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Sample records for resistance gentamicin resistance

  1. Incidence of high-level gentamicin resistance in enterococci at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gentamicin resistance (HLGR) in enterococcal isolates at. Johannesburg Hospital. Design. Survey of laboratory isolates. Setting. Academic hospitals. Bacterial strains. Consecutive samples of enterococcaf isolates. ... that for severe infections, particularly endocarditis and meningitis, bactericidal antimicrobial therapy is ...

  2. Correlation between apramycin and gentamicin use in pigs and an increasing reservoir of gentamicin-resistant Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Jakobsen, Lotte; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Resistance towards the veterinary drug apramycin can be caused by the aac(3)-IV gene, which also confers resistance towards the important human antibiotic gentamicin. The objectives of this study were to investigate the temporal occurrence and the genetic background of apramycin...... and gentamicin resistance in Escherichia coli strains from pork, healthy pigs and diagnostic submissions from pigs and to investigate potential relationships to the use of apramycin and gentamicin at farm and national levels. Methods: Data on Danish E. coli isolates from healthy pigs (indicator bacteria......), diagnostic submissions from pigs (clinical isolates) and pork were obtained from the national surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and from routine diagnostic laboratories. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained from the Danish Medicines Agency (1997-2000) and from the VetStat database (2001...

  3. Novel pathways for ameliorating the fitness cost of gentamicin resistant small colony variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Paulander, Wilhelm Erik Axel; Leng, Bingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Small colony variants (SCVs) of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus are associated with persistent infections. Phenotypically, SCVs are characterized by slow growth and they can arise upon interruption of the electron transport chain that consequently reduce membrane potential and thereby...... limit uptake of aminoglycosides (e.g., gentamicin). In this study, we have examined the pathways by which the fitness cost of SCVs can be ameliorated. Five gentamicin resistant SCVs derived from S. aureus JE2 were independently selected on agar plates supplemented with gentamicin. The SCVs carried...... mutations in the menaquinone and hemin biosynthesis pathways, which caused a significant reduction in exponential growth rates relative to wild type (WT; 0.59-0.72) and reduced membrane potentials. Fifty independent lineages of the low-fitness, resistant mutants were serially passaged for up to 500...

  4. In vitro synergy of baicalein and gentamicin against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ping Chin; Li, Hua Yu; Tang, Hung Jen; Liu, Jien Wei; Wang, Jhi Joung; Chuang, Yin Ching

    2007-02-01

    Little is known about the possible synergism of baicalein, a bioactive flavone of Scutellariae radix (a Chinese herb), when used in conjunction with other antimicrobial agents against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). This in vitro study examined the possible synergism of the combination of baicalein and gentamicin against VRE. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of baicalein as well as gentamicin were determined against 39 clinical isolates of VRE by the agar dilution method. Synergistic activities were determined using the checkerboard method based on the fractional inhibitory concentration indices and also the time-kill method. Further time-kill studies were conducted with these two agents against one randomly chosen clinical isolate, VRE-096. Minimal concentrations inhibiting 50% (MIC(50)) and 90% (MIC(90)) of isolates for baicalein and gentamicin were all >256 microg/mL. Synergism between baicalein and gentamicin was demonstrated against four clinical isolates of VRE (VRE-70, VRE-940, VRE-096 and VRE-721). When approximately 5 x 10(5) colony-forming units/mL of VRE-096 was incubated with both baicalein at a concentration of 32 microg/mL (1/8 x MIC) and gentamicin at a concentration of 128 microg/mL (1/2 x MIC), there was an inhibitory effect against VRE that persisted for 48 h. At 48 h, the combination of baicalein and gentamicin at these respective concentrations resulted in a reduction of growth by approximately 2 orders of magnitude compared to that for the starting inoculum and by 3 orders of magnitude compared to that for baicalein alone, the more active single agent. This study demonstrated that baicalein and gentamicin can act synergistically in inhibiting VRE in vitro.

  5. Radiation sensitivity of Salmonella isolates relative to resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol or gentamicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemira, Brendan A.; Lonczynski, Kelly A.; Sommers, Christopher H.

    2006-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance of inoculated bacteria is a commonly used selective marker. Bacteria resistant to the antibiotic nalidixic acid have been shown to have an increased sensitivity to irradiation. The purpose of this research was to screen a collection of Salmonella isolates for antibiotic resistance and determine the association, if any, of antibiotic resistance with radiation sensitivity. Twenty-four clinical isolates of Salmonella were screened for native resistance to multiple concentrations of ampicillin (Amp), chloramphenicol (Chl), or gentamicin (Gm). Test concentrations were chosen based on established clinical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels, and isolates were classified as either sensitive or resistant based on their ability to grow at or above the MIC. Salmonella cultures were grown overnight at (37 °C) in antibiotic-amended tryptic soy broth (TSB). Native resistance to Gm was observed with each of the 24 isolates (100%). Eight isolates (33%) were shown to be resistant to Amp, while seven isolates (29%) were shown to be resistant to Chl. In separate experiments, Salmonella cultures were grown overnight (37 °C) in TSB, centrifuged, and the cell pellets were re-suspended in phosphate buffer. The samples were then gamma irradiated at doses up to 1.0 kGy. The D10 values (the ionizing radiation dose required to reduce the viable number of microorganisms by 90%) were determined for the 24 isolates and they ranged from 0.181 to 0.359 kGy. No correlation was found between the D10 value of the isolate and its sensitivity or resistance to each of the three antibiotics. Resistance to Amp or Chl is suggested as appropriate resistance marker for Salmonella test strains to be used in studies of irradiation.

  6. Radiation sensitivity of Salmonella isolates relative to resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol or gentamicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemira, Brendan A.; Lonczynski, Kelly A.; Sommers, Christopher H.

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance of inoculated bacteria is a commonly used selective marker. Bacteria resistant to the antibiotic nalidixic acid have been shown to have an increased sensitivity to irradiation. The purpose of this research was to screen a collection of Salmonella isolates for antibiotic resistance and determine the association, if any, of antibiotic resistance with radiation sensitivity. Twenty-four clinical isolates of Salmonella were screened for native resistance to multiple concentrations of ampicillin (Amp), chloramphenicol (Chl), or gentamicin (Gm). Test concentrations were chosen based on established clinical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels, and isolates were classified as either sensitive or resistant based on their ability to grow at or above the MIC. Salmonella cultures were grown overnight at (37 o C) in antibiotic-amended tryptic soy broth (TSB). Native resistance to Gm was observed with each of the 24 isolates (100%). Eight isolates (33%) were shown to be resistant to Amp, while seven isolates (29%) were shown to be resistant to Chl. In separate experiments, Salmonella cultures were grown overnight (37 o C) in TSB, centrifuged, and the cell pellets were re-suspended in phosphate buffer. The samples were then gamma irradiated at doses up to 1.0 kGy. The D 10 values (the ionizing radiation dose required to reduce the viable number of microorganisms by 90%) were determined for the 24 isolates and they ranged from 0.181 to 0.359 kGy. No correlation was found between the D 10 value of the isolate and its sensitivity or resistance to each of the three antibiotics. Resistance to Amp or Chl is suggested as appropriate resistance marker for Salmonella test strains to be used in studies of irradiation

  7. Occurrence of airborne vancomycin- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria in various hospital wards in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhoseini, Seyed Hamed; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Khanahmad, Hossein; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Airborne transmission of pathogenic resistant bacteria is well recognized as an important route for the acquisition of a wide range of nosocomial infections in hospitals. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of airborne vancomycin and gentamicin (VM and GM) resistant bacteria in different wards of four educational hospitals. A total of 64 air samples were collected from operating theater (OT), Intensive Care Unit (ICU), surgery ward, and internal medicine ward of four educational hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. Airborne culturable bacteria were collected using all glass impingers. Samples were analyzed for the detection of VM- and GM-resistant bacteria. The average level of bacteria ranged from 99 to 1079 CFU/m(3). The highest level of airborne bacteria was observed in hospital 4 (628 CFU/m(3)) and the highest average concentration of GM- and VM-resistant airborne bacteria were found in hospital 3 (22 CFU/m(3)). The mean concentration of airborne bacteria was the lowest in OT wards and GM- and VM-resistant airborne bacteria were not detected in this ward of hospitals. The highest prevalence of antibiotic-resistant airborne bacteria was observed in ICU ward. There was a statistically significant difference for the prevalence of VM-resistant bacteria between hospital wards (P = 0.012). Our finding showed that the relatively high prevalence of VM- and GM-resistant airborne bacteria in ICUs could be a great concern from the point of view of patients' health. These results confirm the necessity of application of effective control measures which significantly decrease the exposure of high-risk patients to potentially airborne nosocomial infections.

  8. Synergistic effects of the combination of galangin with gentamicin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Seob; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Choi, Jang-Gi; Oh, You-Chang; Chae, Hee-Sung; Kim, Jong Hak; Park, Hyun; Sohn, Dong Hwan; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2008-06-01

    The antimicrobial killing activity toward methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a serious emerging global issue. New effective antimicrobials and/or new approaches to settle this issue are urgently needed. The oriental herb, Alpinia officinarum, has been used in Korea for several hundreds of years to treat various infectious diseases. As it is well known, one of the active constituents of Alpinia officinarum is galangin. Against the 17 strains, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of galangin (GAL) were in the range of 62.5 ~ 125 microg/ml, and the MICs of gentamicin (GEN) ranged from 1.9 microg/ml to 2,000 microg/ml. The fractional inhibitory concentrations (FICs) of GAL, in combination with GEN, against 3 test strains were 0.4, 3.9, and 250 microg/ml, and were all 15.62 microg/ml in GEN. The FIC index showed marked synergism in the value range of 0.19 to 0.25. By determining time-kill curves, also confirmed the low synergism of the GAL and GEN combination against 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h cultured MRSA. The time-kill study results indicated a low synergistic effect against 3 test strains. Thus, the mixture of GAL and GEN could lead to the development of new combination antibiotics against MRSA infection.

  9. Determinants of virulence and of resistance to ceftiofur, gentamicin, and spectinomycin in clinical Escherichia coli from broiler chickens in Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Gabhan; Cormier, Ashley C; Nadeau, Marie; Côté, Geneviève; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Boerlin, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    Antimicrobials are frequently used for the prevention of avian colibacillosis, with gentamicin used for this purpose in Québec until 2003. Ceftiofur was also used similarly, but voluntarily withdrawn in 2005 due to increasing resistance. Spectinomycin-lincomycin was employed as a replacement, but ceftiofur use was partially reinstated in 2007 until its definitive ban by the poultry industry in 2014. Gentamicin resistance frequency increased during the past decade in clinical Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens in Québec, despite this antimicrobial no longer being used. Since this increase coincided with the use of spectinomycin-lincomycin, co-selection of gentamicin resistance through spectinomycin was suspected. Therefore, relationships between spectinomycin, gentamicin, and ceftiofur resistance determinants were investigated here. The distribution of 13 avian pathogenic E. coli virulence-associated genes and their association with spectinomycin resistance were also assessed. A sample of 586 E. coli isolates from chickens with colibacillosis in Québec between 2009 and 2013 was used. The major genes identified for resistance to ceftiofur, gentamicin, and spectinomycin were bla CMY , aac(3)-VI, and aadA, respectively. The aadA and aac(3)-VI genes were strongly associated and shown to be located on a modified class 1 integron. The aadA and bla CMY genes were negatively associated, but when present together, were generally located on the same plasmids. No statistical positive association was observed between aadA and virulence genes, and virulence genes were only rarely detected on plasmids encoding spectinomycin resistance. Thus, the use of spectinomycin-lincomycin may likely select for gentamicin but not ceftiofur resistance, nor for any of the virulence-associated genes investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant enterobacteriaceae containing multiple gentamicin resistance-associated integrons in a Dutch hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van der Schee (Cindy); N. Lemmens-den Toom (Nicole); M.C. Vos (Margreet); P.J. Lugtenburg (Pieternella); S. de Marie (Siem); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); B. Löwenberg (Bob); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J.J. Cornelissen (Jan); H.P. Endtz (Hubert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn a hematology unit in the Netherlands, the incidence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli increased from from 1996 to 1999. Clonal spread of single genotypes of both ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli and Enterobacter cloacae from

  11. Characterisation, dissemination and persistence of gentamicin resistant Escherichia coli from a Danish university hospital to the waste water environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Sandvang, Dorthe; Hansen, Lars H

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the potential spread of gentamicin resistant (GEN(R)) Escherichia coli isolates or GEN(R) determinants from a Danish university hospital to the waste water environment. Waste water samples were collected monthly from the outlets of the hospital bed wards...... (aac(3)-II, aac(3)-IV, ant(2'')-I, armA), phenotypic resistance pattern, and virulence genes (hlyA, chuA, sfaS, fogG, malX, traT, iutA, fyuA, iroN, cnf1) to investigate if the hospital and waste water could be reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance and virulence. The ability for GEN(R) determinants......, indicating a potential spread of the gene from patient isolates to waste water isolates. Regardless of origin, most isolates exhibited multi-resistance and contained several virulence genes. In conclusion, our study showed a possible spread of aac(3)-II from the hospital to the waste water. Most of the GEN...

  12. Efficacy of Tigecycline Alone and in Combination with Gentamicin in the Treatment of Experimental Endocarditis Due to Linezolid-Resistant Enterococcus faecium

    OpenAIRE

    Pontikis, Konstantinos; Pefanis, Angelos; Tsaganos, Thomas; Tzepi, Ira-Maria; Carrer, Dionyssia-Pinelopi; Giamarellou, Helen

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of tigecycline in a rabbit model of experimental endocarditis caused by a linezolid-resistant clinical strain of Enterococcus faecium. Tigecycline-treated animals had a 2.8-log10-CFU/g reduction in microbial counts in excised vegetations compared with controls. Addition of gentamicin caused a further arithmetical reduction in colony counts. The therapeutic effect was sustained 5 days after completion of treatment, as shown by relapse studies performed in treatment gr...

  13. Efficacy of tigecycline alone and in combination with gentamicin in the treatment of experimental endocarditis due to linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontikis, Konstantinos; Pefanis, Angelos; Tsaganos, Thomas; Tzepi, Ira-Maria; Carrer, Dionyssia-Pinelopi; Giamarellou, Helen

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of tigecycline in a rabbit model of experimental endocarditis caused by a linezolid-resistant clinical strain of Enterococcus faecium. Tigecycline-treated animals had a 2.8-log10-CFU/g reduction in microbial counts in excised vegetations compared with controls. Addition of gentamicin caused a further arithmetical reduction in colony counts. The therapeutic effect was sustained 5 days after completion of treatment, as shown by relapse studies performed in treatment groups.

  14. Gentamicin- and Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Cattle Farms in Israel: Risk Factors for Carriage and the Effect of Microbiological Methodology on the Measured Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Amos; Sturlesi, Na'ama; Fallach, Noga; Zilberman-Barzilai, Deniz; Hussein, Omar; Blum, Shlomo E; Klement, Eyal; Schwaber, Mitchell J; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2017-07-01

    Our objectives were to establish a methodology for surveillance of ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and gentamicin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CPRE and GNRE, respectively) in cattle and to study the prevalence and risk factors for carriage of these bacteria in a national survey. This was a point prevalence study conducted from July to October 2013 in Israel. Stool samples were collected from 1,226 cows in 123 sections of 40 farms of all production types. The number of CPRE- and GNRE-positive cows was highest in quarantine stations and fattening farms and was lowest in pasture farms (p 25 months) and highest in calves (<4 months) (p < 0.001). In bivariate analysis, other variables that were significant risk factors for CPRE and GNRE carriage included fewer troughs, crowding, lack of manure cleaning, and recent arrival of new calves. Antimicrobial prophylaxis was given almost exclusively to calves and was associated with a higher prevalence of carriers (p < 0.001). Compared to the use of nonselective media (MacConkey agar alone), the use of selective media (MacConkey agar with 10 μg/ml of ciprofloxacin or 5 μg/ml of gentamicin) increased the sensitivity of screening for CPRE and GNRE by 6.6- and 13.5-fold, respectively. CPRE and GNRE were identified in 609 (49.7%) and 840 (68.5%) samples, respectively. This study provides novel data regarding both the epidemiology of CPRE and GNRE carriage in livestock and the microbiological methodology for their surveillance.

  15. Comparative study of bacteremias caused by Enterococcus spp. with and without high-level resistance to gentamicin. The Grupo Andaluz para el estudio de las Enfermedades Infecciosas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Granado, F J; Cisneros, J M; Luque, R; Torres-Tortosa, M; Gamboa, F; Díez, F; Villanueva, J L; Pérez-Cano, R; Pasquau, J; Merino, D; Menchero, A; Mora, D; López-Ruz, M A; Vergara, A

    1998-02-01

    A prospective, multicenter study was carried out over a period of 10 months. All patients with clinically significant bacteremia caused by Enterococcus spp. were included. The epidemiological, microbiological, clinical, and prognostic features and the relationship of these features to the presence of high-level resistance to gentamicin (HLRG) were studied. Ninety-three patients with enterococcal bacteremia were included, and 31 of these cases were caused by HLRG (33%). The multivariate analysis selected chronic renal failure, intensive care unit stay, previous use of antimicrobial agents, and Enterococcus faecalis species as the independent risk factors that influenced the development of HLRG. The strains with HLRG showed lower levels of susceptibility to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. Clinical features (except for chronic renal failure) were similar in both groups of patients. HLRG did not influence the prognosis for patients with enterococcal bacteremia in terms of either the crude mortality rate (29% for patients with bacteremia caused by enterococci with HLRG and 28% for patients not infected with strains with HLRG) or the hospital stay after the acquisition of enterococcal bacteremia. Hemodynamic compromise, inappropriate antimicrobial therapy, and mechanical ventilation were revealed in the multivariate analysis to be the independent risk factors for mortality. Prolonged hospitalization was associated with the nosocomial acquisition of bacteremia and polymicrobial infections.

  16. Gentamicin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infections by Ps. aeruginosa is contra-indicated. In our study only 2,3 % of the Ps. aeruginosa strains were resistant to gentamicin (MIC 25 Ilg/ml). In view of the synergy reported for combined gentamicin and carbeni- cillin therapy," a combination of these two drugs may be recommended in the treatment of all Pseudomonas.

  17. Payload hardware and experimental protocol development to enable future testing of the effect of space microgravity on the resistance to gentamicin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli and its σs-deficient mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, A. C.; Wang, J.-H.; Keyhan, Mimi; Singh, Rachna; Benoit, Michael; Parra, Macarena P.; Padgen, Michael R.; Ricco, Antonio J.; Chin, Matthew; Friedericks, Charlie R.; Chinn, Tori N.; Cohen, Aaron; Henschke, Michael B.; Snyder, Timothy V.; Lera, Matthew P.; Ross, Shannon S.; Mayberry, Christina M.; Choi, Sungshin; Wu, Diana T.; Tan, Ming X.; Boone, Travis D.; Beasley, Christopher C.; Piccini, Matthew E.; Spremo, Stevan M.

    2017-11-01

    Human immune response is compromised and bacteria can become more antibiotic resistant in space microgravity (MG). We report that under low-shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG), stationary-phase uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) become more resistant to gentamicin (Gm), and that this increase is dependent on the presence of σs (a transcription regulator encoded by the rpoS gene). UPEC causes urinary tract infections (UTIs), reported to afflict astronauts; Gm is a standard treatment, so these findings could impact astronaut health. Because LSMMG findings can differ from MG, we report preparations to examine UPEC's Gm sensitivity during spaceflight using the E. coli Anti-Microbial Satellite (EcAMSat) as a free-flying "nanosatellite" in low Earth orbit. Within EcAMSat's payload, a 48-microwell fluidic card contains and supports study of bacterial cultures at constant temperature; optical absorbance changes in cell suspensions are made at three wavelengths for each microwell and a fluid-delivery system provides growth medium and predefined Gm concentrations. Performance characterization is reported here for spaceflight prototypes of this payload system. Using conventional microtiter plates, we show that Alamar Blue (AB) absorbance changes can assess the Gm effect on E. coli viability, permitting telemetric transfer of the spaceflight data to Earth. Laboratory results using payload prototypes are consistent with wellplate and flask findings of differential sensitivity of UPEC and its ΔrpoS strain to Gm. if σs plays the same role in space MG as in LSMMG and Earth gravity, countermeasures discovered in recent Earth studies (aimed at weakening the UPEC antioxidant defense) to control UPEC infections would prove useful also in space flights. Further, EcAMSat results should clarify inconsistencies from previous space experiments on bacterial antibiotic sensitivity and other issues.

  18. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... least 10 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom ... plan Global report on surveillance Country situation analysis Policy to combat antimicrobial resistance More on antimicrobial resistance ...

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can prevent and manage antimicrobial resistance. It is collaborating with partners to strengthen the evidence base and ... on the global action plan. WHO has been leading multiple initiatives to address antimicrobial resistance: World Antibiotic ...

  20. Multidrug Resistance in Infants and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections may cause disease and death. Infants and children are often subject to bacterial infections. Antimicrobials kill bacteria protecting the infected patients andreducing the risk of morbidity and mortality caused by bacteria. The antibiotics may lose their antibacterial activity when they become resistant to a bacteria. The resistance to different antibiotics in a bacteria is named multidrug-resistance. Gram-negative bacilli, especially Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b, may become resistant. Amikacin ampicillin, amoxicillin, amoxiclav, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin may cause bacterial-resistance. Resistance to bacteria for several pathogens makes complications in the treatment of infections caused by them. Salmonella strains may become resistant to ampicillin, cephalotin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Shigella strains may become resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. Multidrug-resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae may be due to β-lactams, macrolides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Multidrug-resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may become resistant to β-lactams, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. The antibacterial activity against Haemophilus strains may occur with ampicillin, sulbactam-ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. Multidrug-resistance of the Klebsiella species may be due with ampicillin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, co-amxilav, mezlocillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and ceftazidime. Multidrug-resistance of Escherichia coli may be caused by ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime. Vibrio

  1. Antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Frieri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens is a challenge that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Multidrug resistance patterns in Gram-positive and -negative bacteria are difficult to treat and may even be untreatable with conventional antibiotics. There is currently a shortage of effective therapies, lack of successful prevention measures, and only a few new antibiotics, which require development of novel treatment options and alternative antimicrobial therapies. Biofilms are involved in multidrug resistance and can present challenges for infection control. Virulence, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile infection, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and control in the Emergency Department are also discussed. Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Biofilms, Infections, Public health, Emergency Department

  2. Multiple antibiotics resistant among environmental isolates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we assessed the functionality of integrons, melanin-like pigment and biofilm formation on multidrug resistance among environmental isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Marked resistances were noted against aztreonam (60%), cefepime (68%), ceftazidime (77%), ciprofloxacin (72%), gentamicin (65%), ...

  3. Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszko, Adrian; Janus, Agnieszka; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a severe medical condition which is estimated to appear in 9-18% of hypertensive patients. Due to higher cardiovascular risk, this disorder requires special diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous etiology, risk factors and comorbidities of resistant hypertension stand in need of sophisticated evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and select the best therapeutic options, which should consider lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological and interventional treatment. After having excluded pseudohypertension, inappropriate blood pressure measurement and control as well as the white coat effect, suspicion of resistant hypertension requires an analysis of drugs which the hypertensive patient is treated with. According to one definition - ineffective treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs including diuretics makes it possible to diagnose resistant hypertension. A multidrug therapy including angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, long-acting calcium channel blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be effective in resistant hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, optional, innovative therapies, e.g. a renal denervation or baroreflex activation, may create a novel pathway of blood pressure lowering procedures. The right diagnosis of this disease needs to eliminate the secondary causes of resistant hypertension e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, atherosclerosis and renal or hormonal disorders. This paper briefly summarizes the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension and therapeutic strategies, which may contribute to the proper diagnosis and an improvement of the long term management of resistant hypertension.

  4. Camptothecin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brangi, M; Litman, Thomas; Ciotti, M

    1999-01-01

    . Glucuronides were found at equal levels in both parental and resistant colon cancer cell lines for epirubicin and to a lesser extent for SN-38 and mitoxantrone. Low levels of glucuronidation could also be detected in the resistant breast cancer cells. These results were confirmed by analysis of the UGT1A...

  5. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian

    morbidity and mortality as well as an increase in the cost of treatment. Understanding how bacteria respond to antibiotic exposure gives the foundations for a rational approach to counteract antimicrobial resistance. In the work presented in this thesis, I explore the two fundamental sources...... of antimicrobial resistance: (1) adaptive mutations and (2) horizontal acquisition of resistance genes from antibiotic gene reservoirs. By studying the geno- and phenotypic changes of E. coli in response to single and drug-pair exposures, I uncover the evolutionary trajectories leading to adaptive resistance. I...... to rationally design drug combinations that limit the evolution of antibiotic resistance due to counteracting evolutionary trajectories. My results highlight that an in-depth knowledge about the genetic responses to the individual antimicrobial compounds enables the prediction of responses to drug combinations...

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... past two decades due to the increase in immunocompromised and elderly patients, increasing use of invasive indwelling ... aureus developing resistance to vancomycin, a very powerful antibiotic prescribed for the most intractable bacterial infections. In ...

  7. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug-resistance testing is also recommended for all pregnant women with HIV before starting HIV medicines and also in some pregnant women already taking HIV medicines. Pregnant women will work with their health ...

  8. Antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge, which has accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics worldwide. Increased antimicrobial resistance is the cause of severe infections, complications, longer hospital stays and increased mortality. Overprescribing of antibiotics......-the-counter sale of antibiotics, the use of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, the active participation of clinicians in audits, the utilization of valid rapid point-of-care tests, the promotion of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies, the enhancement of communication skills with patients with the aid...

  9. Resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Huang, Qi-Fang; Yang, Wen-Yi; Staessen, Jan A

    2018-06-15

    The publication of the first non-randomised proof-of-concept trial of renal denervation as a treatment modality in treatment-resistant hypertension set the stage for a search for novel devices with the expectation that technology would reduce the burden of hypertension by reducing or eliminating the costly and lifelong use of blood pressure lowering medications. As we demonstrate in this review, this idea so attractive to manufacturers and invasive cardiologists and radiologists overlooked decades of careful pathophysiological research in a disease, which still remains enigmatic but remains the major cause of cardiovascular mortality worldwide. To make our point, we first reviewed the prevalence and risks associated with treatment-resistant hypertension. Next, we highlighted the key points required for the diagnosis of treatment-resistant hypertension, including the recording of the ambulatory blood pressure and the assessment of adherence to medication. Finally, we summarised new insights in the management of treatment-resistant hypertension by medication and devices and in the future research. Throughout our review, we focused on new evidence became available since 2013. Our conclusion is that optimising medical treatment based on simple algorithms remains the state of the art in treatment-resistant hypertension.

  10. Anticoagulant Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte

    Although sewer rat control is carried out in more than 80 % of all Danish municipalities, with usage of large amounts of anticoagulant rodenticides, knowledge on anticoagulant resistance among rats living in the sewers is limited. As rat problems in urban areas are believed to be related to sewer...... problems (70-90 % in UK and DK) unawareness of resistance amongst these populations of Brown rats may constitute a future control problem and knowledge on this issue has become crucial. Rats were captured in sewers from seven different locations in the suburban area of Copenhagen. Locations was chosen...... to represent different sewer rat management strategies i) no anticoagulants for approx. 20 years ii) no anticoagulants for the last 5 years and iii) continuous control for many years. Animals were tested for resistance to bromadiolone by Blood-Clotting Response test, as bromadiolone is the most frequently used...

  11. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  12. Drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, J.A.; Potschka, H.; Noebels, J.L.; Avoli, M.; Rogawski, M.A.; Olsen, R.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance remains to be one of the major challenges in epilepsy therapy. Identification of factors that contribute to therapeutic failure is crucial for future development of novel therapeutic strategies for difficult-to-treat epilepsies. Several clinical studies have shown that high seizure

  13. Aminoglycoside resistance among isolates of nosocomial Enterobacteriaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, P.L.; Elisha, G.; Pratt, K.

    1981-01-01

    Fifty-seven gentamicin-resistant isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, obtained from patients attending hospital, were examined for the production of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. Of the 51 strains producing such enzymes, 34 were presumptively plasmid-mediated as indicated by conjugation experiments

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video) Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation of ...

  15. Investigation and Treatment of Fusidic Acid Resistance Among Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcal Isolates from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelfetouh, Alaa; Kassem, Mervat; Naguib, Marwa; El-Nakeeb, Moustafa

    2017-01-01

    Methicillin resistance among staphylococci isolated from patients in northern Egypt has escalated alarmingly in the past decade. Data about the prevalence of fusidic acid (FA) resistance in Egyptian clinical isolates are limited. This work investigates the prevalence and mechanism of FA resistance among 81 methicillin-resistant staphylococcal isolates from major hospitals of Alexandria, Egypt. Some combinations for treating infections due to resistant isolates were studied. Twenty-six isolates (32.1%) were FA resistant (minimum inhibitory concentrations [MICs] = 2-1,024 μg/ml), and fusB and fusC genes coding for FA resistance were detected in 30.77% and 34.62% of the FA-resistant strains, respectively. One highly resistant isolate, S502 (MIC = 1,024 μg/ml), possessed both genes. Plasmid curing resulted in fusB loss and MIC decrease by 16-64 folds. Conjugation caused acquisition of FA resistance among susceptible isolates. Serial passages in subinhibitory FA concentrations produced mutants with increased MIC by 4-32 folds. The combination of FA with rifampin, gentamicin, or ampicillin/sulbactam, in a subinhibitory concentration, was synergistic against the isolates, including serial passage mutants, decreasing number of survivors by an average of 2-4 logs. A relatively moderate rate of FA resistance was detected in Alexandria hospitals. Combination therapy with gentamicin, rifampin, or ampicillin/sulbactam is crucial to preserve the effectiveness of FA.

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  17. Insulin Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech

    Insulin resistance (IR) is escalating with alarming pace and is no longer restricted to westernized countries. As a forerunner for some of the most serious threats to human health including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2-diabetes, the need for new treatment modalities...... interventions. We further show that improving the inflammatory toning, using fish oil as fat source, protects mice against diet induced obesity and -inflammation while preserving insulin sensitivity, even in the absence of free fatty acid receptor 4. Conversely, HFD-induced intestinal dysbiosis is associated...

  18. Surveillance for vancomycin resistant enterococci in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three were resistant to Ampicillin and nine to Ciprofloxacin but all were susceptible to Linezolid. High-level resistance to Gentamicin was found in four VRE isolates. Conclusion: There is a low prevalence of VRE in Lagos University Teaching Hospital which may be spreading among patients in affected wards. Keywords: ...

  19. Antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in Escherichia coli from poultry farms, southwest Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelowo, Olawale O.; Fagade, Obasola E.; Agersø, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    %, ampicillin 36%, spectinomycin 28%, nalidixic acid 25%, chloramphenicol 22%, neomycin 14%, gentamicin 8%, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, colistin, florfenicol and apramycin 0%. Resistance genes found among the isolates include bla-TEM (85%), sul2 (67%), sul3 (17%), aadA (65%), strA (70%), str...

  20. Resistance welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi; Rasmussen, Mogens H.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance welding comprises not only the well known spot welding process but also more complex projection welding operations, where excessive plastic deformation of the weld point may occur. This enables the production of complex geometries and material combinations, which are often not possible...... to weld by traditional spot welding operations. Such joining processes are, however, not simple to develop due to the large number of parameters involved. Development has traditionally been carried out by large experimental investigations, but the development of a numerical programme system has changed...... this enabling prediction of the welding performance in details. The paper describes the programme in short and gives examples on industrial applications. Finally investigations of causes for failure in a complex industrial joint of two dissimilar metals are carried out combining numerical modelling...

  1. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Hoffmann, Tammy C; McCullough, Amanda R

    2015-01-01

    hygiene, and possibly vaccination and exercise, may be effective. Also, a large range of complementary and alternative medicines (e.g. zinc, vitamin C and probiotics) are proposed for preventing and treating ARIs, but evidence for efficacy is scarce. General practitioners' (GPs) attitudes towards...... wrong. Shared decision making might be a solution, as it enables clinician and patient to participate jointly in making a health decision, having discussed the options together with the evidence for their harms as well as benefits. Furthermore, GPs' diagnostic uncertainty - often leading...... will greatly improve the use of antibiotics for ARIs. However, used in concert, combinations are likely to enable clinicians and health care systems to implement the strategies that will reduce antimicrobial resistance in the future....

  2. Resisting dehumanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger Marie

    2018-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in the influx of asylum-seekers in Scandinavia, and in Denmark this has led to ever-tighter immigration control. This article discusses emerging practices of refugee solidarity and resistance to hegemonic migration policy in Danish civil society in the wake...... of what has been referred to as the European refugee crisis. It further reflects upon what it means to be a Danish citizen facing the dilemma of law-abiding conduct versus human decency, in line with what Foucault (1983) referred to as ‘ethical self-formation’. This is illustrated through a case study...... of an incident from September 2015, when a member of a Danish City Council offered private shelter to immigrants who were on their way to Norway. The incident led to legal proceedings in August 2016 for what the defendant referred to as ‘the offense of helping fellow human beings in need’. The study is informed...

  3. Antimicrobial-Resistant Enterococci in Animals and Meat: A Human Health Hazard?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, A.M.; Lester, C.H.; Heuer, Ole Eske

    2010-01-01

    clones predominate in certain animal species. This may suggest that antimicrobial-resistant E. faecium from animals could be regarded less hazardous to humans; however, due to their excellent ability to acquire and transfer resistance genes, E. faecium of animal origin may act as donors of antimicrobial...... resistance genes for other more virulent enterococci. For E. faecalis, the situation appears different, as similar clones of, for example, vancomycin-and gentamicin-resistant E. faecalis have been obtained from animals and from human patients. Continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance...... of avoparcin, gentamicin, and virginiamycin for growth promotion and therapy in food animals has lead to the emergence of vancomycin-and gentamicin-resistant enterococci and quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant E. faecium in animals and meat. This implies a potential risk for transfer of resistance genes...

  4. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 31; Issue 2. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance of rock aggregates ... It was seen that correlation coefficients were increased for the rock classes. In addition ...

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  6. Combating Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bacteria Phasing Out Certain Antibiotic Use in Farm Animals FDA: Cutting-Edge Technology Sheds Light on Antibiotic Resistance For More Information Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial Resistance Information for Consumers and Health Professionals CDC: ...

  7. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Paulitsch-Fuchs, Astrid H.; Zwijnenburg, Arie; Kruithof, Joop C.; Flemming, Hans Curt

    2013-01-01

    resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  9. HIV Resistance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 14, 2016 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 126 HIV Resistance Testing WHAT IS RESISTANCE? HOW DOES RESISTANCE ... ARVs. If you miss doses of your medications, HIV will multiply more easily. More mutations will occur. ...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over ...

  11. Induced resistance: an enhancement of basal resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M. de; Robben, C.; Pelt, J.A. van; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Upon primary pathogen attack, plants activate resistance mechanisms at the site of infection. Besides this so-called basal resistance, plants have also the ability to enhance their defensive capacity against future pathogen attack. There are at least two types of biologically induced resistance.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance 1979-2009 at Karolinska hospital, Sweden: normalized resistance interpretation during a 30-year follow-up on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli resistance development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronvall, Göran

    2010-09-01

    To utilize a material of inhibition zone diameter measurements from disc diffusion susceptibility tests between 1979 and 2009, an objective setting of epidemiological breakpoints was necessary because of methodological changes. Normalized resistance interpretation (NRI) met this need and was applied to zone diameter histograms for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolates. The results confirmed a slow resistance development as seen in Northern countries. The S. aureus resistance levels for erythromycin, clindamycin and fusidic acid in 2009 were 3.2%, 1.8% and 1.4% with denominator correction. A rise in resistance to four antimicrobials in 1983 was probably because of a spread of resistant Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA). For E. coli, the denominator-corrected resistance levels in 2009 were 27% for ampicillin, around 3% for third-generation cephalosporins, 0.1% for imipenem, 2.5% for gentamicin, 19% for trimethoprim, 4.5% for co-trimoxazole, 1.2% for nitrofurantoin and 9% for ciprofloxacin. The temporal trends showed a rise in fluoroquinolone resistance from 1993, a parallel increase in gentamicin resistance, a substantial increase in trimethoprim and sulphonamide resistance in spite of decreased consumption, and a steady rise in ampicillin resistance from a constant level before 1989. A short review of global resistance surveillance studies is included.

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System ... If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  16. Determination of antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Turkish fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erginkaya, Z; Turhan, E U; Tatlı, D

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the antibiotic resistance (AR) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Turkish fermented dairy products was investigated. Yogurt, white cheese, tulum cheese, cokelek, camız cream and kefir as dairy products were collected from various supermarkets. Lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Enterecoccus spp. were isolated from these dairy products. Lactobacillus spp. were resistant to vancomycin (58%), erythromycin (10.8%), tetracycline (4.3%), gentamicin (28%), and ciprofloxacin (26%). Streptococcus spp. were resistant to vancomycin (40%), erythromycin (10%), chloramphenicol (10%), gentamicin (20%), and ciprofloxacin (30%). Bifidobacterium spp. were resistant to vancomycin (60%), E 15 (6.6%), gentamicin (20%), and ciprofloxacin (33%). Enterococcus spp. were resistant to vancomycin (100%), erythromycin (100%), rifampin (100%), and ciprofloxacin (100%). As a result, LAB islated from dairy products in this study showed mostly resistance to vancomycin.

  17. Resistance to Powdery Mildews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwoszek, Agnieszka Izabela

    in majority of them. Resistance to barley powdery mildew in the field is controlled by use of resistant varieties in a combination with fungicides. Early disease management is crucial for effective control. Yet, the pathogen commonly develops fungicide resistance due to simple point mutations. Several studies...... protection. In the present study, I provide an overview of the current knowledge about plant pathogens and plant disease resistance. I use Arabidopsis as a model to investigate the mechanism of non-host resistance, presumed to be the most durable and broad-spectrum form of resistance. I attempt to determine...

  18. Oxidation-resistant cermet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. M.

    1977-01-01

    Chromium metal alloys and chromium oxide ceramic are combined to produce cermets with oxidation-resistant properties. Application of cermets includes use in hot corrosive environments requiring strong resistive materials.

  19. Resistance seam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueler, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the resistance seam welding process are presented. Types of seam welds, types of seam welding machines, seam welding power supplies, resistance seam welding parameters and seam welding characteristics of various metals

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial ...

  1. Electrical Methods: Resistivity Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface electrical resistivity surveying is based on the principle that the distribution of electrical potential in the ground around a current-carrying electrode depends on the electrical resistivities and distribution of the surrounding soils and rocks.

  2. Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Baby is Born Monogenic Diabetes Insulin Resistance & Prediabetes Insulin resistance and prediabetes occur when your body ... will stay in the healthy range. What is prediabetes? Prediabetes means your blood glucose levels are higher ...

  3. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Go to Information for Researchers ► Credit: ... and infectious diseases. Why Is the Study of Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance a Priority for NIAID? Over time, ...

  4. CONFERENCE REPORT ANTIRETROVIRAL RESISTANCE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-02

    Aug 2, 2004 ... development of new agents with potential clinical utility for treating resistant ... data on the emergence of resistance among Thai women given zidovudine ... had achieved full virological suppression (viral load. < 50 copies/ml).

  5. Resistance to Linezolid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Birte; Ntokou, Eleni

    2017-01-01

    Linezolid is an antimicrobial agent that binds to the bacterial ribosome and thereby inhibits protein synthesis. Soon after its release as a clinical drug, it became clear that bacteria could become resistant to linezolid. The resistance mechanisms are mainly causing alteration of the drug target...... site, but probably efflux might also play a role. The resistance is still rare in surveillance studies, but outbreaks of resistant clones from hospitals have been observed. So far the main mechanisms of resistance are occurrence of mutations in ribosomal genes or obtaining plasmids with a gene coding...... for a methyltransferase providing resistance. The most obvious way to avoid resistance may be development of derivatives of linezolid overcoming the known resistance mechanisms....

  6. Resisting Organizational Change

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    We are continuously reminded of how change induces controversy and resistance, regardless of support. We repeatedly experience resistance in difficulties of implementation, little progress, and poor results, rather than increased productivity as anticipated. In a detailed account of how change plays out, a mosaic of what resistance looks like emerges. The picture is both familiar and absolutely concrete, and challenges the structural assumptions and dichotomies on support and resistance in an...

  7. Antibiotic resistance reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    One of the major threats to human health in the 21st century is the emergence of pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics, thereby limiting treatment options. An important route through which pathogens become resistant is via acquisition of resistance genes from

  8. Resisting Mind Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    1980-01-01

    Provides conceptual analyses of mind control techniques along with practical advice on how to resist these techniques. The authors stress that effective mind control stems more from everyday social relations than from exotic technological gimmicks. Suggestions are given for resisting persuasion, resisting systems, and challenging the system.…

  9. Correlations between Income inequality and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Andrew; Herbert, Annie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if correlations exist between income inequality and antimicrobial resistance. This study's hypothesis is that income inequality at the national level is positively correlated with antimicrobial resistance within developed countries. Income inequality data were obtained from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database. Antimicrobial resistance data were obtained from the European antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network and outpatient antimicrobial consumption data, measured by Defined daily Doses per 1000 inhabitants per day, from the European Surveillance of antimicrobial Consumption group. Spearman's correlation coefficient (r) defined strengths of correlations of: > 0.8 as strong, > 0.5 as moderate and > 0.2 as weak. Confidence intervals and p values were defined for all r values. Correlations were calculated for the time period 2003-10, for 15 European countries. Income inequality and antimicrobial resistance correlations which were moderate or strong, with 95% confidence intervals > 0, included the following. Enterococcus faecalis resistance to aminopenicillins, vancomycin and high level gentamicin was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.54 for all three antimicrobials). Escherichia coli resistance to aminoglycosides, aminopenicillins, third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones was moderately-strongly associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.7 for all four antimicrobials). Klebsiella pneumoniae resistance to third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.5 for all three antimicrobials). Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistance and income inequality were strongly associated (r=0.87). As income inequality increases in European countries so do the rates of antimicrobial resistance for bacteria including E. faecalis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus. Further studies are needed to confirm these

  10. Streptococcus pneumoniae Drugs Resistance in Acute Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jie Hao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute rhinosinusitis that usually caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae becomes the reason why patients seek for medical care. Drugs resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is increasing worldwide. This study was conducted to determine drugs resistance of Streptococcus pneumonia from acute rhinosinusitis in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. Methods: A descriptive laboratory study was conducted in June–October 2014 at the Laboratory of Microbiology Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. The sample was taken using nasopharyngeal swabbing from 100 acute rhinosinusitis patients in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital and planted on tryptic soy agar containing 5% sheep blood and 5 μg/ml of gentamicin sulphate and then incubated in 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C for 24 hours. The identification of Streptococcus pneumonia was performed by optochin test. The susceptibility test against Streptococcus pneumoniae was done using disk diffusion method.The antibiotic disks were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, oxacillin, levofloxacin, azithromycin, and doxycycline. Results: Out of 100 samples, 8 of them were tested positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Three of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates died with unknown reason after it were stored at -80 .The drugs resistance test showed the resistance of Streptococcus pneumonia to oxacillin, azithromycin and trimethoprim were 6, whereas levofloxacin and doxycycline are 4. Conclusions: Streptococcus pneumonia drugs resistance in acute rhinosinusitis shows the resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to oxacillin, azithromycin and trimethoprim are 6, whereas the resistance to levofloxacin and doxycycline are 4.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility and occurrence of resistance genes among Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden from different countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Lertworapreecha, M.; Evans, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    and gentamicin. All nine ampicillin-resistant isolates contained a sequence similar to the bla(TEM-1b) gene, one of the eight chloramphenicol-resistant isolates a sequence similar to the catA1 gene, all three neomycin-resistant isolates a sequence similar to the aphA-2 gene, 16 (73%) of the 22 streptomycin...... isolates were examined for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, and resistant isolates were examined for the presence of selected resistance genes by PCR. Results: Only 48 (9.5%) of the isolates were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobial agents tested. A low frequency of resistance was found...

  12. Does antifouling paint select for antibiotic resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Pal, Chandan; Svensson, Carl Johan; Kristiansson, Erik; Östman, Marcus; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Tysklind, Mats; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2017-07-15

    There is concern that heavy metals and biocides contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. Most antifouling paints contain high amounts of such substances, which risks turning painted ship hulls into highly mobile refuges and breeding grounds for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objectives of this study were to start investigate if heavy-metal based antifouling paints can pose a risk for co-selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and, if so, identify the underlying genetic basis. Plastic panels with one side painted with copper and zinc-containing antifouling paint were submerged in a Swedish marina and biofilms from both sides of the panels were harvested after 2.5-4weeks. DNA was isolated from the biofilms and subjected to metagenomic sequencing. Biofilm bacteria were cultured on marine agar supplemented with tetracycline, gentamicin, copper sulfate or zinc sulfate. Biofilm communities from painted surfaces displayed lower taxonomic diversity and enrichment of Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteria from these communities showed increased resistance to both heavy metals and tetracycline but not to gentamicin. Significantly higher abundance of metal and biocide resistance genes was observed, whereas mobile antibiotic resistance genes were not enriched in these communities. In contrast, we found an enrichment of chromosomal RND efflux system genes, including such with documented ability to confer decreased susceptibility to both antibiotics and biocides/heavy metals. This was paralleled by increased abundances of integron-associated integrase and ISCR transposase genes. The results show that the heavy metal-based antifouling paint exerts a strong selection pressure on marine bacterial communities and can co-select for certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria, likely by favoring species and strains carrying genes that provide cross-resistance. Although this does not indicate an immediate risk for promotion of mobile antibiotic resistance, the

  13. Usage of antimicrobials and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria from mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Sørensen, Charlotte Mark

    2009-01-01

    , whereas resistance to other antimicrobials was rare. All P aeruginosa were sensitive to gentamicin and colistin and sensitive or intermediate to enrofloxacin. whereas most isolates were resistant to all other antimicrobials. All P. multocida and haemolytic streptococci were sensitive to penicillin...

  14. Challenges to Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng

    This report originates from the compulsory defense during my Ph.D. study at the Technical University of Denmark. Resistance welding is an old and well-proven technology. Yet the emergence of more and more new materials, new designs, invention off new joining techniques, and more stringent...... requirement in quality have imposed challenges to the resistance welding. More some research and development have to be done to adapt the old technology to the manufacturing industry of the 21st century. In the 1st part of the report, the challenging factors to the resistance welding are reviewed. Numerical...... simulation of resistance welding has been under development for many years. Yet it is no easy to make simulation results reliable and accurate because of the complexity of resistance welding process. In the 2nd part of the report numerical modeling of resistance welding is reviewed, some critical factors...

  15. Multidrug-Resistant Candida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Patterson, Thomas F

    2017-01-01

    Invasive Candida infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized and immunocompromised or critically ill patients. A limited number of antifungal agents from only a few drug classes are available to treat patients with these serious infections. Resistance...... can be either intrinsic or acquired. Resistance mechanisms are not exchanged between Candida; thus, acquired resistance either emerges in response to an antifungal selection pressure in the individual patient or, more rarely, occur due to horizontal transmission of resistant strains between patients....... Although multidrug resistance is uncommon, increasing reports of multidrug resistance to the azoles, echinocandins, and polyenes have occurred in several Candida species, most notably Candida glabrata and more recently Candida auris. Drivers are overall antifungal use, subtherapeutic drug levels at sites...

  16. Resistance in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is about resistance in everyday life, illustrated through empirical contexts from different parts of the world. Resistance is a widespread phenomenon in biological, social and psychological domains of human cultural development. Yet, it is not well articulated in the academic literature....... The contributors deal with strategies for handling dissent by individuals or groups, specifically dissent through resistance. Resistance can be a location of intense personal, interpersonal and cultural negotiation, and that is the primary reason for interest in this phenomenon. Ordinary life events contain...

  17. Resistent tuberkulose i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, V O; Johansen, I S; Bauer, J O

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Increased rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) has been reported from countries close to Denmark. We evaluated the incidence of drug resistance in Denmark in order to determine the magnitude of the problem. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Susceptibility testing was performed......-cluster. Among all patients with isoniazid- and streptomycin-resistance, 77.0% had clustered strains. DISCUSSION: In conclusion, although drug resistance among untreated Danes was close to the rate estimated in good national programmes, close monitoring is needed in future years, as active transmission...

  18. Antipastorialism : Resistant Georgic Mode

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... Abolitionists, women, Afro-British slaves, and those who protested land enclosure developed a multivalent, resistant mode of writing, which I name 'antipastoralism', that countered orthodox, poetical...

