design of MyCite, a Malaysian citation indexing system and to highlight the added value to journals and articles indexed through the generation of bibliometrics…

  17. Conditioned Reinforcement Value and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of conditioned reinforcement value and primary reinforcement rate on resistance to change using a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures with pigeons. In the absence of observing responses in both components, unsignaled periods of variable-interval (VI) schedule food reinforcement alternated with…

  18. The pulsatility index and the resistive index in renal arteries in patients with hypertension and chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L J; Petersen, J R; Ladefoged, S D

    1995-01-01

    The pulsatility index (PI) and the resistive index (RI) are used as pulsed-wave Doppler measurement of downstream renal artery resistance. Little information is available on their value in chronic renal failure and their correlation to parameters of renal function and haemodynamics. The aim...... was to compare PI and RI of renal arteries in healthy volunteers and in patients with hypertension and chronic renal failure, and furthermore to study the correlation of these indices to measurements of renal haemodynamics and function by standard methods in patients with renal failure and hypertension....

  19. Measuring the Multinational Business Value – An indexing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge MONGAY HURTADO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The research project aims to present a comparative analysis of countries related to the value of their MNCs in the global arena. The study works in secondary data analysis using as a platform the Forbes Global 2000 list, which is maybe the best source explaining the presence of MNCs by country. This research goes beyond the information provided by the original list, offering an index and information about the number of corporations per country as well as their value (number of corpora-tions per country, their position in the ranking and the weight obtained by each company expressed in numerical value. Also the index obtained has been adjusted to the population of each country to determine which one should be the expected value per country from a more realistic perspective. An analysis of cultural clus-ters and trading zones has been applied as well. Finally, a calculation of the dif-ferent sectors where MNCs operate give the index the possibility to estimate the % of penetration or importance of the services and financial sector in each country and in the world.

  20. The nutritive value index as an indicator of the economic value of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritive value index as an indicator of the economic value of roughages. J.A. Swart, P.J. Niemann. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  1. Value at Risk on Composite Price Share Index Stock Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviarina, A.

    2018-01-01

    The financial servicest authority was declared Let’s Save Campaign on n commemoration of the World Savings Day that falls on this day, October 31, 2016. The activity was greeted enthusiastically by Indonesia Stock Exchange by taking out the slogan Let’s Save The Stocks. Stock is a form of investment that is expected to benefit in the future despite has risks. Value at Risk (VaR) is a method that can measure how much the risk of a financial investment. Composite Stock Price Indeks is the stock price index used by Indonesia Stock Exchange as stock volatility benchmarks in Indonesia. This study aimed to estimate Value at Risk (VaR) on closing price Composite Price Share Index Stock data on the period 20 September 2016 until 20 September 2017. Box-Pierce test results p value=0.9528 which is greater than a, that shows homoskedasticity. Value at Risk (VaR) with Variance Covariance Method is Rp.3.054.916,07 which means with 99% confindence interval someone who invests Rp.100.000.000,00 will get Rp.3.054.916,07 as a maximum loss.

  2. Doppler sonographic renal resistance index and resistance index ratio in children and adolescents with unilateral hydronephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brkljacic, Boris; Kuzmic, Andrea Cvitkovic; Dmitrovic, Romana; Rados, Marko; Vidjak, Vinko

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Doppler renal resistance index (RI) and RI ratio (RIR) in differentiating between obstructive and nonobstructive hydronephrosis in children and adolescents. The RI and RIR were measured in 32 healthy examinees (control group) and 29 patients with unilateral hydronephrosis. Ten patients had acute obstruction caused by a ureteric stone. Seven had obstructive hydronephrosis due to uretero-pelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction. Twelve patients had nonobstructive hydronephrosis. In controls the mean RI±S.D. was 0.615±0.04, and RIR 1.045±0.033. In children with acute obstruction RI was 0.692±0.035 and RIR 1.148±0.037. In UPJ obstruction RI was 0.631±0.054 and RIR 1.059±0.047. In nonobstructive dilatation RI was 0.61±0.038 and RIR 1.043±0.042. The RI and RIR differences were statistically significant between controls and patients with acute colic (p<0.01), and between patients with acute obstruction and with nonobstructive hydronephrosis (p<0.01). In detecting acute obstruction RI≥0.70 was found to have a 70% sensitivity and a 92% specificity. The RIR≥1.10 was found optimal to distinguish obstructive from nonobstructive dilatation (sensitivity 90%, specificity 83%). Both RI and RIR are significantly elevated in patients with acute obstruction. Renal Doppler seems to be useful in children and adolescents for the detection of acute renal obstruction, although it cannot differentiate chronic obstruction due to the UPJ obstruction and nonobstructive renal collecting system dilatation. (orig.)

  3. The Hematological Indexes Values in Sheep Correlated with Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Moţ

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From 40 healthy sheep breeding in good conditions of hygiene and feeding belonging to particular herds from the West side of the country were been taken blood samples in most important seasons of the year: in spring, before pasturage period and in autumn, after pasturage period. Sheep were been periodically preventive treated against parasites and were clinically healthy. Were been followed haematological parameters like haemogram (number of erithrocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit, erithrocytic indexes, leucogram (number of leucocytes, leucocytic formula and those blood biochemicals indexes (total seric proteins, proteic fractions, glucose, uric acid, GPT, creatinin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium. The obtain values in spring season were smaller in comparison with those from autumn as a result of less favourable conditions in winter, when sheep can't have the same benefits like in warm season, with high quality fresh food and life conditions. This fact is emphasized in these sheep obtained productions.

  4. Estimation of the tail index for lattice-valued sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsui, Muneya; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Tafakori, Laleh

    2013-01-01

    If one applies the Hill, Pickands or Dekkers–Einmahl–de Haan estimators of the tail index of a distribution to data which are rounded off one often observes that these estimators oscillate strongly as a function of the number k of order statistics involved.We study this phenomenon in the case of ...... of a Pareto distribution. We provide formulas for the expected value and variance of the Hill estimator and give bounds on k when the central limit theorem is still applicable. We illustrate the theory by using simulated and real-life data....

  5. Bacterial brain abscesses: prognostic value of an imaging severity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, M.K.; Hakan, T.; Kilicoglu, G.; Ceran, N.; Berkman, M.Z.; Erdem, I.; Goektas, P.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To assess the correlation between imaging findings [computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] and neurological status before and after the treatment of bacterial brain abscesses. Materials and methods: CT and MRI images of 96 patients with brain abscesses were retrospectively evaluated in terms of the number, location and size of lesions, and the presence and extent of perilesional oedema and midline shift. An imaging severity index (ISI) based on these different radiological parameters was calculated. Initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores and ISI were assessed and the prognostic value of these two indices was calculated. The Pearson correlation test, Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square test, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, together with comparison of ROC analyses and Fisher's exact test were used. Results: There was a negative correlation between ISI and the initial GCS values: ISI increased as the GCS score decreased, indicating an inverse relationship (r = -0.51, p < 0.0001). There was a significant difference between the ISI and GCS scores of patients with an adverse event compared with patients with good recovery. Outcome was significantly worse in patients with initial ISI over the calculated cut-off values of 8 points or GCS scores under the cut-off value of 13 points. Conclusion: ISI is a useful prognostic indicator for bacterial brain abscess patients and correlates strongly with the patient outcome for all parameters studied. ISI score had a better prognostic value than GCS

  6. Comparative sonographic evaluation of intra-renal resistive index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intra-renal resistive index is a Doppler parameter that is useful in predicting adult hypertensive patients who are likely to develop nephrosclerosis and to follow up hypertensive patients on reno-protective drugs to determine effects of drugs on renal function. This was a prospective cross-sectional comparative descriptive ...

  7. Extreme value modelling of Ghana stock exchange index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortey, Ezekiel N N; Asare, Kwabena; Mettle, Felix Okoe

    2015-01-01

    Modelling of extreme events has always been of interest in fields such as hydrology and meteorology. However, after the recent global financial crises, appropriate models for modelling of such rare events leading to these crises have become quite essential in the finance and risk management fields. This paper models the extreme values of the Ghana stock exchange all-shares index (2000-2010) by applying the extreme value theory (EVT) to fit a model to the tails of the daily stock returns data. A conditional approach of the EVT was preferred and hence an ARMA-GARCH model was fitted to the data to correct for the effects of autocorrelation and conditional heteroscedastic terms present in the returns series, before the EVT method was applied. The Peak Over Threshold approach of the EVT, which fits a Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) model to excesses above a certain selected threshold, was employed. Maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters were obtained and the model's goodness of fit was assessed graphically using Q-Q, P-P and density plots. The findings indicate that the GPD provides an adequate fit to the data of excesses. The size of the extreme daily Ghanaian stock market movements were then computed using the value at risk and expected shortfall risk measures at some high quantiles, based on the fitted GPD model.

  8. Glycaemic index values in the Finnish food composition database: an approach to standardised value documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaartinen, N E; Similä, M E; Pakkala, H; Korhonen, T; Männistö, S; Valsta, L M

    2010-11-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) is used to describe the blood glucose-raising potential of carbohydrate-containing foods. Only a few descriptions of the addition of GI values to national food composition databases (FCDBs) exist. We tested whether the value documentation framework established within the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network could be used for GI values when adding them to the Finnish FCDB. The list of foods requiring GI values was based on the National FINDIET 2007 Survey data and extended with foods encoded in a food-frequency questionnaire used in other nationally representative studies. The minimum quality of GI measurements was verified when gathering values from various sources, using earlier defined criteria. If a measured GI value for a food was directly available, or could be imputed or estimated, the value was added to the Finnish FCDB and documented using core standard vocabularies of EuroFIR. The GI values of composite foods were calculated using recipe calculation software. A total of 2210 foods required a GI value. GI values for 1322 foods were available and added to the FCDB. The remaining 888 foods were composite foods and received a GI value through recipe calculation. The standard vocabularies describing the origin of the GI values, the methods used in their derivation and their qualitative characteristics were suitable for GI values. GI values can be added to FCDBs and documented using terms similar to those used for traditional food composition data. Standardised value documentation may provide transparency for GI database compilation processes.

  9. Noise Resistant Generalized Parametric Validity Index of Clustering for Gene Expression Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Rui; Nandi, Asoke K

    2014-01-01

    Validity indices have been investigated for decades. However, since there is no study of noise-resistance performance of these indices in the literature, there is no guideline for determining the best clustering in noisy data sets, especially microarray data sets. In this paper, we propose a generalized parametric validity (GPV) index which employs two tunable parameters α and β to control the proportions of objects being considered to calculate the dissimilarities. The greatest advantage of the proposed GPV index is its noise-resistance ability, which results from the flexibility of tuning the parameters. Several rules are set to guide the selection of parameter values. To illustrate the noise-resistance performance of the proposed index, we evaluate the GPV index for assessing five clustering algorithms in two gene expression data simulation models with different noise levels and compare the ability of determining the number of clusters with eight existing indices. We also test the GPV in three groups of real gene expression data sets. The experimental results suggest that the proposed GPV index has superior noise-resistance ability and provides fairly accurate judgements.

  10. Dopplerfluxometria das artérias renais: valores normais das velocidades sistólica e diastólica e do índice resistivo nas artérias renais principais Renal arteries Dopplerfluxometry: normal systolic and diastolic flow velocities and resistive index values in the main renal arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Melo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Dopplerfluxometry of renal arteries has been used to estimate renal perfusion in humans. The aim of this study was to use Dopplerfluxometry technique to calculate the resistive index of main renal arteries in dogs, measuring their systolic and diastolic blood flow velocities. Twenty (10 males, 10 females, adult mongrel dogs, were used in this study. The dogs were submitted to Doppler sonographic evaluation of left and right main renal arteries. The systolic and diastolic blood flow velocities, expressed (in centimeters per second as mean and standard deviation were 79.96± 8.82 and 28.86± 5.11 in the right main renal artery and 80.22± 6.99 and 29.62± 4.14 in the left main renal artery. The value of resistive index expressed as mean ± standard deviation was 0.64± 0.04 for the right main renal artery and 0.63± 0.028 in the left main renal artery.

  11. Immunocompetence index selection of broiler chicken lines for disease resistance and their impact on survival rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to develop the disease resistance broiler chicken lines over two generations (G0 , G1 and G2 of selection for immunocompetence (IC index by targeting all the facets of immune response traits viz., humoral response (HR to Sheep red blood cells (SRBC, cell mediated immune response (CMI to phytohaeagglutination- Pmitogen (PHA-P, levels of serum serum immunoglobin- G (IgG and serum lysozyme (LZM level.Materials and Methods: The SDLSynthetic Dam Line (SDL broiler line consisting of 303, 204 and 300 birds in G0 , G1 and G2 generations, respectively were screened for immunocompetence traits such as humoral response to SRBCs, cell mediated immune response to PHA-Pand levels of serum lysozyme by Lysoplate assay and IgG by SRID method, and ranked based on their IC index values. Results: The percent survival rate up to 6 weeks of age in SDL broiler chicken lines were selected for high immunocompetence index (HIC and low immunocompetence index values (LIC over two generations (G1 , G1 and G2 of selection and observed that significant differences (P< 0.05 in percent survival pattern in the base population (n= 303 with the highest survivability of 100.00% was observed in 5-6 weeks of age followed by 99.37% and 97.23% in 4-5 and 0-4 weeks of age respectively. In the G1 generation, significant differences ( P<0.01 was noticed in the selected high and low index lines up to 6 weeks of age with the overall survival rate lower in high index lines (93.10% as compared to the low index lines (97.62%. Whereas the reverse trend was observed in the G2 generation that the high index line had significantly (P<0.05 higher survival percent (98.62% as compared to the low index lines (97.93%. Moreover, the overall survival rate was better substantially over the two generations of divergent immunocompetent index selection of SDL broiler chicken lines. The present investigation revealed that breeding for better immunocompetence status by selection index

  12. Influence of the Prosthetic Index on Fracture Resistance of Morse Taper Dental Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zancopé, Karla; Dias Resende, Caio César; Castro, Carolina Guimarães; Salatti, Rafael Calixto; Domingues das Neves, Flávio

    Manufacturers have inserted a prosthetic index, an internal hexagon to guide prosthetic components inside Morse taper implants. However, it is still unclear if this mechanism could decrease the mechanical strength of Morse taper implants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the prosthetic index inside Morse taper implants on fracture resistance compared with nonindexed implants. Fifty-seven Morse taper implants, with 11.5-degree angulation of the internal conical portion, were divided into three groups: implants without the prosthetic index and solid Morse taper universal post (group 1), implants with the prosthetic index and solid Morse taper universal post (group 2), and implants and abutments with the prosthetic index (group 3). All groups were modeled for finite element stress analysis (FEA), simulating force application of a perpendicular load to the abutments. Fracture resistance (n = 10) was determined under the same condition. Dynamic loading (n = 9) was also performed. The statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the Tukey test was applied (α = .05). The metallographic analysis was used to identify the fracture distribution and the microstructure of the titanium alloy. There was no statistically significant difference between the values of all tested groups. According to the FEA, the prosthetic index region was out of stress. The mean fracture resistances and loading test were 353.7 N and 200 N for group 1, 397.3 N and 170 N for group 2, and 372.0 N and 160 N for group 3, respectively. Metallographic analysis showed a macroscopic failure pattern just as demonstrated by FEA. The presence of the prosthetic index on Morse taper implants did not decrease its resistance to fracture for the tested implants.

  13. Variables affecting darbepoetin resistance index in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayez Hejaili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin resistance index calculation has been used as a tool to evaluate anemia response to erythropoietin therapy. Very little has been reported in its use when using darbepoetin and factors influencing in Arab patients. Darbepoetin resistance index (DRI was calculated in all our patients using darbepoetin. This was correlated to demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters. Of the 250 patients, 40.4% were diabetic, 71.1% on hemodialysis, and 28.6% on hemodiafiltration, 23.9% with PermCaths (PC, and 76.1 % with arteriovenous fistula (AVF. The mean DRI was 10.96 ± 12.9 I. Females had 45% higher DRI than males (P = 0.005, and patients with PC had a 66% higher DRI than those with AVF (P = 0.029. Patients with Vitamin D level below the 50th percentile had 55.9% higher DRI than those above it (P = 0.05. DRI was negatively correlated with age (P = 0.018, dialysis vintage (P = 0.039, interdialytic weight gain P = 0.007, Vitamin D level, and serum albumin (P = 0.005 and positively correlate with parathyroid hormone (PTH level (P = 0.000. No impact was seen by the mode of dialysis, being diabetic, using anti-hypertensive therapy, body mass index, Kt/V, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, ferritin, C-reactive protein, Ca, or P. DRI in our Arab patients was comparable to erythropoietin resistance indices reported in other communities. Higher DRI was observed in females, PC users, lower serum albumin, lower Vitamin D, and shorter dialysis vintage. A negative correlation existed between DRI and age, dialysis vintage, interdialytic weight, and serum albumin and a positive correlation with PTH level.

  14. Parathyroidectomy Decreases Insulin Resistance Index in Patients with Primary Hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Cevdet; Sevinc, Barıs; Kutlu, Orkide; Karahan, Omer

    2017-04-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has been considered a cause of insulin resistance (IR) and impaired glucose metabolism. However, there are conflicting results related with the recovery of insulin resistance in patients with PHPT following curative parathyroidectomy. Our aim is to evaluate the effects of curative parathyroidectomy on IR in patients with PHPT. This is a prospective interventional study. Twenty-one consecutive patients with symptomatic PHPT were included into the study. All patients underwent parathyroidectomy. Fasting serum glucose, calcium, phosphorous, parathormone, plasma insulin, and vitamin D levels were measured both at baseline and 2 months after parathyroidectomy. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis of model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Two months after curative parathyroidectomy, serum levels of calcium ( p  = 0.001), PTH ( p  HOMA-IR ( p  = 0.003) decreased, while phosphorous levels increased ( p  = 0.001). During this period, no changes were observed at vitamin D and glucose levels. We concluded that curative parathyroidectomy decreases HOMA-IR index in patients with PHPT. Studies with larger population and longer follow-up period are required to confirm our results.

  15. Coffee, nutritional status, and renal artery resistive index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Guglielmo M; Pirri, Clara; Martines, Giuseppe Fabio; Trovato, Francesca; Catalano, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between nutrition and atherosclerosis is known, even dissociated from protein malnutrition. Cardiovascular impact of several nutrients is known; among them the action of coffee is still debated and cardiovascular effect of caffeine has been investigated without definite results. The aim of this study is to investigate whether coffee habits, and/or quantity of coffee consumption, have any relationship with renal resistive index (RRI), a hallmark of arterial stiffness (AS). The relationship of AS with nutritional status assessed by body composition and serum albumin, insulin resistance (assessed by HOMA), and renal function assessed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is concurrently investigated. This study was done with 221 consecutive patients, without diabetes, cancer, liver, renal, and heart disease, referred for clinical noninvasive assessment and nutritional counseling: 124 essential hypertensive and 97 nonhypertensive patients were eligible. Personalized Mediterranean diet, physical activity increase, and smoking withdrawal counseling were provided. By multiple linear regression, fat-free mass (FFM), HOMA (positive relationship), and number of cups of coffee/day (negative relationship) account for 17.2% of the variance to RRI. By odds ratios lower risk to increased RRI is associated with higher serum albumin, higher hemoglobin, and FFM; greater risk is associated with hypertension, insulin resistance (HOMA ≥ 3.0), and renal insufficiency (GFR ≤ 90); coffee, assessed by number of cups/day, reduces risk. Coffee use is inversely associated with RRI. Habitual coffee users have risk protection to higher RRI; lower serum albumin, insulin resistance, and renal insufficiency are associated with greater RRI.

  16. Repeat Assessed Values Model for Housing Price Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carini Manuela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an innovative methodology, named Repeat Appraised Price Model (RAV, useful for determining the price index numbers for real estate markets and the corresponding index numbers of hedonic prices of main real estate characteristics in the case of a lack of data. The methodological approach proposed in this paper aims to appraise the time series of price index numbers. It integrates the principles of the method of repeat sales with the peculiarities of the Hedonic Price Method, overcoming the problem of an almost total absence of repeat sales for the same property in a given time range; on the other hand, the technique aims to overcome the limitation of the repeat sales technique concerning the inability to take into account the characteristics of individual properties.

  17. 3. Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index ofEscherichiaColi Isolates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Resistance index > 0.2, 61 % were from inpatient samples. Conclusion: The high Multiple Antibiotic. Resistance index of the E. coli isolates indicates previous exposure to antibiotics and development of resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics, hence, antimicrobial susceptibility testing is imperative in selecting ...

  18. A Delphi Study Using Value-Focused Thinking for United States Air Force Mission Dependency Index Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Infrastructure Prioritization Balanced Scorecard .................................................... 6 Figure 5. USAF CATCODE Distribution vs. MDI Values ...A DELPHI STUDY USING VALUE -FOCUSED THINKING FOR UNITED STATES AIR FORCE MISSION DEPENDENCY INDEX... VALUES THESIS Matthew J. Nichols, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-192 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF

  19. NEW METABOLIC INDEX USE POTENTIALITIES IN EVALUATION OF INSULIN RESISTANCE IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Roytberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnostics of insulin resistance (IR is one of the methods of primary prevention of cardio-vascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The HOMA-IR index and ratio of plasma triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration are the most frequently used indices in clinical and epidemiological scientific research. Prognostic value and efficacy of these tests as a screening method are not high. What method of IR detection should be used in clinical practice and how to interpret received values of the indices is still a matter of dispute.Aim. To evaluate informative value, sensitivity and specificity of a new metabolic index (MI for IR estimation in comparison with the calculated HOMA-IR index.Material and methods. A total of 845 patients (298 men, 547 women were enrolled into the further study after an outpatient regular medical check-up of 2,615 persons. Mean age of the patients was 45.77±12.18 years, body mass index – 28.95±1.44 kg/m2. To evaluate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism blood chemistry parameters were assessed. IR was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR and an oblique calculated index based on lipid metabolism parameters. In accordance with the developed screening method of IR detection (invention patent № 2493566 MI considering carbohydrate and lipid changes was proposed.Results. Calculation of MI and its threshold level was performed by analysis of a characteristic curve. Graphical dependence between sensitivity and specificity of the proposed index was demonstrated: sensitivity of the test was 75.7%, specificity – 89.1%. Probability of IR at MI value >7.0 was 63.5% (positive predictive value, probability of IR absence at the index value ≤7.0 was 93.6% (negative predictive value. The general accuracy of the test, which is characterized by the area under the characteristic curve, was 0.881 with 95%-confidence interval within 0.854-0.905.Conclusion. The importance of negative

  20. NEW METABOLIC INDEX USE POTENTIALITIES IN EVALUATION OF INSULIN RESISTANCE IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Roytberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnostics of insulin resistance (IR is one of the methods of primary prevention of cardio-vascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The HOMA-IR index and ratio of plasma triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration are the most frequently used indices in clinical and epidemiological scientific research. Prognostic value and efficacy of these tests as a screening method are not high. What method of IR detection should be used in clinical practice and how to interpret received values of the indices is still a matter of dispute.Aim. To evaluate informative value, sensitivity and specificity of a new metabolic index (MI for IR estimation in comparison with the calculated HOMA-IR index.Material and methods. A total of 845 patients (298 men, 547 women were enrolled into the further study after an outpatient regular medical check-up of 2,615 persons. Mean age of the patients was 45.77±12.18 years, body mass index – 28.95±1.44 kg/m2. To evaluate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism blood chemistry parameters were assessed. IR was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR and an oblique calculated index based on lipid metabolism parameters. In accordance with the developed screening method of IR detection (invention patent № 2493566 MI considering carbohydrate and lipid changes was proposed.Results. Calculation of MI and its threshold level was performed by analysis of a characteristic curve. Graphical dependence between sensitivity and specificity of the proposed index was demonstrated: sensitivity of the test was 75.7%, specificity – 89.1%. Probability of IR at MI value >7.0 was 63.5% (positive predictive value, probability of IR absence at the index value ≤7.0 was 93.6% (negative predictive value. The general accuracy of the test, which is characterized by the area under the characteristic curve, was 0.881 with 95%-confidence interval within 0.854-0.905.Conclusion. The importance of negative

  1. Resistance Values in Palestinian Hip-hop Music

    OpenAIRE

    Alindah, Lutfiyah

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to describe popular culture of Palestine Hip-Hop and the values of songs. This research has purposes 1) to describe popular culture in Palestine Hip-Hop, and 2) to find resistance value in hip-hop songs. This research used popular culture approach of Adorno that analyzes three songs of DAM group, they are Who is the Terrorist?, Ghareeb fi Biladi, and Olive Trees. This research shows that 1) Hip-Hop music is the source of resistance Palestine through music media, 2) three of...

  2. Validation of insulin resistance indexes in a stable renal transplant population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oterdoom, Leendert H.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; van Son, Willem J.; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J.; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of established insulin resistance indexes, based on fasting blood parameters, in a stable renal transplant population. Fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and

  3. The pulsatility index and the resistive index in renal arteries. Associations with long-term progression in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L J; Petersen, J R; Talleruphuus, U

    1997-01-01

    The pulsatility index (PI) and the resistive index (RI) are used as pulsed-wave Doppler measurements of downstream renal artery resistance. PI and RI have been found to correlate with renal vascular resistance, filtration fraction and effective renal plasma flow in chronic renal failure. The aim...... of the present study was to evaluate the potential relationship between these indices and the rate of decline in renal function, as reflected by changes in different parameters of renal function in patients with chronic renal failure....

  4. Decay hazard (Scheffer) index values calculated from 1971-2000 climate normal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Carll

    2009-01-01

    Climate index values for estimating decay hazard to wood exposed outdoors above ground (commonly known as Scheffer index values) were calculated for 280 locations in the United States (270 locations in the conterminous United States) using the most current climate normal data available from the National Climatic Data Center. These were data for the period 1971–2000. In...

  5. Elk Distributions Relative to Spring Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallidge, S.T.; Baker, T.T.; VanLeeuwen, D.; Gould, W.R.; Thompson, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) that winter near San Antonio Mountain in northern New Mexico provide important recreational and economic benefits while creating management challenges related to temporospatial variation in their spring movements. Our objective was to examine spring distributions of elk in relation to vegetative emergence as it progresses across the landscape as measured by remote sensing. Spring distributions of elk were closely associated with greater photosynthetic activity of spring vegetation in 2 of 3 years as determined using NDVI values derived from AVHRR datasets. Observed elk locations were up to 271% greater than expected in the category representing the most photosynthetic activity. This association was not observed when analyses at a finer geographic scale were conducted. Managers facing challenges involving human-wildlife interactions and land-use issues should consider environmental conditions that may influence variation in elk association with greener portions of the landscape.

  6. Elk Distributions Relative to Spring Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T. Smallidge

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus that winter near San Antonio Mountain in northern New Mexico provide important recreational and economic benefits while creating management challenges related to temporospatial variation in their spring movements. Our objective was to examine spring distributions of elk in relation to vegetative emergence as it progresses across the landscape as measured by remote sensing. Spring distributions of elk were closely associated with greater photosynthetic activity of spring vegetation in 2 of 3 years as determined using NDVI values derived from AVHRR datasets. Observed elk locations were up to 271% greater than expected in the category representing the most photosynthetic activity. This association was not observed when analyses at a finer geographic scale were conducted. Managers facing challenges involving human-wildlife interactions and land-use issues should consider environmental conditions that may influence variation in elk association with greener portions of the landscape.

  7. Renal resistive index and mortality in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Clarisse; Thomas, George; Schold, Jesse D; Arrigain, Susana; Gornik, Heather L; Nally, Joseph V; Navaneethan, Sankar D

    2015-08-01

    Renal resistive index (RRI) measured by Doppler ultrasonography is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in hypertensive, diabetic, and elderly patients. We studied the factors associated with high RRI (≥0.70) and its associations with mortality in chronic kidney disease patients without renal artery stenosis. We included 1962 patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 59 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) who also had RRI measured (January 1, 2005, to October 2011) from an existing chronic kidney disease registry. Participants with renal artery stenosis (60%-99% or renal artery occlusion) were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to study factors associated with high RRI (≥0.70), and its association with mortality was studied using Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards model. Hypertension was prevalent in >90% of the patients. In the multivariable logistic regression, older age, female sex, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, higher systolic blood pressure, and the use of β blockers were associated with higher odds of having RRI≥0.70. During a median follow-up of 2.2 years, 428 patients died. After adjusting for covariates, RRI≥0.70 was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.65; Pchronic kidney disease. Noncardiovascular/non-malignancy-related deaths were higher in those with RRI≥0.70. RRI≥0.70 is associated with higher mortality in hypertensive chronic kidney disease patients without clinically significant renal artery stenosis after accounting for other significant risk factors. Its evaluation may allow early identification of those who are at risk thereby potentially preventing or delaying adverse outcomes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Resistive index for kidney evaluation in normal and diseased cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipisca, Vlad; Murino, Carla; Cortese, Laura; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Auletta, Luigi; Vulpe, Vasile; Meomartino, Leonardo

    2016-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the resistive index (RI) in normal cats and in cats with various renal diseases, and to evaluate the effect of age on RI. The subjects were cats that had ultrasonography (US) of the urinary tract and RI measurement at our centre between January 2003 and April 2014. Based on clinical evaluation, biochemical and haematological tests, urinalysis and US, the cats were classified as healthy or diseased. RI measurements were made from the interlobar or arcuate arteries. Data were analysed for differences between the right and the left kidney, the two sexes, different age groups in healthy cats, and between healthy and diseased cats. A total of 116 cats (68 males, 48 females) were included: 24 healthy and 92 diseased. In the healthy cats, RI (mean ± SD) differed significantly (P = 0.02) between the right kidney (0.54 ± 0.07) and the left kidney (0.59 ± 0.08). For the left kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.73 ± 0.12) and acute kidney injury (0.72 ± 0.08) (P = 0.0008). For the right kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.72 ± 0.11), acute kidney injury (0.74 ± 0.08), polycystic kidney disease (0.77 ± 0.11) and renal tumour (0.74 ± 0.001) (P cats, useful in the differential diagnosis of diffuse renal diseases. While it does not change with the age of the cat, ultrasonographers should be aware that RI may differ between the two kidneys. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  9. Equality of Shapley value and fair proportion index in phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Michael; Jin, Emma Yu

    2015-11-01

    The Shapley value and the fair proportion index of phylogenetic trees have been introduced recently for the purpose of making conservation decisions in genetics. Moreover, also very recently, Hartmann (J Math Biol 67:1163-1170, 2013) has presented data which shows that there is a strong correlation between a slightly modified version of the Shapley value (which we call the modified Shapley value) and the fair proportion index. He gave an explanation of this correlation by showing that the contribution of both indices to an edge of the tree becomes identical as the number of taxa tends to infinity. In this note, we show that the Shapley value and the fair proportion index are in fact the same. Moreover, we also consider the modified Shapley value and show that its covariance with the fair proportion index in random phylogenetic trees under the Yule-Harding model and uniform model is indeed close to one.

  10. Association between fat mass index and fat-free mass index values and cardiovascular risk in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Morais de Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the association between fat mass index and fat-free mass index values and factors associated with cardiovascular risk in adolescents in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. Methods: Cross-sectional study was with 403 adolescents aged 10–14 years, from public and private schools. Anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical measurements were obtained, as well as self-reported time spent performing physical exercises, sedentary activities and sexual maturation stage. Results: Regarding the nutritional status, 66.5% of the adolescents had normal weight, 19.9% were overweight and 10.2% were obese. For both genders, the fat mass index was higher in adolescents who had high serum triglycerides, body mass index and waist circumference. Conclusions: Adolescents who had anthropometric, clinical and biochemical characteristics considered to be at risk for the development of cardiovascular disease had higher values of fat mass index. Different methodologies for the assessment of body composition make health promotion and disease prevention more effective.

  11. [Association between fat mass index and fat-free mass index values and cardiovascular risk in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Patrícia Morais; da Silva, Fabiana Almeida; Souza Oliveira, Renata Maria; Mendes, Larissa Loures; Netto, Michele Pereira; Cândido, Ana Paula Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To describe the association between fat mass index and fat-free mass index values and factors associated with cardiovascular risk in adolescents in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. Cross-sectional study with 403 adolescents aged 10-14 years, from public and private schools. Anthropometric, clinical, biochemical measurements were obtained, as well as self-reported time spent performing physical exercises, sedentary activities and sexual maturation stage. Regarding the nutritional status; 66.5% of the adolescents had normal weight; 19.9% were overweight and 10.2% were obese. For both genders, the fat mass index was higher in adolescents that had high serum triglycerides, body mass index and waist circumference. Adolescents that had anthropometric, clinical and biochemical characteristics considered to be of risk for the development of cardiovascular disease had higher values of fat mass index. Different methodologies for the assessment of body composition make health promotion and disease prevention more effective. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Genomic Prediction of Genetic Values for Resistance to Wheat Rusts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ornella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Durable resistance to the rust diseases of wheat ( L. can be achieved by developing lines that have race-nonspecific adult plant resistance conferred by multiple minor slow-rusting genes. Genomic selection (GS is a promising tool for accumulating favorable alleles of slow-rusting genes. In this study, five CIMMYT wheat populations evaluated for resistance were used to predict resistance to stem rust ( and yellow rust ( using Bayesian least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO (BL, ridge regression (RR, and support vector regression with linear or radial basis function kernel models. All parents and populations were genotyped using 1400 Diversity Arrays Technology markers and different prediction problems were assessed. Results show that prediction ability for yellow rust was lower than for stem rust, probably due to differences in the conditions of infection of both diseases. For within population and environment, the correlation between predicted and observed values (Pearson’s correlation [ρ] was greater than 0.50 in 90% of the evaluations whereas for yellow rust, ρ ranged from 0.0637 to 0.6253. The BL and RR models have similar prediction ability, with a slight superiority of the BL confirming reports about the additive nature of rust resistance. When making predictions between environments and/or between populations, including information from another environment or environments or another population or populations improved prediction.

  13. Adjusting Quality index Log Values to Represent Local and Regional Commercial Sawlog Product Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris D. McCauley; Joseph J. Mendel; Joseph J. Mendel

    1969-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is not only to report the results of a comparative analysis as to how well the Q.I. method predicts log product values when compared to commercial sawmill log output values, but also to develop a methodology which will facilitate the comparison and provide the adjustments needed by the sawmill operator.

  14. Analysis of Location Quotient index of poplar wood processing value chain in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    omid hosseinzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Value added in the poplar wood value chain has great economic effects for poplar farmers and have a fundamental role in sustainable supplying of required cellulosic materials of industries in long-term. The purpose of this study was to analyze the value chain of poplar and use the results to improve it. In order to determine the poplar value chain, Porter's value chain analysis framework was used. The statistical society consists of 76 experts to identify poplar wood value who were active in different parts of the value chain. Value chain analysis was performed using the location quotient index. With this method the local economic conditions of poplar wood value chain were evaluated to the global economic conditions poplar wood value chain in the country. With the help of experts and using a questionnaire, important industries that use poplar wood as a raw material were determined. The maximum poplar value chain location quotient index was blong to Golestan (2.72 and the minimum poplar value chain location quotient index was blong to Hormozgan (0.24. The Northern provinces (Golestan, Guilan and Mazandaran had the highest location quotient index. The location quotient index of the poplar wood value chain of Golestan, Guilan and Mazandaran were 2.72, 2.19 and 2.03, respectively. The location quotient index of poplar wood in Zanjan, West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan and Kurdistan that they are major manufacturers of poplar wood, were 0.36, 0.47 0.65 and 0.84, respectively.

  15. Arch height index normative values of college-aged women using the arch height index measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimar, Wendi H; Shroyer, Justin F

    2013-01-01

    The arch height index measurement system (AHIMS) device has been found to be a reliable and valid instrument for measuring the arch height index (AHI) of the feet of individuals; however, normative data for the AHI are lacking for various populations. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to establish population normative AHI values for college-aged females and to compare the observed AHI data across right and left feet. Seventy-nine college-aged females served as study participants, and both feet were measured using the AHIMS in the seated and standing positions. The AHI was calculated as the ratio of the dorsum height of the foot at half the total foot length to the length of the foot from the heel to the base of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The mean ± SD AHI values for the left and right feet in the seated position were 0.355 ± 0.031 and 0.369 ± 0.034, respectively. The mean ± SD AHI values for the left and right feet in the standing position were 0.338 ± 0.031 and 0.343 ± 0.033, respectively. There were significant differences observed between the left and right feet for the seated (P feet of the participants sampled. Although normative values were obtained, we caution against using these values to classify foot arch types based solely on a sample of the population studied.

  16. Muscle fatigue index: reference values in typically developing children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vanherk, Dorien; Lemmens, Kathelijn

    2016-01-01

    Muscle fatigue index: reference values for typically developing children and adolescents AIM: To obtain reference values of muscle fatigue in grip and pinch strength in typically developing children and adolescents, to enable an adequate comparison with children and adolescents with motor disorders. Determine the influence of actors such as maximal strength, age, gender, physical activity, body weight and height on muscle fatigue.

  17. Validation of insulin resistance indexes in a stable renal transplant population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oterdoom, LH; De Vries, APJ; Van Son, WJ; Van Der Heide, JJH; Ploeg, RJ; Gansevoort, RT; De Jong, PE; Gans, ROB; Bakker, SJL

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of established insulin resistance indexes, based on fasting blood parameters, in a stable renal transplant population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), the quantitative insulin

  18. Generation of a predictive melphalan resistance index by drug screen of B-cell cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Boegsted

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent reports indicate that in vitro drug screens combined with gene expression profiles (GEP of cancer cell lines may generate informative signatures predicting the clinical outcome of chemotherapy. In multiple myeloma (MM a range of new drugs have been introduced and now challenge conventional therapy including high dose melphalan. Consequently, the generation of predictive signatures for response to melphalan may have a clinical impact. The hypothesis is that melphalan screens and GEPs of B-cell cancer cell lines combined with multivariate statistics may provide predictive clinical information. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Microarray based GEPs and a melphalan growth inhibition screen of 59 cancer cell lines were downloaded from the National Cancer Institute database. Equivalent data were generated for 18 B-cell cancer cell lines. Linear discriminant analyses (LDA, sparse partial least squares (SPLS and pairwise comparisons of cell line data were used to build resistance signatures from both cell line panels. A melphalan resistance index was defined and estimated for each MM patient in a publicly available clinical data set and evaluated retrospectively by Cox proportional hazards and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both cell line panels performed well with respect to internal validation of the SPLS approach but only the B-cell panel was able to predict a significantly higher risk of relapse and death with increasing resistance index in the clinical data sets. The most sensitive and resistant cell lines, MOLP-2 and RPMI-8226 LR5, respectively, had high leverage, which suggests their differentially expressed genes to possess important predictive value. CONCLUSION: The present study presents a melphalan resistance index generated by analysis of a B-cell panel of cancer cell lines. However, the resistance index needs to be functionally validated and correlated to known MM biomarkers in independent data sets in order to

  19. Application of DWIBS in malignant lymphoma: correlation between ADC values and Ki-67 index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengtian; Cheng, Jingliang; Zhang, Yong; Bai, Jie; Wang, Feifei; Meng, Yun; Li, Zhenqian

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and Ki-67 index using diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS), and their utility in evaluating malignant lymphoma cell proliferation. Seventy-four patients with malignant lymphoma underwent DWIBS within 1 week before pathological confirmation. The ADC value was measured at the site of the pathological examination, and specimens were also stained with Ki-67. The ADC values and Ki-67 indices in aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), indolent NHL, and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) were compared using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The Ki-67 indices and ADC values were inversely correlated (r = -0.289, p = 0.0125); the differences in the Ki-67 index between aggressive NHL, indolent NHL, and HL were significant (p values were significantly different between the types of lymphoma (p = 0.013); the Nemenyi test showed a significant difference only between aggressive NHL and HL. The Ki-67 indices and ADC values are inversely correlated in patients with lymphoma, combining DWIBS and ADC values can evaluate the proliferation level of malignant lymphoma cells noninvasively. • By using DWIBS, malignant lymphoma cell proliferation can be assessed noninvasively. • The ADC value and Ki-67 index are significantly and inversely correlated. • The ADC values were lower in aggressive NHL than in HL. • The ADC values of aggressive and indolent NHL were not significantly different.

  20. Optimizing the level of branch concentration with marginal values of Herfindahl-Hirschman index

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sukhoteplyy

    2010-01-01

    Striving of Ukraine for the European Union assumes, among other things, the sound understanding of the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) methodology in defining the level of the competition in an industry. Modeling of an industry structure using predefined values of HHI and the concept of the Index of Competitive Potential of Industry (ICPI) has shown that the traditional use of the HHI criterion with-out the explicit consideration of the number of firms in an industry can results in ambiguous...

  1. Prediction of WBGT-based clothing adjustment values from evaporative resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Thomas E; Ashley, Candi D; Garzon, Ximena P; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Coca, Aitor

    2017-12-07

    Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index is used by many professionals in combination with metabolic rate and clothing adjustments to assess whether a heat stress exposure is sustainable. The progressive heat stress protocol is a systematic method to prescribe a clothing adjustment value (CAV) from human wear trials, and it also provides an estimate of apparent total evaporative resistance (R e,T,a ). It is clear that there is a direct relationship between the two descriptors of clothing thermal effects with diminishing increases in CAV at high R e,T,a . There were data to suggest an interaction of CAV and R e,T,a with relative humidity at high evaporative resistance. Because human trials are expensive, manikin data can reduce the cost by considering the static total evaporative resistance (R e,T,s ). In fact, as the static evaporative resistance increases, the CAV increases in a similar fashion as R e,T,a . While the results look promising that R e,T,s can predict CAV, some validation remains, especially for high evaporative resistance. The data only supports air velocities near 0.5 m/s.

  2. The resistivity imaging application in groundwater exploration: resistivity value and soil type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khardzir Husain

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia is rich in water resources. Water development has fueled socio-economic development of the country during the past decades. Dams and thousands of kilometers of pipes and canals divert water from the rivers to sustain domestic, industrial and agricultural needs. Lately, the water situation for the country has changed from one of relative abundance to one of relative scarcity. The population growth and the expansion in urbanization, industrialization and irrigated agriculture are imposing rapidly growing demands and pressure on the water resources, besides contributing to the rising water pollution. Surface water resource, the traditional source of water supply in the past, has become inadequate in some areas. The problem becomes more acute in areas where surface water is affected by the increasing pollution from industrial and agricultural waste and where changes in land have adversely affected the quantity and quality of surface water supply. The development of groundwater as a source of water supply or as an alternative source is therefore a timely outlook. Lack in groundwater development will becoming disasters to country. Electrical resistivity had been used in groundwater exploration to get an accuracy result in a short time. This method measures the apparent resistivity of the subsurface, including effects of any or all of the following: soil type, bedrock fractures, contaminants and ground water. Variations in electrical resistivity may indicate changes in composition, layer thickness or contaminant levels. The resistivity values obtained from various groundwater exploration and experimental sites shows that the value differs also in related to the soil type. (Author)

  3. Clinical value of Tei index in pediatric patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bing; Qi, Quan; Liu, Ruisheng; Xing, Wang; Tang, Hanbo; Li, Yuanmin

    2015-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart disease characterized by underdevelopment of the right ventricular infundibulum. Present study aimed to explore the clinic value of Tei index in assessing right ventricular function of pediatric patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot. A total of 45 pediatric patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot were recruited and classified into: group A (Tei index 0.7; n=13, aging 4-14 years). The right ventricular Tei index value was related to the clinical characteristics of Tetralogy of Fallot repair patients. Right ventricular Tei index was positively correlated with ventilation time, drainage volumes, and negatively with drug assistance and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, although time for drug assistance and ICU stay were not statically different between group B and group C. There was no significant difference in left ventricular ejection fraction. Tei index is a sensitive indicator of right ventricular dysfunction, and has important clinical value to better our understanding of right ventricular function after tetralogy of Fallot repair.

  4. Developing a methodology for assigning glycaemic index values to foods consumed across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, L M; Jackson, D; Monsheimer, S; Whybrow, S; Handjieva-Darlenska, T; Kreutzer, M; Kohl, A; Papadaki, A; Martinez, J A; Kunova, V; van Baak, M A; Astrup, A; Saris, W H M; Jebb, S A; Lindroos, A K

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the glycaemic index (GI) of the diet is important with respect to body weight and metabolic disease risk. However, research is limited by the paucity of GI values for commonly consumed carbohydrate-rich foods in European countries. A new methodology has been developed for consistent assignment of GI values to foods across five European databases used in the Diogenes intervention study. GI values were assigned according to five decreasing levels of confidence (1) Measured values for specific foods; (2) Published values from published sources; (3) Equivalent values where published values for similar foods existed; (4) Estimated values assigned as one of three values representing low/medium/high GI ranges and (5) Nominal values assigned as 70, where no other value could be assigned with sufficient confidence. GI values were assigned to 5105 foods. In food records collected at baseline, the contribution to carbohydrate intake of foods assigned levels 1-2 ranged from 16% to 43% depending on country, and this increased to 53-81% including level 3 foods. The degree of confidence to assigned GI values differed across Europe. This standardized approach of assigning GI values will be made available to other researchers to facilitate further investigation into the effects of dietary GI on health.

  5. Doppler ultrasound measurement of resistance index in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Cen, Son; Kang, Xin-Li; Wang, Wei Fu; Wang, Yang; Chen, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the second leading cause of cancer diagnosis worldwide. Early diagnosis and treatment of PCa is critical since the long-term prognosis is excellent in patients with tumors confined to the prostate gland. The current meta-analysis investigates the diagnostic value of resistive index (RI) measurement using color Doppler ultrasound in patients with PCa. Electronic literature databases were exhaustively searched for relevant studies published prior to May 31, 2014. Nine studies met our predetermined inclusion criteria for the present meta-analysis. The methodologic quality of the selected studies was independently assessed by 2 reviewers based on Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. Our meta-analysis results showed that RI values were significantly higher in malignant prostate tissues compared to normal prostate tissues (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12~0.73, p = 0.007) and benign prostate tissues (SMD 0.41, 95% CI 0.26~0.56, pbased on the diagnostic instruments used revealed that RI values were accurate in diagnosis of PCa when compared between malignant tissue vs normal tissue and malignant tissue vs benign tissue (all pvalues in diagnosis of PCa.

  6. Lower Bispectral index values in psychiatric patients: A prospective, observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatapura J Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Bispectral index score (BIS is a processed electroencephalographic parameter used to measure level of sedation in anaesthetised patients. In few studies of psychiatric patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT, it was observed that the BIS values were lower at baseline. It is not clear from those studies whether the BIS values are really low. Also, it is not clear whether the lower values are related to the primary psychiatric illness or the due to the effect of ECT. Therefore, we studied the BIS values in psychiatric illnesses and compared them with the normal controls. Materials and Methods : BIS index was recorded in 237 patients with various psychiatric illness (Group P and 40 control patients without any psychiatric illness undergoing spinal surgery (Group C. BIS values were recorded in supine position before breakfast and before the morning doses of antipsychotic/benzodiazepine medications. It was recorded during resting state in all the subjects. Results : BIS values were lower in group P compared to control group (a mean of 89.8 ± 7.8 vs 95.7 ± 2.4, P < 0.0001. In the group P, the patients with psychosis and bipolar disorder had significantly lower BIS values than the patients with depression (P = 0.04. Conclusions : BIS values in psychiatric patients are lower than those in the control group. Psychotic and bipolar disorders are associated with significantly lower BIS values than the depression.

  7. Carbohydrate and protein but not fat or fiber affects glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values have been calculated using data derived from instruments designed to estimate daily food intake. Since the absolute amount of carbohydrate (CHO) and combination of CHO with other macronutrients and fiber is highly variable among...

  8. Significance of a Behavioral Economic Index of Reward Value in Predicting Drinking Problem Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Vuchinich, Rudy E.; Black, Bethany C.; Rippens, Paula D.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether a behavioral economic index of the value of rewards available over different time horizons improved prediction of drinking outcomes beyond established biopsychosocial predictors. Preferences for immediate drinking versus more delayed rewards made possible by saving money were determined from expenditures prior to…

  9. 40 CFR 65.160 - Performance test and TRE index value determination records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determination records. 65.160 Section 65.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 65.160 Performance test and TRE index value determination... information: (i) The percent reduction or scrubber outlet mass emission rate of total hydrogen halides and...

  10. Effect of Resistance Training on Serum Meteorin-like Hormone Level and Insulin Resistance Index in Overweight Adolescent Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Alizadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Adipose tissue's phenotypic alteration due to exercise training is a new theory. However, the cellular–molecular mechanisms for these phenotypic alterations are not yet clearly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of six weeks resistance training on Meteorin-like hormone level and insulin resistance index in overweight adolescent boys. Materials and Methods: Twenty overweight adolescent boys (average age 18.5±1 years old, average weight 81.1±4.5 kg, and BMI 27.7±0.7 kg/m2 participated in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: control (N=10 and resistance training (N=10. Subjects in training group performed six-week resistance training program 3 days/week. Anthropometrics parameters and fasting serum of Meteorin-like hormone levels, insulin and glucose were measured at the baseline and at the end of study. Results: The level of Meteorin-like hormone was significantly decreased in control group (p=0.008, but that of Meteorin-like hormone in resistance training was increased insignificantly (p=0.311. The variations of Meteorin-like hormone levels between two groups were significant (p=0.004. The changes of insulin resistance were increased in both groups which were statistically significant (p=0.032 and insignificant (p=0.632 for control and training groups respectively. We found a negative and insignificant correlation between changes in Meteorin-like hormone levels and changes in insulin resistance index (p=0.273. Conclusion: The results showed that six weeks’ resistance training has no effect on increasing Meteorin-like hormone serum level and improving insulin resistance index and body composition in overweight adolescent boys.

  11. Estimating the reliability of glycemic index values and potential sources of methodological and biological variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Meng, Huicui; Tighiouart, Hocine; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2016-10-01

    The utility of glycemic index (GI) values for chronic disease risk management remains controversial. Although absolute GI value determinations for individual foods have been shown to vary significantly in individuals with diabetes, there is a dearth of data on the reliability of GI value determinations and potential sources of variability among healthy adults. We examined the intra- and inter-individual variability in glycemic response to a single food challenge and methodologic and biological factors that potentially mediate this response. The GI value for white bread was determined by using standardized methodology in 63 volunteers free from chronic disease and recruited to differ by sex, age (18-85 y), and body mass index [BMI (in kg/m 2 ): 20-35]. Volunteers randomly underwent 3 sets of food challenges involving glucose (reference) and white bread (test food), both providing 50 g available carbohydrates. Serum glucose and insulin were monitored for 5 h postingestion, and GI values were calculated by using different area under the curve (AUC) methods. Biochemical variables were measured by using standard assays and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean ± SD GI value for white bread was 62 ± 15 when calculated by using the recommended method. Mean intra- and interindividual CVs were 20% and 25%, respectively. Increasing sample size, replication of reference and test foods, and length of blood sampling, as well as AUC calculation method, did not improve the CVs. Among the biological factors assessed, insulin index and glycated hemoglobin values explained 15% and 16% of the variability in mean GI value for white bread, respectively. These data indicate that there is substantial variability in individual responses to GI value determinations, demonstrating that it is unlikely to be a good approach to guiding food choices. Additionally, even in healthy individuals, glycemic status significantly contributes to the variability in GI value

  12. Cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index values in 9-year-old rural Norwegian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Mamen, A; Anderssen, S A

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To describe cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) values in a representative population of 9-year-old Norwegian children in two rural communities and compare present values with previous findings. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-nine 9-year-old children were invited, and 256......, children's BMI values seem to have increased substantially. This increase is most pronounced in girls. When assessing these differences using the PI, this increase is less marked. Comparing maximal oxygen uptake data with that in earlier Nordic studies, there is no evidence that fitness has declined among...... 9-year olds. However, the limitations of the few earlier studies make reliable comparisons difficult....

  13. SU-E-I-27: Establishing Target Exposure Index Values for Computed Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, N; Tchou, P; Belcher, K; Scott, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a standard set of target exposure index (TEI) values to be applied to Agfa Computed Radiography (CR) readers in accordance with International Electrotechnical Committee 62494-1 (ed. 1.0). Methods: A large data cohort was collected from six USAF Medical Treatment Facilities that exclusively use Agfa CR Readers. Dose monitoring statistics were collected from each reader. The data was analyzed based on anatomic region, view, and processing speed class. The Agfa specific exposure metric, logarithmic mean (LGM), was converted to exposure index (EI) for each data set. The optimum TEI value was determined by minimizing the number of studies that fell outside the acceptable deviation index (DI) range of +/− 2 for phototimed techniques or a range of +/−3 for fixed techniques. An anthropomorphic radiographic phantom was used to corroborate the TEI recommendations. Images were acquired of several anatomic regions and views using standard techniques. The images were then evaluated by two radiologists as either acceptable or unacceptable. The acceptable image with the lowest exposure and EI value was compared to the recommended TEI values using a passing DI range. Results: Target EI values were determined for a comprehensive list of anatomic regions and views. Conclusion: Target EI values must be established on each CR unit in order to provide a positive feedback system for the technologist. This system will serve as a mechanism to prevent under or overexposures of patients. The TEI recommendations are a first attempt at a large scale process improvement with the goal of setting reasonable and standardized TEI values. The implementation and effectiveness of the recommended TEI values should be monitored and adjustments made as necessary

  14. Relationship of visfatin level to pancreatic endocrine hormone level, HOMA-IR index, and HOMA β-cell index in overweight women who performed hydraulic resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Chang Ho; Swearingin, Brenda; Jeon, Yong Kyun

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the correlation of visfatin level to pancreatic endocrine hormone level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, and HOMA β-cell index in hydraulic resistance exercise. Furthermore, it investigated the relationship between visfatin level and other variables affected by exercise in overweight women. [Subjects and Methods] The exercise group trained for 12 weeks, 70 minutes/day, 5 days/week. Visfatin level, pancreatic endocrine hormone level, HOMA-IR index, and HOMA β-cell index were measured before and after the intervention. Based on the blood insulin and glucose concentrations, HOMA-IR index, the indicator of insulin resistance, and HOMA β-cell index, the indicator of insulin secretion level, were assessed. [Results] Interaction effects on visfatin level, insulin level, HOMA-IR index, and HOMA β-cell index were observed. Interaction effects on glucagon and glucose levels were not observed between the intervention groups. The correlations of visfatin level to insulin, glucagon, and glucose levels, and HOMA-IR and HOMA β-cell indexes were not significant for any of the subjects. [Conclusion] Therefore, the 12-week resistance exercise affected body composition, visfatin level, insulin level, HOMA-IR index, and HOMA β-cell index. Finally, visfatin was not related to insulin, glucagon, and glucose levels, and HOMA-IR and HOMA β-cell indexes.

  15. Multiple antibiotic resistance indexing of coliforms to identify high risk contamination sites in aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitanand, M P; Kadam, T A; Gyananath, G; Totewad, N D; Balhal, D K

    2010-06-01

    Bacteriological analysis of the water samples collected from upstream, midstream and downstream points along the bank of the river revealed high populations of Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter diversus, Enterobacter aerogens and Klebsiella species. All these isolates were screened against eight antibiotics to determine the prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistance among isolates at different sites of the river. The study revealed that multiple antibiotic resistance was prominently seen in coliforms at downstream sites (Average multiple antibiotic resistance index, MAR Index = 0.43) while it was low in coliforms at upstream sites (MAR Index = 0.15). These differences in MAR indices provide a method for distinguishing high risk contamination sites in aquatic environment.

  16. The equivalence of two phylogenetic biodiversity measures: the Shapley value and Fair Proportion index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Klaas

    2013-11-01

    Most biodiversity conservation programs are forced to prioritise species in order to allocate their funding. This paper contains a mathematical proof that provides biological support for one common approach based on phylogenetic indices. Phylogenetic trees describe the evolutionary relationships between a group of taxa. Two indices for computing the distinctiveness of each taxon in a phylogenetic tree are considered here-the Shapley value and the Fair Proportion index. These indices provide a measure of the importance of each taxon for overall biodiversity and have been used to prioritise taxa for conservation. The Shapley value is the biodiversity contribution a taxon is expected to make if all taxa are equally likely to become extinct. This interpretation makes it appealing to use the Shapley value in biodiversity conservation applications. The Fair Proportion index lacks a convenient interpretation, however it is significantly easier to calculate and understand. It has been empirically observed that there is a high correlation between the two indices. This paper shows the mathematical basis for this correlation and proves that as the number of taxa increases, the indices become equivalent. Consequently in biodiversity prioritisation the simpler Fair Proportion index can be used whilst retaining the appealing interpretation of the Shapley value.

  17. Economic values and expected effect of selection index for pathogen-specific mastitis under Danish conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Mark, Thomas; Sørensen, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    goal was identical to selection index 3. Mastitis data from primiparous cows calving from 1998 to 2008 were used to estimate genetic parameters of the mastitis traits using linear models and AI-REML algorithm. These parameters were used for construction of the selection index equations......The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate costs related to 5 different pathogen-specific mastitis traits (susceptibility to different pathogens causing mastitis in dairy cattle) and unspecific mastitis, and 2) to compare selection differentials for an udder health index consisting of 5...... to 570 euro per mastitis case and were highest for contagious pathogens such as Staph. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci and lowest for Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. uberis. The value for unspecific mastitis was 231 euro per case. Selection differentials (in euro) were estimated for 4...

  18. Comparing the rankings obtained from two biodiversity indices: the Fair Proportion Index and the Shapley Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Kristina; Fischer, Mareike

    2017-10-07

    The Shapley Value and the Fair Proportion Index of phylogenetic trees have been frequently discussed as prioritization tools in conservation biology. Both indices rank species according to their contribution to total phylogenetic diversity, allowing for a simple conservation criterion. While both indices have their specific advantages and drawbacks, it has recently been shown that both values are closely related. However, as different authors use different definitions of the Shapley Value, the specific degree of relatedness depends on the specific version of the Shapley Value - it ranges from a high correlation index to equality of the indices. In this note, we first give an overview of the different indices. Then we turn our attention to the mere ranking order provided by either of the indices. We compare the rankings obtained from different versions of the Shapley Value for a phylogenetic tree of European amphibians and illustrate their differences. We then undertake further analyses on simulated data and show that even though the chance of two rankings being exactly identical (when obtained from different versions of the Shapley Value) decreases with an increasing number of taxa, the distance between the two rankings converges to zero, i.e., the rankings are becoming more and more alike. Moreover, we introduce our freely available software package FairShapley, which was implemented in Perl and with which all calculations have been performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Normal Values of Tissue-Muscle Perfusion Indexes of Lower Limbs Obtained with a Scintigraphic Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manevska, Nevena; Stojanoski, Sinisa; Pop Gjorceva, Daniela; Todorovska, Lidija; Miladinova, Daniela; Zafirova, Beti

    2017-09-01

    Introduction Muscle perfusion is a physiologic process that can undergo quantitative assessment and thus define the range of normal values of perfusion indexes and perfusion reserve. The investigation of the microcirculation has a crucial role in determining the muscle perfusion. Materials and method The study included 30 examinees, 24-74 years of age, without a history of confirmed peripheral artery disease and all had normal findings on Doppler ultrasonography and pedo-brachial index of lower extremity (PBI). 99mTc-MIBI tissue muscle perfusion scintigraphy of lower limbs evaluates tissue perfusion in resting condition "rest study" and after workload "stress study", through quantitative parameters: Inter-extremity index (for both studies), left thigh/right thigh (LT/RT) left calf/right calf (LC/RC) and perfusion reserve (PR) for both thighs and calves. Results In our investigated group we assessed the normal values of quantitative parameters of perfusion indexes. Indexes ranged for LT/RT in rest study 0.91-1.05, in stress study 0.92-1.04. LC/RC in rest 0.93-1.07 and in stress study 0.93-1.09. The examinees older than 50 years had insignificantly lower perfusion reserve of these parameters compared with those younger than 50, LC (p=0.98), and RC (p=0.6). Conclusion This non-invasive scintigraphic method allows in individuals without peripheral artery disease to determine the range of normal values of muscle perfusion at rest and stress condition and to clinically implement them in evaluation of patients with peripheral artery disease for differentiating patients with normal from those with impaired lower limbs circulation.

  20. Modulation of extreme temperatures in Europe under extreme values of the North Atlantic Oscillation Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniston, Martin

    2018-03-10

    This paper reports on the influence that extreme values in the tails of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index probability density function (PDF) can exert on temperatures in Europe. When the NAO Index enters into its lowest (10% quantile or less) and highest (90% quantile or higher) modes, European temperatures often exhibit large negative or positive departures from their mean values, respectively. Analyses of the joint quantiles of the Index and temperatures (i.e., the simultaneous exceedance of particular quantile thresholds by the two variables) show that temperatures enter into the upper or lower tails of their PDF when the NAO Index also enters into its extreme tails, more often that could be expected from random statistics. Studies of this nature help further our understanding of the manner by which mechanisms of decadal-scale climate variability can influence extremes of temperature-and thus perhaps improve the forecasting of extreme temperatures in weather and climate models. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. The diagnostic value of serum HE4 and CA-125 and ROMA index in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, S U; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bei

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is a common malignancy of the female reproductive system. Tumor markers serve as tools in the diagnosis of the disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the diagnostic value of sera levels of carbohydrate antigen-125 (CA-125), human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) as well as the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and the risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA) index in ovarian cancer. The sera were measured using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay on 158 individuals (64 patients with ovarian cancer, 64 with ovarian benign tumor and 30 healthy individuals) between September 2013 and May 2015. The results showed that levels of HE4 and CA-125 in the sera of the ovarian benign tumor group as well as their ROMA index were significantly higher (PCA-125 was significantly higher (PCA-125. In the ovarian cancer group, the areas under ROC curves of ROMA, HE4 and CA-125 were 0.994, 0.990 and 0.941, respectively. The specificity and positive predictive value of HE4 in the premenopausal ovarian cancer group reached 98.36 and 95%, respectively. In conclusion, the results showed that the serum level of HE4 and the ROMA index are important indicators in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, in addition to HE4 and CA-125 detection, the ROMA index is extremely valuable in improving the diagnostic efficiency of ovarian cancer.

