WorldWideScience

Sample records for resistance factor spectinomycin

  1. Ribosomal Resistance to Streptomycin and Spectinomycin in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maness, Michael J.; Foster, Gayle C.; Sparling, P. Frederick

    1974-01-01

    A cell-free protein synthesizing system was used to study the mechanism of resistance to streptomycin (Str) and spectinomycin (Spc) in laboratory mutants and clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The 70S ribosomes from sensitive strains were sensitive to the effects of Str and Spc on synthesis directed by several synthetic polynucleotide messengers, whereas 70S ribosomes from resistant strains were resistant to these same effects. In each case, the alteration was localized to the 30S ribosomal subunit by studying antibiotic sensitivities of hybrid 70S ribosomes formed by combining subunits from sensitive and resistant strains. No evidence was found for streptomycin- or spectinomycin-inactivating enzymes. PMID:4279906

  2. Aminomethyl spectinomycins as therapeutics for drug-resistant gonorrhea and chlamydial co-infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michelle M; Waidyarachchi, Samanthi L; Connolly, Kristie L; Jerse, Ann E; Chai, Weirui; Lee, Richard E; Kohlhoff, Stephan A; Shinabarger, Dean L; Bowlin, Terry L

    2018-02-26

    Bacterial sexually transmitted infections are widespread and common, with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea) and Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) being the two most frequent causes. If left untreated, both infections can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, ectopic pregnancy and other sequelae. The recommended treatment for gonorrhea is ceftriaxone plus azithromycin (to empirically treat chlamydial co-infections). Antibiotic resistance to all existing therapies has developed in gonorrheal infections. The need for new antibiotics is great and the pipeline for new drugs is alarmingly small. The aminomethyl spectinomycins, a new class of semisynthetic analogs of the antibiotic, spectinomycin, were developed on the basis of a computational analysis of the spectinomycin binding site of the bacterial 30S ribosome and structure-guided synthesis. The compounds display particular potency against common respiratory tract pathogens as well as the sexually transmitted pathogens that cause gonorrhea and chlamydia. Here we demonstrate the in vitro potencies of several compounds of this class against both bacterial species; the compounds displayed increased potencies against N. gonorrhoeae compared to spectinomycin and, significantly, demonstrated activity against C. trachomatis that is not observed with spectinomycin. Efficacies of the compounds were compared to that of spectinomycin and gentamicin in a murine model of infection caused by ceftriaxone/azithromycin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae ; the aminomethyl spectinomycins significantly reduced the colonization load and were as potent as the comparator compounds. In summary, data produced by this study support aminomethyl spectinomycins as a promising replacement for spectinomycin and antibiotics such as ceftriaxone for treating drug-resistant gonorrhea, with the added benefit of treating chlamydial co-infections. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Mutation in ribosomal protein S5 leads to spectinomycin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eIlina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Spectinomycin remains a useful reserve option for therapy of gonorrhea. The emergence of multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with decreased susceptibility to cefixime and to ceftriaxone makes it the only medicine still effective for treatment of gonorrhea infection in analogous cases. However, adoption of spectinomycin as a routinely used drug of choice was soon followed by reports of spectinomycin resistance. The main molecular mechanism of spectinomycin resistance in N. gonorrhoeae was C1192T substitution in 16S rRNA genes. Here we reported a Thr-24→Pro mutation in ribosomal protein S5 found in spectinomycin resistant clinical N. gonorrhoeae strain, which carried no changes in 16S rRNA. In a series of experiments, the transfer of rpsE gene allele encoding the mutant ribosomal protein S5 to the recipient N. gonorrhoeae strains was analyzed. The relatively high rate of transformation (ca. 10-5 CFUs indicates the possibility of spread of spectinonycin resistance within gonococcal population due to the horizontal gene transfer.

  4. Versatile nourseothricin and streptomycin/spectinomycin resistance gene cassettes and their use in chromosome integration vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Stephanie S; Mladinich, Katherine M; Boonyakanog, Angkana; Mima, Takehiko; Karkhoff-Schweizer, RoxAnn R; Schweizer, Herbert P

    2016-10-01

    An obstacle for the development of genetic systems for many bacteria is the limited number of antibiotic selection markers, especially for bacteria that are intrinsically antibiotic resistant or where utilization of such markers is strictly regulated. Here we describe the development of versatile cassettes containing nourseothricin, streptomycin/spectinomycin, and spectinomycin selection markers. The antibiotic resistance genes contained on these cassettes are flanked by loxP sites with allow their in vivo excision from the chromosome of target bacteria using Cre recombinase. The respective selection marker cassettes were used to derive mini-Tn7 elements that can be used for single-copy insertion of genes into bacterial chromosomes. The utility of the selection markers was tested by insertion of the resulting mini-Tn7 elements into the genomes of Burkholderia thailandensis and B. pseudomallei efflux pump mutants susceptible to aminoglycosides, aminocyclitols, and streptothricins, followed by Cre-mediated antibiotic resistance marker excision. The versatile nourseothricin, streptomycin/spectinomycin and spectinomycin resistance loxP cassette vectors described here extend the repertoire of antibiotic selection markers for genetic manipulation of diverse bacteria that are susceptible to aminoglycosides and aminocyclitols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel streptomycin and spectinomycin resistance gene as a gene cassette within a class 1 integron isolated from Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvang, D.