  19. Antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in Escherichia coli from poultry farms, southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelowo, Olawale O; Fagade, Obasola E; Agersø, Yvonne

    2014-09-12

    This study investigated the mechanisms of resistance in 36 E. coli isolated from waste, litter, soil and water samples collected from poultry farms in Southwestern Nigeria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions of the isolates were determined using the methods of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute and resistance genes detected by PCR. A total of 30 isolates (94%) showed resistance to more than one antimicrobial. Percentage resistance was: tetracycline 81%, sulphamethoxazole 67%, streptomycin 56%, trimethoprim 47 %, ciprofloxacin 42%, ampicillin 36%, spectinomycin 28%, nalidixic acid 25%, chloramphenicol 22%, neomycin 14%, gentamicin 8%, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, colistin, florfenicol and apramycin 0%. Resistance genes found among the isolates include bla-TEM (85%), sul2 (67%), sul3 (17%), aadA (65%), strA (70%), strB (61%), catA1 (25%), cmlA1 (13%), tetA (21%) and tetB (17%). Class 1 and 2 integrons were found in five (14%) and six (17%) isolates, respectively, while one isolate was positive for both classes of integrons. Seven out of eight isolates with resistance to ciprofloxacin and MIC ≤ 32 mg/L to nalidixic acid contained qnrS genes. Our findings provided additional evidence that the poultry production environment in Nigeria represents an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes such as qnrS that may spread from livestock production farms to human populations via manure and water.

  20. Antibiotic resistance in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Mary D; Pratt, Rachael; Hart, Wendy S

    2003-01-01

    There is currently no systematic surveillance or monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Australian animals. Registration of antibiotics for use in animals is tightly controlled and has been very conservative. Fluoroquinolones have not been registered for use in food producing animals and other products have been removed from the market because of human health concerns. In the late 1970s, the Animal Health Committee coordinated a survey of resistance in Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs and poultry and in bovine Staphylococcus aureus. Some additional information is available from published case reports. In samples collected prior to the withdrawal of avoparcin from the market, no vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis were detected in samples collected from pigs, whereas some vanA enterococci, including E. faecium and E. faecalis, were found in chickens. No vanB enterococci were detected in either species. Virginiamycin resistance was common in both pig and poultry isolates. Multiple resistance was common in E. coli and salmonellae isolates. No fluoroquinolone resistance was found in salmonellae, E. coli or Campylobacter. Beta-lactamase production is common in isolates from bovine mastitis, but no methicillin resistance has been detected. However, methicillin resistance has been reported in canine isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius and extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli has been found in dogs.

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit search ... & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  2. Resistance and conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumter, S.R.; Bokhorst, C.L.; Westenberg, P.M.; Levesque, R.J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to peer influence, or the ability to resist making choices or adopting views under the implicit or explicit influence of your peers, is expected to undergo changes during adolescence. Two developmental trajectories have emerged from the field. On the one hand, adolescents show a temporary

  3. Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munita, Jose M.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    Emergence of resistance among the most important bacterial pathogens is recognized as a major public health threat affecting humans worldwide. Multidrug-resistant organisms have emerged not only in the hospital environment but are now often identified in community settings, suggesting that reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are present outside the hospital. The bacterial response to the antibiotic “attack” is the prime example of bacterial adaptation and the pinnacle of evolution. “Survival of the fittest” is a consequence of an immense genetic plasticity of bacterial pathogens that trigger specific responses that result in mutational adaptations, acquisition of genetic material or alteration of gene expression producing resistance to virtually all antibiotics currently available in clinical practice. Therefore, understanding the biochemical and genetic basis of resistance is of paramount importance to design strategies to curtail the emergence and spread of resistance and devise innovative therapeutic approaches against multidrug-resistant organisms. In this chapter, we will describe in detail the major mechanisms of antibiotic resistance encountered in clinical practice providing specific examples in relevant bacterial pathogens. PMID:27227291

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  6. Phenotypic Resistance to Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of antibiotic resistance is usually associated with genetic changes, either to the acquisition of resistance genes, or to mutations in elements relevant for the activity of the antibiotic. However, in some situations resistance can be achieved without any genetic alteration; this is called phenotypic resistance. Non-inherited resistance is associated to specific processes such as growth in biofilms, a stationary growth phase or persistence. These situations might occur during infection but they are not usually considered in classical susceptibility tests at the clinical microbiology laboratories. Recent work has also shown that the susceptibility to antibiotics is highly dependent on the bacterial metabolism and that global metabolic regulators can modulate this phenotype. This modulation includes situations in which bacteria can be more resistant or more susceptible to antibiotics. Understanding these processes will thus help in establishing novel therapeutic approaches based on the actual susceptibility shown by bacteria during infection, which might differ from that determined in the laboratory. In this review, we discuss different examples of phenotypic resistance and the mechanisms that regulate the crosstalk between bacterial metabolism and the susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, information on strategies currently under development for diminishing the phenotypic resistance to antibiotics of bacterial pathogens is presented.

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated Report Data Meetings ... Deutsch | 日本語 | فارسی | English FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR ...

  8. Resistance to change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dow, J.; Perotti, E.

    2009-01-01

    Established firms often fail to maintain leadership following disruptive market shifts. We argue that such firms are more prone to internal resistance. A radical adjustment of assets affects the distribution of employee rents, creating winners and losers. Losers resist large changes when strong

  9. Resistance to change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dow, J.; Perotti, E.

    2013-01-01

    Established firms often fail to maintain leadership following disrup tive market shifts. We argue that such firms are more prone to internal resistance. A radical adjustment of assets affects the distribution of employee rents, creating winners and losers. Losers resist large changes when strong

  10. Glycosphingolipids and insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, Mirjam; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk for insulin resistance, a state characterized by impaired responsiveness of liver, muscle and adipose tissue to insulin. One class of lipids involved in the development of insulin resistance are the (glyco)sphingolipids. Ceramide, the most simple

  11. Safety of gentamicin bladder irrigations in complex urological cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoor, William; Ferguson, Denise; Mashni, Susan; Creelman, Lisa; Reeves, Deborah; Minevich, Eugene; Reddy, Pramod; Sheldon, Curtis

    2006-05-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections are common in complex pediatric urological cases, particularly those requiring clean intermittent catheterization. At our institution gentamicin bladder irrigations have been used for antimicrobial prophylaxis and to treat symptomatic bacteriuria, particularly when the infection does not involve the upper urinary tract. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of this therapy. A retrospective study was performed of all children treated with gentamicin bladder irrigations from 1999 to 2004. The dose was 14 mg gentamicin in 30 ml saline instilled via catheter once or twice daily. Serum creatinine and random gentamicin levels were obtained according to a protocol based on risk of gentamicin toxicity. Patient demographics, laboratory results and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records. A total of 80 patients (38 males and 42 females) were identified. Median patient age was 10 years and median duration of treatment was 90 days. No patient had detectable serum gentamicin levels greater than 0.4 mg/dl. Small increases in serum creatinine were seen in 3 patients, all of whom had chronic renal insufficiency. A total of 21 patients (26%) had breakthrough UTIs, of which 5 (24%) were gentamicin resistant. No adverse events were documented. Gentamicin bladder irrigations are a helpful adjunct in the management of complex pediatric urological cases involving recurrent symptomatic bacteriuria. We no longer require intensive laboratory monitoring of low risk patients at our institution.

  12. Antibiotic Resistance of Diverse Bacteria from Aquaculture in Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The administration of antimicrobials in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating a reservoir of multiple resistant bacteria in the cultured fish and shrimps as well as the aquaculture environment. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance in aquaculture products and aquaculture’s surrounding environment in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Ninety-four identified bacterial isolates constituted of 17 genera were isolated from sediment, water, and cultured organisms (fish and shrimp in selected aquaculture farms. These isolates were tested for their antibiotic resistance against 22 antibiotics from several groups using the disk diffusion method. The results show that the highest resistance was observed towards streptomycin (85%, n=20, while the lowest resistance was towards gentamicin (1.1%, n=90. The multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR index of the isolates tested ranged between 0 and 0.63. It was suggested that isolates with MAR index > 0.2 were recovered from sources with high risk of antibiotic resistant contamination. This study revealed low level of antibiotic resistance in the aquaculture bacterial isolates except for streptomycin and ampicillin (>50% resistance, n=94 which have been used in the aquaculture industry for several decades. Antibiotic resistant patterns should be continuously monitored to predict the emergence and widespread of MAR. Effective action is needed to keep the new resistance from further developing and spreading.

  13. A study on heat resistance of high temperature resistant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Xueying; Zhang, Qibin; Qin, Yanlong; Lin, Zhu [Research Institute of Engineering Technology of CNPC, Tianjin (China)

    2005-04-15

    A high temperature resistant coating has been developed, which is mainly for heavy oil production pipes deserved the serious corrosion. The coating has excellent physical and mechanical performance and corrosion resistance at room and high temperature. In order to simulate the underground working condition of heavy oil pipes,the heat resistance of the high temperature resistant coating has been studied. The development and a study on the heat resistance of the DHT high temperature resistance coating have been introduced in this paper

  14. A study on heat resistance of high temperature resistant coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Xueying; Zhang, Qibin; Qin, Yanlong; Lin, Zhu

    2005-01-01

    A high temperature resistant coating has been developed, which is mainly for heavy oil production pipes deserved the serious corrosion. The coating has excellent physical and mechanical performance and corrosion resistance at room and high temperature. In order to simulate the underground working condition of heavy oil pipes,the heat resistance of the high temperature resistant coating has been studied. The development and a study on the heat resistance of the DHT high temperature resistance coating have been introduced in this paper

  15. Sponge Microbiota are a Reservoir of Functional Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versluis, Dennis; de Evgrafov, Mari Cristina Rodriguez; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2016-01-01

    examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional...... resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis, and Corticium candelabrum. We obtained 37 insert sequences facilitating resistance to D-cycloserine (n = 6), gentamicin (n = 1), amikacin (n = 7), trimethoprim (n = 17), chloramphenicol (n = 1), rifampicin (n = 2) and ampicillin (n = 3......-resistance-conferring β-lactamase was identified in the genus Pseudovibrio with 41% global amino acid identity to the closest β-lactamase with demonstrated functionality, and subsequently classified into a new family termed PSV. Taken together, our results show that sponge microbiota host diverse and novel resistance...

  16. Drug Resistance Mechanisms of Mycoplasma pneumoniae to Macrolide Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Throat swabs from children with suspected Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae infection were cultured for the presence of M. pneumoniae and its species specificity using the 16S rRNA gene. Seventy-six M. pneumoniae strains isolated from 580 swabs showed that 70 were erythromycin resistant with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC around 32–512 mg/L. Fifty M. pneumoniae strains (46 resistant, 4 sensitive were tested for sensitivity to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin. Tetracycline and ciprofloxacin had some effect, and gentamicin had an effect on the majority of M. pneumoniae strains. Domains II and V of the 23S rRNA gene and the ribosomal protein L4 and L22 genes, both of which are considered to be associated with macrolide resistance, were sequenced and the sequences were compared with the corresponding sequences in M129 registered with NCBI and the FH strain. The 70 resistant strains all showed a 2063 or 2064 site mutation in domain V of the 23S rRNA but no mutations in domain II. Site mutations of L4 or L22 can be observed in either resistant or sensitive strains, although it is not known whether this is associated with drug resistance.

  17. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNerney Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With almost 9 million new cases each year, tuberculosis remains one of the most feared diseases on the planet. Led by the STOP-TB Partnership and WHO, recent efforts to combat the disease have made considerable progress in a number of countries. However, the emergence of mutated strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to the major anti-tuberculosis drugs poses a deadly threat to control efforts. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB has been reported in all regions of the world. More recently, extensively drug resistant-tuberculosis (XDR-TB that is also resistant to second line drugs has emerged in a number of countries. To ensure that adequate resources are allocated to prevent the emergence and spread of drug resistance it is important to understand the scale of the problem. In this article we propose that current methods of describing the epidemiology of drug resistant tuberculosis are not adequate for this purpose and argue for the inclusion of population based statistics in global surveillance data. Discussion Whereas the prevalence of tuberculosis is presented as the proportion of individuals within a defined population having disease, the prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis is usually presented as the proportion of tuberculosis cases exhibiting resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Global surveillance activities have identified countries in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union and regions of China as having a high proportion of MDR-TB cases and international commentary has focused primarily on the urgent need to improve control in these settings. Other regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa have been observed as having a low proportion of drug resistant cases. However, if one considers the incidence of new tuberculosis cases with drug resistant disease in terms of the population then countries of sub-Saharan Africa have amongst the highest rates of transmitted MDR-TB in the world. We propose

  18. Genetics Home Reference: clopidogrel resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Clopidogrel resistance Clopidogrel resistance Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Clopidogrel resistance is a condition in which the drug clopidogrel ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: warfarin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Warfarin resistance Warfarin resistance Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Warfarin resistance is a condition in which individuals have ...

  20. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms may interfere with membrane performance in at least three ways: (i) increase of the transmembrane pressure drop, (ii) increase of feed channel (feed-concentrate) pressure drop, and (iii) increase of transmembrane passage. Given the relevance of biofouling, it is surprising how few data exist about the hydraulic resistance of biofilms that may affect the transmembrane pressure drop and membrane passage. In this study, biofilms were generated in a lab scale cross flow microfiltration system at two fluxes (20 and 100Lm-2h-1) and constant cross flow (0.1ms-1). As a nutrient source, acetate was added (1.0mgL-1 acetate C) besides a control without nutrient supply. A microfiltration (MF) membrane was chosen because the MF membrane resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were determined, it was demonstrated that no internal membrane fouling occurred and that the fouling layer actually consisted of a grown biofilm and was not a filter cake of accumulated bacterial cells. At 20Lm-2h-1 flux with a nutrient dosage of 1mgL-1 acetate C, the resistance after 4 days reached a value of 6×1012m-1. At 100Lm-2h-1 flux under the same conditions, the resistance was 5×1013m-1. No correlation of biofilm resistance to biofilm thickness was found; Biofilms with similar thickness could have different resistance depending on the applied flux. The cell number in biofilms was between 4×107 and 5×108 cellscm-2. At this number, bacterial cells make up less than a half percent of the overall biofilm volume and therefore did not hamper the water flow through the biofilm significantly. A flux of 100Lm-2h-1 with nutrient supply caused higher cell numbers, more biomass, and higher biofilm resistance than a flux of 20Lm-2h-1. However, the biofilm thickness

  1. Antibiotic Resistance in Foodborne Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Ciara; Duffy, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Wide-spread antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens is now a serious public health issue and multi-antibiotic resistance has been reported in many foodborne pathogens including Salmonella and E. coli. A study to determine antibiotic resistance profiles of a range of Salmonella and Verocytotoxigenic E.coli (VTEC) isolated from Irish foods revealed significant levels of antibiotic resistance in the strains. S. typhimurium DT104 were multiantibiotic resistant with 97% resistant to 7 anti...

  2. FRC collisionless resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Horton, W.

    1990-01-01

    Ions in the field reversed configuration (FRC) exhibit stochastic orbits due to the field null and the curvature of poloidal field lines. Velocity correlations of these particles decay in a power law fashion t -m where 1 ≤ m ≤ 2. This decay of the single particle correlation function is characteristic of the long tail correlations of strongly chaotic or nonlinear systems found in other problems of statistical physics. This decay of correlations gives rise to a collisionless resistivity that can far exceed the collisional resistivity in an FRC plasma. The finite correlation τ c of a single particle limits the acceleration in the electric field producing the finite resistivity. Maxwellian test particle distributions are integrated to find the measure of the set of stochastic ions that contribute to the collisionless resistivity. The computed conductivity is proportional to the square root of the characteristic ion gyroradius in both simulation and theory

  3. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... June 6, 2018 HIV Vaccine Elicits Antibodies in Animals that Neutralize Dozens of HIV Strains , June 4, 2018 ... Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance > Understanding share with facebook share with twitter share ...

  4. Antibiotics and Resistance: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chromosomes and plasmids. Transposons often carry genes specifying antimicrobial resistance. Virus An extremely small infective agent, visible only with an electron microscope. Viruses can cause disease in humans, animals and plants. Viruses consist of a protein coat ...

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search Popular ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will ...

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of ... and other key audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists ...

  7. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Rob; Agid, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. METHOD: A systematic review of randomize...

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for ... issue of antimicrobial resistance is that the subject material appears abstract and is complex. This video was ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance ( ...

  10. Piggyback resistive Micromegas

    CERN Document Server

    Attié, D; Durand, D; Desforge, D; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; Giomataris, Y; Gongadze, A; Iguaz, F J; Jeanneau, F; de Oliveira, R; Papaevangelou, T; Peyaud, A; Teixeira, A

    2013-01-01

    Piggyback Micromegas consists in a novel readout architecture where the anode element is made of a resistive layer on a ceramic substrate. The resistive layer is deposited on the thin ceramic substrate by an industrial process which provides large dynamic range of resistivity (10$^6$ to 10$^{10}$\\,M$\\Omega$/square). The particularity of this new structure is that the active part is entirely dissociated from the read-out element. This gives a large flexibility on the design of the anode structure and the readout scheme. Without significant loss, signals are transmitted by capacitive coupling to the read-out pads. The detector provides high gas gain, good energy resolution and the resistive layer assures spark protection for the electronics. This assembly could be combined with modern pixel array electronic ASICs. First tests with different Piggyback detectors and configurations will be presented. This structure is adequate for cost effective fabrication and low outgassing detectors. It was designed to perform ...

  11. Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Gonorrhea Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Low Resolution ...

  12. Cotrimoxazole Resistant Chancroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlender Singh

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Four male young adults, after contact with prostitutes, developed clinically typical chancroid which was resistant to cotrimoxazole alone and also in combination with tetracycline. With chloramphenicol, the response was quick and complete with no untoward side effects.

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated Report Data Meetings and Publications Resources Judicious Use of ... back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases ...

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... complex. This video was designed to make the concept of antimicrobial resistance more real and understandable to ... audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists by showing how ...

  15. MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    health, with the focus of DOTS programmes on cure of infectious TB patients and prevention of drug resistance. ... Despite highly effective drugs and disease control strategies, morbidity and mortality .... notification and registration system.

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One of the major obstacles to understanding the issue of antimicrobial resistance is that the subject material ... Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888- ...

  17. Adiabatic and isothermal resistivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The force-balance method is used to calculate the isothermal resistivity to first order in the electric field. To lowest order in the impurity potential, the isothermal resistivity disagrees with the adiabatic results of the Kubo formula and the Boltzmann equation. However, an expansion of the isothermal resistivity in powers of the impurity potential is divergent, with two sets of divergent terms. The first set arises from the density matrix of the relative electron-phonon system. The second set arises from the explicit dependence of the density matrix on the electric field, which was ignored by force-balance calculations. These divergent contributions are calculated inductively, by applying a recursion relation for the Green's functions. Using the λ 2 t→∞ limit of van Hove, I show that the resummation of these divergent terms yields the same result for the resistivity as the adiabatic calculations, in direct analogy with the work of Argyres and Sigel, and Huberman and Chester

  18. Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all that ails you. Antibiotics, also known as antimicrobial drugs, are drugs that fight infections caused by bacteria. ... Information for Consumers and Health Professionals Information by drug class Antimicrobial Resistance Animal and Veterinary Related Resources Further information ...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains ... bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate ... and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One ...

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts ... Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular ...

  1. Regicide and Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role of resistance in Michel Foucault’s political thought. The article recovers this otherwise obscured aspect of Foucault’s thought through a systematic analysis of his theoretical regicide and consequent reconceptualization of power, agency and resistance. It is argued...... that Foucault developed a highly original account of resistance, which was, and should continue to be considered, central to his thought and its critical potential. It is shown how Foucault’s concept of resistance overcomes the limitation of voluntarism and determinism, which continue to mare contemporary...... political theory, providing a passage from the critique of contemporary configurations of power to the irrepressible possibility that they may be contested and changed....

  2. Stab resistant body armour

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfall, I

    2000-01-01

    There is now a widely accepted need for stab resistant body armour for the police in the UK. However, very little research has been done on knife resistant systems and the penetration mechanics of sharp projectiles are poorly understood. This thesis explores the general background to knife attack and defence with a particular emphasis on the penetration mechanics of edged weapons. The energy and velocity that can be achieved in stabbing actions has been determined for a numb...

  3. Radiation resistant modified polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojarski, J.; Zimek, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation technology for production of radiation resistant polypropylene for medical use has been presented. The method consists in radiation induced copolymerization of polypropylene with ethylene and addition of small amount of copolymer of polyethylene and vinyl acetate. The material of proposed composition has a very good mechanical properties and elevated radiation resistivity decided on possibility of radiosterilization of products made of this material and designed for medical use. 3 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Sponge microbiota are a reservoir of functional antibiotic resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Versluis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wide application of antibiotics has contributed to the evolution of multi-drug resistant human pathogens, resulting in poorer treatment outcomes for infections. In the marine environment, seawater samples have been investigated as a resistance reservoir; however, no studies have methodically examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis and Corticium candelabrum. We obtained 37 insert sequences facilitating resistance to D-cycloserine (n=6, gentamicin (n=1, amikacin (n=7, trimethoprim (n=17, chloramphenicol (n=1, rifampicin (n=2 and ampicillin (n=3. Fifteen of 37 inserts harboured resistance genes that shared <90% amino acid identity with known gene products, whereas on 13 inserts no resistance gene could be identified with high confidence, in which case we predicted resistance to be mainly mediated by antibiotic efflux. One marine-specific ampicillin-resistance-conferring β-lactamase was identified in the genus Pseudovibrio with 41% global amino acid identity to the closest β-lactamase with demonstrated functionality, and subsequently classified into a new family termed PSV. Taken together, our results show that sponge microbiota host diverse and novel resistance genes that may be harnessed by phylogenetically distinct bacteria.

  5. A biodegradable gentamicin-hydroxyapatite-coating for infection prophylaxis in cementless hip prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Neut

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A degradable, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA, gentamicin-loaded prophylactic coating for hydroxyapatite (HA-coated cementless hip prostheses is developed with similar antibacterial efficacy as offered by gentamicin-loaded cements for fixing traditional, cemented prostheses in bone. We describe the development pathway, from in vitro investigation of antibiotic release and antibacterial properties of this PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coating in different in vitro models to an evaluation of its efficacy in preventing implant-related infection in rabbits. Bone in-growth in the absence and presence of the coating was investigated in a canine model. The PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coating showed high-burst release, with antibacterial efficacy in agar-assays completely disappearing after 4 days, minimising risk of inducing antibiotic resistance. Gentamicin-sensitive and gentamicin-resistant staphylococci were killed by the antibiotic-loaded coating, in a simulated prosthesis-related interfacial gap. PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coatings prevented growth of bioluminescent staphylococci around a miniature-stem mounted in bacterially contaminated agar, as observed using bio-optical imaging. PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coated pins inserted in bacterially contaminated medullary canals in rabbits caused a statistically significant reduction in infection rates compared to HA-coated pins without gentamicin. Bone ingrowth to PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coated pins, in condylar defects of Beagle dogs was not impaired by the presence of the degradable, gentamicin-loaded coating. In conclusion, the PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coating constitutes an effective strategy for infection prophylaxis in cementless prostheses.

  6. Clopidogrel Resistance: Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NS Neki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antiplatelet agents are mainly used in the prevention and management of atherothrombotic complications. Dual antiplatelet therapy, combining aspirin and clopidogrel, is the standard care for patients having acute coronary syndromes or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention according to the current ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines. But in spite of administration of dual antiplatelet therapy, some patients develop recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events especially stent thrombosis which is a serious clinical problem. Antiplatelet response to clopidogrel varies widely among patients based on ex vivo platelet function measurements. Clopidogrel is an effective inhibitor of platelet activation and aggregation due to its selective and irreversible blockade of the P2Y12 receptor. Patients who display little attenuation of platelet reactivity with clopidogrel therapy are labeled as low or nonresponders or clopidogrel resistant. The mechanism of clopidogrel resistance remains incompletely defined but there are certain clinical, cellular and genetic factors including polymorphisms responsible for therapeutic failure. Currently there is no standardized or widely accepted definition of clopidogrel resistance. The future may soon be realised in the routine measurement of platelet activity in the same way that blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar are followed to help guide the therapy, thus improving the care for millions of people. This review focuses on the methods used to identify patients with clopidogrel resistance, the underlying mechanisms, metabolism, clinical significance and current therapeutic strategies to overcome clopidogrel resistance. J Enam Med Col 2016; 6(1: 38-46

  7. CONTACT RESISTANCE MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. LOSKUTOV

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the contribution of the real contact spots distribution in the total conductivity of the conductors contact. Methodology. The electrical contact resistance research was carried out on models. The experimental part of this work was done on paper with a graphite layer with membranes (the first type and conductive liquids with discrete partitions (the second type. Findings. It is shown that the contact electrical resistance is mainly determined by the real area of metal contact. The experimental dependence of the electrical resistance of the second type model on the distance between the electrodes and the potential distribution along the sample surface for the first type model were obtained. The theoretical model based on the principle of electric field superposition was considered. The dependences obtained experimentally and calculated by using the theoretical model are in good agreement. Originality. The regularity of the electrical contact resistance formation on a large number of membranes was researched for the first time. A new model of discrete electrical contact based on the liquid as the conducting environment with nuclear membrane partitions was developed. The conclusions of the additivity of contact and bulk electrical resistance were done. Practical value. Based on these researches, a new experimental method of kinetic macroidentation that as a parameter of the metal surface layer deformation uses the real contact area was developed. This method allows to determine the value of average contact stresses, yield point, change of the stress on the depth of deformation depending on the surface treatment.

  8. Resistance to technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isensee, J.

    1983-01-01

    This article deals with the tolerance test the constitutional system (Basic Law) of the Federal Republic of Germany is currently put to as a consequence of the resistance to the power structure of this country, which is expressed in the name of protection and defense for the environment and world peace. This biopacifistic resistance movment, the author says, has nothing to do with the legal right to resist, as laid down in art. 20 (4) of the Basic Law. According to the author, this attitude is an offspring of fear of the hazards of technological progress, primarily of nuclear hazards. Practical resistance, the author states, is preceded by theoretical resistance in speech: De-legitimation of the democratic legality, of the parliamentary functions, of the supreme power of the government, and denial of the citizens duty of obedience. The author raises the question as to whether this attitude of disobedience on ecological grounds marks the onset of a fourth stage of development of the modern state, after we have passed through stages characterised by fear of civil war, of tyranny, and of social privation and suffering. There are no new ideas brought forward by the ecologically minded movement, the author says, for re-shaping our institutions or constitutional system. (HP) [de

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance and Resistance Genes in Aerobic Bacteria Isolated from Pork at Slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Ye, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance, integrons, and transferability of resistance markers in 243 aerobic bacteria recovered from pork at slaughter in the People's Republic of China. The organisms belonged to 22 genera of gram-negative bac......The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance, integrons, and transferability of resistance markers in 243 aerobic bacteria recovered from pork at slaughter in the People's Republic of China. The organisms belonged to 22 genera of gram......-negative bacteria (92.2%) and gram-positive bacteria (7.8%). High levels of resistance were detected to tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ampicillin (36.2 to 54.3%), and lower levels were detected to nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol (7.8 to 29.2%). Across.......6% of isolates contained class 1 integrons, and one isolate harbored class 2 integrons. Plasmid associated intI1 and androgen receptor– encoding genes were transferred into Escherichia coli J53 and E. coli DH5α by conjugation and transformation experiments, respectively. Our study highlights the importance...

  10. Induction of bacterial antibiotic resistance by mutagenic halogenated nitrogenous disinfection byproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Lu; Yu, Xin; Xu, Qian; Ye, Chengsong

    2015-01-01

    Halogenated nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) raise concerns regarding their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity threatening public health. However, environmental consequence of their mutagenicity has received less attention. In this study, the effect of halogenated N-DBPs on bacterial antibiotic resistance (BAR) was investigated. After exposure to bromoacetamide (BAcAm), trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN) or tribromonitromethane (TBNM), the resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to both individual and multiple antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, polymyxin B, rifampin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin + gentamicin and ciprofloxacin + tetracycline) was increased, which was predominantly ascribed to the overexpression of efflux pumps. The mechanism of this effect was demonstrated to be mutagenesis through sequencing and analyzing antibiotic resistance genes. The same induction phenomena also appeared in Escherichia coli, suggesting this effect may be universal to waterborne pathogens. Therefore, more attention should be given to halogenated N-DBPs, as they could increase not only genotoxicological risks but also epidemiological risks of drinking water. - Highlights: • The halogenated N-DBPs could induce bacterial antibiotic resistance. • Both individual and multiple resistances could be induced. • Efflux mechanism played an important role in the induced antibiotic resistance. • The halogenated N-DBPs induced bacterial antibiotic resistance via mutagenesis. • Effects of N-DBPs on antibiotic resistance may be universal to waterborne pathogens. - Halogenated N-DBPs could increase antibiotic resistance, even multidrug resistance via mutagenesis, contributing to the enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria in drinking water

  11. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K J; Lee, Y K; Kim, J S; Kim, J K; Lee, S J

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes.

  12. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes

  13. Heat-resistant materials

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    This handbook covers the complete spectrum of technology dealing with heat-resistant materials, including high-temperature characteristics, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, materials selection guidelines for industrial applications, and life-assessment methods. Also included is information on comparative properties that allows the ranking of alloy performance, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, high-temperature oxidation and corrosion-resistant coatings for superalloys, and design guidelines for applications involving creep and/or oxidation. Contents: General introduction (high-temperature materials characteristics, and mechanical and corrosion properties, and industrial applications); Properties of Ferrous Heat-Resistant Alloys (carbon, alloy, and stainless steels; alloy cast irons; and high alloy cast steels); Properties of superalloys (metallurgy and processing, mechanical and corrosion properties, degradation, and protective coa...

  14. Fast Resistive Bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, C.; Fehl, D.L.; Hanson, D.L.; Keltner, N.R.; McGurn, J.S.; McKenney, J.L.; Spielman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Resistive bolometry is an accurate, robust, spectrally broadband technique for measuring absolute x-ray fluence and flux. Bolometry is an independent technique for x-ray measurements that is based on a different set of physical properties than other diagnostics such as x-ray diodes, photoconducting detectors, and P-I-N diodes. Bolometers use the temperature-driven change in element resistivity to determine the total deposited energy. The calibration of such a device is based on fundamental material properties and its physical dimensions. We describe the use of nickel and gold bolometers to measure x rays generated by high-power z pinches on Sandia's Saturn and Z accelerators. The Sandia bolometer design described herein has a pulse response of ∼1 ns. We describe in detail the fabrication, fielding, and data analysis issues leading to highly accurate x-ray measurements. The fundamental accuracy of resistive bolometry will be discussed

  15. Gentamicin release from commercially-available gentamicin-loaded PMMA bone cements in a prosthesis-related interfacial gap model and their antibacterial efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Mei Henny C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around about 1970, a gentamicin-loaded poly (methylmethacrylate (PMMA bone cement brand (Refobacin Palacos R was introduced to control infection in joint arthroplasties. In 2005, this brand was replaced by two gentamicin-loaded follow-up brands, Refobacin Bone Cement R and Palacos R + G. In addition, another gentamicin-loaded cement brand, SmartSet GHV, was introduced in Europe in 2003. In the present study, we investigated differences in gentamicin release and the antibacterial efficacy of the eluent between these four cement brands. Methods 200 μm-wide gaps were made in samples of each cement and filled with buffer in order to measure the gentamicin release. Release kinetics were related to bone cement powder particle characteristics and wettabilities of the cement surfaces. Gaps were also inoculated with bacteria isolated from infected prostheses for 24 h and their survival determined. Gentamicin release and bacterial survival were statistically analysed using the Student's t-test. Results All three Palacos variants showed equal burst releases but each of the successor Palacos cements showed significantly higher sustained releases. SmartSet GHV showed a significantly higher burst release, while its sustained release was comparable with original Palacos. A gentamicin-sensitive bacterium did not survive in the high gentamicin concentrations in the interfacial gaps, while a gentamicin-resistant strain did, regardless of the type of cement used. Survival was independent of the level of burst release by the bone cement. Conclusions Although marketed as the original gentamicin-loaded Palacos cement, orthopaedic surgeons should be aware that the successor cements do not appear to have the same release characteristics as the original one. Overall, high gentamicin concentrations were reached inside our prosthesis-related interfacial gap model. These concentrations may be expected to effectively decontaminate the prosthesis

  16. Kinetically Controlled Drug Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xin E.; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Hedstrom, Lizbeth

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium brevicompactum produces the immunosuppressive drug mycophenolic acid (MPA), which is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases (IMPDHs). IMPDH catalyzes the conversion of IMP to XMP via a covalent enzyme intermediate, E-XMP*; MPA inhibits by trapping E...... of resistance is not apparent. Here, we show that, unlike MPA-sensitive IMPDHs, formation of E-XMP* is rate-limiting for both PbIMPDH-A and PbIMPDH-B. Therefore, MPA resistance derives from the failure to accumulate the drug-sensitive intermediate....

  17. Characterization of resistance to tetracyclines and aminoglycosides of sheep mastitis pathogens: study of the effect of gene content on resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollai, S A; Ziccheddu, M; Duprè, I; Piras, D

    2016-10-01

    Mastitis causes economic losses and antimicrobials are frequently used for mastitis treatment. Antimicrobial resistance surveys are still rare in the ovine field and characterization of strains is important in order to acquire information about resistance and for optimization of therapy. Bacterial pathogens recovered in milk samples from mastitis-affected ewes were characterized for resistance to tetracyclines and aminoglycosides, members of which are frequently used antimicrobials in small ruminants. A total of 185 strains of staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci, common mastitis pathogens, were tested for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) to tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and for resistance genes by PCR. Effects of different tet genes arrangements on MICs were also investigated. Staphylococci expressed the lowest MIC for tetracycline and tet(K) was the most common gene recovered; tet(M) and tet(O) were also found. Gene content was shown to influence the tetracycline MIC values. Enterococci and streptococci showed higher MICs to tetracyclines and nonsusceptible strains always harboured at least one ribosomal protection gene (MIC above 8 μg ml(-1) ). Streptococci often harboured two or more tet determinants. As regards the resistance to aminoglycosides, staphylococci showed the lowest gentamicin and kanamycin median MIC along with streptomycin high level resistant (HLR) strains (MIC >1024 μg ml(-1) ) all harbouring str gene. The resistance determinant aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia was present in few strains. Streptococci were basically nonsusceptible to aminoglycosides but neither HLR isolates nor resistance genes were detected. Enterococci revealed the highest MICs for gentamicin; two str harbouring isolates were shown to be HLR to streptomycin. Evidence was obtained for the circulation of antimicrobial-resistant strains and genes in sheep dairy farming. Tetracycline MIC of 64 μg ml(-1) and high

  18. [Resistance risk, cross-resistance and biochemical resistance mechanism of Laodelphax striatellus to buprofezin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xu-lian; Liu, Jin; Li, Xu-ke; Chi, Jia-jia; Liu, Yong-jie

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the resistance development law and biochemical resistance mechanism of Laodelphax striatellus to buprofezin, spraying rice seedlings was used to continuously screen resistant strains of L. striatellus and dipping rice seedlings was applied to determine the toxicity and cross-resistance of L. striatellus to insecticides. After 32-generation screening with buprofezin, L. striatellus developed 168.49 folds resistance and its reality heritability (h2) was 0.11. If the killing rate was 80%-90%, L. striatellus was expected to develop 10-fold resistance to buprofezin only after 5 to 6 generations breeding. Because the actual reality heritability of field populations was usually lower than that of the resistant strains, the production of field populations increasing with 10-fold resistance would need much longer time. The results of cross-resistance showed that resistant strain had high level cross-resistance with thiamethoxam and imidacloprid, low level cross-resistance with acetamiprid, and no cross-resistance with pymetrozine and chlorpyrifos. The activity of detoxification enzymes of different strains and the syergism of synergist were measured. The results showed that cytochrome P450 monooxygenase played a major role in the resistance of L. striatellus to buprofezin, the esterase played a minor role and the GSH-S-transferase had no effect. Therefore, L. striatellus would have high risk to develop resistance to buprofezin when used in the field and might be delayed by using pymetrozine and chlorpyrifos.

  19. Antibiotic resistant pattern of methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients durining 2009-2010, Ahvaz, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Parhizgari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important nosocomial infecting agents resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Nowadays, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA is considered one of the main causes of nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to identify the antibiotic resistance pattern of methicicllin- resistant and susceptible strains in Ahwaz, Iran. Methods: In the present cross - sectional study, a number of 255 clinically suspected cases of Staphylococcus aureus were collected during a 19 month period. The bacteria were investigated using standard biochemical tests such as catalase, mannitol fermentation, coagulase and Dnase. Sensitive strains were confirmed by disk diffusion method compared to commonly used antibiotics. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tests. Results: of 255 suspected cases, 180 were confirmed as S.aureus, a total of 59 strains of S. aureus (2/37 percent were resistant to methicillin. Resistance to S. aureus strains resistant to methicillin included: chloramphenicol (3.38%, rifampin (45.76%, norfloxacin (89.83%, gentamicin (89.83%, ciprofloxacin, (91.52%, azithromycin, (88.13%, cotrimoxazole (86.44% and all isolates strains were sensitive to vancomycin and nitrofurantoin. A total of 10 different patterns of antibiotic resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were identified. Conclusion: Expression of new resistance factor in nosocomial infection is one of the major challenges in treating these infections. This study showed a high prevalence of resistance against some class of antibiotics in MRSA isolated from Imam Khomeini and Golestan hospital of Ahwaz, Iran. Key words: Nosocomial infection, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Antibiotic Resistant Pattern

  20. Resistive effects in EXTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical studies of the resistive equilibrium and stability of an EXTRAP Z-pinch are reported. Extending the previous analysis we reasses properties of the resistive equilibrium in EXTRAP with the emphasis on the time dependence of the latter. We also qualitatively consider the role of resistive instabilities in EXTRAP, showing that the typical timescale of the filamentation of the discharge (i.e., the non-linear development of the tearing instability) is comparable, at present, to the discharge duration. On the other hand, we emphasize that this phenomenon may still be consistent with the experimental observation of the Bennet's equilibrium. The processes of the current start-up and ramp-up are also analysed for EXTRAP and it is shown that the peculiarities of these processes may lead to the compression oscillations around an evolving rather stable equilibrium. Finally, some consequences of the average minimum-B concept for EXTRAP are discussed and it is shown that this issue virtually reduces to the appearance of the negative curvature of the magnetic field at the periphery. The maximum attainable value of β at the periphery of the pinch is obtained, as required by the ballooning stability criterion. The influence of the finite resistivity on the ballooning mode is also estimated. (orig.)

  1. Shatter resistance in sesame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langham, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    The majority of the world's sesame (probably over 99%) is shattering, and most of the harvest is manual. In a non-mechanized environment the last thing that farmers want is seed retention (''hold''). They want the seed to fall out as easily as possible. The amount of shattering desired is dependent on the method of harvest. By 1944 the first stage of mechanization was initiated. The indehiscent mutant found in 1943 showed in succeeding generations that it was controlled monogenically, and the homozygous recessive (id/id) gave indehiscence. Unfortunately, the id allele had pleiotropic effects including cupped leaves, twisted stems, short seed pods, semi-sterility, and low yield. Improvements in shatter resistance are relative within a specific program. For example, Sesaco has improved its shatter resistance each year, and still for the USA methods of harvest, further improvements are necessary to allow for better retention in adverse weather. This paper presents a methodology for quantifying shatter resistance so researchers can compare levels of shatter resistance between programs. (author)

  2. Corrosion resistant steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubchenko, A.S.; Borisov, V.P.; Latyshev, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion resistant steel for production of sheets and tubes containing C, Mn, Cr, Si, Fe is suggested. It is alloyed with vanadium and cerium for improving tensile properties and ductility. The steel can be melted by a conventional method in electric-arc or induction furnaces. The mentioned steel is intended to be used as a substitute for nickel-bearing austenitic steels

  3. Viscous, Resistive Magnetorotational Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan

    2008-01-01

    We carry out a comprehensive analysis of the behavior of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in viscous, resistive plasmas. We find exact, non-linear solutions of the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations describing the local dynamics of an incompressible, differentially rotating...

  4. The resistance brand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm; Uldam, Julie

    “The Trump-resistance will be commercialized” (Hess, 2017). Paraphrasing political activist and artist Gil Scott-Heron’s famous title seems increasingly apt as one corporation after the other voices sympathy with social protesters and/or dismay at the politics of the White House incumbent. But how...

  5. Corrosion resistant composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul'yanin, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Foundations for corrosion-resistant composite materials design are considered with account of components compatibility. Fibrous and lamellar composites with metal matrix, dispersion-hardened steels and alloys, refractory metal carbides-, borides-, nitrides-, silicides-based composites are described. Cermet compositions and fields of their application, such as protective coatings for operation in agressive media at high temperatures, are presented

  6. Resistive effects in EXTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, M.

    1985-10-01

    Theoretical studies of the resistive equilibrium and stability of an EXTRAP z-pinch are reported. Extending the previous analysis we reassess properties of the resistive equilibrium in EXTRAP with the emphasis on the time dependence of the latter. We also qualitatively consider the role of resistive instabilities in EXTRAP, showing that the typical timescale of the filamentation of the discharge (i.e. the non-linear development of the tearing instability) is comparable at present, to the discharge duration. On the other hand, we emphasize that this phenomenon may still be consistent with the experimental observation of the Bennet's equilibrium. The processes of the current start-up and ramp up are also analysed for EXTRAP and it is shown that the peculiarities if these processes in EXTRAP may lead to the compression oscillations around and evolving rather stable equilibrium. The frequency of these oscillations is given. Finally, some consequences of the average minimum-B concept for EXTRAP are discussed and it is shown that this issue virtually reduces to the appearance of the negative curvature of the magnetic field at the periphery. The maximum attainable value of β at the periphery of the pinch is obtained, as required by the ballooning stability criterion. The influence of the finite resistivity on the ballooning mode is also estimated. With 4 figures and 21 refs. (Author)

  7. Oseltamivir-Resistant Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-13

    Dr. Aaron Storms, an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officer at CDC, discusses his paper about oseltamivir-resistant H1N1flu.  Created: 4/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/17/2012.

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pin it Email Print The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in ...

  9. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Oeltmann discusses multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. An outbreak occurred in Thailand, which led to 45 cases in the U.S. This serious illness can take up to 2 years to treat. MDR TB is a real threat and a serious condition.

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  11. Overcoming Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Ted H.; Balka, Don S.; Miles, Ruth Harbin

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to change is a major obstacle in developing and implementing effective instructional programs, yet it is rarely considered, discussed, or addressed. The school leaders who are responsible for improvement frequently feel that their efforts are being blocked or thwarted. For the most part, they are correct, but they may not realize that…

  12. Antibiotic Resistance and Fungus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-28

    Dr. David Denning, President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections and an infectious diseases clinician, discusses antimicrobial resistance and fungus.  Created: 2/28/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/28/2017.

  13. Measurement of Dynamic Resistance in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    Through years, the dynamic resistance across the electrodes has been used for weld quality estimation and contact resistance measurement. However, the previous methods of determining the dynamic resistance were mostly based on measuring the voltage and current on the secondary side of the transfo......Through years, the dynamic resistance across the electrodes has been used for weld quality estimation and contact resistance measurement. However, the previous methods of determining the dynamic resistance were mostly based on measuring the voltage and current on the secondary side...... of the transformer in resistance welding machines, implying defects from induction noise and interference with the leads connected to the electrodes for measuring the voltage. In this study, the dynamic resistance is determined by measuring the voltage on the primary side and the current on the secondary side...

  14. HIV resistance testing and detected drug resistance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultze, Anna; Phillips, Andrew N; Paredes, Roger

    2015-01-01

    to Southern Europe. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a concurrent decline in virological failure and testing, drug resistance was commonly detected. This suggests a selective approach to resistance testing. The regional differences identified indicate that policy aiming to minimize the emergence of resistance......OBJECTIVES: To describe regional differences and trends in resistance testing among individuals experiencing virological failure and the prevalence of detected resistance among those individuals who had a genotypic resistance test done following virological failure. DESIGN: Multinational cohort...... study. METHODS: Individuals in EuroSIDA with virological failure (>1 RNA measurement >500 on ART after >6 months on ART) after 1997 were included. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for resistance testing following virological failure and aORs for the detection of resistance among those who had a test were...

  15. Antimicrobial resistance of fecal Salmonella spp. isolated from all phases of pig production in 20 herds in Alberta and Saskatchewan

    OpenAIRE

    Rosengren, Leigh B.; Waldner, Cheryl L.; Reid‐Smith, Richard J.; Checkley, Sylvia L.; McFall, Margaret E.; Rajíc, Andrijana

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella spp. (n = 468), isolated from the feces of sows, nursery, and grow‐finish pigs in 20 farrow‐to‐finish herds in Alberta and Saskatchewan, were tested for susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials. No resistance was identified to amikacin, amoxicillin‐clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin or nalidixic acid, and less than 1% of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin and gentamicin. Isolates were most commonly resistant to tetracycline (35%) and sulfamethoxazole (27%). Ove...

  16. Resistance of Bacteria to Biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2018-04-01

    Biocides and formulated biocides are used worldwide for an increasing number of applications despite tightening regulations in Europe and in the United States. One concern is that such intense usage of biocides could lead to increased bacterial resistance to a product and cross-resistance to unrelated antimicrobials including chemotherapeutic antibiotics. Evidence to justify such a concern comes mostly from the use of health care-relevant bacterial isolates, although the number of studies of the resistance characteristics of veterinary isolates to biocides have increased the past few years. One problem remains the definition of "resistance" and how to measure resistance to a biocide. This has yet to be addressed globally, although the measurement of resistance is becoming more pressing, with regulators both in Europe and in the United States demanding that manufacturers provide evidence that their biocidal products will not impact on bacterial resistance. Alongside in vitro evidence of potential antimicrobial cross-resistance following biocide exposure, our understanding of the mechanisms of bacterial resistance and, more recently, our understanding of the effect of biocides to induce a mechanism(s) of resistance in bacteria has improved. This article aims to provide an understanding of the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria following a biocide exposure. The sections provide evidence of the occurrence of bacterial resistance and its mechanisms of action and debate how to measure bacterial resistance to biocides. Examples pertinent to the veterinary field are used where appropriate.

  17. Resistant plasmid profile analysis of multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple drug resistance isolates causing UTI has seri- ous implications for the empiric therapy against patho- genic isolates and for the possible co-selection of antimicrobial resistant mediated by multi drug resistant plasmids21,22. E. coli from clinical isolates are known to harbour plasmids of different molecular sizes23.

  18. Resistant plasmid profile analysis of multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli has become a major threat and cause of many urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the resistant plasmids of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from (Urinary tract infections)UTIs in Abeokuta.

  19. Are Sewage Treatment Plants Promoting Antibiotic Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction 1.1. How bacteria exhibit resistance 1.1.1. Resistance to -lactams 1.1.2. Resistance to sulphonamides and trimethoprim 1.1.3. Resistance to macrolides 1.1.4. Resistance to fluoroquinolones 1.1.5. Resistance to tetracyclines 1.1.6. Resistance to nitroimidaz...

  20. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  1. Galileo's Trajectory with Mild Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groetsch, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of Galileo's classical trajectory that persists in a simple resistance model is noted. The resistive model provides a case study for the classroom analysis of limiting behaviour of an implicitly defined function. (Contains 1 note.)

  2. Insulin Resistance of Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Megan M; Zeitler, Philip S

    2016-07-01

    Puberty is a time of considerable metabolic and hormonal change. Notably, puberty is associated with a marked decrease in insulin sensitivity, on par with that seen during pregnancy. In otherwise healthy youth, there is a nadir in insulin sensitivity in mid-puberty, and then it recovers at puberty completion. However, there is evidence that insulin resistance (IR) does not resolve in youth who are obese going into puberty and may result in increased cardiometabolic risk. Little is known about the underlying pathophysiology of IR in puberty, and how it might contribute to increased disease risk (e.g., type 2 diabetes). In this review, we have outlined what is known about the IR in puberty in terms of pattern, potential underlying mechanisms and other mediating factors. We also outline other potentially related metabolic changes that occur during puberty, and effects of underlying insulin resistant states (e.g., obesity) on pubertal changes in insulin sensitivity.

  3. Electrical resistivity probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  4. Antifungal resistance in mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannaoui, E

    2017-11-01

    The order Mucorales, which includes the agents of mucormycosis, comprises a large number of species. These fungi are characterised by high-level resistance to most currently available antifungal drugs. Standardised antifungal susceptibility testing methods are now available, allowing a better understanding of the in vitro activity of antifungal drugs against members of Mucorales. Such tests have made apparent that antifungal susceptibility within this group may be species-specific. Experimental animal models of mucormycosis have also been developed and are of great importance in bridging the gap between in vitro results and clinical trials. Amphotericin B, posaconazole and isavuconazole are currently the most active agents against Mucorales; however, their activity remains suboptimal and new therapeutic strategies are needed. Combination therapy could be a promising approach to overcome resistance, but further studies are required to confirm its benefits and safety for patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  5. Progesterone resistance in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Bansari G; Rudnicki, Martin; Yu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain and affects up to 10% of women of reproductive age. Aberrant progesterone signaling in the endometrium plays a significant role in impaired decidualization and establishment of ectopic endometrial implants. Eutopic endometrial cells from women...... with endometriosis fail to downregulate genes needed for decidualization, such as those involved in cell cycle regulation, leading to unbridled proliferation. Several causes of progesterone resistance in the endometrium have been postulated, including congenital "preconditioning", whereby the in utero environment...... renders infants susceptible to neonatal uterine bleeding and endometriosis. Progesterone action is crucial to decreasing inflammation in the endometrium, and deviant progesterone signaling results in a proinflammatory phenotype. Conversely, chronic inflammation can induce a progesterone resistant state...