  2. Resistance and Security Index of Networks: Structural Information Perspective of Network Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angsheng; Hu, Qifu; Liu, Jun; Pan, Yicheng

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Li and Pan defined the metric of the K-dimensional structure entropy of a structured noisy dataset G to be the information that controls the formation of the K-dimensional structure of G that is evolved by the rules, order and laws of G, excluding the random variations that occur in G. Here, we propose the notion of resistance of networks based on the one- and two-dimensional structural information of graphs. Given a graph G, we define the resistance of G, written , as the greatest overall number of bits required to determine the code of the module that is accessible via random walks with stationary distribution in G, from which the random walks cannot escape. We show that the resistance of networks follows the resistance law of networks, that is, for a network G, the resistance of G is , where and are the one- and two-dimensional structure entropies of G, respectively. Based on the resistance law, we define the security index of a network G to be the normalised resistance of G, that is, . We show that the resistance and security index are both well-defined measures for the security of the networks. PMID:27255783

  3. Resistance and Security Index of Networks: Structural Information Perspective of Network Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angsheng; Hu, Qifu; Liu, Jun; Pan, Yicheng

    2016-06-03

    Recently, Li and Pan defined the metric of the K-dimensional structure entropy of a structured noisy dataset G to be the information that controls the formation of the K-dimensional structure of G that is evolved by the rules, order and laws of G, excluding the random variations that occur in G. Here, we propose the notion of resistance of networks based on the one- and two-dimensional structural information of graphs. Given a graph G, we define the resistance of G, written , as the greatest overall number of bits required to determine the code of the module that is accessible via random walks with stationary distribution in G, from which the random walks cannot escape. We show that the resistance of networks follows the resistance law of networks, that is, for a network G, the resistance of G is , where and are the one- and two-dimensional structure entropies of G, respectively. Based on the resistance law, we define the security index of a network G to be the normalised resistance of G, that is, . We show that the resistance and security index are both well-defined measures for the security of the networks.

  4. Average value of the shape and direction factor in the equation of refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao

    2017-10-01

    The theoretical calculation of the refractive indices is of great significance for the developments of new optical materials. The calculation method of refractive index, which was deduced from the electron-cloud-conductor model, contains the shape and direction factor 〈g〉. 〈g〉 affects the electromagnetic-induction energy absorbed by the electron clouds, thereby influencing the refractive indices. It is not yet known how to calculate 〈g〉 value of non-spherical electron clouds. In this paper, 〈g〉 value is derived by imaginatively dividing the electron cloud into numerous little volume elements and then regrouping them. This paper proves that 〈g〉 = 2/3 when molecules’ spatial orientations distribute randomly. The calculations of the refractive indices of several substances validate this equation. This result will help to promote the application of the calculation method of refractive index.

  5. PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF THE BASELINE VALUES OF SERUM TESTOSTERONE AND FREE ANDROGEN INDEX IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Grigoryev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing incidence of prostate cancer (PC and its variable nature are an important problem today. PC is distinguished by its latent ability in many cases, which makes its screening difficult.Prostate-specific antigen (PSA is one of the most common tumor markers of PC, which are used for mass male screening. However, the detection rate of PC in men with normal PSA values is also very high. This promotes an active search for new markers and predictors of PC.The effect of androgens on hormonal carcinogenesis in the prostate suggests that the analysis of serum testosterone concentrations and free androgen index may be made in patients with low PSA levels in the early diagnosis and prognosis of PC.

  6. Insulin resistance in a large cohort of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a comparison between euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp and surrogate indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Flavia; Bonora, Enzo; Moghetti, Paolo

    2017-12-01

    Could surrogate indexes identify insulin resistant individuals among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Surrogate indexes may be able to rule in, but not rule out, insulin resistance in women with PCOS. Insulin resistance is a typical finding of women with PCOS and most clinical information on this issue is based upon surrogate indexes of insulin resistance. However, data on the performance of these indexes in PCOS women are very limited. A retrospective analysis of 406 women referred to our outpatient clinic for hyperandrogenism and/or menstrual dysfunction and submitted to hyperinsulinemic euglycaemic clamp between 1998 and 2015. In total, 375 of these women had PCOS by the Rotterdam criteria and were included in the study. Six surrogate indexes of insulin sensitivity were calculated from glucose and insulin levels, either at fasting (homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), glucose/insulin (G/I) ratio and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI)) or after oral glucose load (Gutt, Stumvoll0-120 and Matsuda). Overall, insulin resistance, as identified by the M-clamp value, was found in 74.9% of these women. The percentage was 59.3% in normal-weight vs 77.5% in overweight and 93.9% in obese subjects. All surrogate indexes were highly correlated with the M-clamp values. However, their ability to identify insulin resistant individuals was limited, in terms of sensitivity and especially in normal-weight subjects. ROC analysis showed similar performances of these indexes (AUC values 0.782-0.817). Potential referral bias of PCOS patients may have caused overestimation of the prevalence of insulin resistance in these women. By using surrogate indexes many subjects with PCOS may be erroneously diagnosed as insulin sensitive, especially among normal-weight women. These indexes can be used to rule in, but not rule out, insulin resistance in PCOS. Academic grants to P. Moghetti from the University of Verona. All authors declare no conflict of interest. N

  7. Comparison of Bispectral Index and Entropy values with electroencephalogram during surgical anaesthesia with sevoflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, A J; Kamata, K; Jäntti, V; Kulkas, A; Hagihira, S; Huhtala, H; Yli-Hankala, A

    2015-08-01

    Concomitantly recorded Bispectral Index® (BIS) and Entropy™ values sometimes show discordant trends during general anaesthesia. Previously, no attempt had been made to discover which EEG characteristics cause discrepancies between BIS and Entropy. We compared BIS and Entropy values, and analysed the changes in the raw EEG signal during surgical anaesthesia with sevoflurane. In this prospective, open-label study, 65 patients receiving general anaesthesia with sevoflurane were enrolled. BIS, Entropy and multichannel digital EEG were recorded. Concurrent BIS and State Entropy (SE) values were selected. Whenever BIS and SE values showed ≥10-unit disagreement for ≥60 s, the raw EEG signal was analysed both in time and frequency domain. A ≥10-unit disagreement ≥60 s was detected 428 times in 51 patients. These 428 episodes accounted for 5158 (11%) out of 45 918 analysed index pairs. During EEG burst suppression, SE was higher than BIS in 35 out of 49 episodes. During delta-theta dominance, BIS was higher than SE in 141 out of 157 episodes. During alpha or beta activity, SE was higher than BIS in all 49 episodes. During electrocautery, both BIS and SE changed, sometimes in the opposite direction, but returned to baseline values after electrocautery. Electromyography caused index disagreement four times (BIS > SE). Certain specific EEG patterns, and artifacts, are associated with discrepancies between BIS and SE. Time and frequency domain analyses of the original EEG improve the interpretation of studies involving BIS, Entropy and other EEG-based indices. NCT01077674. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Renal Resistive Index and mortality in critical patients with acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddi, Maria; Bonizzoli, Manuela; Chiostri, Marco; Begliomini, Dario; Molinaro, Adele; Tadini Buoninsegni, Laura; Gensini, Gian Franco; Peris, Adriano

    2016-03-01

    The predictive role of Doppler Renal Resistive Index (RRI) for mortality was shown in chronic kidney disease. In selected populations of intensive care unit (ICU), RRI predicts acute kidney injury (AKI) occurrence and anticipates persistent AKI. No data are available about mortality. We investigated whether RRI assay at AKI diagnosis could predict AKI mortality in a 10-bed-mixed medical-surgical and trauma ICU of a tertiary referral teaching hospital. The association between RRI and persistent AKI at discharge was investigated. One hundred and twenty-five of 1512 patients admitted from January 2010 to March 2013 who developed AKI during ICU stay were enrolled. Kidney function was evaluated daily according to risk, injury, failure, loss and end-stage criteria. At AKI diagnosis, we measured RRI. The association between RRI at AKI diagnosis and ICU death or persistent AKI at ICU discharge was analysed by multivariable logistic regression analysis. At AKI diagnosis, RRI was 0·77 (0·70-0·88) in survivors and 0·85 in nonsurvivors (0·79-0·94) (P = 0·002). RRI values were significantly associated with ICU death (OR = 1·63-95% CI 1·06-2·49, P = 0·025). A RRI cut-off value of 0·77 was identified by receiver operating characteristic curve. Multivariate analysis selected RRI and abdominal hypertension as strongest predictors of AKI mortality. At AKI diagnosis, RRI was 0·78 (0·70-0·85) or 0·85 (0·73-0·92) (P = 0·026) in patients with or without persistent AKI at discharge. Multivariate analysis selected RRI at AKI diagnosis as the strongest predictor of persistent AKI. High RRI values at AKI diagnosis are strictly and independently associated with in-ICU mortality and persistent AKI at ICU discharge. © 2016 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  9. Combination of intravesical prostatic protrusion and resistive index is useful to predict bladder outlet obstruction in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takahisa; Otsuka, Atsushi; Ozono, Seiichiro

    2016-11-01

    To examine which parameters obtained from transrectal ultrasonography are accurate predictors of urodynamically-confirmed bladder outlet obstruction in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The records of 350 patients with complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia were reviewed. Baseline parameters were international prostate symptom score, quality of life score, postvoid residual urine volume, prostate-specific antigen, and data obtained from uroflowmetry and transrectal ultrasonography. Urodynamic studies were carried out to determine bladder outlet obstruction. Receiver operator characteristic curves were generated to compare the accuracy of the different parameters, and the area under the curve of each parameter was calculated. Bladder outlet obstruction index positively correlated with intravesical prostatic protrusion, total prostate volume, transition zone volume, transition zone index, resistive index and prostate-specific antigen. Further, resistive index was only a significant independent variable with intravesical prostatic protrusion. Intravesical prostatic protrusion had the highest area under the curve of 0.790 among all variables, and its cut-off value was 10 mm. The positive predictive value of intravesical prostatic protrusion was 76.2%. In addition, the positive predictive value of the combined parameters intravesical prostatic protrusion and resistive index increased to 83.8%. Intravesical prostatic protrusion and resistive index are useful parameters for predicting bladder outlet obstruction in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia. In clinical practice, the combination of intravesical prostatic protrusion and resistive index on ultrasound can be diagnostic of bladder outlet obstruction. © 2016 The Japanese Urological Association.

  10. Identification of cutoff points for Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance index in adolescents: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Maria Izabel Siqueira; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Leal, Vanessa Sá; da Lima, Niedja Maria Silva; Costa, Emília Chagas; de Aquino, Nathalia Barbosa; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify cutoff points of the Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index established for adolescents and discuss their applicability for the diagnosis of insulin resistance in Brazilian adolescents. Data source: A systematic review was performed in the PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO databases, using the following descriptors: "adolescents", "insulin resistance" and "Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve". Original articles carried out with adolescents published between 2005 and 2015 in Portuguese, English or Spanish languages, which included the statistical analysis using Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve to determine the index cutoff (HOMA-IR) were included. Data synthesis: A total of 184 articles were identified and after the study phases were applied, seven articles were selected for the review. All selected studies established their cutoffs using a Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve, with the lowest observed cutoff of 1.65 for girls and 1.95 for boys and the highest of 3.82 for girls and 5.22 for boys. Of the studies analyzed, one proposed external validity, recommending the use of the HOMA-IR cutoff>2.5 for both genders. Conclusions: The HOMA-IR index constitutes a reliable method for the detection of insulin resistance in adolescents, as long as it uses cutoffs that are more adequate for the reality of the study population, allowing early diagnosis of insulin resistance and enabling multidisciplinary interventions aiming at health promotion of this population. PMID:26559605

  11. A Methodology to Estimate Ores Work Index Values, Using Miduk Copper Mine Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Noaparast

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is always attempted to reduce the costs of comminution in mineral processing plants. One of thedifficulties in size reduction section is not to be designed properly. The key factor to design size reductionunits such as crushers and grinding mills, is ore’s work index. The work index, wi, presents the oregrindability, and is used in Bond formula to calculate the required energy. Bond has defined a specificrelationship between some parameters which is applied to calculate wi, which are control screen, fineparticles produced, feed and product d80.In this research work, a high grade copper sample from Miduk copper concentrator was prepared, and itswork index values were experimentally estimated, using different control screens, 600, 425, 212, 150, 106and 75 microns. The obtained results from the tests showed two different behaviors in fine production.According to these two trends the required models were then defined to present the fine mass calculationusing control screen. In next step, an equation was presented in order to calculate Miduk copper ore workindex for any size. In addition to verify the model creditability, a test using 300 microns control screenwas performed and its result was compared with calculated ones using defined model, which showed agood fit. Finally the experimental and calculated values were compared and their relative error was equalto 4.11% which is an indication of good fit for the results.

  12. A Soil Service Index: a method for quantifying the value, vulnerability, and status of soil resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, J. W.; Loisel, J.; Hugelius, G.; Sulman, B. N.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Abramoff, R. Z.; Malhotra, A.; Gill, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Soils support ecological and human systems by providing a physical and biogeochemical basis for plant growth, ecological functions, water quality, and water storage, and by providing services and functions needed for economic development, human well-being, and conservation of natural resources. Quantitative evaluation of soil services, however, is inconsistent and poorly communicated, in part because we lack a scientific, unified basis for evaluating soils and their potential for serving our needs. We introduce an index of soil service (SSI) in which multiple services are numerically or quantitatively assessed, normalized to a unit-less scale for purposes of intercomparability, and evaluated for a given site or region. Services include organic matter and/or organic carbon storage; plant productivity; CO2 or GHG exchange with the atmosphere; water storage capacity; and nutrient storage and/or availability. The status of SSI can be evaluated by individual services or by a composite index that combines multiple services. The status can be monitored over time; and key services that are more highly valued for a given soil can be weighted accordingly in comparison to other services. As a first step, existing data for each service are captured from a literature and data review in order to establish the full range of values. A site value establishes the ranking relative to the full range. Key services are weighted according to local values. A final index is the sum of the normalized, weighted products. Metrics can be updated and adapted as new data or services are discovered or recognized. Metrics can be used to compare among sites, regions, or time periods.

  13. Biliary Cast Syndrome: Hepatic Artery Resistance Index, Pathological Changes, Morphology and Endoscopic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biliary cast syndrome (BCS was a postoperative complication of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT, and the reason for BSC was considered to relate with ischemic type biliary lesions. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between BCS following OLT and the hepatic artery resistance index (HARI, and to observe pathological changes and morphology of biliary casts. Methods: Totally, 18 patients were diagnosed with BCS by cholangiography following OLT using choledochoscope or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In addition, 36 patients who did not present with BCS in the corresponding period had detectable postoperative HARI on weeks 1, 2, 3 shown by color Doppler flow imaging. The compositions of biliary casts were analyzed by pathological examination and scanning electron microscopy. Results: HARI values of the BCS group were significantly decreased as compared with the non-BCS group on postoperative weeks 2 and 3 (P 1 (OR = 1.300; 1.223; and 1.889, respectively. The OR of HARI 3 was statistically significant (OR = 1.889; 95% confidence interval = 1.166-7.490; P = 0.024. The compositions of biliary casts were different when bile duct stones were present. Furthermore, vascular epithelial cells were found by pathological examination in biliary casts. Conclusions: HARI may possibly serve as an independent risk factor and early predictive factor of BCS. Components and formation of biliary casts and bile duct stones are different.

  14. Application of DOI index to analysis of selected examples of resistivity imaging models in Quaternary sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazer Michał

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of resistivity cross sections may be in many cases unreliable due to the presence of artifacts left by the inversion process. One way to avoid erroneous conclusions about geological structure is creation of Depth of Investigation (DOI index maps, which describe durability of prepared model with respect to variable parameters of inversion. To assess the usefulness of this interpretation methodology in resistivity imaging method over quaternary sediments, it has been used to one synthetic data set and three investigation sites. Two of the study areas were placed in the Upper Silesian Industrial District region: Bytom - Karb, Chorzów - Chorzow Stary; and one in the Southern Pomeranian Lake District across Piława River Valley. Basing on the available geological information the results show high utility of DOI index in analysis of received resistivity models, on which areas poorly constrained by data has been designated.

  15. [A study on the diagnostic value of tear film objective scatter index in dry eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y D; Liang, Q F; Wang, N L; Antoine, Labbè

    2017-09-11

    Objective: To study the sensitivity and specificity of tear film objective scatter index to the diagnosis dry eye disease (DED). Methods: A prospective case-controlled study. Fifty-three patients with DED and 32 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects were included from July to October 2016. All subjects underwent the examinations sequentially as follows: evaluation of ocular surface disease symptoms using the Ocular Surface Disease Index, optical quality detection, lipid layer thickness, tear film breakup time and SchirmerⅠtest. With Optical Quality Analysis SystemⅡ, the values of modulation transfer function cut off, basic objective scatter index (OSI) and total OSI were measured. To eliminate the influence of other refractive media, the tear film OSI (TF-OSI) was calculated, and the difference in TF-OSI between two groups was analyzed with the independent-samples t test. Spearman's correlation analysis was used to detect the correlation of each parameter in the DED group. With the receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve (AUC), the specificity and sensitivity of TF-OSI and other parameters were described to differentiate DED from normal eyes. Results: In the dry eye group, the value of modulation transfer function cut off (32.07±11.95) was significantly lower than the normal group (39.38±9.44, t=- 3.096, P= 0.003) , and the mean value and dispersion of TF-OSI (0.50±0.43, 0.52±0.81) were higher than the normal group (0.21±0.16, 0.12±0.01) ( t= 4.300, P= 0.000, t= 3.546, P= 0.001) . The mean value of TF-OSI had a positive correlation with lipid layer thickness ( r= 0.365, P= 0.007) and dispersion of TF-OSI ( r= 0.581, P= 0.000), and a negative correlation with MTF cut off ( r=- 0.368, P= 0.007). To the diagnostic value of DED, the mean value of TF-OSI had a sensitivity of 0.736, a specificity of 0.762, and the AUC was 0.764. The dispersion of TF-OSI had a sensitivity of 0.811 and a specificity of 0.810, and the AUC was 0

  16. Mother and Infant Body Mass Index, Breast Milk Leptin and Their Serum Leptin Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Savino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study investigates correlations between mother and infant Body Mass Index (BMI, their serum leptin values and breast milk leptin concentration in early infancy. Subjects and Methods: We determined serum leptin values in 58 healthy infants and leptin values in their mothers’ breast milk, using radioimmunoassay (RIA. Infant and maternal anthropometrics were measured. Results: Median leptin concentration was 3.9 ng/mL (interquartile range (IQR: 2.75 in infant serum, 4.27 ng/mL (IQR: 5.62 in maternal serum and 0.89 ng/mL (IQR: 1.32 in breast milk. Median maternal BMI and weight were 24 kg/m2 (IQR: 4.41 and 64 kg (IQR: 15. Median infant BMI was 15.80 kg/cm2 (IQR: 4.02, while average weight was 5.130 kg (IQR: 1.627. Infants serum leptin values positively correlated with infants’ BMI (p = 0.001; r = 0.213 and breast milk leptin (p = 0.03; r = 0.285. Maternal serum leptin values positively correlated with maternal BMI (p = 0.000, r = 0.449 and breast milk leptin ones (p = 0.026; r = 0.322. Conclusion: Breast milk leptin and maternal BMI could influence infant serum leptin values. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the role of genetics and environment on infant leptin production and risk of obesity later in life.

  17. Relationship of visfatin level to pancreatic endocrine hormone level, HOMA-IR index, and HOMA β-cell index in overweight women who performed hydraulic resistance exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Chang Ho; Swearingin, Brenda; Jeon, Yong Kyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the correlation of visfatin level to pancreatic endocrine hormone level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, and HOMA β-cell index in hydraulic resistance exercise. Furthermore, it investigated the relationship between visfatin level and other variables affected by exercise in overweight women. [Subjects and Methods] The exercise group trained for 12 weeks, 70 minutes/day, 5 days/week. Visfatin level, pancreatic endocrine h...

  18. The value of Integrated Pulmonary Index (IPI) monitoring during endoscopies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garah, Jamal; Adiv, Orly Eshach; Rosen, Irit; Shaoul, Ron

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Pulmonary Index (IPI) is an algorithm included in commercially available monitors that constitutes a representation of 4 parameters: EtCO2, RR, SpO2 and PR. The IPI index has been validated for adults and children older than 1 year of age. In this study we aimed to study the value of IPI monitoring during pediatric endoscopic procedures. Our data consisted of 124 measurements of 109 patients undergoing different procedures (upper endoscopy 84 patients, colonoscopy 6 patients, both 9 patients). The data was divided into 3 groups based on the drug type used: propofol only, 5 patients (group 1); propofol & midazolam, 89 patients (group 2); propofol, midazolam and Fentanyl, 15 patients (group 3). Patients in group 2 and 3 had significantly higher IPI levels than group 1. Significantly lower IPI values were found between ages 4-6 compared to 7-12 years old. High midazolam dose was associated with lower IPI levels during the procedure. No significant differences were found for propofol doses. Patients who had an anesthetist present had lower IPI levels during the procedure compared to those who did not. No differences were noted between the different procedures. IPI alerted all apnea episodes (58 events, IPI = 1) and hypoxia (26 events, IPI ≤ 3) episodes, whereas pulse oximetry captured only the hypoxia episodes (IPI sensitivity = 1, specificity 0.98, positive predictive value 0.95). Younger patient age, use of propofol alone, higher midazolam doses and presence of anesthetist are all associated with lower IPI levels.

  19. HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes in identifying insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloneze, Bruno; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Stabe, Christiane França Camargo; Pareja, José Carlos; Rosado, Lina Enriqueta Frandsen Paez de Lima; Queiroz, Elaine Cristina de; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio

    2009-03-01

    To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 90th percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. In the healthy group, HOMA-IR indexes were associated with central obesity, triglycerides and total cholesterol (p 2.7 and HOMA2-IR > 1.8; and, for MS were: HOMA1-IR > 2.3 (sensitivity: 76.8%; specificity: 66.7%) and HOMA2-IR > 1.4 (sensitivity: 79.2%; specificity: 61.2%). The cut-off values identified for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes have a clinical and epidemiological application for identifying IR and MS in Westernized admixtured multi-ethnic populations.

  20. Random Estimate the values of seed oil of Cucurbita maxima by refractive index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R B

    2010-01-01

    The crude oil having lower iodine and free fatty acids values has Aamdosha properties. These properties are present due to toxic and anti-toxic compounds. These compounds can be harmful for the special diseases and may be unsaturated, saturated, open chain etc. The adulteration can take part as catalytic action for the toxic effect for the special diseases. Toxic properties of oils are removed by different ingrediants and methods. C. maxima seed tail (mst) is used with food and medicine. The present paper deals with the study of oil by refractive index and equations.

  1. Retrospective evaluation of exposure index (EI) values from plain radiographs reveals important considerations for quality improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Robinson, John; Lewis, Sarah J [Medical Imaging Optimisation and Perception Group (MIOPeG), Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Moran, Bernadette [Department of Clinical Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Medical Imaging Optimisation and Perception Group (MIOPeG), Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    Following X-ray exposure, radiographers receive immediate feedback on detector exposure in the form of the exposure index (EI). To identify whether radiographers are meeting manufacturer-recommended EI (MREI) ranges for routine chest, abdomen and pelvis X-ray examinations under a variety of conditions and to examine factors affecting the EI. Data on 5000 adult X-ray examinations including the following variables were collected: examination parameters, EI values, patient gender, date of birth, date and time of examination, grid usage and the presence of implant or prosthesis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize each data set and the Mann–Whitney U test was used to determine significant differences, with P < 0.05 indicating significance for all tests. Most examinations demonstrated EI values that were outside the MREI ranges, with significantly higher median EI values recorded for female patient radiographs than those for male patients for all manufacturers, indicating higher detector exposures for all units except for Philips digital radiography (DR), where increased EI values indicate lower exposure (P = 0.01). Median EI values for out of hours radiography were also significantly higher compared with normal working hours for all technologies (P ≤ 0.02). Significantly higher median EI values were demonstrated for Philips DR chest X-rays without as compared to those with the employment of a grid (P = 0.03), while significantly lower median EI values were recorded for Carestream Health computed radiography (CR) chest X-rays when an implant or prosthesis was present (P = 0.02). Non-adherence to MREIs has been demonstrated with EI value discrepancies being dependent on patient gender, time/day of exposure, grid usage and the presence of an implant or prosthesis. Retrospective evaluation of EI databases is a valuable tool to assess the need of quality improvement in routine DR.

  2. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load values of commonly consumed foods in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dhaheri, Ayesha S; Henry, C Jeyakumar K; Mohamad, Maysm N; Ohuma, Eric O; Ismail, Leila Cheikh; Al Meqbaali, Fatima T; Jarrar, Amjad H

    2017-04-01

    Glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values of some commonly consumed foods in the United Arab Emirates were determined with an aim of adding these values to the existing international table of GI and GL values. In all, eighteen test foods categorised into breads (n 5), entrée dishes (n 3), main dishes (n 5) and sweet dishes (n 5) were tested. For each test food, at least fifteen healthy participants consumed 25 or 50 g available carbohydrate portions of a reference food (glucose), which was tested three times, and a test food after an overnight fast, was tested once, on separate occasions. Capillary blood samples were obtained by finger-prick and blood glucose was measured using clinical chemistry analyser. A fasting blood sample was obtained at baseline and before consumption of test foods. Additional blood samples were obtained at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the consumption of each test food. The GI value of each test food was calculated as the percentage of the incremental area under the blood glucose curve (IAUC) for the test food of each participant divided by the average IAUC for the reference food of the same participant. The GI values of tested foods ranged from low (55 or less) to high (70 or more). The GI values of various breads and rice-containing dishes were comparable with previously published values. This study provides GI and GL values of previously untested traditional Emirati foods which could provide a useful guide on dietary recommendations for the Emirati population.

  3. Retrospective evaluation of exposure index (EI) values from plain radiographs reveals important considerations for quality improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Robinson, John; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Following X-ray exposure, radiographers receive immediate feedback on detector exposure in the form of the exposure index (EI). To identify whether radiographers are meeting manufacturer-recommended EI (MREI) ranges for routine chest, abdomen and pelvis X-ray examinations under a variety of conditions and to examine factors affecting the EI. Data on 5000 adult X-ray examinations including the following variables were collected: examination parameters, EI values, patient gender, date of birth, date and time of examination, grid usage and the presence of implant or prosthesis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize each data set and the Mann–Whitney U test was used to determine significant differences, with P < 0.05 indicating significance for all tests. Most examinations demonstrated EI values that were outside the MREI ranges, with significantly higher median EI values recorded for female patient radiographs than those for male patients for all manufacturers, indicating higher detector exposures for all units except for Philips digital radiography (DR), where increased EI values indicate lower exposure (P = 0.01). Median EI values for out of hours radiography were also significantly higher compared with normal working hours for all technologies (P ≤ 0.02). Significantly higher median EI values were demonstrated for Philips DR chest X-rays without as compared to those with the employment of a grid (P = 0.03), while significantly lower median EI values were recorded for Carestream Health computed radiography (CR) chest X-rays when an implant or prosthesis was present (P = 0.02). Non-adherence to MREIs has been demonstrated with EI value discrepancies being dependent on patient gender, time/day of exposure, grid usage and the presence of an implant or prosthesis. Retrospective evaluation of EI databases is a valuable tool to assess the need of quality improvement in routine DR

  4. Estimating SPT-N Value Based on Soil Resistivity using Hybrid ANN-PSO Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Asmawisham Alel, Mohd; Ruben Anak Upom, Mark; Asnida Abdullah, Rini; Hazreek Zainal Abidin, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Standard Penetration Resistance (N value) is used in many empirical geotechnical engineering formulas. Meanwhile, soil resistivity is a measure of soil’s resistance to electrical flow. For a particular site, usually, only a limited N value data are available. In contrast, resistivity data can be obtained extensively. Moreover, previous studies showed evidence of a correlation between N value and resistivity value. Yet, no existing method is able to interpret resistivity data for estimation of N value. Thus, the aim is to develop a method for estimating N-value using resistivity data. This study proposes a hybrid Artificial Neural Network-Particle Swarm Optimization (ANN-PSO) method to estimate N value using resistivity data. Five different ANN-PSO models based on five boreholes were developed and analyzed. The performance metrics used were the coefficient of determination, R2 and mean absolute error, MAE. Analysis of result found that this method can estimate N value (R2 best=0.85 and MAEbest=0.54) given that the constraint, Δ {\\bar{l}}ref, is satisfied. The results suggest that ANN-PSO method can be used to estimate N value with good accuracy.

  5. Student Resistance Culture against School Values: An Ethnographic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakul, Aygülen Kayahan

    2016-01-01

    Schools operating within capitalism reproduce class differences, and aim to graduate students who comply with the capitalist system. On the other hand, according to the principles of dialectical materialism, while schools aim to produce obedience, they also produce resistance to themselves at the same time. Working class children sometimes refuse…

  6. Methodology for adding and amending glycaemic index values to a nutrition analysis package.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Levis, Sharon P

    2011-04-01

    Since its introduction in 1981, the glycaemic index (GI) has been a useful tool for classifying the glycaemic effects of carbohydrate foods. Consumption of a low-GI diet has been associated with a reduced risk of developing CVD, diabetes mellitus and certain cancers. WISP (Tinuviel Software, Llanfechell, Anglesey, UK) is a nutrition software package used for the analysis of food intake records and 24 h recalls. Within its database, WISP contains the GI values of foods based on the International Tables 2002. The aim of the present study is to describe in detail a methodology for adding and amending GI values to the WISP database in a clinical or research setting, using data from the updated International Tables 2008.

  7. Comparative study on resistant starch, amilose content and glycaemic index after precooked process in white rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, V. N.

    2018-03-01

    Rice is a staple food and regarded as a useful carbohydrate source. In general rice is high in glycaemic index (GI) and low colonic fermentation. People are aware of the alterations in blood glucose levels or glycaemic index after consuming rice. Resistant starch (RS) and amylose content play an important role in controlling GI. GI and RS content have been established as important indicators of starch digestibility. The aim of this study was to determine the precooked process with hydrothermal (boiling at 80°C, 10 minutes) and cooling process with low temperature (4°C, 1 h) to increase potential content of RS and decrease of glycaemic index of white rice. There were two stages of this research, 1) preparation of white rice with precooked process; 2) analysis of precooked white rice characteristics (resistant starch, amylose content, and estimated glycaemic index). The result of analysis on precooked white rice showed an increased RS content (1.11%) and white rice (0.99%), but the difference was not statistically significant. The amylose content increased significantly after precooked process in white rice (24.70%) compared with white rice (20.89%). Estimated glycaemic index (EGI) decreased after precooked proses (65.63%) but not significant as compared to white rice (66.47%). From the present study it was concluded that precooked process had no significant impact on increasing RS and decreasing EGI of white rice. This may be due to the relatively short cooling time (1hour) in 4°C.

  8. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, fiber, simple sugars, and insulin resistance - The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Cathrine; Pedersen, Oluf; Færch, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index daily glycemic, load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The inter99 study is a nonpharmacolo......OBJECTIVE - To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index daily glycemic, load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The inter99 study...... is a nonpharmacological intervention study. We used baseline data and examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate-related dietary factors and an estimate of insulin resistance in 5,675 subjects at 30 - 60 years. The dietary intake was estimated from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire......, and insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Multiple regressions were performed with HOMA-IR as the dependent variable and carbohydrate-related factors as explanatory variables. All models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity...

  9. Insulin resistance in adult primary care patients with a surrogate index, Guadalajara, Mexico, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Bermúdez, María Claudia; Robles-Cervantes, José Antonio; del Sagrario Villarreal-Hernández, Liliana; Villaseñor-Romero, Juan Pablo; Hernández-González, Sandra Ofelia; González-Ortiz, Manuel; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; Pérez-Rubio, Karina Griselda

    2015-02-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a key molecular disorder related with diabetes mellitus, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine IR in adult primary care patients using the triglyceride/glucose (TyG) index [(Ln TG (mg/dL) × FG (mg/dL))/2]. We conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis and identified IR subjects according to the TyG index. There were 1500 patients included. Significant differences were found between the IR group versus the insulin-sensitive group, respectively: age (in years), 46.4 ± 9.34 versus 40.24 ± 11.27 (P primary health care.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF INSULIN RESISTANCE INDEX (HOMA-IR) AND LIPID PROFILE AMONG SUDANESE WOMEN WITH GALLSTONES.

    OpenAIRE

    Nisreen Abdalmuty Abdalrahman; Amar Mohamed Ismail.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and lipid profile level in Sudanese gallstones (GSs) patients and their association with study variables. In case control study 80 clinically diagnosed GSs patients were recruited, and 80 apparently health age matched women as control group. Fasting insulin, glucose and lipid profile (TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C) were measured using TOSOH-311? and Mindray-380? analyzers. IR-index was calculated using HOMA-IR formula. Obese pos...

  11. A service-oriented approach to assessing the infrastructure value index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, R; Alegre, H; Matos, J S

    Many national and regional administrations are currently facing challenges to ensure long-term sustainability of urban water services, as infrastructures continue to accumulate alarming levels of deferred maintenance and rehabilitation. The infrastructure value index (IVI) has proven to be an effective tool to support long-term planning, in particular by facilitating the ability to communicate and to create awareness. It is given by the ratio between current value of an infrastructure and its replacement cost. Current value is commonly estimated according to an asset-oriented approach, which is based on the concept of useful life of individual components. The standard values assumed for the useful lives can vary significantly, which leads to valuations that are just as different. Furthermore, with water companies increasingly focused on the customer, effective service-centric asset management is essential now more than ever. This paper shows results of on-going research work, which aims to explore a service-oriented approach for assessing the IVI. The paper presents the fundamentals underlying this approach, discusses and compares results obtained from both perspectives and points to challenges that still need to be addressed.

  12. The normative score and the cut-off value of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonosu, Juichi; Takeshita, Katsushi; Hara, Nobuhiro; Matsudaira, Ko; Kato, So; Masuda, Kazuhiro; Chikuda, Hirotaka

    2012-08-01

    The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of the most common scoring systems used for patients with low back pain (LBP). Although the normative score of the ODI was reported to be 10.19 in a review article, no study has calculated the normative score after adjusting the value based on the age distribution. In addition, none of the previous studies has estimated the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. The purpose of this study was to estimate the normative score by adjusting the data for age distribution in Japan, and to determine the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. We conducted an internet survey on LBP using the Japanese version of the ODQ. A total of 1,200 respondents, composed of 100 males and 100 females in each age group (from the 20s to 70s), participated in this study. We also asked them to provide information about their backgrounds. We estimated the normative score after correcting for the age distribution of Japan. We also estimated the ODI of those with or without disability, the factors associated with the ODI, and the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. The participants' backgrounds were similar to the national survey. The normative score of the ODI was estimated at 8.73. The ODI of the LBP with disability group was 22.07. Those with sciatica and obese subjects showed higher ODI than those without. The optimal cut-off value was estimated to be 12. We defined the normative score and the cut-off value of the ODI.

  13. Doppler ultrasound velocities and resistive indexes immediately after pediatric liver transplantation: normal ranges and predictors of failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Lucy H; Arys, Bo; Low, Gavin; Bhargava, Ravi; Kumbla, Surekha; Jaremko, Jacob L

    2014-07-01

    We sought to determine the ranges of Doppler ultrasound findings immediately after pediatric liver transplantation that are associated with successful outcomes or postoperative complications. This study included consecutive children who underwent Doppler ultrasound less than 48 hours after liver transplantation from 2001 to 2011. Operative reports and clinical outcome data were recorded. We had 110 patients (54% girls) with mean age at transplantation of 2.9 years (median, 1.3 years; range, 0-14 years) and a median follow-up interval of 3.5 years. Two pediatric radiologists reviewed ultrasound images in consensus. We computed descriptive statistics, interindex correlations, and analysis of variance. Twenty-four of 110 patients had a vascular complication, most commonly hepatic arterial thrombosis (seven patients). Compared with published adult normal values, normal pediatric Doppler parameters at postoperative day 1 trended toward higher normal velocities and resistive indexes (up to 0.95). Absent or low-velocity common hepatic artery flow less than 50 cm/s or a common hepatic artery resistive index less than 0.50 were significantly associated with hepatic artery thrombosis, whereas absent or low-velocity portal venous flow less than 30 cm/s or low-velocity hepatic venous flow less than 25 cm/s were significantly associated with vascular complications and a monotonic hepatic venous waveform was significantly associated with venous complications. Flow in a pediatric liver on the first day after transplantation is normally hyperdynamic, especially in the youngest transplant recipients, and, as a result, low velocities or resistive indexes are particularly concerning for complications. The pediatric-specific ranges of expected posttransplantation Doppler ultrasound findings presented in this article should assist in identifying normal variation and potentially life-threatening complications.

  14. [Value of the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index in predicting mortality of elderly patients undergoing hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuran; Zhang, Zheng; Yu, Qing; Yuan, Weijie

    2015-12-08

    To explore the reliability of the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) as a mortality predictor in elderly patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). A total of 125 maintenance HD patients aged >60 years old who had received dialysis for over 6 months before entry was retrospectively examined. The values of GNRI were calculated, and death was taken as the end point. The patients were divided into 4 groups according to the quartiles of GNRI values. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality were calculated using Kaplan-Meier and cox proportional-hazards analyses, and ROC curve was adopted for analyzing the predicting value of GNRI on mortality. The GNRI of the four groups were ≤92.06, 92.07-96.15, 96.16-101.25, ≥101.26, respectively. Kaplan-Meier survival rate was significantly different among 4 groups for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Cox regression model analysis demonstrated that the GNRI was a predictor for all cause (HR=0.940, P=0.001, 95%CI: 0.907-0.974) and cardiovascular mortality (HR=0.906, Pmaintainance HD patients, but more multi-center studies with larger samples are still needed.

  15. The cutoff values of indirect indices for measuring insulin resistance for metabolic syndrome in Korean children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Woo Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome (MetS and percentile distribution of insulin resistance (IR among Korean children and adolescents were investigated. The cutoff values of IR were calculated to identify high-risk MetS groups.MethodsData from 3,313 Korean subjects (1,756 boys and 1,557 girls, aged 10–18 years were included from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted during 2007–2010. Three different sets of criteria for MetS were used. Indirect measures of IR were homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and triglyceride and glucose (TyG index. The cutoff values of the HOMA-IR and TyG index were obtained from the receiver operation characteristic curves.ResultsAccording to the MetS criteria of de Ferranti el al., Cook et al., and the International Diabetes Federation, the prevalence rates in males and females were 13.9% and 12.3%, 4.6% and 3.6%, and 1.4% and 1.8%, respectively. Uses these 3 criteria, the cutoff values of the HOMA-IR and TyG index were 2.94 and 8.41, 3.29 and 8.38, and 3.54 and 8.66, respectively. The cutoff values using each of the 3 criteria approximately corresponds to the 50th–75th, 75th, and 75th–90th percentiles of normal HOMA-IR and TyG index levels.ConclusionThis study describes the prevalence rates of MetS in Korean children and adolescents, an index of IR, and the cutoff values for MetS with the aim of detecting high-risk groups. The usefulness of these criteria needs to be verified by further evaluation.

  16. 30 CFR 206.174 - How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas production when an index-based method cannot be used? (a) Situations in which an index-based method cannot be used. (1) Gas production must be valued under this section in the following situations... production using the first applicable method of the following three methods: (1) The gross proceeds accruing...

  17. Postprandial lipid responses to standard carbohydrates used to determine glycaemic index values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-López, Sonia; Ausman, Lynne M; Matthan, Nirupa R; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2013-11-01

    Prior studies assessing the metabolic effects of different types of carbohydrates have focused on their glycaemic response. However, the response of postprandial cardiometabolic risk indicators has not been considered in these studies. The present study assessed postprandial lipid responses to two forms of carbohydrates used as reference foods for glycaemic index determinations, white bread (50 g available carbohydrate) and glucose (50 g), under controlled conditions and with intra-individual replicate determinations. A total of twenty adults (20–70 years) underwent two cycles of challenges with each pair of reference foods (four challenges/person), administered in a random order on separate days under standard conditions. Serum lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and NEFA), glucose and insulin were monitored for 5 h post-ingestion. Oral glucose resulted in greater glycaemic and insulinaemic responses than white bread for the first 90 min and a greater subsequent decline after 120 min (P =0·0001). The initial decline in serum NEFA concentrations was greater after the oral glucose than after the white bread challenge, as was the rebound after 150 min (P = 0·001). Nevertheless, the type of carbohydrate had no significant effect on postprandial total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Following an initial modest rise in TAG concentrations in response to both challenges, the values dropped below the fasting values for oral glucose but not for the white bread challenge. These data suggest that the type of carbohydrate used to determine the glycaemic index, bread or glucose, has little or modest effects on postprandial plasma cholesterol concentrations. Differences in TAG and NEFA concentrations over the 5 h time period were modest, and their clinical relevance is unclear.

  18. Multiple-output support vector regression with a firefly algorithm for interval-valued stock price index forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Tao; Bao, Yukun; Hu, Zhongyi

    2014-01-01

    Highly accurate interval forecasting of a stock price index is fundamental to successfully making a profit when making investment decisions, by providing a range of values rather than a point estimate. In this study, we investigate the possibility of forecasting an interval-valued stock price index series over short and long horizons using multi-output support vector regression (MSVR). Furthermore, this study proposes a firefly algorithm (FA)-based approach, built on the established MSVR, for...

  19. Body composition using deuterated water, index of insulin resistance and cortisol levels in Costa Rican school in the metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde Vindas, Allan Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Body composition in the Costa Rican child population is evaluated and analyzed to determine the relationship with the index of insulin resistance and serum cortisol levels. 113 children in the metropolitan area were studied using deuterium isotope techniques as reference method for overweight and obesity. Morning cortisol levels were determined by immunoassay techniques (ELISA). The insulin resistance index of 113 Costa Rican boys and girls is obtained by the homeostatic method and the relationship between body composition with index of insulin resistance or levels of cortisol [es

  20. Part II: Should the h-index be modified? An analysis of the m-quotient, contemporary h-index, authorship value, and impact factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nickalus R; Thompson, Clinton J; Taylor, Douglas R; Gabrick, Kyle S; Choudhri, Asim F; Boop, Frederick R; Klimo, Paul

    2013-12-01

    The widely accepted h-index depends on the citation analysis source and does not consider the authorship position, the journal's impact factor (IF), or the age of the paper or author. We investigated these factors in citation statistics of academic neurosurgeons. An uncorrected h-index and the m-quotient, which corrects for career length, were calculated by the use of Scopus and Google Scholar. In a subset of neurosurgeons, we computed the contemporary h-index (hc), which accounts for the age of the publications; the authorship value (AV), weighted by author position; and the journal IF. An "overall' average for AV and IF including most of an author's publications and an average for publications comprising the h-index ("h-index core") were calculated. When we used Google Scholar, the mean h-index was significantly greater than that calculated when we used Scopus (P = 0.0030). m-quotient and hc-index increased with academic rank, with an m-quotient >1 achieved by 69% of chairmen and 48% of professors. The effect of AV was greatest on the greater h-indices. The average IF for the h-index core was greater than the overall IF, which did not correlate with academic rank. Few neurosurgeons consistently publish in high-impact journals. Google Scholar tends to inflate the h-index. The m-quotient and hc-index allow comparisons of researchers across time. Although average journal IF did not differ significantly among neurosurgeons academic ranks, it should be noted for individuals who consistently publish in high-impact journals. We recommend the creation of individual bibliometric profiles to better compare the academic productivity of neurosurgeons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing the Added Value of Dynamical Downscaling Using the Standardized Precipitation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared H. Bowden

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI is used to ascertain the added value of dynamical downscaling over the contiguous United States. WRF is used as a regional climate model (RCM to dynamically downscale reanalysis fields to compare values of SPI over drought timescales that have implications for agriculture and water resources planning. The regional climate generated by WRF has the largest improvement over reanalysis for SPI correlation with observations as the drought timescale increases. This suggests that dynamically downscaled fields may be more reliable than larger-scale fields for water resource applications (e.g., water storage within reservoirs. WRF improves the timing and intensity of moderate to extreme wet and dry periods, even in regions with homogenous terrain. This study also examines changes in SPI from the extreme drought of 1988 and three “drought busting” tropical storms. Each of those events illustrates the importance of using downscaling to resolve the spatial extent of droughts. The analysis of the “drought busting” tropical storms demonstrates that while the impact of these storms on ending prolonged droughts is improved by the RCM relative to the reanalysis, it remains underestimated. These results illustrate the importance and some limitations of using RCMs to project drought.

  2. Prognostic Value of Ki-67 Labeling Index and Postoperative Radiotherapy in WHO Grade II Meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunseon; Lim, Do Hoon; Yu, Jeong Il; Jo, Kyungil; Nam, Do-Hyun; Seol, Ho Jun; Lee, Jung-Il; Kong, Doo-Sik; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Nam, Heerim

    2018-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the clinical significance of the Ki-67 labeling index (LI) for local control (LC) in patients with World Health Organization (WHO) grade II meningioma. We also tried to discern the effect of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) on LC depending upon the Ki-67 LI value. The medical records and values of Ki-67 LIs were retrospectively reviewed for 50 patients who underwent surgical resection of intracranial WHO grade II meningiomas at Samsung Medical Center from May 2001 to December 2012. Forty-three patients (86%) were treated with immediate PORT. The median total radiation dose was 60 Gy (range, 54 to 60 Gy). The median follow-up was 47.4 months. The mean Ki-67 LI was 13% (range, 1% to 47%). Twelve patients (24.0%) showed local failure, and 8 patients (16.0%) experienced local failure even after PORT. The mean Ki-67 LI was 15% in patients with local failure (n=12) and 12% in patients without local failure (n=38). The 3-year actuarial LC was 80.5%. The 3-year overall survival was 89.5%. Ki-67 LI>13% and PORT were significant prognostic factors for LC (P=0.015 and 0.009, respectively). In patients with Ki-67 LI>13% (n=17), PORT (n=14) improved LC (P13%, PORT should be recommended to improve LC.

  3. Polyhydramnios - frequency of congenital anomalies in relation to the value of the amniotic fluid index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornacki, Jakub; Adamczyk, Magdalena; Wirstlein, Przemysław; Osiński, Maciej; Wender-Ożegowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The aims of our study were to assess the correlation between the amniotic fluid index (AFI) value and the frequency and type of fetal anomalies. The material included 94 patients at the third trimester of pregnancy, 60 with mild polyhydramnios, 19 with moderate one, and 15 with severe one. Polyhydramnios was diagnosed if AFI was > 24 cm. All patients were divided into three groups based on the value of AFI: 1) mild polyhydramnios with AFI between 24.1 and 29.9 cm, 2) moderate polyhydramnios with AFI between 30-34.9 cm, and 3) severe polyhydramnios with AFI ≥ 35 cm. The incidence of fetal malformations correlated significantly with the degree of polyhydramnios and was the highest in patients with severe polyhydramnios (53.3%, p = 0.002). Congenital malformations of the gastrointestinal tract were the most frequent fetal anomalies in the whole group of patients (5.3%). Trisomy 18 was the most frequent aneuploidy found in women with polyhydramnios (2.1%). The incidence of fetal congenital anomalies significantly increases with the degree of polyhydramnios, being most frequent in severe one and rather rare in a mild one. Congenital malformations of the gastrointestinal tract were the most frequent anomalies in patients with polyhy-dramnios, especially in women with severe polyhydramnios.

  4. Joint spatiotemporal variability of global sea surface temperatures and global Palmer drought severity index values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apipattanavis, S.; McCabe, G.J.; Rajagopalan, B.; Gangopadhyay, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominant modes of individual and joint variability in global sea surface temperatures (SST) and global Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) values for the twentieth century are identified through a multivariate frequency domain singular value decomposition. This analysis indicates that a secular trend and variability related to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are the dominant modes of variance shared among the global datasets. For the SST data the secular trend corresponds to a positive trend in Indian Ocean and South Atlantic SSTs, and a negative trend in North Pacific and North Atlantic SSTs. The ENSO reconstruction shows a strong signal in the tropical Pacific, North Pacific, and Indian Ocean regions. For the PDSI data, the secular trend reconstruction shows high amplitudes over central Africa including the Sahel, whereas the regions with strong ENSO amplitudes in PDSI are the southwestern and northwestern United States, South Africa, northeastern Brazil, central Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Australia. An additional significant frequency, multidecadal variability, is identified for the Northern Hemisphere. This multidecadal frequency appears to be related to the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). The multidecadal frequency is statistically significant in the Northern Hemisphere SST data, but is statistically nonsignificant in the PDSI data.

  5. The Prognostic Value of the Work Ability Index for Sickness Absence among Office Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin G Reeuwijk

    Full Text Available The work ability index (WAI is a frequently used tool in occupational health to identify workers at risk for a reduced work performance and for work-related disability. However, information about the prognostic value of the WAI to identify workers at risk for sickness absence is scarce.To investigate the prognostic value of the WAI for sickness absence, and whether the discriminative ability differs across demographic subgroups.At baseline, the WAI (score 7-49 was assessed among 1,331 office workers from a Dutch financial service company. Sickness absence was registered during 12-months follow-up and categorised as 0 days, 0index (ORC. Test characteristics were determined for dichotomised outcomes. Additional analyses were performed for separate WAI dimensions, and subgroup analyses for demographic groups.A lower WAI was associated with sickness absence (≥15 days vs. 0 days: per point lower WAI score OR=1.27; 95%CI 1.21-1.33. The WAI showed reasonable ability to discriminate between categories of sickness absence (ORC=0.65; 95%CI 0.63-0.68. Highest discrimination was found for comparing workers with ≥15 sick days with 0 sick days (AUC=0.77 or with 1-5 sick days (AUC=0.69. At the cut-off for poor work ability (WAI≤27 the sensitivity to identify workers at risk for ≥15 sick days was 7.5%, the specificity 99.6%, and the positive predictive value 82%. The performance was similar across demographic subgroups.The WAI could be used to identify workers at high risk for prolonged sickness absence. However, due to low sensitivity many workers will be missed. Hence, additional factors are required to better identify workers at highest risk.

  6. Increased renal resistive index in type 2 diabetes: Clinical relevance, mechanisms and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Elsurer, Rengin

    Type 2 diabetes is a global health challenge. In type 2 diabetes both microvascular (nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy) and macrovascular complications arise. In kidney, renal pathological changes leading to diabetic nephropathy are mainly secondary to atherosclerosis of the intra and extra renal arteries together with microangiopathy of the glomerular capillaries, afferent arterioles and efferent arterioles. Renal resistive index (RRI) is defined as a ratio of the difference between maximum and minimum (end-diastolic) flow velocity to maximum flow velocity derived from the Doppler measurements of main renal and intrarenal (segmental/interlobar) arteries. Renal resistive index is tightly related to renal arteriolosclerosis, and represents an integrated index of arterial compliance, pulsatility and downstream microvascular impedance. In meantime, growing suggest that RRI has also been closely related with atherosclerosis. Most studies performed in type 2 diabetes showed RRI is increased in type 2 diabetes. In this review, we summarize the data regarding RRI with regard to performed studies, pathogenesis and prognosis, especially focusing on type 2 diabetes (T2D). We also review the data regarding the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and RRI. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Invasive assessment of coronary microvascular dysfunction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the index of microvascular resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutiérrez-Barrios, Alejandro, E-mail: aleklos@hotmail.com [Cardiology Department, Jerez Hospital, Jerez (Spain); Camacho-Jurado, Francisco [Cardiology Department, Punta Europa Hospital, Algeciras (Spain); Díaz-Retamino, Enrique; Gamaza-Chulián, Sergio; Agarrado-Luna, Antonio; Oneto-Otero, Jesús; Del Rio-Lechuga, Ana; Benezet-Mazuecos, Javier [Cardiology Department, Jerez Hospital, Jerez (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Summary: We present a review of microvascular dysfunction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and an interesting case of a symptomatic familial HCM patient with inducible ischemia by single photon emission computed tomography. Coronary angiography revealed normal epicardial arteries. Pressure wire measurements of fractional flow reserve (FFR), coronary flow reserve (CFR) and index of microvascular resistance (IMR) demonstrated a significant microcirculatory dysfunction. This is the first such case that documents this abnormality invasively using the IMR. The measurement of IMR, a novel marker of microcirculatory dysfunction, provides novel insights into the pathophysiology of this condition. - Highlights: • Microvascular dysfunction is a common feature in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and represents a strong predictor of unfavorable outcome and cardiovascular mortality. • The index of microvascular resistance (IMR) is a new method for invasively assessing the state of the coronary microcirculation using a single pressure-temperature sensor-tipped coronary wire. • However assessment of IMR in HCM has not been previously reported. We report a case in which microvascular dysfunction is assessed by IMR. This index may be useful in future researches of HCM.

  8. 1-D DC Resistivity Inversion Using Singular Value Decomposition and Levenberg-Marquardt’s Inversion Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Heriyanto, Mohammad; Srigutomo, Wahyu

    2017-01-01

    Exploration of natural or energy resources requires geophysical survey to determine the subsurface structure, such as DC resistivity method. In this research, field and synthetic data were used using Schlumberger configuration. One-dimensional (1-D) DC resistivity inversion was carried out using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) techniques to obtain layered resistivity structure. We have developed software to perform both inversion met...

  9. Afkapwaarden van de 'body-mass index' (BMI) voor ondergewicht van Nederlandse kinderen [Body-mass index cut-off values for underweight in Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To determine the cut-off values for the body-mass index (BMI) for underweight and serious underweight in children up to 18 years of age based on the Dutch growth standards of 1980, and to determine the prevalence of underweight and serious underweight in the 1997 Dutch growth-study

  10. Reference values of bone stiffness index and C-terminal telopeptide in healthy European children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, D; Intemann, T; Lauria, F; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Sioen, I; Tornaritis, M; Veidebaum, T; Pigeot, I; Ahrens, W

    2014-09-01

    Quantitative ultrasound measurements and bone metabolic markers can help to monitor bone health and to detect impaired skeletal development. Population-based reference values for children may serve as a basis for preventive measures to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures in later life. This is the first paper providing age-, sex- and height-specific reference values for bone stiffness index (SI) and serum carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) in healthy, apparently prepubertal children. In the population-based IDEFICS baseline survey (2007-2008) and follow-up (2009-2010), 18,745 children from eight European countries were newly recruited. A total of 10,791 2-10.9-year-old and 1646 3-8.9-year-old healthy children provided data on SI of the right and left calcaneus and serum CTX, respectively. Furthermore, height and weight were measured. Percentile curves were calculated using the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to model the distribution of SI and CTX depending on multiple covariates while accounting for dispersion, skewness, and the kurtosis of this distribution. SI was negatively associated with age and height in children aged 2-5 years, whereas a positive association was observed in children aged 6-10 years. The dip in SI occurred at older age for higher SI percentiles and was observed earlier in taller children than in smaller children. The CTX reference curves showed a linear-positive association with age and height. No major sex differences were observed for the SI and CTX reference values. These reference data lay the ground to evaluate bone growth and metabolism in prepubertal children in epidemiological and clinical settings. They may also inform clinical practice to monitor skeletal development and to assess adverse drug reactions during medical treatments.

  11. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  12. Assessment value of quantitative indexes of pancreatic CT perfusion scanning for malignant degree of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Xia Lei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the assessment value of the quantitative indexes of pancreatic CT perfusion scanning for malignant degree of pancreatic cancer. Methods: A total of 58 patients with space-occupying pancreatic lesions were divided into 20 patients with pancreatic cancer and 38 patients with benign pancreatic lesions after pancreatic CT perfusion. Patients with pancreatic cancer received palliative surgery, and the cancer tissue and para-carcinoma tissue specimens were collected during operation. The differences in pancreatic CT perfusion scanning parameter values and serum tumor marker levels were compared between patients with pancreatic cancer and patients with benign pancreatic lesions, mRNA expression levels of malignant molecules in pancreatic cancer tissue and para-carcinoma tissue were further determined, and the correlation between pancreatic CT perfusion scanning parameter values and malignant degree of pancreatic cancer was analyzed. Results: CT perfusion scanning BF, BV and Per values of patients with pancreatic cancer were lower than those of patients with benign pancreatic lesions; serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 levels were higher than those of patients with benign pancreatic lesions (P<0.05; mRNA expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin in pancreatic cancer tissue samples were higher than those in paracarcinoma tissue samples, and mRNA expression levels of P53 and Bax were lower than those in para-carcinoma tissue samples (P<0.05; CT perfusion scanning parameters BF, BV and Per values of patients with pancreatic cancer were negatively correlated with CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 levels in serum as well as mRNA expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin in pancreatic cancer tissue, and positively correlated with mRNA expression levels of P53 and Bax in pancreatic cancer tissue (P<0.05. Conclusions: Pancreatic CT perfusion scanning is a reliable way to judge the malignant degree of pancreatic cancer and plays a

  13. The predictive value of renal vascular resistance for late renal allograft loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, APJ; van Son, WJ; van der Heide, JJH; Ploeg, RJ; Navis, G; de Jong, PE; Gans, ROB; Bakker, SJL; Gansevoort, RT

    The renal artery resistance index (RI), assessed by Doppler ultrasonography, was recently identified as a new risk marker for late renal allograft loss. This finding requires confirmation since RI in that study was not measured at predetermined time points and ultrasonography is operator-dependent.

  14. The predictive value of renal vascular resistance for late renal allograft loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A. P. J.; van Son, W. J.; Homan van der Heide, J. J.; Ploeg, R. J.; Navis, G.; de Jong, P. E.; Gans, R. O. B.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2006-01-01

    The renal artery resistance index (RI), assessed by Doppler ultrasonography, was recently identified as a new risk marker for late renal allograft loss. This finding requires confirmation since RI in that study was not measured at predetermined time points and ultrasonography is operator-dependent.

  15. Fasting Ghrelin Levels Are Decreased in Obese Subjects and Are Significantly Related With Insulin Resistance and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Obese subjects have low fasting ghrelin levels that they are significantly related to insulin resistance and body mass index. More prospective studies are needed to establish the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.

  16. Value of Resistive lndex of the lntrascrotal Artery in ScrotaI Inflammatory Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Won Hee; Yoon, Yeo Dong; Hwang, Sung Su; Choi, Byung Gil; Son, Kyung Myung; Lee, Sung Yong; Kim, Ki Tae; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1995-01-01

    This prospective study was designed to investigate the utility of resistive indices(RIs) of intratesticular and epididymal arteries in inflammatory scrotal disease. Gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasonographic images were obtained in 19 consecutive patients of scrotal inflammatory disease from Nov.1993 to Oct. 1994. Eleven cases of epididymitis and 11 of epididymoorchitis(EO) were included. RIs of epididymal and centripetal arteries were calculated in 19 patients and 30 cases of control. All EO and epididymitis cases showed increased color signal at color Doppler ultrasonogram at representative sites. Mean RI of centripetal artery was 0.46±0.06 in EO and 0.66±0.07 in normal control, hence RI in EO was significantly lower than that of normal control(P<0.001). The diagnostic sensitivity was 91% when the value of 0.5 or less is estimated abnormal.Mean RI of centripetal artery was 0.67±0.07 in epididymitis, and was not significantly different from that of normal control(P=0.687). Mean RI of epididymal artery in epididymitis and EO was 0.48±0.12 and resistive index of all patients were below 0.7. Color Doppler can demonstrate the hyperemic response to scrotal inflammatory disease that it can supplement the gray scale finding leading to increased diagnostic confidence. RI of centripetal artery may be confirmative in the diagnosis of inflammatory scrotal inflammatory scrotal diseases when increased color flow on color flow imaging is present

  17. Values, inter-attitudinal structure, and attitude change: value accessibility can increase a related attitude's resistance to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A

    2015-12-01

    Accessibility is one of the most basic structural properties of an attitude and an important factor to consider in attitude strength. Despite its importance, relatively little work has examined the role of attitude accessibility in an inter-attitudinal context, particularly as it relates to the strength of related attitudes in the network. The present research examines accessibility as a property of one attitude (toward an abstract goal or end-state, that is, a value) that might influence the strength of a different but related attitude (toward a social policy conceptually related to the value). In Study 1, a highly accessible evaluative component of a value increased resistance to change of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a social policy related to that value. Similarly, a manipulation of value accessibility (Studies 2 and 3) led to increased resistance of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a social policy related to that value. Implications for the role of accessibility in inter-attitudinal strength are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. Prognostic value of brachioradialis muscle oxygen saturation index and vascular occlusion test in septic shock patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Corral, J; Claverias, L; Bodí, M; Pascual, S; Dubin, A; Gea, J; Rodriguez, A

    2016-05-01

    To compare rSO2 (muscle oxygen saturation index) static and dynamic variables obtained by NIRS (Near Infrared Spectroscopy) in brachioradialis muscle of septic shock patients and its prognostic implications. Prospective and observational study. Intensive care unit. Septic shock patients and healthy volunteers. The probe of a NIRS device (INVOS 5100) was placed on the brachioradialis muscle during a vascular occlusion test (VOT). Baseline, minimum and maximum rSO2 values, deoxygenation rate (DeOx), reoxygenation slope (ReOx) and delta value. Septic shock patients (n=35) had lower baseline rSO2 (63.8±12.2 vs. 69.3±3.3%, p<0.05), slower DeOx (-0.54±0.31 vs. -0.91±0.35%/s, p=0.001), slower ReOx (2.67±2.17 vs. 9.46±3.5%/s, p<0.001) and lower delta (3.25±5.71 vs. 15.1±3.9%, p<0.001) when compared to healthy subjects (n=20). Among septic shock patients, non-survivors showed lower baseline rSO2 (57.0±9.6 vs. 69.8±11.3%, p=0.001), lower minimum rSO2 (36.0±12.8 vs. 51.3±14.8%, p<0.01) and lower maximum rSO2 values (60.6±10.6 vs. 73.3±11.2%, p<0.01). Baseline rSO2 was a good mortality predictor (AUC 0.79; 95%CI: 0.63-0.94, p<0.01). Dynamic parameters obtained with VOT did not improve the results. Septic shock patients present an important alteration of microcirculation that can be evaluated by NIRS with prognostic implications. Monitoring microvascular reactivity in the brachioradialis muscle using VOT with our device does not seem to improve the prognostic value of baseline rSO2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  19. Waist-to-height ratio: an accurate anthropometric index of abdominal adiposity and a predictor of high HOMA-IR values in nondialyzed chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Inês Barreto; Lemos, Carla Cavalheiro da Silva; Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Bregman, Rachel

    2014-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance (IR), mainly when associated with obesity and characterized by high abdominal adiposity (AbAd). Anthropometric measures are recommended for assessing AbAd in clinical settings, but their accuracies need to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision of different anthropometric measures of AbAd in patients with CKD. We also sought to determine the AbAd association with high homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values and the cutoff point for AbAd index to predict high HOMA-IR values. A subset of clinically stable nondialyzed patients with CKD followed at a multidisciplinary outpatient clinic was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The accuracy of the following anthropometric indices: waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, conicity index and waist-to-height ratio (WheiR) to assess AbAd, was evaluated using trunk fat, by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), as a reference method. HOMA-IR was estimated to stratify patients in high and low HOMA-IR groups. The total area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC-ROC; sensitivity/specificity) was calculated: AbAd with high HOMA-IR values (95% confidence interval [CI]). We studied 134 patients (55% males; 54% overweight/obese, body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2), age 64.9 ± 12.5 y, estimated glomerular filtration rate 29.0 ± 12.7 mL/min). Among studied AbAd indices, WheiR was the only one to show correlation with DXA trunk fat after adjusting for confounders (P HOMA-IR values (r = 0.47; P HOMA-IR values was 0.55 (AUC-ROC = 0.69 ± 0.05; 95% CI, 0.60-0.77; sensitivity/specificity, 68.9/61.9). WheiR is recommended as an effective and precise anthropometric index to assess AbAd and to predict high HOMA-IR values in nondialyzed patients with CKD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The predictive value of the baseline Oswestry Disability Index in lumbar disc arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Harel

    2010-06-01

    The goal of the study was to determine patient factors predictive of good outcome after lumbar disc arthroplasty. Specifically, the paper examines the relationship of the preoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) to patient outcome at 1 year. The study is a retrospective review of 20 patients undergoing a 1-level lumbar disc arthroplasty at the author's institution between 2004 and 2008. All data were collected prospectively. Data included the ODI, visual analog scale scores, and patient demographics. All patients underwent a 1-level disc arthroplasty at L4-5 or L5-S1. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on their baseline ODI. Patients with an ODI between 38 and 59 demonstrated better outcomes with lumbar disc arthroplasty. Only 1 (20%) of 5 patients with a baseline ODI higher than 60 reported a good outcome. In contrast, 13 (87%) of 15 patients with an ODI between 38 and 59 showed a good outcome (p = 0.03). The negative predictive value of using ODI > 60 is 60% in patients who are determined to be candidates for lumbar arthroplasty. Lumbar arthroplasty is very effective in some patients. Other patients do not improve after surgery. The baseline ODI results are predictive of outcome in patients selected for lumbar disc arthroplasty. A baseline ODI > 60 is predictive of poor outcome. A high ODI may be indicative of psychosocial overlay.