  6. Antibacterial resistance: an emerging 'zoonosis'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labro, Marie-Thérèse; Bryskier, Jean-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Antibacterial resistance is a worldwide threat, and concerns have arisen about the involvement of animal commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance and spread of resistance genes. However, beyond the facts related to the occurrence of resistant microorganisms in food, food-producing animals and companion animals and their transmission to humans, it is important to consider the vast environmental 'resistome', the selective pathways underlying the emergence of antibacterial resistance and how we can prepare answers for tomorrow.

  7. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi [Wading River, NY

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  8. Shock resistance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouard, M.

    1984-03-01

    In the framework of mechanical tests and to answer the different requests for tests, the T.C.R (Transport Conditionnement et Retraitement) laboratory got test facilities. These installations allow to carry out tests of resistance to shocks, mainly at the safety level of components of nuclear power plants, mockups of transport casks for fuel elements and transport containers for radioactive materials. They include a tower and a catapult. This paper give a decription of the facilities and explain their operation way [fr

  9. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-28

    In this podcast, Dr. Oeltmann discusses multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. An outbreak occurred in Thailand, which led to 45 cases in the U.S. This serious illness can take up to 2 years to treat. MDR TB is a real threat and a serious condition.  Created: 10/28/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 10/28/2008.

  10. Resistência a antimicrobianos de Escherichia coli isolada de dejetos suínos em esterqueiras Antibiotic-resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from stored pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F.P. Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial resistance of 96 Escherichia coli strains isolated from a stabilization pond system on a pig-breeding farm was evaluated. Strains were tested for their resistance against 14 antimicrobial using the agar diffusion method. E. coli strains showed resistance to tetracycline (82.3%, nalidixic acid (64%, ampicilin (41%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprin (36%, sulfonamide (34%, cloranphenicol (274%, ciprofloxacin (19%, cefaclor (16%, streptomicyn (7.3%, neomicyn (1%, amoxacilin/ clavulanic acid (1%, and amikacin (1%. No resistance was observed to gentamicin and tobramycin, and 37.5% of E. coli strains were resistant to four or more antimicrobials. The multiresistance pattern was found in strains isolated during all sampled period. Strains showed a high variability in the antimicrobial resistance pattern.

  11. Resistance and sheet resistance measurements using electron beam induced current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerwinski, A.; Pluska, M.; Ratajczak, J.; Szerling, A.; KaPtcki, J.

    2006-01-01

    A method for measurement of spatially uniform or nonuniform resistance in layers and strips, based on electron beam induced current (EBIC) technique, is described. High electron beam currents are used so that the overall resistance of the measurement circuit affects the EBIC signal. During the evaluation, the electron beam is scanned along the measured object, whose load resistance varies with the distance. The variation is compensated by an adjustable resistance within an external circuit. The method has been experimentally deployed for sheet resistance determination of buried regions of lateral confinements in semiconductor laser heterostructures manufactured by molecular beam epitaxy

  12. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance involves the collection and analysis of data for the detection and monitoring of threats to public health. Surveillance should also inform as to the epidemiology of the threat and its burden in the population. A further key component of surveillance is the timely feedback of data to stakeholders with a view to generating action aimed at reducing or preventing the public health threat being monitored. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation. Correlation of these data with demographic and clinical data for the patient populations from whom the pathogens were isolated gives insight into the underlying epidemiology and facilitates the formulation of rational interventions aimed at reducing the burden of resistance. This article describes a range of surveillance activities that have been undertaken in the UK over a number of years, together with current interventions being implemented. These activities are not only of national importance but form part of the international response to the global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. PMID:25918439

  13. Mechanisms of ouabain resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.T. III.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were designed to investigate the mechanism of ouabain resistance in two distinct types of transfected cells derived from ouabain-sensitive CV-1 cell parents. The first type of transfectant is the recipient of a gene encoding the alpha subunit of the rodent renal Na,K-ATPase (R-alphal gene); the second type of transfectant is the recipient of the mouse ouabain resistance gene. Measurements of 86 Rb + uptake and Na,K=ATPase activity in R-alphal gene transfectant cells and CV-1 parent cells indicate that the ouabain-resistant phenotype of the transfectants is due to expression of a relatively ouabain-insensitive Na,K=ATPase. CV-1 parent cells express one component of ouabain sensitive 86 Rb + uptake and one component of ouabain-sensitive Na, K-ATPase activity. R-alpha 1 gene transfectants express the parental forms of ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake and Na,K-ATPase activity, but in addition express new,relatively ouabain-insensitive forms of 86 Rb + uptake activity and Na,K-ATPase activity

  14. Radiation resistant lining material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, Koki; Okagawa, Seigo; Tamaki, Hidehiro.

    1990-01-01

    Rigidity, viscoelasticity, flexibility, radiation resistance, leaching resistance, rust-proofness, endurance, etc. are required for the lining materials to wall surfaces and floor surfaces of facilities used under the effect of radiation rays and for the inner surface protection of vessels for radioactive wastes. The present invention provides radiation resistant lining material capable of satisfying such various requirements in a well-balanced manner. That is, the material contains (A) 100 parts by weight of rapidly curing cement, (B) 50 to 300 % by weight of aggregate, and (C) 80 to 120 parts by weight of polymer emulsion. As the specific example, the ingredient (A) is commercially available under the trade name of Jet Cement. The aggregate of the ingredient (B) has preferably from about 0.6 to 0.2 mm of size and is made of material, preferably, silicon or iron grains. As the ingredient (C), acrylic resin emulsion is preferred. As a result of example, these ingredient constitutions can satisfy each of the required performance described above. (I.S.)

  15. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  16. Heat resistant protective hand covering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R.; Arons, I. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A heat-resistant aromatic polyamide fiber is described. The outer surface of the shell is coated with a fire-resistant elastomer and liner. Generally conforming and secured to the shell and disposed inwardly of the shell, the liner is made of a felt fabric of temperature-resistant aromatic polymide fiber.

  17. Biotechnology: herbicide-resistant crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are planted on about 80% of the land covered by transgenic crops. More than 90% of HR crios are glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, the others being resistant to glufosinate. The wide-scale adoption of HR crops, largely for economic reasons, has been the mos...

  18. Flow resistance in rod assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsun, A.S.; Sokolova, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    The general form of relation between the resistance force and the velocity vector, resistance tensor structure and possible types of anisotropy in the flow thorough such structures as rod or tube assemblies are under discussion. Some questions of experimental determination of volumetric resistance force tensor are also under consideration. (author)

  19. Studying Resistance: Some Cautionary Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2011-01-01

    The question of "resistance" has oriented the field of critical ethnography for several generations now. Indeed, the reproduction-resistance binary has animated much of the most important, critical work in educational studies over the last 30 years. Yet, this reproduction-resistance binary has perhaps calcified in recent years. Such work…

  20. Electromigration early resistance increase measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, J.; Flinn, P.A.; Maloney, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    An early resistance change measurement set-up, using an AC bridge technique, has been developed, and measurements have been performed. Large sample-to-sample variations occur. The characteristic time for the resistance change curve is shorter for resistance increase (under current stress) than for

  1. Sublethal Triclosan Exposure Decreases Susceptibility to Gentamicin and Other Aminoglycosides in Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Gram, Lone; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt

    2011-01-01

    (containing quaternary ammonium compound) in four consecutive cultures did not alter the frequency of antibiotic-tolerant isolates, as determined by plating on 2x the MIC for a range of antibiotics. Exposure of eight strains of L. monocytogenes to 1 and 4 µg/ml triclosan did not alter triclosan sensitivity...... resistance remained at a high level also after five subcultures without triclosan or gentamicin. Aminoglycoside resistance can be caused by mutations in the target site, the 16S rRNA gene. However, such mutations were not detected in the N53-1-resistant isolates. A combination of gentamicin and ampicillin...

  2. Resistance patterns of bacterial isolates to antimicrobials from 3 hospitals in the United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlDhaheri, Ahmed S; AlNiyadi, Mohammed S; AlDhaheri Ahmed D; Bastaki, Salim M

    2009-01-01

    To compare the resistance pattern of common bacterial pathogens to commonly used drugs. Information and statistics of antimicrobial resistance for 1994 and 2005 were collected from the 3 hospital microbiology laboratories in the United Arab Emirates. The resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to several front-line drugs were estimated. All laboratories used automatic machines (Vitek 2), which identifies and determines minimum inhibitory concentrations simultaneously. Increased resistance was observed for Staphylococcus aureus, (n=315, 2005) to erythromycin (approximately 6 fold, Al-Ain Hospital only), cloxacillin (Al-Ain Hospital), and gentamicin (more than 3-10 folds in all hospitals). Increased penicillin resistance was not observed. For the common Gram-negative organisms, there was a high resistance to ampicillin, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem, which seemed to increase for Escherichia coli, (by 4.2-200%, n=305, 2005); however, there was very little resistance to imipenem (0.4%) in Tawam Hospital. Variable resistance patterns were obtained for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=316, 2005) and Klebsiella spp,(n=316, 2005) against aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin. Overall, there was an obvious increase in resistance of bacteria and the prevalence rate to a number of drugs from 1-120 folds during the 11-year period. (author)

  3. Resistance pattern of clinical isolates of staphylococcus aureus against five groups of antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzana, K.; Hameed, A.

    2006-01-01

    Among the samples received in pathology laboratory, Pakistan institute of Medical Science, Islamabad, 5069 samples had bacterial growth, among these 2580 (51%) samples were Gram-positive cocci and 1688 were Staphylococcus aureus during a period of two years. Out of these Gram-positive cocci 56% were resistant to penicillin group, 27% were resistant to cephalosporin group, 22% were resistant to aminoglycoside group 15% were resistant to quinolone group and 31% were resistant to other antibiotics (cotrimaxazole, erythromycin, aztreonam, vancomycin, nitrofurantion and meropenam). Antibio-grams of Gram-positive cocci were determined against various antibiotics by disc diffusion method. The rate of resistance to most of the antibiotics such as ampicillin, piperacillin, carbenicillin, penicillin, cephradine, cefotaxime, erythromycin, ceclor, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, cotrimexazole (septran), gentamicin, meropenem, ceftazidime, erythromycin, tobramycin, enoxacin was higher when tested against the isolates collected from pus as compared to those from blood and urine. Antibiotic resistant strains were more prevalent in pus samples than other clinical isolates (blood and urine). The randomly selected 155 strains of Staphylococcus aureus when tested against five groups of antibiotics showed resistance rate against ampicillin (92%), cephradine (92%), cephradine (60%), and gentamicin (58%). However intermediate resistance was found in case of vancomicin (38%), in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. (author)

  4. Assessing resistance of stabilized corrosion resistant steels to intergranular corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas, A.; Cihal, V. Jr.; Vanek, V.; Herzan, J.; Protiva, K.; Cihal, V.

    1987-01-01

    Resistance to intergranular corrosion was determined for four types of titanium-stabilized steels from the coefficients of stabilization efficiency according to the degree the chemical composition was known. The ATA SUPER steel showed the highest resistance parameter value. The resistance of this type of steel of a specific composition, showing a relatively low value of mean nitrogen content was compared with steel of an optimized chemical composition and with low-carbon niobium stabilized, molybdenum modified steels. The comparison showed guarantees of a sufficient resistance of the steel to intergranular corrosion. The method of assessing the resistance to intergranular corrosion using the calculation of the minimum content of Cr', i.e., the effective chromium content, and the maximum effective carbon content C' giving the resistance parameter k seems to be prospective for practical use in the production of corrosion resistant steels. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 15 refs

  5. Antimicrobial drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M S; Siqueira-Júnior, J P

    1995-06-01

    Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from apparently healthy cattle in the State of Paraiba, Brazil were characterized in relation to resistance to 21 antimicrobial agents. Among the 46 isolates obtained, resistance to penicillin was most frequent, followed by resistance to cadmium, streptomycin, arsenate, tetracycline, mercury, erythromycin and kanamycin/neomycin. All isolates were susceptible to fusidic acid, ethidium bromide, cetrimide, chloramphenicol, benzalkonium chloride, doxycycline, gentamicin, methicillin, minocycline, novobiocin, rifamycin, tylosin and vancomycin. Only six isolates were susceptible to all the drugs tested. With respect to the antibiotics, multi-resistant isolates were uncommon. These results are probably a consequence of the peculiarities of local drug usage pressures. In relation to metal ions, resistance to mercury was rare while resistance to arsenate was relatively frequent, which contrasts with the situation for human Staph. aureus strains. After treatment with ethidium bromide, elimination of resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin and cadmium was observed, which was consistent with the genetic determinants being plasmid-borne.

  6. Molecular Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluit, Ad C.; Visser, Maarten R.; Schmitz, Franz-Josef

    2001-01-01

    The determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate, especially with increasing resistance, is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients. Nucleic acid-based assays for the detection of resistance may offer advantages over phenotypic assays. Examples are the detection of the methicillin resistance-encoding mecA gene in staphylococci, rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the spread of resistance determinants across the globe. However, molecular assays for the detection of resistance have a number of limitations. New resistance mechanisms may be missed, and in some cases the number of different genes makes generating an assay too costly to compete with phenotypic assays. In addition, proper quality control for molecular assays poses a problem for many laboratories, and this results in questionable results at best. The development of new molecular techniques, e.g., PCR using molecular beacons and DNA chips, expands the possibilities for monitoring resistance. Although molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance clearly are winning a place in routine diagnostics, phenotypic assays are still the method of choice for most resistance determinations. In this review, we describe the applications of molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance and the current state of the art. PMID:11585788

  7. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by acquired resistance...... genes, has not become widespread so far. However, resistance genes originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species have been found, showing the potential for acquired resistance to emerge in Campylobacter....

  8. Gentamicin nephrotoxicity: Animal experimental correlate with human pharmacovigilance outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunsho Awodele

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC, which is responsible for pharmacovigilance activity in Nigeria, recently withdrew injection gentamicin 280 mg, used in the management of life-threatening and multidrug-resistant infections from circulation, due to reported toxicity. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the toxicity profile of the commonly used strengths (80 mg and 280 mg of gentamicin on kidney using animal models. Methods: Animals were divided into five groups of 16 rats each. For rats of groups 1 and 2, gentamicin (1.14 mg/kg each group was administered intramuscularly twice daily for 7 and 14 days, respectively, after which eight of them were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood was collected via cardiac puncture and the kidneys were carefully removed and weighed immediately. The remaining eight animals were kept for reversibility study for another 7 and 14 days, respectively. For groups 3 and 4, gentamicin (4 mg/kg each group was administered as a single daily dose for 7 and 14 days, respectively, and eight animals from the groups were subjected to reversibility study for 7 and 14 days, respectively. Group 5, the control group animals, were given 10 ml/kg distilled water for 14 days. Histopathology of the kidneys, serum creatinine levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities were investigated. Results: Significant increase (p ≤ 0.001 in the level of creatinine of rats administered 4.0 mg/kg for 14 days was observed compared with all other groups. Significant (p ≤ 0.001 elevations in the lipid peroxidation in all gentamicin-administered animals and acute tubular necrosis in most of the gentamicin-administered animals were observed. Conclusion: Toxicity profile of gentamicin on the kidneys is dependent on both dose and duration of administration. The findings justify the decision made by NAFDAC to ban the use of high-dose inj. gentamicin 280 mg in Nigeria.

  9. Happy Festivus! Parody as playful consumer resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkonen, Ilona; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon literary theory, play and consumer resistance literature, we conceptualize consumer parodic resistance – a resistant form of play that critically refunctions dominant consumption discourses and marketplace ideologies. We explore parodic resistance empirically by analyzing Festivus, a...

  10. Controlling antibiotic resistance in the ICU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derde, L.P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) are frequently colonized with (antibiotic-resistant) bacteria, which may lead to healthcare associated infections. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (AMRB), such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci

  11. Proliferation resistance modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.; Peterson, P.; Roglans, J.; Mladineo, S.; Nuclear Engineering Division; BNL; Univ. of California at Berkely; PNNL

    2004-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration is developing methods for nonproliferation assessments. A working group on Nonproliferation Assessment Methodology (NPAM) assembled a toolbox of methods for various applications in the nonproliferation arena. One application of this methodology is to the evaluation of the proliferation resistance of Generation IV nuclear energy systems. This paper first summarizes the key results of the NPAM program and then provides results obtained thus far in the ongoing application, which is co-sponsored by the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology. In NPAM, a top-level measure of proliferation resistance for a fuel cycle system is developed from a hierarchy of metrics. The problem is decomposed into: metrics to be computed, barriers to proliferation, and a finite set of threats. The analyst models the process undertaken by the proliferant to overcome barriers to proliferation and evaluates the outcomes. In addition to proliferation resistance (PR) evaluation, the application also addresses physical protection (PP) evaluation against sabotage and theft. The Generation IV goal for future nuclear energy systems is to assure that they are very unattractive and the least desirable route for diversion or theft of weapons-usable materials, and provide increased physical protection against terrorism. An Expert Group, addressing this application, has identified six high-level measures for the PR goals (six measures have also been identified for the PP goals). Combined together, the complete set of measures provides information for program policy makers and system designers to compare specific system design features and integral system characteristics and to make choices among alternative options. The Group has developed a framework for a phased evaluation approach to analyzing PR and PP of system characteristics and to quantifying metrics and measures. This approach allows evaluations to become more detailed and representative

  12. NEW RADIATION RESISTANT GREASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DasGupta, Sharda; Slobodian, J. T.

    1962-11-20

    New radiation resistant greases were prepared from commercially available greases by carrying out radioinduced reactions with styrene. The radiation tolerances of the products were 250-1000 fold more than the starting materials and any product of similar properties now available. The various properties of the new products initially and after exposure to large radiation doses were in no case inferior to the original greases and in some respects improvements were observed. Radiation tolerance of commercial greases could be enhanced by the addition of polystyrene to form a physical mixture rather than copolymers. The reaction mechanisms involved at all stages were studied using infrared spectroscopic techniques. (P.C.H.)

  13. Tunable resistance coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Mane, Anil U.

    2015-08-11

    A method and article of manufacture of intermixed tunable resistance composite materials containing at least one of W:Al.sub.2O.sub.3, Mo:Al.sub.2O.sub.3 or M:Al.sub.2O.sub.3 where M is a conducting compound containing either W or Mo. A conducting material and an insulating material are deposited by such methods as ALD or CVD to construct composites with intermixed materials which do not have structure or properties like their bulk counterparts.

  14. Multidrug resistant Fusarium keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antequera, P; Garcia-Conca, V; Martín-González, C; Ortiz-de-la-Tabla, V

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of keratitis in a female contact lens wearer, who developed a deep corneal abscess. The culture of a corneal biopsy scraping was positive for multiresistant Fusarium solani. The patient has a complicated clinical course and failed to respond to local and systemic antifungal treatment, requiring eye enucleation. Fusarium keratitis may progress to severe endophthalmitis. Clinical suspicion is paramount in order to start antifungal therapy without delay. Therapy is complex due to the high resistance of this organism to usual antifungal drugs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of the novel aminoglycoside resistance determinant RmtF with NDM carbapenemase in Enterobacteriaceae isolated in India and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Laura; Hopkins, Katie L; Gutierrez, Belen

    2013-01-01

    16S rRNA methyltransferases are an emerging mechanism conferring high-level resistance to clinically relevant aminoglycosides and have been associated with important mechanisms such as NDM-1. We sought genes encoding these enzymes in isolates highly resistant (MIC >200 mg/L) to gentamicin and ami...

  16. Defining the Relationship Between Phenotypic and Genotypic Resistance Profiles of Multidrug-Resistant Enterobacterial Clinical Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Lamis; Abdel Aziz, Neveen A; Hassan, Walaa M

    2018-05-11

    Fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides offer effective therapy for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enterobacterial infections, but their usefulness is threatened by increasing resistant strains. This study was conducted to demonstrate the phenotypic outcomes of the coexistence of genetic determinants mediating resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and quinolones in enterobacterial isolates collected from patients with health-care-associated infections in Egypt. ESBL phenotype was determined using double-disk synergy test (DDST). The PCR technique was used to detect the presence of the genes mediating quinolone resistance (qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr) and coexistence with ESBL genes. We also examined the association between the genetic makeup of the isolates and their resistance profiles including effect on MIC results. Phenotypically ESBLs were detected in 60-82% of the enterobacterial isolates. ESBL, qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes were detected with the following percentages in Citrobacter isolates (69%, 69%, and 43%, respectively), E.coli isolates (65%, 70%, and 45%, respectively), Enterobacter isolates (56%, 67%, and 33%, respectively), and finally Klebsiella isolates (42%, 66%, and 25%, respectively). The coexistence of these multiresistant genetic elements significantly increased the MIC values of the tested antibiotics from different classes. We suggest using blaTEM, blaCTX-M-15, qnr, and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes for better and faster prediction of suitable antibiotic therapy with effective doses against ESBL-producing isolates harboring plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants. Amikacin, meropenem, gentamicin, and imipenem seem to be better choices of treatment for such life-threatening infections, because of their remaining highest activity.

  17. Measuring The Contact Resistances Of Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Simple method devised to measure contact resistances of photovoltaic solar cells. Method uses readily available equipment and applicable at any time during life of cell. Enables evaluation of cell contact resistance, contact-end resistance, contact resistivity, sheet resistivity, and sheet resistivity under contact.

  18. Outwitting the series resistance in scanning spreading resistance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, A.; Cao, R.; Eyben, P.; Hantschel, T.; Vandervorst, W.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of nanoelectronics devices critically depends on the distribution of active dopants inside these structures. For this reason, dopant profiling has been defined as one of the major metrology challenges by the international technology roadmap of semiconductors. Scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) has evolved as one of the most viable approaches over the last decade due to its excellent spatial resolution, sensitivity and quantification accuracy. However, in case of advanced device architectures like fins and nanowires a proper measurement of the spreading resistance is often hampered by the increasing impact of parasitic series resistances (e.g. bulk series resistance) arising from the confined nature of the aforementioned structures. In order to overcome this limitation we report in this paper the development and implementation of a novel SSRM mode (fast Fourier transform-SSRM: FFT-SSRM) which essentially decouples the spreading resistance from parasitic series resistance components. We show that this can be achieved by a force modulation (leading to a modulated spreading resistance signal) in combination with a lock-in deconvolution concept. In this paper we first introduce the principle of operation of the technique. We discuss in detail the underlying physical mechanisms as well as the technical implementation on a state-of-the-art atomic force microscope (AFM). We demonstrate the performance of FFT-SSRM and its ability to remove substantial series resistance components in practice. Eventually, the possibility of decoupling the spreading resistance from the intrinsic probe resistance will be demonstrated and discussed. - Highlights: • A novel electrical AFM mode for carrier profiling in confined volumes is presented. • Thereby the force and hence the contact area between AFM probe and sample is modulated. • Information on the spreading resistance is derived using a lock-in approach. • Bulk series resistance components are

  19. Relaxation resistance of heat resisting alloys with cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzdyka, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Relaxation resistance of refractory nickel-chromium alloys containing 5 to 14 % cobalt is under study. The tests involve the use of circular samples at 800 deg to 850 deg C. It is shown that an alloy containing 14% cobalt possesses the best relaxation resistance exceeding that of nickel-chromium alloys without any cobalt by a factor of 1.5 to 2. The relaxation resistance of an alloy with 5% cobalt can be increased by hardening at repeated loading

  20. A resistência olha a resistência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ponciano Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Resistência é um processo humano que acontece quando a pessoa se encontra sob algum tipo de ameaça. Não é essencialmente um acontecimento psicoterapêutico. Ocorre na terapia não como uma oposição a si mesmo ou ao terapeuta, mas como uma forma de se ajustar a uma nova situação. A resistência, é por natureza, a atualização do instinto de auto-preservação. E o organismo inteligentemente segue a lei da preferência. Resistência é uma forma de contato que não pode ser destruída, mas administrada, porque ela surge como uma defesa da totalidade vivenciada pela pessoa. A Resistência é, às vezes, resistência e awareness mais que ao contato. Ela revela mais o caminho seguido do que oculta a caminhada feita. A resistência é um processo natural, porque o corpo que não resiste, morre, mas falamos em processos de auto-regulação organísmica. Valorizamos mais o que mantêm a resistência funcionando do que à própria resistência. O terapeuta também resiste, ou seja, ele se auto-regula na sua relação com o cliente. Não questionamos a resistência, mas o processo que a mantêm. Trabalhamos com nove mecanismos de defesa, também tradicionalmente, chamados de resistência.

  1. Corrosion resistant cemented carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a corrosion resistant cemented carbide composite. It comprises: a granular tungsten carbide phase, a semi-continuous solid solution carbide phase extending closely adjacent at least a portion of the grains of tungsten carbide for enhancing corrosion resistance, and a substantially continuous metal binder phase. The cemented carbide composite consisting essentially of an effective amount of an anti-corrosion additive, from about 4 to about 16 percent by weight metal binder phase, and with the remaining portion being from about 84 to about 96 percent by weight metal carbide wherein the metal carbide consists essentially of from about 4 to about 30 percent by weight of a transition metal carbide or mixtures thereof selected from Group IVB and of the Periodic Table of Elements and from about 70 to about 96 percent tungsten carbide. The metal binder phase consists essentially of nickel and from about 10 to about 25 percent by weight chromium, the effective amount of an anti-corrosion additive being selected from the group consisting essentially of copper, silver, tine and combinations thereof

  2. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  3. [Resistant hypertension: An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, N F

    2018-02-04

    An estimated 10% to 20% of hypertensive patients could be considered resistant to treatment (RH). These are patients who are not controlled using three drugs, at the maximum tolerated doses, including a diuretic, as well as those with high blood pressure controlled using four or more drugs. The term is used to identify patients that might benefit from special diagnostic and/or therapeutic consideration. The term 'refractory hypertension' has recently been proposed as a novel phenotype of antihypertensive failure. It refers to patients whose blood pressure cannot be controlled with maximum treatment. The first studies of this phenotype indicate that it is rare and affects less than 5% of patients with RH. Adherence to or compliance with medical treatment is key to defining resistant hypertension. Closer attention has been paid to clinical and experimental research since the first scientific statement for the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of RH from the American Heart Association, and in the European guidelines, was published in 2008. This review will set out the concepts relating to prevalence, prognosis and compliance and cover the latest developments on this subject. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome-wide identification of antimicrobial intrinsic resistance determinants in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vestergaard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antimicrobial resistance severely threatens our ability to treat bacterial infections. While acquired resistance has received considerable attention, relatively little is known of intrinsic resistance that allows bacteria to naturally withstand antimicrobials. Gene products that confer intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial agents may be explored for alternative antimicrobial therapies, by potentiating the efficacy of existing antimicrobials. In this study, we identified the intrinsic resistome to a broad spectrum of antimicrobials in the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. We screened the Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library of 1920 single-gene inactivations in S. aureus strain JE2, for increased susceptibility to the anti-staphylococcal antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, linezolid, fosfomycin, daptomycin, mupirocin, vancomycin and gentamicin. 68 mutants were confirmed by E-test to display at least two-fold increased susceptibility to one or more antimicrobial agents. The majority of the identified genes have not previously been associated with antimicrobial susceptibility in S. aureus. For example, inactivation of genes encoding for subunits of the ATP synthase, atpA, atpB, atpG and atpH, reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of gentamicin 16-fold. To elucidate the potential of the screen, we examined treatment efficacy in the Galleria mellonella infection model. Gentamicin efficacy was significantly improved, when treating larvae infected with the atpA mutant compared to wild type cells with gentamicin at a clinically relevant concentration. Our results demonstrate that many gene products contribute to the intrinsic antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus. Knowledge of these intrinsic resistance determinants provides alternative targets for compounds that may potentiate the efficacy of existing antimicrobial agents against this important pathogen.

  5. Antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates in neonatal care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shrestha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bacterial infections account for a huge proportion of neonatal deaths worldwide. The problem of antibiotic resistance among common bacterial pathogens mainly the gram negative bacteria is emerging globally which is of more serious concern in developing countries like Nepal. METHODS: A one year retrospective hospital based study was carried out to analyze the results of neonatal blood, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, stool and surface cultures and to look into the sensitivity pattern of the commonly used antibiotics. RESULTS: The positive yield of blood, urine, eye swab and CSF cultures were 19.56%, 38.5%, 60% and 0.36% respectively. The most common isolates in the blood culture were coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter and non-haemolytic Streptococcus. A significant percent of the isolates were resistant to the first line antibiotics. Among the gram negative isolates more than 30% are resistant to cefotaxime and more than 50% are resistant to gentamicin. During the one year period we had Nursery outbreaks of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella infections. With the help of environmental cultures we were able to trace the source and intervene appropriately. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous surveillance for antibiotic susceptibility, rational use of antibiotics and the strategy of antibiotic cycling can provide some answers to the emerging problem of antibiotic resistance.

  6. Antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates in neonatal care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, S; Adhikari, N; Rai, B K; Shreepaili, A

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial infections account for a huge proportion of neonatal deaths worldwide. The problem of antibiotic resistance among common bacterial pathogens mainly the gram negative bacteria is emerging globally which is of more serious concern in developing countries like Nepal. A one year retrospective hospital based study was carried out to analyze the results of neonatal blood, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, stool and surface cultures and to look into the sensitivity pattern of the commonly used antibiotics. The positive yield of blood, urine, eye swab and CSF cultures were 19.56%, 38.5%, 60% and 0.36% respectively. The most common isolates in the blood culture were coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter and non-haemolytic Streptococcus. A significant percent of the isolates were resistant to the first line antibiotics. Among the gram negative isolates more than 30% are resistant to cefotaxime and more than 50% are resistant to gentamicin. During the one year period we had Nursery outbreaks of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella infections. With the help of environmental cultures we were able to trace the source and intervene appropriately. Continuous surveillance for antibiotic susceptibility, rational use of antibiotics and the strategy of antibiotic cycling can provide some answers to the emerging problem of antibiotic resistance.

  7. Ampicillin Resistance and Outcome Differences in Acute Antepartum Pyelonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura G. Greer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To measure the incidence of ampicillin-resistant uropathogens in acute antepartum pyelonephritis and to determine if patients with resistant organisms had different clinical outcomes. Study design. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of pregnant women admitted with pyelonephritis, diagnosed by standard clinical and laboratory criteria. All patients received ampicillin and gentamicin. Results. We identified 440 cases of acute pyelonephritis. Seventy-two percent (316 cases had urine cultures with identification of organism and antibiotic sensitivities. Fifty-one percent of uropathogens were ampicillin resistant. The patients with ampicillin-resistant organisms were more likely to be older and multiparous. There were no significant differences in hospital course (length of stay, days of antibiotics, ECU admission, or readmission. Patients with ampicillin-resistant organisms did not have higher complication rates (anemia, renal dysfunction, respiratory insufficiency, or preterm birth. Conclusion. A majority of uropathogens were ampicillin resistant, but no differences in outcomes were observed in these patients.

  8. Resistive Memory Devices for Radiation Resistant Non-Volatile Memory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ionizing radiation in space can damage electronic equipment, corrupting data and even disabling computers. Radiation resistant (rad hard) strategies must be employed...

  9. Multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from nosocomial respiratory and urinary infections in Aleppo, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoud, Maysa; Al Najjar, Mona; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak

    2015-02-19

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a serious clinical challenge due to its frequent involvement in nosocomial infections and its tendency towards multidrug resistance. This study uncovered antibiotic susceptibility patterns in 177 isolates from inpatients in three key hospitals in Aleppo, the largest city in Syria. Exceptionally low susceptibility to most routinely used antibiotics was uncovered; resistance to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was 64.9% and 70.3%, respectively. Contrarily, susceptibility to colistin was the highest (89.1%). Multidrug resistance was rife, found at a rate of 53.67% among studied P. aeruginosa isolates.

  10. Pattern of antibiotic resistant mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chandrasekaran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of drug resistant mastitis and their pattern of antibiotic resistance in dairy cows from Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: Isolation and identification of resistant pathogens were performed from acute clinical mastitis samples. Based on culture, isolation and sensitivity tests, cows with resistant mastitis were grouped as; Group I: Escherichia coli (n=119, Group II: Staphylococcus aureus (n=104 and Group III: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA (n=12. The isolates were tested using agar disc diffusion method for their antimicrobial susceptibility and modified resazurin assay microdilution technique for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to 8 antimicrobial drugs. The organisms were also confirmed for their identity by performing PCR on the bacterial pellet targeting the specific genes such as 16s-23s rRNA, mecA and blaZ respectively for the resistant pathogens and also confirmed by sequencing. Results: Antibiotic resistant mastitis was detected in 235 out of 401 cows accounting to 56.1%. The predominant resistant causative pathogen was E. coli (50.64% followed by S. aureus (44.25% and MRSA (5.11%. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test and MIC breakpoints, E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA organisms showed more sensitivity to enrofloxacin, amoxicillin + sulbactam, gentamicin and ceftriaxone and had highest resistant to penicillin followed by amoxicillin, oxytetracycline and methicillin. E. coli and S. aureus isolates were found to be resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobials, whereas most of the MRSA isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant i.e resistance to 3 or more of antimicrobials. Out of 235 milk samples, the specific target gene 16s-23s rRNA (E. coli , 16s-23s rRNA (S. aureus and MRSA (mecA and blaZ could be amplified from 119, 104 and 12 isolates with a percentage positivity of 50.64 (119/235, 89.64 (104/116 and 10.34 (12/116 respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR in

  11. The Prehistory of Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Julie; Waglechner, Nicholas; Wright, Gerard

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global problem that is reaching crisis levels. The global collection of resistance genes in clinical and environmental samples is the antibiotic "resistome," and is subject to the selective pressure of human activity. The origin of many modern resistance genes in pathogens is likely environmental bacteria, including antibiotic producing organisms that have existed for millennia. Recent work has uncovered resistance in ancient permafrost, isolated caves, and in human specimens preserved for hundreds of years. Together with bioinformatic analyses on modern-day sequences, these studies predict an ancient origin of resistance that long precedes the use of antibiotics in the clinic. Understanding the history of antibiotic resistance is important in predicting its future evolution. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  12. Genome-Wide Identification of Antimicrobial Intrinsic Resistance Determinants in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Leng, Bingfeng; Haaber, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance severely threatens our ability to treat bacterial infections. While acquired resistance has received considerable attention, relatively little is known of intrinsic resistance that allows bacteria to naturally withstand antimicrobials. Gene products...... that confer intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial agents may be explored for alternative antimicrobial therapies, by potentiating the efficacy of existing antimicrobials. In this study, we identified the intrinsic resistome to a broad spectrum of antimicrobials in the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. We...... with the atpA mutant compared to wild type cells with gentamicin at a clinically relevant concentration. Our results demonstrate that many gene products contribute to the intrinsic antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus. Knowledge of these intrinsic resistance determinants provides alternative targets...

  13. Persistence, resistance, resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsadka, Maayan

    Sound cannot travel in a vacuum, physically or socially. The ways in which sound operates are a result of acoustic properties, and the ways by which it is considered to be music are a result of social constructions. Therefore, music is always political, regardless of its content: the way it is performed and composed; the choice of instrumentation, notation, tuning; the medium of its distribution; its inherent hierarchy and power dynamics, and more. My compositional praxis makes me less interested in defining a relationship between music and politics than I am in erasing---or at least blurring---the borders between them. In this paper I discuss the aesthetics of resonance and echo in their metaphorical, physical, social, and musical manifestations. Also discussed is a political aesthetic of resonance, manifested through protest chants. I transcribe and analyze common protest chants from around the world, categorizing and unifying them as universal crowd-mobilizing rhythms. These ideas are explored musically in three pieces. Sumud: Rhetoric of Resistance in Three Movements, for two pianos and two percussion players, is a musical interpretation of the political/social concept of sumud, an Arabic word that literally means "steadfastness" and represents Palestinian non-violent resistance. The piece is based on common protest rhythms and uses the acoustic properties inherent to the instruments. The second piece, Three Piano Studies, extends some of the musical ideas and techniques used in Sumud, and explores the acoustic properties and resonance of the piano. The final set of pieces is part of my Critical Mess Music Project. These are site-specific musical works that attempt to blur the boundaries between audience, performers and composer, in part by including people without traditional musical training in the process of music making. These pieces use the natural structure and resonance of an environment, in this case, locations on the UCSC campus, and offer an active

  14. Characterization of pig-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Jiang, Nansong; Ke, Yuebin; Feßler, Andrea T; Wang, Yang; Schwarz, Stefan; Wu, Congming

    2017-03-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) have been reported in various countries worldwide. However, although China is one of the biggest pig and pork producers, large-scale studies on pig-associated LA-MRSA from China are scarce. The aims of this study were to analyze 2420 non-duplicate samples collected from pigs at swine farms and slaughterhouses in different regions in China during 2014 for the prevalence of pig-associated MRSA and to determine the antimicrobial resistance pheno- and genotypes of the respective isolates. MRSA isolates were identified in 270 (11.2%) samples. The isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and screening for resistance genes. All MRSA isolates belonged to the clonal complex 9 and spa type t899, but showed variable PFGE patterns. All isolates were non-susceptible to oxacillin, cefoxitin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, ciprofloxacin, and valnemulin. High rates of resistance were also observed for tetracycline (99.6%), erythromycin (97.0%), quinupristin-dalfopristin (97.0%), and gentamicin (80.4%). Three linezolid-non-susceptible isolates containing the multi-resistance gene cfr and nine rifampicin-non-susceptible isolates with mutations in rpoB were detected. Resistance to β-lactams was exclusively associated with mecA, while phenicol resistance was mainly attributable to fexA, except in the three cfr-positive isolates. The pleuromutilin-lincosamide-streptogramin A resistance gene lsa(E) was identified in all MRSA isolates, and no other pleuromutilin resistance genes, except cfr in three isolates, were detected. Pigs are the most important hosts of LA-MRSA in China. Screening for pig-associated MRSA is necessary to monitor changes in epidemiology and characteristics of these important pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Antibiotic-Resistant Enteric Bacteria in Environmental Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Casanova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sources of antibiotic resistant organisms, including concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs, may lead to environmental surface and groundwater contamination with resistant enteric bacteria of public health concern. The objective of this research is to determine whether Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, and enterococci resistant to clinically relevant antibiotics are present in surface and groundwater sources in two eastern North Carolina counties, Craven and Wayne. 100 surface and groundwater sites were sampled for Salmonella, E. coli, and enterococci, and the bacteria isolated from these samples were tested for susceptibility to clinically relevant antibiotics. Salmonella were detected at low levels in some surface but not groundwater. E. coli were in surface waters but not ground in both counties. Enterococci were present in surface water and a small number of groundwater sites. Yersinia was not found. Bacterial densities were similar in both counties. For Salmonella in surface water, the most frequent type of resistance was to sulfamethoxazole. There was no ciprofloxacin resistance. There were a few surface water E. coli isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and ampicillin. Enterococci in surface water had very low levels of resistance to vancomycin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and streptomycin. E. coli and enterococci are present more frequently and at higher levels in surface water than Salmonella, but groundwater contamination with any of these organisms was rare, and low levels of resistance can be found sporadically. Resistant bacteria are relatively uncommon in these eastern N.C. surface and groundwaters, but they could pose a risk of human exposure via ingestion or primary contact recreation.

  16. Observations on resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, R.A.; Finn, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Several results on resistive wall modes and their application to tokamaks are presented. First, it is observed that in the presence of collisional parallel dynamics there is an exact cancellation to lowest order of the dissipative and sound wave effects for an ideal Ohm's law. This is easily traced to the fact that the parallel dynamics occurs along the perturbed magnetic field lines for such electromagnetic modes. Such a cancellation does not occur in the resistive layer of a tearing-like mode. The relevance to models for resistive wall modes using an electrostatic Hammett-Perkins type operator to model Landau damping will be discussed. Second, we observe that with an ideal Ohm's law, resistive wall modes can be destabilized by rotation in that part of parameter space in which the ideal MHD modes are stable with the wall at infinity. This effect can easily be explained by interpreting the resistive wall instability in terms of mode coupling between the backward stable MHD mode and a stable mode locked into the wall. Such an effect can occur for very small rotation for tearing-resistive wall modes in which inertia dominates viscosity in the layer, but the mode is stabilized by further rotation. For modes for which viscosity dominates in the layer, rotation is purely stabilizing. For both tearing models, a somewhat higher rotation frequency gives stability essentially whenever the tearing mode is stable with a perfectly conducting wall. These tearing/resistive wall results axe also simply explained in terms of mode coupling. It has been shown that resonant external ideal modes can be stabilized in the presence of resistive wall and resistive plasma with rotation of order the nominal tearing mode growth rate. We show that these modes behave as resistive wall tearing modes in the sense above. This strengthens the suggestion that rotational stabilization of the external kink with a resistive wall is due to the presence of resistive layers, even for ideal modes

  17. Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron A. Wade; Natasha Kyprianou

    2018-01-01

    The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival ...

  18. Adipokines and Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue is now considered to be an active endocrine organ that secretes various adipokines such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, tumour necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Recent studies have shown that these factors might provide a molecular link between increased adiposity and impaired insulin sensitivity. Since hepatic insulin resistance plays the key role in the whole body insulin resistance, clarification of the regulatory processes about hepatic insulin resistance by adipokines in rodents and human would seem essential in order to understand the mechanism of type 2 diabetes and for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat it. PMID:23762871

  19. Antibiotics and the resistant microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Morten; Dantas, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    . Less appreciated are the concomitant changes in the human microbiome in response to these assaults and their contribution to clinical resistance problems. Studies have shown that pervasive changes to the human microbiota result from antibiotic treatment and that resistant strains can persist for years....... Additionally, culture-independent functional characterization of the resistance genes from the microbiome has demonstrated a close evolutionary relationship between resistance genes in the microbiome and in pathogens. Application of these techniques and novel cultivation methods are expected to significantly...... expand our understanding of the interplay between antibiotics and the microbiome....

  20. Rhythms of Resistance and Existence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Nandita; Hviid, Pernille; Marsico, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    This book is about resistance in everyday life, illustrated through empirical contexts from different parts of the world. Resistance is a widespread phenomenon in biological, social and psychological domains of human cultural development. Yet, it is not well articulated in the academic literature...... occurrence, the focus here is on everyday resistance as an intentional process where new meaning constructions emerge in thinking, feeling, acting or simply living with others. Resistance is thus conceived as a meaning-making activity that operates at the intersection of personal and collective systems...

  1. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    in well adapted Northwest European spring cultivars. Virulence matching two hitherto not overcome resistances was demonstrated. Differences in apparent race nonspecific or partial resistance were also present, changing the percentage of infected plants of susceptible genotypes from about 20 to 44 per cent.......Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring...

  2. Organic ice resists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiddi, William; Elsukova, Anna; Le, Hoa Thanh

    2017-01-01

    Electron-beam lithography (EBL) is the backbone technology for patterning nanostructures and manufacturing nanodevices. It involves processing and handling synthetic resins in several steps, each requiring optimization and dedicated instrumentation in cleanroom environments. Here, we show...... that simple organic molecules, e.g. alcohols, condensed to form thin-films at low temperature demonstrate resist-like capabilities for EBL applications and beyond. The entire lithographic process takes place in a single instrument, and avoids exposing chemicals to the user and the need of cleanrooms. Unlike...... EBL that requires large samples with optically flat surfaces, we patterned on fragile membranes only 5-nm-thin, and 2 x 2 mm2 diamond samples. We created patterns on the nm to sub-mm scale, as well as three-dimensional structures by stacking layers of frozen organic molecules. Finally, using plasma...

  3. Powdery Mildew Disease Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, Shauna C.

    2010-08-31

    The overall goal of this project was to characterize the PMR5 protein, a member of the DUF231/TBR family, and to determine its role in plant cell wall biogenesis. Since the pmr5 mutants are also resistant to the fungal powdery mildew pathogen, we wished to determine what specific cell wall changes are associated with disease resistance and why. The graduate student working on this project made mutations in the putative active site of PMR5, assuming it is a member of the SGNH/GDSL esterase superfamily (Anantharaman and Aravind, 2010, Biology Direct 5, 1). These mutants were inactive in planta suggesting that PMR5 is a functional enzyme and not a binding protein or chaperone. In addition, she determined that cell wall preparations from the pmr5 mutant exhibited a modest reduction (13%) in total acetyl groups. To pursue characterization further, the graduate student expressed the PMR5 protein in a heterologous E. coli system. She could purify PMR5 using a two step protocol based on tags added to the N and C terminus of the protein. She was able to show the PMR5 protein bound to pectins, including homogalacturonan, but not to other cell wall components (e.g., xyloglucans, arabinans). Based on these observations, a postdoctoral fellow is currently developing an enzyme assay for PMR5 based on the idea that it may be acetylating the homogalacturonic acid pectin fraction. Our initial experiments to localize PMR5 subcellularly suggested that it occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, since the various pectins are believed to be synthesized in the Golgi apparatus, we felt it necessary to repeat our results using a native promoter expression system. Within the past year, we have demonstrated conclusively that PMR5 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, a location that sets it apart from most cell wall biogenesis and modification enzymes. The graduate student contributed to the characterization of two suppressor mutants, which were selected as restoring powdery

  4. plasmid mediated resistance in multidrug resistant bacteria isolated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    PLASMID MEDIATED RESISTANCE IN MULTIDRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA. ISOLATED FROM CHILDREN WITH SUSPECTED SEPTICAEMIA IN ZARIA,. NIGERIA. AbdulAziz, Z. A.,1* Ehinmidu, J. O.,1 Adeshina, G. O.,1 Pala, Y. Y2., Yusuf, S. S2. and. Bugaje, M. A.3. 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical ...

  5. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    increasing expansion of highway and other construction works and decreasing natural aggregate resources in the world, the demand for crushed stone aggregates has in- creased from day-to-day. One of the important properties of rock aggregates is abrasion resistance. The abrasion resistance of aggregates is generally ...

  6. Multidrug Resistant Salmonella typhi in Asymptomatic Typhoid Carriers among Food Handlers in Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilkumar B

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to screen Salmonella typhi in asymptomatic typhoid carriers and to find out drug resistance and ability of the strains to transmit drug resistance to other bacteria. Methods: Cultural characters, biochemical tests, antibiotic sensitivity test (disc diffusion, agarose gel electrophoresis, and conjugation protocols were done. Thirty five stool samples were collected from the suspected food handlers for the study. Results: Among 35 samples, (17.14% yielded a positive result. Out of these 4 (20.0% were women and 2 (13.33% were men. The isolates were tested with a number of conventional antibiotics viz, amikacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, co-trimaxazole, rifampicin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, ofloxacin and tetracycline. Five isolates were having the multidrug resistant character. Four (66.66% multidrug resistant isolates were found to have plasmids, while one (16.66% multidrug resistant isolate had no plasmid and the chromosome encoded the resistance. Only one strain (16.66% showed single antibiotic resistance in the study and had no plasmid DNA. The molecular weights of the plasmids were determined and found to be 120 kb.The mechanism of spreading of drug resistance through conjugation process was analyzed. In the conjugation studies, the isolates having R+ factor showed the transfer of drug resistance through conjugation, which was determined by the development of antibiotic resistance in the recipients. Conclusion: This study shows that drug resistant strains are able to transfer genes encoding drug resistance.