  1. Intra and interobserver variability of renal allograft ultrasound volume and resistive index measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, Marcello; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Daniele, Stefania; Raffio, Teresa; Salvatore, Marco; Sabbatini, Massimo; Cianciaruso, Bruno; Ferrara, Liberato Aldo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aim of the presents study was to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of the Doppler Resistive Index (R.I.) and the Ultrasound renal volume measurement in renal transplants. Materials and methods: Twenty -six consecutive patients (18 men, 8 women) mean age of 42,8±12,4 years (M±SD)(range 22-65 years) were studied twice by each of two trained sonographers using a color Doppler ultrasound scanner. Twelve of them had a normal allograft function (defined as stable serum creatinine levels ≤123,76 μmol/L), whilst the remaining 14 had decreased allograft function (serum creatinine 132.6-265.2 μmol/L). Results were given as mean of 6 measurements performed at upper, middle and lower pole of the kidney. Intra- and interobserver variability was assessed by the repeatability coefficient and coefficient of variation (CV). Results: Regarding Resistive Index measurement, repeatability coefficient was between 0.04 and 0.06 and the coefficient of variation was [it

  2. Explanatory Value of the Ability Index as Assessed by Cardiologists and Patients with Congenital Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Anne-Marie Voss; Lisby, Karen H; King, Catriona

    2012-01-01

    patients, independently by cardiologists and patients. Cohen's Kappa coefficient with quadratic weighting (Kw) was calculated. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) (=C-index) was used to test the accuracy of the Ability Index in explaining PRO, as assessed...

  3. Value of the Doppler index of myocardial performance in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S H; Jensen, S E; Tei, C

    2000-01-01

    Prospective assessment of a nongeometric Doppler-derived index of combined systolic and diastolic myocardial performance was performed in 64 patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) within 1 hour after their arrival to the hospital and in 39 age-matched healthy subjects. The index is defined...

  4. 76 FR 30550 - Federal Management Regulation; Change in Consumer Price Index Minimal Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Part 102-42 [FMR Change 2011-01; FMR Case 2011-102-1; Docket 2011-0008; Sequence 1] RIN 3090-AJ12 Federal Management Regulation; Change in Consumer Price Index..., to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index for the immediately preceding 3-year period. The...

  5. Prognostic value of an increase in post-exercise ankle-brachial index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Tarek A; Hiatt, William R; Gornik, Heather L; Shishehbor, Mehdi H

    2017-06-01

    Prior studies have assessed the prognostic value of a decrease, not an increase, of the post-exercise ankle-brachial index (ABI) among patients with normal resting results. Thus, we sought to evaluate the prognostic significance of an increase in post-exercise ABI among these patients. From a single center vascular laboratory database between September 2005 and January 2010, we retrospectively identified 1437 consecutive patients with a normal resting ABI (1.00-1.40) and available post-exercise results. We classified them into group 1 (normal subjects; post-exercise ABI drop ⩽ 20%, 58%) and group 2 (post-exercise ABI increase, 42%) after excluding those with an ABI drop > 20% (peripheral artery disease) as they had known disease ( n=192). The primary outcome was to assess the risk of ischemic events, defined as a composite of unadjudicated death, stroke, or myocardial infraction (MACE). Associations between groups and outcomes were examined using multivariable Cox proportional hazard and propensity analyses. Both groups had similar prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities. In unadjusted analysis, group 2 was more likely to have MACE ( p = 0.001). After adjusting for all baseline characteristics, an increase in post-exercise ABI compared to normal subjects was associated with a higher MACE (adjusted HR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.14-2.53; p=0.009). This association stayed statistically significant after propensity matching (adjusted HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.17-2.76; p=0.007). This hypothesis-generating analysis showed that an increase in post-exercise ABI appears to identify a population with a higher risk for MACE. A prospective study of this association and mechanisms of risk should be conducted.

  6. Are preference and resistance to change convergent expressions of stimulus value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Shahan, Timothy A

    2013-07-01

    Behavioral momentum theory asserts that preference and relative resistance to disruption depend on reinforcement rates and provide converging expressions of the conditioned value of discriminative stimuli. However, preference and resistance to disruption diverge when assessing preference during brief extinction probes. We expanded upon this opposing relation by arranging target stimuli signaling equal variable-interval schedules across components of a multiple schedule. We paired one target stimulus with a richer reinforced alternative and the other with a leaner alternative. Furthermore, we varied reinforcement rates for the paired alternatives to assess the effects of manipulating relative conditioned value on preference and resistance to disruption by presession feeding, intercomponent food, and extinction. We replicated the opposing relation between preference and resistance to disruption but varying reinforcement rates for the paired alternatives did not systematically affect preference or resistance to disruption beyond levels observed in our initial condition. Importantly, we found that only preference between the target stimuli was related to relative baseline response rates in the presence of those stimuli. These findings suggest that preference during extinction probes might reveal more about baseline response rates between concurrently available alternatives than relative conditioned value. Resistance to disruption, conversely, appears to better reflect conditioned value because it is less confounded with baseline response rates and is a function of all sources of reinforcement obtained in the presence of a stimulus context. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  7. Phosphorene/rhenium disulfide heterojunction-based negative differential resistance device for multi-valued logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jaewoo; Oh, Seyong; Kang, Dong-Ho; Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Ali, Muhammad Hasnain; Choi, Woo-Young; Heo, Keun; Jeon, Jaeho; Lee, Sungjoo; Kim, Minwoo; Song, Young Jae; Park, Jin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, negative differential resistance devices have attracted considerable attention due to their folded current–voltage characteristic, which presents multiple threshold voltage values. Because of this remarkable property, studies associated with the negative differential resistance devices have been explored for realizing multi-valued logic applications. Here we demonstrate a negative differential resistance device based on a phosphorene/rhenium disulfide (BP/ReS2) heterojunction that is formed by type-III broken-gap band alignment, showing high peak-to-valley current ratio values of 4.2 and 6.9 at room temperature and 180 K, respectively. Also, the carrier transport mechanism of the BP/ReS2 negative differential resistance device is investigated in detail by analysing the tunnelling and diffusion currents at various temperatures with the proposed analytic negative differential resistance device model. Finally, we demonstrate a ternary inverter as a multi-valued logic application. This study of a two-dimensional material heterojunction is a step forward toward future multi-valued logic device research. PMID:27819264

  8. Phosphorene/rhenium disulfide heterojunction-based negative differential resistance device for multi-valued logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jaewoo; Oh, Seyong; Kang, Dong-Ho; Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Ali, Muhammad Hasnain; Choi, Woo-Young; Heo, Keun; Jeon, Jaeho; Lee, Sungjoo; Kim, Minwoo; Song, Young Jae; Park, Jin-Hong

    2016-11-01

    Recently, negative differential resistance devices have attracted considerable attention due to their folded current-voltage characteristic, which presents multiple threshold voltage values. Because of this remarkable property, studies associated with the negative differential resistance devices have been explored for realizing multi-valued logic applications. Here we demonstrate a negative differential resistance device based on a phosphorene/rhenium disulfide (BP/ReS2) heterojunction that is formed by type-III broken-gap band alignment, showing high peak-to-valley current ratio values of 4.2 and 6.9 at room temperature and 180 K, respectively. Also, the carrier transport mechanism of the BP/ReS2 negative differential resistance device is investigated in detail by analysing the tunnelling and diffusion currents at various temperatures with the proposed analytic negative differential resistance device model. Finally, we demonstrate a ternary inverter as a multi-valued logic application. This study of a two-dimensional material heterojunction is a step forward toward future multi-valued logic device research.

  9. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan Sánchez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ISSN: 2255-2863 is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence, and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.

  10. Intra-Parenchymal Renal Resistive Index Variation (IRRIV) Describes Renal Functional Reserve (RFR): Pilot Study in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoni, Sara; Nalesso, Federico; Meola, Mario; Villa, Gianluca; De Cal, Massimo; De Rosa, Silvia; Petrucci, Ilaria; Brendolan, Alessandra; Rosner, Mitchell H; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    An increase of glomerular filtration rate after protein load represents renal functional reserve (RFR) and is due to afferent arteriolar vasodilation. Lack of RFR may be a risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI), but is cumbersome to measure. We sought to develop a non-invasive, bedside method that would indirectly measure RFR. Mechanical abdominal pressure, through compression of renal vessels, decreases blood flow and activates the auto-regulatory mechanism which can be measured by a fall in renal resistive index (RRI). The study aims at elucidating the relationship between intra-parenchymal renal resistive index variation (IRRIV) during abdominal pressure and RFR. In healthy volunteers, pressure was applied by a weight on the abdomen (fluid-bag 10% of subject's body weight) while RFR was measured through a protein loading test. We recorded RRI in an interlobular artery after application of pressure using ultrasound. The maximum percentage reduction of RRI from baseline was compared in the same subject to RFR. We enrolled 14 male and 16 female subjects (mean age 38 ± 14 years). Mean creatinine clearance was 106.2 ± 16.4 ml/min/1.73 m(2). RFR ranged between -1.9 and 59.7 with a mean value of 28.9 ± 13.1 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Mean baseline RRI was 0.61 ± 0.05, compared to 0.49 ± 0.06 during abdominal pressure; IRRIV was 19.6 ± 6.7%, ranging between 3.1% and 29.2%. Pearson's coefficient between RFR and IRRIV was 74.16% (p RFR. Our results can lead to the development of a "stress test" for a rapid screen of RFR to establish renal susceptibility to different exposures and the consequent risk for AKI.

  11. Transition from manual to automatic rutting measurements : effect on pavement serviceability index values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The Pavement Serviceability Index (pSn is used by New Mexico Department of Transportation : (NMDOT) to express the serviceability level of a pavement section at the network level. The PSI : is calculated with distress ratings (including rutting) and ...

  12. Hirsch Index Value and Variability Related to General Surgery in a UK Deanery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Tarig; Brown, Josephine; Wheat, Jenny; Thomas, Charlotte; Lewis, Wyn

    2016-01-01

    The Hirsch Index (h-index) is often used to assess research impact, and on average a social science senior lecturer will have an h-index of 2.29, yet its validity within the context of UK General Surgery (GS) is unknown. The aim of this study was to calculate the h-indices of a cohort of GS consultants in a UK Deanery to assess its relative validity. Individual h-indices and total publication (TP) counts were obtained for GS consultants via the Scopus and Web of Science (WoS) Internet search engines. Assessment of construct validity and reliability of these 2 measures of the h-index was undertaken. All hospitals in a single UK National Health Service Deanery were included (14 general hospitals). All 136 GS consultants from the Deanery were included. Median h-index (Scopus) was 5 (0-52) and TP 15 (0-369), and strong correlation was found between h-index and TP (ρ = 0.932, p Scopus and WoS h-index also significant (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.973 [95% CI: 0.962-0.981], p Scopus 12 vs 7 vs 4 [p 2.29 in 57.4% of consultants. No subspecialty differences were apparent in median h-indices (p = 0.792) and TP (p = 0.903). h-Index is a valid GS research productivity metric with over half of consultants performing at levels equivalent to social science Senior Lecturers. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Significant caries index values and related factors in 5-6-year-old children in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namal, N; Yüceokur, A A; Can, G

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate significant caries (SiC) index values and related factors in Turkish children aged 5-6 years old, children from 5 nursery schools in Istanbul were included in a cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic information and data about oral care habits were obtained from the records and from parents. Of 542 students examined, the mean decayed/missing/filled primary teeth (dmft) index was 3.74 (SD 3.49) and the SiC index was 7.75 (SD 2.56). About 76.8% of the children had experienced dental caries. Logistic regression analysis of the SiC index for dmft showed that risk factors for poor dental status were low mother's education (OR 2.04) and irregular toothbrushing versus once-a-day brushing (OR 4.09) or twice-a-day brushing (OR 4.20).

  14. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan SÁNCHEZ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society. We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

  15. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan SÁNCHEZ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas.The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

  16. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan Sánchez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas.The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

  17. Higher environmental relative moldiness index values measured in homes of adults with asthma, rhinitis, or both conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher values of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI), a DNA-based method for quantifying indoor molds, have been associated with asthma in children. In this study, settled dust samples were collected from the homes of adults with asthma and rhinitis (n=202 homes) i...

  18. Testosterone, free testosterone, and free androgen index in women: Reference intervals, biological variation, and diagnostic value in polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, H.N.; Sluss, P.M.; Hayes, F.J.; Blincko, S.; Knol, D.L.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of our study was to determine reference intervals and biologic variation for testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and free androgen index (FAI) in women with accurate methods and to test the discriminative value of these parameters in a polycystic ovary syndrome

  19. Testosterone, free testosterone, and free androgen index in women: Reference intervals, biological variation, and diagnostic value in polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, H. N.; Sluss, P. M.; Hayes, F. J.; Blincko, S.; Knol, D. L.; Blankenstein, M. A.; Heijboer, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine reference intervals and biologic variation for testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and free androgen index (FAI) in women with accurate methods and to test the discriminative value of these parameters in a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-population.

  20. Aortic augmentation index: reference values in a large unselected population by means of the SphygmoCor device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janner, Julie; Godtfredsen, Nina S; Ladelund, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Arterial stiffness and pulse wave reflection are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pulse wave analyses (PWAs) allow the estimation of the central augmentation index (AIx), a measurement of pulse wave reflection. To understand the predictive role of AIx, reference values for AIx are ne...

  1. Dwindling the resistance value of PEDOT:PSS – coated on fabric yarns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amba Sankar, K.N., E-mail: amb@psgias.ac.in; Kallol, Mohanta [Nanotechnology Research, Innovation & Incubation Centre, Organic Solar cell lab, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore – 641 004, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-05-23

    Herein we describe by dip coating method to transform typical fabric yarn to conductive fiber. Different types of yarns have been used to coat from a known conductive polymer, Poly (3,4ethylenedioxythiophene) Poly (styrene sulfonic acid). We have optimized the method to have lesser resistance of the conductive yarns. The minimum resistance achieved has a value of 77 Ω/cm. This value is not high as metals but could be comparable to that of metal oxides or semiconducting materials. However, flexibility of yarns and feeling of fabric combining with the conductivity developed in this process is suitable for wearable electronics and also as gas sensors, electromagnetic shielding.

  2. Analysis of Location Quotient index of poplar wood processing value chain in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    omid hosseinzadeh; Marzieh Hajjarian; Samira Porbar

    2016-01-01

    Value added in the poplar wood value chain has great economic effects for poplar farmers and have a fundamental role in sustainable supplying of required cellulosic materials of industries in long-term. The purpose of this study was to analyze the value chain of poplar and use the results to improve it. In order to determine the poplar value chain, Porter's value chain analysis framework was used. The statistical society consists of 76 experts to identify poplar wood value who were active in ...

  3. Evaluation of renal resistive index in cirrhotic patients for predicting the hepatirenal syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Yon; Kim, Hyae young; Yi, Sun Young [Ewha WoMans Univ. Mokdong Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-04-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of renal resistive index(RI) in patients with liver cirrhosis as an indicator for predicting hepatorenal syndrome. Renal RIs of thirty cirrhotic patients were analyzed using the gray-scale and Doppler ultrasonograms. As a control group, eight normal subjects were included. Renal RIs were measured at three sites of interlobar or arcuate arteries of both kidneys. The patients were divided into three groups (A, B, or C) according to the Child-Turcotte-Pugh classification and their serum BUN and creatinine levels were compared. We determined whether RIs of normal controls differed from those of cirrhotic patients or whether RIs of cirrhotic patients correlated with the Child-Turcotte-Pugh classification or BUN and creatinine levels. Mean RIs(0.63 {+-}0.33) of normal subjects were statistically different from those(0.67 {+-} 0.05) of cirrhotic patients(P=0.009). RIs of group A(n=6), B(n=9) and C(n=15) were 0.65 {+-} 0.03, 0.65 {+-} 0.04 and 0.70 {+-} 0.04, respectively. The ANOVA test revealed statistically significant differences between the three groups(F ratio=4.472, P=0.021). RIs did not correlate with BUN or creatinine levels. RI could be used as an index for predicting hepatorenal syndrome before the renal function becomes impaired.

  4. The Doppler renal resistive index for early detection of acute kidney injury after hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Philippe; Ferre, Fabrice; Labaste, François; Jacques, Loriane; Luzi, Aymeric; Conil, Jean-Marie; Silva, Stein; Minville, Vincent

    2016-12-01

    Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is linked to an increase in morbidity and mortality, particularly in elderly populations. This study's aim was to assess the accuracy of the Doppler renal resistive index (RI) in detecting AKI at an early stage after hip fracture surgery. This prospective single-centre study included 48 patients suffering hip fractures requiring surgery and who presented risk factors for the development of AKI. The RI was calculated preoperatively and postoperatively in patients without pain and with haemodynamic and respiratory stability. The occurrence of AKI was determined by measurements of serum creatinine according to AKIN criteria. Twenty-nine patients (60%) developed AKI during the first five postoperative days, without need for dialysis. The RI was increased in patients who developed postoperative AKI 0.68 (0.67-0.71) vs. 0.72 (0.7-0.73); P=0.014 for the preoperative index; and 0.6 (0.58-0.68) vs. 0.74 (0.71-0.76); Pcalculation of the RI during the perioperative periods of hip fracture surgery predicts early and effectively the postoperative occurrence of AKI, thus allowing treatment to be anticipated so as to improve patient prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Prediction of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome in term pregnancies by assessment of fetal lung volume and pulmonary artery resistance index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Mohamed; Mansour, Ghada M; Elsafty, Mohammed S E; Hassanin, Alaa S; EzzElarab, Sahar S

    2015-03-01

    To develop reference cutoff values for mean fetal lung volume (FLV) and pulmonary artery resistance index (PA-RI) for prediction of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in low-risk term pregnancies. As part of a cross-sectional study, women aged 20-35 years were enrolled and admitted to a tertiary hospital in Cairo, Egypt, for elective repeat cesarean at 37-40 weeks of pregnancy between January 1, 2012, and July 31, 2013. FLV was calculated by virtual organ computer-aided analysis, and PA-RI was measured by Doppler ultrasonography before delivery. A total of 80 women were enrolled. Neonatal RDS developed in 11 (13.8%) of the 80 newborns. Compared with neonates with RDS, healthy neonates had significantly higher FLVs (P<0.001) and lower PA-RIs (P<0.001). Neonatal RDS is less likely with FLV of at least 32 cm(3) or PA-RI less than or equal to 0.74. Combining these two measures improved the accuracy of prediction. The use of either FLV or PA-RI predicted neonatal RDS. The predictive value increased when these two measures were combined. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Contact Pressure on the Resistance Contact Value and Temperature Changes in Copper Busbar Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Risdiyanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed the influence of tightness or contacts pressure on copper busbar joints to determine changes in the value of the initial contact resistance and the maximum temperature at the joint due to high current load. The test sample was copper busbar 3 x 30 mm with configuration of bolted overlapping joint. Increasing contact pressure at the joint was measured to find out its effect on the value of contact resistance. The applied pressure was 6 to 36 MPa. Procedure of contact resistance measurement refer to the ASTM B539 standard using four-wire method. The sample subsequently loaded with the current of 350 A for 60 minutes and the maximum temperature at the joint was measured. The result showed that increasing contact pressure at the busbar joint will reduce the contact resistance and maximum temperature. The increase of contact pressure from 6 to 30 MPa causes decreasing contact resistance from 16 μΩ to 11 μΩ. Further increasing of contact pressure more than 30 MPa did not affect the contact resistance significantly. The lowest temperatur of busbar joint of 54°C was reached at a contact pressure of 36 Mpa.

  7. Resistance to consumption and Veganism: A Study about Motivations, Values, and Feelings

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Isabela Perez Campos; Acevedo, Claudia Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study resistance to consumption as a recent phenomenon designed to bring about changes in societal values and consumptio habits. Specifically the objective of this paper is to comprehend the way in which anti-consumption behavior relates to Veganism, analyze factors that motivate its practice, and record values and feelings associated with the acceptance of the movement.This study utilized the ethnographic method of collection and analysis of data through pa...

  8. Reference Values of the Pain Disability Index in Patients With Painful Musculoskeletal and Spinal Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, Remko; Koke, Albere J. A.; Speijer, Bert L. G. N.; Vroomen, Patrick C. A. J.; Smeets, Rob J. E. M.; Coppes, Maarten H.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Gross, Douglas P.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Objective. To examine reference data for the Pain Disability Index (PDI) in Dutch and Canadian patient samples with a variety of musculoskeletal pain disorders and to test which potential factors are independently associated with the PDI score. Summary of

  9. The predictive value of the foot posture index on dynamic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Gottschalk; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Kersting, U G

    2008-01-01

    Keenan et. al. identified the six-item version of the Foot Posture Index (FPI) as a valid, simple and clinically useful tool. The model combines measures of the standing foot posture in multiple planes and anatomical segments. It provides an alternative to existing static clinical measures when...

  10. The Predictive Value of the Foot Posture Index on Dynamic Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Olesen Gammelgaard, Christian; Nielsen, R. G.

    Keenan et. al. identified the six-item version of the Foot Posture Index (FPI) as a valid, simple and clinically useful tool. The model combines measures of the standing foot posture in multiple planes and anatomical segments. It provides an alternative to existing static clinical measures when...

  11. The Predictive Value of the Foot Posture Index on Dynamic Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Olesen Gammelgaard, Christian; Nielsen, R. G.

    2008-01-01

    Keenan et. al. identified the six-item version of the Foot Posture Index (FPI) as a valid, simple and clinically useful tool. The model combines measures of the standing foot posture in multiple planes and anatomical segments. It provides an alternative to existing static clinical measures when...

  12. 1-D DC Resistivity Inversion Using Singular Value Decomposition and Levenberg-Marquardt’s Inversion Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heriyanto, M.; Srigutomo, W.

    2017-07-01

    Exploration of natural or energy resources requires geophysical survey to determine the subsurface structure, such as DC resistivity method. In this research, field and synthetic data were used using Schlumberger configuration. One-dimensional (1-D) DC resistivity inversion was carried out using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) techniques to obtain layered resistivity structure. We have developed software to perform both inversion methods accompanied by a user-friendly interface. Both of the methods were compared one another to determine the number of iteration, robust to noise, elapsed time of computation, and inversion results. SVD inversion generated faster process and better results than LM did. The inversion showed both of these methods were appropriate to interpret subsurface resistivity structure.

  13. Analysis of clinically relevant values of Ki-67 labeling index in Japanese breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Ishida, Takanori; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Kamada, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Kanou; Miyashita, Minoru; Amari, Masakazu; Tadano-Sato, Akiko; Takahashi, Yayoi; Watanabe, Mika; McNamara, Keely; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Sasano, Hironobu

    2014-05-01

    It has become important to standardize the methods of Ki-67 evaluation in breast cancer patients, especially those used in the interpretation and scoring of immunoreactivity. Therefore, in this study, we examined the Ki-67 immunoreactivity of breast cancer surgical specimens processed and stained in the same manner in one single Japanese institution by counting nuclear immunoreactivity in the same fashion. We examined 408 Japanese breast cancers with invasive ductal carcinoma and studied the correlation between Ki-67 labeling index and ER/HER2 status and histological grade of breast cancer. We also analyzed overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of these patients according to individual Ki-67 labeling index. There were statistically significant differences of Ki-67 labeling index between ER positive/HER2 negative and ER positive/HER2 positive, ER negative/HER2 positive or ER negative/HER2 negative, and ER positive/HER2 positive and ER negative/HER2 negative groups (all P < 0.001). There were also statistically significant differences of Ki-67 labeling index among each histological grade (P < 0.001, respectively). As for multivariate analyses, Ki-67 labeling index was strongly associated with OS (HR 39.12, P = 0.031) and DFS (HR 10.85, P = 0.011) in ER positive and HER2 negative breast cancer patients. In addition, a statistically significant difference was noted between classical luminal A group and "20 % luminal A" in DFS (P = 0.039) but not between classical luminal A group and "25 % luminal A" (P = 0.105). A significant positive correlation was detected between Ki-67 labeling index and ER/HER2 status and histological grades of the cases examined in our study. The suggested optimal cutoff point of Ki-67 labeling index is between 20 and 25 % in ER positive and HER2 negative breast cancer patients.

  14. Dispositional resistance to change: Measurement equivalence and the link to personal values across 17 nations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oreg, S.; Bayazit, M.; Vakola, M.; Arciniega, L.; Armenakis, A.; Barkauskiene, R.; Bozionelos, N.; Ferič, I.; Fujimoto, Y.; Gonzáles, L.; Han, J.; Hetland, H.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jimmieson, N.; Kordačová, J.; Kotrla Topič, M.; Mitsuhashi, H.; Mlacić, B.; Ohly, S.; Saksvik, I.; Saksvik, P.O.; van Dam, K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 4 (2008), s. 935-944 ISSN 0021-9010 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700250702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : resistance to change * personal values * measurement equivalence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 3.769, year: 2008

  15. Evaluation of Safety Index and Calibration of Load and Resistance Factors for Reinforced Concrete Beams under Bending, Shear and Torsion Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Jafari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of designing of the structural members is withstanding the members or structures against the different loading conditions such that the safety of the system could be preserved. The conventional method for designing of reinforced concrete members in Iranian concrete code is based on load and resistance factor. Although, load and resistance parameters are random variables, and in the mentioned Code the constant values have been designated for them during the designing procedure. Accounting these factors as the constants parameters will ultimately be led to the unsafe and uneconomical designs. The main purpose of this paper is probability-based designing of reinforcement concrete beams under simultaneous effects of bending, shear and torsion actions. For this purpose, analytical relations of the limit states for combination of bending, shear and torsion have been developed. Using the method, the structural designers could be fulfilled the designing of the RC beams based on the importance of structures and the required safety indexes of the owners.  The next goal of this investigation is evaluation and calibration of load and resistance factors for desired safety index. The economic and fully probabilistic designing of concrete beams for simultaneous effects of bending, shear and torsion are available by implementing the proposed design procedures. In order to calculate the safety indexes a computer program has been written in the MATLAB environment, and the Monte Carlo simulation technique has been utilized.

  16. An empirical analysis of corporate governance and firm value: Evidence from KSE-100 Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Khan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of corporate governance on firm value measured by Tobin’s Q. Different corporate governance proxies i.e. board size, board independence, audit committee and CEO duality are interacted with firm value. A sample of 91 nonfinancial firms listed on KSE was selected over the period 2010-2014. The findings of the study show that board size and CEO duality had negative impacts on firm value. Moreover, board size, non-executive directors and audit committee had positive and significant impacts on firm value.

  17. Correlation of Neurological Symptoms and Breath Holding Index Values in Patients With Severe Internal Carotid Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zavoreo, Iris; Aleksić-Shibabi, Anka; Demarin, Vida

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of cerebral vasoreactivity measurement in the follow up of patients with severe internal carotid stenosis. We used breath holding index (BHI) as a quantitative parameter of cerebral vasoreactivity and functional state of cerebral hemodynamics. We evaluated data of 150 patients with high grade carotid stenosis (definition according to standardized criteria of the Cerebrovascular Laboratory, Reference Center for Neurovascular Disorders of the Minist...

  18. The Behaviour of Laboratory Soil Electrical Resistivity Value under Basic Soil Properties Influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazreek, Z A M; Aziman, M; Azhar, A T S; Chitral, W D; Fauziah, A; Rosli, S

    2015-01-01

    Electrical resistivity method (ERM) was a popular indirect geophysical tools adopted in engineering, environmental and archaeological studies. In the past, results of the electrical resistivity value (ERV) were always subjected to a long discussion and debate among the related parties such as an engineers, geophysicists and geologists due to its lack of clarification and evidences in quantitative point of view. Most of the results produced in the past was always been justified using qualitative ways which difficult to be accept by certain parties. In order to reduce the knowledge gap between those parties, this study has performed a laboratory experiment of soil box resistivity test which supported by an additional basic geotechnical test as referred to particle size distribution test (d), moisture content test (w), density test (ρ bulk ) and Atterberg limit test (LL, PL and PI). The test was performed to establish a series of electrical resistivity value with different quantity of water content for Clayey SILT and Silty SAND soil. It was found that the ERV of Silty SAND (600 - 7300 Ωm) was higher than Clayey SILT (13 - 7700 Ωm) due to the different quantity of basic soil properties value obtained from the basic geotechnical test. This study was successfully demonstrated that the fluctuation of ERV has greatly influenced by the variations of the soil physical properties (d, w, ρ bulk , LL, PL and PI). Hence, the confidence level of ERV interpretation will be increasingly meaningful since it able to be proved by others parameter generated by laboratory direct test

  19. Prognostic value of body mass index and waist circumference in patients with chronic heart failure (Spanish REDINSCOR Registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Teresa; Ferrero-Gregori, Andreu; Roig, Eulalia; Vazquez, Rafael; Gonzalez-Juanatey, Jose R; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Delgado, Juan; Alonso-Pulpon, Luis; Borras, Xavier; Mendez, Ana; Cinca, Juan

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the association between higher body mass index and waist circumference, and the prognostic values of both indicators in total and cardiac mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. The study included 2254 patients who were followed up for 4 years. Obesity was classified as a body mass index ≥30 and overweight as a body mass index of 25.0-29.9. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥88 cm for women and ≥102cm for men. Independent predictors of total and cardiac mortality were assessed in a multivariate Cox model adjusted for confounding variables. Obesity was present in 35% of patients, overweight in 43%, and central obesity in 60%. Body mass index and waist circumference were independent predictors of lower total mortality: hazard ratio=0.84 (P120cm. Mortality was significantly lower in patients with a high body mass index and waist circumference. The results also showed that this protection was lost when these indicators over a certain limit. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance index, leptin and thyroid hormone levels in the general population of Merida (Venezuela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzcátegui, Euderruh; Valery, Lenin; Uzcátegui, Lilia; Gómez Pérez, Roald; Marquina, David; Baptista, Trino

    2015-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular events, but scarce information exists about its frequency in Venezuela. In this cross-sectional study, we quantified the prevalence of the MetSyn in a probabilistic, stratified sample of 274 subjects aged > or =18 years from the Libertador district in Merida, Venezuela. Secondary outcomes were the measurement of thyroid hormones (free T4 and TSH), leptin levels, and insulin resistance index (HOMA2-IR). The frequency of MetSyn (percentage +/- 95% confidence interval) according to several diagnostic criteria was as follows: National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP, original): 27.4% (22.1-32.7); modified NCEP: 31.8% (26.3-37.3); International Diabetes Federation: 40.9% (35.1-46.7); Latin American Diabetes Association: 27% (21.7-32.3), and Venezuelan criteria: 31.8% (26.3-37.3). The MetSyn was more frequent in males than in females with most diagnostic criteria. The estimated prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 2.9% either according to the patients' self reports or to fasting glucose level found to be above 126 mg/dL. Abnormal HOMA2-IR index, free T4 and TSH (above the 95th percentile) were detected in 4.5%, 4.4% and 5.1% of the sample, respectively. Free T4 and TSH levels below the 5th percentile were detected in 4.4% and 4.7% of subjects respectively. These values are presented for comparisons with forthcoming studies in specific clinical populations. While studies are being conducted about the different definitions of the MetSyn in Venezuela, we recommend analyzing and publishing local research data with all the available criteria so as to allow comparisons with the results already reported in the literature.

  1. [Values of the sperm deformity index, acrosome abnormity rate, and sperm DNA fragmentation index of optimized sperm in predicting IVF fertilization failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-jie; Jin, Fan; Zhou, Li-ming

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the values of the sperm deformity index (SDI), acrosome abnormity rate (AAR), and DNA fragmentation index (DFI) of optimized sperm in the prediction of fertilization failure (fertilization rate fertilization (IVF). We selected 695 cycles of conventional IVF for pure oviductal infertility in this study, including 603 cycles of normal fertilization and 92 cycles of fertilization failure. On the day of oocyte retrieval, we examined sperm morphology, acrosome morphology, and DNA fragmentation using the Diff-Quik, PSA-FITC and SCD methods. We established the joint predictor (JP) by logistic equation and analyzed the values of different parameters in predicting fertilization failure with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The fertilization rate was negatively correlated with SDI (r = - 0.07; P = 0.03), AAR (r = -0.49; P fertilization group were 1.24 ± 0.20, (7.75 ± 2.28)%, and (7.87 ± 3.15)%, and those in the fertilization failure group were 1.42 ± 0.15, (12.02 ± 3.06)%, and (13.32 ± 4.13)%, respectively, all with statistically significant differences between the two groups (P fertilization failure ( OR = 2.68, 14.11, and 3.85; P = 0.01, fertilization failure were approximately 1.45, 10%, and 12%. The SDI, AAR and DFI of optimized sperm are closely associated with the fertilization rate, and all have the value for predicting fertilization failure in IVF. The AAR is more valuable than the other single predictors, but JP is more effective than the AAR.

  2. The Predictive Value of Integrated Pulmonary Index after Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia V. Fot

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe early warning scores may increase the safety of perioperative period. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic and predictive role of Integrated Pulmonary Index (IPI after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB.Materials and MethodsForty adult patients undergoing elective OPCAB were enrolled into a single-center prospective observational study. We assessed respiratory function using IPI that includes oxygen saturation, end-tidal CO2, respiratory rate, and pulse rate. In addition, we evaluated blood gas analyses and hemodynamics, including ECG, invasive arterial pressure, and cardiac index. The measurements were performed after transfer to the intensive care unit, after spontaneous breathing trial and at 2, 6, 12, and 18 h after extubation.Results and DiscussionThe value of IPI registered during respiratory support correlated weakly with cardiac index (rho = 0.4; p = 0.04 and ScvO2 (rho = 0.4, p = 0.02. After extubation, IPI values decreased significantly, achieving a minimum by 18 h. The IPI value ≤9 at 6 h after extubation was a predictor of complicated early postoperative period (AUC = 0.71; p = 0.04 observed in 13 patients.ConclusionIn off-pump coronary surgery, the IPI decreases significantly after tracheal extubation and may predict postoperative complications.

  3. Association between prostatic resistive index and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykam, Mehmet Murat; Aktas, Binhan Kagan; Bulut, Suleyman; Ozden, Cuneyt; Deren, Tagmac; Tagci, Suleyman; Gokkaya, Cevdet Serkan; Memis, Ali

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated the relationship between prostatic resistive index (RI) and cardiovascular system (CVS) risk factors in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The study included 120 patients who were attending our outpatient clinic with lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The clinical, laboratory, anthropometric data, and CVS risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, history of CVS events, and smoking) of the patients were evaluated regarding the association between prostate RI level by regression analyses. The prostatic RI levels of the patients were measured using power Doppler imaging. In univariate regression analysis, there were statistically significant relationships between prostatic RI levels and the patients' age, International Prostate Symptom Score, hip circumference, fasting blood glucose, prostate specific antigen, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total prostate volume, uroflowmetric maximal flow rate, and all investigated CVS risk factors (p prostatic RI levels were found to be associated with fasting blood glucose and total prostate volume, and also with CVS risk factors including only metabolic syndrome and cigarette smoking in the multivariate regression analysis. Our results showed that prostatic RI level is significantly related to metabolic syndrome and smoking among the investigated CVS risk factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  4. Prognostic value of body mass index before treatment for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhao-Qu; Zou, Lan; Liu, Tian-Run; Yang, An-Kui

    2015-01-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer often suffer from malnutrition. This study aims to investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on the prognosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). A total of 473 patients with LSCC initially treated at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 2005 and July 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. Low BMI before treatment was significantly associated with poor overall survival in patients with LSCC (P<0.001). BMI was an independent prognostic factor for patients with LSCC. Leanness before treatment was associated with poor prognosis in patients with LSCC. Good nutritional status is favorable to improve survival in patients with LSCC

  5. Determination of Soil Moisture Content using Laboratory Experimental and Field Electrical Resistivity Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Rosli, S.; Fauziah, A.; Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Ashraf, M. I. M.; Faizal, T. B. M.; Kamarudin, A. F.; Rais, Y.; Dan, M. F. Md; Azhar, A. T. S.; Hafiz, Z. M.

    2018-04-01

    The efficiency of civil engineering structure require comprehensive geotechnical data obtained from site investigation. In the past, conventional site investigation was heavily related to drilling techniques thus suffer from several limitations such as time consuming, expensive and limited data collection. Consequently, this study presents determination of soil moisture content using laboratory experimental and field electrical resistivity values (ERV). Field and laboratory electrical resistivity (ER) test were performed using ABEM SAS4000 and Nilsson400 soil resistance meter. Soil sample used for resistivity test was tested for characterization test specifically on particle size distribution and moisture content test according to BS1377 (1990). Field ER data was processed using RES2DINV software while laboratory ER data was analyzed using SPSS and Excel software. Correlation of ERV and moisture content shows some medium relationship due to its r = 0.506. Moreover, coefficient of determination, R2 analyzed has demonstrate that the statistical correlation obtain was very good due to its R2 value of 0.9382. In order to determine soil moisture content based on statistical correlation (w = 110.68ρ-0.347), correction factor, C was established through laboratory and field ERV given as 19.27. Finally, this study has shown that soil basic geotechnical properties with particular reference to water content was applicably determined using integration of laboratory and field ERV data analysis thus able to compliment conventional approach due to its economic, fast and wider data coverage.

  6. Discussion on calculation of disease severity index values from scales with unequal intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    When estimating severity of disease, a disease interval (or category) scale comprises a number of categories of known numeric values – with plant disease this is generally the percent area with symptoms (e.g., the Horsfall-Barratt (H-B) scale). Studies in plant pathology and plant breeding often use...

  7. Annual Equivalent Value, Benefit Cost Ratio, and Composite Performance Index as Valuation Appraisal Support of Teakwood Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Soeleman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis L.f is a premium high-value hardwood species being viewed as the most preferred species for investment opportunity. Recently, there has been a gradual move away from state control of teakwood plantation toward the participation of private enterprises. Several enterprises offer investment opportunity of teakwood plantation in which one of the main selling points being offered is a quick harvesting schedule. A quick harvesting time, however, might not provide the best outcome to the investors. This research exercise and compare the valuation appraisal of different harvesting schedules. The research focused on project planning, enterprise budget, financial projection, and valuation measurements to arrive at overall appraisal. To avoid any possible bias of individual investor's preference on common valuation criteria such as total investment, net cash flow (NCF, net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR, profit on investment (P/I, and payback period (PBP, 3 otherS criteria namely benefit cost ratio (BCR, annual equivalent value (AEV, and composite performance index (CPI have been applied to arrive at a more fair valuation. It is concluded that the longer the harvesting schedule, the better valuation outcome could be achieved, and therefore, investors should critically review any investment proposal in accordance to their preference on valuation criteria. Keywords : annual equivalent value, benefit cost ratio, composite performance index, valuation appraisal

  8. The HOMA-Adiponectin (HOMA-AD) Closely Mirrors the HOMA-IR Index in the Screening of Insulin Resistance in the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Brunna Sullara; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Cassani, Roberta Soares Lara; Forti, Adriana Costa E; Pareja, José Carlos; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio; Geloneze, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The major adverse consequences of obesity are associated with the development of insulin resistance (IR) and adiposopathy. The Homeostasis Model Assessment-Adiponectin (HOMA-AD) was proposed as a modified version of the HOMA1-IR, which incorporates adiponectin in the denominator of the index. To evaluate the performance of the HOMA-AD index compared with the HOMA1-IR index as a surrogate marker of IR in women, and to establish the cutoff value of the HOMA-AD. The Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS) is a cross-sectional multicenter survey. The data from 1,061 subjects met the desired criteria: 18-65 years old, BMI: 18.5-49.9 Kg/m² and without diabetes. The IR was assessed by the indexes HOMA1-IR and HOMA-AD (total sample) and by the hyperglycemic clamp (n = 49). Metabolic syndrome was defined using the IDF criteria. For the IR assessed by the clamp, the HOMA-AD demonstrated a stronger coefficient of correlation (r = -0.64) compared with the HOMA1-IR (r = -0.56); p HOMA1-IR, the HOMA-AD showed higher values of the AUC for the identification of IR based on the clamp test (AUC: 0.844 vs. AUC: 0.804) and on the metabolic syndrome (AUC: 0.703 vs. AUC: 0.689), respectively; p HOMA-AD in comparison with the HOMA1-IR in the diagnosis of IR and metabolic syndrome (p > 0.05). The optimal cutoff identified for the HOMA-AD for the diagnosis of IR was 0.95. The HOMA-AD index was demonstrated to be a useful surrogate marker for detecting IR among adult women and presented a similar performance compared with the HOMA1-IR index. These results may assist physicians and researchers in determining which method to use to evaluate IR in light of the available facilities.

  9. Prognostic Value of the Nutritional Risk Index in Heart Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barge-Caballero, Eduardo; García-López, Fernando; Marzoa-Rivas, Raquel; Barge-Caballero, Gonzalo; Couto-Mallón, David; Paniagua-Martín, María J; Solla-Buceta, Miguel; Velasco-Sierra, Carlos; Pita-Gutiérrez, Francisco; Herrera-Noreña, José M; Cuenca-Castillo, José J; Vázquez-Rodríguez, José Manuel; Crespo-Leiro, María G

    2017-08-01

    To study the prognostic impact of preoperative nutritional status, as assessed through the nutritional risk index (NRI), on postoperative outcomes after heart transplantation (HT). We conducted a retrospective, single-center study of 574 patients who underwent HT from 1991 to 2014. Preoperative NRI was calculated as 1.519 × serum albumin (g/L) + 41.7 × (body weight [kg] / ideal body weight [kg]). The association between preoperative NRI and postoperative outcomes was analyzed by means of multivariable logistic regression and multivariable Cox regression. Mean NRI before HT was 100.9 ± 9.9. According to this parameter, the prevalence of severe nutritional risk (NRI risk (83.5 ≤ NRI risk (97.5 ≤ NRI risk of postoperative infection (adjusted OR, 0.97; 95%CI, 0.95-1.00; P = .027) and prolonged postoperative ventilator support (adjusted OR, 0.96; 95%CI, 0.94-0.98; P = .001). Patients at moderate or severe nutritional risk had significantly higher 1-year post-HT mortality (adjusted HR, 1.55; 95%CI, 1.22-1.97; P risk of postoperative complications and mortality after HT. Preoperative NRI determination may help to identify HT candidates who might benefit from nutritional intervention. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Economic values of body weight, reproduction and parasite resistance traits for a Creole goat breeding goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, M; Mandonnet, N; Arquet, R; Alexandre, G; Gourdine, J-L; Naves, M; Angeon, V; Phocas, F

    2013-01-01

    A specific breeding goal definition was developed for Creole goats in Guadeloupe. This local breed is used for meat production. To ensure a balanced selection outcome, the breeding objective included two production traits, live weight (BW11) and dressing percentage (DP) at 11 months (the mating or selling age), one reproduction trait, fertility (FER), and two traits to assess animal response to parasite infection: packed cell volume (PCV), a resilience trait, and faecal worm eggs count (FEC), a resistance trait. A deterministic bio-economic model was developed to calculate the economic values based on the description of the profit of a Guadeloupean goat farm. The farm income came from the sale of animals for meat or as reproducers. The main costs were feeding and treatments against gastro-intestinal parasites. The economic values were 7.69€ per kg for BW11, 1.38€ per % for FER, 3.53€ per % for DP and 3 × 10(-4)€ per % for PCV. The economic value for FEC was derived by comparing the expected profit and average FEC in a normal situation and in an extreme situation where parasites had developed resistance to anthelmintics. This method yielded a maximum weighting for FEC, which was -18.85€ per log(eggs per gram). Alternative scenarios were tested to assess the robustness of the economic values to variations in the economic and environmental context. The economic values of PCV and DP were the most stable. Issues involved in paving the way for selective breeding on resistance or resilience to parasites are discussed.

  11. Resistive index of prostate capsular arteries: a newly identified parameter to diagnose and assess bladder outlet obstruction in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Li, Gang; Wei, Xuedong; Mo, Xiaodong; Hu, Linkun; Zha, Yueqin; Hou, Jianquan

    2012-09-01

    We evaluated the association of the resistive index of the prostate capsular arteries and bladder outlet obstruction severity in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. A total of 74 patients histologically diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia were ultimately enrolled in this prospective study. Urodynamics were performed by a urologist to determine bladder outlet obstruction. Baseline parameters measured in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia were the prostate capsular artery resistive index, International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life score, total prostate and transition zone volume, and the transition zone index. ROC curves were produced to calculate the ROC AUC and evaluate the diagnostic performance of the prostate capsular artery resistive index, International Prostate Symptom Score, obstructive symptoms, total prostate and transition zone volume, and the transition zone index for bladder outlet obstruction. Significant difference between patients with and without bladder outlet obstruction was observed in the resistive index, which showed the highest coefficient with the degree of obstruction (r = 0.712, p prostate capsular artery resistive index had the maximum AUC of 0.823. The prostate capsular artery resistive index is significantly higher in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia related bladder outlet obstruction than in those without such obstruction. The resistive index might serve as a novel indicator to diagnose and assess bladder outlet obstruction in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of regional index flood estimation procedures based on the extreme value type I distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rodding; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2002-01-01

    A comparison of different methods for estimating T-year events is presented, all based on the Extreme Value Type I distribution. Series of annual maximum flood from ten gauging stations at the New Zealand South island have been used. Different methods of predicting the 100-year event...... considered applying either a log-linear relationship between at-site mean annual flood and catchment characteristics or a direct log-linear relationship between 100-year events and catchment characteristics. Comparison of the results shows that the existence of at-site measurements significantly diminishes...

  13. Influence of errors in an estimation of control parameters in an artificial kidney eqipment on the ef-fective value of hemodialysis index dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.Ф. Бойко

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  The possible reasons in a disagreement of scientists in an estimation of optimum value of haemodialysis index dose are analyzed. It is proved, that the modern mathematical models used for calculation the haemodialysis index dose, can decrease its real value by 20–30 % that can result in ambiguity of compared results.

  14. Distribution pattern of the Ki67 labelling index in breast cancer and its implications for choosing cut-off values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserni, Gábor; Vörös, András; Liepniece-Karele, Inta; Bianchi, Simonetta; Vezzosi, Vania; Grabau, Dorthe; Sapino, Anna; Castellano, Isabella; Regitnig, Peter; Foschini, Maria Pia; Zolota, Vassiliki; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Figueiredo, Paulo; Decker, Thomas; Focke, Cornelia; Kulka, Janina; Kaya, Handan; Reiner-Concin, Angelika; Amendoeira, Isabel; Callagy, Grace; Caffrey, Emer; Wesseling, Jelle; Wells, Clive

    2014-06-01

    The Ki67 labelling index (LI - proportion of staining cells) is widely used to reflect proliferation in breast carcinomas. Several cut-off values have been suggested to distinguish between tumours with low and high proliferative activity. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the distribution of Ki67 LIs in breast carcinomas diagnosed at different institutions by different pathologists using the method reflecting their daily practice. Pathologists using Ki67 were asked to provide data (including the LI, type of the specimen, receptor status, grade) on 100 consecutively stained cases, as well as details of their evaluation. A full dataset of 1709 carcinomas was collected from 19 departments. The median Ki67 LI was 17% for all tumours and 14% for oestrogen receptor-positive and HER2-negative carcinomas. Tumours with higher mitotic counts were associated with higher Ki67 LIs. Ki67 LIs tended to cluster around values ending with 5 or 0 both in cases where the values were obtained by counting the proportion of stained tumour cell nuclei and those where the values were obtained by estimation. On the basis of the distribution pattern described, some currently used Ki67 LI cut off values are not realistic, and it is proposed to select more realistic values ending with 0 or 5. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Amino acid profiles of young adults differ by sex, body mass index and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Cruz, M; Vargas-Morales, J M; Méndez-García, A L; López-Barradas, A M; Granados-Portillo, O; Ordaz-Nava, G; Rocha-Viggiano, A K; Gutierrez-Leyte, C A; Medina-Cerda, E; Rosado, J L; Morales, J C; Torres, N; Tovar, A R; Noriega, L G

    2018-04-01

    An increase in plasma branched-chain amino acids is associated with a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about the basal plasma amino acid concentrations in young adults. Our aim was to determine the plasma amino acid profiles of young adults and to evaluate how these profiles were modified by sex, body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance (IR). We performed a transversal study with 608 Mexican young adults aged 19.9 ± 2.4 years who were applicants to the Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí. The subjects underwent a physical examination and provided a clinical history and a blood sample for biochemical, hormonal and amino acid analyses. The women had higher levels of arginine, aspartate and serine and lower levels of α-aminoadipic acid, cysteine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, proline, tryptophan, tyrosine, urea and valine than the men. The obese subjects had higher levels of alanine, aspartate, cysteine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline and tyrosine and lower levels of glycine, ornithine and serine than the normal weight subjects. Subjects with IR (defined as HOMA > 2.5) had higher levels of arginine, alanine, aspartate, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, proline, tyrosine, taurine and valine than the subjects without IR. Furthermore, we identified two main groups in the subjects with obesity and/or IR; one group was composed of amino acids that positively correlated with the clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters, whereas the second group exhibited negative correlations. This study demonstrates that young adults with obesity or IR have altered amino acid profiles characterized by an increase in alanine, aspartate, proline and tyrosine and a decrease in glycine. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II

  16. A new index of hemodialysis adequacy: clearance x dialysis time / bioelectrical resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Vernaglione, Luigi; Lomonte, Carlo; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Dambrosio, Nicola; Di Iorio, Biagio

    2010-01-01

    Kt/V urea was established as an index of hemodialysis (HD) adequacy. The use of V urea (as derived by the Watson et al formulae) as a normalizing factor has been questioned, and alternative parameters such as body weight 0.67 (W 0.67), body surface area (BSA), resting energy expenditure (REE), high metabolic rate organ (HMRO) mass and liver size (LV) have been proposed (respective HD adequacy indices: Kt/W 0.67, Kt/BSA, Kt/REE, Kt/HMRO and Kt/LV). The present study aimed to calculate the 6 previously described normalizing factors (all obtained utilizing anthropometric variables) and to measure bioelectrical resistance (R), an independent and directly achievable biological parameter, in 481 white, disease-free individuals and 270 white prevalent HD patients, pair-matched by age, body weight and height, after stratification by sex. Further, we aimed to evaluate the effect of substituting BSA, W 0.67, REE, HMRO, LV and R for V urea as denominator in Kt/V urea on the distribution of target dialysis dose in a cohort of 1,058 white prevalent HD patients. All individuals underwent 1 single-frequency bioelectrical impedance measurement, on the nondominant side of the body, injecting 800 μA at 50 kHz alternating sinusoidal current with a standard tetrapolar technique. When comparing pair-matched disease-free men and women with HD men and women, respectively, only R was statistically significantly different (pcalculations which utilize anthropometric variables. In contrast, R is a biological parameter which can be directly measured in the clinical setting by means of a simple, low-cost, fast and repeatable procedure. Even though Kt/R is probably the most appropriate method for scaling dialysis dose among those evaluated in the present study, further work is required to develop these concepts and translate them into rigorous outcome-based adequacy targets suitable for clinical usage.

  17. The prognostic value of tip-to-apex distance (TAD index in intertrochanteric fractures fixed by dynamic hip screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadighi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intertrochanteric fractures (ITFs are the most common type of fractures requiring surgical intervention. They also have the highest surgical mortality among orthopedic operations. Among the many different techniques used for fixation of this type of fracture, use of the Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS has gained wide acceptance. This current study was designed to assess positive predictive value of tip-to-apex distance (TAD index in the prognosis of patients treated with DHS. The study was designed according to a descriptive-analytic protocol, made up of 100 cases of ITFs caused by falling, treated in the Shohada Orthopedic Center, Tabriz, Iran. All patients underwent lateral and antero-posterior hip X-ray to measure TAD index. The cohort was followed for three months after DHS placement. Of a total of 100 cases (53 male, 47 female with a mean age of 76.7 years (range 29-100 years, 43% had grade 4, 29% grade 3, 21% grade 5, 5% grade 2 and 2% grade 6 osteoporosis. The screw position was postero-inferior in 57%, central in 40% and superior in 3% of patients. Minimum and maximum TAD index were 20 and 28 mm, respectively. Mean TAD was 23.5 mm. There were no post-operative complications in 84% of cases. Screw failure was the most common complication in the remaining 16% of patients. The study shows a statistically significant correlation between TAD index and cut-off rate in patients with intertrochanteric fractures of femoral bone treated by DHS. This validates the use of TAD index in determining the prognosis of patients treated by DHS.

  18. Power function of the reference change value in relation to cut-off points, reference intervals and index of individuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Natàlia; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Ricós, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    The reference change value, defined as RCV = 1.96 x 2(1/2) x(s(I)(2) +s A(2))(1/2), where s(I) is within-subject biological variation and s A is analytical variation, has been used for many years to take clinical decisions in patient monitoring. Furthermore, the index of individuality was defined as II = (s(I)(2) +s(A)(2))(1/2)/s(G) , where s(G) is the between-subject biological variation. This index has been simplified by later authors to s(I)/s(G) and has been used in monitoring situations to determine the utility of population-based reference intervals. Harris stated that when the index of individuality is lower than 0.6, the specific reference interval of the individual - when available - is better than the population-based reference interval. However, if a change within a patient is equivalent to the RCV applied for the significant difference between two measurements, the probability of detecting this change is only 50% (the same probability of missing it). Therefore, to obtain a higher probability of detecting a change by the RCV (e.g., 90%) the interpretation of the index of individuality has to be reconsidered. This contribution compares the power of the RCV to the use of cut-off points and population-based reference intervals. The benefits of the RCV compared to the distance to cut-off point or reference limit are also described in relation to the index of individuality.

  19. The Value of Information from a GRACE-Enhanced Drought Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Y.; Bernknopf, R.; Brookshire, D.; Macauley, M.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Rodell, M.; Vail, P.; Thompson, A.

    2015-12-01

    In this project, we develop a framework to estimate the economic value of information from the Gravity and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for drought monitoring and to understand how the GRACE Data Assimilation (GRACE-DA) system can inform decision making to improve regional economic outcomes. Specifically, we consider the potential societal value of further incorporating GRACE-DA information into the U.S. Drought Monitor mapmaking process. Research activities include (a) a literature review, (b) a series of listening sessions with experts and stakeholders, (c) the development of a conceptual economic framework based on a Bayesian updating procedure, and (d) an econometric analysis and retrospective case study to understand the GRACE-DA contribution to agricultural policy and production decisions. Taken together, the results from these research activities support our conclusion that GRACE-DA has the potential to lower the variance associated with our understanding of drought and that this improved understanding has the potential to change policy decisions that lead to tangible societal benefits.

  20. The incidence of metabolic syndrome in obese Czech children: the importance of early detection of insulin resistance using homeostatic indexes HOMA-IR and QUICKI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastucha, D; Filipčíková, R; Horáková, D; Radová, L; Marinov, Z; Malinčíková, J; Kocvrlich, M; Horák, S; Bezdičková, M; Dobiáš, M

    2013-01-01

    Common alimentary obesity frequently occurs on a polygenic basis as a typical lifestyle disorder in the developed countries. It is associated with characteristic complex metabolic changes, which are the cornerstones for future metabolic syndrome development. The aims of our study were 1) to determine the incidence of metabolic syndrome (based on the diagnostic criteria defined by the International Diabetes Federation for children and adolescents) in Czech obese children, 2) to evaluate the incidence of insulin resistance according to HOMA-IR and QUICKI homeostatic indexes in obese children with and without metabolic syndrome, and 3) to consider the diagnostic value of these indexes for the early detection of metabolic syndrome in obese children. We therefore performed anthropometric and laboratory examinations to determine the incidence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the group of 274 children with obesity (128 boys and 146 girls) aged 9-17 years. Metabolic syndrome was found in 102 subjects (37 %). On the other hand, the presence of insulin resistance according to QUICKI HOMA-IR >3.16 in 53 % of obese subjects. This HOMA-IR limit was exceeded by 70 % children in the MS(+) group, but only by 43 % children in the MS(-) group (p<0.0001). However, a relatively high incidence of insulin resistance in obese children without metabolic syndrome raises a question whether the existing diagnostic criteria do not falsely exclude some cases of metabolic syndrome. On the basis of our results we suggest to pay a preventive attention also to obese children with insulin resistance even if they do not fulfill the actual diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome.

  1. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of modified assays for activated protein C resistance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, G; Gruppo, R; Glueck, C J; Stroop, D; Becker, A; Pillow, A; Wang, P

    1998-03-01

    Very little data is available assessing the clinical utility of coagulation-based APC resistance assays compared to DNA-based analysis for the factor V Leiden mutation in children. Therefore, the clinical utility of four aPTT-based assays for APC resistance was evaluated in 169 children, ages 3 months through 16 years. The prevalence of the Arg506 to Gln mutation was 7/169 (4.1%). Using cutoff points derived from the normal PCR-screened population (n = 162), two assays for APC resistance (APC-SR and n-APC-SR) gave poor concordance with the PCR assay (sensitivity 29% and 57%, respectively). Two modified assays (FDAPC-SR and n-FDAPC-SR), in which patient plasma was prediluted 1:5 in factor V deficient plasma, gave excellent concordance (sensitivity 100%). The predictive value of a positive test was 0.25, 0.44, 1.00 and 0.88 for the APC-SR, n-APC-SR, FDAPC-SR and n-FDAPC-SR, respectively. The FDAPC-SR and n-FDAPC-SR tests gave excellent discrimination using cutoff values derived from the total population (n = 169) without regard to previous PCR screening results.

  2. [Study on the corrosion resistance of Cr ahoy in the artificial saliva with different pH value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Run-Gang; Li, Chun-Hua; Qian, Ye

    2010-02-01

    To study the effect on the corrosion resistance of Cr alloy in the artificial saliva with different pH value in vitro. Compared to Ti alloy, electrochemical technique was used to measure the electric potential of corrosion (E(corr)), current density of corrosion (I(corr)) Cr alloy in the artificial saliva with different pH value. The corrosion and corrosion resistance mechanism on Cr alloy in the artificial saliva with different pH value had been investigated by the EIS curves. The corrosion resistance of Co-Cr alloy was better than Ti alloy. The value of I(corr) was lower and the value of R(p) was larger than Ti alloy. The corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr alloy was worse than Ti alloy. The value of I(corr) was larger and the value of R(p) was lower than Ti alloy. The pH value in the artificial saliva was decreased, the I(corr) value of three types of alloy increased, the R(p) value of three types of alloy decreased. But the changes of Co-Cr alloy was smaller than that of Ti alloy or Ni-Cr alloy. The corrosion resistance of Co-Cr alloy was superior to that of Ni-Cr alloy and Ti alloy. In the acid artificial saliva, the corrosion resistance of three types of alloy descended evidently.

  3. Higher HOMA-IR index and correlated factors of insulin resistance in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wei, Ri-Bao; Wang, Yuan-da; Zhang, Xue-Guang; Rong, Na; Tang, Li; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the index of homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients, and to explore the possible correlated factors contributing to insulin resistance (IR) within these patients. There were 255 IgAN patients and 45 membranous nephropathy (MN) patients in our database. We identified 89 IgAN subjects and 21 MN subjects without diabetes and undergoing glucocorticoid therapy for at least 6 months. Data regarding physical examination, blood chemistry and renal pathology were collected from 89 IgAN subjects and 21 MN subjects. Then 62 IgAN patients and 19 MN patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) Stage 1 - 2 were selected for the comparison of HOMA-IR index, 89 IgAN patients were selected for multiple regression analysis to test for correlated factors of HOMA-IR index with IgAN patients. Comparison between IgAN and MN show that HOMA-IR index was significantly higher in IgAN patients with CKD Stage 1 - 2. After logarithmic transformation with urine protein (UPr), Ln(UPr) (b = 0.186, p = 0.008), eGFR (b = -0.005, p = 0.014), > 50% of glomeruli with mesangial hypercellularity (b = 0.285, p = 0.027) and body mass index (BMI) (b = 0.039, p = 0.008) were correlated factors of HOMA-IR index in the multiple regression analysis. IgAN patients had higher HOMA-IR index compared with MN in the stages of CKD 1 - 2. For IgAN patients, more UPr, lower eGFR, > 50% of glomeruli with mesangial hypercellularity and higher BMI were correlated with IR.

  4. Predictive Value of Middle Cerebral Artery to Uterine Artery Pulsatility Index Ratio in Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Adiga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives. (i To determine the predictive value of cerebrouterine (CU ratio (middle cerebral artery to uterine artery pulsatility index, MCA/UT PI in assessing perinatal outcome among hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. (ii To compare between CU ratio and CP ratio (MCA/Umbilical artery PI as a predictor of adverse perinatal outcome. Methods. A prospective observational study was done in a tertiary medical college hospital, from September 2012 to August 2013. One hundred singleton pregnancies complicated by hypertension peculiar to pregnancy were enrolled. Both CU and CP ratios were estimated. The perinatal outcomes were studied. Results. Both cerebrouterine and cerebroplacental ratios had a better negative predictive value in predicting adverse perinatal outcome. However, both CU and CP ratios when applied together were able to predict adverse outcomes better than individual ratios. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and the negative predictive values for an adverse neonatal outcome with CU ratio were 61.3%, 70.3%, 56%, and 78.9%, respectively, compared to 42%, 57.5%, 62%, and 76% as with CP ratio. Conclusion. Cerebrouterine ratio and cerebroplacental ratio were complementary to each other in predicting the adverse perinatal outcomes. Individually, both ratios were reassuring for favorable perinatal outcome with high negative predictive value.