  7. Vancomycin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus


    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Will A.; Malachowa, Natalia; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of Staphylococcus aureus during the modern antibiotic era has been delineated by distinct strain emergence events, many of which include acquisition of antibiotic resistance. The relative high burden of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in healthcare and community settings is a major concern worldwide. Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic that inhibits cell wall biosynthesis, remains a drug of choice for treatment of severe MRSA infections. S. aureus strains exhibiting increased resistance to vancomycin, known as vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) (MIC = 4-8 µg/mL), were discovered in the 1990s. The molecular basis of resistance in VISA is polygenic and involves stepwise mutations in genes encoding molecules predominantly involved in cell envelope biosynthesis. S. aureus isolates with complete resistance to vancomycin (MIC ≥ 16 µg/mL) are termed vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA)—they were first reported in the U.S. in 2002. Resistance in VRSA is conferred by the vanA gene and operon, which is present on a plasmid. Although treatment of VRSA infections is challenging, the total number of human VRSA infections to date is limited (14 in the U.S.). By comparison, the burden of VISA is relatively high and the molecular mechanisms of resistance are less well-defined. VISA are associated with persistent infections, vancomycin treatment failure, and poor clinical outcomes. Here, we review in brief progress made toward understanding the acquisition of antibiotic resistance in S. aureus, with an emphasis on the molecular mechanisms underlying vancomycin resistance. PMID:28656013

  8. Reconceptualizing resistance: sociology and the affective dimension of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Maria

    2013-12-01

    This paper re-examines the sociological study of resistance in light of growing interest in the concept of affect. Recent claims that we are witness to an 'affective turn' and calls for a 'new sociological empiricism' sensitive to affect indicate an emerging paradigm shift in sociology. Yet, mainstream sociological study of resistance tends to have been largely unaffected by this shift. To this end, this paper presents a case for the significance of affect as a lens by which to approach the study of resistance. My claim is not simply that the forms of actions we would normally recognize as resistance have an affective dimension. Rather, it is that the theory of affect broadens 'resistance' beyond the purview of the two dominant modes of analysis in sociology; namely, the study of macropolitical forms, on the one hand, and the micropolitics of everyday resistance on the other. This broadened perspective challenges the persistent assumption that ideological forms of power and resistance are the most pertinent to the contemporary world, suggesting that much power and resistance today is of a more affective nature. In making this argument, it is a Deleuzian reading of affect that is pursued, which opens up to a level of analysis beyond the common understanding of affect as emotion. I argue that an affective approach to resistance would pay attention to those barely perceptible transitions in power and mobilizations of bodily potential that operate below the conscious perceptions and subjective emotions of social actors. These affective transitions constitute a new site at which both power and resistance operate. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  9. Species distribution, virulence factors, and antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter spp. isolates from dogs and cats: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yui; Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Sato, Tomomi; Kajino, Akari; Usui, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Ohki, Asami; Watarai, Masahisa

    2018-05-12

    We investigated the prevalence of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance among 67 Acinetobacter spp. isolates, consisting of 21 Acinetobacter baumannii and 46 non-baumannii Acinetobacter from companion animals. The PCR analysis showed that the most prevalent virulence gene was afa/draBC (29.9%), followed by papC (22.4%) and cvaC (20.9%). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that resistance to gentamicin (14.9%) and ciprofloxacin (11.9%) was relatively prevalent. Five gentamicin- and/or ciprofloxacin-resistant A. baumannii strains were assigned to ST25, ST149, ST164, ST203, and ST1198. All ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates harbored point mutations in gyrA and/or parC. This is the first preliminary monitoring of animal-origin Acinetobacter spp. in Japan. © 2018 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. METHICILLIN RESISTANCE IN STAPHYLOCOCCAL ISOLATES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the importance of Staphylococcus aureus as a urinary pathogen and the incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A total of 86 staphylococcal isolates made up of 50 clinical isolates from urine samples submitted to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory ...

  11. Resistance, Reinhabitation, and Regime Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenewald, David

    2006-01-01

    How do individuals know when, and what, to resist? Alan Schoenfeld, in the March 2006 issue of "Educational Researcher," tells a story of resistance that all math educators, and all curriculum specialists, need to consider. Schoenfeld titled his story, "What Doesn't Work: The Challenge and Failure of the What Works Clearinghouse to Conduct…

  12. PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9 mars 2015 ... strategy to prevent the spread of this resistance. Keywords: Staphylococci; Staphylococcus aureus; Oxacillin; Antibiotic resistance; Disc diffusion. Author Correspondence, e-mail: mn.boukhatem@yahoo.fr. ICID: 1142924. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. ISSN 1112-9867. Available online at.

  13. Wear resistance of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron – the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

  14. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure Page Content Article Body Teens are more ... younger the first time they had intercourse. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure “The pressure on teenagers to have sex ...

  15. Dealing with Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ronald; Blackburn, Barbara R.

    2010-01-01

    One of the biggest roadblocks to addressing instructional rigor in schools is the resistance to change that is displayed by teachers, students, parents, and other building and district leaders. Every person deals differently with change. Some are more accepting, others more resistant. No change is successful if the people being asked to change…

  16. Multidrug resistance in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Hendrik

    1996-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) was initially recongnized as the major cause of the failure of the drug-based treatment of human cancers. It has become increasingly clear that MDR occurs in mammalian cells but also in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. The appearance of multiple antibiotic resistant

  17. [Susceptibility and resistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antimicrobial agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero Delgado, M C; García-Mayorgas, A D; Rodríguez, F; Ibarra, A; Casal, M

    2007-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic microorganism that is frequently the cause of nosocomial infections. Multiple mechanisms are involved in its natural and acquired resistance to many of the antimicrobial agents commonly used in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to assess the susceptibility and resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa strains isolated in Hospital Reina Sofia between 2000 and 2005, as well as to analyze the differences between intrahospital and extrahospital isolates in 2005 and to compare the results with those obtained in other studies. A total of 3,019 strains of P. aeruginosa from different hospitals and nonhospital settings were evaluated, taking into consideration their degree of sensitivity to different antibiotics. The MICs were determined by means of the Wider I automated system (Soria Melguizo), taking into consideration the criteria of susceptibility and resistance recommended by MENSURA. Results of the analysis showed that P. aeruginosa maintained similar levels of antimicrobial susceptibility during the period 2000-2005, with increased susceptibility to amikacin, gentamicin and tobramycin. There were also important differences in the degree of susceptibility between intrahospital and extrahospital strains, except for imipenem and fosfomycin. The intrahospital difference in susceptibility was also evaluated, emphasizing the importance of periodically studying susceptibility and resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa in each setting in order to evaluate different therapeutic guidelines, as it is not always advisable to extrapolate data from different regions. These differences can be explained by the different use of antibiotics in each center and the geographic variations of the resistance mechanisms of P. aeruginosa.

  18. Antimicrobial Resistance Percentages of Salmonella and Shigella in Seafood Imported to Jordan: Higher Percentages and More Diverse Profiles in Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E

    2017-03-01

    This study determined the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of human-specific ( Shigella spp.) and zoonotic ( Salmonella enterica ) foodborne pathogens in internationally traded seafood. Sixty-four Salmonella and 61 Shigella isolates were obtained from 330 imported fresh fish samples from Egypt, Yemen, and India. The pathogens were isolated on selective media, confirmed by PCR, and tested for antimicrobial resistance. Approximately 79 and 98% of the Salmonella and Shigella isolates, respectively, exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial, and 8 and 49% exhibited multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes). Generally, Salmonella exhibited high resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin, streptomycin, and ampicillin; very low resistance to kanamycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ciprofloxacin; and no resistance to ceftriaxone. Meanwhile, Shigella spp. exhibited high resistance to tetracycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin, streptomycin, and ampicillin; low resistance to kanamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ceftriaxone; and very low resistance to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Salmonella isolates exhibited 14 resistance profiles, Shigella isolates 42. This study is novel in showing that a human-specific pathogen has higher antimicrobial resistance percentages and more diverse profiles than a zoonotic pathogen. Thus, the impact of antimicrobial use in humans is as significant as, if not more significant than, it is in animals in spreading antibiotic resistance through food. This study also demonstrates that locally derived antimicrobial resistance can spread and pose a public health risk worldwide through seafood trade and that high resistance would make a possible outbreak difficult to control. So, capacity building and monitoring harvest water areas are encouraged in fish producing countries.

  19. Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clonal complex 17 is widespread in healthy dogs: anthropozoonosis or zooanthroponosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Williams, Nicola J; Willems, Rob

    2008-01-01

    %) or rifampicin (56%) was frequent. Only few isolates were resistant to gentamicin (5%), linezolid (14%) and quinopristin/dalfopristin (15%) and all were susceptible to vancomycin. Conclusion: This is the first report describing the occurrence of AREfm CC17 in dogs. The results suggest that dogs may contribute...

  20. Adriamycin resistance and radiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, J.A.; Harris, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Mammalian cells (V79) in culture developed resistance to Adriamycin during continuous exposure to low levels of drug. This resistance was accompanied by change in x-ray survival properties which, in turn, depended upon the isolation of subpopulations from resistant sub lines. These changes in x-ray survival properties were characterized by reduced D/sub Q/ values and a decrease in the D/sub O/. However, these changes were not observed together in the same cell sub line. Adriamycin-resistant cells did not appear to be radiation damage repair deficient. Other phenotypic changes (cell morphology, DNA content and chromosome number) suggested mutational events coincident with the development of Adriamycin resistance

  1. The (Street) Art of Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.; Wagoner, Brady; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the interrelation between resistance, novelty and social change We will consider resistance as both a social and individual phenomenon, a constructive process that articulates continuity and change and as an act oriented towards an imagined future of different communities....... In this account, resistance is thus a creative act having its own dynamic and, most of all, aesthetic dimension. In fact, it is one such visibly artistic form of resistance that will be considered here, the case of street art as a tool of social protest and revolution in Egypt. Street art is commonly defined...... in sharp contrast with high or fine art because of its collective nature and anonymity, its different kind of aesthetics, and most of all its disruptive, ‘anti-social’ outcomes. With the use of illustrations, we will argue here that street art is prototypical of a creative form of resistance, situated...

  2. Antibiotics resistance of Helicobacter pylori in children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms in Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiaoli; Yin, Guofeng; Liu, Mingnan; Peng, Kerong; Zhao, Hong; Jiang, Mizu

    2018-03-12

    The decreasing eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori is mainly because of the progressive increase in its resistance to antibiotics. Studies on antimicrobial susceptibility of H. pylori in children are limited. This study aimed to investigate the resistance rates and patterns of H. pylori strains isolated from children. Gastric mucosa biopsy samples obtained from children who had undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were cultured for H. pylori, and susceptibility to six antibiotics (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, furazolidone, metronidazole, and levofloxacin) was tested from 2012-2014. A total of 545 H. pylori strains were isolated from 1390 children recruited. The total resistance rates of H. pylori to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin were 20.6%, 68.8%, and 9.0%, respectively. No resistance to amoxicillin, gentamicin, and furazolidone was detected. 56.1% strains were single resistance, 19.6% were resistant to more than one antibiotic, 16.7% for double resistance, and 2.9% for triple resistance in 413 strains against any antibiotic. And the H. pylori resistance rate increased significantly from 2012-2014. There was no significant difference in the resistance rates to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin between different gender, age groups, and patients with peptic ulcer diseases or nonulcer diseases. Antibiotic resistance was indicated in H. pylori strains isolated from children in Hangzhou, and it increased significantly during the 3 years. Our data strongly support current guidelines, which recommend antibiotic susceptibility tests prior to eradication therapy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Resistive instabilities in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, P.H.

    1985-10-01

    Low-m tearing modes constitute the dominant instability problem in present-day tokamaks. In this lecture, the stability criteria for representative current profiles with q(0)-values slightly less than unit are reviewed; ''sawtooth'' reconnection to q(0)-values just at, or slightly exceeding, unity is generally destabilizing to the m = 2, n = 1 and m = 3, n = 2 modes, and severely limits the range of stable profile shapes. Feedback stabilization of m greater than or equal to 2 modes by rf heating or current drive, applied locally at the magnetic islands, appears feasible; feedback by island current drive is much more efficient, in terms of the radio-frequency power required, then feedback by island heating. Feedback stabilization of the m = 1 mode - although yielding particularly beneficial effects for resistive-tearing and high-beta stability by allowing q(0)-values substantially below unity - is more problematical, unless the m = 1 ideal-MHD mode can be made positively stable by strong triangular shaping of the central flux surfaces. Feedback techniques require a detectable, rotating MHD-like signal; the slowing of mode rotation - or the excitation of non-rotating modes - by an imperfectly conducting wall is also discussed

  4. Upper airway resistance syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, J M; Badia, J R

    1999-03-01

    This article reviews the clinical picture, diagnosis and management of the upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). Presently, there is not enough data on key points like the frequency of UARS and the morbidity associated with this condition. Furthermore, the existence of LIARS as an independent sleep disorder and its relation with snoring and obstructive events is in debate. The diagnosis of UARS is still a controversial issue. The technical limitations of the classic approach to monitor airflow with thermistors and inductance plethysmography, as well as the lack of a precise definition of hypopnea, may have led to a misinterpretation of UARS as an independent diagnosis from the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be missed using a conventional polysomnographic setting unless appropriate techniques are applied. The use of an esophageal balloon to monitor inspiratory effort is currently the gold standard. However, other sensitive methods such as the use of a pneumotachograph and, more recently, nasal cannula/pressure transducer systems or on-line monitoring of respiratory impedance with the forced oscillation technique may provide other interesting possibilities. Recognition and characterization of this subgroup of patients within sleep breathing disorders is important because they are symptomatic and may benefit from treatment. Management options to treat UARS comprise all those currently available for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). However, the subset of patients classically identified as LIARS that exhibit skeletal craneo-facial abnormalities might possibly obtain further benefit from maxillofacial surgery.

  5. Radiation resistance of elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourquebie, P.; Bigarre, J.; Forveille, J.L.; Raby, J.; Lazare, L.

    2002-01-01

    The COMOR group is a network of laboratories from both the CEA and the CNRS. This network is particularly involved in fundamental and applied studies on the ageing of polymers under irradiation. COMOR has studied the ageing of EPDM (ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer) because this elastomer is often used in nuclear environment (in cable coating for instance). In this study, we have prepared materials with different formulations and we have characterised their use-condition properties (dielectric and mechanical) before and after γ irradiation. The dielectric measurements are well adapted to study the oxidation and the crosslinking phenomena which appear during the irradiation ageing. We have shown that after a short time, the oxidation is limited by the diffusion of oxygen. A phenolic antioxidant is not able to protect the polymer against the oxidation. However, we used a concentration typical of a purely thermal stabilisation case (0,1%). On the other hand, a diamine type additive with a concentration of 1% showed efficient stabilisation. The mechanical properties of the regular EPDM are strongly affected by the irradiation but there is little difference with regard to radiation resistance between both types of raw materials. Nevertheless, the NORDEL IP 3725 stabilised with the amine has better initial mechanical properties whereas the NORDEL 2722 offers higher strength above 300 kGy. Our results emphasize the stake of a proper stabilisation of polymers with respect to ionising radiation. (authors)

  6. [Unconscious resistance to contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloor, P A

    1978-12-01

    The Swiss penal code of 1942 requires the presence of a psychiatrist in all decisions about termination of pregnancy and of sterilization. The so called sexual revolution of the last 20 years has brought about a dissociation of the traditional psychosexual behavior, where eroticism, affection, and desire of a child do not integrate as harmoniously as before. Narcissistic libido, inherent in all of us, can make an individual want a baby for reasons other than normal, but as a reflection of a parent, as a toy for an infantile mother, as a termination to free, sexual life, felt as sin, for a young couple, as a hope for the future, as the rival of one of the parents, as a remedy for something lost. These are just some of the reasons why contraception, completely accepted on a conscious level, can be rejected on an unconscious one, leading to unwanted pregnancies. Family planning, through a better and deeper psychological preparation of its personnel, should better identify patients more at risk of contraceptive failure, and the unconscious resistances of individuals and couples. This very important task can be started in schools with sex education, and in family planning centers with sexual therapy for the couple. This new approach would imply an increased interest for psychology on the part of doctors assisting young couples.

  7. Measurement of Dynamic Resistance in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Lu, J.; Zhang, Wenqi

    2007-01-01

    is influenced by inductive noise caused by the high welding current. In this study, the dynamic resistance is determined by measuring the voltage at primary side and current at secondary side. This increases the accuracy of measurement because of higher signal-noise ratio, and allows to apply to in-process......The conventional methods of determining the dynamic resistance were mostly done by measuring the voltage and current at secondary side of transformer in resistance welding machines, in which the measuring set-up normally interferes with the movement of electrode, and the measuring precision...

  8. Antibiotics and common antibacterial biocides stimulate horizontal transfer of resistance at low concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutkina, J; Marathe, N P; Flach, C-F; Larsson, D G J

    2018-03-01

    There is a rising concern that antibiotics, and possibly other antimicrobial agents, can promote horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. For most types of antimicrobials their ability to induce conjugation below minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) is still unknown. Our aim was therefore to explore the potential of commonly used antibiotics and antibacterial biocides to induce horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance. Effects of a wide range of sub-MIC concentrations of the antibiotics cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and the antibacterial biocides chlorhexidine digluconate, hexadecyltrimethylammoniumchloride and triclosan were investigated using a previously optimized culture-based assay with a complex bacterial community as a donor of mobile resistance elements and a traceable Escherichia coli strain as a recipient. Chlorhexidine (24.4μg/L), triclosan (0.1mg/L), gentamicin (0.1mg/L) and sulfamethoxazole (1mg/L) significantly increased the frequencies of transfer of antibiotic resistance whereas similar effects were not observed for any other tested antimicrobial compounds. This corresponds to 200 times below the MIC of the recipient for chlorhexidine, 1/20 of the MIC for triclosan, 1/16 of the MIC for sulfamethoxazole and right below the MIC for gentamicin. To our best knowledge, this is the first study showing that triclosan and chlorhexidine could stimulate the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance. Together with recent research showing that tetracycline is a potent inducer of conjugation, our results indicate that several antimicrobials including both common antibiotics and antibacterial biocides at low concentrations could contribute to antibiotic resistance development by facilitating the spread of antibiotic resistance between bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antibiotic resistance of canine Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG)--practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrobak, D; Kizerwetter-Swida, M; Rzewuska, M; Binek, M

    2011-01-01

    A total of 221 SIG strains were isolated from clinical samples of canine origin submitted to the Diagnostic Laboratory of the Division of Bacteriology and Molecular Biology at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences in Warsaw during the period 2006-2010. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of prevalence of methicillin-resistant SIG strains and to determine the MIC values of cephalotin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, mupirocin for a collection of randomly selected 79 strains belonging to Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG), including 23 mecA-positive and 56 mecA-negative strains. All isolates were identified as belonging to SIG based on their phenotypic properties and PCR amplification of S. intermedius-specific fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. The mecA gene was detected in 26 (12%) of 221 SIG strains. All tested mecA-negative SIG strains were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cephalotin. One of the 56 mecA-negative SIG strains was resistant to ciprofloxacin, six (11%) to gentamicin. It was found that sixteen (29%) of 56 mecA-negative SIG strains were resistant to clindamycin. Most of the mecA-positive SIG strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin (96%), clindamycin (96%), and gentamicin (96%). Only one MRSIG strain was resistant to chloramphenicol. All examined mecA-positive SIG strains were found to be susceptible to mupirocin. Our results imply that staphylococcal multidrug resistance has become more prevalent, which could lead to difficulties in effective treatment. With some resistant strains the only therapeutic possibility are antimicrobial agents important in human medicine. New regulations for veterinary medicine concerning appropriate therapy of infections caused by multidrug-resistat staphylococci are needed.

  10. Phenotypic and Genotypic Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella from Chicken Carcasses Marketed at Ibague, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cortes Vélez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica is responsible for alimentary toxic infections associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products and the antimicrobial resistant patterns of Salmonella circulating in the Tolima region are currently unknown. To address this issue, both the phenotype and genotype antibiotic resistance patterns of 47 Salmonella isolated from raw chicken carcasses sold at the Ibague city were analyzed by the disc diffusion, microdilution and PCR assays. All 47 Salmonella isolates showed resistance to five or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance to Ampicillin (AMP, Amikacin (AMK, Gentamicin (GEN, Tobramycin (TOB, Cefazoline (CFZ, Cefoxitin (FOX, Nitrofurantoin (NIT, Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (SXT, Tetracycline (TET, Ciprofloxacin (CIP and Enrofloxacin (ENR was observed in 42.35% of Salmonella isolates. All tested S. Paratyphi B var Java isolates showed resistance to at least 12 antibiotics. S. Hvittingfoss showed resistance to 5 antibiotics, whereas S. Muenster showed resistance to seven antibiotics. Amplification of a number of antibiotic resistance genes showed that blaTEM (100% correlated well with resistance to Ampicilin and Cephalosporin, whereas aadB (87% correlated well with resistance to Aminoglycosides. It is concluded that Salmonella isolated from raw chicken meat marketed at Ibague showed MDR by both phenotypic and genotypic methods and they may represent an important threat to human health. Additional studies are needed to establish the relationship between antibiotic resistance in Salmonella from poultry products and clinical isolates.

  11. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Drinking Water Sources in Hangzhou City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojun Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the distribution of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli and examined the possible relationship between water quality parameters and antibiotic resistance from two different drinking water sources (the Qiantang River and the Dongtiao Stream in Hangzhou city of China. E. coli isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 18 antibiotics. Most of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline (TE, followed by ampicillin (AM, piperacillin (PIP, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT, and chloramphenicol (C. The antibiotic resistance rate of E. coli isolates from two water sources was similar; For E. coli isolates from the Qiantang River, their antibiotic resistance rates decreased from up- to downstream. Seasonally, the dry and wet season had little impact on antibiotic resistance. Spearman's rank correlation revealed significant correlation between resistance to TE and phenicols or ciprofloxacin (CIP, as well as quinolones (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin and cephalosporins or gentamicin (GM. Pearson's chi-square tests found certain water parameters such as nutrient concentration were strongly associated with resistance to some of the antibiotics. In addition, tet genes were detected from all 82 TE-resistant E. coli isolates, and most of the isolates (81.87% contained multiple tet genes, which displayed 14 different combinations. Collectively, this study provided baseline data on antibiotic resistance of drinking water sources in Hangzhou city, which indicates drinking water sources could be the reservoir of antibiotic resistance, potentially presenting a public health risk.

  12. Resistance patterns, prevalence, and predictors of fluoroquinolones resistance in multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafees Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The high degree of drug resistance observed, particularly to fluoroquinolones, is alarming. We recommend the adoption of more restrictive policies to control non-prescription sale of fluoroquinolones, its rational use by physicians, and training doctors in both private and public–private mix sectors to prevent further increase in fluoroquinolones resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

  13. Impact of extensive antibiotic treatment on faecal carriage of antibiotic-resistant enterobacteria in children in a low resistance prevalence setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandtzaeg, Petter; Høiby, E. Arne; Bohlin, Jon; Samuelsen, Ørjan; Steinbakk, Martin; Abrahamsen, Tore G.; Müller, Fredrik; Gammelsrud, Karianne Wiger

    2017-01-01

    We prospectively studied the consequences of extensive antibiotic treatment on faecal carriage of antibiotic-resistant enterobacteria in a cohort of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and a cohort of children with cancer compared to healthy children with no or low antibiotic exposure. The study was conducted in Norway in a low resistance prevalence setting. Sixty longitudinally collected faecal samples from children with CF (n = 32), 88 samples from children with cancer (n = 45) and 127 samples from healthy children (n = 70) were examined. A direct MIC-gradient strip method was used to detect resistant Enterobacteriaceae by applying Etest strips directly onto agar-plates swabbed with faecal samples. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) data were analysed to identify resistance mechanisms in 28 multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates. The prevalence of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin was low in all the study groups. At inclusion the prevalence of ampicillin-resistant E. coli and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant E. coli in the CF group compared to healthy controls was 58.6% vs. 28.4% (p = 0.005) and 48.3% vs. 14.9% (p = 0.001), respectively, with a similar prevalence at the end of the study. The prevalence of resistant enterobacteria was not significantly different in the children with cancer compared to the healthy children, not even at the end of the study when the children with cancer had been treated with repeated courses of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Children with cancer were mainly treated with intravenous antibiotics, while the CF group mainly received peroral treatment. Our observations indicate that the mode of administration of antibiotics and the general level of antimicrobial resistance in the community may have an impact on emergence of resistance in intestinal enterobacteria during antibiotic treatment. The WGS analyses detected acquired resistance genes and/or chromosomal mutations that explained the

  14. RAW TROPICAL OYSTERS AS VEHICLES FOR MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albuquerque COSTA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The following study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains from fresh and frozen oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae sold in Fortaleza-Brazil. An antibiogram was performed on 87 isolates using nine antibiotics: gentamicin (Gen 10 µg, ampicillin (Amp 10 µg, penicillin G (Pen 10U, ciprofloxacin (Cip 5 µg, chloramphenicol (Chl 30 µg, nalidixic acid (Nal 30 µg, tetracycline (Tet 30 µg, vancomycin (Van 30 µg and erythromycin (Ery 15 µg. All strains were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 85 (97.7% were multi-resistant, with predominance of the Van+ Pen+Amp resistance profile (n = 46. Plasmid resistance to Pen, Amp and Ery was detected. Thus, the risk that raw oyster consumption poses to the health of consumers is highlighted, due to the fact that these bivalves may host antibacterial-resistant microorganisms.

  15. Antibiotic resistance monitoring in Vibrio spp. isolated from rearing environment and intestines of abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R X; Wang, J Y; Sun, Y C; B L Yang; A L Wang

    2015-12-30

    546 Vibrio isolates from rearing seawater (292 strains) and intestines of abalone (254 strains) were tested to ten antibiotics using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. Resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to chloramphenicol (C), enrofloxacin (ENX) and norfloxacin (NOR) were 40%) to kanamycin (KNA), furazolidone (F), tetracycline (TE), gentamicin (GM) and rifampin (RA). 332 isolates from seawater (n=258) and abalone (n=74) were resistant to more than three antibiotics. Peaked resistant rates of seawater-derived isolates to multiple antibiotics were overlapped in May and August. Statistical analysis showed that pH had an important effect on resistant rates of abalone-derived Vibrio isolates to RA, NOR, and ENX. Salinity and dissolved oxygen were negatively correlated with resistant rates of seawater-derived Vibrio isolates to KNA, RA, and PG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Glyphosate resistance: state of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Robert Douglas; Gaines, Todd A

    2014-01-01

    Studies of mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate have increased current understanding of herbicide resistance mechanisms. Thus far, single-codon non-synonymous mutations of EPSPS (5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) have been rare and, relative to other herbicide mode of action target-site mutations, unconventionally weak in magnitude for resistance to glyphosate. However, it is possible that weeds will emerge with non-synonymous mutations of two codons of EPSPS to produce an enzyme endowing greater resistance to glyphosate. Today, target-gene duplication is a common glyphosate resistance mechanism and could become a fundamental process for developing any resistance trait. Based on competition and substrate selectivity studies in several species, rapid vacuole sequestration of glyphosate occurs via a transporter mechanism. Conversely, as the chloroplast requires transporters for uptake of important metabolites, transporters associated with the two plastid membranes may separately, or together, successfully block glyphosate delivery. A model based on finite glyphosate dose and limiting time required for chloroplast loading sets the stage for understanding how uniquely different mechanisms can contribute to overall glyphosate resistance. PMID:25180399

  17. Cephalosporin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Bala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonorrhea, a disease of public health importance, not only leads to high incidence of acute infections and complications but also plays a major role in facilitating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV acquisition and transmission. One of the major public health needs for gonorrhea control is appropriate, effective treatment. However, treatment options for gonorrhea are diminishing as Neisseria gonorrhoeae have developed resistance to several antimicrobial drugs such as sulfonamides, penicillin, tetracyclines and quinolones. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR surveillance of N. gonorrhoeae helps establish and maintain the efficacy of standard treatment regimens. AMR surveillance should be continuous to reveal the emergence of new resistant strains, monitor the changing patterns of resistance, and be able to update treatment recommendations so as to assist in disease control. Current treatment guidelines recommend the use of single dose injectable or oral cephalosporins. The emergence and spread of cephalosporin resistant and multi drug resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains, represents a worrying trend that requires monitoring and investigation. Routine clinical laboratories need to be vigilant for the detection of such strains such that strategies for control and prevention could be reviewed and revised from time to time. It will be important to elucidate the genetic mechanisms responsible for decreased susceptibility and future resistance. There is also an urgent need for research of safe, alternative anti-gonococcal compounds that can be administered orally and have effective potency, allowing high therapeutic efficacy (greater than 95.0% cure rate.

  18. Antibiotic resistance in Burkholderia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Katherine A; Schweizer, Herbert P

    2016-09-01

    The genus Burkholderia comprises metabolically diverse and adaptable Gram-negative bacteria, which thrive in often adversarial environments. A few members of the genus are prominent opportunistic pathogens. These include Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei of the B. pseudomallei complex, which cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively. Burkholderia cenocepacia, Burkholderia multivorans, and Burkholderia vietnamiensis belong to the Burkholderia cepacia complex and affect mostly cystic fibrosis patients. Infections caused by these bacteria are difficult to treat because of significant antibiotic resistance. The first line of defense against antimicrobials in Burkholderia species is the outer membrane penetration barrier. Most Burkholderia contain a modified lipopolysaccharide that causes intrinsic polymyxin resistance. Contributing to reduced drug penetration are restrictive porin proteins. Efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation cell division family are major players in Burkholderia multidrug resistance. Third and fourth generation β-lactam antibiotics are seminal for treatment of Burkholderia infections, but therapeutic efficacy is compromised by expression of several β-lactamases and ceftazidime target mutations. Altered DNA gyrase and dihydrofolate reductase targets cause fluoroquinolone and trimethoprim resistance, respectively. Although antibiotic resistance hampers therapy of Burkholderia infections, the characterization of resistance mechanisms lags behind other non-enteric Gram-negative pathogens, especially ESKAPE bacteria such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance and Resistance Genes in Aerobic Bacteria Isolated from Pork at Slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lili; Heidemann Olsen, Rikke; Ye, Lei; Yan, He; Nie, Qing; Meng, Hecheng; Shi, Lei

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance, integrons, and transferability of resistance markers in 243 aerobic bacteria recovered from pork at slaughter in the People's Republic of China. The organisms belonged to 22 genera of gram-negative bacteria (92.2%) and gram-positive bacteria (7.8%). High levels of resistance were detected to tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ampicillin (36.2 to 54.3%), and lower levels were detected to nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol (7.8 to 29.2%). Across species, genes conferring antimicrobial resistance were observed with the following frequencies: blaTEM, 40.7%; blaCMY-2, 15.2%; blaCTX-M, 11.5%; sul2, 27.2%; sul1, 14.4%; tet(A), 5.4%; tet(L), 5.4%; tet(M), 5.0%; tet(E), 3.7%; tet(C), 3.3%; tet(S), 2.5%; and tet(K), 0.8%. Various antimicrobial resistance genes were found in new carriers: blaTEM in Lactococcus garvieae, Myroides odoratimimus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Staphylococcus sciuri, Raoultella terrigena, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Acinetobacter ursingii, Sphingobacterium sp., and Oceanobacillus sp.; blaCMY-2 in Lactococcus lactis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Myroides phaeus; tet(L) in M. caseolyticus; sul1 in Vibrio cincinnatiensis; sul2 in Acinetobacter bereziniae, Acinetobacter johnsonii, and V. cincinnatiensis; and the class 1 integron and gene cassette aadA2 in V. cincinnatiensis. Approximately 6.6% of isolates contained class 1 integrons, and one isolate harbored class 2 integrons. Plasmid associated intI1 and androgen receptor- encoding genes were transferred into Escherichia coli J53 and E. coli DH5α by conjugation and transformation experiments, respectively. Our study highlights the importance of aerobic bacteria from pork as reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance genes and mobile genetic elements that can readily be transferred intra- and interspecies.

  20. Efflux-mediated antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Keith

    2005-07-01

    Antibiotic resistance continues to plague antimicrobial chemotherapy of infectious disease. And while true biocide resistance is as yet unrealized, in vitro and in vivo episodes of reduced biocide susceptibility are common and the history of antibiotic resistance should not be ignored in the development and use of biocidal agents. Efflux mechanisms of resistance, both drug specific and multidrug, are important determinants of intrinsic and/or acquired resistance to these antimicrobials, with some accommodating both antibiotics and biocides. This latter raises the spectre (as yet generally unrealized) of biocide selection of multiple antibiotic-resistant organisms. Multidrug efflux mechanisms are broadly conserved in bacteria, are almost invariably chromosome-encoded and their expression in many instances results from mutations in regulatory genes. In contrast, drug-specific efflux mechanisms are generally encoded by plasmids and/or other mobile genetic elements (transposons, integrons) that carry additional resistance genes, and so their ready acquisition is compounded by their association with multidrug resistance. While there is some support for the latter efflux systems arising from efflux determinants of self-protection in antibiotic-producing Streptomyces spp. and, thus, intended as drug exporters, increasingly, chromosomal multidrug efflux determinants, at least in Gram-negative bacteria, appear not to be intended as drug exporters but as exporters with, perhaps, a variety of other roles in bacterial cells. Still, given the clinical significance of multidrug (and drug-specific) exporters, efflux must be considered in formulating strategies/approaches to treating drug-resistant infections, both in the development of new agents, for example, less impacted by efflux and in targeting efflux directly with efflux inhibitors.

  1. Determining the Resistivity of Resistive Sheets Using Transmission Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyde, IV, Milo W

    2006-01-01

    In September 2005, radar cross section (RCS) measurements were made of resistive sheets, or R-cards, wrapped around a polystyrene foam cylinder to compare with a newly developed theoretical RCS prediction technique...

  2. Multidrug resistant to extensively drug resistant tuberculosis: What is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    The modern, ... World Health Organization is based on a four-drug regimen ... Better management and control of tuberculosis specially drug resistant TB by experienced and qualified .... a comprehensive approach including the major DOTS.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in community and nosocomial Escherichia coli urinary tract isolates, London 2005 – 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareham David W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is the commonest cause of community and nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI. Antibiotic treatment is usually empirical relying on susceptibility data from local surveillance studies. We therefore set out to determine levels of resistance to 8 commonly used antimicrobial agents amongst all urinary isolates obtained over a 12 month period. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefalexin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim and cefpodoxime was determined for 11,865 E. coli urinary isolates obtained from community and hospitalised patients in East London. Results Nitrofurantoin was the most active agent (94% susceptible, followed by gentamicin and cefpodoxime. High rates of resistance to ampicillin (55% and trimethoprim (40%, often in combination were observed in both sets of isolates. Although isolates exhibiting resistance to multiple drug classes were rare, resistance to cefpodoxime, indicative of Extended spectrum β-lactamase production, was observed in 5.7% of community and 21.6% of nosocomial isolates. Conclusion With the exception of nitrofurantoin, resistance to agents commonly used as empirical oral treatments for UTI was extremely high. Levels of resistance to trimethoprim and ampicillin render them unsuitable for empirical use. Continued surveillance and investigation of other oral agents for treatment of UTI in the community is required.

  4. Evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards increasing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strommenger, Birgit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Kurt, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300.......To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300....

  5. The Psychic Life of Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester

    2013-01-01

    to power. This article is a first step to remedy that oversight. Inspired by Butler’s reading of Foucault’s notion of power at work in subjection and resistance, the article uses Goffman to substantiate such an account. Based on a 20-month ethnographic study of a traditional immigrant suburb north...... of Stockholm, Sweden, which is being redeveloped into a high-tech region, it offers empirical insight into the psychic life of resistance. Further, a particular resistance strategy is identified: symbolic dislocations through adherence to a boundary other than the one subjecting the self in the first place....

  6. Azole-Resistant Invasive Aspergillosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensvold, Christen Rune; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2012-01-01

    with point mutation (s) in CYP51A (TR34/L98H and TR46/Y121F/T289A). In the third a single target enzyme alteration (G432S) is found. These resistant “environmental” strains have been detected in many West-European countries as well as in the Asia- Pacifics. Noticeably, these two continents account...... and classes available is impressive compared to the armamentarium in human medicine, azoles will remain the most important group in agriculture due to superior field performance and significant resistance in fungal pathogens to other compounds. Hence, further spread of environmental resistant Aspergillus...

  7. Electrical Resistivity Measurements: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yadunath

    World-wide interest on the use of ceramic materials for aerospace and other advanced engineering applications, has led to the need for inspection techniques capable of detecting unusually electrical and thermal anomalies in these compounds. Modern ceramic materials offer many attractive physical, electrical and mechanical properties for a wide and rapidly growing range of industrial applications; moreover specific use may be made of their electrical resistance, chemical resistance, and thermal barrier properties. In this review, we report the development and various techniques for the resistivity measurement of solid kind of samples.

  8. Radiation-resistant plastic insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, B.J.; Parkinson, W.W.

    1975-01-01

    A high molecular weight organic composition useful as an electric insulator in radiation fields is provided and comprises normally a solid polymer of an organic compound having a specific resistance greater than 10 19 ohm-cm and containing phenyl groups and 1 to 7.5 weight percent of a high molecular weight organic phosphite. In one embodiment the composition comprises normally solid polystyrene having 7.5 weight percent tris-β-chloroethyl phosphite as an additive; the composition exhibited an increase in the post-irradiation resistivity of over an order of magnitude over the post-irradiation resistivity of pure polystyrene. (Patent Office Record)

  9. Deciphering MCR-2 Colistin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Xu, Yongchang; Gao, Rongsui; Lin, Jingxia; Wei, Wenhui; Srinivas, Swaminath; Li, Defeng; Yang, Run-Shi; Li, Xing-Ping; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Ya-Hong; Feng, Youjun

    2017-05-09

    Antibiotic resistance is a prevalent problem in public health worldwide. In general, the carbapenem β-lactam antibiotics are considered a final resort against lethal infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Colistin is a cationic polypeptide antibiotic and acts as the last line of defense for treatment of carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Very recently, a new plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene, mcr-2 , was revealed soon after the discovery of the paradigm gene mcr-1 , which has disseminated globally. However, the molecular mechanisms for MCR-2 colistin resistance are poorly understood. Here we show a unique transposon unit that facilitates the acquisition and transfer of mcr-2 Evolutionary analyses suggested that both MCR-2 and MCR-1 might be traced to their cousin phosphoethanolamine (PEA) lipid A transferase from a known polymyxin producer, Paenibacillus Transcriptional analyses showed that the level of mcr-2 transcripts is relatively higher than that of mcr-1 Genetic deletions revealed that the transmembrane regions (TM1 and TM2) of both MCR-1 and MCR-2 are critical for their location and function in bacterial periplasm, and domain swapping indicated that the TM2 is more efficient than TM1. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) confirmed that all four MCR proteins (MCR-1, MCR-2, and two chimeric versions [TM1-MCR-2 and TM2-MCR-1]) can catalyze chemical modification of lipid A moiety anchored on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with the addition of phosphoethanolamine to the phosphate group at the 4' position of the sugar. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis defined an essential 6-residue-requiring zinc-binding/catalytic motif for MCR-2 colistin resistance. The results further our mechanistic understanding of transferable colistin resistance, providing clues to improve clinical therapeutics targeting severe infections by MCR-2-containing pathogens. IMPORTANCE Carbapenem and colistin are the last line of

  10. Fire Resistant, Moisture Barrier Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A waterproof and breathable, fire-resistant laminate is provided for use in tents, garments, shoes, and covers, especially in industrial, military and emergency situations. The laminate permits water vapor evaporation while simultaneously preventing liquid water penetration. Further, the laminate is fire-resistant and significantly reduces the danger of toxic compound production when exposed to flame or other high heat source. The laminate may be applied to a variety of substrates and is comprised of a silicone rubber and plurality of fire-resistant, inherently thermally-stable polyimide particles.

  11. Radiation resistance of Rhizopus stolonifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbertse, P.J.; Du Toit, T.L.; Van der Merwe, L.J.; Koekemoer, M.L.; Eilers, I.M.I.

    1983-01-01

    A problem encountered with the irradiation of food is that certain micro-organisms are highly resistant to gamma rays. This includes the fungus, Rhizopus stolonifer, associated with most fruits. The Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa (NUCOR) has found that a combination of radiation and mild heat treatment reduces the radiation dose necessary to kill 90% of R. stolonifer by approximately half. Treatment at 50 degrees Celsius for 10 minutes or at 55 degrees Celsius for five minutes is sufficient. The article discusses the mechanism of radiation resistance in R. stolonifer and the way in which heating affects this resistance

  12. The evolutionary benefit of insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeters, Maarten R.; Soeters, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance is perceived as deleterious, associated with conditions as the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and critical illness. However, insulin resistance is evolutionarily well preserved and its persistence suggests that it benefits survival. Insulin resistance is important in

  13. Systemic resistance induced by rhizosphere bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van; Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Nonpathogenic rhizobacteria can induce a systemic resistance in plants that is phenotypically similar to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) has been demonstrated against fungi, bacteria, and viruses in Arabidopsis, bean,

  14. Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance About Antimicrobial Resistance Biggest Threats Emerging Drug ...

  15. Parallel Evolution of High-Level Aminoglycoside Resistance in Escherichia coli Under Low and High Mutation Supply Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ibacache-Quiroga

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is a major concern in public health worldwide, thus there is much interest in characterizing the mutational pathways through which susceptible bacteria evolve resistance. Here we use experimental evolution to explore the mutational pathways toward aminoglycoside resistance, using gentamicin as a model, under low and high mutation supply rates. Our results show that both normo and hypermutable strains of Escherichia coli are able to develop resistance to drug dosages > 1,000-fold higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration for their ancestors. Interestingly, such level of resistance was often associated with changes in susceptibility to other antibiotics, most prominently with increased resistance to fosfomycin. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that all resistant derivatives presented diverse mutations in five common genetic elements: fhuA, fusA and the atpIBEFHAGDC, cyoABCDE, and potABCD operons. Despite the large number of mutations acquired, hypermutable strains did not pay, apparently, fitness cost. In contrast to recent studies, we found that the mutation supply rate mainly affected the speed (tempo but not the pattern (mode of evolution: both backgrounds acquired the mutations in the same order, although the hypermutator strain did it faster. This observation is compatible with the adaptive landscape for high-level gentamicin resistance being relatively smooth, with few local maxima; which might be a common feature among antibiotics for which resistance involves multiple loci.

  16. Prevalence of multiple drug resistant Streptococcus suis in and around Guwahati, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinalee Devi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis and their resistance patterns isolated from both clinically healthy carriers and diseased pigs in and around Guwahati, Assam, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 497 samples were collected during October, 2012, to April, 2014, from clinically healthy (n=67 and diseased (n=230 pigs of varying age and either sex maintained under organized and unorganized farming systems. Samples were processed for isolation and identification of S. suis by biochemical characterization and polymerase chain reaction targeting the housekeeping gene glutamate dehydrogenase. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the recovered isolates against nine antibiotic groups comprising 17 antimicrobial agents was studied by standard method. Results: Of the 497 samples examined, 7 (1.41% isolates were confirmed to be S. suis of which 5 (1.87% and 2 (0.87% were derived from clinically healthy and diseased pigs, respectively. All the isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, amikacin, and erythromycin (100% followed by the penicillin group and enrofloxacin (85.71%, ceftriaxone, doxycycline HCL, ofloxacin and chloramphenicol (71.43%, to kanamycin, clindamycin and co-trimoxazole (42.85%. The isolates showed least susceptibility to cefalexin, tetracycline and streptomycin (28.57%. All the five S. suis isolates from clinically healthy pigs were susceptible to penicillin G, amoxyclav, doxycycline HCl, gentamicin, amikacin and erythromycin, 80.00% isolates susceptible to ampicillin, enrofloxacin and ofloxacin, 60.00% to ceftriaxone, kanamycin and chloramphenicol, 40% to cefalexin, tetracycline, clindamycin and co-trimoxazole, respectively. Only 20.00% isolates were susceptible to streptomycin. Both the isolates recovered from diseased pigs were susceptible to ampicillin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, amikacin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, and clindamycin. On the other hand

  17. Resistant and Refractory Hypertension: Antihypertensive Treatment Resistance vs Treatment Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohammed; Dudenbostel, Tanja; Calhoun, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Resistant or difficult to treat hypertension is defined as high blood pressure that remains uncontrolled with 3 or more different antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic. Recent definitions also include controlled blood pressure with use of 4 or more medications as also being resistant to treatment. Recently, refractory hypertension, an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure has been defined as hypertension uncontrolled with use of 5 or more antihypertensive agents, including a long-acting thiazide diuretic and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Patients with resistant vs refractory hypertension share similar characteristics and comorbidities, including obesity, African American race, female sex, diabetes, coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. Patients with refractory vs resistant hypertension tend to be younger and are more likely to have been diagnosed with congestive heart failure. Refractory hypertension might also differ from resistant hypertension in terms of underlying cause. Preliminary evidence suggests that refractory hypertension is more likely to be neurogenic in etiology (ie, heightened sympathetic tone), vs a volume-dependent hypertension that is more characteristic of resistant hypertension in general. PMID:26514749

  18. Understanding The Resistance to Health Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    David Ackah; Angelito E Alvarado; Heru Santoso Wahito Nugroho; Sanglar Polnok; Wiwin Martiningsih

    2017-01-01

    User resistance is users’ opposition to system implementation. Resistance often occurs as a result of a mismatch between management goals and employee preferences. There are two types of resistance to health iformation system namely active resistance and passive resistance. The manifestation of active resistance are being critical,  blaming/accusing, blocking, fault finding, sabotaging, undermining, ridiculing, intimidating/threatening, starting rumors, appealing to fear, manipulating arguing...

  19. Communication equipment radiation resistance ensurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrova, L.O.; Chelizhenko, A.Z.

    1983-01-01

    A review of works on radiation resistance of electronic equipment (epsilon epsilon) for 15 years is presented. The effect of ionizing radiation appearing as a result of nuclear explosions in nuclear facilities and in outerspace on epsilon epsilon has been considered. Types of radiation effects in epsilon epsilon, radiation effect on semiconductor devices and integrated circUits, types of epsilon epsilon failures, as well as the procass of radiation-resistant epsilon epsilon designing and selection of its main parameters have been described. The methods of epsilon epsilon flowsheet optimization, application of mathematical simulation and peculiarities of ensurance of epsilon epsilon radiation resistance of communication systems are considered. Peculiarities of designing of radiation-resistant quartz generators, secondary power supply sources and amplifiers are discussed

  20. Thermomechanical Modelling of Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes a generic programme for analysis, optimization and development of resistance spot and projection welding. The programme includes an electrical model determining electric current and voltage distribution as well as heat generation, a thermal model calculating heat...

  1. Erosion-resistant composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C.B.; Tennery, V.J.; Curlee, R.M.

    A highly erosion-resistant composite material is formed of chemical vapor-deposited titanium diboride on a sintered titanium diboride-nickel substrate. This material may be suitable for use in cutting tools, coal liquefaction systems, etc.

  2. Stronger Fire-Resistant Epoxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohlen, George M.; Parker, John A.; Kumar, Devendra

    1988-01-01

    New curing agent improves mechanical properties and works at lower temperature. Use of aminophenoxycyclotriphosphazene curing agents yields stronger, more heat- and fire-resistant epoxy resins. Used with solvent if necessary for coating fabrics or casting films.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keen, Patricia L; Montforts, M. H. M. M

    2012-01-01

    ... or antibiotic resistance genes as environmental contaminants. It also considers alternate uses and functions for antimicrobial compounds other than those intended for medicinal purposes in humans, animals, and fish...

  4. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hee Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST, clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care, the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing. The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics.

  5. Mechanisms of Resistance to Neurotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schubert, David

    2002-01-01

    .... During all of these events, some groups of nerve cells are spared relative to others. It is therefore likely that biochemical mechanisms exist which lead to increased resistance to oxidative stress and other forms of cytotoxicity...

  6. Bacterial cheating limits antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao Chao, Hui; Yurtsev, Eugene; Datta, Manoshi; Artemova, Tanya; Gore, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics has led to the evolution of resistance in bacteria. Bacteria can gain resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin by acquiring a plasmid carrying the gene beta-lactamase, which inactivates the antibiotic. This inactivation may represent a cooperative behavior, as the entire bacterial population benefits from removing the antibiotic. The cooperative nature of this growth suggests that a cheater strain---which does not contribute to breaking down the antibiotic---may be able to take advantage of cells cooperatively inactivating the antibiotic. Here we find experimentally that a ``sensitive'' bacterial strain lacking the plasmid conferring resistance can invade a population of resistant bacteria, even in antibiotic concentrations that should kill the sensitive strain. We observe stable coexistence between the two strains and find that a simple model successfully explains the behavior as a function of antibiotic concentration and cell density. We anticipate that our results will provide insight into the evolutionary origin of phenotypic diversity and cooperative behaviors.

  7. "Feeling" Series and Parallel Resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    Equipped with drinking straws and stirring straws, a teacher can help students understand how resistances in electric circuits combine in series and in parallel. Follow-up suggestions are provided. (ZWH)

  8. Employee Resistance to Computer Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Alan

    1984-01-01

    The introduction of computers to the work place may cause employee stress. Aggressive, protective, and avoidance behaviors are forms of staff resistance. The development of good training programs will enhance productivity. Suggestions for evaluating computer systems are offered. (DF)

  9. New principle of chemotherapy resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory study has revealed an entirely unexpected process for acquiring drug resistance that bypasses the need to re-establish DNA damage repair in breast cancers that have mutant BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.

  10. Heavy resistance training and lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Karlsmark, Tonny; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge regarding progressive resistance training during adjuvant chemotherapy and the risk of developing breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Furthermore, no studies have investigated the safety of resistance training with heavy loads (> 80% 1 repetition maximum......) in this population. 'Body and Cancer' is a six-week, nine-hour weekly, supervised, multimodal exercise intervention utilizing progressive resistance training with heavy loads for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of BCRL in former participants......, and identify associations between progressive resistance training with heavy loads, and the development of BCRL. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a descriptive study. POPULATION: Women treated for breast cancer (n = 149), who had participated in the 'Body and Cancer' exercise intervention between 1 January 2010...