  5. Value of the lumbar lordotic angle taken from CT scanogram as an index of back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Hea Sang; Kim, Guk Hee; Kim, Dae Young [Kangnam General Hospital Public Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    'Normal' spinal posture is generally accepted as moderate lordosis of the cervical and the lumbar sections of spine and moderate kyphosis of the thoracic and sacrococcygeal sections. Among these normal range of the lumbar lordosis is less well defined. CT is very useful method to identified the bony structure and adjacent soft tissue of the spine, so it is very available method to detect accurate lumbar lordotic angle by using lateral Scanogram. Analysis and comparison of lumbar lordotic angles, crossing angle are drawn each parallel line to the superior end plate of body of 1st. lumbar vertebra and to the inferior end plate of the 5th. lumbar vertebra, in 174 cases with backache and 50 cases normal groups at Kangnam General Hospital Public Corporation, from Aug. 1985 to Jul 1986. Male and female were almostly same affected in backache group (1.1:1). And most lumbar lordotic angles were 10 to 40 between all backache age group. On backache group, over all mean lumbar lordotic angles were 24.7+-8.9 but no significant difference at mean value of the each diseases, such as HIVD, Degenerative Spondylosis or No Remarkable Findings group. On control group, over all mean ones were 29.2+-8.0. So, significant difference of lumbar lordotic angle between backache and control group, and most difference is at 5th. decade group (p 0.01).

  6. Determinants of the inclusion in the BM&FBOVESPA Corporate Sustainability Index and its relationship with firm value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lélis Pedro Andrade

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the variables that influence the firms inclusion in the BM&FBOVESPA Corporate Sustainability Index (CSI, and if such membership is correlated with the firm market value in the Brazilian market. We collected annual data of firms for the period 2006 to 2011. The methodology included the use of methods such as regression analysis type logit and panel data models. The results showed that companies that have joined the ISE have characteristics distinct from those who did not opt for membership. Firms with larger size, higher profitability and sectors considered high environmental impact are more likely to be classified in the ISE. When examined whether inclusion in the CSI has relation with the metric firm value, the results did not reject the hypothesis of positive relationship, even during the financial crisis of 2008, however, found evidence of a negative relationship in the post-crisis period.

  7. An approach to value-based selection of a simulator selection: the creation and evaluation of the simulator value index tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Deborah M; Hananel, David M; Covington, Benjamin J; Dionise, Patrick L; Nykamp, Michael T; Pederson, Melvin; Sahloul, Jamal M; Vasquez, Rachael; Seagull, F Jacob; Pinsky, Harold M; Sweier, Domenica G; Cooke, James M

    2018-01-18

    Currently there is no reliable, standardized mechanism to support health care professionals during the evaluation of and procurement processes for simulators. A tool founded on best practices could facilitate simulator purchase processes. In a 3-phase process, we identified top factors considered during the simulator purchase process through expert consensus (n = 127), created the Simulator Value Index (SVI) tool, evaluated targeted validity evidence, and evaluated the practical value of this SVI. A web-based survey was sent to simulation professionals. Participants (n = 79) used the SVI and provided feedback. We evaluated the practical value of 4 tool variations by calculating their sensitivity to predict a preferred simulator. Seventeen top factors were identified and ranked. The top 2 were technical stability/reliability of the simulator and customer service, with no practical differences in rank across institution or stakeholder role. Full SVI variations predicted successfully the preferred simulator with good (87%) sensitivity, whereas the sensitivity of variations in cost and customer service and cost and technical stability decreased (≤54%). The majority (73%) of participants agreed that the SVI was helpful at guiding simulator purchase decisions, and 88% agreed the SVI tool would help facilitate discussion with peers and leadership. Our findings indicate the SVI supports the process of simulator purchase using a standardized framework. Sensitivity of the tool improved when factors extend beyond traditionally targeted factors. We propose the tool will facilitate discussion amongst simulation professionals dealing with simulation, provide essential information for finance and procurement professionals, and improve the long-term value of simulation solutions. Limitations and application of the tool are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The HOMA-Adiponectin (HOMA-AD Closely Mirrors the HOMA-IR Index in the Screening of Insulin Resistance in the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunna Sullara Vilela

    Full Text Available The major adverse consequences of obesity are associated with the development of insulin resistance (IR and adiposopathy. The Homeostasis Model Assessment-Adiponectin (HOMA-AD was proposed as a modified version of the HOMA1-IR, which incorporates adiponectin in the denominator of the index.To evaluate the performance of the HOMA-AD index compared with the HOMA1-IR index as a surrogate marker of IR in women, and to establish the cutoff value of the HOMA-AD.The Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS is a cross-sectional multicenter survey. The data from 1,061 subjects met the desired criteria: 18-65 years old, BMI: 18.5-49.9 Kg/m² and without diabetes. The IR was assessed by the indexes HOMA1-IR and HOMA-AD (total sample and by the hyperglycemic clamp (n = 49. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the IDF criteria.For the IR assessed by the clamp, the HOMA-AD demonstrated a stronger coefficient of correlation (r = -0.64 compared with the HOMA1-IR (r = -0.56; p 0.05. The optimal cutoff identified for the HOMA-AD for the diagnosis of IR was 0.95.The HOMA-AD index was demonstrated to be a useful surrogate marker for detecting IR among adult women and presented a similar performance compared with the HOMA1-IR index. These results may assist physicians and researchers in determining which method to use to evaluate IR in light of the available facilities.

  9. The HOMA-Adiponectin (HOMA-AD) Closely Mirrors the HOMA-IR Index in the Screening of Insulin Resistance in the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassani, Roberta Soares Lara; Forti, Adriana Costa e; Pareja, José Carlos; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio; Geloneze, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background The major adverse consequences of obesity are associated with the development of insulin resistance (IR) and adiposopathy. The Homeostasis Model Assessment-Adiponectin (HOMA-AD) was proposed as a modified version of the HOMA1-IR, which incorporates adiponectin in the denominator of the index. Objectives To evaluate the performance of the HOMA-AD index compared with the HOMA1-IR index as a surrogate marker of IR in women, and to establish the cutoff value of the HOMA-AD. Subjects/Methods The Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS) is a cross-sectional multicenter survey. The data from 1,061 subjects met the desired criteria: 18–65 years old, BMI: 18.5–49.9 Kg/m² and without diabetes. The IR was assessed by the indexes HOMA1-IR and HOMA-AD (total sample) and by the hyperglycemic clamp (n = 49). Metabolic syndrome was defined using the IDF criteria. Results For the IR assessed by the clamp, the HOMA-AD demonstrated a stronger coefficient of correlation (r = -0.64) compared with the HOMA1-IR (r = -0.56); p 0.05). The optimal cutoff identified for the HOMA-AD for the diagnosis of IR was 0.95. Conclusions The HOMA-AD index was demonstrated to be a useful surrogate marker for detecting IR among adult women and presented a similar performance compared with the HOMA1-IR index. These results may assist physicians and researchers in determining which method to use to evaluate IR in light of the available facilities. PMID:27490249

  10. Prediction of Skid Resistance Value of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Tiling Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik Alper Yildizel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the use of adaptive artificial neural network system for evaluating the skid resistance value (British Pendulum Number; BPN of the glass fiber-reinforced tiling materials. During the creation of the neural model, four main factors were considered: fiber, calcium carbonate content, sand blasting, and polishing properties of the specimens. The model was trained, tested, and compared with the on-site test results. As per the comparison of the outcomes of the study, the analysis and on-site test results showed that there is a great potential for the prediction of BPN of glass fiber-reinforced tiling materials by using developed neural system.

  11. Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) in the differentiation of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Ana Lúcia Farias de Azevedo; Carvalho, Luciana de; Oliveira, Ana Claudia; Santos, Virgínia Nascimento dos; Vieira, Jose Gilberto; Parise, Edison Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Due to its good correlation to glycemic clamp, HOMA-IR has been widely utilized as insulin resistance index in clinical and epidemiological studies involving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease carriers. However, values used for this parameter have shown large variability. To identify the HOMA-IR cut value that best distinguishes non-diabetic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients from a control group. One hundred sixteen non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients were studied, diagnosed by clinical, biochemical, and liver image or biopsy criteria, and 88 healthy individuals, without any liver disease and testing for oral glucose tolerance within normality. These groups did not differ in age and gender. All were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test and blood samples were collected for glucose and insulin measurements by immunofluorometric method. HOMA-IR was calculated according to the formula: fasting insulin (microU/L) x fasting glucose (nmol/L)/22.5. NAFLD patients showed higher insulin, glycemia, and HOMA-IR values than control group, even when excluding glucose intolerant and diabetes mellitus patients by their glycemic curves. HOMA-IR 75th percentile for control group was 1.78 and the best area under the curve index was obtained for HOMA-IR values of 2.0 [AUC= 0.840 (0.781-0.899 CI 95%), sensitivity (Se): 85%, specificity (Sp): 83%] while value 2.5 showed best specificity without important loss in sensitivity [AUC=0,831 (0.773-0.888) Se = 72%, Sp = 94%]. HOMA-IR values above or equal to 2.0 or 2.5 show enhanced diagnostic value in distinguishing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease carriers from control group individuals.

  12. Use of a seagrass residency index to apportion commercial fishery landing values and recreation fisheries expenditure to seagrass habitat service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Emma L; Rees, Siân E; Wilding, Catherine; Attrill, Martin J

    2015-06-01

    Where they dominate coastlines, seagrass beds are thought to have a fundamental role in maintaining populations of exploited species. Thus, Mediterranean seagrass beds are afforded protection, yet no attempt to determine the contribution of these areas to both commercial fisheries landings and recreational fisheries expenditure has been made. There is evidence that seagrass extent continues to decline, but there is little understanding of the potential impacts of this decline. We used a seagrass residency index, that was trait and evidence based, to estimate the proportion of Mediterranean commercial fishery landings values and recreation fisheries total expenditure that can be attributed to seagrass during different life stages. The index was calculated as a weighted sum of the averages of the estimated residence time in seagrass (compared with other habitats) at each life stage of the fishery species found in seagrass. Seagrass-associated species were estimated to contribute 30%-40% to the value of commercial fisheries landings and approximately 29% to recreational fisheries expenditure. These species predominantly rely on seagrass to survive juvenile stages. Seagrass beds had an estimated direct annual contribution during residency of €58-91 million (4% of commercial landing values) and €112 million (6% of recreation expenditure) to commercial and recreational fisheries, respectively, despite covering <2% of the area. These results suggest there is a clear cost of seagrass degradation associated with ineffective management of seagrass beds and that policy to manage both fisheries and seagrass beds should take into account the socioeconomic implications of seagrass loss to recreational and commercial fisheries. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Recorded time periods of bispectral index values equal to zero predict neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eertmans, Ward; Genbrugge, Cornelia; Haesevoets, Gilles; Dens, Jo; Boer, Willem; Jans, Frank; De Deyne, Cathy

    2017-08-22

    Prognostication in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survivors is often difficult. Recent studies have shown the predictive ability of bispectral index (BIS) monitoring to assist with early neuroprognostication. The aim of this study was to investigate whether characteristics of BIS values equal to zero (BIS 0) (i.e. duration and/or uni- versus bilateral presence) instead of simply their occurrence are better indicators for poor neurological outcome after OHCA by aiming at a specificity of 100%. Between 2011 and 2015, all successfully resuscitated OHCA patients were treated with targeted temperature management (TTM) at 33 °C for 24 hours followed by rewarming over 12 hours (0.3 °C/h). In total, BIS values were registered in 77 OHCA patients. The occurrence of unilateral (BIS 0 at one hemisphere) and bilateral (BIS 0 at both hemispheres) BIS 0 values as well as their total duration were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed using the total duration with BIS 0 values calculated from the initiation of TTM onwards to determine poor neurological outcome. In 30 of 77 OHCA patients (39%), at least one BIS 0 value occurred during the first 48 hours after admission. Of these 30 patients, six (20%) had a good (cerebral performance category (CPC) 1-2) and 24 (80%) a poor neurological outcome (CPC3-5) at 180 days post-CA. Within these 30 patients, the incidence of bilateral BIS 0 values was higher in patients with poor neurological outcome (CPC1-2: 2 (33%) vs. CPC3-5: 19 (79%); p = 0.028). The presence of a BIS 0 value predicted poor neurological outcome with a sensitivity of 62% and specificity of 84% (AUC: 0.729; p = 0.001). With a ROC analysis, a total duration of 30,3 minutes with BIS 0 values calculated over the first 48 hours predicted poor neurological outcome with a sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 100% (AUC: 0.861; p = 0.007). This study shows that a prolonged duration with (bilateral) BIS 0 values

  14. Annual Equivalent Value, Benefit Cost Ratio, and Composite Performance Index as Valuation Appraisal Support of Teakwood Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Soeleman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis L.f is a premium high-value hardwood species being viewed as the most preferred species for investment opportunity. Recently, there has been a gradual move away from state control of teakwood plantation toward the participation of private enterprises. Several enterprises offer investment opportunity of teakwood plantation in which one of the main selling points being offered is a quick harvesting schedule. A quick harvesting time, however, might not provide the best outcome to the investors. This research exercise and compare the valuation appraisal of different harvesting schedules. The research focused on project planning, enterprise budget, financial projection, and valuation measurements to arrive at overall appraisal. To avoid any possible bias of individual investor's preference on common valuation criteria such as total investment, net cash flow (NCF, net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR, profit on investment (P/I, and payback period (PBP, 3 otherS criteria namely benefit cost ratio (BCR, annual equivalent value (AEV, and composite performance index (CPI have been applied to arrive at a more fair valuation. It is concluded that the longer the harvesting schedule, the better valuation outcome could be achieved, and therefore, investors should critically review any investment proposal in accordance to their preference on valuation criteria.

  15. THE IMPACT OF REDUCING THE CAPACITY INCINERATORS OF MEDICAL WASTE ON THE VALUE OF THE COST-EFFECTIVENESS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Walery

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main subject of this paper is the optimization of a model of disposal and treatment of municipal waste as well as computer software MRGO+ (Model for Regional Waste Management, through which the model was implemented. It has been verified by the author and adapted to the needs of the proposed model to optimize the disposal and treatment of medical waste in the example of the Podlaskie Province. This paper describes the optimization study aimed to analysis of the impact of reducing the capacity incinerators of medical waste on the value of the cost-effectiveness index (E. The study was conducted on the example of the analysis of medical waste management system in north-eastern Poland, in the Podlaskie Province. Introduction of bandwidth limitations 3 intermediate objects and lack of bandwidth limitations in an incineration plant in Hajnówka, resulted in a significant decrease in system costs by approx. 17%, and consequently also a significant decrease in the cost-effectiveness index E.

  16. Metacarpal index by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: normative reference values and comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Nielsen, S P

    2001-01-01

    Metacarpal index (MCI), the combined cortical midmetacarpal thickness divided by the outer mid-metacarpal diameter, fell into oblivion when dual photon absorptiometry was introduced a quarter of a century ago. Modern PC-based digital X-ray diameter measurements offers a unique opportunity...... database for women is presented. It has its maximum in the third decade, and a moderate biologic variation that seems to decline with age. It was found that DXR-MCI was independent of body weight and body surface area, whereas all DXA-BMD values were significantly dependent on them. Body height...... for precise and accurate measurements of MCI (DXR-MCI). We hypothesized that DXR-MCI in contrast to projected areal bone mineral density (BMD) (DXA-BMD) is independent of bone size and studied 384 normal women by measuring DXR-MCI and DXA-BMD of the lumbar spine, hip, and distal radius. A normative MCI...

  17. A quest for normal values of serum aminotransferase and its association with age and body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, M.A.; Farooq, Y.; Khan, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reference range for serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels for young healthy individuals in our population and to find out effects of age and body mass index on alanine aminotransferase. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Military Hospital Rawalpindi; from Dec 2009 to April 2010. Material and Methods: Five hundred and fifty three young healthy adults were included in the study. Detailed history was taken. Parameters like Age, height and weight were measured. Relevant investigations were carried out for each subject which included blood complete picture, Chest X-Ray, ECG, Urine routine examination, liver function tests, serum urea, serum creatinine, serum uric acid, plasma glucose (F), Anti HCV antibodies, HBsAg, HIV antibodies and VDRL. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: Age of subjects ranged from 19 to 50 years (29 +- 6) years, BMI 15.59 to 29.8, (21.58 +- 2). Serum alanine aminotransferase ranged from 17 to 81 IU/l, (29.9 +- 8) IU/l. Serum alanine aminotransferase for subjects with body mass index more than 25 Kg/m2 was 29.6 +- 7 IU/L. There is no significant difference in value of mean ALT overall and in those with BMI of more than 25 (p=0.149) Conclusion: Mean serum alanine aminotransferase value in young healthy adults included in this study was 29.9 +- 8 IU/L which is lower than normal reference provided at present which is 40 IU/l. Statistical analysis revealed that serum ALT is not significantly influenced by age and BMI. (author)

  18. [Comparison of value of Qanadli versus Mastora pulmonary embolism index in evaluating straddle-type pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Cheng, Ruirui; Zhang, Guojun

    2014-12-16

    To compare the value of Qanadli versus Mastora pulmonary embolism index in evaluating straddle-type pulmonary embolism by computed tomography (CT). The clinical data were collected for 38 hospitalized patients with straddle-type pulmonary embolism diagnosed by CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) from January 2011 to May 2014. There were 20 males and 18 females with an average age of (59.2 ± 17.4 years). And the serum levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and D-dimer were recorded. And Qanadli and Mastora pulmonary embolism indices were used to independently determine the CT embolism indices. Difference and correlation between Quandli and Mastora pulmonary embolism index were analyzed. And the relations between Qanadli score, Mastora score and serum parameters and right heart function parameters were analyzed. Qanadli score of 38 patients was 20.0 ± 0.0 while Mastora score 80.9 ± 26.1. No significant correlation existed between Qanadli and Mastora scores. Median serum D-dimer level was 708.5 (9.6, 1 025.5) µg/L and median NT-proBNP 1 358.5 (576.7, 3 047.3) ng/L. Qanadli score was not statistically significantly correlated with serum D-dimer or NT-proBNP level. Mastora score was not correlated with serum D-dimer level statistically significantly, but it was positively correlated with the level of NT-proBNP (r = 0.495, P = 0.010). No significant correlation existed between Qanadli score and right atrial diameter, right ventricular/left ventricular diameter ratio on CTPA. Mastora score was positively correlated with right atrial diameter/left atrial diameter ratio (r = 0.627, P < 0.001) and right ventricular diameter/left ventricular diameter ratio on CTPA (r = 0.628, P < 0.001). The Mastora score was not significantly correlated with main pulmonary artery diameter and main pulmonary artery diameter/ascending aorta diameter ratio on CTPA. Mastora pulmonary embolism index is better than Qanadli pulmonary embolism index in evaluating straddle

  19. AN APPLICATION OF VALUE AT RISK BY MONTE CARLO SIMULATION METHOD IN PORTFOLIOS OF ISE30 INDEX AND GOVERNMENT SECURITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKTAY TAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the rapid development of information technologies and globalization, growing trading volumes and variety of securities have increased the exposure of economic units on risk. Therefore, the topics with respect to risk management have drawn substantial attention from both in academic and practitioners. In recent years , Value at Risk “VaR” approach, one of the methods used for evaluating risk , has gained widespread acceptance. In the first part of this study , the types of risk , the definition and historical development of the Value at Risk Approach , its methods and differences among these methods are explained. At the next section , VaR’s of the portfolios of ISE 30 index and goverment securities are estimated at the %99 and %95 confidence level and for 1 day and 10-day periods by the Monte Carlo simulation method which is one of the nonparametric estimation approaches of VaR. For each portfolio, simulations are performed based on the normal and Student–t distributions and results are compared. In the last section, the study is evaluated as a whole and emprical results are commented.

  20. Short-term repeatability of insulin resistance indexes in older adults. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Anna K; Meyer, Michelle L; Reaven, Gerald; Knowles, Joshua W; Selvin, Elizabeth; Pankow, James S; Couper, David; Loehr, Laura; Heiss, Gerardo

    2018-03-29

    The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) are insulin resistance indexes routinely used in clinical and population-based studies, but their short-term repeatability are not well characterized. To quantify the short-term repeatability of insulin resistances indexes and their analytes, consisting of fasting glucose and insulin for HOMA-IR, and triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) for TG/HDL-C. Prospective cohort study. A total of 102 adults 68 to 88 years old without diabetes attended an initial exam and repeat exam (mean 46 days; range 28 to 102 days). Blood samples were collected, processed, shipped, and assayed following a standardized protocol. Repeatability was quantified using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and within-person coefficient of variation (CV). Minimum detectable change (MDC95) and minimum detectable difference (MDD95) were quantified. For HOMA-IR, insulin, and fasting glucose, the ICCs were 0.70, 0.68, and 0.70; their respective within-person CVs were 30.4%, 28.8%, and 5.6%. For TG/HDL-C, triglyceride, and HDL-C, the ICCs were 0.80, 0.68, and 0.91; their respective within-person CVs were 23.0%, 20.6%, and 8.2%. The MDC95 for HOMA-IR was 2.3 and for TG/HDL-C was 1.4. The MDD95 for a sample of n=100 for HOMA-IR was 0.8 and for TG/HDL-C was 0.6. Short-term repeatability was fair to good for HOMA-IR and excellent for TG/HDL-C according to suggested benchmarks, reflecting the short-term variability of their analytes. These measurement properties can inform the use of these indexes in clinical and population-based studies.

  1. Influence of the column rectangularity index and of the boundary conditions in the punching resistance of slab-column connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. PAIVA

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence indicates that both the column rectangularity index and the boundary conditions of the connection may affect the ultimate punching resistance. This paper presents general aspects of these topics and, through the analysis of experimental results of tests on 131 slabs, evaluates the accuracy and suitability of recommendations presented by ABNT NBR 6118, Eurocode 2, ACI 318 and fib Model Code 2010. Experimental results showed that the security level of normative estimates trend to reduce as the column rectangularity increases, and in some cases, the punching resistance was overestimated. Finally, adjustments are suggested in equations presented by NBR 6118 and MC2010 in order to eliminate this trend of unsafe results.

  2. High throughput resistance profiling of Plasmodium falciparum infections based on custom dual indexing and Illumina next generation sequencing-technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nag, Sidsel; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2017-01-01

    designed dual indexing and Miseq sequencing for high throughput SNP-profiling of 457 malaria infections from Guinea-Bissau, at the cost of 10 USD per sample. By amplifying and sequencing 15 genetic fragments, we cover 20 resistance-conferring SNPs occurring in pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr, pfdhps, as well......-conferring SNPs in pfK13 are absent from the studied area of Guinea-Bissau, while the pfmdr1 86 N allele is found at a high prevalence. The mitochondrial barcodes are unanimous and accommodate a West African origin of the parasites. With this method, very reliable high throughput surveillance of antimalarial drug...

  3. Determination of GP88 (progranulin) expression in breast tumor biopsies improves the risk predictive value of the Nottingham Prognostic Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrero, Ginette; Hawkins, Douglas M; Bejarano, Pablo A; Ioffe, Olga; Tkaczuk, Katherine R; Elliott, Robert E; Head, Jonathan F; Phillips, Jeffrey; Godwin, Andrew K; Weaver, JoEllen; Hicks, David; Yue, Binbin

    2016-08-08

    The Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI), which combines numerical values for nodal status, tumor size and histological grade, is used in the standard of care to provide predictive value information on post-surgery survival for patients with primary breast cancer. Attempts to improve the performance of the NPI algorithm have been carried out by testing the inclusion of other biomarker expression and morphological features such as vascular invasion. In the present study, we investigated whether expression of the autocrine growth and survival factor GP88 (progranulin), known to be overexpressed in breast cancer, would improve NPI's predictive value. We examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) the GP88 expression in 508 cases of estrogen receptor positive invasive ductal carcinoma with known clinical outcomes and for which NPI had been determined. GP88 IHC expression was scored by two board certified pathologists and classified into two score groups of GP88 5.4) and GP88 expression showed that for patients within the same NPI subgroup, patients having tumors with a high GP88 expression (GP88 IHC score of 3+) had a worse DFS than patients with tumors that had a low GP88 expression (GP88 IHC score <3+). When adjusted for NPI, high GP88 score was significantly associated with recurrence with a hazard ratio of 3.30 (95 % CI 2.12 to 5.14). The data suggest that the determination of GP88 tumor expression at time of diagnosis for early stage breast cancer patients can provide additional survival information to that provided by NPI alone and thus may be useful for risk management of patients diagnosed with breast cancer.

  4. Multiple antibiotic resistance iIndex of EscherichiaColi isolates in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The effectiveness of available antibiotics is reducing as microorganisms device means of evading its effects, resulting in the development of superbugs. Pathogens previously susceptible are becoming resistant, and spreading beyond the hospital environment. This change is a major concern for infection ...

  5. Value of Adjusted Blood Requirement Index in determining failure to control bleed in patients with variceal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Shahab; Khalid, Abdullah B; Awan, Safia; Shah, Hasnain A; Hamid, Saeed; Jafri, Wasim

    2015-03-01

    Variceal bleeding is a serious complication in patients with cirrhosis. Among the criteria that were proposed in Baveno conferences, the Adjusted Blood Requirement Index (ABRI) has not been validated prospectively in clinical practice. We therefore aim to evaluate the measurement of ABRI as a marker of failure to control bleeding and to evaluate the consistency of ABRI in relation to other criteria of failure to control variceal bleeding. All patients with variceal bleeding who presented to Aga Khan University Hospital from January 2010 to December 2012 who were administered transfusion of packed red blood cells were included after obtaining informed consent. All patients were managed as per the standard protocol with intravenous terlipressin along with band ligation and injection of cyanoacrylate in cases of esophageal and fundal varices, respectively. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were measured every 6 h for 48 h and then every 12 h until 5 days of index bleed in each patient. Packed cells were transfused if hemoglobin decreased below 8 g/dl. The number of blood units transfused, change in hemoglobin values, and ABRI were calculated after each unit of blood transfusion till 120 h. In patients in whom bleed could not be controlled, an ABRI value of 0.75 or more was compared with other Baveno IV-based parameters that define failure to control variceal bleeding. During the study period, 137 eligible patients with variceal bleed were admitted. The mean age of the patients was 52±12 years. The majority of patients (50.4%) were in Child-Pugh class B, followed by 38% in Child-Pugh class C. According to the Baveno IV criteria, overall failure to control acute variceal bleeding occurred in 52 (37.9%) patients. Excluding ABRI, failure to control bleeding was found in 22/137 (16%) patients, whereas ABRI-based criteria showed that in 34/137 (24.8%) patients, bleeding could not be controlled. There were only four (2.9%) patients with variceal bleeding in whom ABRI and

  6. [Risk factors of venous thromboembolism recurrence and the predictive value of simplified pulmonary embolism severity index in medical inpatients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, C L; Zhou, H X; Tang, Y J; Wang, L; Yi, Q; Liang, Z A

    2016-04-12

    To explore the risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence and the predictive value of simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI) in medical inpatients. A total of 149 consecutive patients with first diagnosed VTE from the medical departments of West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2011 and December 2012 were enrolled and followed-up for 24 months. The VTE recurrence rate was calculated and univariate and multivariate cox proportional hazards regression analysis were performed to identify the risk factors associated with VTE recurrence. All the patients were evaluated by sPESI, and survival analysis was used to explore its value in predicting VTE recurrence in these medical patients. Out of the included 149 patients, 23(15.4%) patients had VTE recurrence during the 2 years' follow-up and median recurrence time was 167 days. The univariate analysis showed bed rest, severe lung disease, nephrotic syndrome, inappropriate anticoagulant therapy, smoking, diabetes, and malignant neoplasm might be associated with VTE recurrence (P=0.043, 0.006, 0.009, 0.032, 0.098, 0.048, 0.021). Among these risk factors, the multivariate analysis revealed severe lung disease, nephrotic syndrome, and malignant neoplasm were the independent risk factors (HR=3.45, 5.67, 3.60; P=0.020, 0.020, 0.047); while for inappropriate anticoagulant therapy, the P value was marginal (HR=3.94, 95% CI: 0.99-15.63, P=0.051). The median sPESI scores of the patients with VTE recurrence was higher than that of the patients without VTE recurrence[1(1, 2) vs 0(0, 1), P=0.001], and patients with sPESI≥1 were associated with 5.57-fold increased risk of VTE recurrence compared with patients with sPESI=0 (95%CI: 1.79-17.30, P=0.001). Survival analysis also showed that the 2-year cumulative VTE recurrence rate of patients with sPESI≥1 was significant higher than that of patients with sPESI=0 (38.4% vs 5.7%, P=0.001). The medical VTE patients have high VTE recurrence risk

  7. Ultrasound-assessed perirenal fat is related to increased ophthalmic artery resistance index in HIV-1 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima, Pierfrancesco; Guido, Marcello; Chiavaroli, Roberto; Zizza, Antonella

    2010-06-30

    The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically changed the prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, with a significant decline in morbidity and mortality.Changes in body fat distribution are a common finding in individuals with HIV infection being treated with antiretrovirals, and this condition (collectively termed lipodystrophy syndrome) is associated with depletion of subcutaneous fat, increased triglycerides and insulin resistance. Obesity, particularly visceral obesity, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, estimating visceral fat distribution is important in identifying subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease.The aim of our study was to evaluate whether perirenal fat thickness (PRFT), a parameter of central obesity, is related to ophthalmic artery resistance index (OARI), an index of occlusive carotid artery disease in HIV-1 infected patients. We enrolled 88 consecutive HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy for more than 12 months, in a prospective cohort study. Echographically measured PRFT and OARI, as well as serum metabolic parameters, were evaluated. PRFT and OARI were measured by 3.75 MHz convex and 7.5 MHz linear probe, respectively. The means of PRFT and OARI in HIV-1-infected patients with visceral obesity was considerably higher than in patients without it (p 0.74 (sensitivity 78.9%, specificity 82.8%). Our data indicate that ultrasound assessment of PRFT may have potential as a marker of increased endothelial damage with specific involvement of the ocular vascular region in HIV-1-infected patients.

  8. Accuracy of different cutoff points of body mass index to identify overweight according to body fat values estimated by DEXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzolin, Caroline Cristina; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Cayres, Suziane Ungari; Codogno, Jamile Sanches; Costa Junior, Paulo; Machado, Dalmo Roberto Lopes; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of different cutoff points of body mass index for predicting overweight/obesity according to body fat values estimated by DEXA among Brazilian adolescents. Cross-sectional study including 229 male adolescents aged 10-15 years, in which body adiposity and anthropometric measures were assessed. Nutritional status was classified by BMI according to cutoff points described in scientific literature. Moderate agreements were observed between body fat estimated by DEXA and cutoffs proposed by Cole et al. (K=0.61), Conde and Monteiro (K=0.65), Must et al. (K=0.61) and WHO (K=0.63). The BMI in continuous form showed good agreement with the Dexa (ICC=0.72). The highest sensitivity was observed for cutoff by Conde and Monteiro (0.74 [0.62, 0.84]) and the highest specificity by Cole et al. (0.98 [0.94, 0.99]). For the areas under the ROC curve of cutoff points analyzed, significant difference comparing the cutoff points by Cole et al. and Conde and Monteiro (0.0449 [0.00294, 0.0927]) was observed. The cutoff proposed by Conde and Monteiro was more sensitive in identifying overweight and obesity when compared to the reference method, and the cutoff proposed by Cole et al. presented the highest specificity for such outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. An empirical evaluation of Value-at-Risk: The case of the Belgrade Stock Exchange index - BELEX15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đaković Vladimir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is to test and analyze VaR (Value-at-Risk methods of market risk management on the financial market of the Republic of Serbia. Thus, concrete research is conducted in the period 2005 - 2011, with the goal of VaR methods performance assessment on the Serbian financial market. The tested VaR methods are Historical simulation (HS and Delta normal VaR with 95% and 99% confidence level for 50, 100, 200 and 250 days. BELEX15 stock index of the Belgrade Stock Exchange, which comprises of 15 most liquid securities of the Serbian financial market, is used as a benchmark indicator of the conditions on the Serbian financial market. The goals which are intended for achieving in the research are focused to Historical simulation (HS and Delta normal VaR performance assessment on, according to many criteria, 'specific'-transitory financial market of the Republic of Serbia. The basic goal of the research is to come to concrete, practically tested, knowledge about the possibility and performance of VaR methods application on the financial market of the Republic of Serbia in function of investment decisions optimizing. Research results point to the necessity of VaR methods application in market risk management on the financial market of the Republic of Serbia.

  10. Assessment of the effect of radio contrast media on resistive index of renal artery by color doppler sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakourirad, Ali; Ataeefar Mehdi; Jozaghi, Solmaz

    2009-01-01

    Renal ischemia and direct toxic effect of contrast media are the main confounding causes of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The effect of different contrast mediums on the resistance of renal artery is quite unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess the resistive index (RI) changes of renal segmental artery in color Doppler duplex sonography after injection of two different contrast mediums: iodixanol and iohexol. The RI of the renal segmental artery of 62 randomly chosen patients, with a normal baseline renal function, was calculated using color-coded Doppler sonography before and five minutes after bolus injection of two different contrast mediums. Thirty-one patients were administered 50 mL of iodixanol (Visipaque) and 31 patients were administered 50 mL of iohexol (Omnipaque) during intravenous urogram procedures. The RI results were analyzed and compared in two groups using two-tailed t-test. The mean RI of renal segmental artery increased significantly after administration of contrast media (mean + - SD 0.61 + - 0.046 vs 0.58 +- 0.042; p< 0.001). The mean change of RI was 0.0387 +- .00552 (mean + - SE) in the setting of iohexol injection and 0.0216 + - .00423 (mean + - SE) five minutes after administration of iodixanol (p0.017). Both non-ionic iso-osmolar dimeric iodixanol and low-osmolar iohexol increase the renal artery resistance, but the changes are more dramatic with iohexol, suggesting better tolerance with iodixanol. (author)

  11. Prognostic Value of Pulmonary Vascular Resistance by Magnetic Resonance in Systolic Heart Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabregat-Andrés, Óscar, E-mail: osfabregat@gmail.com [Departamento de Cardiologia - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Fundación para la Investigación - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Estornell-Erill, Jordi [Unidad de Imagen Cardiaca - ERESA - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Ridocci-Soriano, Francisco [Departamento de Cardiologia - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Medicina. Universitat de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Pérez-Boscá, José Leandro [Departamento de Cardiologia - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); García-González, Pilar [Unidad de Imagen Cardiaca - ERESA - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Payá-Serrano, Rafael [Departamento de Cardiologia - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Medicina. Universitat de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Morell, Salvador [Departamento de Cardiologia - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Cortijo, Julio [Fundación para la Investigación - Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Farmacologia. Universitat de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure. However, non-invasive diagnosis is still challenging in clinical practice. We sought to assess the prognostic utility of non-invasive estimation of pulmonary vascular resistances (PVR) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance to predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Prospective registry of patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 40% and recently admitted for decompensated heart failure during three years. PVRwere calculated based on right ventricular ejection fraction and average velocity of the pulmonary artery estimated during cardiac magnetic resonance. Readmission for heart failure and all-cause mortality were considered as adverse events at follow-up. 105 patients (average LVEF 26.0 ±7.7%, ischemic etiology 43%) were included. Patients with adverse events at long-term follow-up had higher values of PVR (6.93 ± 1.9 vs. 4.6 ± 1.7estimated Wood Units (eWu), p < 0.001). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, PVR ≥ 5 eWu(cutoff value according to ROC curve) was independently associated with increased risk of adverse events at 9 months follow-up (HR2.98; 95% CI 1.12-7.88; p < 0.03). In patients with HFrEF, the presence of PVR ≥ 5.0 Wu is associated with significantly worse clinical outcome at follow-up. Non-invasive estimation of PVR by cardiac magnetic resonance might be useful for risk stratification in HFrEF, irrespective of etiology, presence of late gadolinium enhancement or LVEF.

  12. Pilates versus resistance exercise on the serum levels of hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference and body mass index (BMI in elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adesilda Silva Pestana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the elderly exhibit a subclinical state of inflammation associated with increased adipose tissue and several comorbidities. To compare the effects of mat Pilates based exercises and resistance exercise on the serum levels of reactive C protein of high sensitivity (hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference (AC and the body mass index (BMI in the elderly. It is a randomised clinical trial with a sample of 78 elderly individuals (median age 69 years. The active independent variable investigated was nature of treatment intervention (Pilates mat based exercises vs resistance exercise, and the dependent variables were hs-CRP level, AC and BMI. The statistical analysis used Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney tests. The correlation between the continuous variables was assessed using Spearman’s coefficient of correlation. The data were analysed using SPSS software version 17.0, and probability values lower than 5% (p< 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Mat Pilates based exercises exhibited reductions in serum hs-CPR level (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -2.466, p = 0.01, BMI (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.295, p = 0.001 and AC (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.398, p = 0.01. Mat Pilates based exercises promoted a significant reduction of the serum hs-CRP levels and anthropometric measurements in elderly individuals.

  13. A Soil Service Index: Peatland soils as a case study for quantifying the value, vulnerability, and status of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, J.; Harden, J. W.; Hugelius, G.

    2017-12-01

    What are the most important soil services valued by land stewards and planners? Which soil-data metrics can be used to quantify each soil service? What are the steps required to quantitatively index the baseline value of soil services and their vulnerability under different land-use and climate change scenarios? How do we simulate future soil service pathways (or trajectories) under changing management regimes using process-based ecosystem models? What is the potential cost (economic, social, and other) of soil degradation under these scenarios? How sensitive or resilient are soil services to prescribed management practices, and how does sensitivity vary over space and time? We are bringing together a group of scientists and conservation organizations to answer these questions by launching Soil Banker, an open and flexible tool to quantify soil services that can be used at any scale, and by any stakeholder. Our overarching goals are to develop metrics and indices to quantify peatland soil ecosystem services, monitor change of these services, and guide management. This paper describes our methodology applied to peatlands and presents two case studies (Indonesia and Patagonia) demonstrating how Peatland Soil Banker can be deployed as an accounting tool of peatland stocks, a quantitative measure of peatland health, and as a projection of peatland degradation or enhancement under different land-use cases. Why peatlands? They store about 600 billion tons of carbon that account for ⅓ of the world's soil carbon. Peatlands have dynamic GHG exchanges of CO2, CH4, and NOx with the atmosphere, which plays a role in regulating global climate; studies indicate that peatland degradation releases about 2-3 billion tons of CO2 to the atmosphere annually. These ecosystems also provide local and regional ecosystem services: they constitute important components of the N and P cycles, store about 10% of the world's freshwater and buffer large fluxes of freshwater on an annual basis

  14. Glycaemic index values and physicochemical properties of five brown rice varieties cooked by different domestic cooking methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Kumar Chapagai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of diabetes has increased dramatically in recent decades in the regions where people excessively consume white rice. Due to higher nutritional values and bioactive components, low to medium glycaemic index (GI brown rice could be a potential alternative to white rice in these regions. Methods: Five varieties, Chiang (CH, Sungyod (SY, Lepnok (LP from Thailand, Long grain specialty 1 (LS 1 and Long grain specialty 2 (LS 2 from Malaysia were tested for GI. Ten test foods were prepared from 5 varieties by 2 cooking techniques (pressure cooker, PC and rice cooker, RC. Overnight fasted 10 healthy subjects were fed with 25 g glucose as a reference food (RF on 3 occasions and amount equivalent to 25 g available carbohydrate portion of test food (TF on 1 occasion in separate days. Fasting and post-prandial capillary blood glucose was measured via finger-prick methods at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, and the incremental area under curve (iAUC was determined. The GI of each TF was calculated as percentage of incremental area under curve (iAUC of TF over RF. Results: The mean GI values of SY (72 – 81, high, CH and LP (59 – 65, medium and LS 1 and LS 2 (64 – 73, medium to high for cooking were discovered by PC and RC methods. The GI did not vary significantly (p>0.05 among varieties as well as between cooking methods. GI showed a significant negative correlation with the amylose content (r = –0.70, p<0.05 and significant positive correlation with cold peak viscosity (r = 0.80, p<0.01. Conclusions: All five rice varieties irrespectively of the cooking method used are classified as medium to high GI foods. Medium GI varieties could have potential of being used in diabetic diet. Cooking methods did not significantly alter the glycaemic characteristics of the studied varieties. Amylose content and pasting properties can be used for predicting GI of brown rice. It is urgent to explore low GI brown rice varieties in these

  15. Effects of clay on resistivity index thin bed: case from Western Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain clays produce micro-porosities that retain a relatively thick water layer and enhance the path for conductivity of electric currents through capillary forces. Saturation exponent (n) in clay-rich fields is less than the value of 2, usually assumed in well-logging. Accurately determined clay-corrected saturation exponent ...

  16. The Isopach Mapping of Volcanic Deposits of Mount Samalas 1257 AD Based on the Values of Resistivity and Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiden Hiden

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study had been conducted on the sediment of Mount Samalas’ volcanic eruption in 1257 AD. Using the framework of the reconstruction of the ancient eruption of Mount Samalas, the first step was to map and analyze the deposits of volcanic sediment. Secondly, we analyzed the effect of geomorphology and the distance function to the isopach thickness. The results show that a combination of methods allowed to provide a high resolution map of the distribution of the thickness of the volcanic deposits, both on the slope and in alluvial areas. Geo-electric survey results (both Vertical Electric Sound (VES and 2D mapping show consistent changes in the pattern of contrast resistivity layer interface, for all areas. The pattern changes in a row of the top layer, the high resistivity turned into the low. Furthermore, the second and third layer interface changes from low to the high resistivity. High resistivity on the top layer is interpreted as a layer of unconsolidated volcanic sediment. High resistivity values are range from 736 to 2000 Ohm.m on the top layer in the area of the slopes while in the area of alluvial, the resistivity values range from 20 to 958 Ohm.m. Generally, the volcanic deposits in the area of the slopes have a higher value of isopach (>17 m than in areas of alluvial (<25 m. The geomorphology seemed to have no significant effect on the isopach value, particularly pyroclastic fallout. Such is the case with distance from the source to the site, which is not linear. The value of isopach increases westward from 21 to 31 km, in contrast to the East, which began to occur at a distance of 14 km to 21 km.

  17. Association Between the Visceral Adiposity Index and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance in Participants With Normal Waist Circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Baolan; Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Wei, Huili; Deng, Huacong

    2017-09-01

    We assessed the correlation between the visceral adiposity index (VAI; a useful indicator of adipose distribution and function) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in participants with normal waist circumference. A cross-sectional study was conducted, which included 1834 Chinese adults. The blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting and postprandial blood glucose, fasting insulin, and lipid profiles were measured. The VAI and HOMA-IR were calculated. Participants were divided into 4 groups according to the HOMA-IR level, and the correlation between the VAI and HOMA-IR was analyzed. The VAI gradually increased across the HOMA-IR quartiles ( P HOMA-IR ( P HOMA-IR. A logistic regression analysis indicated that VAI elevation was the main risk factor for the increased HOMA-IR in both genders. Overall, the VAI was closely correlated with the HOMA-IR in a population without central obesity.

  18. Results of the freeze resistance test, swelling index and coefficient of permeability of finegrained mining waste reinforced with cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morman, Justyna

    2018-04-01

    The article presents the result of laboratory tests for mining waste with grain size of 0 to 2 mm stabilized with cement. Used for stabilization of cement CEM I 42.5 R and blast furnace cement CEM III / A 42.5N - LH / HSR / NA and a plasticizer sealant. Cement was added to the mining waste test in the proportions of 5 - 8% in relation to the skeleton's weight. For the cemented samples, the freeze resistance test, swelling index, coefficient of permeability and pH of water leachate were tested. The addition of a cement binder resulted in diminishing the water permeability of mining waste and limiting the leaching of fine particles from the material.

  19. High accuracy of predicting hybrid performance of Fusarium head blight resistance by mid-parent values in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedaner, Thomas; Schulthess, Albert W; Gowda, Manje; Reif, Jochen C; Longin, C Friedrich H

    2017-02-01

    Mid-parent values of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance tested across several locations are a good predictor of hybrid performance caused by a preponderance of additive gene action in wheat. Hybrid breeding is intensively discussed as one solution to boost yield and yield stability including an enhanced biotic stress resistance. Our objectives were to investigate (1) the heterosis for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, (2) the importance of general (GCA) vs. specific combining ability (SCA) for FHB resistance, and (3) the possibility to predict the FHB resistance of the hybrids by the parental means. We re-analyzed phenotypic data of a large population comprising 1604 hybrids and their 120 female and 15 male parental lines evaluated in inoculation trials across seven environments. Mid-parent heterosis of FHB severity averaged -9%, with a range from -36 to +35%. Mean better parent heterosis was 2% and 78 of the hybrids significantly (P hybrids (r = 0.09, P hybrid performance of FHB severity based on mid-parent values and on GCA effects was high (r = 0.70 and 0.86, respectively; P hybrids are an attractive alternative variety type to improve FHB resistance.

  20. May Renal Resistive Index Be an Early Predictive Tool of Postoperative Complications in Major Surgery? Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Giustiniano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients who undergo high-risk surgery represent a large amount of post-operative ICU-admissions. These patients are at high risk of experiencing postoperative complications. Renal Resistive Index was found to be related with renal dysfunction, hypertension, and posttraumatic hemorrhagic shock, probably due to vasoconstriction. We explored whether Renal Resistive Index (RRI, measured after awakening from general anesthesia, could have any relationship with postoperative complications. Methods. In our observational, stratified dual-center trial, we enrolled patients who underwent general anesthesia for high-risk major surgery. After awakening in recovery room (or during awakening period in subjects submitted to cardiac surgery we measured RRI by echo-color-Doppler method. Primary endpoint was the association of altered RRI (>0.70 and outcome during the first postoperative week. Results. 205 patients were enrolled: 60 (29.3% showed RRI > 0.70. The total rate of adverse event was 27 (18.6% in RRI ≤ 0.7 group and 19 (31.7% in RRI > 0.7 group (P=0.042. Significant correlation between RRI > 0.70 and complications resulted in pneumonia (P=0.016, septic shock (P=0.003, and acute renal failure (P=0.001 subgroups. Patients with RRI > 0.7 showed longer ICU stay (P=0.001 and lasting of mechanical ventilation (P=0.004. These results were confirmed in cardiothoracic surgery subgroup. RRI > 0.7 duplicates triplicates the risk of complications, both in general (OR 2.03 93 95% CI 1.02–4.02, P=0.044 and in cardiothoracic (OR 2.62 95% CI 1.11–6.16, P=0.027 population. Furthermore, we found RRI > 0.70 was associated with a triplicate risk of postoperative septic shock (OR 3.04, CI 95% 1.5–7.01; P=0.002.

  1. Ultrasound-assessed perirenal fat is related to increased ophthalmic artery resistance index in HIV-1 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiavaroli Roberto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has dramatically changed the prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, with a significant decline in morbidity and mortality. Changes in body fat distribution are a common finding in individuals with HIV infection being treated with antiretrovirals, and this condition (collectively termed lipodystrophy syndrome is associated with depletion of subcutaneous fat, increased triglycerides and insulin resistance. Obesity, particularly visceral obesity, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, estimating visceral fat distribution is important in identifying subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether perirenal fat thickness (PRFT, a parameter of central obesity, is related to ophthalmic artery resistance index (OARI, an index of occlusive carotid artery disease in HIV-1 infected patients. Methods We enrolled 88 consecutive HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy for more than 12 months, in a prospective cohort study. Echographically measured PRFT and OARI, as well as serum metabolic parameters, were evaluated. PRFT and OARI were measured by 3.75 MHz convex and 7.5 MHz linear probe, respectively. Results The means of PRFT and OARI in HIV-1-infected patients with visceral obesity was considerably higher than in patients without it (p 0.74 (sensitivity 78.9%, specificity 82.8%. Conclusions Our data indicate that ultrasound assessment of PRFT may have potential as a marker of increased endothelial damage with specific involvement of the ocular vascular region in HIV-1-infected patients.

  2. Significance of IgG optical density ratios (index value) in single reactive anti-Dengue virus IgG capture ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Sharma, Ankush; Choudhury, Shilpee; Chumber, Sushil Kumar; Kaur, Mandeep; Bage, Ras; Parkhe, Nittin; Khanduri, Uma

    2016-12-01

    A single reactive IgG anti-Dengue virus ELISA test in the absence of IgM antibodies or NS1 antigen may denote current infection or past exposure to the virus. To determine whether IgG index value can be used to identify true current dengue infection we conducted a prospective observational study. Suspected dengue patients (n =1745) were tested in their first specimen by MAC-ELISA, GAC-ELISA and NS1 antigen ELISA. Patients with MAC-ELISA and NS1Antigen non-reactive but GAC-ELISA reactive results (n =57) in their first test were followed up and repeated sampling was asked for IgG index values were calculated according to the manufacturer's instruction and classified as: low (2.2-2.5), medium (2.5-4.0) and high (>4.0). 16 out of 57 patients (28.1%) had low IgG Index value whereas 26 cases (45.6%) were categorized as medium and 15(26.3%) were classified as patients with high IgG index. Nine patients with paired reactive serology or antigen positive status were categorised as serologically confirmed dengue fever, 11 patients as not dengue with categorical evidence of other infections while the rest 37 casas with clinical, radiological and laboratory parameters suggestive of dengue but no serological confirmation as possible dengue. Among confirmed, possible and non-Dengue cases, 33.3, 32.4 and 0.0% had high Index value in comparison with 22.2, 29.7 and 27.3% showing low Index values, respectively. Our results suggested a high IgG response in favour of true dengue infection than past exposure while no conclusions should drawn from a low or medium reactive GAC-ELISA results in the absence of IgM antibodies and NS1 Ag.

  3. Using Expectancy Value Theory as a Framework to Reduce Student Resistance to Active Learning: A Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Katelyn M; Ashley, Michael; Brownell, Sara E

    2017-01-01

    There has been a national movement to transition college science courses from passive lectures to active learning environments. Active learning has been shown to be a more effective way for students to learn, yet there is concern that some students are resistant to active learning approaches. Although there is much discussion about student resistance to active learning, few studies have explored this topic. Furthermore, a limited number of studies have applied theoretical frameworks to student engagement in active learning. We propose using a theoretical lens of expectancy value theory to understand student resistance to active learning. In this study, we examined student perceptions of active learning after participating in 40 hours of active learning. We used the principal components of expectancy value theory to probe student experience in active learning: student perceived self-efficacy in active learning, value of active learning, and potential cost of participating in active learning. We found that students showed positive changes in the components of expectancy value theory and reported high levels of engagement in active learning, which provide proof of concept that expectancy value theory can be used to boost student perceptions of active learning and their engagement in active learning classrooms. From these findings, we have built a theoretical framework of expectancy value theory applied to active learning.

  4. High pulmonary vascular resistance in addition to low right ventricular stroke work index effectively predicts biventricular assist device requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Kinoshita, Osamu; Nawata, Kan; Ono, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Although the right ventricular stroke work index (RVSWI) is a good index for RV function, a low RVSWI is not necessarily an indicator for the need for a right ventricular assist device at the time of left VAD implantation. We here aimed to determine a more precise indicator for the need for a biventricular assist device (BiVAD). In total, 116 patients (mean age, 38 ± 14 years), who underwent hemodynamic assessments preoperatively including 12 BiVAD patients, and had been followed at our institute from 2003 to 2015, were included. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that RVSWI and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were independent predictors of BiVAD requirement (P 5 g/m, PVR 5, PVR > 3.7), (3) RV failure (RVSWI 3.7), and examined. Most of the patients in Group 4 (75 %), with acutely depressed hemodynamics and inflammatory responses in the myocardium, required BiVAD. Overall, patients with BiVAD had a worse survival rate as compared with those with LVAD alone. In conclusion, high PVR in addition to low RVSWI effectively predicts BiVAD requirement.

  5. A brief history of space and time: the scope-year index as a patent value indicator based on families and renewals

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Van Pottelsberghe; Nicolas van Zeebroeck

    2008-01-01

    The renewal of patents and their geographical scope for protection constitute two essential dimensions in a patent’s life, and probably the most frequently used patent value indicators. The intertwining of these dimensions (the geographical scope of protection may vary over time) makes their analysis complex, as any measure along one dimension requires an arbitrary choice on the second. This paper proposes a new indicator of patent value, the Scope-Year index, combining the two dimensions. Th...

  6. Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps, abstract Weyl-Titchmarsh M-functions, and a generalized index of unbounded meromorphic operator-valued functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrndt, Jussi; Gesztesy, Fritz; Holden, Helge; Nichols, Roger

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a generalized index for certain meromorphic, unbounded, operator-valued functions. The class of functions is chosen such that energy parameter dependent Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps associated to uniformly elliptic partial differential operators, particularly, non-self-adjoint Schrödinger operators, on bounded Lipschitz domains, and abstract operator-valued Weyl-Titchmarsh M-functions and Donoghue-type M-functions corresponding to closed extensions of symmetric operators belong to it. The principal purpose of this paper is to prove index formulas that relate the difference of the algebraic multiplicities of the discrete eigenvalues of Robin realizations of non-self-adjoint Schrödinger operators, and more abstract pairs of closed operators in Hilbert spaces with the generalized index of the corresponding energy dependent Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps and abstract Weyl-Titchmarsh M-functions, respectively.

  7. Association between the Hygiene Index Values of Live Fresh Aquatic Products and Food-Borne Diarrhea in the Population of the Ningbo Area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; Lu, Lu; Shu, Liye; Chen, Jianjun; Zou, Baobo; Zhou, Qi; Gu, Yuanliang; Zhao, Jinshun; Lin, Xialu

    2015-08-06

    To investigate the association of the hygiene index values of live fresh aquatic products and food-borne diarrhea in the population of the Ningbo area in China. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), histamine (HIS), indole, tetrodotoxin (TTX), and paralytic, neurotoxic, amnesic and diarrhetic shellfish poisons (PSP, NSP, ASP, and DSP, respectively) in the samples of live fresh aquatic products and food-borne diarrhea cases in six studied districts were analyzed. Results indicate that the incidence rate of food-borne diarrhea is related to the hygiene index values. Aside from VBN, the main risk factors related to food-borne diarrhea in edible aquatic products include DSP (in marine fish, shrimp, and other shellfishes), NSP, and ASP (in marine shrimp and crab). Hygiene index values among different species were significantly different. No significant difference in the monitoring index values was found among the six different studied districts. The reported cases of food-borne diarrhea were positively associated with VBN and DSP in aquatic products in Haishu, Jiangbei, Zhenhai, and Beilun, as well as VBN and NSP in aquatic products in Jiangdong and Yinzhou. In conclusion, VBN, DSP, NSP, and ASP are important risk factors for the occurring of food-borne diarrhea in the population of the Ningbo area in China.

  8. Ankle brachial index values, leg symptoms, and functional performance among community-dwelling older men and women in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence and significance of low normal and abnormal ankle brachial index (ABI) values in a community dwelling population of sedentary, older individuals is unknown. We describe the prevalence of categories of definite peripheral artery disease (PAD), borderline ABI, low-normal ABI and no PAD...

  9. Multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria on fluted pumpkin leaves, a herb of therapeutic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A; Abdu, Abdulrasheed B

    2014-06-01

    Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) is a minimally-processed green leafy vegetable traditionally used for its antianaemic properties in the form of leaf juice without a heating or inactivation step before consumption. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of surface microbiota on T. occidentalis leaves and also to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms. Bacterial contaminants on 50 samples of T. occidentalis leaves were isolated and characterized using standard biochemical methods and the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms was determined using the antibiotic disc diffusion assay. The results obtained show that the leaves of T. occidentalis is contaminated with organisms which included Enterobacter agglomerans (25.9%), Proteus vulgaris (24.9%), Klebsiella spp. (2.6%), and Serratia liquefaciens (2.1%). Other bacterial isolates recovered in order of frequency included: Staphylococcus spp. (33.7%), Bacillus spp. (8.3%), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (2.6%). Of the 193 bacterial isolates from the leaves of T. occidentalis samples tested for antimicrobial resistance, all (100%) were found to be resistant to ampicillin, cloxacillin, augmentin, erythromycin, and tetracycline while 96% of the isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Resistance to trimethoprim (93%) and gentamicin (83%) was also observed. Approximately, 22% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin; however, only 11 (5.8%) were resistant to ofloxacin. Thus, uncooked T. occidentalis is a potential source of highly-resistant epiphytic bacteria which could be opportunistic pathogens in consumers.

  10. Body mass index, physical activity, and serum markers of inflammation, immunity, and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Trabert, Britton; Katki, Hormuzd A; Chaturvedi, Anil K; Kemp, Troy J; Pinto, Ligia A; Moore, Steven C; Purdue, Mark P; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Hildesheim, Allan; Shiels, Meredith S

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies examining circulating levels of inflammatory markers in relation to obesity and physical inactivity may aid in our understanding of the role of inflammation in obesity-related cancers. However, previous studies on this topic have focused on a limited set of markers. We evaluated associations between body mass index (BMI) and vigorous physical activity level, based on self-report, and serum levels of 78 inflammation-related markers. Markers were measured using a bead-based multiplex method among 1,703 men and women, ages 55-74 years, and with no prior history of cancer at blood draw, and selected for case-control studies nested within the Prostate, Lung, Ovarian, and Colorectal Cancer Screening Trial. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, case-control study, physical activity, and BMI. Twelve markers were positively associated with BMI after FDR correction. ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI) for highest versus lowest levels of CCL2/MCP-1, CXCL5/ENA-78, sTNFRII, CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL6/GCP2, CCL13/MCP-4, amylin, CRP, C-peptide, CCL19/MIP-3b, insulin, and leptin were: 1.50 (1.14-1.98), 1.52 (1.12-2.05), 1.61 (1.17-2.20), 1.69 (1.25-2.28), 1.74 (1.24-2.44), 1.75 (1.22-2.50), 1.91 (1.31-2.78), 2.41 (1.36-4.25), 2.78 (1.83-4.24), 3.30 (2.28-4.78), 4.05 (2.51-6.55), and 50.03 (19.87-125.99) per 5 kg/m(2), respectively. Only CXCL12/SDF-1a was associated with physical activity (≥3 vs. <1 h/wk; OR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.55-6.94) after FDR correction. BMI was associated with a wide range of circulating markers involved in the inflammatory response. This cross-sectional analysis identified serum markers could be considered in future studies aimed at understanding the underlying mechanisms linking inflammation with obesity and obesity-related cancers. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Values of functional indexes in assessment of efficacy of osteoarthritis treatment with Chondrolon and Zel T in polyclinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Y Maiko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study change of knee joints functional disability in pts with predominantly I-II stage of knee osteoarthritis (OA with clinical tests and WOMAC index for assessment of efficacy of treatment with Chondrolon and Zel T in polyclinic. Material and methods. 70 pts with I and II stage of OA according to Kellgren-Lawrence aged from 40 to 67 years were included. They were divided in 2 groups (30 pts in group I and40 pts in group II. Group I pts were treated with Chondrolon and group II pts – with Zel T. Treatment efficacy was assessed with WOMAC index, functional Lequesne index, pain on VAS at rest and at movement, knee mobility, time of walking for 30 m and walking stairs. Results. Positive changes of all parameters were revealed in both groups: significant improvement of pain on VAS, functional tests, Lequesne index, WOMAC scales was achieved. During treatment with Zel T improvement of the efficacy measures increased slower, mainly after 12 weeks of treatment (during treatment with Chondrolon – after8 weeks. Both drugs provided functional improvement assessed by WOMAC index butChondrolon was more effective. Conclusion. Chondrolon and Zel T can be used for treatment of OA at I or II stage with moderate knee joints functional disability. Course of treatment with Zel T should be continued not less than 3 months and with Chondrolon – 2 months.

  12. Normalizing of morpho-physiological indexes as the mode, improving their informational value in the diagnosis of productivity of fruit cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor V. Antyufeyev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The set of interrelated morphological and morphometric indexes connected with crown architectonics, on the one hand, and the photosynthetic activity of leaf apparatus on the other, are suggested to assess and compare the potential productivity of varieties of stone fruit cultures. The computational procedure to formalize a kind (method of mathematical representations of features, which are comparing, are substantiated and described. This procedure makes it possible to improve informational value of these features. The evaluation was conducted on the micro-level by using the criterion D, which reflects the efficiency of photosynthesis systems. This index is calculated after measuring fluorescence irradiation intensity induced by photosystems I and II. At the same time, the work productivity of leaf apparatus is evaluated on the organism level (by assessing fruit-bearing. The following normalized (related to the crown volume unit or the leaf square unit indexes are used as evaluative criteria: the density of pacing by generative elements, the saturation of a crown by leaf surfaces, the biomass of fruits and leaves and, also, some derivatives of these: the index of efficiency of utilization of solar radiation quantums by leaves (Dn, the coefficient of the productive work of leaf surfaces on harvest formation (КПРЛ in Russian transcription, the index of productive work of the crown volume (ИПОК in Russian transcription, etc. It has been shown that high harvests of the studied cultivars are obtained when optimal values of offered are achieved.

  13. Metacarpal index by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: normative reference values and comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Nielsen, S P

    2001-01-01

    Metacarpal index (MCI), the combined cortical midmetacarpal thickness divided by the outer mid-metacarpal diameter, fell into oblivion when dual photon absorptiometry was introduced a quarter of a century ago. Modern PC-based digital X-ray diameter measurements offers a unique opportunity...

  14. Perfusion index in preterm infants during the first 3 days of life : Reference values and relation with clinical variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderliesten, Thomas; Lemmers, Petra M A; Baerts, Willem; Groenendaal, Floris; Van Bel, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background: The perfusion index (PI) derived from pulse oximetry readings represents the ratio of pulsatile (arterial blood) and nonpulsatile contributors to infrared light absorption. PI has been shown to correlate with cardiac performance. In theory, PI is readily available on every pulse

  15. Change in body mass index and insulin resistance after 1-year treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in girls with central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jina; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) is used as a therapeutic agent for central precocious puberty (CPP); however, increased obesity may subsequently occur. This study compared body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance during the first year of GnRHa treatment for CPP. Patient group included 83 girls (aged 7.0-8.9 years) with developed breasts and a peak luteinizing hormone level of ≥5 IU/L after GnRH stimulation. Control group included 48 prepubertal girls. BMI and insulin resistance-related indices (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index [QUICKI]) were used to compare the groups before treatment, and among the patient group before and after GnRHa treatment. No statistical difference in BMI z -score was detected between the 2 groups before treatment. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were increased in the patient group; fasting glucose-to-insulin ratio and QUICKI were increased in the control group (all P resistance compared to the control group. During GnRHa treatment, normal-weight individuals showed increased BMI z -scores without increased insulin resistance; the overweight group demonstrated increased insulin resistance without significantly altered BMI z -scores. Long-term follow-up of BMI and insulin resistance changes in patients with CPP is required.