  11. Intrinsic nanofilamentation in resistive switching

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing; Cha, Dong Kyu; Bosman, Michel; Raghavan, Nagarajan; Migas, Dmitri B.; Borisenko, Victor E.; Zhang, Xixiang; Li, Kun; Pey, Kin-Leong

    2013-01-01

    -chip circuitry and non-volatile memory storage. Here, we provide insight into the mechanisms that govern highly reproducible controlled resistive switching via a nanofilament by using an asymmetric metal-insulator-semiconductor structure. In-situ transmission

  12. Insulin resistance and chronic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Matulewicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is a condition of reduced biological response to insulin. Growing evidence indicates the role of the chronic low-grade inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Adipose tissue in obesity is characterized by increased lipolysis with the excessive release of free fatty acids, and is also a source of proinflammatory cytokines. Both these factors may inhibit insulin action. Proinflammatory cytokines exert their effect by stimulating major inflammatory NFκB and JNK pathways within the cells. Inflammatory processes in other insulin responsive tissues may also play a role in inducing insulin resistance. This paper is an overview of the chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver and endothelial cells during the development of insulin resistance.

  13. Intramammary treatment with gentamicin in lactating cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Martins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study evaluated the microbiological profile of milk samples collected before and after mastitis treatment with gentamicin and investigated biofilms production and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. isolated. The presence of gentamicin residues in milk after the recommended withdrawal period was also evaluated. Antimicrobial residues were analyzed by Delvotest® SP NT over a period of 12 days beginning after 24 hours the last gentamicin application. Some of Staphylococcus spp. isolates were biofilm producers (19.05%. Staphylococcus spp. showed high levels of resistance to neomycin (16.95%, penicillin G (10.17%, and ampicillin (10.17%. Multidrug resistance to all antibiotics tested was observed in 1.69% of the Staphylococcus spp. isolates. Among 1440 mammary quarter milk samples 24.95% presented gentamicin residues after the withdrawal period. Gentamicin residues were also detected in 3.8% of samples from calibrated glass recorder jar (n=383 4.1 days after treatment. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics may lead to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains as well as increasing the risk of presence of residues of these drugs in milk. These problems affect the milk quality and may become a public health problem.

  14. Radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, K [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1975-09-01

    This paper reports the biological and ecological examinations on the radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria (mainly concerning Micrococcus radiodurans). Radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria were isolated from the irradiated areas of the natural world as well as from the general areas and from the Rn waters in the Misasa hot spring. The acquiring of the tolerance to radiation in bacteria was also examined. In addition, the future problems of microbiological treatment with irradiation were mentioned.

  15. Radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Keiji

    1975-01-01

    This paper reports the biological and ecological examinations on the radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria (mainly concerning Micrococcus radiodurans). Radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria were isolated from the irradiated areas of the natural world as well as from the general areas and from the Rn waters in the Misasa hot spring. The acquiring of the tolerance to radiation in bacteria was also examined. In addition, the future problems of microbiological treatment with irradiation were mentioned. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  16. Slave songs: Codes of resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Sidney Konrad

    2010-01-01

    When slaves were forcibly taken from their homes in Africa and brought to North America to live, work, and die in servitude, they brought with them their culture. This included music and dance, which had been used for generations to express their feelings. Africans still use songs to criticize, to protest, for social commentary, and to resist oppression. Slaves used a variety of means to protest and resist their condition; for example, secret meetings, songs which encouraged escape and sabota...

  17. Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    11th International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation FAST 2011, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, September 2011 Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network Richard...Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e... Artificial Neural Network and is restricted to the center and side-hull configurations tested. The value in the parametric model is that it is able to

  18. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  19. Characterization of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in different poultry farming systems in the Eastern Province and Kigali City of Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manishimwe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance has become a global public health concern as a wide num­ber of resistant bacteria are continuously emerging. Animals have been pointed out as one of the sources of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that can be transferred to humans. To enrich the data on antibiotic resistance in animals in Rwanda, a cross-sectional study was carried out in the Eastern Province and in Kigali City to isolate Escherichia coli from free-range and commercial poultry farms. Fecal samples were collected from 294 poultry farms and E. coli strains were isolated and identified. In total 241 E. coli isolates were subjected to an antibi­otic sensitivity test using five antibiotics (gentamicin, streptomycin, rifampicin, doxycycline and erythromycin. Antibiotic use in poultry was low in free-range poultry farms (30.9% compared to layer and broiler production farms (100%. Among 151 farmers who reported using antibiotics in poultry, almost half (49.7% always used antibiotics with a veterinarian prescription. Out of 241 E. coli isolates, 43.2% had a multiple resistance to four of the five antibiotics tested. Almost all the isolates (98.8% were resistant to erythromycin, 78.8% were resistant to streptomycin, 77.6% were resistant to doxycycline, 69.3% were resistant to rifampicin and only a few were resistant to gentamicin (3.7%. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding isolate resistance against antibiotics according to the farming system type. However, resistance of isolates to doxycycline was significantly higher in farms where antibiotic use was reported (84% than in farms where antibiotic use was not reported (70%. The observed antibiotic resistance of E. coli shows the existence of a potential source of resistance that can be transferred to pathogenic bacteria and impact humans as well as animals.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed.

  1. Resistant starch in cassava products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Letícia Buzati Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to analyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were analyzed. The method used for determination of resistant starch consisted of an enzymatic process to calculate the final content of resistant starch considering the concentration of glucose released and analyzed. The results showed significant differences between the products. Among the flours and seasoned flours analyzed, the highest levels of resistant starch were observed in the flour from Bahia state (2.21% and the seasoned flour from Paraná state (1.93%. Starch, tapioca, and sago showed levels of resistant starch ranging from 0.56 to 1.1%. The cassava products analyzed can be considered good sources of resistant starch; which make them beneficial products to the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Candida Species Biofilms’ Antifungal Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Rodrigues, Célia F.; Araújo, Daniela; Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Henriques, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Candida infections (candidiasis) are the most prevalent opportunistic fungal infection on humans and, as such, a major public health problem. In recent decades, candidiasis has been associated to Candida species other than Candida albicans. Moreover, biofilms have been considered the most prevalent growth form of Candida cells and a strong causative agent of the intensification of antifungal resistance. As yet, no specific resistance factor has been identified as the sole responsible for the increased recalcitrance to antifungal agents exhibited by biofilms. Instead, biofilm antifungal resistance is a complex multifactorial phenomenon, which still remains to be fully elucidated and understood. The different mechanisms, which may be responsible for the intrinsic resistance of Candida species biofilms, include the high density of cells within the biofilm, the growth and nutrient limitation, the effects of the biofilm matrix, the presence of persister cells, the antifungal resistance gene expression and the increase of sterols on the membrane of biofilm cells. Thus, this review intends to provide information on the recent advances about Candida species biofilm antifungal resistance and its implication on intensification of the candidiasis. PMID:29371527

  3. Atomic crystals resistive switching memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunsen; Zhang David Wei; Zhou Peng

    2017-01-01

    Facing the growing data storage and computing demands, a high accessing speed memory with low power and non-volatile character is urgently needed. Resistive access random memory with 4F 2 cell size, switching in sub-nanosecond, cycling endurances of over 10 12 cycles, and information retention exceeding 10 years, is considered as promising next-generation non-volatile memory. However, the energy per bit is still too high to compete against static random access memory and dynamic random access memory. The sneak leakage path and metal film sheet resistance issues hinder the further scaling down. The variation of resistance between different devices and even various cycles in the same device, hold resistive access random memory back from commercialization. The emerging of atomic crystals, possessing fine interface without dangling bonds in low dimension, can provide atomic level solutions for the obsessional issues. Moreover, the unique properties of atomic crystals also enable new type resistive switching memories, which provide a brand-new direction for the resistive access random memory. (topical reviews)

  4. Resist materials for proton micromachining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.A. van; Sanchez, J.L.; Xu, B.; Osipowicz, T.; Watt, F.

    1999-01-01

    The production of high aspect ratio microstructures is a potential growth area. The combination of deep X-ray lithography with electroforming and micromolding (i.e. LIGA) is one of the main techniques used to produce 3D microstructures. The new technique of proton micromachining employs focused MeV protons in a direct write process which is complementary to LIGA, e.g. micromachining with 2 MeV protons results in microstructures with a height of 63 μm and lateral sub-micrometer resolution in PMMA resist. The aim of this paper is to investigate the capabilities of proton micromachining as a lithographic technique. This involves the study of different types of resists. The dose distribution of high molecular weight PMMA is compared with three other types of resist: First the positive photo resist AZ P4620 will be discussed and then PMGI SF 23, which can be used as a deep UV, e-beam or X-ray resist. Finally SU-8, a new deep UV negative type of chemically amplified resist will be discussed. All these polymers are applied using the spin coating technique at thicknesses of between 1 and 36 μm

  5. Review of resistance factor for steel: resistance distributions and resistance factor calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, B.J.; Bartlett, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the Canadian steel industry warrant a review of the steel resistance factor in CSA Standard S16 (formerly S16.1) 'Limit states design of steel structures', originally calibrated in the landmark study by Kennedy and Gad Aly in 1980. This paper presents statistical parameters for the bending, compression, and tension resistances of W, WWF, and HSS components produced since 1999 that have been derived from geometric and material properties presented in a companion paper. The resistance factor for steel was recalibrated for the live and dead load combination in the 1995 National Building Code of Canada. A resistance factor of 0.95 is suitable for laterally supported beams, stocky columns, and tension members failing by yield of the gross section, whereas the current value of 0.90 is appropriate for intermediate columns and tension members failing by fracture of the net section. (author)

  6. Multiple drug resistance patterns in various phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic E.coli isolated from Faisalabad region of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saira Bashir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was the phylogenetic characterization of local clinical isolates of uropathogenic E. coli with respect to drug resistance. A total of 59 uropathogenic E. coli responsible for community acquired urinary tract infections were included in this study. A triplex PCR was employed to segregate each isolate into four different phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D. Drug resistance was evaluated by disc diffusion method. The drugs used were ampicillin, aztreonam, cefixime, cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, cephradine among β-lactam group; amikacin, gentamicin, and streptomycin among aminoglycosides; nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin from quinolones; trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazole, and tetracycline. Among 59 uropathogenic E. coli isolates majority belonged to phylogenetic group B2 (50% where as 19% each belonged to groups A and B1, and 12% to group D. All the isolates were multiple drug resistant (MDR. Most effective drugs against Group A, B1, and B2 were gentamicin, amikacin and cefixime; ceftriaxone and quinolones; and ceftriaxone and amikacin, respectively. Group D isolates were found to be highly resistant to all drugs. Our results have shown emergence of MDR isolates among uropathogenic E. coli with dominance of phylogenetic group B2. However, it was found that group D isolates were though less frequent, more drug resistant as compared with group B2. Groups A and B1 were relatively uncommon. Amikacin, ceftriaxone and gentamicin were the most effective drugs in general.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence profile of enterococci isolated from poultry and cattle sources in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngbede, Emmanuel Ochefije; Raji, Mashood Abiola; Kwanashie, Clara Nna; Kwaga, Jacob Kwada Paghi

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the occurrence, antimicrobial resistance and virulence of Enterococcus from poultry and cattle farms. Three hundred and ninety samples: cloacal/rectal swabs (n = 260) and manure (n = 130] were processed for recovery of Enterococcus species. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate, identify and characterize Enterococcus species for antimicrobial susceptibility and expression of virulence traits. Detection of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes was carried out by polymerase chain reaction. Enterococcus was recovered from 167 (42.8%) of the 390 samples tested with a predominance of Enterococcus faecium (27.7%). Other species detected were Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus raffinosus, Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus mundtii and Enterococcus durans. All the isolates tested were susceptible to vancomycin, but resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin and gentamicin was also observed among 61.0, 61.0, 45.1 and 32.7% of the isolates, respectively. Sixty (53.1%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant presenting as 24 different resistance patterns with resistance to gentamicin-erythromycin-streptomycin-tetracycline (CN-ERY-STR-TET) being the most common (n = 11) pattern. In addition to expression of virulence traits (haemolysin, gelatinase, biofilm production), antibiotic resistance (tetK, tetL, tetM, tetO and ermB) and virulence (asa1, gelE, cylA) genes were detected among the isolates. Also, in vitro transfer of resistance determinants was observed among 75% of the isolates tested. Our data revealed poultry, cattle and manure in this area are hosts to varying Enterococcus species harbouring virulence and resistance determinants that can be transferred to other organisms and also are important for causing nosocomial infection.

  8. Is Penicillin plus Gentamicin Synergistic against Clinical Group B Streptococcus isolates?: A in-vitro Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Ruppen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS is increasingly causing invasive infections in nonpregnant adults. Elderly patients and those with comorbidities are at increased risk. On the basis of previous studies focusing on neonatal infections, penicillin plus gentamicin is recommended for infective endocarditis (IE and periprosthetic joint infections (PJI in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a synergism with penicillin and gentamicin is present in GBS isolates that caused IE and PJI. We used 5 GBS isolates, two clinical strains and three control strains, including one displaying high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR. The results from the checkerboard and time-kill assays (TKAs were compared. For TKAs, antibiotic concentrations for penicillin were 0.048 and 0.2 mg/L, and for gentamicin 4 mg/L or 12.5 mg/L. In the checkerboard assay, the median fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs of all isolates indicated indifference. TKAs for all isolates failed to demonstrate synergism with penicillin 0.048 or 0.2 mg/L, irrespective of gentamicin concentrations used. Rapid killing was seen with penicillin 0.048 mg/L plus either 4 mg/L or 12.5 mg/L gentamicin, from 2 h up to 8 h hours after antibiotic exposure. TKAs with penicillin 0.2 mg/L decreased the starting inoculum below the limit of quantification within 4 h to 6 h, irrespective of the addition of gentamicin. Fast killing was seen with penicillin 0.2 mg/L plus 12.5 mg/L gentamicin within the first 2 h. Our in vitro results indicate that the addition of gentamicin to penicillin contributes to faster killing at low penicillin concentrations, but only within the first few hours. Twenty-four hours after antibiotic exposure, PEN alone was bactericidal and synergism was not seen.

  9. Insulin resistance: definition and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovitz, H E

    2001-01-01

    Insulin resistance is defined clinically as the inability of a known quantity of exogenous or endogenous insulin to increase glucose uptake and utilization in an individual as much as it does in a normal population. Insulin action is the consequence of insulin binding to its plasma membrane receptor and is transmitted through the cell by a series of protein-protein interactions. Two major cascades of protein-protein interactions mediate intracellular insulin action: one pathway is involved in regulating intermediary metabolism and the other plays a role in controlling growth processes and mitoses. The regulation of these two distinct pathways can be dissociated. Indeed, some data suggest that the pathway regulating intermediary metabolism is diminished in type 2 diabetes while that regulating growth processes and mitoses is normal.--Several mechanisms have been proposed as possible causes underlying the development of insulin resistance and the insulin resistance syndrome. These include: (1) genetic abnormalities of one or more proteins of the insulin action cascade (2) fetal malnutrition (3) increases in visceral adiposity. Insulin resistance occurs as part of a cluster of cardiovascular-metabolic abnormalities commonly referred to as "The Insulin Resistance Syndrome" or "The Metabolic Syndrome". This cluster of abnormalities may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes, accelerated atherosclerosis, hypertension or polycystic ovarian syndrome depending on the genetic background of the individual developing the insulin resistance.--In this context, we need to consider whether insulin resistance should be defined as a disease entity which needs to be diagnosed and treated with specific drugs to improve insulin action.

  10. Deciphering MCR-2 Colistin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is a prevalent problem in public health worldwide. In general, the carbapenem β-lactam antibiotics are considered a final resort against lethal infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Colistin is a cationic polypeptide antibiotic and acts as the last line of defense for treatment of carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Very recently, a new plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene, mcr-2, was revealed soon after the discovery of the paradigm gene mcr-1, which has disseminated globally. However, the molecular mechanisms for MCR-2 colistin resistance are poorly understood. Here we show a unique transposon unit that facilitates the acquisition and transfer of mcr-2. Evolutionary analyses suggested that both MCR-2 and MCR-1 might be traced to their cousin phosphoethanolamine (PEA lipid A transferase from a known polymyxin producer, Paenibacillus. Transcriptional analyses showed that the level of mcr-2 transcripts is relatively higher than that of mcr-1. Genetic deletions revealed that the transmembrane regions (TM1 and TM2 of both MCR-1 and MCR-2 are critical for their location and function in bacterial periplasm, and domain swapping indicated that the TM2 is more efficient than TM1. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS confirmed that all four MCR proteins (MCR-1, MCR-2, and two chimeric versions [TM1-MCR-2 and TM2-MCR-1] can catalyze chemical modification of lipid A moiety anchored on lipopolysaccharide (LPS with the addition of phosphoethanolamine to the phosphate group at the 4′ position of the sugar. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis defined an essential 6-residue-requiring zinc-binding/catalytic motif for MCR-2 colistin resistance. The results further our mechanistic understanding of transferable colistin resistance, providing clues to improve clinical therapeutics targeting severe infections by MCR-2-containing pathogens.

  11. Identification, antimicrobial resistance and genotypic characterization of Enterococcus spp. isolated in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Eduardo André; de Freitas, Ana Lúcia Peixoto; Reiter, Keli Cristine; Lutz, Larissa; Barth, Afonso Luís

    2009-01-01

    In the past two decades the members of the genus Enterococcus have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial resistance and genotypic characteristics of 203 Enterococcus spp. recovered from different clinical sources from two hospitals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The species were identified by conventional biochemical tests and by an automated system. The genetic diversity of E. faecalis presenting high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA after SmaI digestion. The E. faecalis was the most frequent specie (93.6%), followed by E. faecium (4.4%). The antimicrobial resistance profile was: 2.5% to ampicillin, 0.5% to vancomycin, 0.5% teicoplanin, 33% to chloramphenicol, 2% to nitrofurantoin, 66.1% to erythromycin, 66.5% to tetracycline, 24.6% to rifampicin, 30% to ciprofloxacin and 87.2% to quinupristin-dalfopristin. A total of 10.3% of the isolates proved to be HLAR to both gentamicin and streptomycin (HLR-ST/GE), with 23.6% resistant only to gentamicin (HLR-GE) and 37.4% only to streptomycin (HLR-ST). One predominant clonal group was found among E. faecalis HLR-GE/ST. The prevalence of resistance among beta-lactam antibiotics and glycopeptides was very low. However, in this study there was an increased number of HLR Enterococcus which may be spreading intra and inter-hospital. PMID:24031416

  12. Vanillin selectively modulates the action of antibiotics against resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Camila Fonseca; Camilo, Cicera Janaine; do Nascimento Silva, Maria Karollyna; de Freitas, Thiago Sampaio; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo

    2017-12-01

    The treatment of infections caused by microorganisms that are resistant to antibiotics represent one of the main challenges of medicine today, especially due to the inefficacy of long-term drug therapy. In the search for new alternatives to treat these infections, many researchers have been looking for new substances derived from natural products to replace, or be used in combination with conventional antibiotics. Vanillin is a phenolic compound whose antimicrobial activity has been used in the elimination of pathogens present in fruits and vegetables. However, its antibacterial and modulating properties remain to be characterized. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity and analyze the modulator activity of vanillin in association with conventional antibiotics. The antimicrobial activity of vanillin was evaluated using the microdilution method to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) Standard strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and multi-resistant strains of Escherichia coli 06, Staphylococcus aureus 10, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 24 were used in this study. The antibiotic modulating effect was analyzed by combining vanillin with Norfloxacin, Imipenem, Gentamicin, Erythromycin and Tetracycline against the following multiresistant bacteria strains: Escherichia coli 06, Staphylococcus aureus 10 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 24. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA test of two tracks followed by the post hoc Bonferroni test. Vanillin presented CIMs ≥1024μg/mL against all tested strains demonstrating that it did not present significant antibacterial activity. However, modulated the activity of gentamicin and imipenem against S. aureus and E. coli, causing a synergistic effect, but did not affect the activity of norfloxacin, tetracycline and erythromycin against these same microorganisms. A synergistic effect was also obtained from the association of vanillin with norfloxacin against P

  13. Antibacterial susceptibility patterns and cross-resistance of methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphyloccus aureus isolated from the hospitalized patients in Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Japoni

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRSA pose a serious problem in many countries. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial susceptibility patterns of methicillin sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the hospitalized patients. Totally 356 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus including 200, 137 and 19 corresponding to MSSA, MRSA, and intermediate MRSA strains, respectively were isolated. Antibacterial susceptibility patterns of the isolates to 14 antibiotics were examined using Kirby-Bauer method. MICs of 15 antibiotics to 156 MRSA isolates were determined by E test method. Cross-resistances of MRSA isolates (137+19 to the other tested antibiotics were also determined. S.aureus with high frequencies were isolated from the blood, sputum and deep wound samples. All of 200 MSSA isolates were sensitive to oxacillin, vancomycin, tecoplanin, rifampin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, mupirocin and fusidic acid. A gradient of reduced susceptibility of MSSA to cephalexin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin were evident. MRSA isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, tecoplanin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, mupirocin and fusidic acid, while reduced susceptibility of them to rifampin, co-trimoxazole, clindamycin, cephalexin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and gentamicin were observed. MRSA isolates exhibited a high range of cross-resistance to the eight tested antibiotics. Overall, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin showed low activity against MSSA and MRSA isolates which may indicate they are not suitable to be used in clinical practices. To preserve the effectiveness of antibiotics, rational prescription and concomitant application of preventive measures against the spread of MRSA are recommended.

  14. Detection and coexistence of six categories of resistance genes in Escherichia coli strains from chickens in Anhui Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterise the prevalence of class 1 integrons and gene cassettes, tetracycline-resistance genes, phenicol-resistance genes, 16S rRNA methylase genes, extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes and plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance determinants in 184 Escherichia coli isolates from chickens in Anhui Province, China. Susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials was determined using broth micro-dilution. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were used to characterise the molecular basis of the antibiotic resistance. High rates of antimicrobial resistance were observed; 131 out of the 184 (72.3% isolates were resistant to at least six antimicrobial agents. The prevalences of class 1 integrons, tetracycline-resistance genes, phenicol-resistance genes, 16S rRNA methylase genes, extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes and plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance determinants were 49.5, 17.4, 15.8, 0.5, 57.6 and 46.2%, respectively. In 82 isolates, 48 different kinds of coexistence of the different genes were identified. Statistical (χ2 analysis showed that the resistance to amoxicillin, doxycycline, florfenicol, ofloxacin and gentamicin had significant differences (P<0.01 or 0.01resistance genes, which showed a certain correlation between antimicrobial resistance and the presence of resistance genes.

  15. Rolling Resistance Measurement and Model Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Grinderslev; Larsen, Jesper; Fraser, Elsje Sophia

    2015-01-01

    There is an increased focus worldwide on understanding and modeling rolling resistance because reducing the rolling resistance by just a few percent will lead to substantial energy savings. This paper reviews the state of the art of rolling resistance research, focusing on measuring techniques, s......, surface and texture modeling, contact models, tire models, and macro-modeling of rolling resistance...

  16. Analytic study of resistive instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Magnus

    2003-05-01

    In a fusion plasma there is always a small amount of resistivity that may cause instabilities. Although their rather slow growth rates they can be of major importance for fusion plasma confinement. In this work a MAPLE-code was rewritten and simplified to make it possible to analytically solve the linearized MHD-equations with resistivity in an RFP-configuration. By using the MHD-equations and expanding the unknown perturbed quantities u{sub 1r}(r) and B{sub 1r}(r) as Taylor series and solving each coefficient we could get eigenvalues, dispersion relations and a relation between the growth rate and the resistivity. The new code was first used to solve two cases with no resistivity and simple unstable equilibria which after running gave the correct expected results. The difference from running the original code with these two cases was the greater speed of the calculations and the less memory needed. Then by using an ideal MHD-stable equilibrium in a plasma with no resistivity the code gave us solutions which unfortunately were not of the expected kind but the time of the calculations was still very fast. The resistivity was finally added to the code with the ideal MHD-stable equilibrium. The program also this time gave incorrect results. We could, however, see from a relation between the growth rate and the resistivity that the solution may be approximately correct in this domain. Although we did not get all the correct results we have to consider the fact that we got results, that were not possible before. Before this work was carried out we could not get any results at all in the resistive cue because of the very long memory demanding expressions. In future work and studies it is not only possible to get the desired eigenvalues {gamma} as function of {eta} but also possible to get expressions for eigenfunctions, dispersion relations and other significant relations with a number of variable parameters. We could also use the method for any geometry and possibly for

  17. Analytic study of resistive instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Magnus

    2003-05-01

    In a fusion plasma there is always a small amount of resistivity that may cause instabilities. Although their rather slow growth rates they can be of major importance for fusion plasma confinement. In this work a MAPLE-code was rewritten and simplified to make it possible to analytically solve the linearized MHD-equations with resistivity in an RFP-configuration. By using the MHD-equations and expanding the unknown perturbed quantities u 1r (r) and B 1r (r) as Taylor series and solving each coefficient we could get eigenvalues, dispersion relations and a relation between the growth rate and the resistivity. The new code was first used to solve two cases with no resistivity and simple unstable equilibria which after running gave the correct expected results. The difference from running the original code with these two cases was the greater speed of the calculations and the less memory needed. Then by using an ideal MHD-stable equilibrium in a plasma with no resistivity the code gave us solutions which unfortunately were not of the expected kind but the time of the calculations was still very fast. The resistivity was finally added to the code with the ideal MHD-stable equilibrium. The program also this time gave incorrect results. We could, however, see from a relation between the growth rate and the resistivity that the solution may be approximately correct in this domain. Although we did not get all the correct results we have to consider the fact that we got results, that were not possible before. Before this work was carried out we could not get any results at all in the resistive cue because of the very long memory demanding expressions. In future work and studies it is not only possible to get the desired eigenvalues γ as function of η but also possible to get expressions for eigenfunctions, dispersion relations and other significant relations with a number of variable parameters. We could also use the method for any geometry and possibly for non

  18. Insulin Resistance in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineley, Kelly T; Jahrling, Jordan B; Denner, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is a key hormone regulating metabolism. Insulin binding to cell surface insulin receptors engages many signaling intermediates operating in parallel and in series to control glucose, energy, and lipids while also regulating mitogenesis and development. Perturbations in the function of any of these intermediates, which occur in a variety of diseases, cause reduced sensitivity to insulin and insulin resistance with consequent metabolic dysfunction. Chronic inflammation ensues which exacerbates compromised metabolic homeostasis. Since insulin has a key role in learning and memory as well as directly regulating ERK, a kinase required for the type of learning and memory compromised in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), insulin resistance has been identified as a major risk factor for the onset of AD. Animal models of AD or insulin resistance or both demonstrate that AD pathology and impaired insulin signaling form a reciprocal relationship. Of note are human and animal model studies geared toward improving insulin resistance that have led to the identification of the nuclear receptor and transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) as an intervention tool for early AD. Strategic targeting of alternate nodes within the insulin signaling network has revealed disease-stage therapeutic windows in animal models that coalesce with previous and ongoing clinical trial approaches. Thus, exploiting the connection between insulin resistance and AD provides powerful opportunities to delineate therapeutic interventions that slow or block the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:25237037

  19. Insulin Resistance and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance precedes and predicts the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in susceptible humans, underscoring its important role in the complex pathogenesis of this disease. Insulin resistance contributes to multiple tissue defects characteristic of T2D, including reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive tissues, increased hepatic glucose production, increased lipolysis in adipose tissue, and altered insulin secretion. Studies of individuals with insulin resistance, both with established T2D and high-risk individuals, have consistently demonstrated a diverse array of defects in mitochondrial function (i.e., bioenergetics, biogenesis and dynamics). However, it remains uncertain whether mitochondrial dysfunction is primary (critical initiating defect) or secondary to the subtle derangements in glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and defective insulin secretion present early in the course of disease development. In this chapter, we will present the evidence linking mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and review the potential for mitochondrial targets as a therapeutic approach for T2D.

  20. Selective Insulin Resistance in Adipocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shi-Xiong; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H.; Fazakerley, Daniel J.; Ng, Yvonne; Pant, Himani; Li, Jia; Meoli, Christopher C.; Coster, Adelle C. F.; Stöckli, Jacqueline; James, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Aside from glucose metabolism, insulin regulates a variety of pathways in peripheral tissues. Under insulin-resistant conditions, it is well known that insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is impaired, and many studies attribute this to a defect in Akt signaling. Here we make use of several insulin resistance models, including insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes and fat explants prepared from high fat-fed C57BL/6J and ob/ob mice, to comprehensively distinguish defective from unaffected aspects of insulin signaling and its downstream consequences in adipocytes. Defective regulation of glucose uptake was observed in all models of insulin resistance, whereas other major actions of insulin such as protein synthesis and anti-lipolysis were normal. This defect corresponded to a reduction in the maximum response to insulin. The pattern of change observed for phosphorylation in the Akt pathway was inconsistent with a simple defect at the level of Akt. The only Akt substrate that showed consistently reduced phosphorylation was the RabGAP AS160 that regulates GLUT4 translocation. We conclude that insulin resistance in adipose tissue is highly selective for glucose metabolism and likely involves a defect in one of the components regulating GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface in response to insulin. PMID:25720492

  1. An innovation resistance factor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Salwa Mohd Ishak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The process and implementation strategy of information technology in construction is generally considered through the limiting prism of theoretical contexts generated from innovation diffusion and acceptance. This research argues that more attention should be given to understanding the positive effects of resistance. The study develops a theoretical framing for the Integrated Resistance Factor Model (IRFM. The framing uses a combination of diffusion of innovation theory, technology acceptance model and social network perspective. The model is tested to identify the most significant resistance factors using Partial Least Square (PLS technique. All constructs proposed in the model are found to be significant, valid and consistent with the theoretical framework. IRFM is shown to be an effective and appropriate model of user resistance factors. The most critical factors to influence technology resistance in the online project information management system (OPIMS context are: support from leaders and peers, complexity of the technology, compatibility with key work practices; and pre-trial of the technology before it is actually deployed. The study provides a new model for further research in technology innovation specific to the construction industry.

  2. Resistant Hypertension and Cardiorenovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prkacin Ingrid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies have documented independent contribution of sympathetic activation to the cardiovascular disease continuum. Hypertension is one of the leading modifiable factors. Most if not all the benefit of antihypertensive treatment depends on blood pressure lowering, regardless how it is obtained. Resistant hypertension is defined as blood pressure that remains uncontrolled in spite of the concurrent use of three antihypertensive drugs of different classes. Ideally, one of the three drugs should be a diuretic, and all drugs should be prescribed at optimal dose amounts. Poor adherence to antihypertensive therapy, undiscovered secondary causes (e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, primary aldosteronism, renal artery stenosis, and lifestyle factors (e.g. obesity, excessive sodium intake, heavy alcohol intake, various drug interactions are the most common causes of resistant hypertension. Cardio(renovascular morbidity and mortality are significantly higher in resistant hypertensive than in general hypertensive population, as such patients are typically presented with a long-standing history of poorly controlled hypertension. Early diagnosis and treatment is needed to avoid further end-organ damage to prevent cardiorenovascular remodeling. Treatment strategy includes lifestyle changes, adding a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, treatment adherence in cardiovascular prevention and, in case of failure to control blood pressure, renal sympathetic denervation or baroreceptor activation therapy. The comparative outcomes in resistant hypertension deserve better understanding. In this review, the most current approaches to resistant hypertension and cardiovascular risk based on the available literature evidence will be discussed.

  3. Drug-resistant spinal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Jain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant spinal tuberculosis (TB is an emerging health problem in both developing and developed countries. In this review article, we aim to define management protocols for suspicion, diagnosis, and treatment of such patients. Spinal TB is a deep-seated paucibacillary lesion, and the demonstration of acid-fast bacilli on Ziehl-Neelsen staining is possible only in 10%–30% of cases. Drug resistance is suspected in patients showing the failure of clinicoradiological improvement or appearance of a fresh lesion of osteoarticular TB while on anti tubercular therapy (ATT for a minimum period of 5 months. The conventional culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the gold standard for both bacteriological diagnosis and drug sensitivity testing (DST; however, the high turn around time of 2–6 weeks for detection with added 3 weeks for DST is a major limitation. To overcome this problem, rapid culture methods and molecular methods have been introduced. From a public health perspective, reducing the period between diagnosis and treatment initiation has direct benefits for both the patient and the community. For all patients of drug-resistant spinal TB, a complete Drug-O-Gram should be prepared which includes details of all drugs, their doses, and duration. Patients with confirmed multidrug-resistant TB strains should receive a regimen with at least five effective drugs, including pyrazinamide and one injectable. Patients with resistance to additional antitubercular drugs should receive individualized ATT as per their DST results.

  4. Insecticide resistance and intracellular proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Richard M

    2017-12-01

    Pesticide resistance is an example of evolution in action with mechanisms of resistance arising from mutations or increased expression of intrinsic genes. Intracellular proteases have a key role in maintaining healthy cells and in responding to stressors such as pesticides. Insecticide-resistant insects have constitutively elevated intracellular protease activity compared to corresponding susceptible strains. This increase was shown for some cases originally through biochemical enzyme studies and subsequently putatively by transcriptomics and proteomics methods. Upregulation and expression of proteases have been characterised in resistant strains of some insect species, including mosquitoes. This increase in proteolysis results in more degradation products (amino acids) of intracellular proteins. These may be utilised in the resistant strain to better protect the cell from stress. There are changes in insect intracellular proteases shortly after insecticide exposure, suggesting a role in stress response. The use of protease and proteasome inhibitors or peptide mimetics as synergists with improved application techniques and through protease gene knockdown using RNA interference (possibly expressed in crop plants) may be potential pest management strategies, in situations where elevated intracellular proteases are relevant. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance in Invasive Bacterial Infections in Hospitalized Children, Cambodia, 2007-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Lewis, Andrew; Takata, Junko; Miliya, Thyl; Lubell, Yoel; Soeng, Sona; Sar, Poda; Rith, Kolthida; McKellar, Gregor; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; McGonagle, Erin; Stoesser, Nicole; Moore, Catrin E; Parry, Christopher M; Turner, Claudia; Day, Nicholas P J; Cooper, Ben S; Turner, Paul

    2018-05-01

    To determine trends, mortality rates, and costs of antimicrobial resistance in invasive bacterial infections in hospitalized children, we analyzed data from Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, for 2007-2016. A total of 39,050 cultures yielded 1,341 target pathogens. Resistance rates were high; 82% each of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were multidrug resistant. Hospital-acquired isolates were more often resistant than community-acquired isolates; resistance trends over time were heterogeneous. K. pneumoniae isolates from neonates were more likely than those from nonneonates to be resistant to ampicillin-gentamicin and third-generation cephalosporins. In patients with community-acquired gram-negative bacteremia, third-generation cephalosporin resistance was associated with increased mortality rates, increased intensive care unit admissions, and 2.26-fold increased healthcare costs among survivors. High antimicrobial resistance in this setting is a threat to human life and the economy. In similar low-resource settings, our methods could be reproduced as a robust surveillance model for antimicrobial resistance.

  6. Antimicrobial-resistant Klebsiella species isolated from free-range chicken samples in an informal settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Burtram C; Mnabisa, Amanda; Gouws, Pieter A; Morris, Thureyah

    2012-02-29

    Sub-therapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents are administered routinely to poultry to aid growth and to prevent disease, with prolonged exposure often resulting in bacterial resistance. Crossover of antibiotic resistant bacteria from poultry to humans poses a risk to human health. In this study, 17 chicken samples collected from a vendor operating in an informal settlement in the Cape Town Metropolitan area, South Africa were screened for antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative bacilli using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion assay. IN TOTAL, SIX ANTIBIOTICS WERE SCREENED: ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline and trimethoprim. Surprisingly, Klebsiella ozaenae was identified in 96 and K. rhinoscleromatis in 6 (n=102) of the samples tested. Interestingly, ∼40% of the isolated Klebsiella spp. showed multiple resistance to at least three of the six antibiotics tested. Klebsiella ozaenae and K. rhinoscleromatis cause clinical chronic rhinitis and are almost exclusively associated with people living in areas of poor hygiene.

  7. The effects of tertiary wastewater treatment on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, L.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dalsgaard, A.

    2002-01-01

    and anaerobically digested sludge by bacteriological counts on media selective for coliforms (MacConkey agar) and Acinetobacter spp. (Baumann agar). In addition, the level of antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disc-diffusion method in 442 Acinetobacter isolates identified by colony hybridisation......-resistant presumptive coliforms and Acinetobacter spp. in treated sewage and digested sludge were not significantly higher compared with raw sewage. On the contrary at one plant, statistically significant decreases were observed in the prevalence of ampicillin-resistant presumptive Acinetobacter spp. (p = 0.......0188) following sewage treatment, and in the prevalence of either ampicillin-resistant presumptive Acinetobacter spp. (p = 0.0013) or ampicillin- and gentamicin-resistant presumptive coliforms (p = 0.0273 and p = 0.0186) following sludge treatment. The results obtained by bacteriological counts were confirmed...

  8. Rapid Aminoglycoside NP Test for Rapid Detection of Multiple Aminoglycoside Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Patrice; Jayol, Aurélie; Dobias, Jan; Poirel, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    The rapid aminoglycoside NP (Nordmann/Poirel) test was developed to rapidly identify multiple aminoglycoside (AG) resistance in Enterobacteriaceae It is based on the detection of the glucose metabolism related to enterobacterial growth in the presence of a defined concentration of amikacin plus gentamicin. Formation of acid metabolites was evidenced by a color change (orange to yellow) of the red phenol pH indicator. The rapid aminoglycoside NP test was evaluated by using bacterial colonies of 18 AG-resistant isolates producing 16S rRNA methylases, 20 AG-resistant isolates expressing AG-modifying enzymes (acetyl-, adenyl-, and phosphotransferases), and 10 isolates susceptible to AG. Its sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 97%, respectively, compared to the broth dilution method, which was taken as the gold standard for determining aminoglycoside resistance. The test is inexpensive, rapid (<2 h), and implementable worldwide. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Structural Analysis of the Tobramycin and Gentamicin Clinical Resistome Reveals Limitations for Next-generation Aminoglycoside Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassenden, Angelia V; Rodionov, Dmitry; Shi, Kun; Berghuis, Albert M

    2016-05-20

    Widespread use and misuse of antibiotics has allowed for the selection of resistant bacteria capable of avoiding the effects of antibiotics. The primary mechanism for resistance to aminoglycosides, a broad-spectrum class of antibiotics, is through covalent enzymatic modification of the drug, waning their bactericidal effect. Tobramycin and gentamicin are two medically important aminoglycosides targeted by several different resistance factors, including aminoglycoside 2″-nucleotidyltransferase [ANT(2″)], the primary cause of aminoglycoside resistance in North America. We describe here two crystal structures of ANT(2″), each in complex with AMPCPP, Mn(2+), and either tobramycin or gentamicin. Together these structures outline ANT(2″)'s specificity for clinically used substrates. Importantly, these structures complete our structural knowledge for the set of enzymes that most frequently confer clinically observed resistance to tobramycin and gentamicin. Comparison of tobramycin and gentamicin binding to enzymes in this resistome, as well as to the intended target, the bacterial ribosome, reveals surprising diversity in observed drug-target interactions. Analysis of the diverse binding modes informs that there are limited opportunities for developing aminoglycoside analogs capable of evading resistance.

  10. Resistance exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Richards, Rachel S; Bidonde, Julia; Schachter, Candice L; Schafer, Laurel A; Danyliw, Adrienne; Sawant, Anuradha; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Rader, Tamara; Overend, Tom J

    2013-12-20

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain that leads to reduced physical function. Exercise training is commonly recommended as a treatment for management of symptoms. We examined the literature on resistance training for individuals with fibromyalgia. Resistance training is exercise performed against a progressive resistance with the intention of improving muscle strength, muscle endurance, muscle power, or a combination of these. To evaluate the benefits and harms of resistance exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We compared resistance training versus control and versus other types of exercise training. We searched nine electronic databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, Current Controlled Trials, World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, AMED) and other sources for published full-text articles. The date of the last search was 5 March 2013. Two review authors independently screened 1856 citations, 766 abstracts and 156 full-text articles. We included five studies that met our inclusion criteria. Selection criteria included: a) randomized clinical trial, b) diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria, c) adult sample, d) full-text publication, and e) inclusion of between-group data comparing resistance training versus a control or other physical activity intervention. Pairs of review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted intervention and outcome data. We resolved disagreements between the two review authors and questions regarding interpretation of study methods by discussion within the pairs or when necessary the issue was taken to the full team of 11 members. We extracted 21 outcomes of which seven were designated as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, tenderness, muscle strength, attrition rates, and adverse effects. We evaluated benefits and harms of the interventions using

  11. Paediatrics, insulin resistance and the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlais, Matko; Coward, Richard J

    2015-08-01

    Systemic insulin resistance is becoming more prevalent in the young due to modern lifestyles predisposing to the metabolic syndrome and obesity. There is also evidence that there are critical insulin-resistant phases for the developing child, including puberty, and that renal disease per se causes systemic insulin resistance. This review considers the factors that render children insulin resistant, as well as the accumulating evidence that the kidney is an insulin-responsive organ and could be affected by insulin resistance.

  12. Resistance to minor groove binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmegna, Benedetta; Uboldi, Sarah; Erba, Eugenio; D'Incalci, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    In this paper multiple resistance mechanisms to minor groove binders (MGBs) are overviewed. MGBs with antitumor properties are natural products or their derivatives and, as expected, they are all substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). However, a moderate expression of P-gp does not appear to reduce the sensitivity to trabectedin, the only MGB so far approved for clinical use. Resistance to this drug is often related to transcriptional mechanisms and to DNA repair pathways, particularly defects in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER). Therefore tumors resistant to trabectedin may become hypersensitive to UV rays and other DNA damaging agents acting in the major groove, such as Platinum (Pt) complexes. If this is confirmed in clinic, that will provide the rationale to combine trabectedin sequentially with Pt derivates.

  13. Liquefaction resistance of calcareous sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Vallejo, Eimar

    2012-01-01

    Calcareous sands are unique in terms of their origin, mineralogy, shape, fragility and intra particle porosity. This article presents results from an experimental program carried out to study the liquefaction resistance of a calcareous sand retrieved from Cabo Rojo at Puerto Rico. The experimental program included mineralogical characterization, index properties, and undrained cyclic triaxial tests on isotropically consolidated reconstituted samples. Due to the large variation in the calcareous sand properties, results are compared with previous researches carried out on other calcareous sands around the world. Results showed a wide range in the liquefaction resistance of the studied calcareous sands. Cabo Rojo sand experienced greater liquefaction resistance than most of the calcareous sands used for comparison. Important differences in the excess pore pressure generation characteristics were also found.

  14. DRUG RESISTANCE IN HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Silveira VIANNA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Helicobacter pylori has a worldwide distribution and is associated with the pathogenesis of various diseases of the digestive system. Treatment to eradicate this microorganism involves the use of a combination of antimicrobials, such as amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin, combined with proton pump inhibitors. Although the current therapy is effective, a high rate of treatment failure has been observed, mainly because of the acquisition of point mutations, one of the major resistance mechanisms developed by H. pylori. This phenomenon is related to frequent and/or inappropriate use of antibiotics. Conclusion This review reported an overview of the resistance to the main drugs used in the treatment of H. pylori, confirming the hypothesis that antibacterial resistance is a highly local phenomenon and genetic characteristics of a given population can influence which therapy is the most appropriate.

  15. Rapid report acetamiprid resistance and cross-resistance in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninsin, Kodwo D

    2004-09-01

    A 110-fold acetamiprid-resistant Plutella xylostella (L) strain was established after four selection experiments (in five generations) on a 9.5-fold resistant colony in the laboratory. The resistant strain did not show cross-resistance to chlorfluazuron or Bacillus thuringiensis subsp kurstaki Berliner, but displayed low resistance to cartap and phenthoate.

  16. Screening fusarium resistant rootstocks for plant parasitic nematode resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phase out of methyl bromide has directed research toward alternative methods of managing soil-borne pathogens. A limiting factor in many watermelon producing regions is Fusarium wilt caused by the soil-borne fungi Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum (FON). There is no varietal resistance to FON depl...

  17. Plasmid mediated resistance in multidrug resistant bacteria isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibiotic susceptibility testing of isolated bacteria associated with septicaemia in children were carried out using standard microbiological protocol. The MAR index for the test bacterial isolates was determined and the bacterial isolates that displayed multiple antibiotic resistance were investigated for the presence of ...

  18. Insulin resistance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, Jenne D; Opsomer, Geert

    2013-07-01

    Glucose is the molecule that drives milk production, and insulin plays a pivotal role in the glucose metabolism of dairy cows. The effect of insulin on the glucose metabolism is regulated by the secretion of insulin by the pancreas and the insulin sensitivity of the skeletal muscles, the adipose tissue, and the liver. Insulin resistance may develop as part of physiologic (pregnancy and lactation) and pathologic processes, which may manifest as decreased insulin sensitivity or decreased insulin responsiveness. A good knowledge of the normal physiology of insulin is needed to measure the in vivo insulin resistance of dairy cows. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Computing motion using resistive networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christof; Luo, Jin; Mead, Carver; Hutchinson, James

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in the theory of early vision are described which lead from the formulation of the motion problem as an ill-posed one to its solution by minimizing certain 'cost' functions. These cost or energy functions can be mapped onto simple analog and digital resistive networks. It is shown how the optical flow can be computed by injecting currents into resistive networks and recording the resulting stationary voltage distribution at each node. These networks can be implemented in cMOS VLSI circuits and represent plausible candidates for biological vision systems.

  20. Reflections on researching rape resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-03-01

    This article provides a retrospective account of my experience embarking on research about women's resistance to rape, including reflections on personal and professional experiences related to studying this topic. I discuss factors inspiring my interest, including pioneering feminist rape researchers, my experience as a woman living with the reality and fear of rape, and influential mentors who facilitated my career development as a scholar in graduate school and beyond. I weave this narrative together with my thoughts about how the study of resistance relates to other important issues in the field of sexual assault including alcohol, recovery, and prevention.

  1. Radioactive resistance of EEPROM components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loncar, B.; Novakovic, D.; Stankovic, S.; Osmokrovic, P.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the resistance of EEPROM components under the influence of gamma radiation. This paper is significant for military industry and space technology. Therefore the analysis of the degradation mechanisms of these components as well as the possibilities to increase their radiation resistance have been considered by many authors. Total dose results are presented for 28C64C EEPROM there is evidence that the first failure appeared for 1000 Gy total dose level. The obtained result are analyzed and explained theoretically via the interaction of gamma radiation with oxide layer. (author)

  2. Corrosion-resistant coating development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.; Kupp, D.M.; Martin, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    SiC-based heat exchangers have been identified as the prime candidate material for use as heat exchangers in advanced combined cycle power plants. Unfortunately, hot corrosion of the SiC-based materials created by alkali metal salts present in the combustion gases dictates the need for corrosion-resistant coatings. The well-documented corrosion resistance of CS-50 combined with its low (and tailorable) coefficient of thermal expansion and low modulus makes CS-50 an ideal candidate for this application. Coatings produced by gelcasting and traditional particulate processing have been evaluated.

  3. Radiation-resistant camera tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Takao; Manabe, Sohei; Makishima, Yasuhiro

    1982-01-01

    It was a long time ago that Toshiba launched on manufacturing black-and-white radiation-resistant camera tubes employing nonbrowning face-plate glass for ITV cameras used in nuclear power plants. Now in compliance with the increasing demand in nuclear power field, the Company is at grips with the development of radiation-resistant single color-camera tubes incorporating a color-stripe filter for color ITV cameras used under radiation environment. Herein represented are the results of experiments on characteristics of materials for single color-camera tubes and prospects for commercialization of the tubes. (author)

  4. Concretes with high mechanical resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauny, Pierre.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a method for manufacturing concretes with high mechanical resistance in compression, obtained by mixing gravels highly resistant to compression, sand and cement in an aqueous medium. Use is made of sands of porous ceramics, such as terra-cotta, of a grain size from 0,1 to 5mm, the pore diameter of which is from 0.5 to 15 microns, chosen so as to be slighty bigger than the crystals of the cement used. This can be applied to the pre-stressed structures used in the nuclear field [fr

  5. Giant magneto-resistance devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hirota, Eiichi; Inomata, Koichiro

    2002-01-01

    This book deals with the application of giant magneto-resistance (GMR) effects to electronic devices. It will appeal to engineers and graduate students in the fields of electronic devices and materials. The main subjects are magnetic sensors with high resolution and magnetic read heads with high sensitivity, required for hard-disk drives with recording densities of several gigabytes. Another important subject is novel magnetic random-access memories (MRAM) with non-volatile non-destructive and radiation-resistant characteristics. Other topics include future GMR devices based on bipolar spin transistors, spin field-effect transistors (FETs) and double-tunnel junctions.