  16. Effect of Qianggan capsules on insulin resistance index and liver fibrosis score in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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    OU Qiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of Qianggan capsules on liver fibrosis score and insulin resistance index in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Methods A total of 85 NAFLD patients who were treated in the Eighth People′s Hospital of Shanghai from August 2014 to July 2015 were enrolled and randomly divided into treatment group (45 patients and control group (40 patients. The patients in the treatment group were given Qianggan capsules, and those in the control group were given polyene phosphatidylcholine capsules. The course of treatment was 24 weeks for both groups. The changes in serum aminotransferases [aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT], homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and NAFLD fibrosis score (NAFLDFS after treatment were observed in both groups. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, before-after comparison within each group was made by paired t-test; and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Results Both groups showed significant improvements in ALT and AST levels after treatment (all P<0.01. After treatment the treatment group showed significant reductions in HOMA-IR and NAFLDFS (3.58±0.85 vs 2.48±078,t=6.40,P<0.01; -1.78±1.24 vs -2.35±0.98,t=2.40,P<0.01 and the treatment group had significantly lower HOMA-IR and NAFLDFS than the control group(12.48±0.78 vs 3.09±0.89, t=3.36, P<0.01; -2.35±0.98 vs -1.48±1.08, t=3.80, P<0.01. No serious adverse events were observed during the course of treatment. Conclusion Qianggan capsules not only reduce the levels of serum aminotransferases, but also improve insulin resistance and reduce fibrosis degree in NAFLD patients.

  17. Two-year changes in anthropometric and motor ability values as talent identification indexes in youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Norikazu; Seki, Taigo

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined 2-year changes in anthropometric variables and motor abilities in elite male youth soccer players to identify potential talent identification indexes. This was a cross-sequential study examining two different age groups at two time points. Height, weight, 40-m sprint speed, muscular power (5-step bounding), and change of direction (COD) ability (10 m×5 COD) were measured in 12- and 14-year-old soccer players and repeated after 2 years (at 14 and 16 years of age). Correlations and changes in ranking between the two measurements were determined. Both groups had small ranking changes in height (12-14-year-olds: r=0.80, 14-16-year-olds: r=0.89; ptalent identification index for youth soccer players. On the other hand, muscular power and COD ability is changeable during growth period suggests that these parameters is not useful for talent identification index. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Value of American Thoracic Society guidelines in predicting infection or colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms in critically ill patients.

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    Jianfeng Xie

    Full Text Available The incidence rate of infection by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs can affect the accuracy of etiological diagnosis when using American Thoracic Society (ATS guidelines. We determined the accuracy of the ATS guidelines in predicting infection or colonization by MDROs over 18 months at a single ICU in eastern China.This prospective observational study examined consecutive patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU in Nanjing, China. MDROs were defined as bacteria that were resistant to at least three antimicrobial classes, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii. Screening for MDROs was performed at ICU admission and discharge. Risk factors for infection or colonization with MDROs were recorded, and the accuracy of the ATS guidelines in predicting infection or colonization with MDROs was documented.There were 610 patients, 225 (37% of whom were colonized or infected with MDROs at ICU admission, and this increased to 311 (51% at discharge. At admission, the sensitivity (70.0%, specificity (31.6%, positive predictive value (38.2%, and negative predictive value (63.5%, all based on ATS guidelines for infection or colonization with MDROs were low. The negative predictive value was greater in patients from departments with MDRO infection rates of 31-40% than in patients from departments with MDRO infection rates of 30% or less and from departments with MDRO infection rates more than 40%.ATS criteria were not reliable in predicting infection or colonization with MDROs in our ICU. The negative predictive value was greater in patients from departments with intermediate rates of MDRO infection than in patients from departments with low or high rates of MDRO infection.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01667991.

  19. Coronary physiological assessment combining fractional flow reserve and index of microcirculatory resistance in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention with grey zone fractional flow reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niida, Takayuki; Murai, Tadashi; Yonetsu, Taishi; Kanaji, Yoshihisa; Usui, Eisuke; Matsuda, Junji; Hoshino, Masahiro; Araki, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Masao; Hada, Masahiro; Ichijyo, Sadamitsu; Hamaya, Rikuta; Kanno, Yoshinori; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Kakuta, Tsunekazu

    2018-03-08

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association between fractional flow reserve (FFR) values and change in coronary physiological indices after elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Decision making for revascularization when FFR is 0.75-0.80 is controversial. A retrospective analysis was performed of 296 patients with stable angina pectoris who underwent physiological examinations before and after PCI. To investigate the differences of coronary flow improvement between territories with low-FFR (zone FFR (0.75-0.80), serial changes in physiological indices including mean transit time (Tmn), coronary flow reserve (CFR), and index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) were compared between these two groups. Compared to low-FFR territories, grey-zone FFR territories showed significantly lower prevalence of Tmn shortening, CFR improvement, and decrease in IMR (Tmn shorting, 63.9% vs. 87.0%, P 51.3% vs. 63.3%, P = .040) and lower extent of their absolute changes (Tmn shorting, 0.06 (-0.03 to 0.16) vs. 0.22 (0.07-0.45), P zone FFR. Physiological assessment combining FFR and IMR may help identify patients who may benefit by PCI, particularly those in the grey zone. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Para- and perirenal fat thickness is an independent predictor of chronic kidney disease, increased renal resistance index and hyperuricaemia in type-2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamacchia, Olga; Nicastro, Vincenzo; Camarchio, Donatella; Valente, Umberto; Grisorio, Rosaria; Gesualdo, Loreto; Cignarelli, Mauro

    2011-03-01

    Many interfering factors may reduce the reliability of waist circumference (WC) measurement in estimating the risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD) associated with obesity. Therefore, we determined the independent associations of para- and perirenal ultrasonographic fat thickness with the main markers of kidney function. A cross-sectional study was performed in 151 type-2 diabetic subjects. Para- and perirenal fat thickness was measured from the inner side of the abdominal musculature to the surface of the kidneys. CKD was defined as eGFR perirenal fat thickness even when BMI and waist circumference were further added in the statistical model (r(2): 0.366, P = 0.001; r(2): 0.529, P = 0.005; r(2): 0.310, P = 0.026, respectively), whereas waist circumference and BMI did not contribute independently of para- and perirenal fat thickness. Albuminuria was predicted by waist circumference but not by para- and perirenal fat thickness. In subjects with waist circumference above the diagnostic values of metabolic syndrome (48M/59F), eGFR significantly and progressively declined across tertiles of para- and perirenal fat thickness (87.0 ± 27.9 vs 83.5 ± 26.0 vs 62.3 ± 30.6 mL min(-1) 1.73 m(-2), adjusted P perirenal fat thickness is an independent predictor of kidney dysfunction in type-2 diabetes explaining an important proportion of the variance of eGFR, renal resistance index and uricaemia.

  1. A Comparison of EQ-5D-3L Index Scores Using Malaysian, Singaporean, Thai, and UK Value Sets in Indonesian Cervical Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endarti, Dwi; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Thavorncharoensap, Montarat; Praditsitthikorn, Naiyana; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kristina, Susi Ari

    2017-09-01

    To gain insight into the most suitable foreign value set among Malaysian, Singaporean, Thai, and UK value sets for calculating the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire index score (utility) among patients with cervical cancer in Indonesia. Data from 87 patients with cervical cancer recruited from a referral hospital in Yogyakarta province, Indonesia, from an earlier study of health-related quality of life were used in this study. The differences among the utility scores derived from the four value sets were determined using the Friedman test. Performance of the psychometric properties of the four value sets versus visual analogue scale (VAS) was assessed. Intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were used to test the agreement among the utility scores. Spearman ρ correlation coefficients were used to assess convergent validity between utility scores and patients' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. With respect to known-group validity, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to examine the differences in utility according to the stages of cancer. There was significant difference among utility scores derived from the four value sets, among which the Malaysian value set yielded higher utility than the other three value sets. Utility obtained from the Malaysian value set had more agreements with VAS than the other value sets versus VAS (intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plot tests results). As for the validity, the four value sets showed equivalent psychometric properties as those that resulted from convergent and known-group validity tests. In the absence of an Indonesian value set, the Malaysian value set was more preferable to be used compared with the other value sets. Further studies on the development of an Indonesian value set need to be conducted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Significance and clinical value of the transitional zone volume (TZV or index (TZI in assessing the degree of lower urinary tract obstruction: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Ghoneimy

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Estimating the transition zone volume during TRUS is a reasonable way to obtain the required information about the TZI. Calculating the TZI could not be directly correlated with any of the different parameters, making the clinical value of such an index questionable. The observation that the obstructed and the retention groups both had a TZI above 0.5 deserves further research that can help in the classification of patients into obstructed and non-obstructed.

  3. Production Efficiency of Cocoon Shell of Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Bombycidae: Lepidoptera, as an Index for Evaluating the Nutritive Value of Mulberry, Morus sp. (Moraceae, Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalaja Suresh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional efficiency of mulberry leaves consumed by silkworms, Bombyx mori L., is usually evaluated in terms of the proportion of cocoon shell weight to the amount of food ingested. The production efficiency of cocoon shell is generally used to identify the superiority of a mulberry variety for silkworm rearing. In this study the production efficiency of cocoon shell was used as an index for evaluating the nutritive value of different mulberry varieties of India. Among the varieties, V-1, having highest production efficiency of cocoon shell with less amount of food ingested and highest digestibility, is regarded as the best suitable variety with nutritive values ideal for silkworm rearing.

  4. Multimethod approach to measuring values in a school context: exploring the association between Congruence — Discrepancy Index (CO DI and task commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podolskiy, Dmitry A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are considerable differences among the value hierarchies revealed by different methods of measurement. The quantitative measure of such a difference can be referred as the Congruence-Discrepancy Index (CODI. The more congruent the results of different methods are, the higher the CODI is. In the present study I compared value hierarchies obtained by the Schwartz Value Survey and an original instrument based on the constant-sum scale in two samples of adolescents (those in special schools for at-risk adolescents and those in ordinary secondary schools. The results show that the CODI for ordinary school students is significantly higher than that for adolescents recruited from special schools. A significant correlation between the CODI and school engagement was revealed for the ordinary school sample. The possibilities of using the CODI in value research are discussed.

  5. Development of MATLAB Scripts for the Calculation of Thermal Manikin Regional Resistance Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A software tool has been developed via MATLAB® scripts to reduce the amount of repetitive and time-consuming calculations that are...the evaporative resistance of clothing using a sweating manikin. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, 2010. 3. ISO 9920. Ergonomics of...producing heat at the rate of 58 W/m2) comfortable in an environment at 21°C, air movement 0.1 m/s, or roughly the insulation of a heavy business suit

  6. Evaluation of reference values for phenotypic tests to detect oxacillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Mello, Priscila L; Abraão, Ligia M; Corrente, José Eduardo; Lourdes Rs Cunha, Maria de

    2018-03-09

    To evaluate the adequacy of the disc-diffusion test and E-test ® compared with detection of mecA for coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from blood cultures, nasal swabs and wounds. Agreement between all techniques was observed in 65.7% of cases. The greatest discrepancy between mecA/susceptible E-test was observed for non-epidermidis species. A resistance breakpoint ≤19 mm using the oxacillin disc was found to best classify all coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates; Staphylococcus epidermidis, ≤19 mm (oxacillin) and ≤27 mm (cefoxitin); Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus capitis, ≤21 mm (oxacillin) and ≤18 mm (cefoxitin); Staphylococcus warneri, MICs ≥0.75 mg/l. Although no longer recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, we observed some cases in which only the oxacillin disc-diffusion test detected resistance. The discrepancy between phenotypic tests and mecA is probably due to heterogeneity and borderline resistance.

  7. Prediction of bending set, wave efficacy, and hair damage using an extensional permanent waving treatment and the 20% index value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yuzo; Namiki, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    To predict "wave efficacy" as evaluated by hairdressers, an extensional permanent waving treatment was performed on human hair fibers using various wave lotions manufactured in Japan. Glass columns devised for the purpose were equipped with a tensile tester in order to increase the measurement accuracy. Notably, the observed set agreed with the theoretical set. In addition, the data for the extensional set exhibited good correlation with the bending set and the wave efficacy assessed in a beauty parlor, and hair damage was estimated by the characteristic change in the 20% index. The following facts were experimentally determined. First, the Young's modulus of the hair fibers after extensional permanent waving treatment continually decreased with an increase in the reduction of the fibers and then abruptly decreased at 80% reduction. Second, the reduction of hair treated with the ammonium salt of thioglycolic acid followed pseudo first-order kinetics only during the initial stage of the reaction, independent of the pH level. Third, the 20% index of the individual virgin hairs remained constant in water at 30°C and also correlated with the Young's modulus of the hair after extensional permanent waving treatment.

  8. A study of insulin resistance by HOMA-IR and its cut-off value to identify metabolic syndrome in urban Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yashpal; Garg, M K; Tandon, Nikhil; Marwaha, Raman Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) and associated metabolic abnormalities are increasingly being reported in the adolescent population. Cut-off value of homeostasis model of assessment IR (HOMA-IR) as an indicator of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adolescents has not been established. This study aimed to investigate IR by HOMA-IR in urban Indian adolescents and to establish cut-off values of HOMA-IR for defining MS. A total of 691 apparently healthy adolescents (295 with normal body mass index (BMI), 205 overweight, and 199 obese) were included in this cross-sectional study. MS in adolescents was defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. IR was calculated using the HOMA model. Mean height, waist circumference (WC), waist/hip ratio (WHR), waist/height ratio (WHtR), and blood pressure were significantly higher in boys as compared to girls. The HOMA-IR values increased progressively from normal weight to obese adolescents in both sexes. Mean HOMA-IR values increased progressively according to sexual maturity rating in both sexes. HOMA-IR value of 2.5 had a sensitivity of >70% and specificity of >60% for MS. This cut-off identified larger number of adolescents with MS in different BMI categories (19.7% in normal weight, 51.7% in overweight, and 77.0% in obese subjects) as compared to the use of IDF or ATP III criteria for diagnosing MS. Odds ratio for having IR (HOMA-IR of >2.5) was highest with WHtR (4.9, p pHOMA-IR increased with sexual maturity and with progression from normal to obese. A HOMA-IR cut-off of 2.5 provided the maximum sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing MS in both genders as per ATP III and IDF criteria.

  9. Forest fire severity estimation based on the LiDAR-PNOA data and the values of the Composite Burn Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Montealegre

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean pine forests in Spain experience wildland fire events with different frequencies, intensities, and severities. An estimation of the fire severity as accurate as possible is required by forest managers to decide which strategy is most appropriate to mitigate the effect of fire. The aim of this research is to estimate the post-fire severity, relating a pool of independent variables derived from the LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging points clouds delivered by the National Plan for Aerial Orthophotography (PNOA to field data based on Composite Burn Index collected in four fires located in Aragón (Spain. Logistic regression models were developed and statistically tested and validated to map fire severity with up to 85.5% accuracy. The canopy relief ratio and the percentage of all returns above one meter height were the most significant variables. In addition, the obtained results are compared to different spectral indices derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper.

  10. The value of the acoustic voice quality index as a measure of dysphonia severity in subjects speaking different languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryn, Youri; De Bodt, Marc; Barsties, Ben; Roy, Nelson

    2014-06-01

    The Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI) is a relatively new clinical method to quantify dysphonia severity. Since it partially relies on continuous speech, its performance may vary with voice-related phonetic differences and thus across languages. The present investigation therefore assessed the AVQI's performance in English, Dutch, German, and French. Fifty subjects were recorded reading sentences in the four languages, as well as producing a sustained vowel. These recordings were later edited to calculate the AVQI. The samples were also perceptually rated on overall dysphonia severity by three experienced voice clinicians. The AVQI's cross-linguistic concurrent validity and diagnostic precision were assessed. The results support earlier data, and confirm good cross-linguistic validity and diagnostic accuracy. Although no statistical differences were observed between languages, the AVQI performed better in English and German and less well in French. These results validate the AVQI as a potentially robust and objective dysphonia severity measure across languages.

  11. Reinterpreting the Authority of Heads: Making Space for Values-Led School Improvement with the "Index for Inclusion"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Rupert; Booth, Tony

    2018-01-01

    To what extent can heads use an inclusive values-led approach to school development in the face of pressures from Ofsted and their Local Authority to focus almost exclusively on attainment outcomes? We explore leadership of school improvement in a qualitative study of 10 head teachers in the English county of "Preshire," who worked with…

  12. Estimation Of Productive Value Of Czech Origin Scab-Resistant Apple Cultivars On Different Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosna Ireneusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Apple cultivars resistant to scab are suitable for the conventional and organic cultivation. Rootstocks impact on the growth of trees, yield and fruit quality of scab-resistant cultivars were examined in the experiment conducted at Fruit Experimental Station - Samotwór near Wrocław, during the years 1998-2008. In the spring of 1998, the trees of five Czech origin scab-resistant apple cultivars ‘Rosana’, ‘Rubinola’, ‘Rajka’, ‘Goldstar’ and ‘Topaz’ each on M.9, P2, P60, P16 and P22 rootstocks were planted at a spacing of 3.5 × 1.2 m (2380 trees per hectare. The results of 11-year-long studies showed that ‘Rubinola’ and ‘Rajka’ were characterised by the strongest vigour, while ‘Rosana’ grew much weaker. Significant differences in the cumulative yield were not observed between cultivars, but rootstocks influenced cropping instantly. Trees on rootstock P60 had biggest cross-section area and canopy volume, and the highest cumulative yield. Fruit weight was highest from trees on M9 and P60. ‘Topaz’ and ‘Rosana’ formed significantly lightest fruits and ‘Goldstar’ the heaviest. Trees on the super-dwarfing P22 rootstock grew and yielded very weakly and produced very small fruits. The greatest susceptibility to powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha was observed in ‘Topaz’ and ‘Rajka’. ‘Rubinola’ has the best potential for organic cultivation, especially on dwarfing rootstocks.

  13. Translational value of mechanical and vasomotor properties of mouse isolated mesenteric resistance-sized arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Emilie Middelbo; Zaki, Marina; Abdolalizadeh, Bahareh

    2015-01-01

    Mice are increasingly used in vascular research for studying perturbations and responses to vasoactive agents in small artery preparations. Historically, small artery function has preferably been studied in rat isolated mesenteric resistance-sized arteries (MRA) using the wire myograph technique...... for maximal active force development in mouse MRA were not significantly different to those determined in rat MRA. Furthermore, we found that the observed concentration-dependent vasomotor responses of mouse MRA to noradrenaline, phenylephrine, angiotensin II, sarafotoxin 6c, 5-hydroxytryptamine, carbachol...

  14. Prospective Study of Optimal Obesity Index Cut-Off Values for Predicting Incidence of Hypertension in 18-65-Year-Old Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Du, Wenwen; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity increase the risk of elevated blood pressure; most of the studies that serve as a background for the debates on the optimal obesity index cut-off values used cross-sectional samples. The aim of this study was to determine the cut-off values of anthropometric markers for detecting hypertension in Chinese adults with data from prospective cohort. This study determines the best cut-off values for the obesity indices that represent elevated incidence of hypertension in 18-65-year-old Chinese adults using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006-2011 prospective cohort. Individual body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist:hip ratio (WHR) and waist:stature ratio (WSR) were assessed. ROC curves for these obesity indices were plotted to estimate and compare the usefulness of these obesity indices and the corresponding values for the maximum of the Youden indices were considered the optimal cut-off values. Five-year cumulative incidences of hypertension were 21.5% (95% CI: 19.4-23.6) in men and 16.5% (95% CI: 14.7-18.2) in women, and there was a significant trend of increased incidence of hypertension with an increase in BMI, WC, WHR or WSR (P for trend Obesity in China (WGOC), the cut-off values for WHR that were developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), and a global WSR cut-off value of 0.50 may be the appropriate upper limits for Chinese adults.

  15. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  16. Prognostic value of a systemic inflammatory response index in metastatic renal cell carcinoma and construction of a predictive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongzhao; Chen, Luyao; Li, Xintao; Zhang, Yu; Xie, Yongpeng; Zhang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation act as a crucial role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. In this study, we aim to investigate the prognostic significance of systemic inflammatory biomarkers in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and develop a survival predictive model. One hundred and sixty-one mRCC patients who had undergone cytoreductive nephrectomy were enrolled from January 2006 to December 2013. We created a systemic inflammation response index (SIRI) basing on pretreatment hemoglobin and lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR), and evaluated its associations with overall survival (OS) and clinicopathological features. Pretreatment hemoglobin and LMR both remained as independent factors adjusted for other markers of systemic inflammation responses and conventional clinicopathological parameters. A high SIRI seems to be an independent prognosis predictor of worse OS and was significantly correlated with aggressive tumor behaviors. Inclusion of the SIRI into a prognostic model including Fuhrman grade, histology, tumor necrosis and targeted therapy established a nomogram, which accurately predicted 1-year survival for mRCC patients. The SIRI seems to be a prognostic biomarker in mRCC patients. The proposed nomogram can be applied to predict OS of patients with mRCC after nephrectomy. PMID:28881716

  17. Value of body mass index in the diagnosis of obesity according to DEXA in well-controlled RA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello-Winniczuk, Nina; Vega-Morales, David; García-Hernandez, Pedro A; Esquivel-Valerio, Jorge A; Garza-Elizondo, Mario A; Arana-Guajardo, Ana C

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has an indirect effect on body composition. Body mass index (BMI) is not a valid predictor of body fat in RA patients. To evaluate the accuracy of BMI in identifying obesity diagnosed according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in well-controlled RA patients. An observational, cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study. We used 3 different cutoffs for obesity as determined by DXA: >35% total fat, >40% total fat, and >35% central fat mass (central obesity). One hundred one patients were included. We found that 35% total fat corresponded to a BMI of 24kg/m 2 , with a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 75% (area under the curve [AUC] 0.917); 40% total fat to a BMI of 25kg/m 2 , with a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 39% (AUC 0.822); and 35% central fat mass to a BMI of 22kg/m 2 , with a sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 84% (AUC 0.951). Obesity according to DXA was underdiagnosed when the classic BMI cutoffs were used in well-controlled RA patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  18. A low glycemic index staple diet reduces postprandial glucose values in Asian women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi-Geng; Tan, Rong-Shao; Jin, Di; Li, Wei; Zhou, Xiao-Yan

    2014-12-01

    A low glycemic index (GI) diet is beneficial for glucose control in patients with diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to investigate the influence of a low-GI diet on postprandial glucose levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Pregnant women with GDM were randomized to receive a normal diabetic control diet or a low-GI staple diet for 5 days. A low-GI staple food was used to replace rice in lunch and dinner for the low-GI staple diet group, whereas the total energy and carbohydrate levels remained equal in both groups. Fasting and postprandial glucose levels were determined daily. A total of 140 pregnant women with GDM were included in the study, including 66 in the low-GI staple diet group and 74 in the normal diabetic diet control group. No differences existed in baseline characteristics between the 2 groups (all P > 0.05). After dietary intervention, glucose levels were significantly reduced in the low-GI staple diet group (all P diet significantly reduces postprandial glucose levels in women with GDM.

  19. Predictive value of Keetch-Byram Drought Index for cereal yields in a semi-arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehnia, Nasrin; Zare, Hossein; Kolsoumi, Sohrab; Bannayan, Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    Meteorological drought indices associated with soil moisture status have potential for varying applications including predictive power for crop yields estimation. The Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) was initially developed to estimate forest flammability, based on quantification of the moisture deficiency in upper soil layer as a function of daily precipitation and maximum air temperature. In this study, we characterized the utility of KBDI to accurately trace and monitor vegetation change and crop yield fluctuation in a semi-arid environment. It is tried to find any temporal association for both the 16-day MODIS-derived NDVI and KBDI from 2002 to 2012 and the correlation between KBDI and wheat and barley yield from 1984 to 2010. Correlation between KBDI and NDVI showed a general seasonal pattern with strongest correlation in mid-growing season, but this varied across study locations. Warmer locations with very sparse vegetation showed weaker association between KBDI and NDVI. Although a robust correlation between KBDI and winter cereal crop yield was not achieved based on winter (wet and cold season) data, spring cereal crop yield was correlated with KBDI.

  20. Establishing streptomycin epidemiological cut-off values for Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Microbial Drug Resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Migura, L.; Sunde, M.; Karlsmose, S.; Veldman, K.T.; Schroeter, A.; Guerra, B.; Granier, S.A.; Perrin-Guyomard, A.; Gicquel-Bruneau, M.; Franco, A.; Englund, S.; Teale, C.; Heiska, H.; Clemente, L.; Boerlin, P.; Moreno, M.A.; Daignault, D.; Mevius, D.J.; Hendriksen, R.S.; Aarestrup, F.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the accuracy of the current streptomycin epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. A total of 236 Salmonella enterica and 208 E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs between 4 and 32¿mg/L were selected from 12 countries. Isolates

  1. Volatility forecasting and value-at-risk estimation in emerging markets: the case of the stock market index portfolio in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumengo Bonga-Bonga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate modelling of volatility is important as it relates to the forecasting of Value-at-Risk (VaR. The RiskMetrics model to forecast volatility is the benchmark in the financial sector. In an important regulatory innovation, the Basel Committee has proposed the use of an internal method for modelling VaR instead of the strict use of the benchmark model. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of RiskMetrics in comparison to other models of volatility forecasting, such as some family classes of the Generalised Auto Regressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity models, in forecasting the VaR in emerging markets. This paper makes use of the stock market index portfolio, the All-Share Index, as a case study to evaluate the market risk in emerging markets. The paper underlines the importance of asymmetric behaviour for VaR forecasting in emerging markets’ economies.

  2. Reference absolute and indexed values for left and right ventricular volume, function and mass from cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovska, Jadranka; Prasitdumrong, Hutsaya; Patel, Smita; Sundaram, Baskaran; Gross, Barry H.; Yilmaz, Zeynep N.; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volumetric and functional parameters are important biomarkers for morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure. To retrospectively determine reference mean values of LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised by age, gender and body surface area (BSA) from retrospectively electrocardiographically gated 64-slice cardiac computed tomography (CCT) by using automated analysis software in healthy adults. The study was approved by the institutional review board with a waiver of informed consent. Seventy-four healthy subjects (49% female, mean age 49.6±11) free of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia with a normal CCT formed the study population. Analyses of LV and RV volume (end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes), function (ejection fraction), LV mass and inter-rater reproducibility were performed with commercially available analysis software capable of automated contour detection. General linear model analysis was performed to assess statistical significance by age group after adjustment for gender and BSA. Bland–Altman analysis assessed the inter-rater agreement. The reference range for LV and RV volume, function, and LV mass was normalised to age, gender and BSA. Statistically significant differences were noted between genders in both LV mass and RV volume (P-value<0.0001). Age, in concert with gender, was associated with significant differences in RV end-diastolic volume and LV ejection fraction (P-values 0.027 and 0.03). Bland–Altman analysis showed acceptable limits of agreement (±1.5% for ejection fraction) without systematic error. LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised to age, gender and BSA can be reported from CCT datasets, providing additional information important for patient management.

  3. Long-term prognostic value of a comprehensive assessment of cardiac magnetic resonance indexes after an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlos, Pilar; López-Lereu, Maria P; Monmeneu, Jose V; Sanchis, Juan; Núñez, Julio; Bonanad, Clara; Valero, Ernesto; Miñana, Gema; Chaustre, Fabián; Gómez, Cristina; Oltra, Ricardo; Palacios, Lorena; Bosch, Maria J; Navarro, Vicente; Llácer, Angel; Chorro, Francisco J; Bodí, Vicente

    2013-08-01

    A variety of cardiac magnetic resonance indexes predict mid-term prognosis in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients. The extent of transmural necrosis permits simple and accurate prediction of systolic recovery. However, its long-term prognostic value beyond a comprehensive clinical and cardiac magnetic resonance evaluation is unknown. We hypothesized that a simple semiquantitative assessment of the extent of transmural necrosis is the best resonance index to predict long-term outcome soon after a first ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. One week after a first ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction we carried out a comprehensive quantification of several resonance parameters in 206 consecutive patients. A semiquantitative assessment (altered number of segments in the 17-segment model) of edema, baseline and post-dobutamine wall motion abnormalities, first pass perfusion, microvascular obstruction, and the extent of transmural necrosis was also performed. During follow-up (median 51 months), 29 patients suffered a major adverse cardiac event (8 cardiac deaths, 11 nonfatal myocardial infarctions, and 10 readmissions for heart failure). Major cardiac events were associated with more severely altered quantitative and semiquantitative resonance indexes. After a comprehensive multivariate adjustment, the extent of transmural necrosis was the only resonance index independently related to the major cardiac event rate (hazard ratio=1.34 [1.19-1.51] per each additional segment displaying>50% transmural necrosis, P<.001). A simple and non-time consuming semiquantitative analysis of the extent of transmural necrosis is the most powerful cardiac magnetic resonance index to predict long-term outcome soon after a first ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Predictive value of cardiac autonomic indexes and MIBG washout in ICD recipients with mild to moderate heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutelou, M.; Katsikis, A.; Livanis, E.; Georgiadis, M.; Voudris, V.; Flevari, P.; Kremastinos, D.; Theodorakis, G.

    2009-01-01

    We aimed at evaluating the combined use of heart rate variability (HRV), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging in the risk stratification for sudden cardiac death (SCD) of patients with mild to moderate heart failure. Twenty-five patients (17 male and 8 female, mean age 63±5 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 36±3%) with a recently implanted cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and mild (NYHA I-II) heart failure due to either ischemic (n=15) or dilated (n=10) cardiomyopathy were studied. One week after ICD implantation they underwent baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) evaluation to bolus phenylephrine by the Oxford method, 24-h heart rate variability (HRV) assessment, and MIBG imaging. The mean patient follow-up was 32±10 months. Simple correlation and stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate if the number of sustained ventricular tachycardia (cycle length <330 ms) or fibrillation episodes per month is related to one or more of MIBG, BRS, and HRV indexes and if MIBG % washout is related to HRV and/or BRS. The frequency of fast ventricular arrhythmic episodes (FVAE) demonstrated an inverse relation to BRS (p<0.0001), rMSSD (p=0.001), and pNN50 (p=0.0034), while it was positively related to low frequency (LF) (p<0.0001) and MIBG % washout (p=0.001). BRS, LF, rMSSD, and MIBG washout were also independent predictors of FVAE. MIBG washout was related to only one HRV marker (SDNN-I, p<0.0001), while no correlation was observed with BRS. In ICD recipients with well-compensated heart failure, autonomic markers derived from BRS, HRV, and MIBG studies are related to FVAE. These markers have limited inter-dependency and constitute useful means for SCD risk stratification in this subgroup of patients. (author)

  5. Ecological Evaluation Index continuous formula (EEI-c application: a step forward for functional groups, the formula and reference condition values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ORFANIDIS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ecological Evaluation Index continuous formula (EEI-c was designed to estimate the habitat- based ecological status of rocky coastal and sedimentary transitional waters using shallow benthic macrophyte communities as bioindicators. This study aimed to remedy the weaknesses of the currently used EEI methodology in: (1 ecological status groups (ESG, (2 the formula, and (3 reference condition values. A cluster analysis of twelve species traits was used to delineate ESGs. Two main clusters (ESG I, late-successional; ESG II, opportunistic were identified that were hierarchically divided into three and two sub-clusters, respectively: ESG I comprised thick perennial (IA, thick plastic (IB and shade-adapted plastic (IC coastal water species, and angiosperm plastic (IA, thick plastic (IB and shade-adapted plastic (IC transitional water species. ESG II comprised fleshy opportunistic (IIB and filamentous sheet-like opportunistic (IIA species both in coastal and transitional waters. To avoid discrete jumps at the boundaries between predefined ecological categories, a hyperbolic model that approximates the index values and expresses the ecosystem status in continuous numbers was developed. Seventy-four quantitative and destructive samples of the upper infralittoralCystoseira crinita and coastal lagoonRuppia cirrhosa communities from tentative pristine to less impacted sites in Greece verified 10 as an ‘ideal’ EEI-c reference condition value.

  6. The predictive value of the uterine artery pulsatility index during the early third trimester for the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes depending on the maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Hee; Lee, Hee Joung; Shin, Jae Eun; Lee, Young; Shin, Jong Chul; Park, Tae Chul; Park, In Yang

    2015-01-01

    To identify the correlation between the pre-gravid maternal obesity and the uterine artery pulsatility index (UtA-PI) at 28-34 weeks' gestation, and to evaluate the predictive value of the UtA-PI for the occurrence of adverse outcomes depending on the maternal obesity. Between January 2010 and December 2011, 229 pregnant women were prospectively observed and analyzed. The UtA-PI during 28-34 weeks' gestation was estimated, with abnormal UtA-PI defined if the value was above the 95th centile for gestational age. The patients were classified, using a cut-off value for body mass index (BMI) of 25kg/m(2), into obese (pre-gravid BMI≥25kg/m(2)) and non-obese (pre-gravid BMIPI and estimated their contributions to adverse outcomes using regression analyses. The occurrence of abnormal UtA-PI in the women with pre-gravid BMI over 25kg/m(2) was significantly higher than those with normal pre-gravid BMI (OR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.22-5.12). In multivariate analyses, the combination with abnormal UtA-PI and pre-gravid BMI over 25kg/m(2) contributed to the occurrence of preterm delivery (OR: 33.5; 95% CI: 7.63-147.21), gestational diabetes (OR: 3.98; 95% CI: 1.17-13.56) and pregnancy induced hypertension (OR: 12.71; 95% CI: 3.45-46.87), compared to the control group with pre-gravid BMI of 25kg/m(2) and less, and normal UtA-PI. Women with pre-gravid BMI over 25kg/m(2) show increased tendency of abnormal uterine artery pulsatility index during 28-34 weeks, which increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictive Values of the New Sarcopenia Index by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project for Mortality among Older Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hee; Moon, Jae Hoon; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) Sarcopenia Project’s recommended criteria for sarcopenia’s association with mortality among older Korean adults. Methods We conducted a community-based prospective cohort study which included 560 (285 men and 275 women) older Korean adults aged ≥65 years. Muscle mass (appendicular skeletal muscle mass-to-body mass index ratio (ASM/BMI)), handgrip strength, and walking velocity were evaluated in association with all-cause mortality during 6-year follow-up. Both the lowest quintile for each parameter (ethnic-specific cutoff) and FNIH-recommended values were used as cutoffs. Results Forty men (14.0%) and 21 women (7.6%) died during 6-year follow-up. The deceased subjects were older and had lower ASM, handgrip strength, and walking velocity. Sarcopenia defined by both low lean mass and weakness had a 4.13 (95% CI, 1.69–10.11) times higher risk of death, and sarcopenia defined by a combination of low lean mass, weakness, and slowness had a 9.56 (3.16–28.90) times higher risk of death after adjusting for covariates in men. However, these significant associations were not observed in women. In terms of cutoffs of each parameter, using the lowest quintile showed better predictive values in mortality than using the FNIH-recommended values. Moreover, new muscle mass index, ASM/BMI, provided better prognostic values than ASM/height2 in all associations. Conclusions New sarcopenia definition by FNIH was better able to predict 6-year mortality among Korean men. Moreover, ethnic-specific cutoffs, the lowest quintile for each parameter, predicted the higher risk of mortality than the FNIH-recommended values. PMID:27832145

  8. Culture as a predictor of resistance to change: a study of competing values in a psychiatric nursing context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Catrin; Åström, Sture; Kauffeldt, Anders; Helldin, Lars; Carlström, Eric

    2014-02-01

    It is well known that a conservative organizational culture can hinder the implementation of new organizational models. Prior to introducing something new it is important to identify the culture within the organization. This paper sets out to detect the feasibility of reform in a psychiatric clinic in a Swedish hospital prior to implementation of a new working method - a structured tool based on the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health. A survey consisting of two instruments - an organizational values questionnaire (OVQ) and a resistance to change scale (RTC) - was distributed to registered and assistant nurses at the clinic. The association between the organizational subcultures and resistance to change was investigated with regression analysis. The results revealed that the dominating cultures in the outpatient centers and hospital wards were characterized by human relation properties such as flexibility, cohesion, belongingness, and trust. The mean resistance to change was low, but the subscale of cognitive rigidity was dominant, reflecting a tendency to avoid alternative ideas and perspectives. An instrument like the one employed in the study could be a useful tool for diagnosing the likelihood of extensive and costly interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    SUBJECT INDEX. 1D inversion. A direct inversion scheme for deep resistivity sound- ing data using artificial neural networks. 49. 40. Ar-. 39. Ar thermochronology. Tectono-thermal evolution of the India-Asia colli- sion zone based on. 40. Ar-. 39. Ar thermochronology in. Ladakh, India. 737. ANN. Artificial neural network ...

  10. Estimating EQ-5D values from the Oswestry Disability Index and numeric rating scales for back and leg pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Leah Y; Bratcher, Kelly R; Das, Nandita; Nienhuis, Jacob B; Glassman, Steven D

    2014-04-15

    Cross-sectional cohort. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the EuroQOL-5D (EQ-5D) can be derived from commonly available low back disease-specific health-related quality of life measures. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and numeric rating scales (0-10) for back pain (BP) and leg pain (LP) are widely used disease-specific measures in patients with lumbar degenerative disorders. Increasingly, the EQ-5D is being used as a measure of utility due to ease of administration and scoring. The EQ-5D, ODI, BP, and LP were prospectively collected in 14,544 patients seen in clinic for lumbar degenerative disorders. Pearson correlation coefficients for paired observations from multiple time points between ODI, BP, LP, and EQ-5D were determined. Regression modeling was done to compute the EQ-5D score from the ODI, BP, and LP. The mean age was 53.3 ± 16.4 years and 41% were male. Correlations between the EQ-5D and the ODI, BP, and LP were statistically significant (P < 0.0001) with correlation coefficients of -0.77, -0.50, and -0.57, respectively. The regression equation: [0.97711 + (-0.00687 × ODI) + (-0.01488 × LP) + (-0.01008 × BP)] to predict EQ-5D, had an R2 of 0.61 and a root mean square error of 0.149. The model using ODI alone had an R2 of 0.57 and a root mean square error of 0.156. The model using the individual ODI items had an R2 of 0.64 and a root mean square error of 0.143. The correlation coefficient between the observed and estimated EQ-5D score was 0.78. There was no statistically significant difference between the actual EQ-5D (0.553 ± 0.238) and the estimated EQ-5D score (0.553 ± 0.186) using the ODI, BP, and LP regression model. However, rounding off the coefficients to less than 5 decimal places produced less accurate results. Unlike previous studies showing a robust relationship between low back-specific measures and the Short Form-6D, a similar relationship was not seen between the ODI, BP, LP, and the EQ-5D. Thus, the EQ-5D cannot be

  11. Renal resistive index by transesophageal and transparietal echo-doppler imaging for the prediction of acute kidney injury in patients undergoing major heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regolisti, Giuseppe; Maggiore, Umberto; Cademartiri, Carola; Belli, Loredana; Gherli, Tiziano; Cabassi, Aderville; Morabito, Santo; Castellano, Giuseppe; Gesualdo, Loreto; Fiaccadori, Enrico

    2017-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) following major heart surgery (MHS) is associated with early decrease in renal blood flow and worsened prognosis. Doppler-derived renal resistive index (RRI), which reflects renal vascular resistance, may predict the development of AKI in patients undergoing MHS. We studied 60 consecutive patients (mean age 69.5 years, range 30-88, 41 males) undergoing MHS. We measured RRI, both at the renal sinus and intraparenchymally, by transesophageal echo-Doppler ultrasound (TE-ED us ) at anesthesia induction and at the end of surgery in all patients. Additionally, we measured RRI by external transparietal echo-Doppler ultrasound (TP-ED us ) at the following time points: anesthesia induction, end of surgery, 4 and 24 h from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) start. We also measured serum neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) at the same time points. AKI [serum creatinine (sCr) increase ≥0.3 mg/dl vs. baseline within 72 h] developed in 23/60 (38.3 %) patients, with two requiring dialysis. Systemic hemodynamic parameters were similar in the patients who developed AKI (AKI+) and in those who did not (AKI-). Intraparenchymal RRI at end-surgery was significantly higher in AKI+ compared to AKI- patients, both at TE-ED us and TP-ED us (TE-ED us mean difference, p = 0.004; TP-ED us mean difference, p = 0.013; difference between TE-ED us and TP-ED us results, p = 0.066), although the predictive performance was limited with both methods (area under the curve [AUC] of the receiver-operator characteristics: 0.71 and 0.70 for TE-ED us and TP-ED us , respectively). Serum NGAL values were higher in AKI + than in AKI- patients (anesthesia induction, p = 0.037; end-surgery, p = 0.007; 4 h from CPB start, p = 0.093; 24 h from CPB start, p = 0.024. However, combining RRI with serum NGAL at end-surgery did not provide a clear-cut advantage in predicting AKI. In patients undergoing MHS, increased echo-Doppler ultrasound-derived RRI at end

  12. The prognostic value of pre-operative serum tetranectin, CA-125 and a combined index in women with primary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Claus K; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Mogensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    cancer. Evaluation was by univariate life-tables analyses and the multivariate Cox analysis. In the Cox analyses, the variables were tested respectively in actual values and as dichotomy variables with different cut-off levels: 6.7, 7.3 and 8.2 mg/l for TN, 35, 65, 100 and 165 U/ml for CA125. RESULTS......: In stages I+II only CA125 was found to be significantly prognostic, whereas TN was of no prognostic value by univariate statistics. For stages III+IV patients significantly better survivals were found for patients with TN levels above the respective cut-offs compared to patients with low TN levels, whereas...... no significant value was found for CA125 by univariate statistics. In the Cox analyses, FIGO stage was the strongest and TN the second most prognostic variable, followed by age. CA125, Index1 and tumor types were of no prognostic value. The strongest prognostic value for TN was found at the cut-off level 8.2 mg...

  13. Impact of intensive school-based nutrition education and lifestyle interventions on insulin resistance, β-cell function, disposition index, and subclinical inflammation among Asian Indian adolescents: a controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Neha; Misra, Anoop; Shah, Priyali; Gulati, Seema; Bhatt, Suryaprakash; Sharma, Suresh; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan

    2011-04-01

    The present study was designed to assess the impact of intensive and repetitive nutrition education and lifestyle interventions on insulin resistance, β-cell function, disposition index (DI), and subclinical inflammation in Asian Indian adolescents (15-17 years) residing in North India. In this prospective study, two matched schools were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 56; 31 boys and 25 girls) or control group (n = 50; 30 boys and 20 girls). The intervention consisted of seven components: (1) Dissemination of health-related information through lectures and focused group discussions, (2) planning of activities such as quizzes, (3) individual counseling of students, (4) promotion of physical activity, (5) change in the canteen menu to healthier alternatives, (6) conducting health camps involving parents and teachers, and (7) training of student volunteers for sustainability of the program in school. Impact of intervention was studied on surrogate markers of insulin resistance, β-cell function, disposition index, and subclinical inflammation. At 6 months follow-up, significantly higher (P = 0.037) mean value of homeostasis model assessment denoting β-cell function (HOMA-βCF) was seen in the intervention group compared to the control group, whereas high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was significantly lowered (P < 0.001). The increase (30.3 ± 73.4; P < 0.037) observed in the DI in adolescents in the intervention group was significantly higher compared to the control group. The Pearson's coefficient of correlation in the intervention group showed that the Δ-decrease in mean waist circumference was significantly correlated (r = 0.267, P < 0.05) with Δ-decrease in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The intervention model developed by us could be used for amelioration of insulin resistance with potential of preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asian Indian adolescents.

  14. Interstitial Glucose and Lactate Levels Are Inversely Correlated With the Body Mass Index: Need for In Vivo Calibration of Glucose Sensor Results With Blood Values in Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderle, Barbara; Moser, Isabella; Kannan, Cecil; Schwab, Karl Otfried; Urban, Gerald

    2018-03-01

    Continuously measured glucose and lactate levels in interstitial fluid (ISF) may markedly differ from their respective blood levels. Combining microdialysis with a bioanalytical microsystem, the interstitial glucose and lactate concentrations of eight male volunteers with different body mass index (BMI) were monitored during a 2-fold glucose tolerance test over the period of three hours. Significant correlations were found between abdominally measured sensor results and reference measurements ( R 2 = .967 for glucose and R 2 = .936 for lactate, P 34 kg/m 2 showed abdominally as well as the antebrachially significantly reduced tissue glucose values compared to blood glucose values ( P < .001). A very good correlation between abdominally measured sensor results and the results of the reference method verified the reliability of the BioMEMS. The abdominally measured glucose level in ISF decreased significantly with increasing BMI. Therefore, an in vivo calibration of glucose levels in ISF with blood levels seems to be necessary especially in markedly obese subjects.

  15. A genome-wide approach accounting for body mass index identifies genetic variants influencing fasting glycemic traits and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manning, Alisa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Scott, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have described many loci implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology and β-cell dysfunction but have contributed little to the understanding of the genetic basis of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that genes implicated in insulin resistance pathw...

  16. Prognostic value of heart rate variability indexes with regard to acute postinfarction aneurysm of left ventricle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kyselov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of Q-wave myocardial infarction complications in acute period is an actual problem of modern cardiology. Aim: to determine the prognostic value of heart rate variability indices with regard to acute left ventricular aneurysm development in patients with Q-wave myocardial infarction. Materials and мethods: time and spectral parameters of heart rate variability, number of arrhythmias and ischemia were investigated by daily monitoring of electrocardiogram in 238 patients with acute Q-wave myocardial infarction. ROC analysis with the characteristic curve construction was used to determine prognostically significant parameters. Predictive significance of indicators with regard to left ventricular aneurysms formation was assessed at a relative risk with a confidence interval of 95 %. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis of Cox proportional hazards to independent predictors of acute post-infarction left ventricular aneurysm formation determination was used. Results. In patients with Q-wave myocardial infarction and aneurysm of left ventricle it has been shown a reduction in time parameters of heart rate variability, the sympathetic-parasympathetic balance shift towards the sympathetic component activation and parasympathetic influence decreasing, increasing number of ventricular arrhythmias by means of life-threatening arrhythmias, and longer duration of corrected QT interval. The analysis of associations has made it possible to establish a close relationship between left ventricular aneurysm formation and parameters of electrocardiogram daily monitoring. With the help of ROC analysis we identified prognostically significant indicators of electrocardiogram daily monitoring with regard to acute postinfarction left ventricular aneurysm formation. Analysis of Cox proportional hazards has allowed the establishing of left ventricle aneurysm formation independent predictors. Conclusions. It has been revealed an increase in sympathetic

  17. Automated Bone Scan Index as a quantitative imaging biomarker in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients being treated with enzalutamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anand, Aseem; Morris, Michael J.; Larson, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    alone (C-index 0.73), p = 0.041. Conclusions: The upgraded and analytically validated automated BSI was found to be a strong predictor of OS in mCRPC patients. Additionally, the change in automated BSI demonstrated an additive clinical value to the change in PSA in mCRPC patients being treated...

  18. Application of own computer program for assessment of brain-fluid index in the medial temporal lobe portions in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boguslawska, R.; Skrobowska, E.; Rysz, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy resistant to pharmacological treatment still remains one of the main problems in contemporary epileptology. The problem most frequently concerns patients with focal epilepsy, with the seizure focus possible to localize. In case of drug-resistant epilepsy, both morphological imaging methods (MR) and manual measurements or volumetry are used. Also functional studies, such as MRS (magnetic resonance spectroscopy), fMRI (functional magnetic resonance), SPECT (single photon emission tomography) and PET (positron emission tomography) are performed. Material/Methods: The study presents application of own computer program based on the method of segmentation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the brain tissue. The program calculates automatically the brain-fluin index in the hippocampal region. The material comprises the brain-fluin index results calculated with the presented program in comparison with the method of manual delineation in a group of 50 patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. The program is easy to use, it reads the MR data recorded in DICOM installed on a PC. Results: The brain-fluin index result (expressed as a decimal fraction) is calculated on the basis of 4 consecutive layers examined by MR (evaluating hippocampal structures) performed using SE sequence, and T2-weighted imaging in the frontal plane perpendicular to the long axis of the temporal lobes. The results obtained in epilepsy patients were compared with 24 control subjects. Conclusions: Detailed analysis of the obtained data allowed to conclude that precise hippocampal volume assessment can be obtained by combination of both methods, i.e. manual delineation and automatic calculation of brain-fluin index taking into consideration the total volume of cerebral structures. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of resistant starch, glycemic index and fortificants content of premix rice coated with various concentrations and types of edible coating materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, W. A.; Susiati, A. M.; Adhini, H. A. N.

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes in Indonesia has been increasing year by year. Diets with a low glycemic index and high resistant starch foods can assist diabetics in controlling their blood glucose levels. Diabetics are known to have micro-nutrient deficiencies of chromium, magnesium and vitamin D that can be overcome by consuming parboiled rice fortified by use of a coating method. The fortification of parboiled rice (premix rice) can be achieved by coating with HPMC (hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose), MC (methyl cellulose), CMC (carboxyl methyl cellulose), gum arabic and rice starch. This research aimed to evaluate the levels of resistant starch, glycemic index and fortificants of premix rice coated with different concentrations and types of edible coating materials. This research used completely randomized design, with treatments to the concentrations and the types of edible coating (HPMC, CMC, MC, gum arabic and rice starch). The concentrations of edible coating were 0.15%, 0.2% and 0.25% for cellulose derivative coatings; 25%, 30%, 35% for gum arabic and 2%, 3.5% and 5% for rice starch. This research shows that fortified premix rice coated with various concentrations and types of edible coating materials is high in resistant starch and has a low glycemic index. The coating treatment affects the levels of magnesium and vitamin D, but does not affect the levels of chromium in parboiled rice. The premix rice with a low glycemic index and high nutrient content (chromium, magnesium and vitamin D) was premix rice coated by CMC 0.25% and HPMC 0.25% with glycemic indeces of 39.34 and 38.50, respectively.

  20. Opening the mind to close it: considering a message in light of important values increases message processing and later resistance to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T

    2008-02-01

    Past research showed that considering a persuasive message in light of important rather than unimportant values creates attitudes that resist later attack. The traditional explanation is that the attitudes come to express the value or that a cognitive link between the value and attitude enhances resistance. However, the current research showed that another explanation is plausible. Similar to other sources of involvement, considering important rather than unimportant values increases processing of the message considered in light of those values. This occurs when the values are identified as normatively high or low in importance and when the perceived importance differs across participants for the same values. The increase in processing creates resistance to later attacks, and unlike past research, individual-level measures of initial amount of processing mediate value importance effects on later resistance to change. Important values motivate processing because they increase personal involvement with the issue, rather than creating attitudes that represent or express core values. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Extreme value theory applied to the standardized precipitation index - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v36i1.17475

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Constantino Blain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI is a mathematical algorithm developed for detecting and characterizing precipitation departures with regard to an expected regional climate condition. Thus, this study aimed to verify the possibility of using the time-independent general extreme value distribution (GEV for modeling the probability of occurrence of both SPI annual maxima (the maximum monthly SPI value; SPImax and SPI annual minima (the minimum monthly SPI value; SPImim obtained from the weather station of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil (1891-2011 and to evaluate the presence of trends, temporal persistence and periodical components in these two datasets. The goodness-of-fit tests used in this study quantify the agreement between the empirical cumulative distribution and the GEV cumulative function. Our results have indicated that such parametric function can be used to assess the probability of occurrence of SPImin and SPImax values. No significant serial correlation and no trend were detected in both series. For the SPImim, the wavelet analysis has detected a dominant mode in the 4-8 year band. Future studies should focus on the development of a GEV model capable of accounting for such feature. No dominant mode was found for the annual monthly SPI maximums.

  2. Effects of two P/S ratios with same peroxidizability index value and antioxidants supplementation on serum lipid concentration and hepatic enzyme activities of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Jeong; Lee, Eun Kyung; Lee, Sang Sun

    2004-12-01

    High polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (P/S) ratio of diet decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with improvement of serum lipid profiles and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. This study was to investigate the effects of P/S ratio and antioxidants supplementation on lipid and peroxidation when dietary peroxidizability index (PI) value was the same. Female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100-120 g were fed four different experimental diets for 4 weeks. The P/S ratios were 0.38 (LP) and 4.81 (HP) when the PI value of diet was 81.22. These diets were supplemented with vitamin E 1000 mg/kg diet and selenium 2.5 mg/kg diet (LPS and HPS). The total-cholesterol (T-C) and HDL-cholesterol concentrations of serum were higher in HP and HPS (pLPS (pCVD risk even without antioxidant when the PI value is the same. We suggest that P/S ratio as well as PI value should be considered for reducing the risk of CVD.

  3. Reference values for the Body Image Concern Inventory (BICI), the Whitely Index (WI), and the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS-20R): The Leiden Routine Outcome Monitoring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-van Maaren, Yvonne W M; Giltay, Erik J; van Hemert, Albert M; Zitman, Frans G; de Waal, Margot W M; Van Rood, Yanda R; Carlier, Ingrid V E

    2014-08-01

    The Body Image Concern Inventory (BICI), the Whitely Index (WI), and the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS-20R) are three questionnaires often incorporated in routine outcome monitoring (ROM). Respectively, they assess symptom severity in patients with body dysmorphic disorder, hypochondriasis, and chronic fatigue syndrome. We aimed to generate reference values for a healthy population and for a population of patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria for at least one of BDD, hypochondriasis, and CFS, treated in specialized mental health care. The healthy ROM reference-group (n=648) was recruited through general practitioners. These subjects were matched for age and sex with the ROM patient-group (n=823). To define limits (i.e., cut-off-values) for one-sided reference intervals (5th percentile [P5] for ROM patient-group and 95th percentile [P95] for ROM reference-group) the outermost 5% of observations were used. Discriminative powers were evaluated by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses Cut-off-values (P95 ROM reference-group) were 55 for the BICI, 6 for the WI, and 92 for the CIS-20R. These values differed for men and women, being mostly higher for women. The discriminative power of all three somatoform questionnaires was very high. Substantial non-response and limited generalizability. For the BICI, WI, and CIS-20R a comprehensive set of reference values was obtained. The reference values may support clinical decisions regarding adjusting or terminating therapy, and possible referral. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Heat Resistance of Microbial Cells Represented by D Values Can be Estimated by the Transition Temperature and the Coefficient of Linear Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Koichi; Kogure, Akinori; Deuchi, Keiji; Kuwana, Ritsuko; Takamatsu, Hiromu; Ito, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    We previously developed a method for evaluating the heat resistance of microorganisms by measuring the transition temperature at which the coefficient of linear expansion of a cell changes. Here, we performed heat resistance measurements using a scanning probe microscope with a nano thermal analysis system. The microorganisms studied included six strains of the genus Bacillus or related genera, one strain each of the thermophilic obligate anaerobic bacterial genera Thermoanaerobacter and Moorella, two strains of heat-resistant mold, two strains of non-sporulating bacteria, and one strain of yeast. Both vegetative cells and spores were evaluated. The transition temperature at which the coefficient of linear expansion due to heating changed from a positive value to a negative value correlated strongly with the heat resistance of the microorganism as estimated from the D value. The microorganisms with greater heat resistance exhibited higher transition temperatures. There was also a strong negative correlation between the coefficient of linear expansion and heat resistance in bacteria and yeast, such that microorganisms with greater heat resistance showed lower coefficients of linear expansion. These findings suggest that our method could be useful for evaluating the heat resistance of microorganisms.

  5. A descriptive study of facial acanthosis nigricans and its association with body mass index, waist circumference and insulin resistance using HOMA2 IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shyam; Vasani, Resham; Joshi, Rajiv; Phiske, Meghana; Punjabi, Pritesh; Toprani, Tushar

    2016-01-01

    The term facial acanthosis nigricans (FAN) lacks definition of precise clinical and histopathological features. We present a descriptive study of patients with FAN to define pigmentary patterns and estimate the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in these cases. It is a prospective study that included all patients with classical AN of the neck and/or other areas with facial acanthosis nigricans described as brown-to-black macular pigmentation with blurred ill-defined margins, found on the zygomatic and malar areas. The body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) of the included patients were used as parameters of obesity. Homeostatic Model of Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA2 IR) was used as a parameter to evaluate insulin resistance. Histopathological features of the 6 skin biopsies that were possible were reviewed. Among the 102 included individuals, the patterns of facial pigmentation seen in addition to the classic pattern involving zygomatic and malar areas were a hyperpigmented band on the forehead in 59.80%, periorbital darkening in 17.64%, perioral darkening in 12.74%, and generalized darkening in 9.8% of cases. 85.29% of the males and 100% of the females were found to be obese. Varying degrees of insulin resistance was noted in 82.34% of the individuals. Six biopsies available for evaluation showed changes such as mild epidermal hyperplasia with prominent basal melanin, however, without the typical papillomatosis seen in AN of the flexures. We document an increased prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in patients presenting with FAN and its presentations in addition to the classical description. We propose that FAN can be considered a cutaneous marker of insulin resistance and that HOMA2 IR can serve as a parameter of insulin resistance in such cases.

  6. A descriptive study of facial acanthosis nigricans and its association with body mass index, waist circumference and insulin resistance using HOMA2 IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Verma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The term facial acanthosis nigricans (FAN lacks definition of precise clinical and histopathological features. We present a descriptive study of patients with FAN to define pigmentary patterns and estimate the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in these cases. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective study that included all patients with classical AN of the neck and/or other areas with facial acanthosis nigricans described as brown-to-black macular pigmentation with blurred ill-defined margins, found on the zygomatic and malar areas. The body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC of the included patients were used as parameters of obesity.Homeostatic Model of Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA2 IR was used as a parameter to evaluate insulin resistance. Histopathological features of the 6 skin biopsies that were possible were reviewed. Results: Among the 102 included individuals, the patterns of facial pigmentation seen in addition to the classic pattern involving zygomatic and malar areas were a hyperpigmented band on the forehead in 59.80%, periorbital darkening in 17.64%, perioral darkening in 12.74%, and generalized darkening in 9.8% of cases. 85.29% of the males and 100% of the females were found to be obese. Varying degrees of insulin resistance was noted in 82.34% of the individuals. Six biopsies available for evaluation showed changes such as mild epidermal hyperplasia with prominent basal melanin, however, without the typical papillomatosis seen in AN of the flexures. Conclusion: We document an increased prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in patients presenting with FAN and its presentations in addition to the classical description. We propose that FAN can be considered a cutaneous marker of insulin resistance and that HOMA2 IR can serve as a parameter of insulin resistance in such cases.

  7. The value of effective public tuberculosis treatment: an analysis of opportunity costs associated with multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A challenge to effective protection against tuberculosis is to sustain expensive and complex treatment public programs. Potential consequences of program failure include acquired drug resistance, poor patient outcomes, and potentially much higher system costs, however. In contrast, effective efforts have value illustrated by impacts they prevent. We compared the healthcare costs and treatment outcomes among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and non MDR-TB patients in Latvia to identify benefits or costs associated with both. Methods We measured and compared costs, healthcare utilization, and outcomes for patients who began treatment through Latvia’s TB control program in 2002 using multivariate regression analysis and negative binomial regression. Results We analyzed data for 92 MDR-TB and 54 non MDR-TB patients. Most (67%) MDR-TB patients had history of prior tuberculosis treatment. MDR-TB was associated with lower cure rates (71% vs. 91%) and greater resource utilization. MDR-TB treatment cost almost $20,000 more than non MDR-TB. Conclusion Up to 2/3 of MDR-TB treated in our sample was preventable at a potential savings of over $1.3 million in healthcare resources as well as substantial individual health. PMID:23594422

  8. Relationship between adiponectin and hepatic fibrosis markers expressions as well as insulin resistance index in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jianhe; Pan Feng; Zhou Chuanwen; Ren Jianguo; Li Donghai

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the retationship between expressions of adiponectin and hepatic fibrosis markers as well as insulin resistance index in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods: Serum adiponectin, type III pro-collagen (PCIII), hyaluronic acid (HA), type IV collagen (CIV), laminin levels (with ELISA) and insulin resistance index (IRI) (calculated from homeostasis model assessment) were determined in 46 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and 46 controls. Results The serum adiponectin levels in patients with NAFLD were significantly lower than those in controls while the serum hepatic fibrosis markers (PCIII, HA, CIV, LN) levels and IRI were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). IRI was significantly positively correlated with the hepatic fibrosis markers levels (P<0.05). Serum adiponectin levels were significantly negatively correlated with WHR, RMI, HOMA-IRI and levels of FRG, TG, FINS hepatic fibrosis markers (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum adiponectin levels were greatly reduced in patients with NAFLD, which might play important role in the increase of insulin resistance and development of hepatic fibrosis. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of the most suitable threshold value for modelling snow glacier melt through T- index approach: the case study of Forni Glacier (Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Antonella; Maugeri, Maurizio; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina

    2014-05-01

    Glacier melt occurs whenever the surface temperature is null (273.15 K) and the net energy budget is positive. These conditions can be assessed by analyzing meteorological and energy data acquired by a supraglacial Automatic Weather Station (AWS). In the case this latter is not present at the glacier surface the assessment of actual melting conditions and the evaluation of melt amount is difficult and degree-day (also named T-index) models are applied. These approaches require the choice of a correct temperature threshold. In fact, melt does not necessarily occur at daily air temperatures higher than 273.15 K, since it is determined by the energy budget which in turn is only indirectly affected by air temperature. This is the case of the late spring period when ablation processes start at the glacier surface thus progressively reducing snow thickness. In this study, to detect the most indicative air temperature threshold witnessing melt conditions in the April-June period, we analyzed air temperature data recorded from 2006 to 2012 by a supraglacial AWS (at 2631 m a.s.l.) on the ablation tongue of the Forni Glacier (Italy), and by a weather station located nearby the studied glacier (at Bormio, 1225 m a.s.l.). Moreover we evaluated the glacier energy budget (which gives the actual melt, Senese et al., 2012) and the snow water equivalent values during this time-frame. Then the ablation amount was estimated both from the surface energy balance (MEB from supraglacial AWS data) and from degree-day method (MT-INDEX, in this latter case applying the mean tropospheric lapse rate to temperature data acquired at Bormio changing the air temperature threshold) and the results were compared. We found that the mean tropospheric lapse rate permits a good and reliable reconstruction of daily glacier air temperature conditions and the major uncertainty in the computation of snow melt from degree-day models is driven by the choice of an appropriate air temperature threshold. Then

  10. Bispectral index values during sevoflurane-nitrous oxide general anesthesia in women undergoing cesarean delivery: a comparison between women with and without prior labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kyung Y; Jeong, Cheol W; Kang, Myung W; Kim, Seok J; Chung, Sung T; Shin, Min H; Lee, JongUn

    2008-06-01

    An end-tidal concentration of 1% sevoflurane (1% ET(SEVO)) in 50% nitrous oxide (N(2)O) during elective cesarean delivery has been associated with bispectral index (BIS) values >60, which are associated with an increased risk of awareness. We hypothesized that BIS values during sevoflurane-N(2)O general anesthesia for cesarean delivery would be lower in women with prior labor compared with women without prior labor. Forty patients undergoing cesarean delivery were enrolled in this observational study. One group had urgent surgery after labor (labor group, n = 20) and the other had elective surgery without labor (control group, n = 20). General anesthesia was induced with thiopental 4 mg/kg, followed by succinylcholine 1.5 mg/kg, and maintained with 1% ET(SEVO) and 50% N(2)O in oxygen. BIS values, systolic arterial blood pressure, heart rate, plasma stress hormone concentrations, Apgar scores, and postoperative analgesia variables were assessed and compared between groups. BIS values during the period between intubation and delivery were lower in the labor group than in the control group (P labor group than in the control group both at baseline and at delivery. Systolic arterial blood pressure, heart rate, Apgar scores, surgical characteristics, and plasma concentrations of vasopressin and cortisol were not different between groups. Postoperative visual analog scale pain scores were similar between groups, while the labor group consumed less analgesics (P labor was associated with lower intraoperative BIS values during sevoflurane/N(2)O general anesthesia and reduced postoperative analgesic consumption in women undergoing cesarean delivery compared with women without prior labor.

  11. Pre-Procedural Hemodynamic Status Improves the Discriminatory Value of the Aortic Regurgitation Index in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinning, Jan-Malte; Stundl, Anja; Pingel, Simon; Weber, Marcel; Sedaghat, Alexander; Hammerstingl, Christoph; Vasa-Nicotera, Mariuca; Mellert, Fritz; Schiller, Wolfgang; Kovac, Jan; Welz, Armin; Grube, Eberhard; Werner, Nikos; Nickenig, Georg

    2016-04-11

    The aims of this study were to increase the discriminatory value of the aortic regurgitation index (ARI) for the assessment of paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) and to further elucidate the association between aortic regurgitation severity and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Hemodynamic parameters such as the ARI complement predominantly angiographically guided TAVR. However, the ARI depends on several baseline and periprocedural characteristics. The ARI was prospectively calculated before and after TAVR in 600 patients. The severity of PVR was assessed in all patients by angiography and echocardiography according to a 3-class scheme. To account for pre-procedural hemodynamic status, the ARI ratio was calculated as post- over pre-procedural ARI. Apart from the degree of PVR (β = -0.396, p procedural hemodynamic status in the form of the ARI before TAVR (β = 0.227, p procedural ARI in multivariate regression analysis. The ARI ratio increased the specificity of post-procedural ARI alone for the prediction of both more than mild PVR and 1-year mortality from 75.1% to 93.2% and from 75.0% to 93.3%, respectively. Patients with post-procedural ARI values procedural hemodynamic status increases the discriminatory value of post-procedural ARI. The ARI ratio, which reflects acute hemodynamic changes after TAVR, is useful to identify patients with negative outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrasound analysis of gray-scale median value of carotid plaques is a useful reference index for cerebro-cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyoshi, Kyoko; Okuya, Shigeru; Kunitsugu, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Kimie; Nagao, Yuko; Nomiyama, Ryuta; Takeda, Komei; Tanizawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of plaque echogenicity, the gray-scale median (GSM), were shown to correlate inversely with risk factors for cerebro-cardiovascular disease (CVD). The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio is a potential predictor of CVD risk. In the present study, we assessed the usefulness of carotid plaque GSM values and EPA/AA ratios in atherosclerotic diabetics. A total of 84 type 2 diabetics with carotid artery plaques were enrolled. On admission, platelet aggregation and lipid profiles, including EPA and AA, were examined. Using ultrasound, mean intima media thickness and plaque score were measured in carotid arteries. Plaque echogenicity was evaluated using computer-assisted quantification of GSM. The patients were then further observed for approximately 3 years. Gray-scale median was found to be a good marker of CVD events. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, GSM values, an association of EPA/AA with CVD events could not be statistically confirmed. The present results suggest the GSM value to be useful as a reference index for CVD events in high-risk atherosclerotic diabetics. Associations of the EPA/AA ratio with known CVD risk factors warrant a larger and more extensive study to show the usefulness of this parameter.

  13. Glycemic Responses, Glycemic Index, and Glycemic Load Values of Some Street Foods Prepared from Plantain (Musa spp., AAB Genome) in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouamé, Camille Adam; Kouassi, Nestor Kouakou; N'dri, Denis Yao; Pereko, Kingsley Kwadwo Asare; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Rhedoor, Abodo Jacko; Amani, Georges N'guessan

    2017-09-16

    The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of four culinary preferences including five local street dishes prepared from three varieties of plantain at different maturity stages was determined. The GI was obtained following ISO/FDI 26642:2010 protocol, and the GL was calculated from test foods' GI, considering the amount of available carbohydrate in the traditional portion size. GI values were 44 for Klaclo (with Ameletiha variety at all black stage), 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow stage), 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow with black spots stage); 45 for Chips (with Ameletiha variety at green stage) and 89 for Banane braisée (with Afoto variety at light green stage). GI values were inversely correlated with the total sugar and carbohydrate in foods ( p foods were high (GL > 20). Contrary to Banane braisée, the consumption of Klaclo, Aloco, and Chips may promote the control of postprandial glucose response. Data provides the first GI published values of plantain-based foods commonly consumed in the urban area of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire).

  14. The prognostic value of pre-operative serum tetranectin, CA-125 and a combined index in women with primary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Claus K; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Mogensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the prognostic value of pre-operative serum tetranectin (TN), CA125 levels and a mathematical formula (Index1) in primary ovarian cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of sixty-six patients with varying FIGO stages I-IV. The end-point was death from ovarian...... cancer. Evaluation was by univariate life-tables analyses and the multivariate Cox analysis. In the Cox analyses, the variables were tested respectively in actual values and as dichotomy variables with different cut-off levels: 6.7, 7.3 and 8.2 mg/l for TN, 35, 65, 100 and 165 U/ml for CA125. RESULTS......: In stages I+II only CA125 was found to be significantly prognostic, whereas TN was of no prognostic value by univariate statistics. For stages III+IV patients significantly better survivals were found for patients with TN levels above the respective cut-offs compared to patients with low TN levels, whereas...

  15. [Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the level of hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelet count as an activity index in ulcerative colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Rodríguez, J Jesús; Santiago-Luna, Ernesto; Velázquez-Ramírez, Gabriela Abigail; López-Ramírez, María Karina Lizbeth; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; Cortés-Flores, Ana Olivia; González-Ojeda, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease characterized by relapsing and remitting non-infectious inflammation of the colorectal mucosa. Its heterogeneity makes assessment of the disease's activity a prerequisite for a rational choice of therapy. We aimed to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets to develop a simplified activity index of UC. Sixty patients with UC were included and submitted to measurements of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets, as well as sigmoidoscopy and biopsy. Sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values were correlated with the reported degree of activity in the biopsy. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine differences between groups, and Pearson and Spearman rank tests were used to correlate each parameter with the degree of activity. A p value hemoglobin level was 51% and 100% for hematocrit, respectively, 51% and 100% for hematocrit, and 84% and 100% for platelet counts. Spearman's correlation for hemoglobin was r = -0.866 (p hematocrit r = -0.864 (p Hemoglobin and hematocrit are useful to catalog the degree of activity of UC when it is severe. Platelet count may be a marker of severity at any time, due to its high sensitivity and specificity as a diagnostic test.

  16. Effect of vitamin D replacement on indexes of insulin resistance in overweight elderly individuals: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuleihan G, EI-Haij; Baddoura, Rafic; Habib, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    of 600 or 3750 IU/d. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of IR index at 1 y was the primary outcome. We also assessed the McAuley index. RESULTS: In total, 222 subjects (55% women) with a mean ± SD age and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) of 71 ± 4 y and 30 ± 4, respectively, completed the study...... 20 ± 7 to 26 ± 7 ng/mL in the low-dose arm (P HOMA-IR indexes did not change compared with baseline concentrations and were similar in the high- [2.2 (IQR: 1.5, 2.9)] and low-dose [2.3 (IQR: 1.6, 3.3] treatment groups....... Adjusted analyses showed that HOMA-IR was predicted by the baseline HOMA index and BMI but not by vitamin D dose, baseline serum 25(OH)D, or change in 25(OH)D. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D3 at 3750 IU/d did not improve HOMA-IR compared with the Institute of Medicine Recommended Dietary Allowance of 600 IU...

  17. Estimating rate of insulin resistance in patients with preeclampsia using HOMA-IR index and comparison with nonpreeclampsia pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhari, Farideh Rezaei; Ghanbari Andarieh, Maryam; Farokhfar, Asadollah; Ahmady, Soleiman

    2014-01-01

    Women with preeclampsia, independent of obesity and glucose intolerance, exhibit insulin resistance during pregnancy. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether early diagnosis of insulin resistance during pregnancy can predict preeclampsia. Through a case-control study, 675 pregnant women were selected and their first trimester blood was taken. Their fasting blood glucose and insulin were also measured after diagnosis of preeclampsia by 20 weeks of pregnancy. Based on the experiments conducted on 675 women who were 20 weeks past their pregnancy, 375 cases with preeclampsia were selected and assigned to the case group. 35 other pregnant women were put in the control group. Diagnosis criteria for the participants included blood pressure above 140/90 and proteinuria above 300 mg or above +1. Both groups were matched according to age, parity, gestational age, and BMI. Homa-Irand rate of insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR and patients were followed up. Homeostatic model assessments (HOMA-IR) revealed that the average insulin resistance increased during pregnancy among both the case and control groups. There was a significant difference between insulin resistance of these two groups in both first trimester and third trimester and after developing preeclampsia (P < 0.001, P = 0.021). Insulin-resistance of the group with preeclampsia was higher in first trimester prior to diagnosis as well as the third trimester after diagnosis compared to natural pregnancy under similar conditions. Measurement of insulin resistance in first trimester may be useful in predicting the risk of preeclampsia.

  18. Estimating Rate of Insulin Resistance in Patients with Preeclampsia Using HOMA-IR Index and Comparison with Nonpreeclampsia Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Rezaei Abhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women with preeclampsia, independent of obesity and glucose intolerance, exhibit insulin resistance during pregnancy. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether early diagnosis of insulin resistance during pregnancy can predict preeclampsia. Through a case-control study, 675 pregnant women were selected and their first trimester blood was taken. Their fasting blood glucose and insulin were also measured after diagnosis of preeclampsia by 20 weeks of pregnancy. Based on the experiments conducted on 675 women who were 20 weeks past their pregnancy, 375 cases with preeclampsia were selected and assigned to the case group. 35 other pregnant women were put in the control group. Diagnosis criteria for the participants included blood pressure above 140/90 and proteinuria above 300 mg or above +1. Both groups were matched according to age, parity, gestational age, and BMI. Homa-Irand rate of insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR and patients were followed up. Homeostatic model assessments (HOMA-IR revealed that the average insulin resistance increased during pregnancy among both the case and control groups. There was a significant difference between insulin resistance of these two groups in both first trimester and third trimester and after developing preeclampsia (P < 0.001, P = 0.021. Insulin-resistance of the group with preeclampsia was higher in first trimester prior to diagnosis as well as the third trimester after diagnosis compared to natural pregnancy under similar conditions. Measurement of insulin resistance in first trimester may be useful in predicting the risk of preeclampsia.

  19. Effects of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] Crude Extracts on Starch Digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI, and Resistant Starch (RS Contents of Porridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Lemlioglu-Austin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bran extracts (70% aqueous acetone of specialty sorghum varieties (tannin, black, and black with tannin were used to investigate the effects of sorghum phenolic compounds on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI, and Resistant Starch (RS of porridges made with normal corn starch, enzyme resistant high amylose corn starch, and ground whole sorghum flours. Porridges were cooked with bran extracts in a Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA. The cooking trials indicated that bran extracts of phenolic-rich sorghum varieties significantly reduced EGI, and increased RS contents of porridges. Thus, there could be potential health benefits associated with the incorporation of phenolic-rich sorghum bran extracts into foods to slow starch digestion and increase RS content.

  20. Plasma triglyceride levels and body mass index values are the most important determinants of prebeta-1 HDL concentrations in patients with various types of primary dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimihodimos, Vasilis; Gazi, Irene; Filippatos, Theodosios; Kostapanos, Michael; Lagos, Kostantinos; Kostara, Christina; Tellis, Constantinos C; Elisaf, Moses; Tselepis, Alexandros D

    2010-02-01

    Experimental studies have shown that the prebeta-1 subclass of high-density lipoprotein particles (prebeta-1 HDL) may play an important role in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway as the initial acceptors of cellular cholesterol. The aim of the present study was the direct comparison of prebeta-1 HDL values in individuals with various types of primary dyslipidemias. Four hundred and eighty-six unrelated individuals were included in the study. According to their lipid values study participants were subdivided into four groups: control group (n=206), type IIA dyslipidemia group (n=148), type IIB dyslipidemia group (n=49) and type IV dyslipidemia group (n=83). All dyslipidemic patients displayed higher concentrations of prebeta-1 HDL compared to control individuals. However, patients with dyslipidemias characterized by an abnormal catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (such as dyslipidemias of type IIB and IV) tend to have higher prebeta-1 HDL values compared to patients with hypercholesterolemia, and this increase is proportional to the degree of hypertriglyceridemia. In addition, patients with metabolic syndrome exhibited significantly higher levels of prebeta-1 HDL compared to individuals that do not fulfill the criteria for the diagnosis of this syndrome. Multiple regression analysis revealed that serum triglyceride concentrations and body mass index (BMI) values were the most important determinants of prebeta-1 HDL levels in our population. All dyslipidemic patients exhibit increased prebeta-1 HDL concentrations as compared to normolipidemic individuals. Whether this increase represents a defensive mechanism against atherosclerosis or it is indicative of impaired maturation of HDL particles and thus of a defective reverse cholesterol transport mechanism remains to be established. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reconstructing Atmospheric CO2 Through The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum Using Stomatal Index and Stomatal Density Values From Ginkgo adiantoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, R. S.; Wing, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a geologically brief interval of intense global warming 56 million years ago. It is arguably the best geological analog for a worst-case scenario of anthropogenic carbon emissions. The PETM is marked by a ~4-6‰ negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) and extensive marine carbonate dissolution, which together are powerful evidence for a massive addition of carbon to the oceans and atmosphere. In spite of broad agreement that the PETM reflects a large carbon cycle perturbation, atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (pCO2) during the event are not well constrained. The goal of this study is to produce a high resolution reconstruction of pCO2 using stomatal frequency proxies (both stomatal index and stomatal density) before, during, and after the PETM. These proxies rely upon a genetically controlled mechanism whereby plants decrease the proportion of gas-exchange pores (stomata) in response to increased pCO2. Terrestrial sections in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, contain macrofossil plants with cuticle immediately bracketing the PETM, as well as dispersed plant cuticle from within the body of the CIE. These fossils allow for the first stomatal-based reconstruction of pCO2 near the Paleocene-Eocene boundary; we also use them to determine the relative timing of pCO2 change in relation to the CIE that defines the PETM. Preliminary results come from macrofossil specimens of Ginkgo adiantoides, collected from an ~200ka interval prior to the onset of the CIE (~230-30ka before), and just after the 'recovery interval' of the CIE. Stomatal index values decreased by 37% within an ~70ka time interval at least 100ka prior to the onset of the CIE. The decrease in stomatal index is interpreted as a significant increase in pCO2, and has a magnitude equivalent to the entire range of stomatal index adjustment observed in modern Ginkgo biloba during the anthropogenic CO2 rise during the last 150 years. The inferred CO2 increase prior to the

  2. Limited predictive value of the IDF definition of metabolic syndrome for the diagnosis of insulin resistance measured with the oral minimal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanassia, E; Raynaud de Mauverger, E; Brun, J-F; Fedou, C; Mercier, J

    2009-01-01

    To assess the agreement of the NCEP ATP-III and the IDF definitions of metabolic syndrome and to determine their predictive values for the diagnosis of insulin resistance. For this purpose, we recruited 150 subjects (94 women and 56 men) and determined the presence of metabolic syndrome using the NCEP-ATP III and IDF definitions. We evaluated their insulin sensitivity S(I) using Caumo's oral minimal model after a standardized hyperglucidic breakfast test. Subjects whose S(I) was in the lowest quartile were considered as insulin resistant. We then calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of both definitions for the diagnosis of insulin resistance. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.4% (NCEP-ATP III) and 40% (IDF). Agreement between the two definitions was 96%. Using NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria for the identification of insulin resistant subjects, sensitivity was 55.3% and 63%, specificity was 68.8% and 67.8%, positive predictive value was 37.5% and 40%, negative predictive value was 81.9% and 84.5%, respectively. Positive predictive value increased with the number of criteria for both definitions. Whatever the definition, the scoring of metabolic syndrome is not a reliable tool for the individual diagnosis of insulin resistance, and is more useful for excluding this diagnosis.

  3. The prognostic value of the neoadjuvant response index in triple-negative breast cancer: validation and comparison with pathological complete response as outcome measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebbink, M; van Werkhoven, E; Mandjes, I A M; Wesseling, J; Lips, E H; Vrancken Peeters, M-J T D F; Loo, C E; Sonke, G S; Linn, S C; Falo Zamora, C; Rodenhuis, S

    2015-08-01

    The Neoadjuvant response index (NRI) has been proposed as a simple measure of downstaging by neoadjuvant treatment in breast cancer. It was previously found to predict recurrence-free survival (RFS) in triple-negative (TN) breast cancer. It was at least as accurate as the standard binary system, the absence or presence of a pathological complete remission (pCR), which is the commonly employed outcome measure. The NRI was evaluated in an independent consecutive series of patients to validate the previous findings. Univariable and multivariable analyses were done to assess the predictive value of clinical parameters and of the NRI for RFS. We combined the original and validation series of patients to build a multivariable predictive model for RFS after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in TN breast cancer. The validation set (N = 108) confirmed that patients with a higher-than-median NRI (>0.7) had excellent RFS (P = 0.002), similar to that of patients who had achieved a pCR. Multivariable analysis in 191 patients showed that the NRI was a strong independent predictor of RFS (P = 0.0002), with N-stage (P = 0.001) and T-stage (P = 0.014) ranking second and third, respectively. Importantly, among patients who did not achieve a pCR (NRI values below 1), higher NRI values were still associated with better RFS. The NRI is a simple method and a practical tool to predict RFS in TN breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. It adds prognostic information to the presence or absence of pCR and could be useful to compare the efficacies of different chemotherapy regimens.

  4. Determination of the Optimal Cutoff Values for Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire Scores and the Oswestry Disability Index for Favorable Surgical Outcomes in Subjects With Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Park, Jong-Woong; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Kang, Sung-Shik; Yeom, Jin S

    2015-10-15

    Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data (NCT02134821). The aim of this study was to elucidate the cutoff values for significant predictors for favorable outcomes after lumbar spine surgery in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Various factors are associated with the surgical outcomes for patients with LSS. However, we did not know the odds ratio and/or cutoff values of a predictive factor for a favorable surgical outcome for LSS. A total of 157 patients who underwent spine surgery due to LSS between June 2012 and April 2013 were included in this study. The patients were dichotomized into 2 groups on the basis of an Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score of 22 or less (favorable outcome group) or more than 22 (unfavorable outcome group) at 12 months after surgery. Regarding favorable outcomes, the odds ratio for each preoperative variable including demographic data, preoperative symptom severity, and pain sensitivity questionnaire (PSQ) score was calculated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. For the significant variables for surgical outcome, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted with calculation of the area under the ROC curve. Multivariate analysis revealed that the ODI and total PSQ scores were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of an unfavorable surgical outcome [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of ODI, 1.289 (1.028-1.616); odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of total PSQ, 1.060 (1.009-1.113)]. ROC analysis revealed area under the ROC curves for the total PSQ and ODI scores of 0.638 (P = 0.005) and 0.692 (P disability and pain sensitivity can be predictors of the functional level achieved after spine surgery in patients with LSS, and the ideal cutoff values for the total PSQ and ODI scores were 6.6 and 45.0, respectively.

  5. Varicella Zoster Virus Myelitis in Two Elderly Patients: Diagnostic Value of Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay and Antibody Index for Cerebrospinal Fluid Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruyuki Takahashi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myelitis is one of the rarest neurological complications of the varicella zoster virus (VZV infection. Focal muscle weakness with or without sensory disturbance occurs in approximately 5% of the cases after acute VZV infection, with complete recovery in 50-70%. Case Presentation: This report describes two rare cases of elderly patients with VZV myelitis secondary to dermatomal zoster rash. Patient 1 was a 79-year-old woman who developed paraplegia, numbness and decreased sensation in the left arm and below thoracic (Th-10 after sacral zoster. Spinal cord MRI showed a high-signal-intensity lesion at the cervical spinal nerve 2 on a T2-weighted image. Patient 2 was a 73-year-old man who developed right flaccid leg weakness and urinary retention after right dorsal Th 5-8 zoster. Spinal cord MRI showed a high-signal-intensity lesion at Th 3-4 on a T2-weighted image. In both cases, although the conventional single polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays all showed negative results, the original nested PCR assay detected VZV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF specimen collected on admission. In addition, the anti-VZV IgG antibody by enzyme immunoassay and antibody index were elevated in the CSF specimens during the clinical courses of both patients. On the basis of these findings, both patients were diagnosed with VZV myelitis and were treated with high-dose acyclovir and corticosteroid. This combined treatment was appropriate and effective for the improvement of their functional outcomes. Conclusion: The detection of VZV DNA in CSF by nested PCR assay and the evaluation of the antibody index to VZV had significant diagnostic value.

  6. Varicella zoster virus myelitis in two elderly patients: diagnostic value of nested polymerase chain reaction assay and antibody index for cerebrospinal fluid specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Teruyuki; Tamura, Masato; Miki, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Mai; Kanno, Akira; Nunomura, Satoshi; Ra, Chisei; Tamiya, Takashi; Kamei, Satoshi; Takasu, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Myelitis is one of the rarest neurological complications of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. Focal muscle weakness with or without sensory disturbance occurs in approximately 5% of the cases after acute VZV infection, with complete recovery in 50-70%. This report describes two rare cases of elderly patients with VZV myelitis secondary to dermatomal zoster rash. Patient 1 was a 79-year-old woman who developed paraplegia, numbness and decreased sensation in the left arm and below thoracic (Th)-10 after sacral zoster. Spinal cord MRI showed a high-signal-intensity lesion at the cervical spinal nerve 2 on a T2-weighted image. Patient 2 was a 73-year-old man who developed right flaccid leg weakness and urinary retention after right dorsal Th 5-8 zoster. Spinal cord MRI showed a high-signal-intensity lesion at Th 3-4 on a T2-weighted image. In both cases, although the conventional single polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays all showed negative results, the original nested PCR assay detected VZV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimen collected on admission. In addition, the anti-VZV IgG antibody by enzyme immunoassay and antibody index were elevated in the CSF specimens during the clinical courses of both patients. On the basis of these findings, both patients were diagnosed with VZV myelitis and were treated with high-dose acyclovir and corticosteroid. This combined treatment was appropriate and effective for the improvement of their functional outcomes. The detection of VZV DNA in CSF by nested PCR assay and the evaluation of the antibody index to VZV had significant diagnostic value.

  7. Development and application of artificial neural network models to estimate values of a complex human thermal comfort index associated with urban heat and cool island patterns using air temperature data from a standard meteorological station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustris, Konstantinos; Tsiros, Ioannis X; Tseliou, Areti; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2018-04-11

    The present study deals with the development and application of artificial neural network models (ANNs) to estimate the values of a complex human thermal comfort-discomfort index associated with urban heat and cool island conditions inside various urban clusters using as only inputs air temperature data from a standard meteorological station. The index used in the study is the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index which requires as inputs, among others, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and radiation (short- and long-wave components). For the estimation of PET hourly values, ANN models were developed, appropriately trained, and tested. Model results are compared to values calculated by the PET index based on field monitoring data for various urban clusters (street, square, park, courtyard, and gallery) in the city of Athens (Greece) during an extreme hot weather summer period. For the evaluation of the predictive ability of the developed ANN models, several statistical evaluation indices were applied: the mean bias error, the root mean square error, the index of agreement, the coefficient of determination, the true predictive rate, the false alarm rate, and the Success Index. According to the results, it seems that ANNs present a remarkable ability to estimate hourly PET values within various urban clusters using only hourly values of air temperature. This is very important in cases where the human thermal comfort-discomfort conditions have to be analyzed and the only available parameter is air temperature.

  8. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Based on Insulin Resistance and Visceral Obesity in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Soo Lim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVisceral obesity is the most powerful contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS and cardiovascular diseases. In light of visceral obesity, however, there is a paucity of data on the appropriate cutoff point of waist circumference (WC in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal cutoff value for WC that signals insulin resistance (IR and visceral obesity in Koreans with type 2 diabetes.MethodsWe evaluated 4,252 patients with type 2 diabetes (male 2,220, female 2,032, mean age 57.24 years who visited our clinic between January 2003 and June 2009. WC was measured at the midpoint between the lower rib and the iliac crest, and insulin sensitivity was assessed by the rate constant of plasma glucose disappearance (Kitt %/min using an insulin tolerance test. Visceral fat thickness was measured using ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic curve.ResultsThe optimal cutoff points for WC for identifying the presence of IR and visceral obesity, as well as two or more metabolic components, were 87 cm for men and 81 cm for women. Moreover, these cutoff points had the highest predictive powers for the presence of visceral obesity. The MetS defined by new criteria correlated with the increased carotid intima-media thickness in female subjects.ConclusionOur results suggest that the optimal cutoff values for WC in Koreans with type 2 diabetes should be reestablished based on IR and visceral obesity.

  9. The European iNPH Multicentre Study on the predictive values of resistance to CSF outflow and the CSF Tap Test in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikkelsø, Carsten; Hellström, Per; Klinge, Petra Margarete

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the CSF Tap Test (CSF TT) and resistance to CSF outflow (Rout) for the outcome of shunting in a sample of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH).......The objective was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the CSF Tap Test (CSF TT) and resistance to CSF outflow (Rout) for the outcome of shunting in a sample of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH)....

  10. Dietary phytochemical index and the risk of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction: a prospective approach in Tehran lipid and glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Tohidi, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of dietary phytochemical index (DPI) with insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and insulin sensitivity. This longitudinal study was conducted on 1141 participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Dietary data were collected using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ with 168 food items at baseline and DPI was calculated. Fasting serum insulin and glucose were measured at baseline and again after a 3-year of follow-up. After 3-years of follow-up, the risk of hyperinsulinemia significantly decreased by 65 (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.21-0.60) and 86% (OR = 0.14, 0.07-0.29), in the third and fourth quartile categories of DPI, respectively. The occurrence of insulin resistance and insulin insensitivity in participants with higher DPI was significantly lower than the others (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.25-0.93 and OR = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.05-0.24, respectively). Higher consumption of phytochemical-rich foods may have protective effects against development of insulin resistance.

  11. Antimicrobial multiple resistance index, minimum inhibitory concentrations, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris strains isolated from domestic animals with various clinical manifestations of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Zappa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteus spp. are opportunistic multidrug resistant enterobacteria associated with diverse clinical diseases in domestic animals. However, Proteus infections in domestic animals are often misdiagnosed or considered contaminants in microbiological cultures rather than a primary agent of disease. Descriptions of Proteus infections in domestic animals are typically restricted to case reports, retrospective studies, or surveillance of other microorganisms. The present study investigated multiple antibiotic resistance indices, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs, and ESBL production in 73 strains of Proteus mirabilis (n = 69 and Proteus vulgaris (n = 4 isolated from domestic animals with various clinical manifestations. In dogs, the pathogen was most commonly associated with cystitis (48.21, enteritis (21.42%, otitis (14.29%, and conjunctivitis (3.57%. In bovines, the microorganism was predominant in cases of enteritis (22.22%, abscess (11.11%, otitis (11.11%, omphalitis (11.11%, and peritonitis (11.11%, and in organ fragments (11.11%. In equines (50.0% and cats (100.0%, diarrhea was the main clinical sign. In vitro standard disk diffusion assay showed that the most effective antimicrobials against the isolates were imipenem (98.63, norfloxacin (95.89, amikacin (95.89, levofloxacin (90.41, ceftriaxone (87.64, and florfenicol (87.67. In contrast, the isolates commonly showed resistance to novobiocin (95.89, azithromycin (57.53, and trimethropim/sulfamethoxazole (39.73. Among the 73 isolates, the efficacy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, and ciprofloxacin according to MICs was 87.67%, 86.30%, 84.93%, and 82.19%, respectively. The MIC50 values of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin were, respectively, 1.0, 0.004, 0.03, and 1.0 µg/mL. Thirty-three strains (45.21% showed a antimicrobial multiple resistance index of ? 0.3. Multidrug resistance profiles of isolates were observed most frequently

  12. A Comparison of Simulated and Field-Derived Leaf Area Index (LAI and Canopy Height Values from Four Forest Complexes in the Southeastern USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Iiames

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative leaf area is a critical input to models that simulate human and ecosystem exposure to atmospheric pollutants. Leaf area index (LAI can be measured in the field or numerically simulated, but all contain some inherent uncertainty that is passed to the exposure assessments that use them. LAI estimates for minimally managed or natural forest stands can be particularly difficult to develop as a result of interspecies competition, age and spatial distribution. Satellite-based LAI estimates hold promise for retrospective analyses, but we must continue to rely on numerical models for alternative management analysis. Our objective for this study is to calculate and validate LAI estimates generated from the USDA Environmental Policy Impact Climate (EPIC model (a widely used, field-scale, biogeochemical model on four forest complexes spanning three physiographic provinces in Virginia and North Carolina. Measurements of forest composition (species and number, LAI, tree diameter, basal area, and canopy height were recorded at each site during the 2002 field season. Calibrated EPIC results show stand-level temporally resolved LAI estimates with R2 values ranging from 0.69 to 0.96, and stand maximum height estimates within 20% of observation. This relatively high level of performance is attributable to EPIC’s approach to the characterization of forest stand biogeochemical budgets, stand history, interspecies competition and species-specific response to local weather conditions. We close by illustrating the extension of this site-level approach to scales that could support regional air quality model simulations.

  13. The predictive value of ICD-10 diagnostic coding used to assess Charlson comorbidity index conditions in the population-based Danish National Registry of Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lash Timothy L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlson comorbidity index is often used to control for confounding in research based on medical databases. There are few studies of the accuracy of the codes obtained from these databases. We examined the positive predictive value (PPV of the ICD-10 diagnostic coding in the Danish National Registry of Patients (NRP for the 19 Charlson conditions. Methods Among all hospitalizations in Northern Denmark between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2007 with a first-listed diagnosis of a Charlson condition in the NRP, we selected 50 hospital contacts for each condition. We reviewed discharge summaries and medical records to verify the NRP diagnoses, and computed the PPV as the proportion of confirmed diagnoses. Results A total of 950 records were reviewed. The overall PPV for the 19 Charlson conditions was 98.0% (95% CI; 96.9, 98.8. The PPVs ranged from 82.0% (95% CI; 68.6%, 91.4% for diabetes with diabetic complications to 100% (one-sided 97.5% CI; 92.9%, 100% for congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, chronic pulmonary disease, mild and severe liver disease, hemiplegia, renal disease, leukaemia, lymphoma, metastatic tumour, and AIDS. Conclusion The PPV of NRP coding of the Charlson conditions was consistently high.

  14. Value of three-dimensional volume rendering images in the assessment of the centrality index for preoperative planning in patients with renal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, C; Magno, C; Silipigni, S; Cantisani, V; Mucciardi, G; Sottile, F; Inferrera, A; Mazziotti, S; Ascenti, G

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the precision of the centrality index (CI) measurement on three-dimensional (3D) volume rendering technique (VRT) images in patients with renal masses, compared to its standard measurement on axial images. Sixty-five patients with renal lesions underwent contrast-enhanced multidetector (MD) computed tomography (CT) for preoperative imaging. Two readers calculated the CI on two-dimensional axial images and on VRT images, measuring it in the plane that the tumour and centre of the kidney were lying in. Correlation and agreement of interobserver measurements and inter-method results were calculated using intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficients and the Bland-Altman method. Time saving was also calculated. The correlation coefficients were r=0.99 (ppresent study showed that VRT and axial images produce almost identical values of CI, with the advantages of greater ease of execution and a time saving of almost 50% for 3D VRT images. In addition, VRT provides an integrated perspective that can better assist surgeons in clinical decision making and in operative planning, suggesting this technique as a possible standard method for CI measurement. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Deep Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Liew, John M.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We define "deep value" as episodes where the valuation spread between cheap and expensive securities is wide relative to its history. Examining deep value across global individual equities, equity index futures, currencies, and global bonds provides new evidence on competing theories for the valu....... Lastly, we find that deep value episodes tend to cluster and a deep value trading strategy generates excess returns not explained by traditional risk factors.......We define "deep value" as episodes where the valuation spread between cheap and expensive securities is wide relative to its history. Examining deep value across global individual equities, equity index futures, currencies, and global bonds provides new evidence on competing theories for the value...... premium. Following these episodes, the value strategy has (1) high average returns; (2) low market betas, but high betas to a global value factor; (3) deteriorating fundamentals; (4) negative news sentiment; (5) selling pressure; (6) increased limits to arbitrage; and (7) increased arbitrage activity...

  16. Clinical value of NPHS2 analysis in early- and adult-onset steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, Sheila; Tazón-Vega, Bárbara; Silva, Irene; Cobo, María Ángeles; Giménez, Isabel; Ruíz, Patricia; García-Maset, Rafael; Ballarín, José; Torra, Roser; Ars, Elisabet

    2011-02-01

    To date, very few cases with adult-onset focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) carrying NPHS2 variants have been described, all of them being compound heterozygous for the p.R229Q variant and one pathogenic mutation. Mutation analysis was performed in 148 unrelated Spanish patients, of whom 50 presented with FSGS after 18 years of age. Pathogenicity of amino acid substitutions was evaluated through an in silico scoring system. Haplotype analysis was carried out using NPHS2 single nucleotide polymorphism and microsatellite markers. Compound heterozygous or homozygous NPHS2 pathogenic mutations were identified in seven childhood-onset steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) cases. Six additional cases with late childhood- and adult-onset SRNS were compound heterozygotes for p.R229Q and one pathogenic mutation, mostly p.A284V. p.R229Q was more frequent among SRNS cases relative to controls (odds ratio=2.65; P=0.02). Significantly higher age at onset of the disease and slower progression to ESRD were found in patients with one pathogenic mutation plus the p.R229Q variant in respect to patients with two NPHS2 pathogenic mutations. NPHS2 analysis has a clinical value in both childhood- and adult-onset SRNS patients. For adult-onset patients, the first step should be screening for p.R229Q and, if positive, for p.A284V. These alleles are present in conserved haplotypes, suggesting a common origin for these substitutions. Patients carrying this specific NPHS2 allele combination did not respond to corticoids or immunosuppressors and showed FSGS, average 8-year progression to ESRD, and low risk for recurrence of FSGS after kidney transplant.

  17. Defining landscape resistance values in least-cost connectivity models for the invasive grey squirrel: a comparison of approaches using expert-opinion and habitat suitability modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire D Stevenson-Holt

    Full Text Available Least-cost models are widely used to study the functional connectivity of habitat within a varied landscape matrix. A critical step in the process is identifying resistance values for each land cover based upon the facilitating or impeding impact on species movement. Ideally resistance values would be parameterised with empirical data, but due to a shortage of such information, expert-opinion is often used. However, the use of expert-opinion is seen as subjective, human-centric and unreliable. This study derived resistance values from grey squirrel habitat suitability models (HSM in order to compare the utility and validity of this approach with more traditional, expert-led methods. Models were built and tested with MaxEnt, using squirrel presence records and a categorical land cover map for Cumbria, UK. Predictions on the likelihood of squirrel occurrence within each land cover type were inverted, providing resistance values which were used to parameterise a least-cost model. The resulting habitat networks were measured and compared to those derived from a least-cost model built with previously collated information from experts. The expert-derived and HSM-inferred least-cost networks differ in precision. The HSM-informed networks were smaller and more fragmented because of the higher resistance values attributed to most habitats. These results are discussed in relation to the applicability of both approaches for conservation and management objectives, providing guidance to researchers and practitioners attempting to apply and interpret a least-cost approach to mapping ecological networks.

  18. Defining landscape resistance values in least-cost connectivity models for the invasive grey squirrel: a comparison of approaches using expert-opinion and habitat suitability modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson-Holt, Claire D; Watts, Kevin; Bellamy, Chloe C; Nevin, Owen T; Ramsey, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    Least-cost models are widely used to study the functional connectivity of habitat within a varied landscape matrix. A critical step in the process is identifying resistance values for each land cover based upon the facilitating or impeding impact on species movement. Ideally resistance values would be parameterised with empirical data, but due to a shortage of such information, expert-opinion is often used. However, the use of expert-opinion is seen as subjective, human-centric and unreliable. This study derived resistance values from grey squirrel habitat suitability models (HSM) in order to compare the utility and validity of this approach with more traditional, expert-led methods. Models were built and tested with MaxEnt, using squirrel presence records and a categorical land cover map for Cumbria, UK. Predictions on the likelihood of squirrel occurrence within each land cover type were inverted, providing resistance values which were used to parameterise a least-cost model. The resulting habitat networks were measured and compared to those derived from a least-cost model built with previously collated information from experts. The expert-derived and HSM-inferred least-cost networks differ in precision. The HSM-informed networks were smaller and more fragmented because of the higher resistance values attributed to most habitats. These results are discussed in relation to the applicability of both approaches for conservation and management objectives, providing guidance to researchers and practitioners attempting to apply and interpret a least-cost approach to mapping ecological networks.

  19. Pre-procedural renal resistive index accurately predicts contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients with preserved renal function submitted to coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybraniec, Maciej T; Bożentowicz-Wikarek, Maria; Chudek, Jerzy; Mizia-Stec, Katarzyna

    2017-05-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of ultrasonographic intra-renal blood flow parameters, together with the wide range of different risk factors, for the prediction of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in patients with preserved renal function, referred for coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary interventions (CA/PCI). This prospective study covered 95 consecutive patients (69.5% men; median age 65 years) subject to elective or urgent CA/PCI. Data regarding 128 peri-procedural variables were collected. Ultrasonographic intra-renal blood flow parameters, including renal resistive index (RRI) and pulsatility index (RPI), were acquired directly before the procedure. CI-AKI was defined as ≥50% relative or ≥0.3 mg/dL absolute increase of serum creatinine 48 h after procedure. CI-AKI was confirmed in nine patients (9.5%). Patients with CI-AKI had higher SYNTAX score (p = 0.0002), higher rate of left main disease (p  0.69 had 78% sensitivity and 81% specificity in CI-AKI prediction. High pre-procedural RRI seems to be a useful novel risk factor for CI-AKI in patients with preserved renal function. Coronary, peripheral and renal vascular pathology contribute to the development of CI-AKI following CA/PCI.

  20. Use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index to Assess Vegetative Nutritive Value in Halophytic Graminoid Habitat across Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, K. R.; Ward, D. H.; Budde, M. E.; Ruthrauff, D. R.; Hupp, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change will likely alter the seasonal nutrient abundance and general distribution of halophytic graminoid (salt marsh) habitat across the Arctic Coastal Plain. Halophytic graminoids are key forage for newly hatched Black Brant, Lesser Snow and Greater White-fronted Geese and the timing and degree of seasonal nutrient abundance in these plants is critical for gosling growth and survival. After 5 years of research (culminating in 2015) under the USGS Alaska Science Center's Changing Arctic Ecosystems Initiative, we found strong relationships between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and nutrient abundance (N g/m2) and availability (%N) in halophytic graminoid habitat. The relationships between NDVI and nutrient abundance and availability were strong whether using NDVI derived from high (spectrometer), moderate (WorldView-2 satellite) or low (eMODIS satellite) resolution data. Correlations established and validated at one location were used to predict nutrient abundance using NDVI readings from other locations, allowing interpretation of satellite derived NDVI in terms of nutrient abundance across broad areas of mapped salt marsh habitat. Further, NDVI seasonal timelines were used to predict the timing of peak nutrient availability using the period of most rapid increase in NDVI value. Currently, we are using WorldView-2 imagery to create vegetation maps of the central Arctic coastal zone (~20 km inland) of Alaska, covering approximately 1000 km of coastline, with a focus on identifying all salt marshes. Such maps will enable monitoring programs and allow for modeling to predict spatial and temporal changes in halophytic graminoid habitat and the nutrients available to geese in the early stages of life.

  1. The effect of aerobic training on CXL5, tumor necrosis factor α and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) in sedentary obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehsaz, Farzad; Farhangi, Negin; Mirheidari, Lamia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week training program on serum CXC ligand 5, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and insulin resistance index in obese sedentary women. To this end, twenty-four obese sedentary women were evaluated before and after a 12-week exercise program including a brief warm-up, followed by ~45 min per session of aerobic exercise at an intensity of 60-75% of age-predicted maximum heart rate (~300 kcal/day), followed by a brief cool down, five times per week. After the exercise program, body weight, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, percentage body fat mass, fasting glucose and insulin of participants were decreased. Furthermore, serum CXCL5 levels were significantly decreased from 2693.2 ±375.8 to 2290.2 ±345.9 pg/ml (p HOMA-IR (p < 0.001) and TNF-α (p < 0.001). Exercise training induced weight loss resulted in a significant reduction in serum CXCL5 concentrations and caused an improvement in insulin resistance in obese sedentary women.

  2. [Risk factors associated with long-term mortality in patients with pulmonary embolism and the predictive value of Charlson comorbidity index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haixia; Tang, Yangjiang; Wang, Lan; Shi, Chaoli; Feng, Yulin; Yi, Qun

    2016-01-26

    To explore the risk factors associated with long-term mortality and the predictive value of Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) for long-term mortality in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). A total of 234 patients with confirmed PE from the medical departments of West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2010 and December 2012 were enrolled, and these meeting the inclusion criteria were followed-up for 2 years after discharge. The long-term mortality was calculated and univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify the risk factors associated with long-term mortality of PE. All the patients were assessed the comorbidity burden with the CCI, and survival analysis was used to study its value in predicting long-term mortality in patients with PE. A total of 176 PE patients were finally included in this study, and 53 patients died during the follow-up period, with 2 years' mortality 30.1%. The univariate analysis showed diabetes (P=0.034), malignant neoplasm (P=0.001), chronic lung disease (P=0.035), liver disease (P=0.048), in bed for a long time (P=0.049), inappropriate anticoagulant therapy (P=0.016) were associated with the long-term mortality of PE patients. Among these risk factors, the multivariate analysis revealed malignant neoplasm (OR=9.28, 95%CI: 2.85-31.00, P=0.003), chronic lung disease (OR=2.96, 95%CI: 1.15-7.62, P=0.024), inappropriate anticoagulant therapy (OR=4.08, 95%CI: 1.64-10.20, P=0.003) were the independent risk factors. The median CCI scores for died PE patients during follow-up was higher than that for the survived PE patients ((2(1, 3) vs 1(0, 2), Prisk of long-term mortality compared with patients with no comorbidity (CCI=0) (95%CI: 1.14-6.00, P=0.024). The per 1-score increase of CCI was associated with 1.76-fold increased risk of long-term mortality in PE patients (95%CI: 1.04-2.97, P=0.035). Survival analysis showed that the 2-year cumulative survival of PE patients with CCI score≥1 was significant lower

  3. Evaluation of epidemiological cut-off values indicates that biocide resistant subpopulations are uncommon in natural isolates of clinically-relevant microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Morrissey

    Full Text Available To date there are no clear criteria to determine whether a microbe is susceptible to biocides or not. As a starting point for distinguishing between wild-type and resistant organisms, we set out to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC distributions for four common biocides; triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite for 3319 clinical isolates, with a particular focus on Staphylococcus aureus (N = 1635 and Salmonella spp. (N = 901 but also including Escherichia coli (N = 368, Candida albicans (N = 200, Klebsiella pneumoniae (N = 60, Enterobacter spp. (N = 54, Enterococcus faecium (N = 53, and Enterococcus faecalis (N = 56. From these data epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs are proposed. As would be expected, MBCs were higher than MICs for all biocides. In most cases both values followed a normal distribution. Bimodal distributions, indicating the existence of biocide resistant subpopulations were observed for Enterobacter chlorhexidine susceptibility (both MICs and MBCs and the susceptibility to triclosan of Enterobacter (MBC, E. coli (MBC and MIC and S. aureus (MBC and MIC. There is a concern on the potential selection of antibiotic resistance by biocides. Our results indicate however that resistance to biocides and, hence any potential association with antibiotic resistance, is uncommon in natural populations of clinically relevant microorganisms.

  4. The Effect of Two Acute Eccentric and Concentric Exercises on Serum Irisin Level and Insulin Resistance Index in Inactive Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Balaghi Inaloo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Recently a myokine named irisin has been discovered that effects on obesity, metabolism and glucose homeostasis through browning white adipose tissue and thermogenesis. However, the effects of type and intensity of exercises on it have remained unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two acute eccentric and concentric exercises on serum irisin level and insulin resistance in obese sedentary women. Materials and Methods: The study was quasi-experimental. 15 female students with a body mass index above 30 kg/m2 and mean age 24.86±2.87 years participated in the study. After measuring the maximal uptake oxygen of participants, they did two acute eccentric and concentric exercises using treadmill in a cross-over design within 10 days. After at least 8 hours- fasting, blood samples were collected before and immediately after each activity, to measure the levels of irisin, glucose and insulin. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. In addition, Pearson correlation was used to examine the relationship between variables. Results: the irisin levels increased significantly after both types of exercises (p<0.05, that this increase in concentric activity was more than eccentric activity. Insulin resistance increased immediately after both exercises as well, that this increase in concentric exercise was statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: However, both eccentric and concentric exercises had no effect on improving insulin resistance in obese women, but they can be considered as a good stimulus for the secretion of Irisin.

  5. Multi-Valued Planar Hall Resistance Manipulated by Current Induced Magnetic Field in Fe Films Grown on GaAs(001) Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khym, Sungwon; Yoo, Taehee; Lee, Hakjoon; Lee, Sangyeop; Lee, Sanghoon; Liu, Xinyu; Furdyna, Jacek K.; Lee, Dong Uk; Kim, Eun Kyu

    2012-09-01

    A Hall device was fabricated from single-crystal Fe film having two in-plane magnetic easy axes. Planar Hall resistance measured by sequential application of current pulses to the metal strip that was deposited on the top of a Hall bar showed a hysteresis similar to that observed by scanning an external magnetic field. It was shown that discrete Hall resistance values in the hysteresis, which correspond to specific multidomain structures in Fe film, can be created by the application of appropriate sequences of current pulses to the metal strip, and can thus be used for read/write logic applications.

  6. The reinforcing value and liking of resistance training and aerobic exercise as predictors of adult’s physical actively behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Reinforcing value is a stronger predictor than hedonic value (liking) for engaging in drug use, gambling, and eating. The associations of reinforcing value and liking with physical activity of adults have not yet been studied and may depend on the mode of exercise available during exerc...

  7. Individual blood pressure responses to walking and resistance exercise in peripheral artery disease patients: Are the mean values describing what is happening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Aluísio H R A; Miranda, Alessandra S; Correia, Marilia A; Soares, Antônio H G; Cucato, Gabriel G; Sobral Filho, Dario C; Gomes, Silvana L; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the average and individual blood pressure responses to walking and resistance exercise in patients with peripheral artery disease. Thirteen patients underwent three experimental sessions: walking exercise, resistance exercise, and control. Ambulatory blood pressure, heart rate, and rate pressure product were obtained before and until 24 hours after sessions. The mean cardiovascular values during 24 hours, awake, and sleep periods were similar (P > 0.05) after the three experimental sessions. The analysis of individual data revealed that during 24 hours, eight of 13 patients reduced systolic or diastolic blood pressure in ≥4.0 mm Hg in at least one of the exercise session; furthermore, most of these patients presented greater responses after resistance exercise. The clinical characteristics of patients seem to influence the blood pressure responses after exercises. Individual data showed that part of patients presented clinically significant decreases in blood pressure, showing that these patients have acute cardiovascular benefits after performing an acute bout of exercise. Although, in average, a bout of walking or resistance exercise did not decrease ambulatory blood pressure in peripheral artery disease patients, the individual data revealed that most patients presented clinically relevant blood pressure reductions, especially after resistance exercise. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Nursing, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) cut-off values and the metabolic syndrome in a general adult population: effect of gender and age: EPIRCE cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayoso-Diz, Pilar; Otero-González, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Alvarez, María Xosé; Gude, Francisco; García, Fernando; De Francisco, Angel; Quintela, Arturo González

    2013-10-16

    Insulin resistance has been associated with metabolic and hemodynamic alterations and higher cardio metabolic risk. There is great variability in the threshold homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels to define insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of age and gender in the estimation of HOMA-IR optimal cut-off values to identify subjects with higher cardio metabolic risk in a general adult population. It included 2459 adults (range 20-92 years, 58.4% women) in a random Spanish population sample. As an accurate indicator of cardio metabolic risk, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), both by International Diabetes Federation criteria and by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, were used. The effect of age was analyzed in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus separately. ROC regression methodology was used to evaluate the effect of age on HOMA-IR performance in classifying cardio metabolic risk. In Spanish population the threshold value of HOMA-IR drops from 3.46 using 90th percentile criteria to 2.05 taking into account of MetS components. In non-diabetic women, but no in men, we found a significant non-linear effect of age on the accuracy of HOMA-IR. In non-diabetic men, the cut-off values were 1.85. All values are between 70th-75th percentiles of HOMA-IR levels in adult Spanish population. The consideration of the cardio metabolic risk to establish the cut-off points of HOMA-IR, to define insulin resistance instead of using a percentile of the population distribution, would increase its clinical utility in identifying those patients in whom the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors imparts an increased metabolic and cardiovascular risk. The threshold levels must be modified by age in non-diabetic women.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Curcumin on Insulin Resistance Index, Levels of Interleukin-6, C-Reactive Protein, and Liver Histology in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome-Induced Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Shima; Karimzadeh Bardei, Latifeh; Hojati, Vida; Ghorbani, Azita; Nabiuni, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Objective Curcumin protects the liver against injury and fibrosis through suppressing hepatic inflammation, attenuating hepatic oxidative stress (OS), and inhibiting hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are considered as common metabolic disorders. Low-grade chronic inflammation with different markers, such as elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, play a crucial role in PCOS. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of curcumin on IL-6 and CRP levels as well as insulin resistance (IR) index on liver function in PCOS rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 90 adult Wistar rats were divided into control (n=18), sham (n=18), PCOS (n=18) and curcumin-treated PCOS groups (n=36). PCOS group was injected subcutaneously with 2 mg estradio-valerate (E2V). After 60 days, PCOS group was treated with curcumin [100 and 300 mg/kg body weight (BW)] for 14 days and anesthetized by chloroform. Blood and liver samples were collected for histological and serological analyses. Data were analyzed using In-Stat 3 via one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Histological and serological analyses showed a reduction in number of necrotic cells, IR index, as well as IL-6 and CRP levels in PCOS rats that were treated with various concentrations of curcumin. Conclusion In this study, curcumin decreased liver inflammation by induction of insulin sensitivity and reduction of hepatic necrosis. Therefore, curcumin may be considered as protective factor against inflammatory state of PCOS. PMID:28836404

  10. The value of nasal mupirocin in containing an outbreak of methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an orthopaedic unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Barrett

    1990-01-01

    textabstractAn outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) occurred in two adjacent orthopaedic wards following the admission of a known carrier. The outbreak was not contained by ward closure or by standard infection control measures. Eventually several nasal carriers were

  11. FORCED OSCILLATION TECHNIQUE - REFERENCE VALUES FOR TOTAL RESPIRATORY RESISTANCE OBTAINED WITH THE SIEMENS SIREGNOST-FD5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GIMENO, F; VANDERWEELE, LT; KOETER, GH; VANALTENA, R

    Total respiratory resistance (Rrs) was measured by the application of a sine wave of airflow to the mouth at an oscillation frequency of 10 Hz. The instrument used was the Siemens Siregnost FD5. The Rrs data were correlated with height, age, sex, and weight in 73 patients and 29 healthy subjects.

  12. Selection of empirical antibiotics for health care-associated pneumonia via integration of pneumonia severity index and risk factors of drug-resistant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping-Huai; Wang, Hao-Chien; Cheng, Shih-Lung; Chang, Hou-Tai; Laio, Chun-Hsing

    2016-05-01

    The pneumonia severity index (PSI) both contains some risk factors of drug-resistant pathogens (DRPs) and represents the severity of health care-associated pneumonia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the PSI could be used to predict DRPs and whether there were risk factors beyond the PSI. A retrospective observational study enrolled 530 patients with health care-associated pneumonia who were admitted from January 2005 to December 2010 in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 206 patients (38.9%) had DRPs, of which the most common was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24.3%). The incidence of DRPs increased with increasing PSI classes (6.7%, 25.5%, 36.9%, and 44.6% in PSI II, III, IV, and V, respectively). An analysis of the risk factors for DRPs by PSI classes revealed that wound care was associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in PSI V (p = 0.045). Nasogastric tube feeding (odds ratio, 3.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.75-8.60; p = 0.006), and bronchiectasis (odds ratio, 3.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-14.69; p = 0.007) were risk factors for DRPs in PSI III and IV. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve progressed from 0.578 to 0.651 while integrating these risk factors with PSI classes. The findings suggested that PSI plus risk factors predicted the risk of DRPs. PSI II had a low risk of DRPs and could be treated as community-acquired pneumonia. Antibiotics of PSI III and IV with risk factors could be targeted DRPs. PSI V with wound care had a higher risk of MRSA, and empirical anti-MRSA antibiotics could be added. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Optimal cut-off values for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and pre-diabetes screening: Developments in research and prospects for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Li, Xueqin; Song, Peipei; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) appears to be increasing rapidly, threatening to reduce life expectancy for humans around the globe. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has estimated that there will be 642 million people living with the disease by 2040 and half as many again who will be not diagnosed. This means that pre-DM screening is a critical issue. Insulin resistance (IR) has emerged as a major pathophysiological factor in the development and progression of DM since it is evident in susceptible individuals at the early stages of DM, and particularly type 2 DM (T2DM). Therefore, assessment of IR via the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) is a key index for the primary prevention of DM and is thus found in guidelines for screening of high-risk groups. However, the cut-off values of HOMA-IR differ for different races, ages, genders, diseases, complications, etc. due to the complexity of IR. This hampers the determination of specific cut-off values of HOMA-IR in different places and in different situations. China has not published an official index to gauge IR for primary prevention of T2DM in the diabetic and non-diabetic population except for children and adolescents ages 6-12 years. Hence, this article summarizes developments in research on IR, HOMA-IR, and pre-DM screening in order to provide a reference for optimal cut-off values of HOMA-IR for the diagnosis of DM in the Chinese population.

  14. Final report on RMO comparison SIM.EM-S10: High value resistance comparison with two-terminal cryogenic current comparators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierzychudek, Marcos E.; Elmquist, Randolph; Hernández, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a supplementary comparison of high value resistance standards performed during 2012 and January 2013, following the guidelines presented in a document about measurement comparisons in the CIPM MRA. The purpose of this task was to compare the high resistance cryogenic current comparator scaling of the participating institutes: National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA (NIST), Centro Nacional de Metrología, Mexico (CENAM) and Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial, Argentina (INTI), all of which are members of the Sistema Interamericano de Metrología (SIM) Regional Metrology Organization. All the measurements of this comparison were performed with two-terminal cryogenic current comparators (CCC). Degrees of equivalence of the participating institutes relative to the comparison reference values are given in the report for the measured resistance values. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. Sacred values in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: resistance to social influence, temporal discounting, and exit strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Hammad; Ginges, Jeremy; Atran, Scott

    2013-09-01

    Conflicts over sacred values may be particularly difficult to resolve. Because sacred values are nonfungible with material values, standard attempts to negotiate, such as offering material incentives to compromise, often backfire, increasing moral outrage and support for violent action. We present studies with Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza demonstrating three other ways sacred values may make conflict more intractable, focusing on what we call devoted actors, people who regard issues central to the Israel-Palestine conflict as sacred values. We show that devoted actors (1) were less amenable to social influence, (2) perceived conflict-related events in the past as well as expected events in the future to be temporally closer, and (3) were blind to individual opportunities to escape the conflict. These results suggest that sacred values may affect decision making in a number of ways, which, when combined, contribute to common defense and continuation of conflict. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Optimal cutoff for the evaluation of insulin resistance through triglyceride-glucose index: A cross-sectional study in a Venezuelan population [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Salazar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulin resistance (IR evaluation is a fundamental goal in clinical and epidemiological research. However, the most widely used methods are difficult to apply to populations with low incomes. The triglyceride-glucose index (TGI emerges as an alternative to use in daily clinical practice. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine an optimal cutoff point for the TGI in an adult population from Maracaibo, Venezuela. Methods: This is a sub-study of Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study, a descriptive, cross-sectional study with random and multi-stage sampling. For this analysis, 2004 individuals of both genders ≥18 years old with basal insulin determination and triglycerides < 500 mg/dl were evaluated.. A reference population was selected according to clinical and metabolic criteria to plot ROC Curves specific for gender and age groups to determine the optimal cutoff point according to sensitivity and specificity.The TGI was calculated according to the equation: ln [Fasting triglyceride (mg / dl x Fasting glucose (mg / dl] / 2. Results: The TGI in the general population was 4.6±0.3 (male: 4.66±0.34 vs. female: 4.56±0.33, p=8.93x10-10. The optimal cutoff point was 4.49, with a sensitivity of 82.6% and specificity of 82.1% (AUC=0.889, 95% CI: 0.854-0.924. There were no significant differences in the predictive capacity of the index when evaluated according to gender and age groups. Those individuals with TGI≥4.5 had higher HOMA2-IR averages than those with TGI <4.5 (2.48 vs 1.74, respectively, p<0.001. Conclusions: The TGI is a measure of interest to identify IR in the general population. We propose a single cutoff point of 4.5 to classify individuals with IR. Future studies should evaluate the predictive capacity of this index to determine atypical metabolic phenotypes, type 2 diabetes mellitus and even cardiovascular risk in our population.

  17. Optimal cutoff for the evaluation of insulin resistance through triglyceride-glucose index: A cross-sectional study in a Venezuelan population [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Salazar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulin resistance (IR evaluation is a fundamental goal in clinical and epidemiological research. However, the most widely used methods are difficult to apply to populations with low incomes. The triglyceride-glucose index (TGI emerges as an alternative to use in daily clinical practice. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine an optimal cutoff point for the TGI in an adult population from Maracaibo, Venezuela. Methods: This is a sub-study of Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study, a descriptive, cross-sectional study with random and multi-stage sampling. For this analysis, 2004 individuals of both genders ≥18 years old with basal insulin determination and triglycerides < 500 mg/dl were evaluated.. A reference population was selected according to clinical and metabolic criteria to plot ROC Curves specific for gender and age groups to determine the optimal cutoff point according to sensitivity and specificity.The TGI was calculated according to the equation: ln [Fasting triglyceride (mg / dl x Fasting glucose (mg / dl] / 2. Results: The TGI in the general population was 4.6±0.3 (male: 4.66±0.34 vs. female: 4.56±0.33, p=8.93x10-10. The optimal cutoff point was 4.49, with a sensitivity of 82.6% and specificity of 82.1% (AUC=0.889, 95% CI: 0.854-0.924. There were no significant differences in the predictive capacity of the index when evaluated according to gender and age groups. Those individuals with TGI≥4.5 had higher HOMA2-IR averages than those with TGI <4.5 (2.48 vs 1.74, respectively, p<0.001. Conclusions: The TGI is a measure of interest to identify IR in the general population. We propose a single cutoff point of 4.5 to classify individuals with IR. Future studies should evaluate the predictive capacity of this index to determine atypical metabolic phenotypes, type 2 diabetes mellitus and even cardiovascular risk in our population.

  18. Impact coverage of the success-index

    OpenAIRE

    EGGHE, Leo

    2014-01-01

    We show mathematically that the success-index can be any of the following impact indices, dependent on the value of the threshold used in the definition of the success-index: Hirsch-index (h-index), g-index, generalized Wu- and Kosmulski-indices, the average. success-index; Hirsch-index; h-Index; g-Index; Wu-index; Kosmulski-index

  19. Muscle Mass Index and Animal Source of Dietary Protein Are Positively Associated with Insulin Resistance in Participants of the NuAge Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, J; Mayo, N; Dionne, I J; Gaudreau, P; Fulop, T; Tessier, D; Gray-Donald, K; Shatenstein, B; Morais, J A

    2016-02-01

    Contribute evidence towards the complex interrelationships of body composition, insulin sensitivity and protein intake independently from adiposity in an older population. This is a cross-sectional analysis of an existing dataset in which a literature-supported model linking together the variables of interest is tested using path analysis. The loss of muscle mass has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. We propose to test associations of muscle mass with insulin sensitivity and their respective associations with animal and vegetable sources of protein intake, independently from adiposity. Non-diabetic participants aged 68-82 years from the NuAge study with all available measures (n=441) were included. A model considering age, sex, chronic diseases, physical activity; smoking and sources of protein intake influencing body composition components and insulin sensitivity was created and tested with Path Analysis for their independent associations. Muscle mass index (MMI; kg/height in m2) and % body fat were derived from DXA and BIA. Insulin resistance was estimated by the Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) score and physical activity by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) questionnaire. Protein intakes were obtained from three non-consecutive 24h-diet recalls. In the final model, direct positive associations were observed between HOMA-IR score and MMI (ß=0.42; 95%CI: 0.24; 0.6) and % body fat (ß=0.094; 95%CI: 0.07; 0.11). There were no direct associations between animal protein intake and MMI or with HOMA-IR. There was a significant direct negative association between plant protein intake and MMI (ß= -0.068; 95%CI: -0.13; -0.003) and significant indirect associations mediated through MMI and % body fat between HOMA-IR and animal protein intake (ß=0.0321; 95%CI: 0.01; 0.05), as well as plant protein intake (ß= -0.07; 95%CI: -0.1; 0.0). Our final model indicated that MMI and HOMA score were significantly

  20. The run-off resistance (ROR) assessed on MR angiograms may serve as a valid scoring system in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and correlates with the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, O; Santner, W; Fraedrich, G; Jaschke, W; Greiner, A; Schocke, M F

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the correlation between the hemodynamic parameter ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) and the run-off resistance (ROR) assessed on MR angiograms (MRA) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) Fontaine Stage I and II and its potential as reliable reporting system in clinical routine. Contrast-enhanced MRA was performed in 321 PAD patients using a 1.5T MR scanner with moving bed technique. The ROR and resting ABI were determined in each patient's leg and correlation analysis was performed using the Pearson test. A significant negative correlation (r = -.513; pROR (mean 11.03±5.42) and resting ABI (mean .81±.26) was identified. An even more pronounced correlation was found in patients younger than median age who had higher ABI values (r = -.608; pROR scoring system evaluated in this series correlates better with the ABI than previously published scoring systems and could be suggested as reporting system for routine MRA evaluation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The run-off resistance (ROR) assessed on MR angiograms may serve as a valid scoring system in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and correlates with the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorny, O.; Santner, W.; Fraedrich, G.; Jaschke, W.; Greiner, A.; Schocke, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between the hemodynamic parameter ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) and the run-off resistance (ROR) assessed on MR angiograms (MRA) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) Fontaine Stage I and II and its potential as reliable reporting system in clinical routine. Methods: Contrast-enhanced MRA was performed in 321 PAD patients using a 1.5 T MR scanner with moving bed technique. The ROR and resting ABI were determined in each patient's leg and correlation analysis was performed using the Pearson test. Results: A significant negative correlation (r = −.513; p < .001) between ROR (mean 11.03 ± 5.42) and resting ABI (mean .81 ± .26) was identified. An even more pronounced correlation was found in patients younger than median age who had higher ABI values (r = −.608; p < .001). Conclusion: The ROR scoring system evaluated in this series correlates better with the ABI than previously published scoring systems and could be suggested as reporting system for routine MRA evaluation.