  6. Resistência antimicrobiana em Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de amostras clínicas e ambientais de frangos de corte e matrizes pesadas Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from clinical and environmental broiler chickens and breeders broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Ribeiro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from clinical and environmental poultry samples in the Southern Brazil during the years of 1999, 2000 and 2001 was evaluated. Among the 79 isolated samples, 64 (81% were resistant to at least one of the antimicrobial agents tested, showing 22 different resistance patterns. Tetracycline showed the highest percentage (64,5% of resistance among the antimicrobial agents used. Resistance to drugs at different levels was found as the following: ampicillin (1.2%, kanamycin (1.2%, ciprofloxacin (2.5%, enrofloxacin (8.8%, gentamicin (21.5%, streptomycin (20.2%, nitrofurantoin (26.6%, and nalidixic acid (30.4%. None of the S. Enteritidis strains were resistant to chloramphenicol, norfloxacin, and polimycin B. Among the 64 S. Enteritidis strains that showed resistance, 43 (67.2% were resistant to two or more antimicrobial agents. Twenty-one (32.8% strains were resistant to only one of the antimicrobial agents, 14 to tetracycline, three to nalidixic acid, three to nitrofurantoin, and one to gentamycin. These antimicrobial resistance levels suggest a high occurrence of tetracycline resistant S. Enteritidis strains and resistance to two or more antimicrobial agents.

  7. Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from Pigs in Organic and Conventional Farming in Four European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österberg, Julia; Wingstrand, Anne; Nygaard Jensen, Annette; Kerouanton, Annaelle; Cibin, Veronica; Barco, Lisa; Denis, Martine; Aabo, Sören; Bengtsson, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Organic pig production differs in many ways from conventional production of pigs, e.g., in antibiotic use, herd structure, feeding regimes, access to outdoor areas and space allowance per pig. This study investigated if these differences result in a lower occurrence of antibiotic resistance in organic slaughter pigs in Denmark, France, Italy and Sweden. Samples were taken from the colon content and/or faeces and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ten antibiotics were determined in isolates of Escherichia coli. In addition, the proportion of tetracycline (TET) resistant E. coli in colon content and/or faeces from individual pigs was determined. In all four countries the percentage resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides or trimethoprim was significantly lower in E. coli from organic pigs. In France and Italy, the percentage of isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid or gentamicin was also significantly lower in the E. coli from organic pigs. Resistance to cefotaxime, was not found in any country. The percentage of E. coli isolates resistant to TET as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli was significantly lower in organic than in conventional pigs, except in Sweden where TET-resistance was equally low in both production types. There were also differences between countries within production type in the percentage resistance to individual antibiotics as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli with lower median proportions in Sweden and Denmark compared to France and Italy. The study shows that in each of the four countries resistance in intestinal E. coli was less common in organic than in conventional pigs, but that there were also large differences in resistance between countries within each production type, indicating that both country- and production-specific factors influence the occurrence of resistance.

  8. Inheritance of Cry1F resistance, cross-resistance and frequency of resistant alleles in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, A M; Spencer, T A; Alves, A P; Moellenbeck, D; Meagher, R L; Chirakkal, H; Siegfried, B D

    2013-12-01

    Transgenic maize, Zea maize L., expressing the Cry1F protein from Bacillus thuringiensis has been registered for Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) control since 2003. Unexpected damage to Cry1F maize was reported in 2006 in Puerto Rico and Cry1F resistance in S. frugiperda was documented. The inheritance of Cry1F resistance was characterized in a S. frugiperda resistant strain originating from Puerto Rico, which displayed >289-fold resistance to purified Cry1F. Concentration-response bioassays of reciprocal crosses of resistant and susceptible parental populations indicated that resistance is recessive and autosomal. Bioassays of the backcross of the F1 generation crossed with the resistant parental strain suggest that a single locus is responsible for resistance. In addition, cross-resistance to Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ba, Cry2Aa and Vip3Aa was assessed in the Cry1F-resistant strain. There was no significant cross-resistance to Cry1Aa, Cry1Ba and Cry2Aa, although only limited effects were observed in the susceptible strain. Vip3Aa was highly effective against susceptible and resistant insects indicating no cross-resistance with Cry1F. In contrast, low levels of cross-resistance were observed for both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. Because the resistance is recessive and conferred by a single locus, an F1 screening assay was used to measure the frequency of Cry1F-resistant alleles from populations of Florida and Texas in 2010 and 2011. A total frequency of resistant alleles of 0.13 and 0.02 was found for Florida and Texas populations, respectively, indicating resistant alleles could be found in US populations, although there have been no reports of reduced efficacy of Cry1F-expressing plants.

  9. Global Phenotypic Characterization of Effects of Fluoroquinolone Resistance Selection on the Metabolic Activities and Drug Susceptibilities of Clostridium perfringens Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miseon Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolone resistance affects toxin production of Clostridium perfringens strains differently. To investigate the effect of fluoroquinolone resistance selection on global changes in metabolic activities and drug susceptibilities, four C. perfringens strains and their norfloxacin-, ciprofloxacin-, and gatifloxacin-resistant mutants were compared in nearly 2000 assays, using phenotype microarray plates. Variations among mutant strains resulting from resistance selection were observed in all aspects of metabolism. Carbon utilization, pH range, osmotic tolerance, and chemical sensitivity of resistant strains were affected differently in the resistant mutants depending on both the bacterial genotype and the fluoroquinolone to which the bacterium was resistant. The susceptibilities to gentamicin and erythromycin of all resistant mutants except one increased, but some resistant strains were less susceptible to amoxicillin, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, and metronidazole than their wild types. Sensitivity to ethidium bromide decreased in some resistant mutants and increased in others. Microarray analysis of two gatifloxacin-resistant mutants showed changes in metabolic activities that were correlated with altered expression of various genes. Both the chemical structures of fluoroquinolones and the genomic makeup of the wild types influenced the changes found in resistant mutants, which may explain some inconsistent reports of the effects of therapeutic use of fluoroquinolones on clinical isolates of bacteria.

  10. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashurano Marcellina

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance is particularly harmful to infectious disease management in low-income countries since expensive second-line drugs are not readily available. The objective of this study was to implement and evaluate a computerized system for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania. Methods A computerized surveillance system for antimicrobial susceptibility (WHONET was implemented at the national referral hospital in Tanzania in 1998. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of all clinical bacterial isolates received during an 18 months' period were recorded and analyzed. Results The surveillance system was successfully implemented at the hospital. This activity increased the focus on antimicrobial resistance issues and on laboratory quality assurance issues. The study identified specific nosocomial problems in the hospital and led to the initiation of other prospective studies on prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial infections. Furthermore, the study provided useful data on antimicrobial patterns in bacterial isolates from the hospital. Gram-negative bacteria displayed high rates of resistance to common inexpensive antibiotics such as ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, leaving fluoroquinolones as the only reliable oral drugs against common Gram-negative bacilli. Gentamicin and third generation cephalosporins remain useful for parenteral therapy. Conclusion The surveillance system is a low-cost tool to generate valuable information on antimicrobial resistance, which can be used to prepare locally applicable recommendations on antimicrobial use. The system pinpoints relevant nosocomial problems and can be used to efficiently plan further research. The surveillance system also functions as a quality assurance tool, bringing attention to methodological issues in identification and susceptibility testing.

  11. Evolution of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enteritidis (1972–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jermaine Khumalo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the extensive use of antibiotics in livestock production, surveillance revealed an increase in Salmonella resistance to the commonly used antimicrobials in veterinary and public health. This serious threat to health care is further exacerbated by the limited epidemiological information about the common zoonotic agent, Salmonella enteritidis, required to determine antibiotic therapy. The aim was to characterise the antimicrobial resistance patterns of S. enteritidis isolates across different timelines (1972–2005 with accompanying genetic changes being investigated. Thirty-seven stored S. enteritidis isolates were collected from the Central Veterinary Laboratory, Harare, with antimicrobial susceptibility determined against eight antibiotics. Plasmids were isolated to analyse any genetic variation. An overall significant increase in resistance (p < 0.05 to nalidixic acid (0% – 10%, ampicillin (14.3% – 50%, tetracycline (14.3% – 30% and erythromycin (71.4% – 100% was observed across the timeline. However, the highest rates of susceptibility were maintained for gentamicin, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim, kanamycin and chloramphenicol. We report an increase in multidrug resistance (MDR of 14.2% – 50% with an increase in resistotypes and plasmid profiles across the timeline. Eleven plasmid profiles were obtained in the 37 isolates studied with a minority of isolates (21.6%, 8/37 harbouring a 54 kb plasmid, commonly serovar-specific. A concerning increase in antimicrobial resistance to commonly administered drugs was observed across the timeline. The surge in MDR is of great concern and implies the need for consistent antimicrobial stewardship. No correlation was observed between the plasmid and antibiotic profiles.

  12. Multidrug resistance in amoebiasis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Devendra; Sehgal, Rakesh; Chawla, Yogesh; Malla, Nancy; Mahajan, R C

    2006-08-01

    Amoebiasis, caused by Entamoeba sp. a protozoan parasite, is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. The symptomatic patients are treated by specific chemotherapy. However, there are reports of treatment failure in some cases suggesting the possibility of drug resistance. The present study was therefore planned to assess the presence and expression of mRNA of multidrug resistance (MDR) gene in clinical isolates of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar. Forty five clinical isolates of Entamoeba sp. [E. histolytica (15) and E. dispar (30)] were maintained in polyxenic followed by monoxenic medium. DNA and total RNA were extracted from clinical isolates of Entamoeba sp. and from sensitive strain of E. histolytica (HM1: IMSS) and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR techniques. The 344 bp segment of E. histolytica DNA was seen by PCR using primers specific to EhPgp1 in all clinical isolates and sensitive strain of E. histolytica. Over expression of EhPgp1 was observed only in resistant mutant of E. histolytica; however, transcription of EhPgp1 was not seen in any clinical isolates and sensitive strain of E. histolytica. The findings of the present study indicate that, so far, drug resistance in clinical isolates of E. histolytica does not seem to be a major problem in this country. However, susceptibility of clinical isolates of E. histolytica against various antiamoebic drugs needs to be investigated for better management.

  13. Nanoscale organic ferroelectric resistive switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khikhlovskyi, V.; Wang, R.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Gelinck, G.H.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Kemerink, M.

    2014-01-01

    Organic ferroelectric resistive switches function by grace of nanoscale phase separation in a blend of a semiconducting and a ferroelectric polymer that is sandwiched between metallic electrodes. In this work, various scanning probe techniques are combined with numerical modeling to unravel their

  14. (Neovossia indica ) resistance in wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Screening and multiplication of different wheat varieties under laboratory conditions using in vitro culture techniques may speed up the resistance breeding programmes. Hence, the present investigations were planned to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects of inhibition zone formed by the wheat embryos, callus-.

  15. Consumption expressions of ideological resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, C.A.; Russell, D.W.; Neijens, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - The paper focuses on resistance driven by animosity toward a country due to cultural, political, military and economic reasons. Previous research has linked animosity toward a given country to explicit judgments and purchases of products from that country, thus ignoring the possibility

  16. Nutritional Modulation of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin O. Weickert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance has been proposed as the strongest single predictor for the development of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM. Chronic oversupply of energy from food, together with inadequate physical activity, have been recognized as the most relevant factors leading to overweight, abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and finally T2DM. Conversely, energy reduced diets almost invariably to facilitate weight loss and reduce abdominal fat mass and insulin resistance. However, sustained weight loss is generally difficult to achieve, and distinct metabolic characteristics in patients with T2DM further compromise success. Therefore, investigating the effects of modulating the macronutrient composition of isoenergetic diets is an interesting concept that may lead to additional important insights. Metabolic effects of various different dietary concepts and strategies have been claimed, but results from randomized controlled studies and particularly from longer-term-controlled interventions in humans are often lacking. However, some of these concepts are supported by recent research, at least in animal models and short-term studies in humans. This paper provides an update of the current literature regarding the role of nutrition in the modulation of insulin resistance, which includes the discussion of weight-loss-independent metabolic effects of commonly used dietary concepts.

  17. Fire resistant nuclear fuel cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.C.; Moss, M.

    1979-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a fire resistant nuclear fuel cask employing reversibly thermally expansible bands between adjacent cooling fins such that normal outward flow of heat is not interfered with, but abnormal inward flow of heat is impeded or blocked

  18. Pathophysiological mechanisms of insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we studied pathophysiological mechanisms of insulin resistance in different conditions in humans, i.e. in obesity, during lipid infusions, after hypercaloric feeding, and glucocorticoid treatment. We focused on 3 important hypotheses that are suggested to be implicated in the

  19. Extensively Drug-Resistant TB

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-12-16

    Dr. Charlotte Kvasnovsky, a surgery resident and Ph.D. candidate in biostatistics, discusses various types of drug resistance in TB patients in South Africa.  Created: 12/16/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/16/2016.

  20. The Internal Resistance of Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G. G. G.; Pietronero, R. C.; Catunda, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the transient behaviour of RC circuits with supercapacitors, varying R between 1 and 100 [omega]. We demonstrate that supercapacitors behave as ideal capacitors in series with an internal resistance (r [similar to] 8 [omega] for C = 0.2 F, 5.5 V). This result is important to optimize the demonstration of RC circuits using a…

  1. Resistive flex sensors: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saggio, Giovanni; Riillo, Francesco; Sbernini, Laura; Quitadamo, Lucia Rita

    2016-01-01

    Resistive flex sensors can be used to measure bending or flexing with relatively little effort and a relatively low budget. Their lightness, compactness, robustness, measurement effectiveness and low power consumption make these sensors useful for manifold applications in diverse fields. Here, we provide a comprehensive survey of resistive flex sensors, taking into account their working principles, manufacturing aspects, electrical characteristics and equivalent models, useful front-end conditioning circuitry, and physic-bio-chemical aspects. Particular effort is devoted to reporting on and analyzing several applications of resistive flex sensors, related to the measurement of body position and motion, and to the implementation of artificial devices. In relation to the human body, we consider the utilization of resistive flex sensors for the measurement of physical activity and for the development of interaction/interface devices driven by human gestures. Concerning artificial devices, we deal with applications related to the automotive field, robots, orthosis and prosthesis, musical instruments and measuring tools. The presented literature is collected from different sources, including bibliographic databases, company press releases, patents, master’s theses and PhD theses. (topical review)

  2. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance and Gonorrhea

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-12-26

    Dr. Robert Kirkcaldy, a medical officer at CDC, discusses his article on antimicrobial resistance and gonorrhea.  Created: 12/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/26/2017.

  3. BALLISTIC RESISTANT ARTICLES COMPRISING TAPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VAN DER EEM, JORIS; HARINGS, JULES; JANSE, GERARDUS; TJADEN, HENDRIK

    2015-01-01

    The invention pertains to a ballistic-resistant moulded article comprising a compressed stack of sheets comprising reinforcing tapes having a tensile strength of at least 1.0 GPa, a tensile modulus of at least 40 GPa, and a tensile energy-to-break of at least 15 J/g, the direction of the tapes

  4. Molecular mechanism of insulin resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Free fatty acids are known to play a key role in promoting loss of insulin sensitivity, thereby causing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism involved is still unclear. In searching for the cause of the mechanism, it has been found that palmitate inhibits insulin receptor (IR) gene expression, ...

  5. Radiation resistance of Candida parapsilosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, H.

    1982-01-01

    The radiation resistance of 30 strains classified as Candida parapsilosis was examined. The strains originated partly from environments where ionizing radiation was used for research or routine purposes, partly from environments with no known possibility for selection of strains with unusually high radiation resistance. D-6 values between 1.5 and 2.4 Megarads were found when the cells were irradiated in the dried state, a D-6 value being the dose necessary to reduce the initial number of colony-forming units with a factor of 10 6 . The majority of D-6 values were between 1.9 and 2.1 Megarads. D-6 values for the cells irradiated in liquid media were about 2/3 of tose in the dried state. No difference in resistance was revealed depending on the origin of the strains examined. For radiation sterilization of medical products the demonstrated resistance of Candida parapsilosis might be of importance of routine use of minimum doses below 2.5 Megarads were to be accepted. (author)

  6. Insulin resistance in therapeutic clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Pashentseva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Today an obesity became the global epidemic striking both children, and adults and represents one of the most important problems of health care worldwide. Excess accumulation of fatty tissue is resulted by insulin resistance and a compensatory hyperinsulinaemia which are the main predictors of development of a diabetes mellitus type 2. Insulin resistance is also one of key links of a pathogenesis of such diseases as cardiovascular pathology, not-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a polycystic ovary syndrome, gestational diabetes and many others. Depression of sensitivity of tissues to insulin can be physiological reaction of an organism to stress factors and pathological process. The endogenic reasons also take part in development of insulin resistance besides factors of the external environment. The role of genetic predisposition, a subclinical inflammation of fatty tissue, thyroid hormones, adipokines and vitamin D in formation of this pathological process is studied. As insulin resistance takes part in a pathogenesis of various diseases, methods of its diagnostics and correction are of great importance in therapeutic practice. At purpose of treatment it is worth giving preference to the drugs which are positively influencing sensitivity of tissues to insulin.

  7. Smut resistance in sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: From a mutation breeding programme with the popular early maturing sugar cane variety CoC 671 fourteen clones could be selected which were found to be free of smut infection after three successive years of artificial testing. Smut resistance was also found after in-vitro culture propagation of susceptible cultivars G80-454 and CoC 671. (author)

  8. Obesity genes and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, Anna C; Denis, Gerald V

    2010-10-01

    The exploding prevalence of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) linked to obesity has become an alarming public health concern. Worldwide, approximately 171 million people suffer from obesity-induced diabetes and public health authorities expect this situation to deteriorate rapidly. An interesting clinical population of 'metabolically healthy but obese' (MHO) cases is relatively protected from T2D and its associated cardiovascular risk. The molecular basis for this protection is not well understood but is likely to involve reduced inflammatory responses. The inflammatory cells and pathways that respond to overnutrition are the primary subject matter for this review. The chance discovery of a genetic mutation in the Brd2 gene, which is located in the class II major histocompatibility complex and makes mice enormously fat but protects them from diabetes, offers revolutionary new insights into the cellular mechanisms that link obesity to insulin resistance and T2D. These Brd2-hypomorphic mice have reduced inflammation in fat that is normally associated with insulin resistance, and resemble MHO patients, suggesting novel therapeutic pathways for obese patients at risk for T2D. Deeper understanding of the functional links between genes that control inflammatory responses to diet-induced obesity is crucial to the development of therapies for obese, insulin-resistant patients.

  9. Molecular mechanism of insulin resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    incidence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is ..... 10% SDS-PAGE and then subjected to Western blot analysis with anti-pPDK1, pAkt/Akt or anti-pPKCε antibodies (1:1000). ... in humans, where qualitative and quantitative abnormalities.

  10. [Antibiotic resistance: measures urgently needed].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluytmans, J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is increasing rapidly and there are hardly any new antimicrobial agents to be expected in the coming years. The number of patients affected by extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing organisms (ESBLs) is rising and there are strong indications that this is caused in part

  11. Resistive flex sensors: a survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggio, Giovanni; Riillo, Francesco; Sbernini, Laura; Quitadamo, Lucia Rita

    2016-01-01

    Resistive flex sensors can be used to measure bending or flexing with relatively little effort and a relatively low budget. Their lightness, compactness, robustness, measurement effectiveness and low power consumption make these sensors useful for manifold applications in diverse fields. Here, we provide a comprehensive survey of resistive flex sensors, taking into account their working principles, manufacturing aspects, electrical characteristics and equivalent models, useful front-end conditioning circuitry, and physic-bio-chemical aspects. Particular effort is devoted to reporting on and analyzing several applications of resistive flex sensors, related to the measurement of body position and motion, and to the implementation of artificial devices. In relation to the human body, we consider the utilization of resistive flex sensors for the measurement of physical activity and for the development of interaction/interface devices driven by human gestures. Concerning artificial devices, we deal with applications related to the automotive field, robots, orthosis and prosthesis, musical instruments and measuring tools. The presented literature is collected from different sources, including bibliographic databases, company press releases, patents, master’s theses and PhD theses.

  12. Fluoride resistance in Streptococcus mutans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Fluoride has been used as the most effective anti-caries agent for over five decades. It functions not only on the dental hard tissues, but also as an antimicrobial agent. It is known that oral bacteria are able to develop resistance to fluoride, which may affect the effectiveness of fluoride in

  13. Initial drug resistance in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Initial drug resistance in India. There is gradual increase in primary MDR all over India : Pondi= Pondicherry 1985; Bangalore =1986; Jaipur = 1991; Jaipur =2000. Overall the MDR is less than 3% (TRC studies).

  14. Detection of resistance, cross-resistance, and stability of resistance to new chemistry insecticides in Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Muhammad; Saeed, Shafqat; Saleem, Mushtaq Ahmad; Denholm, Ian; Shah, Maqbool

    2013-06-01

    Resistance levels in whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) collections from cotton and sunflower (up to four districts) for five neonicotinoids and two insect growth regulators (IGRs) were investigated for two consecutive years. Based on the LC50(s), all collections showed slight to moderate levels of resistance for the tested insecticides compared with the laboratory susceptible population. The data also indicated that cotton and sunflower collections had similar resistance levels. In comparison (four collections), Vehari collections showed higher resistance for acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and nitenpyram compared with those of others. Average resistance ratios for acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and nitenpyram ranged from 5- to 13-, 4- to 8-, and 9- to 13-fold, respectively. Multan and Vehari collections also exhibited moderate levels (9- to 16-fold) of resistance to buprofezin. Furthermore, toxicity of neonicotinoids against immature stages was equal to that of insect growth regulators. The data also suggested that resistance in the field populations was stable. After selection for four generations with bifenthrin (G1 to G4), resistance to bifenthrin increased to 14-fold compared with the laboratory susceptible population. Selection also increased resistance to fenpropathrin, lambdacyhalothrin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and diafenthuron. Cross-resistance and stability of resistance in the field populations is of some concern. Rotation of insecticides having no cross-resistance and targeting the control against immature stages may control the resistant insects, simultaneously reducing the selection pressure imposed.

  15. CRISPR Typing and Antibiotic Resistance Correlates with Polyphyletic Distribution in Human Isolates of Salmonella Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosik, Dorothy; Tewari, Deepanker; Dettinger, Lisa; M'ikanatha, Nkuchia M; Shariat, Nikki W

    2018-02-01

    Although infrequently associated with reported salmonellosis in humans, Salmonella enterica, subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky (ser. Kentucky) is the most common nonclinical, nonhuman serovar reported in the United States. The goal of this study was to use Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST) to subtype a collection of human clinical isolates of ser. Kentucky submitted to the Pennsylvania Department of Health and to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance in these strains. This analysis highlighted the polyphyletic nature of ser. Kentucky, and separated our isolates into two groups, Group I and Group II, which were equally represented in our collection. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility testing on all isolates using a National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) panel of antibiotics demonstrated that resistance profiles could be divided into two groups. Group I isolates were resistant to cephems and penicillins, whereas Group II isolates were resistant to quinolones, gentamicin, and sulfisoxazole. Collectively, 50% of isolates were resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics and 30% were resistant to five or more classes. The correlation of antibiotic resistance with the two different lineages may reflect adaptation within two distinct reservoirs of ser. Kentucky, with differential exposure to antimicrobials.

  16. Molecular serotyping and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from pigs in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boram; Hur, Jin; Lee, Ji Yeong; Choi, Yoonyoung; Lee, John Hwa

    2016-09-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) causes porcine pleuropneumonia (PP). Serotypes and antimicrobial resistance patterns in APP isolates from pigs in Korea were examined. Sixty-five APP isolates were genetically serotyped using standard and multiplex PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested using the standardized disk-agar method. PCR was used to detect β-lactam, gentamicin and tetracycline-resistance genes. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns were determined by PCR. Korean pigs predominantly carried APP serotypes 1 and 5. Among 65 isolates, one isolate was sensitive to all 12 antimicrobials tested in this study. Sixty-two isolates was resistant to tetracycline and 53 isolates carried one or five genes including tet(B), tet(A), tet(H), tet(M)/tet(O), tet(C), tet(G) and/or tet(L)-1 markers. Among 64 strains, 9% and 26.6% were resistance to 10 and three or more antimicrobials, respectively. Thirteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed and RAPD analysis revealed a separation of the isolates into two clusters: cluster II (6 strains resistant to 10 antimicrobials) and cluster I (the other 59 strains). Results show that APP serotypes 1 and 5 are the most common in Korea, and multi-drug resistant strains are prevalent. RAPD analysis demonstrated that six isolates resistant to 10 antimicrobials belonged to the same cluster.

  17. Characterization of antibiotic resistant enterococci isolated from untreated waters for human consumption in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Ana S; Freitas, Ana R; Abreu, Cristina; Machado, Elisabete; Peixe, Luísa; Sousa, João C; Novais, Carla

    2011-01-31

    Untreated drinking water is frequently overlooked as a source of antibiotic resistance in developed countries. To gain further insight on this topic, we isolated the indicator bacteria Enterococcus spp. from water samples collected in wells, fountains and natural springs supplying different communities across Portugal, and characterized their antibiotic resistance profile with both phenotypic and genetic approaches. We found various rates of resistance to seven antibiotic families. Over 50% of the isolates were resistant to at least ciprofloxacin, tetracyclines or quinupristin-dalfopristin and 57% were multidrug resistant to ≥3 antibiotics from different families. Multiple enterococcal species (E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, E. casseliflavus and other Enterococcus spp) from different water samples harbored genes encoding resistance to tetracyclines, erythromycin or gentamicin [tet(M)-46%, tet(L)-14%, tet(S)-5%, erm(B)-22%, aac(6´)-Ie-aph(2″)-12%] and putative virulence factors [gel-28%, asa1-16%]. The present study positions untreated drinking water within the spectrum of ecological niches that may be reservoirs of or vehicles for antibiotic resistant enterococci/genes. These findings are worthy of attention as spread of antibiotic resistant enterococci to humans and animals through water ingestion cannot be dismissed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance in E. coli and Salmonella spp. isolates from calves in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hervé-Claude

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Description of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli and Salmonella spp. isolates from calves <30 days of age from southern Chile. Material and methods: Necropsy and microbiology reports of 107 calves <30 days of age received at the Animal Pathology Institute between 2002 and 2015 were considered. Additionally, an antimicrobial resistance score was generated to allow comparisons among isolates with different antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Results: There was no clear trend in antimicrobial resistance during the study period, with similar levels of resistance for E. coli, β-hemolytic E. coli and Salmonella spp. Approximately 50% of isolates were sensitive to antimicrobials, and between 19 and 36% of samples showed possible extended- or pan- drug resistance. Multiple different antimicrobial resistance patterns were found, including 32 for E. coli, 17 for β-hemolytic E. coli and 10 for Salmonella spp. Conclusions: Overall, E. coli samples were most sensitive to ceftriaxone; β-hemolytic E. coli to florfenicol; and Salmonella spp. to gentamicin. In contrast, these agents were resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin and oxytetracycline respectively. This study is unique in its approach and provides useful information for veterinarians and producers on the antibiotic resistance patterns of bacteria posing a serious threat to calves. These results can help field veterinarians to control and treat bacterial diarrhea in calves.

  19. Marine echinoderms as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Marinho

    2014-06-01

    (Marinho et al., 2013. Erythromycin and tetracycline are widely used in human therapy, and this may have contributed to the increasing resistance to these antibiotics (Hummel et al., 2007, Barros et al., 2011. It also highlights the lack of antibiotic efficiency in medicine, doing with resistance dissemination. Also, several genes associated with antimicrobial resistance were already found in antimicrobial-resistant enterococci from echinoderms: tet(M/tet(L, erm(A/erm(B, vat(D/vat(E, aac(6’-aph(2'' and aph(3'-IIIa genes were detected in tetracycline, erythromycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, gentamicin and kanamycin-resistant isolates, respectively (Marinho et al., 2013. Despite of the small number of Escherichia coli isolates from echinoderms samples, they displayed an antibiotic-resistant phenotype to: tetracycline, streptomycin, tobramycin and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid. E. coli isolates from echinoderms tetracycline-resistant had tet(A and tet(B genes present in their genome. Besides, the aadA gene was detected in all E. coli streptomycin-resistant strains isolated from echinoderms (Marinho et al., 2013. According to some results, enterococci and E. coli displaying phenotype and resistance genes to some antibiotics that were already documented in marine animals, humans, wastewaters and numerous wildlife animals (Marinho et al., 2013, Barros et al., 2011, Sousa et al., 2011, Foti et al., 2009. Echinoderms are coastal animals and, consequently, it is possible that sewage discharges at the ocean may represent the main source of antibiotic-resistant bacteria deriving from several habitats. Indirect effects in micro-systems from the antibiotic disturbance are largely unknown; however, it is expected that such disorder might have significant long-term effects on the rate and stability of the ecosystem. Nevertheless, the consumption of exotic food is an example of a potential pathway for human contact with marine echinoderms microbiota, which may contain antibiotic-resistant

  20. Investigation of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli and enterococci isolated from Tibetan pigs.

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    Peng Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and enterococci isolated from free-ranging Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China, and analyzed the influence of free-ranging husbandry on antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: A total of 232 fecal samples were collected from Tibetan pigs, and the disk diffusion method was used to examine their antimicrobial resistance. Broth microdilution and agar dilution methods were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobial agents for which disks were not commercially available. RESULTS: A total of 129 E. coli isolates and 84 Enterococcus isolates were recovered from the fecal samples. All E. coli isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and 40.4% were resistant to tetracycline. A small number of isolates were resistant to florfenicol (27.9%, ampicillin (27.9%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (19.4%, nalidixic acid (19.4%, streptomycin (16.2% and ceftiofur (10.9%, and very low resistance rates to ciprofloxacin (7.8%, gentamicin (6.9%, and spectinomycin (2.3% were observed in E. coli. All Enterococcus isolates, including E. faecium, E. faecalis, E. hirae, and E. mundtii, were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and vancomycin, but showed high frequencies of resistance to oxacillin (92.8%, clindamycin (82.1%, tetracycline (64.3%, and erythromycin (48.8%. Resistance rates to florfenicol (17.9%, penicillin (6.0%, ciprofloxacin (3.6%, levofloxacin (1.2%, and ampicillin (1.2% were low. Only one high-level streptomycin resistant E. faecium isolate and one high-level gentamicin resistant E. faecium isolate were observed. Approximately 20% and 70% of E. coli and Enterococcus isolates, respectively, were defined as multidrug-resistant. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, E. coli and Enterococcus isolated from free-ranging Tibetan pigs showed relatively lower resistance rates than those in other areas of China, where more intensive farming practices are

  1. Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes

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    Jacqueline B. Matthews

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole, tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin. Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Multidrug Resistance and Phage Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus in Pyoderma Cases

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    Sanjay M. Wavare

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyoderma is common in India and other tropical countries. Staphylococcus aureus is the commonest causative agent ofpyoderma. Aims and Objectives: To know the antibiotic susceptibility and bacteriophage pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from pyoderma infection. Materials and Methods: One hundred clinically diagnosed pyoderma cases were investigated bacteriologically. A total of 59 isolates of S. aureus were subjected to antibioticsusceptibility testing by Kirby Bauer’s disk diffusion method and phage typing by routine test dilution X 100 bacteriophages. Results: Most of the strains were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin and were susceptible to gentamicin, streptomycin and erythromycin. Multidrug resistance was also high among these strains. Regarding the phage types, Phage type 52 (15 strains, 96 (8 strains and 71(16strains were predominant among the typed strains (55.95% of S. aureus. The most common group was mixed phage group (17% followed by phage group I (13.55%. Conclusion: Knowledge of antibioticsusceptibility pattern is essential to give proper antibiotic therapy and avoid unnecessary medication with non-effective drugs, which may increase resistance. Gentamicin, streptomycin and erythromycin are the drugs of choice in that order. Association of phage typing and antibiotic sensitivity of S. aureus showed the predominance of phage group III with greater frequency of penicillin resistance.

  3. Antibiotic resistance profiling and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from aquatic sources

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    Olumide A. Odeyemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13, bivalve (n = 10, sea cucumber (n = 16 and sea water (n = 14 and resistance to 12 antibiotics – Tetracycline (30 μg, Kanamycin (30 μg, Oxytetracycline (30 μg, Ampicillin (10 μg, Streptomycin (10 μg, Gentamicin (10 μg, Sulphamethoxazole (25 μg, Nalixidic acid (30 μg, Trimethoprim (1.25 μg, Novobiocin (5 μg, Penicilin (10 μg and Chloramphenicol (10 μg was tested. The results obtained from this study reveal multi drug resistance pattern among the isolates. All the isolates were completely resistant to Ampicillin, Novobiocin, Sulphamethoxazole and Trimethoprim, respectively but susceptible to Tetracycline (100%, Kanamycin (5.7%, Gentamicin (5.7% and Oxytetracycline (24.5%. Antibiotics phenotyping of the bacteria revealed 21 different phenotypes among the isolates.

  4. Antibiotic resistance and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Nigeria

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    Oyedara Omotayo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen causing a wide range of infections in the hospital and community setting. In order to have adequate information for treatment of S. aureus infections, it is crucial to understand the trends in the antibiotic-resistance patterns. In addition, the occurrence and changes in types of S. aureus, clonal identities, and their geographic spread is essential for the establishment of adequate infection control programmes. In this study, 68 S. aureus isolates obtained from clinical and non-clinical sources in Nigeria between January and April 2009 were characterized using phenotypic and molecular methods. Results All the S. aureus isolates were susceptible to teicoplanin, vancomycin, phosphomycin, fusidic acid, rifampicin, daptomycin, mupirocin, linezolid and tigecycline. Sixteen percent of the isolates were resistant to oxacillin, while 55% and 72% of isolates were resistant to tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (cotrimoxazole, respectively (Table 1. There was excellent correlation between the broth microdilution assay and detection of antibiotic resistance genes by the multiplex PCR, in the determination of S. aureus resistance to erythromycin, gentamicin, methicillin and tetracycline. A total of 28 spa types were identified in the study, and the predominant spa type among the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA isolates was t084 (13 isolates. The t037-ST241-SCCmecIII type was the only clone identified in Maiduguri (North-East Nigeria while in South-West Nigeria, diversity among the MRSA isolates (t451-ST8-SCCmecV; t008-ST94-SCCmecIV; t002-ST5-SCCmecV; t064-ST8-SCCmecV was observed. The toxin genes seh and etd were detected in isolates affiliated with clonal complexes CC1, CC80 and sequence type ST25, respectively. The proportion of PVL-positive isolates among MSSA was high (40%. Most of the PVL-positive MSSA isolates were obtained from wound infections and associated

  5. Genomic organization of a vancomycin-resistant staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirani, A.Z.; Jamil, N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the genomic organization of vancomycin resistance in a local isolate of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA). Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, January 2008 through December 2010. Methodology: A vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA-CP2) isolate (MIC 16 mu g/ml) was isolated from a local hospital of Karachi. Species identification was confirmed by Gram staining, standard biochemical tests and PCR amplification of the nuc gene. The vancomycin MIC was re-confirmed by E-test. For the genetic determination of vancomycin resistance, in-vitro amplification of vanA cassette was performed by using plasmid DNA of CP2, CP2's transformant as template on MWG Thermo-Cycler. Amplified products of vanR, vanS, vanH, vanA, vanY, orf2, orf1D, orf2E, orf-Rev and IS element genes were subjected to Sanger's electrophoresis based sequence determination using specific primers. The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) algorithm was used to identify sequences in GenBank with similarities to the vanA cassette genes. Results: The vancomycin-resistant isolate CP2 was found to be resistant to oxacillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampicin, gentamicin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, as well. The isolate CP2 revealed four bands: one of large molecular size approx 56.4 kb and three of small size approx 6.5 kb, approx 6.1 kb and approx 1.5 kb by agarose gel electrophoresis indicating the presence of 3 plasmids. The plasmid DNA of isolate CP2 was analyzed by PCR for the presence of the van cassettes with each of the vanA , vanB and vanC specific primers. It carried vanA cassette, which comprises of vanR, vanS, vanH, vanA, vanY, and orf2. The vanA cassette of isolate CP2 also carried an insertion element (IS). However, it did not show the PCR product for orf1. Vancomycin resistance was successfully transferred from the donor CP2 to a vancomycin-sensitive recipient S

  6. Identification of aminoglycoside and β-lactam resistance genes from within an infant gut functional metagenomic library.

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    Fiona Fouhy

    Full Text Available The infant gut microbiota develops rapidly during the first 2 years of life, acquiring microorganisms from diverse sources. During this time, significant opportunities exist for the infant to acquire antibiotic resistant bacteria, which can become established and constitute the infant gut resistome. With increased antibiotic resistance limiting our ability to treat bacterial infections, investigations into resistance reservoirs are highly pertinent. This study aimed to explore the nascent resistome in antibiotically-naïve infant gut microbiomes, using a combination of metagenomic approaches. Faecal samples from 22 six-month-old infants without previous antibiotic exposure were used to construct a pooled metagenomic library, which was functionally screened for ampicillin and gentamicin resistance. Our library of ∼220Mb contained 0.45 ampicillin resistant hits/Mb and 0.059 gentamicin resistant hits/Mb. PCR-based analysis of fosmid clones and uncloned metagenomic DNA, revealed a diverse and abundant aminoglycoside and β-lactam resistance reservoir within the infant gut, with resistance determinants exhibiting homology to those found in common gut inhabitants, including Escherichia coli, Enterococcus sp., and Clostridium difficile, as well as to genes from cryptic environmental bacteria. Notably, the genes identified differed from those revealed when a sequence-driven PCR-based screen of metagenomic DNA was employed. Carriage of these antibiotic resistance determinants conferred substantial, but varied (2-512x, increases in antibiotic resistance to their bacterial host. These data provide insights into the infant gut resistome, revealing the presence of a varied aminoglycoside and β-lactam resistance reservoir even in the absence of selective pressure, confirming the infant resistome establishes early in life, perhaps even at birth.

  7. Increased Resistance of Skin Flora to Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Patients Undergoing Hip Revision Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlhofer, Heinrich M L; Deiss, Lukas; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp; Pohlig, Florian; Harrasser, Norbert; Lenze, Ulrich; Gollwitzer, Hans; Suren, Christian; Prodinger, Peter; VON Eisenhart-Rothe, Rüdiger; Schauwecker, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a major complication after total joint replacement and is the primary indication for revision arthroplasty. Specifically, coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) can cause low-grade infections. Despite the use of cephalosporin-based antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) and antiseptic treatment at the surgical site, evidence suggests that a significant number of cases of dermal CNS results in low-grade PJI. Thus, this study examined the bacterial colonization and resistance patterns at the surgical site. We hypothesized that the bacteria developed resistance to antibiotics that are frequently used in primary and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) procedures. Ninety patients, including 63 primary and 27 revision THA patients, were enrolled in this study. For each patient, a single swab of the skin at the surgical site was subjected to clinical microbiology to assess bacterial colonization. Furthermore, resistance to a sentinel panel of antibiotics (benzylpenicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, oxacillin, fusidic acid, clindamycin, gentamicin, levofloxacin/moxifloxacin, rifampicin, linezolid and vancomycin) was tested. In 96.7% of the patients, at least one bacterial strain was identified at the surgical site, with CNS strains comprising 93.1% of the total. The sentinel panel showed that 30.7% of the CNS strains exhibited maximal resistance to oxacillin, a commonly used cephalosporin. Additionally, oxacillin resistance increased 1.9-fold (p=0.042) between primary and revision THA. Notably, 8.1% of the CNS stains found on patients undergoing primary THA were resistant to gentamicin, an aminoglycoside, and this rate increased 4.7-fold (p=0.001) for patients undergoing revision THA. CNS strains have significant resistance to standard AMP, particularly in individuals undergoing revision THA. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate medium to discriminate antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli

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    Jensen Lars

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and enumeration of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli directly from samples is needed to identify emerging resistant clones and obtain quantitative data for risk assessment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3M™ Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate (SEC plate supplemented with antimicrobials to discriminate antimicrobial-resistant and non-resistant E. coli. Method A range of E. coli isolates were tested by agar dilution method comparing the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for eight antimicrobials obtained by Mueller-Hinton II agar, MacConkey agar and SEC plates. Kappa statistics was used to assess the levels of agreement when classifying strains as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. Results SEC plate showed that 74% of all strains agreed within ± 1 log2 dilution when comparing MICs with Mueller-Hinton II media. High agreement levels were found for gentamicin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime, resulting in a kappa value of 0.9 and 100% agreement within ± 1 log2 dilution. Significant variances were observed for oxytetracycline and sulphamethoxazole. Further tests showed that the observed discrepancy in classification of susceptibility to oxytetracycline by the two media could be overcome when a plate-dependent breakpoint of 64 mg/L was used for SEC plates. For sulphamethoxazole, SEC plates provided unacceptably high MICs. Conclusion SEC plates showed good agreement with Mueller-Hinton II agar in MIC studies and can be used to screen and discriminate resistant E. coli for ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and gentamicin using CLSI standardized breakpoints, but not for sulphamethoxazole. SEC plates can also be used to discriminate oxytetracycline-resistant E. coli if a plate-dependent breakpoint value of 64 mg/L is used.

  9. [Current antibiotic resistance profile of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains and therapeutic consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bouamri, M C; Arsalane, L; Kamouni, Y; Yahyaoui, H; Bennouar, N; Berraha, M; Zouhair, S

    2014-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a very common reason for consultation and prescription in current practice. Excessive or inappropriate use of antibiotics in treating urinary tract infections is responsible for the emergence and spread of multiresistant uropathogenic bacteria. To evaluate the isolation frequency and antibiotic resistance of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated at the Marrakech region. We conducted a retrospective study over a period of three years (from 1st January 2010 to 31 December 2012). It included all non-redundant uropathogenic E. coli strains isolated in the microbiology laboratory of the Avicenne hospital of Marrakech, Morocco. During this study, 1472 uropathogenic enterobacteriaceae were isolated including 924 non-repetitive E. coli strains, an overall isolation frequency of 63%. Antibiotic resistance of isolated E. coli strains showed resistance rates to amoxicillin (65%), sulfamethoxazole-triméthropime (55%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (43%), ciprofloxacin (22%), gentamicin (14%), nitrofurans (11%), amikacin (8%) and fosfomycin (7%). The number of E. coli strains resistant to C3G by ESBL production was 67, an average frequency of 4.5% of all isolated uropathogenic enterobacteria. The associated antibiotic resistance in the case of ESBL-producing E. coli were 82% for ciprofloxacin, 76% for sulfamethozole trimethoprim, 66% for gentamicin and 56% for amikacin. No resistance to imipenem was recorded for the isolated E. coli strains, which represents an imipenem sensitivity of 100%. Antibiotic resistance of uropathogenic E. coli strains limits treatment options and therefore constitutes a real public health problem. The regular updating of antibiotic susceptibility statistics of E. coli strains allows a better adaptation of the probabilistic antibiotic therapy to local epidemiological data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance of mastitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E

    2012-07-01

    Antibiotics are used extensively in the dairy industry to combat disease and to improve animal performance. Antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporin, streptomycin, and tetracycline are used for the treatment and prevention of diseases affecting dairy cows caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotics are often administrated routinely to entire herds to prevent mastitis during the dry period. An increase in the incidence of disease in a herd generally results in increased use of antimicrobials, which in turn increases the potential for antibiotic residues in milk and the potential for increased bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Continued use of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of diseases of dairy cows will continue to be scrutinized. It is clear that strategies employing the prudent use of antimicrobials are needed. This clearly illustrates the importance of effective herd disease prevention and control programs. Based on studies published to date, scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among mastitis pathogens to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in dairy cows can contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance. While antimicrobial resistance does occur, we are of the opinion that the advantages of using antibiotics for the treatment of mastitis far outweigh the disadvantages. The clinical consequences of antimicrobial resistance of dairy pathogens affecting humans appear small. Antimicrobial resistance among dairy pathogens, particularly those found in milk, is likely not a human health concern as long as the milk is pasteurized. However, there are an increasing number of people who choose to consume raw milk. Transmission of an antimicrobial-resistant mastitis pathogen and/or foodborne pathogen to humans could occur

  11. Distribution of phylogroups and co-resistance to antimicrobial agents in ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from healthy humans and from patients with bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, A.; Hammerum, A. M.; Porsbo, Lone Jannok

    inhibitory concentration to antimicrobial agents and examined by PCR to determine their phylogroups. The phylotyping grouped the faecal samples into A (13%), B1 (10%), B2 (42%), D (19%), NT (16%) while the blood isolates grouped into A (16%), B1 (0%), B2 (48%), D (32%) and NT (3%). The frequency...... of resistance in faecal and blood isolates (F/B) was: tetracycline (48%/48%), gentamicin (0%/10%), ciprofloxacin (3%,13%), sulfonamide (68%/77%) and trimethoprim (39%/39%). Conclusion: B2 was the most prevalent phylogroup found both in faecal isolates collected from healthy humans and in blood isolates from...

  12. Aquaculture can promote the presence and spread of antibiotic-resistant Enterococci in marine sediments.

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    Andrea Di Cesare

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is an expanding activity worldwide. However its rapid growth can affect the aquatic environment through release of large amounts of chemicals, including antibiotics. Moreover, the presence of organic matter and bacteria of different origin can favor gene transfer and recombination. Whereas the consequences of such activities on environmental microbiota are well explored, little is known of their effects on allochthonous and potentially pathogenic bacteria, such as enterococci. Sediments from three sampling stations (two inside and one outside collected in a fish farm in the Adriatic Sea were examined for enterococcal abundance and antibiotic resistance traits using the membrane filter technique and an improved quantitative PCR. Strains were tested for susceptibility to tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin and gentamicin; samples were directly screened for selected tetracycline [tet(M, tet(L, tet(O] and macrolide [erm(A, erm(B and mef] resistance genes by newly-developed multiplex PCRs. The abundance of benthic enterococci was higher inside than outside the farm. All isolates were susceptible to the four antimicrobials tested, although direct PCR evidenced tet(M and tet(L in sediment samples from all stations. Direct multiplex PCR of sediment samples cultured in rich broth supplemented with antibiotic (tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin or gentamicin highlighted changes in resistance gene profiles, with amplification of previously undetected tet(O, erm(B and mef genes and an increase in benthic enterococcal abundance after incubation in the presence of ampicillin and gentamicin. Despite being limited to a single farm, these data indicate that aquaculture may influence the abundance and spread of benthic enterococci and that farm sediments can be reservoirs of dormant antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including enterococci, which can rapidly revive in presence of new inputs of organic matter. This reservoir may constitute an

  13. The determinants of the antibiotic resistance process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Beatriz Espinosa; Altagracia Martínez, Marina; Sánchez Rodríguez, Martha A; Wertheimer, Albert I

    2009-01-01

    The use of antibiotic drugs triggers a complex interaction involving many biological, sociological, and psychological determinants. Resistance to antibiotics is a serious worldwide problem which is increasing and has implications for morbidity, mortality, and health care both in hospitals and in the community. To analyze current research on the determinants of antibiotic resistance and comprehensively review the main factors in the process of resistance in order to aid our understanding and assessment of this problem. We conducted a MedLine search using the key words "determinants", "antibiotic", and "antibiotic resistance" to identify publications between 1995 and 2007 on the determinants of antibiotic resistance. Publications that did not address the determinants of antibiotic resistance were excluded. The process and determinants of antibiotic resistance are described, beginning with the development of antibiotics, resistance and the mechanisms of resistance, sociocultural determinants of resistance, the consequences of antibiotic resistance, and alternative measures proposed to combat antibiotic resistance. Analysis of the published literature identified the main determinants of antibiotic resistance as irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animal species, insufficient patient education when antibiotics are prescribed, lack of guidelines for treatment and control of infections, lack of scientific information for physicians on the rational use of antibiotics, and lack of official government policy on the rational use of antibiotics in public and private hospitals.

  14. The resistive tearing instability for generalized resistivity models: Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, G.T.; Otto, A.

    1991-01-01

    The dispersion relation for the resistive tearing mode is investigated with a general form of the resistivity that allows for evaluating the dependence of the mode on the anomalous dissipation caused by the lower-hybrid-drift turbulence and the ion-acoustic turbulence. The coupling of the plasma dynamic and radiative processes due to a temperature-dependent Spitzer resistivity are also discussed. The dispersion relation is solved numerically for two-dimensional equilibrium configurations with applications to the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar corona. In the case of the parameter regimes of the magnetopause and the solar corona, growth rates that result in realistic time scales for the respective dynamic processes as flux transfer events and solar flares were found. Moreover, the influence of a nonvanishing component of the magnetic field normal to the current sheet on the dispersion relation is examined. The normal field component leads to overstable modes and the growth rate of the pure tearing mode is not altered, whereas the radiative tearing mode is damped effectively

  15. Origin of negative resistance in anion migration controlled resistive memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Writam; Wu, Facai; Hu, Yuan; Wu, Quantan; Wu, Zuheng; Liu, Qi; Liu, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the most promising emerging nonvolatile technologies for the futuristic memory devices. Resistive switching behavior often shows negative resistance (NR), either voltage controlled or current controlled. In this work, the origin of a current compliance dependent voltage controlled NR effect during the resetting of anion migration based RRAM devices is discussed. The N-type voltage controlled NR is a high field driven phenomena. The current conduction within the range of a certain negative voltage is mostly dominated by space charge limited current. But with the higher negative voltage, a field induced tunneling effect is generated in the NR region. The voltage controlled NR is strongly dependent on the compliance current. The area independent behavior indicates the filamentary switching. The peak to valley ratio (PVR) is > 5. The variation of PVR as a function of the conduction band offset is achieved. Compared to other reported works, based on the PVR, it is possible to distinguish the RRAM types. Generally, due to the higher electric field effect on the metallic bridge during RESET, the electrochemical metallization type RRAM shows much higher PVR than the valance change type RRAM.

  16. Electrical resistivity measurement to predict uniaxial compressive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrical resistivity values of 12 different igneous rocks were measured on core samples using a resistivity meter in the ... It was seen that the UCS and tensile strength values were linearly correlated with the ..... Innovation 2 20. Archie G E ...

  17. Priorities for antibiotic resistance surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluit, A. C.; van der Bruggen, J. T.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing global problem. Surveillance studies are needed to monitor resistance development, to guide local empirical therapy, and to implement timely and adequate countermeasures. To achieve this, surveillance studies must have standardised methodologies, be longitud......Antibiotic resistance is an increasing global problem. Surveillance studies are needed to monitor resistance development, to guide local empirical therapy, and to implement timely and adequate countermeasures. To achieve this, surveillance studies must have standardised methodologies...... to the various reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as hospitalised patients, nursing homes, the community, animals and food. Two studies that could serve as examples of tailored programmes are the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS), which collects resistance data during...... of antibiotic resistance....

  18. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA); Staph - MRSA; Staphylococcal - MRSA ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). www.cdc.gov/mrsa/index.html . Updated ...

  19. Case Report of Urethritis in a Male Patient Infected with Two Different Isolates of Multiple Drug-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa Al-Madboly

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a brief description of a case suffering from bacterial urethritis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis, caused by two different isolates of multiple drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Initial diagnosis was dependent on the patient history, clinical findings, symptoms, and the bacteriological data. Polymerase chain reaction confirmed the identification of the pathogens. Random amplified polymorphic DNA revealed two different patterns. Susceptibility testing was performed using Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was also determined. It revealed multiple drug resistance associated with β-lactamase production. Only gentamicin, rifampicin, and azithromycin were active against the test pathogens. A dual therapy was initiated using gentamicin as well as azithromycin to treat the possible co-infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Complete recovery of the patient achieved with resolved symptoms a week later.

  20. Case Report of Urethritis in a Male Patient Infected with Two Different Isolates of Multiple Drug-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Madboly, Lamiaa; Gheida, Shereen

    2017-01-01

    We report a brief description of a case suffering from bacterial urethritis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis, caused by two different isolates of multiple drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae . Initial diagnosis was dependent on the patient history, clinical findings, symptoms, and the bacteriological data. Polymerase chain reaction confirmed the identification of the pathogens. Random amplified polymorphic DNA revealed two different patterns. Susceptibility testing was performed using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was also determined. It revealed multiple drug resistance associated with β-lactamase production. Only gentamicin, rifampicin, and azithromycin were active against the test pathogens. A dual therapy was initiated using gentamicin as well as azithromycin to treat the possible co-infection with Chlamydia trachomatis . Complete recovery of the patient achieved with resolved symptoms a week later.

  1. Pilling Resistance of Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita BUSILIENĖ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Knitted fabrics with different quantity of elastane, conspicuous by high viscosity and elasticity, having one of the most important performance properties - resistance to pilling are often used in the production of high quality sportswear. During technological process imitating operating conditions, the behaviour of knitted fabrics may be changed by different industrial softeners from 12 % to 20 % of active substance, for example fatty acid condensate (Tubingal 5051 or silicone micro emulsion (Tubingal SMF. The aim of this investigation is to define the influence of fibrous composition and chemical softeners to the propensity of fuzzing and pilling of plain and plated jersey pattern knitted fabrics. The results of investigations showed that fibrous composition and thickness of materials (up to 6 % and washing as well as softening (from 33 % to 67 % change the resistance of knitted fabrics to pilling.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.3.597

  2. Bacterial biofilms and antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Caldas-Arias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms give to bacteria micro-environmental benefits; confers protection against antimicrobials. Bacteria have antibiotic resistance by conventional and unusual mechanisms leading to delayed wound healing, to increase recurrent chronic infections and nosocomial contamination of medical devices. Objective: This narrative review aims to introduce the characteristics of Bacteria-biofilms, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms and potential alternatives for prevention and control of its formation. Methods: Search strategy was performed on records: PubMed / Medline, Lilacs, Redalyc; with suppliers such as EBSCO and thesaurus MeSH and DeCS. Conclusions: Knowledge and research performance of biofilm bacteria are relevant in the search of technology for detection and measuring sensitivity to antibiotics. The identification of Bacterial-biofilms needs no-traditional microbiological diagnosis.

  3. Radioactive resistance of memory elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loncar, B.; Stankovic, S.; Novakovic, D.; Osmokrovic, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the results of semiconductor memories radioactive resistance examination (EPROM and EEPROM) are presented. Performance of semiconductor memories is most important, when working under high risk condition where there is an influence of radiation. This research is particularly interesting for specific applications in military industry and space technology. Therefore, the analysis of the degradation mechanism of these components as well as the possibilities to increase their radiation resistivity have been considered by many authors. The aim of this work is the examination of the reliability of EPROM and EEPROM characteristics under radiation. Total dose results are presented for the JL 27C512D EPROM and ST 24C02 EEPROM. There is evidence that EPROM are more sensitive to y radiation than EEPROM. The results obtained are analyzed theoretically via the interaction of gamma radiation with oxide layer. (authors)

  4. Radiation-resistant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, T.C.; Jones, S.

    1995-01-01

    REMOTEC has developed a open-quotes radiation resistanceclose quotes control system under a U.S. Department of Energy Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract with assistance from the University of Florida. The SBIR goal was to develop a radiation resistant mobile robot from the ANDROS family of hazardous duty mobile robots that REMOTEC manufactures. See Refs. 1 and 2 for additional SBIR results. The control system, as well as the entire ANDROS robot, was redesigned, where necessary, to withstand radiation doses in excess of 10 6 rad. Those components of the robot that could not be purchased as open-quotes radiation hardenedclose quotes were tested under standard operating conditions for determination of their open-quotes radiation resistance.close quotes The entire ANDROS robot was then assembled with these new components and tested to > 10 6 rad

  5. Anisotropy of domain wall resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viret; Samson; Warin; Marty; Ott; Sondergard; Klein; Fermon

    2000-10-30

    The resistive effect of domain walls in FePd films with perpendicular anisotropy was studied experimentally as a function of field and temperature. The films were grown directly on MgO substrates, which induces an unusual virgin magnetic configuration composed of 60 nm wide parallel stripe domains. This allowed us to carry out the first measurements of the anisotropy of domain wall resistivity in the two configurations of current perpendicular and parallel to the walls. At 18 K, we find 8.2% and 1.3% for the domain wall magnetoresistance normalized to the wall width (8 nm) in these two respective configurations. These values are consistent with the predictions of Levy and Zhang.

  6. Computational Studies of Drug Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Martins, João Miguel

    Drug resistance has been an increasing problem in patient treatment and drug development. Starting in the last century and becoming a major worry in the medical and scienti c communities in the early part of the current millennium, major research must be performed to address the issues of viral...... is of the utmost importance in developing better and less resistance-inducing drugs. A drug's in uence can be characterized in many diff erent ways, however, and the approaches I take in this work re ect those same different in uences. This is what I try to achieve in this work, through seemingly unrelated...... approaches that come together in the study of drug's and their in uence on proteins and vice-versa. In part I, I aim to understand through combined theoretical ensemble analysis and free energy calculations the e ects mutations have over the binding anity and function of the M2 proton channel. This research...

  7. Antibiotic resistance pattern in uropathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta V

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic strains from inpatient and outpatient departments were studied from April 1997 to March 1999 for their susceptibility profiles. The various isolates were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumanii and Enterococcus faecalis. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of these isolates revealed that for outpatients, first generation cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin/ciprofloxacin were effective for treatment of urinary tract infection but for inpatients, parenteral therapy with newer aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporins need to be advocated as the organisms for nosocomial UTI exhibit a high degree of drug resistance. Trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole combination was not found to be effective for the treatment of urinary tract infections as all the uropathogens from inpatients and outpatients showed high degree of resistance to co-trimoxazole. Culture and sensitivity of the isolates from urine samples should be done as a routine before advocating the therapy.

  8. Emergence of resistant pathogens against colistin

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Kumar; Baljit Jassal; Bhupinder Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Emergence of resistant strain to antimicrobials is a growing problem worldwide. Here, we report a case of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinectobacter baumannii, Gram-negative bacilli, which was only intermediate sensitive to colistin; a polymyxin E. Colistin has attracted more interest recently because of its significant activity against multi-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae, and the low resistance rates to it. The decrease in sensitivity of c...

  9. Review of prediction for thermal contact resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical prediction research on thermal contact resistance is reviewed in this paper. In general, modeling or simulating the thermal contact resistance involves several aspects, including the descriptions of surface topography, the analysis of micro mechanical deformation, and the thermal models. Some key problems are proposed for accurately predicting the thermal resistance of two solid contact surfaces. We provide a perspective on further promising research, which would be beneficial to understanding mechanisms and engineering applications of the thermal contact resistance in heat transport phenomena.

  10. Strategies for improving rust resistance in oats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, D.E.; McKenzie, R.I.H.; Martens, J.W.; Brown, P.D.

    1977-01-01

    During the history of breeding oats for rust resistance in Canada the known sources of resistance proved inadequate to counter the virulence potential of both stem rust (Puccinia graminis avenae) and crown rust (P. coronata avenae). A major programme to overcome the rust problem was undertaken at Winnipeg, involving four alternate approaches: (1) A search for new resistance in wild oat species, particularly Avena sterilis, has provided a wealth of good resistance to crown rust, but less to stem rust. Much of the A. sterilis-derived crown rust resistance is now being used world-wide; (2) Efforts at synthesizing new resistance by mutation breeding methods have not been successful. Of about seven million plants examined, only one showed significant new resistance, but this was associated with poor plant type; (3) Resistance with low levels of expression but which appears broadly effective has been observed against both stem and crown rusts. It appears that numbers of these low-level genes exist, and that they can be accumulated to provide increasingly effective resistance. Problems in using this type of resistance in a practical way are discussed; (4) Excellent rust resistance has been found in lower ploidy species such as A. barbata, but it was not previously possible to stabilize this resistance in hexaploid species. By using mutagenic treatments attempts have been made to translocate smaller portions of the A. barbata chromosome carrying the resistance to the hexaploid cultivar Rodney. In conclusion, mutation breeding methods at present appear to have limited application in synthesizing new rust-resistant genotypes in oats. The search for already existing genetic resistance and its synthesis into multi-genic resistant lines appears to be the most effective way at present of resolving the rust problem in oats. (author)

  11. Vitamins for enhancing plant resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubakri, Hatem; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Mliki, Ahmed; Brini, Faiçal; Chong, Julie; Jbara, Moez

    2016-09-01

    This paper provides an overview on vitamins with inducing activities in plants, the molecular and cellular mechanisms implicated, and the hormonal signalling-network regulating this process. Moreover, it reports how vitamins might be part of the molecular events linked to induced resistance by the conventional elicitors. Induced resistance (IR), exploiting the plant innate-defense system is a sustainable strategy for plant disease control. In the last decade, vitamins have been proven to act as inducers of disease resistance, and these findings have received an important attention owing to their safety and cost effectiveness. Vitamins, including thiamine (TH, vitamin B1), riboflavin (RF, vitamin B2), menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB, vitamin K3), Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, vitamin Bx), and folic acid (FA, vitamin B9) provided an efficient protection against a wide range of pathogens through the modulation of specific host-defense facets. However, other vitamins, such as ascorbic acid (AA, vitamin C) and tocopherols (vitamin E), have been shown to be a part of the molecular mechanisms associated to IR. The present review is the first to summarize what vitamins are acting as inducers of disease resistance in plants and how could they be modulated by the conventional elicitors. Thus, this report provides an overview on the protective abilities of vitamins and the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying their activities. Moreover, it describes the hormonal-signalling network regulating vitamin-signal transduction during IR. Finally, a biochemical model describing how vitamins are involved in the establishment of IR process is discussed.

  12. Radiation resistant ducted superconductive coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, A.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation-resistant ducted superconductive coil consists of a helically wound electrical conductor constituted by an electrically conductive core of superconductive material provided with a longitudinally extending cooling duct. The core is covered with a layer of inorganic insulating material and the duct is covered by an electrically conductive metallic gas-tight sheath. The metallic sheaths on adjacent turns of the coil are secured together. 2 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures

  13. Damage-resistant brittle coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawn, B.R.; Lee, K.S. [National Inst. of Stand. and Technol., Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Mater. Sci. and Eng. Lab.; Chai, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Faculty of Engineering; Pajares, A. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Kim, D.K. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technolgy, Taejon (Korea). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wuttiphan, S. [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Bangkok (Thailand); Peterson, I.M. [Corning Inc., NY (United States); Hu Xiaozhi [Western Australia Univ., Nedlands, WA (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

    2000-11-01

    Laminate structures consisting of hard, brittle coatings and soft, tough substrates are important in a wide variety of engineering applications, biological structures, and traditional pottery. In this study the authors introduce a new approach to the design of damage-resistant brittle coatings, based on a combination of new and existing relations for crack initiation in well-defined contact-induced stress fields. (orig.)

  14. Impact resistant battery enclosure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo; Feng, Yuezhong; Chen, Weinong Wayne; Siegmund, Thomas Heinrich

    2017-10-31

    Battery enclosure arrangements for a vehicular battery system. The arrangements, capable of impact resistance include plurality of battery cells and a plurality of kinetic energy absorbing elements. The arrangements further include a frame configured to encase the plurality of the kinetic energy absorbing elements and the battery cells. In some arrangements the frame and/or the kinetic energy absorbing elements can be made of topologically interlocked materials.

  15. Nutrient Administration and Resistance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leutholtz Brian

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skeletal muscle tissue is tightly regulated throughout our bodies by balancing its synthesis and breakdown. Many factors are known to exist that cause profound changes on the overall status of skeletal muscle, some of which include exercise, nutrition, hormonal influences and disease. Muscle hypertrophy results when protein synthesis is greater than protein breakdown. Resistance training is a popular form of exercise that has been shown to increase muscular strength and muscular hypertrophy. In general, resistance training causes a stimulation of protein synthesis as well as an increase in protein breakdown, resulting in a negative balance of protein. Providing nutrients, specifically amino acids, helps to stimulate protein synthesis and improve the overall net balance of protein. Strategies to increase the concentration and availability of amino acids after resistance exercise are of great interest and have been shown to effectively increase overall protein synthesis. 123 After exercise, providing carbohydrate has been shown to mildly stimulate protein synthesis while addition of free amino acids prior to and after exercise, specifically essential amino acids, causes a rapid pronounced increase in protein synthesis as well as protein balance.13 Evidence exists for a dose-response relationship of infused amino acids while no specific regimen exists for optimal dosing upon ingestion. Ingestion of whole or intact protein sources (e.g., protein powders, meal-replacements has been shown to cause similar improvements in protein balance after resistance exercise when compared to free amino acid supplements. Future research should seek to determine optimal dosing of ingested intact amino acids in addition to identifying the cellular mechanistic machinery (e.g. transcriptional and translational mechanisms for causing the increase in protein synthesis.

  16. The resistance councils in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand, Per

    in the capitals. In my dissertation I propose to change that focus. Partly by paying particular attention to rural politics, partly through a discussion of democracy in a longer-term perspective using a broader definition of democracy and finally through a discussion of democracy as effective political...... participation rather than only form al rights. I shall do so by analysing the Resistance Councils (RCs) in Uganda....

  17. Resisting temptation: a psychological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, R J

    1989-03-01

    It is proposed that self control involves several related processes including vivid awareness of future consequences, overcoming learned helplessness and tunnel vision, developing commitment and accepting anxiety/frustration. Facing up to temptation and resisting the compulsive urge is considered to be a crucial therapeutic experience. Evidence is presented to support the view that cue exposure should therefore be a central component of treatments for compulsions and addictions.

  18. Earthquake resistant design of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Geun; Kim, Gyu Seok; Lee, Dong Geun

    1990-02-01

    This book tells of occurrence of earthquake and damage analysis of earthquake, equivalent static analysis method, application of equivalent static analysis method, dynamic analysis method like time history analysis by mode superposition method and direct integration method, design spectrum analysis considering an earthquake-resistant design in Korea. Such as analysis model and vibration mode, calculation of base shear, calculation of story seismic load and combine of analysis results.

  19. [Antibiotic resistance: A global crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alós, Juan-Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    The introduction of antibiotics into clinical practice represented one of the most important interventions for the control of infectious diseases. Antibiotics have saved millions of lives and have also brought a revolution in medicine. However, an increasing threat has deteriorated the effectiveness of these drugs, that of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, which is defined here as the ability of bacteria to survive in antibiotic concentrations that inhibit/kill others of the same species. In this review some recent and important examples of resistance in pathogens of concern for mankind are mentioned. It is explained, according to present knowledge, the process that led to the current situation in a short time, evolutionarily speaking. It begins with the resistance genes, continues with clones and genetic elements involved in the maintenance and dissemination, and ends with other factors that contribute to its spread. Possible responses to the problem are also reviewed, with special reference to the development of new antibiotics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. Resistance to group clinical supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Delgado, Cynthia; Traynor, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This present study is a report of an interview study exploring personal views on participating in group clinical supervision among mental health nursing staff members who do not participate in supervision. There is a paucity of empirical research on resistance to supervision, which has traditiona......This present study is a report of an interview study exploring personal views on participating in group clinical supervision among mental health nursing staff members who do not participate in supervision. There is a paucity of empirical research on resistance to supervision, which has...... traditionally been theorized as a supervisee's maladaptive coping with anxiety in the supervision process. The aim of the present study was to examine resistance to group clinical supervision by interviewing nurses who did not participate in supervision. In 2015, we conducted semistructured interviews with 24...... Danish mental health nursing staff members who had been observed not to participate in supervision in two periods of 3 months. Interviews were audio-recorded and subjected to discourse analysis. We constructed two discursive positions taken by the informants: (i) 'forced non-participation', where...

  1. TLR4 and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane J. Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation is a key feature of insulin resistance and obesity. Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4, involved in modulating innate immunity, is an important mediator of insulin resistance and its comorbidities. TLR4 contributes to the development of insulin resistance and inflammation through its activation by elevated exogenous ligands (e.g., dietary fatty acids and enteric lipopolysaccharide and endogenous ligands (e.g., free fatty acids which are elevated in obese states. TLR4, expressed in insulin target tissues, activates proinflammatory kinases JNK, IKK, and p38 that impair insulin signal transduction directly through inhibitory phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS on serine residues. TLR4 activation also leads to increased transcription of pro-inflammatory genes, resulting in elevation of cytokine, chemokine, reactive oxygen species, and eicosanoid levels that promote further insulin-desensitization within the target cell itself and in other cells via paracrine and systemic effects. Increased understanding of cell type-specific TLR4-mediated effects on insulin action present the opportunity and challenge of developing related therapeutic approaches for improving insulin sensitivity while preserving innate immunity.

  2. Mechanisms of buffer therapy resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kate M; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; Cornnell, Heather H; Ribeiro, Maria C; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Hashim, Arig Ibrahim; Gillies, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    Many studies have shown that the acidity of solid tumors contributes to local invasion and metastasis. Oral pH buffers can specifically neutralize the acidic pH of tumors and reduce the incidence of local invasion and metastatic formation in multiple murine models. However, this effect is not universal as we have previously observed that metastasis is not inhibited by buffers in some tumor models, regardless of buffer used. B16-F10 (murine melanoma), LL/2 (murine lung) and HCT116 (human colon) tumors are resistant to treatment with lysine buffer therapy, whereas metastasis is potently inhibited by lysine buffers in MDA-MB-231 (human breast) and PC3M (human prostate) tumors. In the current work, we confirmed that sensitive cells utilized a pH-dependent mechanism for successful metastasis supported by a highly glycolytic phenotype that acidifies the local tumor microenvironment resulting in morphological changes. In contrast, buffer-resistant cell lines exhibited a pH-independent metastatic mechanism involving constitutive secretion of matrix degrading proteases without elevated glycolysis. These results have identified two distinct mechanisms of experimental metastasis, one of which is pH-dependent (buffer therapy sensitive cells) and one which is pH-independent (buffer therapy resistant cells). Further characterization of these models has potential for therapeutic benefit. Copyright © 2014 Neoplasia Press, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intrinsic nanofilamentation in resistive switching

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing

    2013-03-15

    Resistive switching materials are promising candidates for nonvolatile data storage and reconfiguration of electronic applications. Intensive studies have been carried out on sandwiched metal-insulator-metal structures to achieve high density on-chip circuitry and non-volatile memory storage. Here, we provide insight into the mechanisms that govern highly reproducible controlled resistive switching via a nanofilament by using an asymmetric metal-insulator-semiconductor structure. In-situ transmission electron microscopy is used to study in real-time the physical structure and analyze the chemical composition of the nanofilament dynamically during resistive switching. Electrical stressing using an external voltage was applied by a tungsten tip to the nanosized devices having hafnium oxide (HfO2) as the insulator layer. The formation and rupture of the nanofilaments result in up to three orders of magnitude change in the current flowing through the dielectric during the switching event. Oxygen vacancies and metal atoms from the anode constitute the chemistry of the nanofilament.

  4. Resistance mechanisms to plant viruses: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldbach, R.W.; Bucher, E.C.; Prins, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    To obtain virus-resistant host plants, a range of operational strategies can be followed nowadays. While for decades plant breeders have been able to introduce natural resistance genes in susceptible genotypes without knowing precisely what these resistance traits were, currently a growing number of

  5. 29 CFR 1910.255 - Resistance welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resistance welding. 1910.255 Section 1910.255 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Welding, Cutting and Brazing § 1910.255 Resistance welding. (a.... Ignitron tubes used in resistance welding equipment shall be equipped with a thermal protection switch. (3...

  6. Organizational change and resistance: An identity perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, S.B.; Thomas, R; Hardy, C.; Courpasson, D.; Vallas, S.

    2016-01-01

    A classic term in popular and scholarly literature on change management is ‘resistance to change’. It understands resistance in terms of opposition to managerial strategies for organizational change. Since change is generally viewed as reasonable and desirable within this literature, resistance to

  7. Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group: Open for Business

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Henry F.; Bartlett, John G.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Chiou, Christine; Cosgrove, Sara E.; Cross, Heather R.; Daum, Robert S.; Downing, Michele; Evans, Scott R.; Knisely, Jane; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Mickley, Brenda S.; Patel, Robin; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) is tasked with prioritizing, designing, implementing, and conducting clinical studies to address antibacterial resistance. This article outlines clinical research resources and opportunities made available by ARLG and encourages submission of proposals that address antibacterial resistance.

  8. Altered membrane permeability in multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... involvement during the transport of β - lactams in multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from extra-intestinal infections. Also, the ... lactam resistance in multidrug resistant E. coli in ESBL and non-ESBL isolates. .... and decreased susceptibility to carbapenems, particularly ertapenem (Perez et al.,.

  9. Molecular Identification of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial resistance has become a great public health problem worldwide and multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been widely reported. Methods: The presence or absence of methicillin resistance gene (mecA) in 48 clinical wound isolates of S. aureus was examined by the polymerase chain reaction ...

  10. Molecular Characterization of the Resistance of Mycobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To characterize the resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to second line drugs using a line probe assay. Methods: Multi-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated between December 2008 and December 2009 were tested for resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs ...

  11. 30 CFR 14.20 - Flame resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flame resistance. 14.20 Section 14.20 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... § 14.20 Flame resistance. Conveyor belts for use in underground coal mines must be flame-resistant and...

  12. Triazole resistance surveillance in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendiz Sharpe, Agustin; Lagrou, Katrien; Meis, Jacques F; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Lockhart, Shawn R; Verweij, Paul E

    2018-04-01

    Triazole resistance is an increasing concern in the opportunistic mold Aspergillus fumigatus. Resistance can develop through exposure to azole compounds during azole therapy or in the environment. Resistance mutations are commonly found in the Cyp51A-gene, although other known and unknown resistance mechanisms may be present. Surveillance studies show triazole resistance in six continents, although the presence of resistance remains unknown in many countries. In most countries, resistance mutations associated with the environment dominate, but it remains unclear if these resistance traits predominately migrate or arise locally. Patients with triazole-resistant aspergillus disease may fail to antifungal therapy, but only a limited number of cohort studies have been performed that show conflicting results. Treatment failure might be due to diagnostic delay or due to the limited number of alternative treatment options. The ISHAM/ECMM Aspergillus Resistance Surveillance working group was set up to facilitate surveillance studies and stimulate international collaborations. Important aims are to determine the resistance epidemiology in countries where this information is currently lacking, to gain more insight in the clinical implications of triazole resistance through a registry and to unify nomenclature through consensus definitions.

  13. Malaria resistance | Iyabo | Nigerian Medical Practitioner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age and puberty have been found to contribute to malaria resistance. It is expected that knowledge of natural resistance to malaria may aid in developing Vaccines against this deadly disease. Keywords: malaria resistance, puberty, malaria economy, malaria vaccine. Nigerian Medical Practitioner Vol. 49(5) 2006: 133-142 ...

  14. Fosfomycin Resistance in Escherichia coli, Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrowais, Hind; McElheny, Christi L; Spychala, Caressa N; Sastry, Sangeeta; Guo, Qinglan; Butt, Adeel A; Doi, Yohei

    2015-11-01

    Fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli is rare in the United States. An extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli clinical strain identified in Pennsylvania, USA, showed high-level fosfomycin resistance caused by the fosA3 gene. The IncFII plasmid carrying this gene had a structure similar to those found in China, where fosfomycin resistance is commonly described.

  15. Emergence of Quinolone Resistance amongst Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rate of resistance was 22.3% showing an increase in quinolone resistance when ... FQR E. coli was more common in patients with urinary tract infection (22.9%). ... in the faeces of healthy adults was 22.9%, 6.7% in children and 22.2% in avian. ... thereby aiding the spread of antibiotic resistant strains from avians to human ...

  16. Embodied resistance to persuasion in advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewinski, P.; Fransen, M.L.; Tan, E.S.

    From the literature on resistance to persuasion in advertising, much is known about how people can resist advertising by adopting resistance strategies, such as avoidance, counter-arguing, and selective attention (e.g., Fransen et al., 2015b). However, the role of emotion regulation and bodily

  17. Determining the specific electric resistance of rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad' ko, V.Ia.

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented on perfecting the method of laboratory determination of the specific electric resistance of a rock formation. The average error in determining the specific electric resistance of the core at various locations is no more than two percent with low resistance values (2-5 ohms).

  18. Evaluation of electrical resistivity anisotropy in geological mapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Key words: Electrical resistivity anisotropy, radial vertical electrical sounding, anisotropy polygons. INTRODUCTION ... electrical resistivity survey in the geological interpretation ... resistivity and other electrical or electromagnetic based.

  19. Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from broiler carcasses Resistência antimicrobiana em Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de carcaças de frango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Oliveira Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from broiler carcasses between May 1995 and April 1996 in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using the disk diffusion method. Resistance to colistin, novobiocin, erythromycin and tetracycline was observed in 100% of the isolates. The strains showed intermediate resistance at different levels to kanamycin (1.25%, enrofloxacin (3.75%, neomycin (3.75%, fosfomycin (20%, sulphonamides (86.25% and nitrofurantoin (90%. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, gentamicin, polymyxin B, sulphametrim and sulphazotrim was not found. Since resistance to antibiotics especially those introduced in the last decades, was detected, it is recommended that their use must be based on the results of resistance tests or minimum inhibitory concentration tests.Oitenta amostras de Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de carcaças de frango no período entre maio de 1995 a abril de 1996 no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil foram testados para susceptibilidade antimicrobiana pelo método de antibiograma. O antibiograma das amostras apresentou 100% de resistência a colistina, novobiocina, eritromicina e tetraciclina. Tiveram resistência em diferentes níveis a canamicina (1,25%, enrofloxacina (3,75%, neomicina (3,75%, fosfomicina (20%, sulfonamida (86,25% e nitrofurantoína (90% e por outro lado não apresentaram resistência a ciprofloxacina, norfloxacina, gentamicina, polimixina B, sulfametrim e sulfazotrim. A constatação de resistência a antibióticos, inclusive àqueles introduzidos na última década, enfatiza a necessidade de uso responsável de antibióticos, e com base em antibiograma ou concentração inibitória mínima.

  20. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from food other than meat in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Mąka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives. Antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria can result in therapy failure, increased hospitalization, and increased risk of death. In Poland, [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. is a major bacterial agent of food poisoning. The majority of studies on antimicrobial resistance in [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolates from food have focused on meat products as the source of this pathogen. In comparison, this study examines the antimicrobial susceptibility of [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolated from retail food products other than meat in Poland. Materials and Methods. A collection of 122 [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolates were isolated in Poland in 2008–2012 from foods other than meat: confectionery products, eggs, fruits, vegetables, spices and others. The resistance of these isolates to 19 antimicrobial agents was tested using the disc diffusion method. Results. [i]Salmonella[/i] Enteritidis was the most frequently identified serotype (84.4% of all tested isolates. In total, 42.6% of the [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolates were resistant to antibiotics. The highest frequencies of resistance were observed in isolates from 2009 (60.0% and 2012 (59.5%. Antibiotic resistance was most prevalent among [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolated from egg-containing food samples (68.0%. Resistance to nalidixic acid was most common and was observed in 35.2% of all tested isolates. The isolates were less frequently resistant to sulphonamides (6.6%, ampicillin (4.9%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (2.5% and to streptomycin, cefoxitin, gentamicin and tetracycline (1.6%. Only one isolate showed resistance to chloramphenicol. Four isolates displayed multiresistance. Conclusions. Although, the level of resistance and multiresistance of [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolates from non-meat foods was lower than in those from meat products, the presence of these resistant bacteria poses a real threat to the health of consumers.

  1. Antibiotic resistance and virulence traits in clinical and environmental Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, I U; Hargreaves, M; Huygens, F

    2012-07-01

    This study compared virulence and antibiotic resistance traits in clinical and environmental Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates. E. faecalis isolates harboured a broader spectrum of virulence determinants compared to E. faecium isolates. The virulence traits Cyl-A, Cyl-B, Cyl-M, gel-E, esp and acm were tested and environmental isolates predominantly harboured gel-E (80% of E. faecalis and 31.9% of E. faecium) whereas esp was more prevalent in clinical isolates (67.8% of E. faecalis and 70.4% of E. faecium). E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from water had different antibiotic resistance patterns compared to those isolated from clinical samples. Linezolid resistance was not observed in any isolates tested and vancomycin resistance was observed only in clinical isolates. Resistance to other antibiotics (tetracycline, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and ampicillin) was detected in both clinical and water isolates. Clinical isolates were more resistant to all the antibiotics tested compared to water isolates. Multi-drug resistance was more prevalent in clinical isolates (71.2% of E. faecalis and 70.3% of E. faecium) compared to water isolates (only 5.7% E. faecium). tet L and tet M genes were predominantly identified in tetracycline-resistant isolates. All water and clinical isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin and ampicillin contained mutations in the gyrA, parC and pbp5 genes. A significant correlation was found between the presence of virulence determinants and antibiotic resistance in all the isolates tested in this study (pantibiotic resistant enterococci, together with associated virulence traits, in surface recreational water could be a public health risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Proteus mirabilis isolates from dogs.

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    Harada, Kazuki; Niina, Ayaka; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Kataoka, Yasushi

    2014-11-01

    Large-scale monitoring of resistance to 14 antimicrobial agents was performed using 103 Proteus mirabilis strains isolated from dogs in Japan. Resistant strains were analysed to identify their resistance mechanisms. Rates of resistance to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, kanamycin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, cephalothin, gentamicin, cefoxitin and cefotaxime were 20.4, 15.5, 12.6, 10.7, 9.7, 8.7, 5.8, 2.9, 2.9, 1.9 and 1.9%, respectively. No resistance to ceftazidime, aztreonam or imipenem was found. Class 1 and 2 integrases were detected in 2.9 and 11.7% of isolates, respectively. Class 1 integrons contained aadB or aadB-catB-like-blaOXA10-aadA1, whereas those of class 2 contained sat-aadA1, dhfr1-sat-aadA1 or none of the anticipated resistance genes. Of five distinct plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance (PMQR) genes, only qnrD gene was detected in 1.9% of isolates. Quinolone-resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA and parC from 13 enrofloxacin-intermediate and -resistant isolates were sequenced. Seven strains had double mutations and three had single mutations. Three of nine ampicillin-resistant isolates harboured AmpC-type β-lactamases (i.e. blaCMY-2, blaCMY-4 and blaDHA-1). These results suggest that canine Proteus mirabilis deserves continued surveillance as an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistance determinants. This is the first report, to our knowledge, describing integrons, PMQRs and QRDR mutations in Proteus mirabilis isolates from companion animals. © 2014 The Authors.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus species isolated from Lebanese dairy-based products.

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    Zouhairi, O; Saleh, I; Alwan, N; Toufeili, I; Barbour, E; Harakeh, S

    2012-12-04

    The study evaluated the antimicrobial resistance of molecularly characterized strains of Staphylococcus aureus and S. saprophyticus isolated from 3 Lebanese dairy-based food products that are sometimes consumed raw: kishk, shanklish and baladi cheese. Suspected Staphylococcus isolates were identified initially using standard biochemical tests, then strains that were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (29 S. aureus and 17 S. saprophyticus) were evaluated for their susceptibility to different antimicrobials. The highest levels of contamination with staphylococci were in baladi cheese. Resistance rates ranged from 67% to gentamicin to 94% to oxacillin and clindamycin. The results suggest that these locally made dairy-based foods may act as vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus spp.

  4. Molecular Basis of Resistance to Selected Antimicrobial Agents in the Emerging Zoonotic Pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Mamata; Tamang, Migma Dorji; Moon, Dong Chan; Kim, Su-Ran; Jeong, Jin-Ha; Jang, Geum-Chan; Jung, Suk-Chan; Park, Yong-Ho; Lim, Suk-Kyung

    2015-07-01

    Characterization of 227 Streptococcus suis strains isolated from pigs during 2010 to 2013 showed high levels of resistance to clindamycin (95.6%), tilmicosin (94.7%), tylosin (93.8%), oxytetracycline (89.4%), chlortetracycline (86.8%), tiamulin (72.7%), neomycin (70.0%), enrofloxacin (56.4%), penicillin (56.4%), ceftiofur (55.9%), and gentamicin (55.1%). Resistance to tetracyclines, macrolides, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolone was attributed to the tet gene, erm(B), erm(C), mph(C), and mef(A) and/or mef(E) genes, aph(3')-IIIa and aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia genes, and single point mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of ParC and GyrA, respectively. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Determination of antibiotic resistance profile in Klebsiella pneumonia strains isolated from urinary tract infections of patients hospitalized in Peyambaran hospital (Tehran-Iran

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    Marzieh Tavakol

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the second prevalent infection in human mostly caused by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance profile and detect the prevalence of antibiotic resistance encoding genes in K .pneumoniae isolated from UTI. Materials and Methods: Fifty K. pneumonia strains isolated from 122 UTI samples of hospitalized patients in Payambaran Hospital (Tehran, Iran which were subjected to this study (2014 were confirmed by standard biochemical tests. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial drugs by using disk diffusion method. Antibiotic resistance encoding genes frequently include the aadA1, aac(3-IV, sul1, blaSHV, Cat1, cmlA, tetA, tetB, dfrA1, CITM, qnr in isolates were determined by PCR. Results: The highest antibiotic resistance in K. pneumoniae isolates were for Tetracycline and the lowest resistance (2% for Gentamicin and Imipenem. To determine the frequency of antibiotic resistant genes, 64% and 4% of isolates had tetA and Gentamicin-(aac(3-IV resistant genes, respectively. Conclusion: Frequency of antibiotic resistance encoding genes may have important and basic role in the occurrence and transfer of antibiotic resistance which can be due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics.

  6. Predictable Phenotypes of Antibiotic Resistance Mutations.

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    Knopp, M; Andersson, D I

    2018-05-15

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria represent a major threat to our ability to treat bacterial infections. Two factors that determine the evolutionary success of antibiotic resistance mutations are their impact on resistance level and the fitness cost. Recent studies suggest that resistance mutations commonly show epistatic interactions, which would complicate predictions of their stability in bacterial populations. We analyzed 13 different chromosomal resistance mutations and 10 host strains of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli to address two main questions. (i) Are there epistatic interactions between different chromosomal resistance mutations? (ii) How does the strain background and genetic distance influence the effect of chromosomal resistance mutations on resistance and fitness? Our results show that the effects of combined resistance mutations on resistance and fitness are largely predictable and that epistasis remains rare even when up to four mutations were combined. Furthermore, a majority of the mutations, especially target alteration mutations, demonstrate strain-independent phenotypes across different species. This study extends our understanding of epistasis among resistance mutations and shows that interactions between different resistance mutations are often predictable from the characteristics of the individual mutations. IMPORTANCE The spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria imposes an urgent threat to public health. The ability to forecast the evolutionary success of resistant mutants would help to combat dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Previous studies have shown that the phenotypic effects (fitness and resistance level) of resistance mutations can vary substantially depending on the genetic context in which they occur. We conducted a broad screen using many different resistance mutations and host strains to identify potential epistatic interactions between various types of resistance mutations and to determine the effect of strain

  7. Heavy metal and antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from the environment of swine farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.; Ping, C.; Mei, L.S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the level of heavy metal resistance and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from environment of swine farms in China. A total of 284 bacteria were isolated, 158 from manure, 62 from soil and 64 from wastewater in different swine farm samples. All the isolates were tested for resistant against eight heavy metals. From the total of 284 isolates, maximum bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to Zn/sup 2+/ (98.6%) followed by Cu/sup 2+/ (97.5%), Cd/sup 2+/ (68.3%), Mn/sup 2+/ (60.2%), Pb/sup 2+/(51.4%), Ni/sup 2+/(41.5%) and Cr/sup 2+/(45.1%). However, most of the isolates were sensitive to Co/sup 2+/. Meanwhile,all the isolates were tested for sensitively to nine antibiotics. The results shows that most isolates were sensitive to cefoxitin and oxacillin, but resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, gentamicin, amikacin, erythromycin, clindamycin were widespread. Multiple resistant to metals and antibiotics were also observed in this study. Most isolates were tolerant to different concentrations of various heavy metals and antibiotics. Our results confirmed that environment of swine farms in China has a significant proportion of heavy metal and antibiotic resistant bacteria, and these bacteria constitute a potential risk for swine health and public health. (author)

  8. Antibiotic resistance of Clostridium perfringens isolates from broiler chickens in Egypt.

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    Osman, K M; Elhariri, M

    2013-12-01

    The use of antibiotic feed additives in broiler chickens results in a high prevalence of resistance among their enteric bacteria, with a consequent emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic enteropathogens. Despite growing concerns about the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, which show varying prevalences in different geographic regions, little work has been done to investigate this issue in the Middle East. This study provides insight into one of the world's most common and financially crippling poultry diseases, necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens. The study was designed to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in C. perfringens isolates from clinical cases of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens in Egypt. A total of 125 isolates were obtained from broiler flocks in 35 chicken coops on 17 farms and were tested using the disc diffusion method. All 125 isolates were resistant to gentamicin, streptomycin, oxolinic acid, lincomycin, erythromycin and spiramycin. The prevalence of resistance to other antibiotics was also high: rifampicin (34%), chloramphenicol (46%), spectinomycin (50%), tylosin-fosfomycin (52%), ciprofloxacin (58%), norfloxacin (67%), oxytetracycline (71%), flumequine (78%), enrofloxacin (82%), neomycin (93%), colistin (94%), pefloxacin (94%), doxycycline (98%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98%). It is recommended that C. perfringens infections in Egypt should be treated with antibiotics for which resistant isolates are rare at present; namely, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephradine, fosfomycin and florfenicol.

  9. Pathogenicity determinants and antibiotic resistance profiles of enterococci from foods of animal origin in Turkey.

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    Elal Mus, Tulay; Cetinkaya, Figen; Cibik, Recep; Soyutemiz, Gul Ece; Simsek, Husniye; Coplu, Nilay

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the presence of genes responsible for the pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance profile of enterococci isolated from various foodstuffs of animal origin was investigated. The percentage prevalence of enterococci was 54.1% (203/375) and the average count was found to be 3.81 log cfu/ml-g. Species-specific primers revealed Enterococcus faecalis as the predominant species carrying one or more virulence-associated traits of efa, gelE, ace, esp and agg genetic markers. Only one E. faecium isolate (from milk) was positive for the esp gene. Regarding antibiotic resistance, the highest frequency of resistance was observed for tetracycline (21.7%), followed by quinupristin/dalfopristin (13.3%), ciprofloxacin (2.0%), penicillin (2.0%), linezolid (1.0%), ampicillin (1.0%), streptomycin (1.0%), and gentamicin (0.5%). Enterococcus faecalis showed a higher prevalence of antibiotic resistance than other enterococci. The percentage of multidrug resistance among the isolates was 3.4%. Twenty-nine E. faecalis isolates (26.6%) carrying one of the virulence-associated traits were at the same time resistant to at least one antibiotic. Our results show that foods of animal origin, including ready-to-eat products, may be reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent enterococci.

  10. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FERMENTED DAIRY PRODUCTS AND BOZA

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    Gamze Başbülbül

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the resistance of 83 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Turkish cheese, yogurt, kefir and boza samples to 6 antibiotics (gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, vancomycin and ciprofloxacin was evaluated. The 83 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and according to BLAST comparisons with sequences in the data banks, those strains showing the highest similarities with the isolates were Enterococcus faecium (10, Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis (10, Lactobacillus fermentum (6, Lactobacillus plantarum (6, Lactobacillus coryniformis (7, Lactobacillus casei (13, Leuconostoc mesenteroides (14, Pediococcus pentosaceus (10, Weisella confusa (7. Antimicrobial resistance of strains to 6 antibiotics was determined using the agar dilution method. The antibiotic resistance among all the isolates was detected against chloramphenicol (31,3 % of the isolates, tetracycline (30,1 %, erythromycin (2,4 %, ciprofloxacin (2,41%, vancomycin (73,5 %, intrinsic resistance. Overall 19,3 % of the isolates showed resistance against multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance genes were studied by PCR and the following genes were detected; tet(M gene in Lactobacillus fermentum (1, Lactobacillus plantarum (1, Pediococcus pentosaceus (5, Enterococcus faecium (2, Weisella confusa (4 and the vancomycin resistance gene van(A in one Weisella confusa strain.

  11. Different phenotypic and molecular mechanisms associated with multidrug resistance in Gram-negative clinical isolates from Egypt

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    Helmy OM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Omneya M Helmy, Mona T Kashef Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Objectives: We set out to investigate the prevalence, different mechanisms, and clonal relatedness of multidrug resistance (MDR among third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates from Egypt.Materials and methods: A total of 118 third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates were included in this study. Their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined using Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method. Efflux pump-mediated resistance was tested by the efflux-pump inhibitor-based microplate assay using chlorpromazine. Detection of different aminoglycoside-, β-lactam-, and quinolone-resistance genes was done using polymerase chain reaction. The genetic diversity of MDR isolates was investigated using random amplification of polymorphic DNA.Results: Most of the tested isolates exhibited MDR phenotypes (84.75%. The occurrence of efflux pump-mediated resistance in the different MDR species tested was 40%–66%. Acinetobacter baumannii isolates showed resistance to most of the tested antibiotics, including imipenem. The blaOXA-23-like gene was detected in 69% of the MDR A. baumannii isolates. The MDR phenotype was detected in 65% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, of which only 23% exhibited efflux pump-mediated resistance. On the contrary, efflux-mediated resistance to piperacillin and gentamicin was recorded in 47.5% of piperacillin-resistant and 25% of gentamicin-resistant MDR Enterobacteriaceae. Moreover, the plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance genes (aac(6’-Ib-cr, qnrB, and qnrS were detected in 57.6% and 83.33% of quinolone-resistant MDR Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, respectively. The β-lactamase-resistance gene blaSHV-31 was detected for the first time in one MDR K. pneumoniae isolate from an endotracheal tube specimen in Egypt

  12. Resistive Heating in Saturn's Thermosphere

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    Vriesema, Jess W.; Koskinen, Tommi; Yelle, Roger V.

    2016-10-01

    The thermospheres of the jovian planets are several times hotter than solar heating alone can account for. On Saturn, resistive heating appears sufficient to explain these temperatures in auroral regions, but the particular mechanism(s) responsible for heating the lower latitudes remains unclear. Smith et al. (2005) suggested that electrodynamics of the equatorial region—particularly resistive heating caused by strong electrojet currents—might explain the observed temperatures at low latitudes. Müller-Wodarg et al. (2006) found that their circulation model could reproduce low-latitude temperatures only when they included resistive heating at the poles and applied a uniform, generic heating source globally. Smith et al. (2007) concluded that heating at the poles leads to meridional circulation that cools low latitudes and argued that in-situ heating is required to explain the temperatures at low latitudes.Resistive heating at low latitudes, arising from enhanced current generation driven by thermospheric winds, is a potentially important in-situ heating mechanism. Ion drag caused by low-latitude electrodynamics can modify global circulation and meridional transport of energy. We present an axisymmetric, steady-state formulation of wind-driven electrodynamics to investigate these possibilities throughout Saturn's thermosphere. At present, we assume a dipole magnetic field and neglect any contributions from the magnetosphere. We use ion mixing ratios from the model of Kim et al. (2014) and the observed temperature-pressure profile from Koskinen et al. (2015) to calculate the generalized conductivity tensor as described by Koskinen et al. (2014). Our model solves the coupled equations for charge continuity and Ohm's law with tensor conductivity while enforcing zero current across the boundaries. The resulting partial differential equation is solved for the current density throughout the domain and used to calculate the net resistive heating rate. We demonstrate

  13. Phenotypic- and Genotypic-Resistance Detection for Adaptive Resistance Management in Tetranychus urticae Koch.

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    Deok Ho Kwon

    Full Text Available Rapid resistance detection is necessary for the adaptive management of acaricide-resistant populations of Tetranychus urticae. Detection of phenotypic and genotypic resistance was conducted by employing residual contact vial bioassay (RCV and quantitative sequencing (QS methods, respectively. RCV was useful for detecting the acaricide resistance levels of T. urticae, particularly for on-site resistance detection; however, it was only applicable for rapid-acting acaricides (12 out of 19 tested acaricides. QS was effective for determining the frequencies of resistance alleles on a population basis, which corresponded to 12 nonsynonymous point mutations associated with target-site resistance to five types of acaricides [organophosphates (monocrotophos, pirimiphos-methyl, dimethoate and chlorpyrifos, pyrethroids (fenpropathrin and bifenthrin, abamectin, bifenazate and etoxazole]. Most field-collected mites exhibited high levels of multiple resistance, as determined by RCV and QS data, suggesting the seriousness of their current acaricide resistance status in rose cultivation areas in Korea. The correlation analyses revealed moderate to high levels of positive relationships between the resistance allele frequencies and the actual resistance levels in only five of the acaricides evaluated, which limits the general application of allele frequency as a direct indicator for estimating actual resistance levels. Nevertheless, the resistance allele frequency data alone allowed for the evaluation of the genetic resistance potential and background of test mite populations. The combined use of RCV and QS provides basic information on resistance levels, which is essential for choosing appropriate acaricides for the management of resistant T. urticae.

  14. Novel resistance functions uncovered using functional metagenomic investigations of resistance reservoirs

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    Erica C. Pehrsson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rates of infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria have increased precipitously over the past several decades, with far-reaching healthcare and societal costs. Recent evidence has established a link between antibiotic resistance genes in human pathogens and those found in non-pathogenic, commensal, and environmental organisms, prompting deeper investigation of natural and human-associated reservoirs of antibiotic resistance. Functional metagenomic selections, in which shotgun-cloned DNA fragments are selected for their ability to confer survival to an indicator host, have been increasingly applied to the characterization of many antibiotic resistance reservoirs. These experiments have demonstrated that antibiotic resistance genes are highly diverse and widely distributed, many times bearing little to no similarity to known sequences. Through unbiased selections for survival to antibiotic exposure, functional metagenomics can improve annotations by reducing the discovery of false-positive resistance and by allowing for the identification of previously unrecognizable resistance genes. In this review, we summarize the novel resistance functions uncovered using functional metagenomic investigations of natural and human-impacted resistance reservoirs. Examples of novel antibiotic resistance genes include those highly divergent from known sequences, those for which sequence is entirely unable to predict resistance function, bifunctional resistance genes, and those with unconventional, atypical resistance mechanisms. Overcoming antibiotic resistance in the clinic will require a better understanding of existing resistance reservoirs and the dissemination networks that govern horizontal gene exchange, informing best practices to limit the spread of resistance-conferring genes to human pathogens.