  2. Hepatic artery resistive index (HARI) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) fibrosis score in NAFLD patients: cut-off suggestive of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tana, Claudio; Tana, Marco; Rossi, Stefano; Silingardi, Mauro; Schiavone, Cosima

    2016-09-01

    Conventional ultrasound (US) is reliable to reveal the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but it is neither sensitive nor specific to reveal fibrosis clues, except in advanced stages where signs of cirrhosis are evident. NALFD fibrosis score is a non-invasive parameter that predicts well the presence of significant fibrosis, but correlations with US parameters are lacking. The aim of this study was, therefore, to compare resistive index of hepatic artery (HARI) of NAFLD patients with different severity degrees of diffuse fatty liver disease vs HARI of controls, and to compare HARI of NAFLD patients with different NAFLD fibrosis scores vs HARI of controls. This was a spontaneous, no-profit observational study conducted in our US department between December 2013 and July 2014. Patients with NAFLD with different severity of disease and healthy controls were included. Echogenicity and size of liver and spleen, maximum portal vein velocity, RI, peak systolic velocity (PSV), and end diastolic velocity (EDV) of splenic artery, PSV, EDV, and RI of hepatic artery, and NAFLD fibrosis score were acquired and compared between groups. HARI was significantly lower in NAFLD patients than controls (p steatosis, might suggest the execution of biopsy to predict the risk of progression to steatohepatitis and fibrous tissue accumulation. Low values of HARI may be expression of lower risk, which does not necessitate any biopsy.

  3. Acid detergent lignin, lodging resistance index, and expression of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase gene in brown midrib-12 sudangrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Liu, Guibo; Li, Jun; You, Yongliang; Zhao, Haiming; Liang, Huan; Mao, Peisheng

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the relationship between acid detergent lignin (ADL) and lodging resistance index (LRI) is essential for breeding new varieties of brown midrib (bmr) sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.). In this study, bmr-12 near isogenic lines and their wild-types obtained by back cross breeding were used to compare relevant forage yield and quality traits, and to analyze expression of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene using quantitative real time-PCR. The research showed that the mean ADL content of bmr-12 mutants (20.94 g kg(-1)) was significantly (P bmr-12 mutants (0.29) was significantly (P bmr-12 materials (r = -0.44, P > 0.05). Sequence comparison of the COMT gene revealed two point mutations present in bmr-12 but not in the wild-type, the second mutation changed amino acid 129 of the protein from Gln (CAG) to a stop codon (UAG). The relative expression level of COMT gene was significantly reduced, which likely led to the decreased ADL content observed in the bmr-12 mutant.

  4. The prognostic value of the neoadjuvant response index in triple-negative breast cancer: validation and comparison with pathological complete response as outcome measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jebbink, M.; van Werkhoven, E.; Mandjes, I. A. M.; Wesseling, J.; Lips, E. H.; Vrancken Peeters, M.-J. T. D. F.; Loo, C. E.; Sonke, G. S.; Linn, S. C.; Falo Zamora, C.; Rodenhuis, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Neoadjuvant response index (NRI) has been proposed as a simple measure of downstaging by neoadjuvant treatment in breast cancer. It was previously found to predict recurrence-free survival (RFS) in triple-negative (TN) breast cancer. It was at least as accurate as the standard binary system, the

  5. The prognostic value of the neoadjuvant response index in triple-negative breast cancer : validation and comparison with pathological complete response as outcome measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jebbink, M.; van Werkhoven, E.; Mandjes, I. A. M.; Wesseling, J.; Lips, E. H.; Peeters, M. -J. T. D. F. Vrancken; Loo, C. E.; Sonke, G. S.; Linn, S. C.; Falo Zamora, C.; Rodenhuis, S.

    The Neoadjuvant response index (NRI) has been proposed as a simple measure of downstaging by neoadjuvant treatment in breast cancer. It was previously found to predict recurrence-free survival (RFS) in triple-negative (TN) breast cancer. It was at least as accurate as the standard binary system, the

  6. Combined therapy of mixed dyslipidemia in patients with high cardiovascular risk and changes in the lipid target values and atherogenic index of plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosolová, H.; Dobiášová, Milada; Soška, V.; Bláha, V.; Češka, R.; Nussbaumerová, B.; Pelikánová, T.; Souček, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2014), e133-e139 ISSN 1803-7712 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mixed dyslipidemia * atherogenic index of plasma (AIP=log[triglycerides/HDL- cholesterol ]) * combined lipid modifying therapy Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  7. A Comparison of Simulated and Field-Derived Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Canopy Height Values from Four Forest Complexes in the Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative leaf area is a critical input to models that simulate human and ecosystem exposure to atmospheric pollutants. Leaf area index (LAI) can be measured in the field or numerically simulated, but all contain some inherent uncertainty that is passed to the exposure assessmen...

  8. The value of microscopic-observation drug susceptibility assay in the diagnosis of tuberculosis and detection of multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertel Şelale, Denİz; Uzun, Meltem

    2018-01-01

    Inexpensive, rapid, and reliable tests for detecting the presence and drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) are urgently needed to control the transmission of tuberculosis. In this study, we aimed to assess the accuracy and speed of the microscopic-observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay in the identification of MTBC and detection of multidrug resistance. Sputum samples from patients suspected to have tuberculosis were simultaneously tested with MODS and conventional culture [Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture, BACTEC MGIT™ 960 (MGIT) system], and drug susceptibility testing (MGIT system) methods. A total of 331 sputum samples were analyzed. Sensitivity and specificity of MODS assay for detection of MTBC strains were 96% and 98.8%, respectively. MODS assay detected multidrug resistant MTBC isolates with 92.3% sensitivity and 96.6% specificity. Median time to culture positivity was similar for MGIT (8 days) and MODS culture (8 days), but was significantly longer with LJ culture (20 days) (p tuberculosis and detection of multidrug resistance. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Resistive Index in Obstructive Uropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Shokeir

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe diagnosis of urinary tract obstruction is a difficult and perplexing problem particularly in children. Pyelocalyectasis is seen not only in obstruction but also in other conditions, such as residual dilatation afler relief of obstruction, vesicoureteral reflux and pyelonephritis.

  10. Supersymmetry and index theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Gaume, L.

    1985-01-01

    The author presents information mainly concerned with the fact that many of the ingredients and results in index theory have very simple analogs in supersymmetric quantum mechanical systems so that using elementary quantum mechanics one can obtain new proofs of the Atiyah-Singer index theorem and related results. Simple ideas on index theorems and characteristic classes are reviewed; simple results on fermion functional integrals are outlined; supersymmetric quantum mechanical systems which appear naturally in dealing with index problems are analyzed; proof of the classical index theorem is presented; the character valued index theorem is derived; and applications of the methods developed here for the computation of anomalies are presented

  11. Diagnostic value of the APRI index for liver fibrosis in a Chinese patients population with chronic hepatitis C acquired from blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEI Chengduo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of various newly developed non-invasive fibrotic predictive models based on measurements of common biochemical indices in a group of ethnic Chinese patients with long-standing chronic hepatitis C (CHC infection acquired by transfusion. MethodsBetween July 2010 and June 2011, 120 of the monitored residents of Dingxi District of Gansu Province who had acquired hepatitis C infection via the regional practice of untested whole blood or plasma transfusion during the years of 1992-1995 were recruited for the current study. Each participant underwent liver biopsy for histological evaluation of liver fibrosis (S1-S4 progressive stages, from mild fibrosis to early cirrhosis. Each participant also provided serum samples for biochemical measurement of fibrotic indicators, including hyaluronic acid (HA, type Ⅲ procollagen protein (PCⅢ, laminin (LN, and type IV collagen (CⅣ. In addition, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, platelet count (PLT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, prothrombin time (PT, and international normalized ratio (INR were measured to calculate the various non-invasive fibrotic predictive models: AST-to-PLT ratio index (APRI, the Sheth index (AST/ALT, the FibroQ index (10×[(age×AST×PT INR/(ALT×PLT], and the FIB-4 index ([age×AST/(PLT×ALT1/2]. Using the pathologic results as the reference standards, the diagnostic efficacies of these four non-invasive fibrotic predictive models were evaluated by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Accuracies of the four were compared by constructing receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and analyzing their sensitivities, specificities and area under the curves (AUCs. ResultsThe APRI, FibroQ and FIB-4 indexes, and the levels of PCⅢ, CⅣ, and HA increased in conjunction with progressive stages of liver fibrosis. However, only the APRI showed significant correlation to liver fibrosis stage (r=0.446, P<0.001. The APRI index also had

  12. Longitudinal prospective observational type study about determinants of renal resistive index variations in chronic renal failure patients treated with conventional medical and dietetic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Brardi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This longitudinal prospective observational type study was conceived with the aim to examine the impact on renal resistive index (RRI of the variables that we can manipulate with therapeutic and or dietetic interventions in a chronic kidney disease population in order to known which of these variables was statistically related to changes in RRI and therefore could become the object of the greatest therapeutic effort. Material and methods: This study was undertaken between May 2016 to May 2017 in the outpatient nephrology and urology clinic of San Donato Hospital in Arezzo. The study population (84 patients: 47 males and 37 females was randomly selected among the chronic kidney patients (with various degrees of renal impairment affected by hypertension and or diabetes mellitus. After a comprehensive medical examination these patients were submitted to determination of serum creatinine, glycated hemoglobin, 24-hour urinary albumin excretion and finally renal Doppler ultrasonography. Then the patients were submitted to a full therapeutic and dietetic intervention to ameliorate the renal impairment by a wide range of actions and after on average a one-year interval were submitted again to a new medical examination and a second determination of serum creatinine, glycated hemoglobin, 24-hour urinary albumin excretion and a new renal Doppler ultrasonography too. Results: The comparison between basal and final data revealed a slight reduction in the mean of bilateral renal resistance indices (Delta RRI: -0.0182 ± 0.08, associated to a slight increase in the mean glomerular filtration rate (Delta GFR: 0.8738 ± 10.95 ml/min/1.73 m2, a reduction in mean body weight (Delta weight: -1.9548 ± 5.26 Kg and mean BMI (Delta BMI: -0.7643 ± 2.10 Kg/m2 as well as a reduction in the mean systolic blood pressure (Delta systolic blood pressure: -8.8333 ± 25.19 mmHg. Statistical analysis showed statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05 between

  13. Body mass index values for newborns according to gestational age Valores de Índice de Masa Corporal en recién nacidos de acuerdo con la edad gestacional

    OpenAIRE

    R. S. Brock; M. C. Falcão; C. Leone

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The combination of twho anthropometric parameters has been more appropriate to assess body composition and proportions in children, with special attention to the Body Mass Index (BMI), as it relates weight and length. However the BMI values for the neonatal period have not been determined yet. This study shows the BMI for newborns at different gestational ages represented in a normal smoothed percentile curve. Methods: Retrospective study including 2,406 appropriate for gestational...

  14. High-molecular-weight adiponectin is selectively reduced in women with polycystic ovary syndrome independent of body mass index and severity of insulin resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, A

    2010-03-01

    Context: High-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin contributes to insulin resistance (IR), which is closely associated with the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Abnormalities in adipocyte function have been identified in PCOS and potentially contribute to lower adiponectin concentrations. Objective: Our objective was to determine which variables in plasma and adipose tissue influence HMW adiponectin in a well characterized cohort of women with PCOS. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Settings and Participants: A teaching hospital. Women with PCOS (n = 98) and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (n = 103) (including 68 age-, BMI-, and IR-matched pairs). Interventions: A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed for each participant. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were taken by needle biopsy for a subset of PCOS women (n = 9) and controls (n = 8). Main Outcome Measures: Serum levels of HMW adiponectin and their relation to indices of insulin sensitivity, body composition, and circulating androgens as well as adipose tissue expression levels of ADIPOQ, TNFalpha, PPARgamma, and AR were assessed. Results: HMW adiponectin was significantly lower in women with PCOS compared with both BMI- and BMI- and IR-matched controls (P = 0.009 and P = 0.027, respectively). Although BMI and IR were the main predictors of HMW adiponectin, an interaction between waist to hip ratio and plasma testosterone contributed to its variance (P = 0.026). Adipose tissue gene expression analysis demonstrated that AR and TNFalpha (P = 0.008 and P = 0.035, respectively) but not ADIPOQ mRNA levels were increased in PCOS compared with controls. Conclusions: HMW adiponectin is selectively reduced in women with PCOS, independent of BMI and IR. Gene expression analysis suggests that posttranscriptional\\/translational modification contributes to reduced HMW adiponectin in PCOS.

  15. Prognostic value of Ki67 and p53 in patients with estrogen receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer: Validation of the cut-off value of the Ki67 labeling index as a predictive factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Masahiro; Matsuura, Kazuo; Akimoto, Etsushi; Noma, Midori; Doi, Mihoko; Nishizaka, Takashi; Kagawa, Naoki; Itamoto, Toshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of the Ki67 labeling index and p53 status as prognostic and predictive indicators of operable estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer. Among 697 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer who underwent curative surgery between 2002 and 2013, 308 patients with ER-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer were assessed. The results of the multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated that a high Ki67 labeling index was significantly associated with a short recurrence-free interval (RFI) (p=0.004) and was marginally associated with a worse overall survival (p=0.074). A positive p53 status was not associated with worse outcomes. To validate the cut-off values of the Ki67 labeling index for identifying patients who may benefit from additional chemotherapy, prognostic factors were investigated in breast cancer patients treated postoperatively with endocrine therapy alone. Analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated that a Ki67 labeling index cut-off of 20.0% was optimal for predicting recurrence among patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. The 5-year RFIs for patients with Ki67 Ki67 labeling index (≥20%) was significantly associated with large tumors (pKi67 labeling index ≥20%, lymph node metastasis and progesterone receptor negativity were significant worse prognostic factors for RFI (p=0.0333, 0.0116 and 0.0573, respectively). The Ki67 labeling index was found to be a useful prognostic factor in patients with ER-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer and the cut-off values of the Ki67 labeling index for making a decision regarding adjuvant treatment were validated.

  16. Does EMG activation differ among fatigue-resistant leg muscles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The participants (N=32) were divided into two groups according to the Fatigue Index value [Group I: Less Fatigue Resistant (LFR), n=17; Group II: More Fatigue Resistant (MFR), n=15]. The repeated EMG activities of four leg muscles [rectus femoris, biceps femoris, vastus lateralis and vastus medialis] were analysed during ...

  17. Comprehensive Analysis of the Association of Clinically Relevant Values of Ki-67 Labeling Index with Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Criteria in Female Invasive Breast Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba El-Gendi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Breast cancer aggressiveness is related to tumor cell proliferation. Despite this, the Ki-67 index is not recommended for routine use in newly diagnosed breast carcinomas. Material and Methods: A total of 164 invasive breast carcinomas were stratified into the intrinsic molecular subtypes based on estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor (PR, HER2, and Ki-67 immunostaining. We studied the distribution of Ki-67 among the molecular subtypes and correlated it with clinicopathologic parameters. Furthermore, the change in the Ki-67 index with tumor size, grade and lymph node (LN status among the molecular subtypes was examined. Results: As a continuous variable, the median Ki-67 did not show significant differences with the clinicopathological variables. At a cutoff ≥14%, it correlated significantly with the mitotic index. At a cutoff ≥20%, it additionally correlated with the PR status. The median Ki-67 level varied significantly between luminal A and all other molecular subtypes. The median Ki-67 level in T1/T2 tumors compared to T3/T4 tumors was slightly higher in luminal B HER2+, slightly lower in HER2 enriched, and nearly similar among luminal A, triple negative and luminal B HER2-subtypes, yet without statistical significance. The median Ki-67 was lower in G1/G2 compared to G3 tumors in all-except luminal B HER2-positive subtype but without statistical significance. The Ki-67 distribution change between N0/N1 and N2/N3 cases among the molecular subtypes was significant. Conclusions: The impact of Ki-67 as a proliferation marker on the biological behavior of breast carcinomas is context dependent, and its clinical utility increases when interpreted in combination with other prognostic markers in the context of the molecular subtypes. Further studies, on larger sample sizes are recommended to unravel how the molecular types can affect the relation between Ki-67 and clinicopathological characteristics, particularly the LN status. [J

  18. The ATI score (age-thrombus burden-index of microcirculatory resistance) determined during primary percutaneous coronary intervention predicts final infarct size in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a cardiac magnetic resonance validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maria, Giovanni Luigi; Alkhalil, Mohammad; Wolfrum, Mathias; Fahrni, Gregor; Borlotti, Alessandra; Gaughran, Lisa; Dawkins, Sam; Langrish, Jeremy P; Lucking, Andrew J; Choudhury, Robin P; Porto, Italo; Crea, Filippo; Dall'Armellina, Erica; Channon, Keith M; Kharbanda, Rajesh K; Banning, Adrian P

    2017-10-20

    The age-thrombus burden-index of microcirculatory resistance (ATI) score is a diagnostic tool able to predict suboptimal myocardial reperfusion before stenting, in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We aimed to validate the ATI score against cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI). The ATI score was calculated prospectively in 80 STEMI patients. cMRI was performed within 48 hours in all patients and in 50 patients at six-month follow-up to assess the extent of infarct size (IS%) and microvascular obstruction (MVO%). The ATI score was calculated using age (>50=1 point), pre-stenting index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) (>40 and <100=1 point; ≥100=2 points) and angiographic thrombus score (4=1 point; 5=3 points). ATI score was closely related to final IS% (ATI.

  19. The use of genomic information increases the accuracy of breeding value predictions for sea louse (Caligus rogercresseyi) resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Katharina; Bangera, Rama; Figueroa, René; Lhorente, Jean P; Yáñez, José M

    2017-01-31

    Sea lice infestations caused by Caligus rogercresseyi are a main concern to the salmon farming industry due to associated economic losses. Resistance to this parasite was shown to have low to moderate genetic variation and its genetic architecture was suggested to be polygenic. The aim of this study was to compare accuracies of breeding value predictions obtained with pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction (P-BLUP) methodology against different genomic prediction approaches: genomic BLUP (G-BLUP), Bayesian Lasso, and Bayes C. To achieve this, 2404 individuals from 118 families were measured for C. rogercresseyi count after a challenge and genotyped using 37 K single nucleotide polymorphisms. Accuracies were assessed using fivefold cross-validation and SNP densities of 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 25 and 37 K. Accuracy of genomic predictions increased with increasing SNP density and was higher than pedigree-based BLUP predictions by up to 22%. Both Bayesian and G-BLUP methods can predict breeding values with higher accuracies than pedigree-based BLUP, however, G-BLUP may be the preferred method because of reduced computation time and ease of implementation. A relatively low marker density (i.e. 10 K) is sufficient for maximal increase in accuracy when using G-BLUP or Bayesian methods for genomic prediction of C. rogercresseyi resistance in Atlantic salmon.

  20. A study of the relationship between the pulmonary function test and the threshold value for the emphysema index at volumetric inspiration and expiration CT in cases of chronic obstructive lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Joo; Seo, Joon Beom; Kim, Nam Kug; Oh, Yeon Mok; Lee, Sang Do; Lee, Young Kyung

    2008-01-01

    To determine the relationship between the pulmonary function test (PFT) and the optimal threshold value for the emphysema index at volumetric CT in chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). Volumetric CT scans were performed in 53 patients with COPD at inspiration and expiration using the same CT scanner. By using the in-house software, the emphysema index, which included the threshold value between -700 and -990 HU, was calculated automatically. The data were analyzed by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient between each set of CT data and the forced expiratory volume occurring over 1 second (FEV1), the forced expiratory volume occurring over 1 second over the vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC), and the diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLco). The strongest correlation between FEV1 and FEV1/FVC was found to have a threshold of -940 HU at inspiration and -910 HU during an expiration CT scan. The strongest correlation with DLco was observed with a threshold of -970 HU at inspiration and -960 HU at expiration. The threshold showing the best correlation with the PET parameters was variable. As for the inspiration CT scan, the threshold area, showing a relatively good correlation with PET, occurred over -940 to -970 HU. Hence, it is pertinent that -950 HU or -960 HU was a common benchmark used for threshold of the emphysema index

  1. The Prognostic Value of Plasma YKL-40 in Patients With Chemotherapy-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Treated With Bevacizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Mogens K; Madsen, Christine V; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2016-01-01

    with ovarian cancer treated with bevacizumab. METHODS: One hundred forty patients with chemotherapy-refractory epithelian ovarian cancer were treated with single-agent bevacizumab 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks in a prospective trial. Plasma YKL-40 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and during...... = 0.003). Increase in plasma YKL-40 during bevacizumab treatment, with correction for baseline plasma YKL-40, was a predictor of shorter PFS. Using normal versus elevated plasma YKL-40 as a cutoff did not provide the same discriminative value. CONCLUSIONS: Low plasma YKL-40 at baseline and during...... treatment is associated with improved outcomes in patients with chemotherapy-refractory advanced ovarian cancer treated with single-agent bevacizumab....

  2. A combined site proximity and recreation index approach to value natural amenities: an example from a natural resource management region of Murray-Darling Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsuwan, Sorada; Macdonald, Darla Hatton; King, Darran; Poudyal, Neelam

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a hedonic property price model of rural land in a natural resource management region of the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. In traditional hedonic models, the marginal value of environmental amenities is estimated using distance to or size of the environmental asset. The approach applied in this study offers the potential for a richer set of information, where environmental assets are described in terms of their 'recreational attractiveness'. The level of recreational attractiveness is represented as latent variables that are based on park facilities and recreational activities offered at each site. For a property in the study area that is 1 km away from the River Murray, moving half a kilometre closer will increase the property price by $245,000, holding every other variable constant at the mean. This value is magnified by $27,000 if the house is in an area where there is high river recreational attractiveness and drops by $14,000 if river recreational attractiveness is low. By including recreational quality indices in a typical hedonic framework that is corrected for spatial dependency, the model is able to capture how individuals value environmental amenities around their homes based on the site's natural characteristics as well as recreational services. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Worsens the Profile of Cardiometabolic Risk Markers and Decrease Indexes of Beta-Cell Function Independently of Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Women with a Parental History of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Sokup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Women with a history of both parental type 2 diabetes (pt2DM and previous gestational diabetes (pGDM represent a group at high risk of cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that pGDM changes cardiometabolic risk markers levels as well as theirs associations with glucose indices in nondiabetic pt2DM women. Methods. Anthropometric parameters, glucose regulation (OGTT, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, beta-cell function, lipid levels, parameters of endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation were evaluated in 55 women with pt2DM, 40 with both pt2DM and pGDM 2–24 months postpartum, and 35 controls. Results. Prediabetes was diagnosed more frequently in women with both pt2DM and pGDM in comparison with women with only pt2DM (10 versus 8, P=0.04. The pGDM group had higher LDL-cholesterol, sICAM-1, tPa Ag, fibrinogen, and lower beta-cell function after adjustment for HOMA-IR, in comparison with pt2DM group. In pt2DM group postchallenge glucose correlated independently with hsCRP and in pGDM group fasting glucose with HOMA-IR. Conclusions. pGDM exerts a combined effect on cardiometabolic risk markers in women with pt2DM. In these women higher LDL-cholesterol, fibrinogen, sICAM-1, tPa Ag levels and decreased beta cell function are associated with pGDM independently of HOMA-IR index value. Fasting glucose is an important cardiometabolic risk marker and is independently associated with HOMA-IR.

  4. Racial/ethnic differences in the influence of cultural values, alcohol resistance self-efficacy, and alcohol expectancies on risk for alcohol initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Regina A; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S; Zhou, Annie J; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2012-09-01

    Prior research has reported racial/ethnic differences in the early initiation of alcohol use, suggesting that cultural values that are central to specific racial/ethnic groups may be influencing these differences. This 1-year longitudinal study examines associations between two types of cultural values, parental respect (honor for one's parents) and familism (connectedness with family), both measured at baseline, and subsequent alcohol initiation in a sample of 6,054 (approximately 49% male, 57% Hispanic, 22% Asian, 18% non-Hispanic White, and 4% non-Hispanic Black) middle school students in Southern California. We tested whether the associations of cultural values with alcohol initiation could be explained by baseline measures of alcohol resistance self-efficacy (RSE) and alcohol expectancies. We also explored whether these pathways differed by race/ethnicity. In the full sample, adolescents with higher parental respect were less likely to initiate alcohol use, an association that was partially explained by higher RSE and fewer positive alcohol expectancies. Familism was not significantly related to alcohol initiation. Comparing racial/ethnic groups, higher parental respect was protective against alcohol initiation for Whites and Asians, but not Blacks or Hispanics. There were no racial/ethnic differences in the association between familism and alcohol initiation. Results suggest that cultural values are important factors in the decision to use alcohol and these values appear to operate in part, by influencing alcohol positive expectancies and RSE. Interventions that focus on maintaining strong cultural values and building strong bonds between adolescents and their families may help reduce the risk of alcohol initiation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Markers of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and lipid accumulation are moderately associated with the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance in obese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz A Samjoo

    Full Text Available Lower skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL accumulation have been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance (IR in obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of endurance exercise on biochemical and morphological measures of IMCL and mitochondrial content, and their relationship to IR in obese individuals. We examined mitochondrial content (subunit protein abundance and maximal activity of electron transport chain enzymes, IMCL/mitochondrial morphology in both subsarcolemmal (SS and intermyofibrillar (IMF regions by transmission electron microscopy, and intracellular lipid metabolites (diacylglycerol and ceramide in vastus lateralis biopsies, as well as, the homeostasis model assessment index of IR (HOMA-IR prior to and following twelve weeks of an endurance exercise regimen in healthy age- and physical activity-matched lean and obese men. Obese men did not show evidence of mitochondrial OXPHOS dysfunction, disproportionate IMCL content in sub-cellular regions, or diacylglycerol/ceramide accretion despite marked IR vs. lean controls. Endurance exercise increased OXPHOS and mitochondrial size and density, but not number of individual mitochondrial fragments, with moderate improvements in HOMA-IR. Exercise reduced SS IMCL content (size, number and density, increased IMF IMCL content, while increasing IMCL/mitochondrial juxtaposition in both regions. HOMA-IR was inversely associated with SS (r = -0.34; P = 0.051 and IMF mitochondrial density (r = -0.29; P = 0.096, IMF IMCL/mitochondrial juxtaposition (r = -0.30; P = 0.086, and COXII (r = -0.32; P = 0.095 and COXIV protein abundance (r = -0.35; P = 0.052; while positively associated with SS IMCL size (r = 0.28; P = 0.119 and SS IMCL density (r = 0.25; P = 0.152. Our findings suggest that once physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness have been

  6. Markers of Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Function and Lipid Accumulation Are Moderately Associated with the Homeostasis Model Assessment Index of Insulin Resistance in Obese Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samjoo, Imtiaz A.; Safdar, Adeel; Hamadeh, Mazen J.; Glover, Alexander W.; Mocellin, Nicholas J.; Santana, Jose; Little, Jonathan P.; Steinberg, Gregory R.; Raha, Sandeep; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Lower skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS) and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation have been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance (IR) in obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of endurance exercise on biochemical and morphological measures of IMCL and mitochondrial content, and their relationship to IR in obese individuals. We examined mitochondrial content (subunit protein abundance and maximal activity of electron transport chain enzymes), IMCL/mitochondrial morphology in both subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) regions by transmission electron microscopy, and intracellular lipid metabolites (diacylglycerol and ceramide) in vastus lateralis biopsies, as well as, the homeostasis model assessment index of IR (HOMA-IR) prior to and following twelve weeks of an endurance exercise regimen in healthy age- and physical activity-matched lean and obese men. Obese men did not show evidence of mitochondrial OXPHOS dysfunction, disproportionate IMCL content in sub-cellular regions, or diacylglycerol/ceramide accretion despite marked IR vs. lean controls. Endurance exercise increased OXPHOS and mitochondrial size and density, but not number of individual mitochondrial fragments, with moderate improvements in HOMA-IR. Exercise reduced SS IMCL content (size, number and density), increased IMF IMCL content, while increasing IMCL/mitochondrial juxtaposition in both regions. HOMA-IR was inversely associated with SS (r = −0.34; P = 0.051) and IMF mitochondrial density (r = −0.29; P = 0.096), IMF IMCL/mitochondrial juxtaposition (r = −0.30; P = 0.086), and COXII (r = −0.32; P = 0.095) and COXIV protein abundance (r = −0.35; P = 0.052); while positively associated with SS IMCL size (r = 0.28; P = 0.119) and SS IMCL density (r = 0.25; P = 0.152). Our findings suggest that once physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness have

  7. Effects of γ-rays on vegetable leaf and leaf tissue resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Fei; Luo Shishi; Feng Min; Wang Zegang; Ge Cailin; Guo Yifeng

    2003-01-01

    The change of the leaf tissue resistance and ion exosmosis of two kinds of vegetables by γ-rays were studied and the apparent characters were observed. The results showed as follows. The effect of γ-rays on vegetable firstly appears on leaf and the leaf is the sensitive part to γ-rays. The peak value of leaf tissue resistance changes paralleled to the ability of resistance to γ-rays, the higher the resistant ability is, the higher the peak value of the leaf tissue resistance will be. The peak value of leaf tissue resistance can be used as the index of the ability of vegetable resistance to γ-rays. Contrast with ion exosmosis, leaf tissue resistance showed different resistant abilities to γ-rays with different leaves of the same plant. The death dose of vegetable can be determined with the change of leaf tissue resistance and ion exosmosis

  8. Systemic immune-inflammation index predicting chemoradiation resistance and poor outcome in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Suo Tong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that the existence of systemic inflammation response is correlated with poor prognosis in several solid tumors. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the association between systemic immune-inflammation index (SII and therapy response and overall survival in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The prognostic values of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR, platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR, and prognostic nutritional index (PNI were also evaluated. Methods In total, 332 patients with new diagnosis of stage III NSCLC were included in this retrospective analysis. SII was defined as platelet counts × neutrophil counts/lymphocyte counts. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to evaluate the optimal cut-off value for SII, NLR, PLR and PNI. Univariate and multivariate survival analysis were performed to identify the factors correlated with overall survival. Results Applying cut-offs of ≥ 660 (SII, ≥ 3.57 (NLR, ≥ 147 (PLR, ≤ 52.95 (PNI, SII ≥ 660 was significantly correlated with worse ECOG PS (< 0.001, higher T stage (< 0.001, advanced clinical stage (p = 0.019, and lower response rate (p = 0.018. In univariate analysis, SII ≥ 660, NLR ≥ 3.57, PLR ≥ 147, and PNI ≤ 52.95 were significantly associated with worse overall survival (p all < 0.001. Patients with SII ≥ 660 had a median overall survival of 10 months, and patients with SII < 660 showed a median overall survival of 30 months. In multivariate analysis only ECOG PS (HR, 1.744; 95% CI 1.158–2.626; p = 0.008, T stage (HR, 1.332; 95% CI 1.032–1.718; p = 0.028, N stage (HR, 1.848; 95% CI 1.113–3.068; p = 0.018, SII (HR, 2.105; 95% CI 1.481–2.741; p < 0.001 and NLR ≥ 3.57 (HR, 1.934; 95% CI 1.448–2.585; p < 0.001 were independently correlated with overall survival. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the SII is an

  9. [Estimation of the population attributable fraction due to obesity in hospital admissions for flu valued according to Body Mass Index (BMI) and CUN-BAE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Batista, V; Carriedo, D; Díez, F; Pueyo Bastida, A; Martínez Durán, B; Martin, V

    2018-03-01

    The obesity pandemic together with the influenza pandemic could lead to a significant burden of disease. The body mass index (BMI) does not discriminate obesity appropriately. The CUN-BAE has recently been used as an estimate of body fatness for Caucasians, including BMI, gender, and age. The aim of this study is to assess the population attributable fraction of hospital admissions due to influenza, due to the body fatness measured with the BMI, and the CUN-BAE. A multicentre study was conducted using matched case-controls. Cases were hospital admissions with the influenza confirmed by the RT-PCR method between 2009 and 2011. The risk of hospital admission and the population attribuible fraction were calculated using the BMI or the CUN-BAE for each adiposity category in a conditional logical regression analysis adjusted for confounding variables. The analyzes were estimated in the total sample, in unvaccinated people, and those less than 65 years-old. A total of 472 hospitalised cases and 493 controls were included in the study. Compared to normal weight, the aOR of influenza hospital admissions increases with each level of BMI (aOR=1.26; 2.06 and 11.64) and CUN-BAE (aOR=2.78; 4.29; 5.43 and 15.18). The population attributable fraction of influenza admissions using CUN-BAE is 3 times higher than that estimated with BMI (0,72 vs. 0,27), with the differences found being similar the non-vaccinated and under 65 year-olds. The BMI could be underestimating the burden of disease attributable to obesity in individuals hospitalised with influenza. There needs to be an appropriate assessment of the impact of obesity and vaccine recommendation criteria. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Economical Evaluation of Faba bean (Vicia faba and Maize (Zea mays L. Intercropping Based on Total Relative Value Index and Weeds Growth Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hamzei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical control of weeds raises serious concerns about food safety and environmental quality, which have necessitated the need for non chemical weed management techniques such as intercropping. Intercropping can suppress weeds and reduce the use of herbicides in production systems. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of intercropping of faba bean and maize, as well as hand-weeding on maize grain yield and total grain yield. The experiment was carried out during growing season of 2010 as a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran. Sole cropping of maize with weed control (MWF, sole cropping of maize without weed control (MWI, intercropping of 15% faba bean+maize (M+15%F, 30% faba bean+maize (M+30%F, 45% faba bean+maize (M+45%F  and sole cropping of faba bean were the experimental treatments. Weed biomass and density were affected by treatments. With increasing faba bean density in the intercropping treatments, weed biomass and density decreased significantly from 85 plants and 310 g m-2 for MWI treatment to 22 plants and 63 g m-2 for M+45%F treatment, respectively. The greatest number of seed row per ear, seed number per ear and grain and biological yields (8033 and 17933 kg ha-1, respectively were achieved at MWF treatment and the smallest values for these attributes were revealed at MWI treatment. There was no significant difference between MWF and M+45%F treatments for total grain yield (i.e. grain yield of maize + faba bean. Sole cropping of faba bean led to the greatest yield components and grain and biological yields. With increasing faba bean density in intercropping treatments, above mentioned traits (except number of pods per plant were increased significantly. The great values for weed control efficiency (73% and total relative value (1.14 were achieved at M+45%F treatment. Results of

  11. Utilidad del índice HOMA-IR con una sola determinación de insulinemia para diagnosticar resistencia insulínica Usefulness of HOMA-IR index with an only insulinemia determination to diagnose an insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arturo Hernández Yero

    2011-08-01

    . Conclusiones: una sola determinación de insulinemia para estudiar el HOMA-IR es de utilidad en la práctica diaria, aunque resulta de mucha mayor precisión aplicar la fórmula original para una mejor reproducibilidad.Introduction: HOMA-IR index is a simple and not much invasive procedure allowing by a validated and well established formula to specify exactly a value expression of insulin resistance. To estimate the HOMA-IR index with an only numerical value of insulinemia could to present a greater variability, something that could be solved with at least the mean of three insulinemias, according to original formula. En some studies it is habitual to perform it with a single insulinemia determination. Thus, we conducted a study in patients presenting type 2 diabetes and to compare the results as regards the sensitivity and specificity with a single blood determination for insulinemia and glycemia. Objectives: to assess the sensitivity and specificity of each of insulinemia determinations performed each 5 min versus the mean of these determinations during the application of formula for HOMA-IR index. Methods: sixty patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes attended in the Center for Diabetic Care of La Habana were studied. They had a diabetes course time lower than 5 years as average with predominance of body excess weight recruited during 6 months in a consecutive way and the carrying out of fasting insulinemias and glycemias determinations by trocar and venous blood extraction at 0,5 and 10 min for a calculation of Mathews's hemostatic model known as HOMA-IR. Results: a 88,3 % had a HOMA-IR greater than 3,2. The sensitivity of a single sample of insulinemia, although high to confirm the insulin resistance diagnosis, it is variable and specificity of one of samples was low with a 14%. There is an appropriate concordance among the positive predictor values with sensitivity and the negative predictive values with the test specificity. Conclusions: a single insulinemia

  12. Cocaine addicts prone to cocaine-induced psychosis have lower body mass index than cocaine addicts resistant to cocaine-induced psychosis--Implications for the cocaine model of psychosis proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosse, Richard; Deutsch, Stephen; Chilton, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    The specific pathogenesis of increased vulnerability to cocaine-induced paranoia/psychosis is unknown. Weight loss has been long observed in patients abusing stimulants (including cocaine and the amphetamines). In the current study, we compared Body Mass Index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) in Cocaine-Induced Psychosis cases, referred to as "Cocaine-Induced Psychosis-prone" (n=40) and non-Cocaine-Induced Psychosis cases, referred to as "Cocaine-Induced Psychosis-resistant" (n=29) consecutively admitted to a research substance abuse unit to determine whether Body Mass Index is associated with Cocaine-Induced Psychosis. Height and weight were measured and Body Mass Index calculated by a licensed nutritionist using a standardized protocol. Cocaine-induced psychosis and cocaine use patterns were assessed using the Cocaine Experience Questionnaire. Body Mass Index in the Cocaine-Induced Psychosis-prone patients was significantly lower than in the Cocaine-Induced Psychosis-resistant patients (i.e., 23.1 kg/m2 +/-2.5 vs. 25.4 kg/m2 +/-3.5 (P=.003), respectively). Percentage of Ideal Body Weight also differed significantly between the two groups. The data suggest that lower Body Mass Index may be associated with increasing proneness to developing psychotic symptoms in the context of crack cocaine use or that higher Body Mass Index might be associated with some protection against Cocaine-Induced Psychosis in the context of similar use patterns. In the Discussion the authors speculate as to why Cocaine-Induced Psychosis is more commonly observed in the patient population with lower Body Mass Index and lower percentage of Ideal Body Weight. They evoke possible involvement of cocaine's influence on the anorexigenic cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor, Cocaine-and-Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript, or suppression of the appetite stimulating Neuropeptide Y, or cocaine-induced deficits in nicotinic cholinergic neural-transmission, all of

  13. Calculation of cut-off values based on the Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI) pemphigus scoring systems for defining moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, C; Duvert Lehembre, S; Picard-Dahan, C; Kern, J S; Zambruno, G; Feliciani, C; Marinovic, B; Vabres, P; Borradori, L; Prost-Squarcioni, C; Labeille, B; Richard, M A; Ingen-Housz-Oro, S; Houivet, E; Werth, V P; Murrell, D F; Hertl, M; Benichou, J; Joly, P

    2016-07-01

    Two pemphigus severity scores, Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI), have been proposed to provide an objective measure of disease activity. However, the use of these scores in clinical practice is limited by the absence of cut-off values that allow differentiation between moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus. To calculate cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus based on the ABSIS and PDAI scores. In 31 dermatology departments in six countries, consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus were assessed for pemphigus severity, using ABSIS, PDAI, Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were calculated based on the 25th and 75th percentiles of the ABSIS and PDAI scores. The median ABSIS, PDAI, PGA and DLQI scores of the three severity subgroups were compared in order to validate these subgroups. Ninety-six patients with pemphigus vulgaris (n = 77) or pemphigus foliaceus (n = 19) were included. The median PDAI activity and ABSIS total scores were 27·5 (range 3-84) and 34·8 points (range 0·5-90·5), respectively. The respective cut-off values corresponding to the first and third quartiles of the scores were 15 and 45 for the PDAI, and 17 and 53 for ABSIS. The moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were thus defined, and had distinguishing median ABSIS (P values of 15 and 45 for PDAI and 17 and 53 for ABSIS, to distinguish moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus forms. Identifying these pemphigus activity subgroups should help physicians to classify and manage patients with pemphigus. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. Positive predictive value between medical-chart body-mass-index category and obesity versus codes in a claims-data warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Eleanor O; Kamble, Pravin S; Harvey, Raymond A; Smolarz, B Gabriel; Renda, Andrew; Bouchard, Jonathan R; Huang, Joanna C

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the positive predictive value of claims-based V85 codes for identifying individuals with varying degrees of BMI relative to their measured BMI obtained from medical record abstraction. This was a retrospective validation study utilizing administrative claims and medical chart data from 1 January 2009 to 31 August 2015. Randomly selected samples of patients enrolled in a Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MAPD) or commercial health plan and with a V85 claim were identified. The claims-based BMI category (underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese class I-III) was determined via corresponding V85 codes and compared to the BMI category derived from chart abstracted height, weight and/or BMI. The positive predictive values (PPVs) of the claims-based BMI categories were calculated with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The overall PPVs (95% CIs) in the MAPD and commercial samples were 90.3% (86.3%-94.4%) and 91.1% (87.3%-94.9%), respectively. In each BMI category, the PPVs (95% CIs) for the MAPD and commercial samples, respectively, were: underweight, 71.0% (55.0%-87.0%) and 75.9% (60.3%-91.4%); normal, 93.8% (85.4%-100%) and 87.8% (77.8%-97.8%); overweight, 97.4% (92.5%-100%) and 93.5% (84.9%-100%); obese class I, 96.9 (90.9%-100%) and 97.2% (91.9%-100%); obese class II, 97.0% (91.1%-100%) and 93.0% (85.4%-100%); and obese class III, 85.0% (73.3%-96.1%) and 97.1% (91.4%-100%). BMI categories derived from administrative claims, when available, can be used successfully particularly in the context of obesity research.

  15. Ratio of low molecular weight serum adiponectin to the total adiponectin value is associated with type 2 diabetes through its relation to increasing insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Minoru; Hara, Kazuo; Kamura, Yutaka; Honoki, Hisae; Fujisaka, Shiho; Ishiki, Manabu; Usui, Isao; Yagi, Kunimasa; Fukushima, Yasuo; Takano, Atsuko; Kato, Hiromi; Murakami, Shihou; Higuchi, Kiyohiro; Kobashi, Chikaaki; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Koshimizu, Yukiko; Tobe, Kazuyuki

    2018-01-01

    Among the three adiponectin isoforms, a lower ratio of high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin to total adiponectin (TA) is well known to cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, how the levels of other adiponectin isoforms, such as the middle molecular weight (MMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) isoforms, and their relative ratio to TA change in T2D subjects has not been determined. Therefore, we investigated the association of these adiponectin-related parameters with T2D. We examined the associations between adiponectin-related parameters and diabetes in a group of 394 T2D subjects and 374 controls (1st group) randomly selected from among the participants in our previous study. The associations between these parameters and the HOMA-IR in a 2nd group, consisting of the subjects remaining in the 1st group after the exclusion of subjects receiving diabetic medication, were also examined. In the 1st group, after adjusting for confounding factor, the levels of all the adiponectin isoforms and the HMW/TA ratio were significantly lower among the diabetic subjects than among the controls (all P values resistance.

  16. [Establishment of 5 resistant ovarian cancer cell strains and expression of resistance-related genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Ying-zi; Li, Li; Li, Dang-rong; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Bu-jian

    2004-06-01

    To investigate expression difference of several drug resistance related genes between sensitive and resistant ovarian carcinoma cells. Cell lines resistant to cisplatin, carboplatin and taxol were established from ovarian carcinoma cell lines of SKOV3 and A2780, and their biological features were detected. The expressions of several genes related to drug resistance were measured by RT-PCR method. (1) The values of resistance index (RI) of resistant cells to relevant drugs were elevated 3 times or more, with different degrees of cross-resistance to several other drugs (RI 2 approximately 20). They grew more slowly than primary cells (Td elongated 1.4 approximately 2.4 times, P 0.05). Intracellular concentrations of relevant drugs were reduced 2.0 approximately 8.5 times in resistant cells (P p53, lung resistance protein-1 (LRP-1), multiple drug resistance related protein-1 (MRP-1) genes were expressed at lower levels in resistant cells than in sensitive cells; while protein kinase C (PKC), topoisomerase (topo) I, and topo II beta were expressed higher, no obvious alterations were found concerning glutathione S transferase-pi (GST-pi), and topo II alpha. Expression of multiple drug resistance-1 (MDR-1) gene was either elevated or reduced in different cells. The expressions of resistance related genes were widely different in different kinds of resistant cells, suggesting more than one pathway leading to resistance transformation. This adds more difficulties for clinical management.

  17. 12 weeks' aerobic and resistance training without dietary intervention did not influence oxidative stress but aerobic training decreased atherogenic index in middle-aged men with impaired glucose regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venojärvi, Mika; Korkmaz, Ayhan; Wasenius, Niko; Manderoos, Sirpa; Heinonen, Olli J; Lindholm, Harri; Aunola, Sirkka; Eriksson, Johan G; Atalay, Mustafa

    2013-11-01

    Our aim was to determine whether 12 weeks' aerobic Nordic walking (NW) or resistance exercise training (RT) without diet-induced weight loss could decrease oxidative stress and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS score in middle-aged men with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) (n=144. 54.5 ± 6.5 years). In addition, we compared effects of intervention between overweight and obese subgroups. Prevalence of MetS and AIP index decreased only in NW group and MetS score in both NW and RT groups but not in control group. The changes in AIP index correlated inversely with changes in plasma antioxidant capacity. The change in AIP index remained a significant independent predictor of the changes in MetS score after the model was adjusted for age, BMI and volume of exercise (MET h/week) in NW group. There were no changes in the other measured markers of oxidative stress and related cytokines (e.g. osteopontin and osteoprotegerin) in any of the groups. Nordic walking decreased prevalence of MetS and MetS score. Improved lipid profile remained a predictor of decreased MetS score only in NW group and it seems that Nordic walking has more beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risks than RT training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The association between hematological parameters and insulin resistance is modified by body mass index - results from the North-East Italy MoMa population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Barazzoni

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Increments in red blood cell count (RBC, hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit (Ht levels are reportedly associated with higher insulin resistance (IR. Obesity may cause IR, but underlying factors remain incompletely defined, and interactions between obesity, hematological parameters and IR are incompletely understood. We therefore determined whether: 1 BMI and obesity per se are independently associated with higher RBC, hemoglobin and hematocrit; 2 hematological parameters independently predict insulin resistance in obese individuals. DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated the associations between BMI, hematological parameters and insulin resistance as reflected by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA in a general population cohort from the North-East Italy MoMa epidemiological study (M/F = 865/971, age = 49 ± 1. RESULTS: In all subjects, age-, sex- and smoking-adjusted hematological parameters were positively associated with BMI in linear regression (P<0.05, but not after adjustment for HOMA or waist circumference (WC and potential metabolic confounders. No associations were found between hematological parameters and BMI in lean, overweight or obese subgroups. Associations between hematological parameters and HOMA were conversely independent of BMI in all subjects and in lean and overweight subgroups (P<0.01, but not in obese subjects alone. CONCLUSIONS: In a North-East Italy general population cohort, obesity per se is not independently associated with altered RBC, Hb and Ht, and the association between BMI and hematological parameters is mediated by their associations with abdominal fat and insulin resistance markers. High hematological parameters could contribute to identify insulin resistance in non-obese individual, but they do not appear to be reliable insulin resistance biomarkers in obese subjects.

  19. Effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on insulin resistance in patients with type II diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis, as assessed by C-peptide and the Homeostasis Assessment Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Jerry; Vadakkekuttical, Rosamma Joseph; George, Joseraj Manaloor; Kaziyarakath, Jaishid Ahadal; Radhakrishnan, Chandni

    2017-08-01

    A bidirectional relationship exists between diabetes and periodontitis. In the present clinical trial, we evaluated the effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) on insulin resistance in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic periodontitis. Forty chronic periodontitis patients with type II DM were selected and equally allocated to case and control groups. All patients were assessed for periodontal parameters and systemic parameters. The case group received NSPT, and both groups were re-evaluated after 3 months. All periodontal parameters were found to be significantly improved in the case group compared to the control group 3 months after NSPT. The mean differences in systemic parameters, such as fasting serum C-peptide, Homeostasis Assessment (HOMA) Index-insulin resistance, and HOMA-insulin sensitivity, from baseline to 3 months for the case group were 0.544 ± 0.73, 0.54 ± 0.63, and -25.44 ± 36.81, respectively; for the control group, they were significant at -1.66 ± 1.89, -1.48 ± 1.86, and 31.42 ± 38.82 respectively (P periodontal inflammation could affect glycemic control and insulin resistance. Effective periodontal therapy reduced insulin resistance and improved periodontal health status and insulin sensitivity in patients with type II DM and chronic periodontitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Comparison of fractional inhibitory concentration index with response surface modeling for characterization of in vitro interaction of antifungals against itraconazole-susceptible and -resistant Aspergillus fumigatus isolates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsthorst, D.T.A. te; Verweij, P.E.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Punt, N.C.; Mouton, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Although the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index is most frequently used to define or to describe drug interactions, it has some important disadvantages when used for drugs against filamentous fungi. This includes observer bias in the determination of the MIC and no agreement on the

  1. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...... information on progress or lack of progress in the reconstruction of the post Taliban Afghanistan. The index is mainly based on information collected on the internet in order to provide quick access to the original source. The index is under development and thus new information will be added on a continuous...

  2. A descriptive study of facial acanthosis nigricans and its association with body mass index, waist circumference and insulin resistance using HOMA2 IR

    OpenAIRE

    Shyam Verma; Resham Vasani; Rajiv Joshi; Meghana Phiske; Pritesh Punjabi; Tushar Toprani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The term facial acanthosis nigricans (FAN) lacks definition of precise clinical and histopathological features. We present a descriptive study of patients with FAN to define pigmentary patterns and estimate the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in these cases. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective study that included all patients with classical AN of the neck and/or other areas with facial acanthosis nigricans described as brown-to-black macular pigmentation with...

  3. Age and body mass index-dependent relationship between correction of iron deficiency anemia and insulin resistance in non-diabetic premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, A.; Sevnic, C.; Selamaet, U.; Kamaci, B.; Atalay, S.

    2007-01-01

    No prospective studies have evaluated the effects of correction of iron deficiency anemia on insulin resistance in non-diabetic premenopausal women with iron deficiency anemia. All patients were treated with oral iron preparations. Insulin resistance was calculated with the Homeostasis Model Assessment formula. All patients were dichotomized by the median for age and BMI to assess how the relationship between iron deficiency anemia and insulin resistance was affected by the age and BMI. Although the fasting glucose levels did not change meaningfully, statistically significant decreases were found in fasting insulin levels following anemia treatment both in the younger age ( = 40 years) and the high BMI (>-27Kg/m) subgroups. Post-treatment fasting insulin levels were positively correlated both with BMI (r=0.386, P=0.004) and post-treatment hemoglobin levels. (r=0.285, P=0.036). Regression analysis revealed that the factors affecting post-treatment insulin levels were BMI (P=0.001) and post-treatment hemoglobin levels (p=0.030). Our results show that following he correction of iron deficiency anemia, insulin levels and HOMA scores decrease in younger and lean non-diabetic premenopausal women. (author)

  4. Association of a microsatellite in FASL to type II diabetes and of the FAS-670G>A genotype to insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolsøe, R L; Hamid, Y H; Pociot, F

    2006-01-01

    association to type II diabetes for the allele distribution of the FASL microsatellite (P-value 0.02, Bonferroni corrected). The FAS-670G>A was associated with homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index and body mass index (P-values 0.02 and 0.02). We conclude that polymorphisms of FASL and FAS...

  5. Quality indexes for selecting control materials of the nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Val, J.M.; Pena, J.; Esteban Naudin, A.

    1981-01-01

    Quality indexes are established and valued for selecting control materials, The requirements for accomplishing such purposes are explained with detailed analysis: absortion cross section must be as high as possible, adequate reactivity evolution versus depletion, good resistance to radiation, appropiate thermal stability, mechanical resistance and ductility, chemical compatibility with the environment, good heat transfer properties, abundant in the nature and low costs. At present Westinghouse desire to commercialize hafnium as control material shows the exciting task of looking for new materials controlling nuclear reactors.

  6. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  7. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  8. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  9. Reference values for placental growth factor (PlGF) concentration and uterine artery doppler pulsatility index (PI) at 11-13(+6) weeks of gestation in the Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiński, Przemysław; Samaha, Robert Brawura Biskupski; Bomba-Opoń, Dorota A; Kozłowski, Szymon; Lipa, Michał; Kaczyński, Bartosz; Zbucka-Kretowska, Monika; Lawicki, Sławomir; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Wolczyński, Sławomir; Wielgoś, Mirosław

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine placental growth factor (PIGF) concentration and uterine artery (UtA) Doppler pulsatility index (PI) at 11-13(+6) weeks of gestation in the Polish population. A prospective study was performed in pregnant women who underwent routine ultrasound scan at 11-13(+6) weeks of gestation. All participants completed a questionnaire about their medical history demographics and current pregnancy. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was calculated. Gestational age was confirmed by CRL and mean UtA PI was calculated. Blood samples were taken to measure beta HCG, PAPP-A and P/GF concentrations. Out of the 577 analyzed participants, 60 (10.4%) were found to have abnormal placentation disorders (20 -hypertensive disorders and 40-IUGR). The patients were subdivided into two groups, depending on pregnancy outcome: unaffected (n = 517) and affected (n = 60). The study did not confirm the anticipated correlation between maternal BMI and PIGF, but the concentration of PIGF was significantly increased in smokers. UtA PI values were not statistically significantly different depending on maternal age, BMI, method of conception, smoking or parity The study confirms that both, UtA PI and PIGF concentrations are CRL-dependent. Median MoM values for PIGF and UtA PI were obtained for each set of CRL measurements. Median PIGF MoM was decreased in pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders and IUGR as compared to the unaffected group. The established reference ranges for UtA PI and PIGF at 11-13(+6) weeks of gestation may be of clinical value in predicting placenta-associated diseases in early stages of pregnancy in the Polish population.

  10. Predictive value of prior colonization and antibiotic use for third-generation cephalosporin-resistant enterobacteriaceae bacteremia in patients with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottier, Wouter C; Bamberg, Yara R P; Dorigo-Zetsma, J Wendelien; van der Linden, Paul D; Ammerlaan, Heidi S M; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-06-01

    To prevent inappropriate empiric antibiotic treatment in patients with bacteremia caused by third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GC-R EB), Dutch guidelines recommend β-lactam and aminoglycoside combination therapy or carbapenem monotherapy in patients with prior 3GC-R EB colonization and/or recent cephalosporin or fluoroquinolone usage. Positive predictive values (PPVs) of these determinants are unknown. We retrospectively studied patients with a clinical infection in whom blood cultures were obtained and empiric therapy with broad-spectrum β-lactams and/or aminoglycosides and/or fluoroquinolones was started. We determined the PPVs of prior colonization and antibiotic use for 3GC-R EB bacteremia, and the consequences of guideline adherence on appropriateness of empiric treatment. Of 9422 episodes, 773 (8.2%) were EB bacteremias and 64 (0.7%) were caused by 3GC-R EB. For bacteremia caused by 3GC-R EB, PPVs of prior colonization with 3GC-R EB (90-day window) and prior usage of cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones (30-day window) were 7.4% and 1.3%, respectively, and PPV was 1.8% for the presence of any of these predictors. Adherence to Dutch sepsis guideline recommendations was 27%. Of bacteremia episodes caused by 3GC-R and 3GC-sensitive EB, 56% and 94%, respectively, were initially treated with appropriate antibiotics. Full adherence to guideline recommendations would hardly augment proportions of appropriate therapy, but could considerably increase carbapenem use. In patients receiving empiric treatment for sepsis, prior colonization with 3GC-R EB and prior antibiotic use have low PPV for infections caused by 3GC-R EB. Strict guideline adherence would unnecessarily stimulate broad-spectrum antibiotic use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  12. Higher Total Protein Intake and Change in Total Protein Intake Affect Body Composition but Not Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults Who Perform Resistance and Aerobic Exercise for 36 Weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Wayne W; Kim, Jung Eun; Amankwaah, Akua F; Gordon, Susannah L; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M

    2015-09-01

    Studies assessing the effects of protein supplementation on changes in body composition (BC) and health rarely consider the impact of total protein intake (TPro) or the change in TPro (CTPro) from participants' usual diets. This secondary data analysis assessed the impact of TPro and CTPro on changes in BC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program. Men and women [n = 117; age: 50 ± 0.7 y, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 30.1 ± 0.3; means ± SEs] performed resistance exercise 2 d/wk and aerobic exercise 1 d/wk and consumed an unrestricted diet along with 200-kcal supplements (0, 10, 20, or 30 g whey protein) twice daily for 36 wk. Protein intake was assessed via 4-d food records. Multiple linear regression model and stratified analysis were applied for data analyses. Among all subjects, TPro and CTPro were inversely associated (P changes in body mass, fat mass (FM), and BMI. Changes in BC were different (P changes in FM, %FM, and %LM. The gain in LM was not different among groups. In addition, MetS indexes were not influenced by TPro and CTPro. In conjunction with exercise training, higher TPro promoted positive changes in BC but not in MetS indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Changes in TPro from before to during the intervention also influenced BC responses and should be considered in future research when different TPro is achieved via diet or supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00812409. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Postnatal follow-up of the oxygenation index, arterial to alveolar oxygen tension ratio and alveolar arterial oxygen tension difference values in neonates with the respiratory distress syndrome treated with conventional ventilatory support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, A; Despotova-Toleva, L

    1997-01-01

    Recent development of sophisticated intensive care technique for use in newborn infants with the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) has resulted in changes in the therapeutic strategies and moved the problem of neonatal survival into the realm of new therapeutic realities. At present, the mechanical ventilation methods form an integral part of the intensive care strategy of infants with RDS. They have come to the forefront of infant care because of their successful use in ventilatory support and children survival where other therapeutic modalities have failed. The present prospective observational longitudinal study was designed to assess the real-time convenience, reliability and accuracy of the changes in the oxygenation index (OI), arterial-to-alveolar oxygen tension ratio (a/A PO2) and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (A-a)DO2 in ventilator-dependent neonates with RDS, to analyze their feasibility and potential information yield in oxygen inhalation therapy as well as their prognostic implications and predictive value. Twenty neonates with RDS, heralded by respiratory failure which necessitated the initiation of oxygen inhalation therapy and ventilatory support within 24 hours of birth, were enrolled in the study. Ten of the infants survived and the remaining ten died. OI, (a/A PO2) and (A-a)DO2 were followed up sequentially and thoroughly analyzed as the primary outcome measures of the study. The indices were calculated on the basis of the complete monitoring of the ventilatory equipment parameters and acid-base status carried out on an hourly basis. Our results show that: 1. The combination of three indexes (OI, (a/A)PO2 and (A-a)DO2 we propose is a useful discriminating predictor of neonatal lung maturity reflecting arterial blood gas status in ventilator-dependent neonates with RDS. 2. The indices detect the efficacy of the modern conventional ventilatory support with real-time convenience and reliable accuracy forming the cornerstone of clinical decision

  14. In vitro activity of ertapenem versus ceftriaxone against Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with highly diverse ceftriaxone MIC values and effects of ceftriaxone resistance determinants: ertapenem for treatment of gonorrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemo, Magnus; Golparian, Daniel; Limnios, Athena; Whiley, David; Ohnishi, Makoto; Lahra, Monica M; Tapsall, John W

    2012-07-01

    Clinical resistance to the currently recommended extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), the last remaining treatment options for gonorrhea, is being reported. Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are crucial. We investigated the in vitro activity of ertapenem, relative to ceftriaxone, against N. gonorrhoeae isolates and the effects of ESC resistance determinants on ertapenem. MICs were determined using agar dilution technique or Etest for international reference strains (n = 17) and clinical N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 257), which included the two extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with high ESC MICs, clinical ESC resistance, and other types of clinical high-level and multidrug resistance (MDR). Genetic resistance determinants for ESCs (penA, mtrR, and penB) were sequenced. In general, the MICs of ertapenem (MIC(50) = 0.032 μg/ml; MIC(90) = 0.064 μg/ml) paralleled those of ceftriaxone (MIC(50) = 0.032 μg/ml; MIC(90) = 0.125 μg/ml). The ESC resistance determinants mainly increased the ertapenem MIC and ceftriaxone MIC at similar levels. However, the MIC ranges for ertapenem (0.002 to 0.125 μg/ml) and ceftriaxone (gonorrhea, particularly for the currently identified ESC-resistant cases and possibly in a dual antimicrobial therapy regimen. However, further knowledge regarding the genetic determinants (and their evolution) conferring resistance to both antimicrobials, and clear correlates between genetic and phenotypic laboratory parameters and clinical treatment outcomes, is essential.

  15. In Vitro Activity of Ertapenem versus Ceftriaxone against Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates with Highly Diverse Ceftriaxone MIC Values and Effects of Ceftriaxone Resistance Determinants: Ertapenem for Treatment of Gonorrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golparian, Daniel; Limnios, Athena; Whiley, David; Ohnishi, Makoto; Lahra, Monica M.; Tapsall, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical resistance to the currently recommended extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), the last remaining treatment options for gonorrhea, is being reported. Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are crucial. We investigated the in vitro activity of ertapenem, relative to ceftriaxone, against N. gonorrhoeae isolates and the effects of ESC resistance determinants on ertapenem. MICs were determined using agar dilution technique or Etest for international reference strains (n = 17) and clinical N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 257), which included the two extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with high ESC MICs, clinical ESC resistance, and other types of clinical high-level and multidrug resistance (MDR). Genetic resistance determinants for ESCs (penA, mtrR, and penB) were sequenced. In general, the MICs of ertapenem (MIC50 = 0.032 μg/ml; MIC90 = 0.064 μg/ml) paralleled those of ceftriaxone (MIC50 = 0.032 μg/ml; MIC90 = 0.125 μg/ml). The ESC resistance determinants mainly increased the ertapenem MIC and ceftriaxone MIC at similar levels. However, the MIC ranges for ertapenem (0.002 to 0.125 μg/ml) and ceftriaxone (gonorrhea, particularly for the currently identified ESC-resistant cases and possibly in a dual antimicrobial therapy regimen. However, further knowledge regarding the genetic determinants (and their evolution) conferring resistance to both antimicrobials, and clear correlates between genetic and phenotypic laboratory parameters and clinical treatment outcomes, is essential. PMID:22547617

  16. Replicative phenotyping adds value to genotypic resistance testing in heavily pre-treated HIV-infected individuals - the Swiss HIV Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinetti Gladys

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replicative phenotypic HIV resistance testing (rPRT uses recombinant infectious virus to measure viral replication in the presence of antiretroviral drugs. Due to its high sensitivity of detection of viral minorities and its dissecting power for complex viral resistance patterns and mixed virus populations rPRT might help to improve HIV resistance diagnostics, particularly for patients with multiple drug failures. The aim was to investigate whether the addition of rPRT to genotypic resistance testing (GRT compared to GRT alone is beneficial for obtaining a virological response in heavily pre-treated HIV-infected patients. Methods Patients with resistance tests between 2002 and 2006 were followed within the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS. We assessed patients' virological success after their antiretroviral therapy was switched following resistance testing. Multilevel logistic regression models with SHCS centre as a random effect were used to investigate the association between the type of resistance test and virological response (HIV-1 RNA Results Of 1158 individuals with resistance tests 221 with GRT+rPRT and 937 with GRT were eligible for analysis. Overall virological response rates were 85.1% for GRT+rPRT and 81.4% for GRT. In the subgroup of patients with >2 previous failures, the odds ratio (OR for virological response of GRT+rPRT compared to GRT was 1.45 (95% CI 1.00-2.09. Multivariate analyses indicate a significant improvement with GRT+rPRT compared to GRT alone (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.31-2.15. Conclusions In heavily pre-treated patients rPRT-based resistance information adds benefit, contributing to a higher rate of treatment success.