  15. Insecticide resistance and resistance mechanisms in bed bugs, Cimex spp. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Kai; Doggett, Stephen L; Veera Singham, G; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2017-06-29

    The worldwide resurgence of bed bugs [both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)] over the past two decades is believed in large part to be due to the development of insecticide resistance. The transcriptomic and genomic studies since 2010, as well as morphological, biochemical and behavioral studies, have helped insecticide resistance research on bed bugs. Multiple resistance mechanisms, including penetration resistance through thickening or remodelling of the cuticle, metabolic resistance by increased activities of detoxification enzymes (e.g. cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases), and knockdown resistance by kdr mutations, have been experimentally identified as conferring insecticide resistance in bed bugs. Other candidate resistance mechanisms, including behavioral resistance, some types of physiological resistance (e.g. increasing activities of esterases by point mutations, glutathione S-transferase, target site insensitivity including altered AChEs, GABA receptor insensitivity and altered nAChRs), symbiont-mediated resistance and other potential, yet undiscovered mechanisms may exist. This article reviews recent studies of resistance mechanisms and the genes governing insecticide resistance, potential candidate resistance mechanisms, and methods of monitoring insecticide resistance in bed bugs. This article provides an insight into the knowledge essential for the development of both insecticide resistance management (IRM) and integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for successful bed bug management.

  16. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almani, S.A.; Memon, N.M.; Qureshi, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of primary and secondary drug resistance amongst the clinical isolates of M.tuberculosis, to identify risk factors and how to overcome this problem. Design: A case series of 50 indoor patients with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Place and duration of Study: Department of Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro, Sindh, (Pakistan) from January 1999 to December 2000. Patients and methods: Four first line anti-tuberculous drugs rifampicine, ethambutol and streptomycin were tested for sensitivity pattern. Results: Twelve (26.66%) were sensitive to all four drugs, 12(26.66%) were resistant to one drug, 14 (31.11%) were resistant to two drugs, 2 (4.44%) were resistant to three drugs, and 5(11.11%) were resistant to all four drugs. Resistance to isoniazid was the most common in 27 cases (60%) with primary resistance in 6(13.33%) and secondary resistance in 21(46.66%), followed by resistance to streptomycin in 17 cases (37.77%) with primary resistance in 5(11.11%) and secondary resistance in 12 (26.66%). Resistance to ethambutol in 10 cases (22.22%) and rifampicine in 11 (24.44%) and all cases were secondary. Similarly multi-drugs resistance (MRD) TB was found in 11(24.44%) isolates. Conclusion: This study showed high prevalence of drug resistance among clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. Their is a need to establish centers at number of places with adequate facilities for susceptibility testing so that the resistant pattern could be ascertained and treatment regimens tailored accordingly. (author)

  17. Vaginal versus Obstetric Infection Escherichia coli Isolates among Pregnant Women: Antimicrobial Resistance and Genetic Virulence Profile.

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    Emma Sáez-López

    Full Text Available Vaginal Escherichia coli colonization is related to obstetric infections and the consequent development of infections in newborns. Ampicillin resistance among E. coli strains is increasing, which is the main choice for treating empirically many obstetric and neonatal infections. Vaginal E. coli strains are very similar to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli with regards to the virulence factors and the belonging to phylogroup B2. We studied the antimicrobial resistance and the genetic virulence profile of 82 E. coli isolates from 638 vaginal samples and 63 isolated from endometrial aspirate, placental and amniotic fluid samples from pregnant women with obstetric infections. The prevalence of E. coli in the vaginal samples was 13%, which was significant among women with associated risk factors during pregnancy, especially premature preterm rupture of membranes (p<0.0001. Sixty-five percent of the strains were ampicillin-resistant. The E. coli isolates causing obstetric infections showed higher resistance levels than vaginal isolates, particularly for gentamicin (p = 0.001. The most prevalent virulence factor genes were those related to the iron uptake systems revealing clear targets for interventions. More than 50% of the isolates belonged to the virulent B2 group possessing the highest number of virulence factor genes. The ampicillin-resistant isolates had high number of virulence factors primarily related to pathogenicity islands, and the remarkable gentamicin resistance in E. coli isolates from women presenting obstetric infections, the choice of the most appropriate empiric treatment and clinical management of pregnant women and neonates should be carefully made. Taking into account host-susceptibility, the heterogeneity of E. coli due to evolution over time and the geographical area, characterization of E. coli isolates colonizing the vagina and causing obstetric infections in different regions may help to develop interventions and avoid the

  18. Analysis and modeling of resistive switching mechanisms oriented to resistive random-access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Da; Wu Jun-Jie; Tang Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    With the progress of the semiconductor industry, the resistive random-access memory (RAM) has drawn increasing attention. The discovery of the memristor has brought much attention to this study. Research has focused on the resistive switching characteristics of different materials and the analysis of resistive switching mechanisms. We discuss the resistive switching mechanisms of different materials in this paper and analyze the differences of those mechanisms from the view point of circuitry to establish their respective circuit models. Finally, simulations are presented. We give the prospect of using different materials in resistive RAM on account of their resistive switching mechanisms, which are applied to explain their resistive switchings

  19. Adriamycin resistance, heat resistance and radiation response in Chinese hamster fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, K.; Li, G.

    1985-01-01

    Previous investigators have demonstrated synergistic interaction between hyperthermia and radiation or Adriamycin (ADR), using cell lines that are sensitive to heat or ADR alone. The authors investigated the effect of heat, radiation or ADR on Chinese hamster fibroblasts (HA-1), their heat resistant variants and their ADR resistant variants. Heat for ADR resistance did not confer cross resistance to radiation. Cells resistant to heat did show cross resistance to ADR. While cells selected for ADR resistance were not cross resistant to heat, they did not exhibit drug potentiation by hyperthermia, characteristic of ADR sensitive cells. Cytofluorometric measurement showed decreased ADR uptake in both heat and ADR resistant cells. The possibility of cross resistance between heat and ADR should be considered when designing combined modality trials

  20. Empiric antibiotic therapy in urinary tract infection in patients with risk factors for antibiotic resistance in a German emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Sebastian; Walter, Thomas; Gerigk, Marlis; Ebert, Matthias; Vogelmann, Roger

    2018-01-26

    The aim of this study was to identify clinical risk factors for antimicrobial resistances and multidrug resistance (MDR) in urinary tract infections (UTI) in an emergency department in order to improve empirical therapy. UTI cases from an emergency department (ED) during January 2013 and June 2015 were analyzed. Differences between patients with and without resistances towards Ciprofloxacin, Piperacillin with Tazobactam (Pip/taz), Gentamicin, Cefuroxime, Cefpodoxime and Ceftazidime were analyzed with Fisher's exact tests. Results were used to identify risk factors with logistic regression modelling. Susceptibility rates were analyzed in relation to risk factors. One hundred thirty-seven of four hundred sixty-nine patients who met the criteria of UTI had a positive urine culture. An MDR pathogen was found in 36.5% of these. Overall susceptibility was less than 85% for standard antimicrobial agents. Logistic regression identified residence in nursing homes, male gender, hospitalization within the last 30 days, renal transplantation, antibiotic treatment within the last 30 days, indwelling urinary catheter and recurrent UTI as risk factors for MDR or any of these resistances. For patients with no risk factors Ciprofloxacin had 90%, Pip/taz 88%, Gentamicin 95%, Cefuroxime 98%, Cefpodoxime 98% and Ceftazidime 100% susceptibility. For patients with 1 risk factor Ciprofloxacin had 80%, Pip/taz 80%, Gentamicin 88%, Cefuroxime 78%, Cefpodoxime 78% and Ceftazidime 83% susceptibility. For 2 or more risk factors Ciprofloxacin drops its susceptibility to 52%, Cefuroxime to 54% and Cefpodoxime to 61%. Pip/taz, Gentamicin and Ceftazidime remain at 75% and 77%, respectively. We identified several risk factors for resistances and MDR in UTI. Susceptibility towards antimicrobials depends on these risk factors. With no risk factor cephalosporins seem to be the best choice for empiric therapy, but in patients with risk factors the beta-lactam penicillin Piperacillin with Tazobactam

  1. Multivariable Analysis of the Association Between Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Apparently Healthy Pigs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Kohei; Goto, Masaki; Ozawa, Manao; Kawanishi, Michiko; Koike, Ryoji; Asai, Tetsuo; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between antimicrobial agent use and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from healthy pigs using data from 2004 to 2007 in the Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM). Fecal E. coli isolates from 250 pigs (one isolate each from a pig per farm) were examined for antimicrobial resistance. Information on the use of antimicrobials within preceding 6 months and types of farms recorded in JVARM was collected and statistically analyzed against the resistance patterns. In the univariate analysis, associations between both therapeutic and feed additive use of antimicrobials, and resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, ampicillin, cefazolin, ceftiofur, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, enrofloxacin, colistin, and bicozamycin, and husbandry factors were investigated. In multivariable analysis, generalized estimating equations were used to control geographical intraclass correlation. Confounding for structurally unrelated associations was tested using generalized linear models. The results suggested direct and cross selections in the associations between use of aminoglycosides in reproduction farms and resistance to kanamycin, use of tetracyclines in larger farms and resistance to oxytetracycline, use of beta-lactams and resistance to ampicillin, use of phenicols and resistance to chloramphenicol, and use of fluoroquinolones and resistance to nalidixic acid and enrofloxacin. Coselection was suggested in the use of tetracyclines and chloramphenicol resistance. The associations between use of beta-lactams and dihydrostreptomycin resistance, use of macrolides and ampicillin and oxytetracycline resistance, and use of colistin and kanamycin resistance were significant, but were confounded by the simultaneous use of homologous antimicrobials.

  2. Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulajić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria is still limited, possibly because of the large numbers of genera and species encountered in this group, as well as variances in their resistance spectra. The EFSA considers antibiotic resistances, especially transferable resistances, an important decision criterion for determining a strain's QPS status. There are no approved standards for the phenotypic or genotypic evaluation of antibiotic resistances in food isolates. Also, the choice of media is problematic, as well as the specification of MIC breakpoint values as a result of the large species variation and the possible resulting variation in MIC values between species and genera. The current investigations in this field showed that we might end up with a range of different species- or genus-specific breakpoint values that may further increase the current complexity. Another problem associated with safety determinations of starter strains is that once a resistance phenotype and an associated resistance determinant have been identified, it becomes difficult to show that this determinant is not transferable, especially if the resistance gene is not located on a plasmid and no standard protocols for showing genetic transfer are available. Encountering those problems, the QPS system should allow leeway for the interpretations of results, especially when these relate to the methodology for resistance phenotype determinations, determinations of MIC breakpoints for certain genera, species, or strains, the nondeterminability of a genetic basis of a resistance phenotype and the transferability of resistance genes.

  3. Overview of glyphosate-resistant weeds worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Ian; Duke, Stephen O

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used and successful herbicide discovered to date, but its utility is now threatened by the occurrence of several glyphosate-resistant weed species. Glyphosate resistance first appeared in Lolium rigidum in an apple orchard in Australia in 1996, ironically the year that the first glyphosate-resistant crop (soybean) was introduced in the USA. Thirty-eight weed species have now evolved resistance to glyphosate, distributed across 37 countries and in 34 different crops and six non-crop situations. Although glyphosate-resistant weeds have been identified in orchards, vineyards, plantations, cereals, fallow and non-crop situations, it is the glyphosate-resistant weeds in glyphosate-resistant crop systems that dominate the area infested and growing economic impact. Glyphosate-resistant weeds present the greatest threat to sustained weed control in major agronomic crops because this herbicide is used to control weeds with resistance to herbicides with other sites of action, and no new herbicide sites of action have been introduced for over 30 years. Industry has responded by developing herbicide resistance traits in major crops that allow existing herbicides to be used in a new way. However, over reliance on these traits will result in multiple-resistance in weeds. Weed control in major crops is at a precarious point, where we must maintain the utility of the herbicides we have until we can transition to new weed management technologies. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Shukla

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. METHODS: Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. RESULTS: Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1 expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy.

  5. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Swati; Srivastava, Arpna; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Usha; Goswami, Sandeep; Chawla, Bhavna; Bajaj, Mandeep Singh; Kashyap, Seema; Kaur, Jasbir

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC) were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin) were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1) expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp) was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy.

  6. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Swati; Srivastava, Arpna; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Usha; Goswami, Sandeep; Chawla, Bhavna; Bajaj, Mandeep Singh; Kashyap, Seema; Kaur, Jasbir

    2017-01-01

    AIM To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. METHODS Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC) were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin) were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. RESULTS Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1) expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp) was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy. PMID:29181307

  7. Antiretroviral Resistance in HIV/AIDS Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosuthi, W.; MD

    2018-03-01

    The higher prevalence of HIV drug resistance was observed in areas with greater ART coverage. The HIV resistance-associated mutations occur when people have inadequate levels of antiretroviral drugs as well as inadequate potency, inadequate adherence, and preexisting resistance. The degree to drug cross-resistance is observed depends on the specific mutations and number of mutation accumulation. In the Southeast Asia region, the challenging of people with treatment failure is the availability and accessibility to subsequent new antiretroviral drugs to construct he second and salvage regimen. Genotypic resistance testing is a useful tool because it can identify the existing drug resistance-associated mutations under the selective drug pressure. Thus, understanding the basic interpretation of HIV drug resistance- associated mutation is useful in guiding clinical decisions for treatment-experienced people living with HIV.

  8. Employee resistance and injury during commercial robberies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer; Casteel, Carri; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2015-05-01

    To examine the association between employee resistance and injury and examine whether type or location of property stolen was associated with employee resistance during commercial robberies in a large metropolitan city. Robbery data were abstracted from police crime reports between 2008 and 2012. Log binomial regression models were used to identify predictors of employee resistance and to evaluate the association between employee resistance and injury. Employees resisted a robber in nearly half of all robbery events. Active employee resistance was significantly associated with employee injury (Adj PR: 1.49, 95% confidence interval, 1.34 to 1.65). Goods being stolen were associated with active employee resistance and employee injury, whereas cash only being stolen was inversely associated with employee injury. Results suggest that employee training in nonresistance can be an important strategy in protecting employees working with the exchange of cash and goods.

  9. Understanding The Resistance to Health Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ackah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available User resistance is users’ opposition to system implementation. Resistance often occurs as a result of a mismatch between management goals and employee preferences. There are two types of resistance to health iformation system namely active resistance and passive resistance. The manifestation of active resistance are being critical,  blaming/accusing, blocking, fault finding, sabotaging, undermining, ridiculing, intimidating/threatening, starting rumors, appealing to fear, manipulating arguing, using facts selectively, distorting facts and  raising objections. The manifestation of passive resistance are agreeing verbally but not following through, failing to implement change, procrastinating/dragging feet, feigning ignorance, withholding information, suggestions, help or support, and standing by and allowing the change to fail.

  10. Increasing antibiotic resistance among uropathogens isolated during years 2006-2009: impact on the empirical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mohammad-Jafari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are one of the most common infections with an increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents. PURPOSE: Empirical initial antibiotic treatment of UTI must rely on susceptible data from local studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of isolated bacteria from children with UTIs was performed at the university hospital during years 2006-2009. The findings were compared with data collected in a similar study carried out in 2002- 2003. RESULTS: A total of 1439 uropathogens were isolated. Escherichia coli (E.coli was the leading cause, followed by Enterobacter, and other gram negative bacilli. It was observed resistance of E.coli to ceftriaxone, cefexime, amikacin, gentamycin, and nalidixic acid; Enterobacter to cefexime; and the resistance of gram negative bacilli to gentamicin and cefexime increased significantly. The highest effective antibiotic was Imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and amikacin with 96.7%, 95% and 91% sensitivity rates , respectively, followed by ceftriaxone 77.2%, gentamicin 77%, nitrofurantoin 76.4%, nalidixic acid 74.3% and cefexime with 70%. CONCLUSION: The use of nitrofurantoin or nalidixic acid as initial empirical antibacterial therapy for cystitis seems appropriate. For cases of simple febrile UTI, the use of initial parenteral therapies with amikacin or ceftriaxone followed by an oral third generation cephalosporin also seemed appropriated, and in cases of severely ill patients or complicated UTI, imipenem as monotherapy or, a combination of Ceftriaxone with an aminoglycoside, are recommended.

  11. Equivalent network for resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance versus temperature and composition of thick resistive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusy, A.

    1987-01-01

    Two types of elementary resistances in thick resistive films have been considered: (i) constriction resistance R/sub C/ determined by the bulk properties of conducting material and by the geometry of constriction, and (ii) barrier resistance R/sub B/ determined by the parameters of a thermally activated type of tunneling process and by the geometry of the metal-insulator-metal unit. On this basis a resistance network composed of a large number of the two types of resistances has been defined. The network has been considered as being equivalent to thick resistive film (TRF) from the point of view of the resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). The parameters of this network have been evaluated by the computer-aided approximation of the experimental data found for RuO 2 -based TRFs. On the basis of the equations derived for the network as well as the results of the approximation process, it can be concluded that the small values of the network TCR result from the superposition of the TCR of the conducting component β/sub C/ and of the temperature coefficient of barrier resistance α/sub B/. In this superposition β/sub C/ is attenuated (by 1--2 orders of magnitude), while α/sub B/ is attenuated by only few percentages. The network has been found to be strongly barrier dominated

  12. Influence resistance on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Harits, M.; Bahtiar, Yusuf; Achdan, M. Syahdani; Sunarno, .

    2010-05-01

    Health is an important part of human life. Every person in this world want healthy body, in other words free of any disease. When seeing the pattern of human life today is high activity, always eat instant foods and lack of exercise makes a very bad human health from year to year. Therefore, there is need for the health revolution that can keep human health in order to remain in the condition is always healthy. Eat healthy foods four plus five perfect diligent exercise is the real solution to maintain health. In addition also advisable to always check each month to the doctor so that our health can be controlled. Most people underestimate it, especially the routine checks once a month to the doctor, therefore I created a simple research that aims to get people to mengonytrol health at any time without having to check into the doctor. By utilizing the resistance in the human body's health so we can be controlled. By using a simple tool to measure human resistance by using the concept of the bridge. Bridge circuit used to convert impedance variations into voltage variations. One advantage of this circuit is the voltage produced can vary around 0. This means strengthening can be used to raise the voltage level so as sensitivity to variations in impedance also increases. Another application is the impedance measurement accuracy. The bridge is the simplest and most widely used is the Wheatstone bridge circuit. This circuit is used for signal conditioning applications where a sensor can change the resistance value when the process variable is changed.

  13. Physics of resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igochine, V.

    2012-01-01

    The advanced tokamak regime is a promising candidate for steady-state tokamak operation which is desirable for a fusion reactor. This regime is characterized by a high bootstrap current fraction and a flat or reversed safety factor profile, which leads to operation close to the pressure limit. At this limit, an external kink mode becomes unstable. This external kink is converted into the slowly growing resistive wall mode (RWM) by the presence of a conducting wall. Reduction of the growth rate allows one to act on the mode and to stabilize it. There are two main factors which determine the stability of the RWM. The first factor comes from external magnetic perturbations (error fields, resistive wall, feedback coils, etc). This part of RWM physics is the same for tokamaks and reversed field pinch configurations. The physics of this interaction is relatively well understood and based on classical electrodynamics. The second ingredient of RWM physics is the interaction of the mode with plasma flow and fast particles. These interactions are particularly important for tokamaks, which have higher plasma flow and stronger trapped particle effects. The influence of the fast particles will also be increasingly more important in ITER and DEMO which will have a large fraction of fusion born alpha particles. These interactions have kinetic origins which make the computations challenging since not only particles influence the mode, but also the mode acts on the particles. Correct prediction of the ‘plasma–RWM’ interaction is an important ingredient which has to be combined with external field's influence (resistive wall, error fields and feedback) to make reliable predictions for RWM behaviour in tokamaks. All these issues are reviewed in this paper. (special topic)

  14. Electrical resistivity study of insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liesegang, J.; Senn, B.C.; Holcombe, S.R.; Pigram, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Conventional methods of electrical resistivity measurement of dielectric materials involve the application of electrodes to a sample whereby a potential is applied and a current through the material is measured. Although great care and ingenuity has often been applied to this technique, the recorded values of electrical resistivity (p), especially for insulator materials, show great disparity. In earlier work by the authors, a method for determining surface charge decay [Q(t)], using a coaxial cylindrical capacitor arrangement interfaced to a personal computer, was adapted to allow the relatively straightforward measurement of electrical resistivity in the surface region of charged insulator materials. This method was used to develop an ionic charge transport theory, based on Mott-Gurney diffusion to allow a greater understanding into charge transport behaviour. This theory was extended using numerical analysis to produce a two dimensional (2-D) computational model to allow the direct comparison between experimental and theoretical charge decay data. The work also provided a means for the accurate determination of the diffusion coefficient (D) and the layer of thickness of surface charge (Δz) on the sample. The work outlined here involves an extension of the theoretical approach previously taken, using a computational model based more closely on the 3-D experimental set-up, to reinforce the level of confidence in the results achieved for the simpler 2-D treatment. Initially, a 3-D rectangular box arrangement similar to the experimental set-up was modelled and a theoretical and experimental comparison of voltage decay results made. This model was then transferred into cylindrical coordinates to allow it to be almost identical to the experiment and again a comparison made. In addition, theoretical analysis of the coupled non-linear partial differential equations governing the charge dissipation process has led to a simplification involving directly, the

  15. Persistence of Escherichia coli clones and phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance in recurrent urinary tract infections in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kõljalg, Siiri; Truusalu, Kai; Vainumäe, Inga

    2009-01-01

    . Altogether, 78 urinary E. coli isolates from 27 children, who experienced recurrences during a 1-year follow-up after the first attack of acute pyelonephritis, were investigated. The MICs of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and gentamicin...... and the presence or absence of the intI gene for class 1 integrons and the sulfamethoxazole resistance-encoding genes sul1, sul2, and sul3 were determined. All E. coli strains were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. There were no significant differences in the prevalences of resistance to beta...

  16. Alternative Evolutionary Paths to Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance Cause Distinct Collateral Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Camilo; Trebosc, Vincent; Kemmer, Christian; Rosenstiel, Philip; Beardmore, Robert; Schulenburg, Hinrich; Jansen, Gunther

    2017-09-01

    When bacteria evolve resistance against a particular antibiotic, they may simultaneously gain increased sensitivity against a second one. Such collateral sensitivity may be exploited to develop novel, sustainable antibiotic treatment strategies aimed at containing the current, dramatic spread of drug resistance. To date, the presence and molecular basis of collateral sensitivity has only been studied in few bacterial species and is unknown for opportunistic human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the present study, we assessed patterns of collateral effects by experimentally evolving 160 independent populations of P. aeruginosa to high levels of resistance against eight commonly used antibiotics. The bacteria evolved resistance rapidly and expressed both collateral sensitivity and cross-resistance. The pattern of such collateral effects differed to those previously reported for other bacterial species, suggesting interspecific differences in the underlying evolutionary trade-offs. Intriguingly, we also identified contrasting patterns of collateral sensitivity and cross-resistance among the replicate populations adapted to the same drug. Whole-genome sequencing of 81 independently evolved populations revealed distinct evolutionary paths of resistance to the selective drug, which determined whether bacteria became cross-resistant or collaterally sensitive towards others. Based on genomic and functional genetic analysis, we demonstrate that collateral sensitivity can result from resistance mutations in regulatory genes such as nalC or mexZ, which mediate aminoglycoside sensitivity in β-lactam-adapted populations, or the two-component regulatory system gene pmrB, which enhances penicillin sensitivity in gentamicin-resistant populations. Our findings highlight substantial variation in the evolved collateral effects among replicates, which in turn determine their potential in antibiotic therapy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on

  17. Characterization of Antibiotic Resistance Genes from Lactobacillus Isolated from Traditional Dairy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huiling; Pan, Lin; Li, Lina; Lu, Jie; Kwok, Laiyu; Menghe, Bilige; Zhang, Heping; Zhang, Wenyi

    2017-03-01

    Lactobacilli are widely used as starter cultures or probiotics in yoghurt, cheese, beer, wine, pickles, preserved food, and silage. They are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). However, recent studies have shown that some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains carry antibiotic resistance genes and are resistant to antibiotics. Some of them may even transfer their intrinsic antibiotic resistance genes to other LAB or pathogens via horizontal gene transfer, thus threatening human health. A total of 33 Lactobacillus strains was isolated from fermented milk collected from different areas of China. We analyzed (1) their levels of antibiotic resistance using a standardized dilution method, (2) their antibiotic resistance gene profiles by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using gene-specific primers, and (3) the transferability of some of the detected resistance markers by a filter mating assay. All Lactobacillus strains were found to be resistant to vancomycin, but susceptible to gentamicin, linezolid, neomycin, erythromycin, and clindamycin. Their susceptibilities to tetracycline, kanamycin, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, trimethoprim, ampicillin, rifampicin, and chloramphenicol was different. Results from our PCR analysis revealed 19 vancomycin, 10 ciprofloxacin, and 1 tetracycline-resistant bacteria that carried the van(X), van(E), gyr(A), and tet(M) genes, respectively. Finally, no transferal of the monitored antibiotic resistance genes was observed in the filter mating assay. Taken together, our study generated the antibiotic resistance profiles of some milk-originated lactobacilli isolates and preliminarily assessed their risk of transferring antibiotic gene to other bacteria. The study may provide important data concerning the safe use of LAB. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Fosfomycin Addition to Poly(D,L-Lactide Coating Does Not Affect Prophylaxis Efficacy in Rat Implant-Related Infection Model, But That of Gentamicin Does.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Gulcu

    Full Text Available Gentamicin is the preferred antimicrobial agent used in implant coating for the prevention of implant-related infections (IRI. However, the present heavy local and systemic administration of gentamicin can lead to increased resistance, which has made its future use uncertain, together with related preventive technologies. Fosfomycin is an alternative antimicrobial agent that lacks the cross-resistance presented by other classes of antibiotics. We evaluated the efficacy of prophylaxis of 10% fosfomycin-containing poly(D,L-lactide (PDL coated K-wires in a rat IRI model and compared it with uncoated (Control 1, PDL-coated (Control 2, and 10% gentamicin-containing PDL-coated groups with a single layer of coating. Stainless steel K-wires were implanted and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300 suspensions (103 CFU/10 μl were injected into a cavity in the left tibiae. Thereafter, K-wires were removed and cultured in tryptic soy broth and then 5% sheep blood agar mediums. Sliced sections were removed from the tibiae, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and semi-quantitatively evaluated with X-rays. The addition of fosfomycin into PDL did not affect the X-ray and histopathological evaluation scores; however, the addition of gentamicin lowered them. The addition of gentamicin showed a protective effect after the 28th day of X-ray evaluations. PDL-only coating provided no protection, while adding fosfomycin to PDL offered a 20% level protection and adding gentamicin offered 80%. Furthermore, there were 103 CFU level growths in the gentamicin-added group, while the other groups had 105. Thus, the addition of fosfomycin to PDL does not affect the efficacy of prophylaxis, but the addition of gentamicin does. We therefore do not advise the use of fosfomycin as a single antimicrobial agent in coating for IRI prophylaxis.

  19. Control buildings for blast resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.A.

    1982-08-01

    Offers advice on interior design for blast-resistant control buildings. Suggests that for the comfort and safety of occupants, special attention must be paid to internal finishes and color schemes. Considers external treatment (e.g. panels, cladding fixings, thermal insulation), air intakes and exhausts, internal finishes (e.g. stud lining method), and internal walls and partitions. Presents diagrams showing construction method for a control building; elimination of ''cold bridge'' at eaves level; staggering door openings to minimize blast effects; and flexure of concrete walls without affecting the inner lining.

  20. Caring Labours as Decolonizing Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Hall

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article brings feminist theories of social reproduction in conversation with decolonizing feminisms. It takes up Indigenous women's social reproductive labour as enactments of creative expansion. In approaching social reproduction as a site of struggle, it identifies three processes of expansion and resistance at this site: the expansion of care and intimacy into subsistence production; the expansion of the “family” beyond the nuclear through community and kin networks; and the expansion of relations of care to include the land.

  1. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures

  2. Embrace It or Resist It?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    language policy in one Danish MNC. Drawing on sociolinguistic stancetaking theory and ethnographic methods, the study seeks to understand how contextual factors influence employees’ stances towards the introduction of English as a corporate language. English language competence, the local linguistic...... less about the employee perspective. The article contributes to the field of language in cross-cultural management by exploring when and why corporate language policies encounter resistance among employees. The study uses observational and focus group data to investigate reactions to a new corporate...

  3. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-11-30

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

  4. From resistance to relational inertia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    -network-theory as a point of departure a new concept – relational inertia – is developed. In this view change agents are theorized as translators who interacts with humans as well as non-humans (objects) in order to construct different types of socio-technical systems which are constructed to perform certain “wished...... inertia that had to be handled in order to succeed with constructing a performative socio-technical risk-management system in practice. Finally it is discussed how this view supplements the resistance to change view and other views with a focus on barriers to change....

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Hassan; Williams, Maggie R; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Hashsham, Syed A

    2017-10-01

    This review summarizes selected publications of 2016 with emphasis on occurrence and treatment of antibiotic resistance genes and bacteria in the aquatic environment and wastewater and drinking water treatment plants. The review is conducted with emphasis on fate, modeling, risk assessment and data analysis methodologies for characterizing abundance. After providing a brief introduction, the review is divided into the following four sections: i) Occurrence of AMR in the Environment, ii) Treatment Technologies for AMR, iii) Modeling of Fate, Risk, and Environmental Impact of AMR, and iv) ARG Databases and Pipelines.

  6. Optimization of resistively hardened latches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, G.; Savaria, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The design of digital circuits tolerant to single-event upsets is considered. The results of a study are presented on which an analytical model was used to predict the behavior of a standard resistively hardened latch. It is shown that a worst case analysis for all possible single-event upset situations (on the latch or in the logic) can be derived from studying the effects of a transient disturbed write cycle. The existence of an intrinsic minimum write period to tolerate a transient of a given duration is also demonstrated

  7. Frost resistance of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    materials, has been developed.The importance of the pore structure on the development of stresses in the material during freezing is emphasized. To verify the model, experimental investigations are made on various concretes without air-entrainment and brick tiles with different porosities.Calculations......In this thesis it is shown that the critical degree of saturation is suitable as parameter for the frost resistance of porous building materials. A numerical model for prediction of critical degrees of saturation based on fracture mechanics and phase geometry of two-phase materials, e.g. porous...

  8. Antimicrobial resistance and phylogenetic groups in isolates of Escherichia coli from seagulls at the Berlengas nature reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhouani, H; Poeta, P; Igrejas, G; Gonçalves, A; Vinué, L; Torres, C

    2009-08-01

    Fifty-three faecal samples from yellow-legged gulls (Larus cachinnans) at the Berlengas nature reserve in Portugal were cultured on Levine agar plates not supplemented with antimicrobial agents, and one Escherichia coli colony was isolated and identified from each sample. The percentages of resistant isolates for each of the drugs were ampicillin (43.4 per cent), tetracycline (39.6 per cent), nalidixic acid (34.0 per cent), streptomycin (32.1 per cent), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (26.4 per cent), ciprofloxacin (18.9 per cent), chloramphenicol (18.9 per cent), gentamicin (7.5 per cent), tobramycin (7.5 per cent) amikacin (5.7 per cent) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (1.9 per cent). All the isolates were susceptible to cefoxitin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, aztreonam and imipenem. The following resistance genes were detected: bla(TEM) (17 of 23 ampicillin-resistant isolates), tet(A) and/or tet(B) (18 of 21 tetracycline-resistant isolates), aadA (12 of 17 streptomycin-resistant isolates), cmlA (all chloramphenicol-resistant isolates), aac(3)-II with or without aac(3)-IV (all four gentamicin-resistant isolates), and sul1 and/or sul2 and/or sul3 (all 14 SXT-resistant isolates). The intI1 gene was detected in 10 of 14 SXT-resistant isolates, and three of them also contained class 2 integrons; four different gene cassette arrangements were identified among class 1 integrons (aadA, dfrA1+aadA1, dfrA12+orfF+aadA2 and sat+psp+aadA2) and one among the class 2 integrons (dfrA1+sat+aadA1). Ninety per cent of the isolates were included in the A or B1 phylogenetic groups.

  9. Phenotypic and genotypic profiling of antimicrobial resistance in enteric Escherichia coli communities isolated from finisher pigs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M G; Jordan, D; Gibson, J S; Cobbold, R N; Chapman, T A; Abraham, S; Trott, D J

    2016-10-01

    To assess herd-to-herd variation in antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and associated antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in faecal commensal Escherichia coli communities isolated from Australian slaughter-age pigs. Hydrophobic grid-membrane filtration (HGMF) was used to screen populations of E. coli isolated from faecal samples obtained from pigs prior to or at slaughter. Multiplex PCRs were applied to the pooled DNA extracted from the samples to identify specific ARGs. Pooled faecal samples from 30 finishers, from 72 different Australian pig farms, produced 5003 isolates for screening. HGMF techniques and image analysis were used to confirm E. coli resistance phenotypes to four antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, gentamicin, florfenicol and ceftiofur) using selective agars. Multiplex PCRs were performed on DNA from pooled samples for 35 ARGs associated with seven chemical classes. The prevalence of E. coli isolates showing no resistance to any of the drugs was 50.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 41.8-58.6%). Ceftiofur resistance was very low (1.8%; CI 0.8-3.9%) and no ARGs associated with 3rd-generation cephalosporin resistance were detected. By contrast, ampicillin (29.4%, CI 22.8-37.0%), florfenicol (24.3%, CI 17.8-32.3%) and gentamicin (CI 17.5%, 10.7-27.2%) resistance prevalence varied greatly between farms and associated ARGs were common. The most common combined resistance phenotype was ampicillin-florfenicol. The use of registered antimicrobials in Australian pigs leads to the enteric commensal populations acquiring associated ARGs. However, despite a high intensity of sampling, ARGs imparting resistance to the critically important 3rd-generation cephalosporins were not detected. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Alternating Mupirocin/Gentamicin is Associated with Increased Risk of Fungal Peritonitis as Compared with Gentamicin Alone - Results of a Randomized Open-Label Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ping-Nam; Tong, Gensy M W; Wong, Yuk-Yi; Lo, Kin-Yee; Chan, Shuk-Fan; Lo, Man-Wai; Lo, Kwok-Chi; Ho, Lo-Yi; Tse, Cindy W S; Mak, Siu-Ka; Wong, Andrew K M

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Catheter-related infection, namely exit-site infection (ESI) and peritonitis, is a major infectious complication and remains a main cause of technique failure for patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD). Topical application of antibiotic cream might reduce catheter-related infection but emergence of resistant or opportunistic organisms could be a concern. Optimal topical agents and regimens remain to be determined. We did a study to examine the effect of an alternating topical antibiotic regimen in preventing catheter-related infection. ♦ We performed a single-center, randomized, open-label study to compare daily topical application of gentamicin cream with a gentamicin/mupirocin alternate regimen to the exit site. Patients randomized to alternating regimen were asked to have daily application of gentamicin cream in odd months and mupirocin cream in even months. Primary outcomes were ESI and peritonitis. Secondary outcomes were catheter removal or death caused by catheter-related infection. A total of 146 patients (71, gentamicin group; 75, alternating regimen group) were enrolled with a total follow-up duration of 174 and 181 patient-years for gentamicin and alternating groups, respectively. All patients were followed up until catheter removal, death, transfer to another unit, transplantation or the end of the study on March 31, 2014. There were no significant differences in the age, sex, dialysis vintage, and rate of diabetes, helper-assisted dialysis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage state. ♦ No difference was seen in the time to first ESI or peritonitis. However, the time to first gram-negative peritonitis seemed longer for the gentamicin group (p = 0.055). The 2 groups showed a similar rate of ESI (0.17/yr vs 0.19/yr, p = 0.93) but P. aeruginosa ESI was less common in the gentamicin group (0.06/yr vs 0.11/yr, p Peritonitis rate was significantly lower in the gentamicin group (0.22/yr vs 0.32/yr, p peritonitis (0.08/yr

  11. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in enterococci from wild game meat in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Ramos, Emilia; Cordero, Jorge; Molina-González, Diana; Poeta, Patrícia; Igrejas, Gilberto; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Capita, Rosa

    2016-02-01

    A total of 55 enterococci (45 Enterococcus faecium, 7 Enterococcus faecalis, and three Enterococcus durans) isolated from the meat of wild game animals (roe deer, boar, rabbit, pheasant, and pigeon) in North-Western Spain were tested for susceptibility to 14 antimicrobials by the disc diffusion method. All strains showed a multi-resistant phenotype (resistance to between three and 10 antimicrobials). The strains exhibited high percentages of resistance to erythromycin (89.1%), tetracycline (67.3%), ciprofloxacin (92.7%), nitrofurantoin (67.3%), and quinupristin-dalfopristin (81.8%). The lowest values (9.1%) were observed for high-level resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, and streptomycin. The average number of resistances per strain was 5.8 for E. faecium isolates, 7.9 for E. faecalis, and 5.7 for E. durans. Genes encoding antimicrobial resistance and virulence were studied by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 15 (57.7%) of the 26 vancomycin-resistant isolates harboured the vanA gene. Other resistance genes detected included vanB, erm(B) and/or erm(C), tet(L) and/or tet(M), acc(6')-aph(2″), and aph(3')-IIIa in strains resistant to vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, and kanamycin, respectively. Specific genes of the Tn5397 transposon were detected in 54.8% of the tet(M)-positive enterococci. Nine virulence factors (gelE, agg, ace, cpd, frs, esp, hyl, efaAfs and efaAfm) were studied. All virulence genes, with the exception of the frs gene, were found to be present in the enterococcal isolates. At least one virulence gene was detected in 20.0% of E. faecium, 71.4% of E. faecalis and 33.3% of E. durans isolates, with ace and cpd being the most frequently detected genes (6 isolates each). This suggests that wild game meat might play a role in the spreading through the food chain of enterococci with antimicrobial resistance and virulence determinants to humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High Mortality from Blood Stream Infection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Is Due to Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teshale Seboxa

    Full Text Available Managing blood stream infection in Africa is hampered by lack of bacteriological support needed for antimicrobial stewardship, and background data needed for empirical treatment. A combined pro- and retrospective approach was used to overcome thresholds in clinical research in Africa.Outcome and characteristics including age, HIV infection, pancytopenia and bacteriological results were studied in 292 adult patients with two or more SIRS criteria using univariate and confirming multivariate logistic regression models. Expected randomly distributed resistance covariation was compared with observed co-resistance among gram-negative enteric bacteria in 92 paediatric blood culture isolates that had been harvested in the same hospital during the same period of time.Mortality was fivefold increased among patients with positive blood culture results [50.0% vs. 9.8%; OR 11.24 (4.38-25.88, p < 0.0001], and for this group of patients mortality was significantly associated with antimicrobial resistance [OR 23.28 (3.3-164.4, p = 0.002]. All 11 patients with Enterobacteriaceae resistant to 3rd. generation cephalosporins died. Eighty-nine patients had pancytopenia grade 3-4. Among patients with negative blood culture results, mortality was significantly associated with pancytopenia [OR 3.12 (1.32-7.39, p = 0.01]. HIV positivity was not associated with increased mortality. Antimicrobial resistance that concerned gram-negative enteric bacteria, regardless of species, was characterized by co-resistance between third generation cephalosporins, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and co-trimoxazole.Mortality was strongly associated with growth of bacteria resistant to empirical treatment, and these patients were dead or dying when bacteriological reports arrived. Because of co-resistance, alternative efficient antibiotics would not have been available in Ethiopia for 8/11 Enterobacteriaceae-infected patients with isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporins

  13. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from roof-harvested rainwater tanks and urban pigeon faeces as the likely source of contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidamba, Lizyben; Korsten, Lise

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the risks associated with the use of roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) and the implication of pigeons as the most likely source of contamination by testing for antibiotic resistance profiles of Escherichia coli. A total of 239 E. coli were isolated from thirty fresh pigeon faecal samples (130 isolates), 11 RHRW tanks from three sites in Pretoria (78) and two in Johannesburg (31). E. coli isolates were tested against a panel of 12 antibiotics which included ampicillin, amoxicillin, amikacin, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline. In all samples, resistance to ampicillin (22.7.9%), gentamicin (23.6%), amikacin (24%), tetracycline (17.4) and amoxicillin (16.9%) were the most frequently encountered form of resistance. However, a relatively higher proportion of isolates from pigeon faeces (67.3%) were antibiotic resistant than those from RHRW (53.3%). The highest number of phenotypes was observed for single antibiotics, and no single antibiotic resistance was observed for chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, cefoxitin, cotrimoxazole, although they were detected in multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) phenotypes. The highest multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) phenotypes were observed for a combination of four antibiotics, on isolates from JHB (18.8%), pigeon faeces (15.2%) and Pretoria (5.1%). The most abundant resistance phenotype to four antibiotics, Ak-Gm-Cip-T was dominated by isolates from pigeon faeces (6.8%) with Pretoria and Johannesburg isolates having low proportions of 1.3 and 3.1%, respectively. Future studies should target isolates from various environmental settings in which rainwater harvesting is practiced and the characterisation of the antibiotic resistance determinant genes among the isolates.

  14. Bedaquiline resistance: Its emergence, mechanism and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Van Anh; Anthony, Richard M; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Vu, Dinh Hoa; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2017-11-08

    Bedaquiline, a new anti-tuberculosis drug, has already been used in more than 50 countries. The emergence of bedaquiline resistance is alarming, as it may result in the rapid loss of this new drug. This paper aims to review currently identified mechanisms of resistance, the emergence of bedaquiline resistance, and discuss strategies to delay the resistance acquisition. In vitro and clinical studies as well as reports from the compassionate use have identified the threat of bedaquiline resistance and cross-resistance with clofazimine, emphasizing the crucial need for the systematic surveillance of resistance. Currently known mechanisms of resistance include mutations within the atpE, Rv0678 and pepQ genes. The development of standardized drug susceptibility testing (DST) for bedaquiline is urgently needed.Understanding any target and non-target based mechanisms is essential to minimize the resistance development and treatment failure, help to develop appropriate DST for bedaquiline and genetic based resistance screening. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Antibiotic resistance increases with local temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFadden, Derek R.; McGough, Sarah F.; Fisman, David; Santillana, Mauricio; Brownstein, John S.

    2018-06-01

    Bacteria that cause infections in humans can develop or acquire resistance to antibiotics commonly used against them1,2. Antimicrobial resistance (in bacteria and other microbes) causes significant morbidity worldwide, and some estimates indicate the attributable mortality could reach up to 10 million by 20502-4. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is believed to develop largely under the selective pressure of antibiotic use; however, other factors may contribute to population level increases in antibiotic resistance1,2. We explored the role of climate (temperature) and additional factors on the distribution of antibiotic resistance across the United States, and here we show that increasing local temperature as well as population density are associated with increasing antibiotic resistance (percent resistant) in common pathogens. We found that an increase in temperature of 10 °C across regions was associated with an increases in antibiotic resistance of 4.2%, 2.2%, and 2.7% for the common pathogens Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. The associations between temperature and antibiotic resistance in this ecological study are consistent across most classes of antibiotics and pathogens and may be strengthening over time. These findings suggest that current forecasts of the burden of antibiotic resistance could be significant underestimates in the face of a growing population and climate change4.

  16. Antibiotic Resistance in Childhood with Pneumococcal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gunes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Resistance to antibiotics is better. Between should not be in capitals. Antibiotics resistant has been increasing in pneumococci that cause serious diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis in recent years. The resistance rates vary between geographic regions. In this study, we aimed to determine antibiotic resistance rates in pneumococcal infections in our region. Material and Method: This study included 31 pneumococcal strains isolated from blood, CSF and urine samples of patients with meningitis, sepsis and urinary tract infections who admitted Dicle University Medicine School Children Clinic and Diyarbakir Pediatric Hospital Between December 2004-April 2007. Reproducing clinical specimens with alpha-hemolysis, optochin-sensitive, bile soluble and gram-positive diplococci morphology was defined as S. pneumoniae. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of strains were measured by the E-test method. MIC values of penicillin against pneumococci was accepted as <0.06 mg / ml value of the sensitive, 0.12-1μg/ml mid-level resistance, ≥ 2 mg / ml value of the high-level resistance. Results: It was found 16% mid-level penicillin resistance and 3.2% high-level penicillin resistance by E-test method. 80.7% of Strains were percent of the penicillin-sensitive. Seftiriakson resistance was found as 3.2%. there was not Vancomycin resistance. Discussion: We think penicillin therapy is enough effective for pneumococcal infections except serious conditions such as meningitis and sepsis. Also we think it should be supported by multicenter studies.

  17. Glyphosate-Resistant Goosegrass from Mississippi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Nandula

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A suspected glyphosate-resistant goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn.] population, found in Washington County, Mississippi, was studied to determine the level of resistance and whether the resistance was due to a point mutation, as was previously identified in a Malaysian population. Whole plant dose response assays indicated a two- to four-fold increase in resistance to glyphosate. Leaf disc bioassays based on a glyphosate-dependent increase in shikimate levels indicated a five- to eight-fold increase in resistance. Sequence comparisons of messenger RNA for epsps, the gene encoding the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, from resistant and sensitive goosegrass, revealed a cytosine to thymine nucleotide change at position 319 in the resistant accessions. This single nucleotide polymorphism causes a proline to serine amino acid substitution at position 106 in 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase. A real-time polymerase chain reaction assay using DNA probes specific for the nucleotide change at position 319 was developed to detect this polymorphism. Goosegrass from 42 locations were screened, and the results indicated that glyphosate-resistant goosegrass remained localized to where it was discovered. Pendimethalin, s-metolachlor, clethodim, paraquat and fluazifop controlled resistant goosegrass 93% to 100%, indicating that several control options for glyphosate-resistant goosegrass are available.

  18. Shhhhhh, The Dragon Is Asleep, and Its Name Is Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janas, Monica

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the effect of resistance on educational change, offering three steps for managing resistance (being aware of resistance, identifying sources and types of resistance, and developing and applying proactive strategies for managing resistance). Two sidebars describe 10 techniques to turn resistance into productive effort and discuss how to…

  19. Embodied Resistance to Persuasion in Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinski, Peter; Fransen, Marieke L.; Tan, Ed S.

    2016-01-01

    From the literature on resistance to persuasion in advertising, much is known about how people can resist advertising by adopting resistance strategies, such as avoidance, counter-arguing, and selective attention (e.g., Fransen et al., 2015b). However, the role of emotion regulation and bodily expression in resisting persuasion is so far underexplored. This is a surprising observation if one considers that at least 40% of advertisements use positive emotions (i.e., happiness) to persuade people to like the ad, brand, and product (Weinberger et al., 1995). In this article we present a framework in which we apply previous knowledge and theories on emotion regulation and embodiment to the process of resistance to persuasion. In doing so, we specifically address the role of facial expression in the course of resistance. The literature and findings from our own research lead us to propose that people can resist persuasion by controlling their facial expression of emotion when exposed to an advertisement. Controlling the expression of emotions elicited by an ad (for example refusing to smile) might be a fruitful way to resist the ad’s persuasive potential. Moreover, we argue that co-viewers can affect embodied resistance to persuasion. Showing the viability of embodied resistance to persuasion is relevant in view of the fact that ads trying to persuade us by addressing our positive emotions are ubiquitous. Embodied resistance might help people to cope with these induced positive emotions in order to resist advertisements and might therefore work as a novel and effective strategy to resist persuasion. PMID:27574512

  20. The determinants of the antibiotic resistance process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Espinosa Franco

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Espinosa Franco1, Marina Altagracia Martínez2, Martha A Sánchez Rodríguez1, Albert I Wertheimer31Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza (UNAM, Mexico; 2Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico; 3Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USABackground: The use of antibiotic drugs triggers a complex interaction involving many biological, sociological, and psychological determinants. Resistance to antibiotics is a serious worldwide problem which is increasing and has implications for morbidity, mortality, and health care both in hospitals and in the community.Objectives: To analyze current research on the determinants of antibiotic resistance and comprehensively review the main factors in the process of resistance in order to aid our understanding and assessment of this problem.Methods: We conducted a MedLine search using the key words “determinants”, “antibiotic”, and “antibiotic resistance” to identify publications between 1995 and 2007 on the determinants of antibiotic resistance. Publications that did not address the determinants of antibiotic resistance were excluded.Results: The process and determinants of antibiotic resistance are described, beginning with the development of antibiotics, resistance and the mechanisms of resistance, sociocultural determinants of resistance, the consequences of antibiotic resistance, and alternative measures proposed to combat antibiotic resistance.Conclusions: Analysis of the published literature identified the main determinants of antibiotic resistance as irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animal species, insufficient patient education when antibiotics are prescribed, lack of guidelines for treatment and control of infections, lack of scientific information for physicians on the rational use of antibiotics, and lack of official government policy on the rational use of antibiotics in public and private hospitals.Keywords: antibiotic drug resistance