  17. Worrisome trends in rising minimum inhibitory concentration values of antibiotics against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus – Insights from a tertiary care center, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagasundaram Niveditha

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: MIC creep was notably observed with vancomycin, and to some extent with tigecycline and linezolid. Selection pressure may result in creeping MICs, which may herald the emergence of resistant organisms.

  18. Indexing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.G.; Parker, G.E.; Berry, R.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the indexing mechanism described can be used in a nuclear reactor fuel element inspection rig. It comprises a tubular body adapted to house a canister containing a number of fuel elements located longtitudinally, and has two chucks spaced apart for displacing the fuel elements longitudinally in a stepwise manner, together with a plunger mechanism for displacing them successively into the chucks. A measuring unit is located between the chucks for measuring the diameter of the fuel elements at intervals about their circumferences, and a secondary indexing mechanism is provided for rotating the measuring unit in a stepwise manner. (U.K.)

  19. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  20. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    of various sorts of environmental noise and at the same time offers a stable threshold value. Thus we introduced a new Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI) improving classification accuracy in areas that include shadow and dark surfaces that other classification methods often fail to classify correctly...

  1. In Vitro Activity of Ertapenem versus Ceftriaxone against Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates with Highly Diverse Ceftriaxone MIC Values and Effects of Ceftriaxone Resistance Determinants: Ertapenem for Treatment of Gonorrhea?

    OpenAIRE

    Unemo, Magnus; Golparian, Daniel; Limnios, Athena; Whiley, David; Ohnishi, Makoto; Lahra, Monica M.; Tapsall, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical resistance to the currently recommended extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), the last remaining treatment options for gonorrhea, is being reported. Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are crucial. We investigated the in vitro activity of ertapenem, relative to ceftriaxone, against N. gonorrhoeae isolates and the effects of ESC resistance determinants on ertapenem. MICs were determined using agar dilution technique or Etest for international reference strai...

  2. Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) levels in a general adult population: curves percentile by gender and age. The EPIRCE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayoso-Diz, Pilar; Otero-Gonzalez, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Alvarez, María Xosé; Gude, Francisco; Cadarso-Suarez, Carmen; García, Fernando; De Francisco, Angel

    2011-10-01

    To describe the distribution of HOMA-IR levels in a general nondiabetic population and its relationships with metabolic and lifestyles characteristics. Cross-sectional study. Data from 2246 nondiabetic adults in a random Spanish population sample, stratified by age and gender, were analyzed. Assessments included a structured interview, physical examination, and blood sampling. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were used to assess the effect of lifestyle habits and clinical and demographic measurements on HOMA-IR. Multivariate GAMs and quantile regression analyses of HOMA-IR were carried out separately in men and women. This study shows refined estimations of HOMA-IR levels by age, body mass index, and waist circumference in men and women. HOMA-IR levels were higher in men (2.06) than women (1.95) (P=0.047). In women, but not men, HOMA-IR and age showed a significant nonlinear association (P=0.006), with increased levels above fifty years of age. We estimated HOMA-IR curves percentile in men and women. Age- and gender-adjusted HOMA-IR levels are reported in a representative Spanish adult non-diabetic population. There are gender-specific differences, with increased levels in women over fifty years of age that may be related with changes in body fat distribution after menopause. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Superior Therapeutic Index in Lymphoma Therapy: CD30(+) CD34(+) Hematopoietic Stem Cells Resist a Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombach, Andreas A; Görgens, André; Chmielewski, Markus; Murke, Florian; Kimpel, Janine; Giebel, Bernd; Abken, Hinrich

    2016-08-01

    Recent clinical trials with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) redirected T cells targeting CD19 revealed particular efficacy in the treatment of leukemia/lymphoma, however, were accompanied by a lasting depletion of healthy B cells. We here explored CD30 as an alternative target, which is validated in lymphoma therapy and expressed by a broad variety of Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. As a safty concern, however, CD30 is also expressed by lymphocytes and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) during activation. We revealed that HRS3scFv-derived CAR T cells are superior since they were not blocked by soluble CD30 and did not attack CD30(+) HSPCs while eliminating CD30(+) lymphoma cells. Consequently, normal hemato- and lymphopoiesis was not affected in the long-term in the humanized mouse; the number of blood B and T cells remained unchanged. We provide evidence that the CD30(+) HSPCs are protected against a CAR T-cell attack by substantially lower CD30 levels than lymphoma cells and higher levels of the granzyme B inactivating SP6/PI9 serine protease, which furthermore increased upon activation. Taken together, adoptive cell therapy with anti-CD30 CAR T cells displays a superior therapeutic index in the treatment of CD30(+) malignancies leaving healthy activated lymphocytes and HSPCs unaffected.

  4. Superior Therapeutic Index in Lymphoma Therapy: CD30+ CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem Cells Resist a Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombach, Andreas A; Görgens, André; Chmielewski, Markus; Murke, Florian; Kimpel, Janine; Giebel, Bernd; Abken, Hinrich

    2016-01-01

    Recent clinical trials with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) redirected T cells targeting CD19 revealed particular efficacy in the treatment of leukemia/lymphoma, however, were accompanied by a lasting depletion of healthy B cells. We here explored CD30 as an alternative target, which is validated in lymphoma therapy and expressed by a broad variety of Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. As a safty concern, however, CD30 is also expressed by lymphocytes and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) during activation. We revealed that HRS3scFv-derived CAR T cells are superior since they were not blocked by soluble CD30 and did not attack CD30+ HSPCs while eliminating CD30+ lymphoma cells. Consequently, normal hemato- and lymphopoiesis was not affected in the long-term in the humanized mouse; the number of blood B and T cells remained unchanged. We provide evidence that the CD30+ HSPCs are protected against a CAR T-cell attack by substantially lower CD30 levels than lymphoma cells and higher levels of the granzyme B inactivating SP6/PI9 serine protease, which furthermore increased upon activation. Taken together, adoptive cell therapy with anti-CD30 CAR T cells displays a superior therapeutic index in the treatment of CD30+ malignancies leaving healthy activated lymphocytes and HSPCs unaffected. PMID:27112062

  5. Resistance Potential of Bread Wheat Genotypes Against Yellow Rust Disease Under Egyptian Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Amer F; Hassan, Mohamed I; Amein, Karam A

    2015-12-01

    Yellow rust (stripe rust), caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat in Egypt and worldwide. In order to identify wheat genotypes resistant to yellow rust and develop molecular markers associated with the resistance, fifty F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible bread wheat landraces were obtained. Artificial infection of Puccinia striiformis was performed under greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons and relative resistance index (RRI) was calculated. Two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars i.e. Giza-168 (resistant) and Sakha-69 (susceptible) were also evaluated. RRI values of two-year trial showed that 10 RILs responded with RRI value >6 2 rust. However, further molecular analyses would be performed to confirm markers associated with the resistance and suitable for marker-assisted selection. Resistant RILs identified in the study could be efficiently used to improve the resistance to yellow rust in wheat.

  6. Adding value(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carré, David

    2015-01-01

    Most economic inquires revolve around agents making decisions. Getting the ‘best value’, it is assumed, drives such decisions: gaining most while risking least. This assumption has been debunked by showing that people does not always choose neither maximum benefit nor less risk (Kahneman & Tversky......, 1992). In response, behavioral economics (Camerer, 1999) has shown that agents have values other than optimization underpinning their decisions. Therefore, concerns arose regarding which values are guiding the agent but not about how such values became relevant for the agent. In this presentation, I...... will explore the consequences of shifting to the latter perspective, i.e. looking for the generative framework of values. Here I argue that economic behavior should also be seen as a sense-making process, guided by values that are chosen/rejected along with fellow human beings, in specific socio...

  7. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Index. Alshaary, A. A. see Sharaf, M. A., 9. Banajh, M. A. see Sharaf, M. A., 9. Burbidge Geoffrey see Narlikar Jayant, V., 67. Chen, H. D. see Li, K. J., 147. Chen, Y. Q. see Huang, C., 139. Cui Wenyuan Evolution of the Distribution of Neutron Exposures in the Galaxy. Disc: An Analytical Model, 55. Dhurde Samir see ...

  8. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Index. Alecian, E. see Samadhi, R., 171; see Goupil, M.-J., 249. Antia, H. M. Helioseismology, 161. Ashoka, B. N. see Seetha, S., 301. Baudin, F. see Samadhi, R., 171. Boehm, T. see Goupil, M.-J., 249. Catala, C. see Goupil, M.-J., 249. Cunha Margarida S. Asteroseismic Theory of Rapidly Oscillating Ap Stars, 213.

  9. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    SUBJECT INDEX. Absorption. Effect of NaCl on the spectral and kinetic properties of cresyl violet (CV)-sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) complex. 299. Acid catalysts. Temperature-programmed desorption of water and ammonia on sulphated zirconia catalysts for measuring their strong acidity and acidity distribution. 281.

  10. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2008) 29, 405–409. Author Index. Aggarwal Malini see Jain Rajmal, 125; X-ray Emission Characteristics of Flares. Associated with CMEs, 195. Alyana Radharani see Rathod Jatin, 293; see Reddy Chandrasekhar, A., 313. Ambastha Ashok Helioseismic Effects of Energetic Transients, 93; see Maurya.

  11. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    SUBJECT INDEX. Ab initio calculations. Basis set effects on energy and hardness profiles of the hydrogen fluoride dimer. 549. Activation by calcinations. Highly active and reusable catalyst from Fe-Mg- hydrotalcite anionic clay for Friedel–Crafts type benzyla- tion reactions. 635. Adsorption. Adsorption studies of iron(III) on ...

  12. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Index. Aggarwal Malini see Jain Rajmal, 155. Aghaee, A. Determination of the Mean Hi Absorption of the Intergalactic. Medium, 59. Agrawal, S. P. see Singh Ambika, 89. Biesiada Marek Could the Optical Transient SCP 06F6 be due to Micro- lensing?, 213. C¸ aliskan, S . see Küçük, ˙I., 135. Evans Lloyd, T. Carbon ...

  13. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Index. Ahmad Farooq see Iqbal Naseer, 373. Ali Syed Salman Study of a Large Helical Eruptive Prominence Associated with. Double CME on 21 April 2001, 347; see Uddin Wahab, 267. Ali, A. Chemistry of Carbon Rich Star IRAS 15194–5115, 399. Ambastha Ashok Photospheric, Chromospheric and Helioseismic ...

  14. Subject Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2006) 27, 469–472. Subject Index. Astrophysical Processes. Spatial Damping of Linear Compressional Magnetoacoustic Waves in Quiescent. Prominences (K. A. P. Singh), 321. Report on the Dynamical Evolution of an Axially Symmetric Quasar Model. (N. J. Papadopoulos & N. D. Caranicolas), 389.

  15. Index Fossils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stricted geologic time range, easily preservable, of short species duration and found in multiple environment. Index fossils are used by geologists and palaeontologists as significant aids to determine the correlation and age of rock sequences [2]. Geologists use both large fossils or 'macrofossils' and microscopic fossils or ...

  16. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Yan, X. L. see Deng, L. H., 221. Phase Relationship Between Sunspot Number, Flare Index and Solar Radio. Flux, 387. ZANINETTI, L. Revisiting the Cosmological Principle in a Cellular Framework, 399. ZHAO XIAN-FENG. Constraints on the Moment of Inertia of a Proto Neutron Star from the Hyperon Coupling Constants, ...

  17. Index Fossils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 10. Index Fossils - Evidences from Plant Sources. Dipanjan Ghosh. General Article ... Author Affiliations. Dipanjan Ghosh1. Biological Science Department Kirnahar Shib Chandra High School Kirnahar, Birbhum 731302, West Bengal, India.

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 168 of 168 ... Dzodzi Tsikata. Vol 21, No 1 (2005), Thou shalt not reveal thy secrets: the value of reticence in speech in Dagaaba Folklore, Abstract. Gervase T Angsotinge. Vol 19, No 1 (2003), To Change or Not to Change: Obstacles and Resistance to Sexual Behavioural Change among the Youth in Ghana in the ...

  19. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Hole, 311. FAGHEI KAZEM. Self-Similar Solutions for Viscous and Resistive Advection. Dominated Accretion Flows, 9. FAN DONG-Xin see Shi Fei, 213 ... Photoelectric Radial Velocities, Paper XX: 45 Years' Monitoring of the Radial. Velocities of the Redman K Stars, 245. JHA, A. K. S. see Aggarwal Sunny, 291. JIA, HUAN- ...

  20. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    structures and suppression problem in direct current resistivity sounding. 1065. Delineation of aquifers in basaltic hard rock terrain using vertical electrical soundings data. 29 ... Najafgarh drain of NCT Delhi. 43. Investigation of hyrogeochemical properties of the Hüdai. (Afyon-Sandıklı) geothermal systems, SW Turkey 1081.

  1. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    A direct inversion scheme for deep resistivity sound- ing data using artificial neural networks. 49. 40. Ar-. 39. Ar thermochronology. Tectono-thermal evolution of the India-Asia colli- sion zone based on. 40. Ar-. 39. Ar thermochronology in. Ladakh, India. 737. ANN. Artificial neural network approach for estima- tion of surface ...

  2. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Combustion of dilute propane. Low temperature complete combustion of dilute propane over Mn-doped ZrO2 (cubic) ..... Internal resistance. Monitoring sealed automotive lead-acid batte- ries by sparse-impedance spectroscopy 465. Ion beam sputtering. Ultra thin films of nanocrystalline Ge studied by AFM and interference ...

  3. Apolipoprotein E4, Gender, Body Mass Index, Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and Air Pollution Interactions: Recipe for Alzheimer's Disease Development in Mexico City Young Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; de la Monte, Suzanne M

    2017-01-01

    Given the epidemiological trends of increasing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and growing evidence that exposure and lifestyle factors contribute to AD risk and pathogenesis, attention should be paid to variables such as air pollution, in order to reduce rates of cognitive decline and dementia. Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above the US EPA standards is associated with AD risk. Mexico City children experienced pre- and postnatal high exposures to PM2.5, O3, combustion-derived iron-rich nanoparticles, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and endotoxins. Exposures are associated with early brain gene imbalance in oxidative stress, inflammation, innate and adaptive immune responses, along with epigenetic changes, accumulation of misfolded proteins, cognitive deficits, and brain structural and metabolic changes. The Apolipoprotein E (APOE) 4 allele, the most prevalent genetic risk for AD, plays a key role in the response to air pollution in young girls. APOE 4 heterozygous females with >75% to <94% BMI percentiles are at the highest risk of severe cognitive deficits (1.5-2 SD from average IQ). This review focused on the relationships between gender, BMI, systemic and neural inflammation, insulin resistance, hyperleptinemia, dyslipidemia, vascular risk factors, and central nervous system involvement in APOE4 urbanites exposed to PM2.5 and magnetite combustion-derived iron-rich nanoparticles that can reach the brain. APOE4 young female heterozygous carriers constitute a high-risk group for a fatal disease: AD. Multidisciplinary intervention strategies could be critical for prevention or amelioration of cognitive deficits and long-term AD progression in young individuals at high risk.

  4. Valuation analysis of renal Doppler ultrasound in pediatric patients at the Hospital Nacional de Ninos: resistance indices obtained in obstructive uropathy in children of 0 to 12 years from November to July, 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quijano Solis, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    The renal resistance index found in the pediatric population of 0 to 12 years with obstructive uropathy at the Hospital Nacional de Ninos has become known by analyzing resistance indices obtained through Doppler evaluation during the period November 2010 to July 2011. A relationship is established with the degree of dilatation of the collecting system. The renal resistance index determined by interrogation Doppler of intrarenal renal arteries. A comparison is performed by sex and age with severity of obstructive uropathy and respective resistance index, normal values of resistance index in renal and intrarenal arteries were obtained, in addition, a correlation was performed between the degree of severity of dilatation of the collecting system and resistance index in pediatric patients with obstructive uropathy [es

  5. Role for risk-scoring tools in identifying resistant pathogens in pneumonia: reassessing the value of healthcare-associated pneumonia as a concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorr, Andrew F; Zilberberg, Marya D

    2015-05-01

    Resistant organisms remain a concern in patients presenting to hospital with pneumonia. Although in this setting the prevalence of various organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa varies across the globe, patients infected with these pathogens are at increased risk for receiving an initially inappropriate antibiotic regimen - a major driver of mortality in all forms of pneumonia. The concept of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) was created to help clinicians identify persons at risk for infection with resistant pathogens, despite the onset of their infections occurring outside the hospital. However, it appears that HCAP, as currently defined, lacks adequate sensitivity and specificity for this purpose. Investigators have created various risk-scoring tools to stratify patients as to the likelihood that their infection is caused by a pathogen such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus or P. aeruginosa. These scores provide more precision at correctly segregating patients on the basis of the eventual recovery of resistant bacteria than does the HCAP syndrome. Most of these risk scores are easy to calculate and apply, and several have been externally validated. Physicians should consider adopting these tools in their approach to patients with pneumonia presenting to hospital.

  6. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some...... parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What...... is the value of value for morality and ethics?To make things a bit more precise, we can make use of the common distinction between ethics and morality, i.e. that morality is the immediate, collective and unconscious employment of morals, whereas ethics is the systematic, individual and conscious reflections...

  7. Ptolemaic indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Lie Hetland

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a new family of bounds for use in similarity search, related to those used in metric indexing, but based on Ptolemy's inequality, rather than the metric axioms. Ptolemy's inequality holds for the well-known Euclidean distance, but is also shown here to hold for quadratic form metrics in general, with Mahalanobis distance as an important special case. The inequality is examined empirically on both synthetic and real-world data sets and is also found to hold approximately, with a very low degree of error, for important distances such as the angular pseudometric and several Lp norms. Indexing experiments are performed on several data sets, demonstrating a highly increased filtering power when using certain forms of Ptolemaic filtering, compared to existing, triangular methods. It is also shown that combining the Ptolemaic and triangular filtering can lead to better results than using either approach on its own.

  8. Standardized uptake value for (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose is correlated with a high International Prognostic Index and the presence of extranodal involvement in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkas, B E; Vural, G U

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) correlates with the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and the presence of extranodal involvement in patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). 77 patients (age: 57.2±18.5, 40F, 37M) with DLBCL who underwent FDG PET/CT for initial staging were included. SUVmax of the predominant lesions were compared to Ann Arbor stage, IPI scores, the presence of extranodal involvement and the number extranodal sites. PET/CT detected nodal (n:25) and extranodal involvement (n:52) in all the patients. In 27 patients, extranodal disease could only be detected by PET. SUVmax of the predominant lesion in patients with extranodal disease was significantly higher than that of the patients who had only nodal disease (25±12 vs. 15.3±10 respectively, p=0.001). SUVmax significantly correlated with IPI scores; the average SUVmax was significantly correlated with the IPI: Mean SUVmax of the predominant lesion was 13.9±9.5 in patients with low risk (IPI=0-1), 14.2±8.8 in low-intermediate risk group (IPI=2) whereas 26.6±9.5 in high-intermediate risk group (IPI=3) and 25±13.6 in high risk group patients (IPI=4-5) (p=0.002). SUVmax was not correlated with clinical stage, the number of extranodal sites and serum LDH levels. FDG uptake correlates with IPI and the presence of extranodal involvement in DLBCL. PET is a powerful method to detect extranodal disease in DLBCL. The correlation of SUVmax with these prognostic factors may highlight the importance of pretreatment FDG uptake as a metabolic marker of poor prognosis for patients with DLBCL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictive Value of Beat-to-Beat QT Variability Index across the Continuum of Left Ventricular Dysfunction: Competing Risks of Non-cardiac or Cardiovascular Death, and Sudden or Non-Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, Larisa G.; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; McNitt, Scott; Vazquez, Rafael; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Han, Lichy; Sur, Sanjoli; Couderc, Jean-Philippe; Berger, Ronald D.; de Luna, Antoni Bayes; Zareba, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to determine the predictive value of beat-to-beat QT variability in heart failure (HF) patients across the continuum of left ventricular dysfunction. Methods and Results Beat-to-beat QT variability index (QTVI), heart rate variance (LogHRV), normalized QT variance (QTVN), and coherence between heart rate variability and QT variability have been measured at rest during sinus rhythm in 533 participants of the Muerte Subita en Insuficiencia Cardiaca (MUSIC) HF study (mean age 63.1±11.7; males 70.6%; LVEF >35% in 254 [48%]) and in 181 healthy participants from the Intercity Digital Electrocardiogram Alliance (IDEAL) database. During a median of 3.7 years of follow-up, 116 patients died, 52 from sudden cardiac death (SCD). In multivariate competing risk analyses, the highest QTVI quartile was associated with cardiovascular death [hazard ratio (HR) 1.67(95%CI 1.14-2.47), P=0.009] and in particular with non-sudden cardiac death [HR 2.91(1.69-5.01), P<0.001]. Elevated QTVI separated 97.5% of healthy individuals from subjects at risk for cardiovascular [HR 1.57(1.04-2.35), P=0.031], and non-sudden cardiac death in multivariate competing risk model [HR 2.58(1.13-3.78), P=0.001]. No interaction between QTVI and LVEF was found. QTVI predicted neither non-cardiac death (P=0.546) nor SCD (P=0.945). Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) rather than increased QT variability was the reason for increased QTVI in this study. Conclusions Increased QTVI due to depressed HRV predicts cardiovascular mortality and non-sudden cardiac death, but neither SCD nor excracardiac mortality in HF across the continuum of left ventricular dysfunction. Abnormally augmented QTVI separates 97.5% of healthy individuals from HF patients at risk. PMID:22730411

  10. Predictive Value of Prior Colonization and Antibiotic Use for Third-Generation Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Bacteremia in Patients With Sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottier, Wouter C.; Bamberg, Yara R. P.; Dorigo-Zetsma, J. Wendelien; van der Linden, Paul D.; Ammerlaan, Heidi S. M.; Bonten, Marc J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. To prevent inappropriate empiric antibiotic treatment in patients with bacteremia caused by third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GC-R EB), Dutch guidelines recommend beta-lactam and aminoglycoside combination therapy or carbapenem monotherapy in patients

  11. Genomic selection models double the accuracy of predicted breeding values for bacterial cold water disease resistance compared to a traditional pedigree-based model in rainbow trout aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously we have shown that bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) resistance in rainbow trout can be improved using traditional family-based selection, but progress has been limited to exploiting only between-family genetic variation. Genomic selection (GS) is a new alternative enabling exploitation...

  12. Low prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at hospital admission in the Netherlands: the value of search and destroy and restrictive antibiotic use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, H. F. L.; Vos, M. C.; Boelens, H. A. M.; Voss, A.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.; Meester, M. H. M.; Kluytmans, J. A. J. W.; van Keulen, P. H. J.; Verbrugh, H. A.

    2004-01-01

    In the Netherlands, less than 1% of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus are methicillin-resistant (MRSA). A national search and destroy policy prevents MRSA from becoming endemic. Some MRSA outbreaks cannot be related to patients at risk for MRSA carriage. This study was designed to measure

  13. Low prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at hospital admission in the Netherlands: the value of search and destroy and restrictive antibiotic use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, HF; Vos, MC; Boelens, HA; Voss, A; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.; Meester, MH; Kluytmans, J.A.; Keulen, van PH; Verbrugh, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    In the Netherlands, less than 1% of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus are methicillin-resistant (MRSA). A national search and destroy policy prevents MRSA from becoming endemic. Some MRSA outbreaks cannot be related to patients at risk for MRSA carriage. This study was designed to measure

  14. Genome-enabled selection doubles the accuracy of predicted breeding values for bacterial cold water disease resistance compared to traditional family-based selection in rainbow trout aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have shown previously that bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) resistance in rainbow trout can be improved using traditional family-based selection, but progress has been limited to exploiting only between-family genetic variation. Genomic selection (GS) is a new alternative enabling exploitation...

  15. Value of tissue Doppler-derived Tei index and two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging derived longitudinal strain on predicting outcome of patients with light-chain cardiac amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Herrmann, Sebastian; Cikes, Maja; Ertl, Georg; Weidemann, Frank; Störk, Stefan; Nordbeck, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Prognosis of patients with light-chain cardiac amyloidosis (AL-CA) is poor. Speckle tracking imaging (STI) derived longitudinal deformation parameters and Doppler-derived left ventricular (LV) Tei index are valuable predictors of outcome in patients with AL-CA. We estimated the prognostic utility of Tei index and deformation parameters in 58 comprehensively phenotyped patients with AL-CA after a median follow-up of 365 days (quartiles 121, 365 days). The primary end point was all-cause mortality. 19 (33%) patients died during follow-up. Tei index (0.89 ± 0.29 vs. 0.61 ± 0.16, p < 0.001) and E to global early diastolic strain rate ratio (E/GLSR dias ) were higher while global longitudinal systolic strain (GLS sys ) was lower in non-survivors than in survivors (all p < 0.05). Tei index, NYHA functional class, GLS sys and E/GLSR dias were independent predictors of all-cause mortality risk, and Tei index ≥0.9 (HR 7.01, 95% CI 2.43-20.21, p < 0.001) was the best predictor of poor outcome. Combining Tei index and GLS sys yielded the best results on predicting death within 1 year (100% with Tei index ≥0.9 and GLS sys ≤13%) or survival (95% with Tei index ≤0.9 and GLS sys ≥13%). We conclude that 1-year mortality risk in AL-CA patients can be reliably predicted using Tei index or deformation parameters, with combined analysis offering best performance.

  16. Improving the efficiency of copper indium gallium (Di-selenide (CIGS solar cells through integration of a moth-eye textured resist with a refractive index similar to aluminum doped zinc oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burghoorn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Textured transparent conductors are widely used in thin-film silicon solar cells. They lower the reflectivity at interfaces between different layers in the cell and/or cause an increase in the path length of photons in the Si absorber layer, which both result in an increase in the number of absorbed photons and, consequently, an increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc and cell efficiency. Through optical simulations, we recently obtained strong indications that texturing of the transparent conductor in copper indium gallium (di-selenide (CIGS solar cells is also optically advantageous. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that the Jsc and efficiency of CIGS solar cells with an absorber layer thickness (dCIGS of 0.85 μm, 1.00 μm and 2.00 μm increase through application of a moth-eye textured resist with a refractive index that is sufficiently similar to AZO (nresist = 1.792 vs. nAZO = 1.913 at 633 nm to avoid large optical losses at the resist-AZO interface. On average, Jsc increases by 7.2%, which matches the average reduction in reflection of 7.0%. The average relative increase in efficiency is slightly lower (6.0%. No trend towards a larger relative increase in Jsc with decreasing dCIGS was observed. Ergo, the increase in Jsc can be fully explained by the reduction in reflection, and we did not observe any increase in Jsc based on an increased photon path length.

  17. A modified DOI-based method to statistically estimate the depth of investigation of dc resistivity surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deceuster, John; Etienne, Adélaïde; Robert, Tanguy; Nguyen, Frédéric; Kaufmann, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    Several techniques are available to estimate the depth of investigation or to identify possible artifacts in dc resistivity surveys. Commonly, the depth of investigation (DOI) is mainly estimated by using an arbitrarily chosen cut-off value on a selected indicator (resolution, sensitivity or DOI index). Ranges of cut-off values are recommended in the literature for the different indicators. However, small changes in threshold values may induce strong variations in the estimated depths of investigation. To overcome this problem, we developed a new statistical method to estimate the DOI of dc resistivity surveys based on a modified DOI index approach. This method is composed of 5 successive steps. First, two inversions are performed by using different resistivity reference models for the inversion (0.1 and 10 times the arithmetic mean of the logarithm of the observed apparent resistivity values). Inversion models are extended to the edges of the survey line and to a depth range of three times the pseudodepth of investigation of the largest array spacing used. In step 2, we compute the histogram of a newly defined scaled DOI index. Step 3 consists of the fitting of the mixture of two Gaussian distributions (G1 and G2) to the cumulative distribution function of the scaled DOI index values. Based on this fitting, step 4 focuses on the computation of an interpretation index (II) defined for every cell j of the model as the relative probability density that the cell j belongs to G1, which describes the Gaussian distribution of the cells with a scaled DOI index close to 0.0. In step 5, a new inversion is performed by using a third resistivity reference model (the arithmetic mean of the logarithm of the observed apparent resistivity values). The final electrical resistivity image is produced by using II as alpha blending values allowing the visual discrimination between well-constrained areas and poorly-constrained cells.

  18. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Oliva Gobato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents and its relationship with different body composition indicators. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 79 adolescents aged ten to 18 years old. The assessed body composition indicators were: body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, and subcutaneous fat. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Cook et al. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR index for values above 3.16. The analysis of ROC curves was used to assess the BMI and the abdominal circumference, aiming to identify the subjects with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The cutoff point corresponded to the percentage above the reference value used to diagnose obesity. Results: The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 45.5% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29.1%. Insulin resistance showed association with HDL-cholesterol (p=0.032 and with metabolic syndrome (p=0.006. All body composition indicators were correlated with insulin resistance (p<0.01. In relation to the cutoff point evaluation, the values of 23.5 and 36.3% above the BMI reference point allowed the identification of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The best cutoff point for abdominal circumference to identify insulin resistance was 40%. Conclusions: All body composition indicators, HDL-cholesterol and metabolic syndrome showed correlation with insulin resistance. The BMI was the most effective anthropometric indicator to identify insulin resistance.

  19. Predictive value of the ankle-brachial index in the evaluation of intermittent claudication Valor preditivo do índice tornozelo-braço na evolução de pacientes com claudicação intermitente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wolosker

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ankle-brachial index (ABI could be used to predict the prognosis for a patient with intermittent claudication (IC. We studied 611 patients prospectively during 28 months of follow-up. We analyzed the predictive power of using various levels of ABI - 0.30 to 0.70 at 0.05 increments - in terms of the measure's specificity (association with a favorable outcome after exercise rehabilitation therapy and sensitivity (association with a poor outcome after exercise rehabilitation therapy. We found that using an ABI of 0.30 as a cut-off value produced the lowest margin of error overall, but the predictive power was still low with respect to identifying the patients with a poor prognosis after non-aggressive therapeutic treatment. Further study is needed to perhaps identify a second factor that could increase the sensitivity of the test.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a evolução da distância de marcha de pacientes com claudicação intermitente relacionando com o índice tornozelo-braço (ITB e o valor deste índice como fator preditivo para o prognóstico desses pacientes. Observou-se prospectivamente a evolução de 611 pacientes durante 28 meses. Analisamos o valor preditivo do ITB inicial usando vários valores de corte - 0.30 a 0.70 em incrementos de 0.05 - em relação à especificidade (associação com uma evolução favorável após tratamento clínico e sensibilidade (associação com uma evolução desfavorável após tratamento clínico. Encontramos o ITB de 0.30 como o valor de corte produzindo a menor margem de erro, mas seu valor preditivo ainda foi baixo para identificar os pacientes com mau prognóstico para o tratamento não invasivo. Estudos adicionais são necessários para se identificar um fator adicional que possa aumentar a sensibilidade do teste.

  20. Bronchial histamine challenge in the diagnosis of asthma. The predictive value of changes in airway resistance determined by the interrupter method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, F; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Frølund, L

    1986-01-01

    The predictive value of a bronchial challenge with histamine was determined in a prospective survey on a population with a high prevalence of asthma (0.62). Without knowledge of the bronchial responsiveness 133 patients were classified as asthmatics (83) or non-asthmatics (50) according....../ml the predictive value of a negative test in the diagnosis of asthma was increased to 0.81. The interrupter technique is suitable for diagnostic purposes in the detection and exclusion of bronchial asthma....

  1. How can we predict ureteral obstruction after gynecological surgery? The changes in Doppler resistive index and plasma creatinine and magnesium concentrations after surgical, unilateral ureteral obstruction in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terek, M C; Tamsel, S; Aygul, S; Akman, L; Irer, S V; Itil, I M; Alper, G

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in Doppler resistive index (RI) and plasma creatinine and magnesium concentrations after unilateral ureteral obstruction in a rabbit model. Fourteen adult female rabbits were used in this study. In seven rabbits, the left ureter was ligated with silk suture, and the control group was sham operated. Before surgery and on the second and seventh days after surgery, blood samples were obtained to measure plasma creatinine and magnesium concentrations. Doppler RIs of both kidneys were also measured before surgery and on the second and seventh days after the surgical procedure. With regard to magnesium levels, there was a significant within-subjects sessions difference [F(2, 20) = 15.21, P= 0.001] indicating a decrease through sessions. Magnesium concentrations decreased significantly at the postoperative second and seventh days compared to preoperative baseline levels (P= 0.003 and P= 0.001, respectively). Multifactorial analysis of variance was applied for each session separately with laterality, and groups as factors. The Doppler RI and the creatinine level did not show any significant differences or interactions for all sessions (P > 0.05). The decreasing plasma magnesium concentration after surgery may indicate ureteral injury; however, Doppler studies and creatinine levels may not be useful as well.

  2. Resistência à mudança organizacional: perspectiva valorativa e organizacional = Resistance to organizational change: values and organizational perspective = Resistencia al cambio organizacional: perspectiva valorativos y organizacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freires, Dayse Ayres do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou conhecer os correlatos valorativos e organizacionais da resistência à mudança organizacional, propondo um modelo explicativo que considera o desempenho autopercebido como variável critério. Considerou-se uma amostra de conveniência de 227 funcionários de uma empresa pública de João Pessoa, que tinham idade média de 40 anos, a maioria do sexo masculino (83,3%. Estes responderam a Escala de Resistência à Mudança Organizacional, Escala de Clima Organizacional, Questionários dos Valores Básicos, Escala de Autoavaliação de Desempenho e perguntas demográficas. Os resultados indicaram que os valores idealistas e o clima organizacional explicaram a resistência à mudança organizacional, que predisse o desempenho autopercebido. Concluiu-se que este modelo pode ser útil para compreender a aceitação das mudanças no contexto organizacional, favorecendo práticas de gestão que considerem variáveis psicológicas e organizacionais dos trabalhadores

  3. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency and the regu......As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency...... and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some...... parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What...

  4. Insulin Resistance Distribution and Cut-Off Value in Koreans from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Kyung-Jin; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Park, Yong-Moon; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Song, Ki-Ho; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to identify the distribution and cut-off value of the ‘homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance’ (HOMA-IR) according to gender and menopausal status for metabolic syndrome in Koreans. Methods Data were from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2010. The subjects included adults aged 20 years or older. We excluded participants who had diabetes or fasting serum glucose ≥ 7 mmol/L. Finally, 11,121 subjects (4,911 men, 3,597 premenopausal women, 2,613 postmenopausal women) were enrolled. The modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome. Results The mean HOMA-IR was 2.11 (2.07–2.15) for men, 2.0 (1.97–2.04) for premenopausal women, and 2.14 (2.2–2.19) for postmenopausal women. The first cut-off values in men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women were 2.23 (sensitivity 70.6%, specificity 66.9%), 2.39 (sensitivity 72.3%, specificity 76.4%), and 2.48 (sensitivity 51.9%, specificity 80.2%), respectively. Based on the first HOMA-IR cut-off value, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.9% in men, 13.7% in premenopausal women, and 51.6% in postmenopausal women. The second cut-off value was around 3.2 in all three groups. Based on the second HOMA-IR cut-off value, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 50.8% in men, 42.5% in premenopausal women, and 71.6% in postmenopausal women. Conclusion In conclusion, the first cut-off values for HOMA-IR were 2.2–2.5 and the second cut-off value was 3.2 in Korea. The distribution of HOMA-IR showed differences according to gender and menopausal status. When we apply HOMA-IR, we should consider gender, menopausal status, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:27128847

  5. Multiple negative differential resistance devices with ultra-high peak-to-valley current ratio for practical multi-valued logic and memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunhae; Rok Kim, Kyung

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel multiple negative differential resistance (NDR) device with ultra-high peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) over 106 by combining tunnel diode with a conventional MOSFET, which suppresses the valley current with transistor off-leakage level. Band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) in tunnel junction provides the first peak, and the second peak and valley are generated from the suppression of diffusion current in tunnel diode by the off-state MOSFET. The multiple NDR curves can be controlled by doping concentration of tunnel junction and the threshold voltage of MOSFET. By using complementary multiple NDR devices, five-state memory is demonstrated only with six transistors.

  6. Predicting fiber refractive index from a measured preform index profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiveri, P.; Koponen, J.; Harra, J.; Novotny, S.; Husu, H.; Ihalainen, H.; Kokki, T.; Aallos, V.; Kimmelma, O.; Paul, J.

    2018-02-01

    When producing fiber lasers and amplifiers, silica glass compositions consisting of three to six different materials are needed. Due to the varying needs of different applications, substantial number of different glass compositions are used in the active fiber structures. Often it is not possible to find material parameters for theoretical models to estimate thermal and mechanical properties of those glass compositions. This makes it challenging to predict accurately fiber core refractive index values, even if the preform index profile is measured. Usually the desired fiber refractive index value is achieved experimentally, which is expensive. To overcome this problem, we analyzed statistically the changes between the measured preform and fiber index values. We searched for correlations that would help to predict the Δn-value change from preform to fiber in a situation where we don't know the values of the glass material parameters that define the change. Our index change models were built using the data collected from preforms and fibers made by the Direct Nanoparticle Deposition (DND) technology.

  7. The Prognostic Value of International Prognostic Index and MIB-l Immunostaining of Peripheral Lymphoid Tissues and Bone Marrow in Patients with High-Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assem, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Cell kinetic data are important indicator of the aggressiveness of tumour and clinical response. The Ki-67 antigen plays a pivotal role in maintaining cell proliferation and the expression of this antigen was found to be a valuable indicator for aggressive disease in a variety of neoplastic disorders. Aim of the study: This study aimed to assess the prognostic significance of the expression of Ki-67 antigen in peripheral lymphoid tissues and bone marrow, using the monoclonal antibody MIB-l that is applicable in formaline-fixed paraffin embedded samples in cases with high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Material and methods: The MIB-I immunostaining was performed on 96 samples from 48 patients with high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The study was performed on tissue sections, nodal or extra nodal, as well as on BM smears or BM paraffin embedded sections of same patients. Ki-67 index was determined using image analyzer. Results: Forty-five out of the studied 48 cases (93.8%) were positive with a median labelling index of 20.425% (Range, 0-58%). We were able to detect bone marrow involvement by detecting MIB-l positive cells in BM samples of 29 patients who were not morphologically diagnosed to have BM infiltration. There was a strong correlation between BM positivity for Ki-67 and Ki-67 labelling index (p < 0.001). Twenty-eight (58.3%) out of the studied 48 cases achieved complete remission (CR). The median duration of CR was 35 months (range, 8-42 months) and the overall survival at 48 months was 35.4% (median 22 months, 95% CI, 13-31 months). The median Ki-67 index (20.425%) was chosen as a cut-off level for statistical analysis of the variables that influence clinical outcome. The probability of inducing CR was associated with low and low intermediate International Prognostic Index (IPI) whereas a low growth fraction was associated, although not significant, with a trend toward a higher probability of inducing a CR. In univariate analysis, high MIB1 labelling

  8. Lipid-anthropometric index optimization for insulin sensitivity estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, J.; Wong, S.; Encalada, L.; Herrera, H.; Severeyn, E.

    2015-12-01

    Insulin sensitivity (IS) is the ability of cells to react due to insulińs presence; when this ability is diminished, low insulin sensitivity or insulin resistance (IR) is considered. IR had been related to other metabolic disorders as metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity, dyslipidemia and diabetes. IS can be determined using direct or indirect methods. The indirect methods are less accurate and invasive than direct and they use glucose and insulin values from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The accuracy is established by comparison using spearman rank correlation coefficient between direct and indirect method. This paper aims to propose a lipid-anthropometric index which offers acceptable correlation to insulin sensitivity index for different populations (DB1=MS subjects, DB2=sedentary without MS subjects and DB3=marathoners subjects) without to use OGTT glucose and insulin values. The proposed method is parametrically optimized through a random cross-validation, using the spearman rank correlation as comparator with CAUMO method. CAUMO is an indirect method designed from a simplification of the minimal model intravenous glucose tolerance test direct method (MINMOD-IGTT) and with acceptable correlation (0.89). The results show that the proposed optimized method got a better correlation with CAUMO in all populations compared to non-optimized. On the other hand, it was observed that the optimized method has better correlation with CAUMO in DB2 and DB3 groups than HOMA-IR method, which is the most widely used for diagnosing insulin resistance. The optimized propose method could detect incipient insulin resistance, when classify as insulin resistant subjects that present impaired postprandial insulin and glucose values.

  9. Genetic variance and breeding values for resistance to a wind-borne disease [Sphaerotheca macularis (Wallr. ex Fr.)] in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) estimated by exploring mixed and spatial models and pedigree information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davik, Jahn; Honne, Bjørn Ivar

    2005-07-01

    A mixed model approach was used to estimate variance components and heritabilities for resistance to powdery mildew, a wind-borne disease in strawberry. In order to improve precision in the statistical computations, spatial error control effects were included to account for systematic environmental variations in the large field trials. Pedigree information was included where feasible. Seedling families obtained from an incomplete 63-by-63 diallel cross were grown at six locations and scored subjectively for mildew attack three times during the growing season. The 63 parents included both European and American cultivars as well as advanced selections from various breeding programmes. A total of 298 full-sib families were realized, including 26 reciprocal families. No reciprocal differences were found. On a plot-mean basis, the broad-sense heritability was found to be intermediate, H(2) = 0.44-0.50, depending on whether the pedigree information was included in the model or not. The increase was mainly due to a substantial increase in the additive variance component. Likewise, the narrow-sense heritability increased from h(2) = 0.39 to h(2) = 0.45 when the pedigree information was included, while the ratio of the specific combining ability variance to the general combining ability variance fell from 13% to 10%. The predicted breeding values of the 63 parents demonstrate that important cultivars such as Elsanta and Korona are unlikely to produce progenies with a high degree of resistance. On the other hand, the Norwegian cultivar Solprins, the Canadian cultivar Kent and the Italian cultivar Patty appeared to give highly resistant progeny. At the full-sib level, the estimated disease scores ranged from 1.15 (Kent x Induka) to 4.19 (Cavendish x Avanta), revealing a huge range of variation for powdery mildew resistance available for selection.

  10. Insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romualdo, Monica Cristina dos Santos; Nóbrega, Fernando José de; Escrivão, Maria Arlete Meil Schimith

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the presence of insulin resistance and its association with other metabolic abnormalities in obese children and adolescents. Retrospective study of 220 children and adolescents aged 5-14 years. Anthropometric measurements were performed (weight, height, and waist circumference) and clinical (gender, age, pubertal stage, and degree of obesity) and biochemical (glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, and fractions, triglycerides) data were analyzed. Insulin resistance was identified by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. The analysis of the differences between the variables of interest and the HOMA-IR quartiles was performed by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests. Insulin resistance was diagnosed in 33.20% of the sample. It was associated with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; p=0.044), waist circumference measurement (p=0.030), and the set of clinical and metabolic (p=0.000) alterations. Insulin-resistant individuals had higher mean age (p=0.000), body mass index (BMI; p=0.000), abdominal circumference (p=0.000), median triglycerides (p=0.001), total cholesterol (p≤0.042), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; p≤0.027); and lower HDL-C levels (p=0.005). There was an increase in mean BMI (p=0.000), abdominal circumference (p=0.000), and median triglycerides (p=0.002) as the values of HOMA -IR increased, with the exception of HDL-C, which decreased (p=0.001). Those with the highest number of simultaneous alterations were between the second and third quartiles of the HOMA-IR index (p=0.000). The results confirmed that insulin resistance is present in many obese children and adolescents, and that this condition is associated with alterations that represent an increased risk for developing metabolic disorders in adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Carbon ions of different linear energy transfer (LET) values induce apoptosis & G2 cell cycle arrest in radio-resistant melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelena, Žakula; Lela, Korićanac; Otilija, Keta; Danijela, Todorović; Cirrone Giuseppe, A P; Francesco, Romano; Giacomo, Cuttone; Ivan, Petrović; Aleksandra, Ristić-Fira

    2016-05-01

    The main goal when treating malignancies with radiation is to deprive tumour cells of their reproductive potential. One approach is to induce tumour cell apoptosis. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of carbon ions ( [12] C) to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human HTB140 melanoma cells. In this in vitro study, human melanoma HTB140 cells were irradiated with the 62 MeV/n carbon ( [12] C) ion beam, having two different linear energy transfer (LET) values: 197 and 382 keV/μm. The dose range was 2 to 16 Gy. Cell viability was estimated by the sulforhodamine B assay seven days after irradiation. The cell cycle and apoptosis were evaluated 48 h after irradiation using flow cytometry. At the same time point, protein and gene expression of apoptotic regulators were estimated using the Western blot and q-PCR methods, respectively. Cell viability experiments indicated strong anti-tumour effects of [12] C ions. The analysis of cell cycle showed that [12] C ions blocked HTB140 cells in G2 phase and induced the dose dependent increase of apoptosis. The maximum value of 21.8 per cent was attained after irradiation with LET of 197 keV/μm at the dose level of 16 Gy. Pro-apoptotic effects of [12] C ions were confirmed by changes of key apoptotic molecules: the p53, Bax, Bcl-2, poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) as well as nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB). At the level of protein expression, the results indicated significant increases of p53, NFκB and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and PARP cleavage. The Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA ratio was also increased, while no change was detected in the level of NFκB mRNA. The present results indicated that anti-tumour effects of [12] C ions in human melanoma HTB140 cells were accomplished through induction of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway as well as G2 arrest.

  12. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest...

  13. Resistive Threshold Logic

    OpenAIRE

    James, A. P.; Francis, L. R. V. J.; Kumar, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report a resistance based threshold logic family useful for mimicking brain like large variable logic functions in VLSI. A universal Boolean logic cell based on an analog resistive divider and threshold logic circuit is presented. The resistive divider is implemented using memristors and provides output voltage as a summation of weighted product of input voltages. The output of resistive divider is converted into a binary value by a threshold operation implemented by CMOS inverter and/or O...

  14. Limiar do índice homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) para resistência à insulina numa população de doentes admitidos electivamente numa enfermaria portuguesa de cardiologia

    OpenAIRE

    Timóteo, Ana Teresa; Miranda, Fernando; Carmo, Miguel Mota; Ferreira, Rui Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Insulin resistance is the pathophysiological key to explain metabolic syndrome. Although clearly useful, the Homeostasis Model Assessment index (an insulin resistance measurement) hasn't been systematically applied in clinical practice. One of the main reasons is the discrepancy in cut-off values reported in different populations. We sought to evaluate in a Portuguese population the ideal cut-off for Homeostasis Model Assessment index and assess its relationship with metabolic s...

  15. Resistivity and phase in localized BIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, C. A.; Aaron, R.; Amoss, V.; Therrien, J.; Coomler, K.

    1999-10-01

    We describe a system for highly reproducible non-invasive rf impedance measurements as a function of position along body segments such as the thigh. Results are reported for mainly healthy male and female subjects ranging in age from 19 to 65 and in body-mass index from 15 to 40. A principal conclusion is that the phase of the impedance falls monotonically with increasing distance from the knee, with average values substantially above what is found using standard, whole-body bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). To compensate for thigh shape, the data are further analysed using an anatomical model based on reasonable approximations for the distributions of muscle, fat and bone, yielding values of the effective resistivity for current flow parallel to the muscle fibres. The phase and resistivity results are discussed with reference to the whole-body BIA study of maintenance haemodialysis patients by Chertow et al, and in regard to possible physiological correlations observed in this work.

  16. Resistance Potential of Bread Wheat Genotypes Against Yellow Rust Disease Under Egyptian Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer F. Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yellow rust (stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat in Egypt and worldwide. In order to identify wheat genotypes resistant to yellow rust and develop molecular markers associated with the resistance, fifty F₈ recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible bread wheat landraces were obtained. Artificial infection of Puccinia striiformis was performed under greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons and relative resistance index (RRI was calculated. Two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars i.e. Giza-168 (resistant and Sakha-69 (susceptible were also evaluated. RRI values of two-year trial showed that 10 RILs responded with RRI value >6 2 <6. However, only 7 RILs showed RRI value <2. Five RILs expressed hypersensitive type of resistance (R against the pathogen and showed the lowest Average Coefficient of Infection (ACI. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA with eight simple sequence repeat (SSR, eight sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP and sixteen random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers revealed that three SSR, three SRAP and six RAPD markers were found to be associated with the resistance to yellow rust. However, further molecular analyses would be performed to confirm markers associated with the resistance and suitable for marker-assisted selection. Resistant RILs identified in the study could be efficiently used to improve the resistance to yellow rust in wheat.

  17. External validation of the fatty liver index and lipid accumulation product indices, using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, to identify hepatic steatosis in healthy controls and obese, insulin-resistant individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Weickert, Martin O; Lythgoe, Daniel; Sprung, Victoria S; Dobson, Rebecca; Shoajee-Moradie, Fariba; Umpleby, Margot; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Thomas, E Louise; Bell, Jimmy D; Jones, Helen; Kemp, Graham J

    2014-11-01

    Simple clinical algorithms including the fatty liver index (FLI) and lipid accumulation product (LAP) have been developed as surrogate markers for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), constructed using (semi-quantitative) ultrasonography. This study aimed to validate FLI and LAP as measures of hepatic steatosis, as determined quantitatively by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Data were collected from 168 patients with NAFLD and 168 controls who had undergone clinical, biochemical and anthropometric assessment. Values of FLI and LAP were determined and assessed both as predictors of the presence of hepatic steatosis (liver fat>5.5%) and of actual liver fat content, as measured by 1H-MRS. The discriminative ability of FLI and LAP was estimated using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC). As FLI can also be interpreted as a predictive probability of hepatic steatosis, we assessed how well calibrated it was in our cohort. Linear regression with prediction intervals was used to assess the ability of FLI and LAP to predict liver fat content. Further validation was provided in 54 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. FLI, LAP and alanine transferase discriminated between patients with and without steatosis with an AUROC of 0.79 (IQR=0.74, 0.84), 0.78 (IQR=0.72, 0.83) and 0.83 (IQR=0.79, 0.88) respectively although could not quantitatively predict liver fat. Additionally, the algorithms accurately matched the observed percentages of patients with hepatic steatosis in our cohort. FLI and LAP may be used to identify patients with hepatic steatosis clinically or for research purposes but could not predict liver fat content. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  18. Prognostic value of DNA cytometry in 281 premenopausal patients with lymph node negative breast carcinoma randomized in a control trial: multivariate analysis with Ki-67 index, mitotic count, and microvessel density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandard, A. M.; Denoux, Y.; Herlin, P.; Duigou, F.; van de Vijver, M. J.; Clahsen, P. C.; van den Broek, L.; Sahmoud, T. M.; Henry-Amar, M.; van de Velde, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical relevance of DNA image cytometry (ICM) and flow cytometry (FCM) remains under investigation in breast carcinoma. The objective of the current work was to study the prognostic value of DNA ICM and FCM in a series of patients randomized in a control trial. A multivariate

  19. The Process of Creation of Value Shareholder compared in each Level Segmented on the Bovespa Corporate Governance: A Study with the Companies comprising the Index Stock Portfolio Brazil (Ibrx 100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Moura Lamounier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was of to measure and to analyze the creation of value for the shareholder through comparisons among each level of corporate governance segmented in BOVESPA, accomplishing an empiric study with interest of proving the existence of different averages regarding the one of creation of value in the different segments. The research was guided through a descriptive analysis which makes possible to establish relationships among the analyzed variables and to lift hypotheses or possibilities to explain those relationships. The found results didn't demonstrate statistical evidences that the level of corporate governance, in that certain company is inserted at the market, brings differentiation in the process of creation of value for the shareholders. The found conclusions thwarted the null hypothesis of this study, which mentioned that in agreement with the level of classification of the companies there would be a differentiation in the creation of value for the shareholder. It is pointed out that that conclusion not to be generalized by the fact that the sample used to obtain her, in spite of being representative, it was obtained in a limited temporary space, existing the possibility that increasing the space of time here the conclusions presented they can suffer alterations. For future researches it is suggested that this study is accomplished with a larger sample of companies, and with given quarterly with the intention of explaining the studied variables better.

  20. The predictive value of ERG protein expression for development of castration-resistant prostate cancer in hormone-naïve advanced prostate cancer treated with primary androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Røder, Martin A; Thomsen, Frederik B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biomarkers predicting response to primary androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and risk of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is lacking. We aimed to analyse the predictive value of ERG expression for development of CRPC. METHODS: In total, 194 patients with advanced and....../or metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) treated with first-line castration-based ADT were included. ERG protein expression was analysed in diagnostic specimens using immunohistochemistry (anti-ERG, EPR3864). Time to CRPC was compared between ERG subgroups using multiple cause-specific Cox regression stratified...... on ERG-status. Risk reclassification and time-dependent area under the ROC curves were used to assess the discriminative ability of ERG-status. Time to PSA-nadir, proportion achieving PSA-nadir ≤0.2 ng/ml, and risk of PCa-specific death were secondary endpoints. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 6.8 years...

  1. Correlating data from different sensors to increase the positive predictive value of alarms: an empiric assessment [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/RKkXdB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Bitan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Alarm fatigue from high false alarm rate is a well described phenomenon in the intensive care unit (ICU. Progress to further reduce false alarms must employ a new strategy. Highly sensitive alarms invariably have a very high false alarm rate. Clinically useful alarms have a high Positive-Predictive Value. Our goal is to demonstrate one approach to suppressing false alarms using an algorithm that correlates information across sensors and replicates the ways that human evaluators discriminate artifact from real signal. Methods: After obtaining IRB approval and waiver of informed consent, a set of definitions, (hypovolemia, left ventricular shock, tamponade, hemodynamically significant ventricular tachycardia, and hemodynamically significant supraventricular tachycardia, were installed in the monitors in a 10 bed cardiothoracic ICU and evaluated over an 85 day study period. The logic of the algorithms was intended to replicate the logic of practitioners, and correlated information across sensors in a way similar to that used by practitioners. The performance of the alarms was evaluated via a daily interview with the ICU attending and review of the tracings recorded over the previous 24 hours in the monitor. True alarms and false alarms were identified by an expert clinician, and the performance of the algorithms evaluated using the standard definitions of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Results: Between 1 and 221 instances of defined events occurred over the duration of the study, and the positive predictive value of the definitions varied between 4.1% and 84%. Conclusions: Correlation of information across alarms can suppress artifact, increase the positive predictive value of alarms, and can employ more sophisticated definitions of alarm events than present single-sensor based systems.

  2. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in retail chicken: comparing conventional, organic, kosher, and raised without antibiotics [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1pu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M Millman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Retail poultry products are known sources of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli, a major human health concern. Consumers have a range of choices for poultry, including conventional, organic, kosher, and raised without antibiotics (RWA – designations that are perceived to indicate differences in quality and safety. However, whether these categories vary in the frequency of contamination with antibiotic-resistant E. coli is unknown. We examined the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli on raw chicken marketed as conventional, organic, kosher and RWA. From April – June 2012, we purchased 213 samples of raw chicken from 15 locations in the New York City metropolitan area. We screened E. coli isolates from each sample for resistance to 12 common antibiotics. Although the organic and RWA labels restrict the use of antibiotics, the frequency of antibiotic-resistant E. coli tended to be only slightly lower for RWA, and organic chicken was statistically indistinguishable from conventional products that have no restrictions. Kosher chicken had the highest frequency of antibiotic-resistant E. coli, nearly twice that of conventional products, a result that belies the historical roots of kosher as a means to ensure food safety. These results indicate that production methods influence the frequency of antibiotic-resistant E. coli on poultry products available to consumers. Future research to identify the specific practices that cause the high frequency of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in kosher chicken could promote efforts to reduce consumer exposure to this potential pathogen.

  3. EJSCREEN Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  4. EJSCREEN Indexes 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA); Staph - MRSA; Staphylococcal - MRSA ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). www.cdc.gov/mrsa/index.html . Updated ...

  6. Resistance in psychotherapy with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graafsma, T; Anbeek, M

    1984-03-01

    Resistances are of considerable significance in psychoterapy with adolescents. In this article, that significance is investigated further, because the way in which resistances are valued is very important in treatment. The forms in which it appears and, the source and intention of resistances are discussed. It is proposed that the investigation of resistances should not be aimed primarily at their removal.

  7. [Journal selection and indexing for Index Medicus and Chinese periodicals indexed in Index Medicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing-Hui; Ling, Chang-Quan; Bai, Yu-Jin; Yin, Hui-Xia

    2005-01-01

    Index Medicus/MEDLINE/PubMed published by U. S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) is the most important and commonly used biomedical literature retrieval system in the world. According to the"List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus (2004)", 4,098 journals are indexed for Index Medicus, including 70 journals from mainland China and Hong Kong and 9 journals from Taiwan. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine established in May, 2003 is indexed in Index Medicus in 2004. This article outlines the critical elements of journal selection for Index Medicus/MEDLINE and the journal selection process for indexing at NLM, and introduces some measures for the Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine being indexed in Index Medicus/MEDLINE.

  8. Policies to increase the social value of science and the scientist satisfaction. An exploratory survey among Harvard bioscientists. [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3jw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballabeni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Basic research in the biomedical field generates both knowledge that has a value per se regardless of its possible practical outcome and knowledge that has the potential to produce more practical benefits. Policies can increase the benefit potential to society of basic biomedical research by offering various kinds of incentives to basic researchers. In this paper we argue that soft incentives or “nudges” are particularly promising. However, to be well designed, these incentives must take into account the motivations, goals and views of the basic scientists. In the paper we present the results of an investigation that involved more than 300 scientists at Harvard Medical School and affiliated institutes. The results of this study suggest that some soft incentives could be valuable tools to increase the transformative value of fundamental investigations without affecting the spirit of the basic research and scientists’ work satisfaction. After discussing the findings, we discuss a few examples of nudges for basic researchers in the biomedical fields.

  9. Policies to increase the social value of science and the scientist satisfaction. An exploratory survey among Harvard bioscientists. [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2iq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballabeni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic research in the biomedical field generates both knowledge that has a value per se regardless of its possible practical outcome and that has the potential to produce more practical benefits. Policies can increase the benefit potential to society of basic biomedical research by offering various kinds of incentives to basic researchers. In this paper we argue that soft incentives or “nudges” are particularly promising. However, to be well designed, these incentives must take into account the motivations, goals and views of the basic scientists. In the paper we present the results of an investigation that involved more than 300 scientists at Harvard Medical School and affiliated institutes. The study shows that basic researchers’ support for soft incentives is such that the transformative value of fundamental investigations can be increased without affecting the spirit of the basic research and scientists’ work satisfaction. After discussing the findings, we suggest a few examples of nudges and discuss one in more detail.

  10. Efeitos de 24 semanas de treinamento resistido sobre índices da aptidão aeróbia de mulheres idosas Effects of 24 weeks of resistance training on aerobic fitness indexes of older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Guido

    2010-08-01

    the main way to increase these indices. Conversely, resistance training (RT is not typically prescribed for this purpose. In elderly subjects, it has been suggested that RT may increase aerobic capacity; however, the literature is controversial. The purpose of the present study was to verify the effects of 24 weeks of RT on aerobic capacity indexes of elderly women. METHOD: Fifty elderly women voluntarily took part in this study and were divided into two possible groups: control group (CG - n=25; mean age of 68.00 ± 6.38 years and training group (TG - n=25; mean age of 68.04 ± 6.78 years. All volunteers underwent cardiopulmonary exercise test on treadmill until volitional exhaustion before and after the intervention period. A split plot ANOVA test was used to examine differences within and between groups. RESULTS: It was observed that the TG exhibited significant increase in the variables time of test and oxygen uptake for both AT and exhaustion moments. The CG did not show any significant alterations for any of the dependent variables. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that 24 weeks of RT are capable of promoting improvement in performance during a cardiopulmonary exercise test in a sample of elderly women. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for these adaptations.

  11. Quality index on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travassos, P.C.B.; Magalhães, L.A.G.; Peixoto, J.G.P.

    2017-01-01

    Quality analysis was carried out from Indicators divided into 3 sectors: Regulation and Management; Equipment; Image Quality and Dosimetry. Values were assigned for each indicator according to the degree of compliance with the specifications, and were used to calculate the Index. The model was applied in 110 institutions of the State of Rio de Janeiro, and the results were distributed into 5 ranges of values. About 40% of the institutions received grades belonging to the two highest ranges of values. There was no significant difference between the results of old scanners compared to the younger ones. (author)

  12. Occurrence and patterns of antibiotic resistance in vertebrates off the Northeastern United States coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Julie M; Gast, Rebecca J; Bogomolni, Andrea; Ellis, Julie C; Lentell, Betty J; Touhey, Kathleen; Moore, Michael

    2009-03-01

    The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the marine environment is a growing concern, but the degree to which marine mammals, seabirds and fish harbor these organisms is not well documented. This project sought to identify the occurrence and patterns of antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from vertebrates of coastal waters in the northeastern United States. Four hundred and seventy-two isolates of clinical interest were tested for resistance to a suite of 16 antibiotics. Fifty-eight percent were resistant to at least one antibiotic, while 43% were resistant to multiple antibiotics. A multiple antibiotic resistance index value >or=0.2 was observed in 38% of the resistant pathogens, suggesting exposure of the animals to bacteria from significantly contaminated sites. Groups of antibiotics were identified for which bacterial resistance commonly co-occurred. Antibiotic resistance was more widespread in bacteria isolated from seabirds than marine mammals, and was more widespread in stranded or bycaught marine mammals than live marine mammals. Structuring of resistance patterns based on sample type (live/stranded/bycaught) but not animal group (mammal/bird/fish) was observed. These data indicate that antibiotic resistance is widespread in marine vertebrates, and they may be important reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the marine environment.

  13. Proof of the concept to use a malignant B cell line drug screen strategy for identification and weight of melphalan resistance genes in multiple myeloma.