    1999-01-01

    The aadA genes, encoding resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin, have been found as gene cassettes in different gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species. The present study has revealed the sequence of a new gene, aadA5, integrated as a gene cassette together with the trimethoprim...... resistance gene dfr7 in a class 1 integron. The integron was located on a plasmid and was identified in a pathogenic porcine Escherichia coli isolate....

  6. Novel Streptomycin and Spectinomycin Resistance Gene as a Gene Cassette within a Class 1 Integron Isolated from Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvang, Dorthe

    1999-01-01

    The aadA genes, encoding resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin, have been found as gene cassettes in different gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species. The present study has revealed the sequence of a new gene, aadA5, integrated as a gene cassette together with the trimethoprim resistance gene dfr7 in a class 1 integron. The integron was located on a plasmid and was identified in a pathogenic porcine Escherichia coli isolate. PMID:10582907

  7. Determinants of virulence and of resistance to ceftiofur, gentamicin, and spectinomycin in clinical Escherichia coli from broiler chickens in Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Gabhan; Cormier, Ashley C; Nadeau, Marie; Côté, Geneviève; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Boerlin, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    Antimicrobials are frequently used for the prevention of avian colibacillosis, with gentamicin used for this purpose in Québec until 2003. Ceftiofur was also used similarly, but voluntarily withdrawn in 2005 due to increasing resistance. Spectinomycin-lincomycin was employed as a replacement, but ceftiofur use was partially reinstated in 2007 until its definitive ban by the poultry industry in 2014. Gentamicin resistance frequency increased during the past decade in clinical Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens in Québec, despite this antimicrobial no longer being used. Since this increase coincided with the use of spectinomycin-lincomycin, co-selection of gentamicin resistance through spectinomycin was suspected. Therefore, relationships between spectinomycin, gentamicin, and ceftiofur resistance determinants were investigated here. The distribution of 13 avian pathogenic E. coli virulence-associated genes and their association with spectinomycin resistance were also assessed. A sample of 586 E. coli isolates from chickens with colibacillosis in Québec between 2009 and 2013 was used. The major genes identified for resistance to ceftiofur, gentamicin, and spectinomycin were bla CMY , aac(3)-VI, and aadA, respectively. The aadA and aac(3)-VI genes were strongly associated and shown to be located on a modified class 1 integron. The aadA and bla CMY genes were negatively associated, but when present together, were generally located on the same plasmids. No statistical positive association was observed between aadA and virulence genes, and virulence genes were only rarely detected on plasmids encoding spectinomycin resistance. Thus, the use of spectinomycin-lincomycin may likely select for gentamicin but not ceftiofur resistance, nor for any of the virulence-associated genes investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevention of swine dysentery with a combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin and resistance of swine dysentery to tylosin and sodium arsanilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, L D; Rodabaugh, D E

    1976-07-01

    The addition of a combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin to feed at the total concentrations of 44 and 77 mg/kg, beginning at the time of exposure and continuing for 8 weeks, prevented experimentally induced swine dysentery in swine. The disease did not develop after the medication was withdrawn. In contrast, swine dysentery, similar to that seen in the nonmedicated swine, did develop in simultaneously exposed swine treated with feed containing either 44 mg of tylosin or 99 mg sodium arsanilate/kg. The swine fed sodium arsanilate and which developed hemorrhagic diarrhea had a more severe form of this type of diarrhea than did the nonmedicated swine. After reexposure to inefective inoculum of swine dysentery 86 days after initial exposure, all remaining swine previously medicated with either tylosin or sodium arsanilate and all nonmedicated swine were immune; whereas 17 of the 24 swine fed the combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin were susceptible to swine dysentery and developed diarrhea.

  9. The ancient small mobilizable plasmid pALWED1.8 harboring a new variant of the non-cassette streptomycin/spectinomycin resistance gene aadA27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakov, Anton; Mindlin, Sofia; Beletsky, Alexey; Shcherbatova, Natalya; Rakitin, Andrey; Ermakova, Aleksandra; Mardanov, Andrey; Petrova, Mayya

    2016-01-01

    The small mobilizable plasmid pALWED1.8 containing a novel variant of the streptomycin/spectinomycin resistance gene aadA27 was isolated from the permafrost strains of Acinetobacter lwoffii. The 4135bp plasmid carries mobА and mobC genes that mediate its mobilization by conjugative plasmids. The nucleotide sequences of mobА and mobC are similar to those of mobilization genes of the modern plasmid pRAY* and its variants, which contain aadB gene, and are widespread among the pathogenic strains of Acinetobacter baumannii. Almost identical pALWED1.8 variants were detected in modern environmental Аcinetobacter strains. A highly similar plasmid was revealed in a strain of Acinetobacter parvus isolated from mouse intestine. Furthermore, we discovered six previously unidentified variants of plasmids related to pALWED1.8 and pRAY* in public databases. In contrast to most known variants of aadA which are cassette genes associated with integrons, the aadA27 variant harbored by pALWED1.8 is a non-cassette, autonomously transcribed gene. Non-cassette aadA genes with 96% sequence identity to aadA27 were detected in the chromosomes of Acinetobacter gyllenbergii and several uncharacterized strains of Аcinetobacter sp. Moreover, we revealed that the autonomous aadA-like genes are present in the chromosomes of many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of all identified AadA proteins showed the following: (i) cassette aadA genes form a separate monophyletic group and mainly reside on plasmids and (ii) chromosomal non-cassette aadA genes are extremely diverse and can be inherited both vertical and via horizontal gene transfer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and allometric analysis of spectinomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dinev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study were compared microbiological and HPLC methods for determination of spectinomycin pharmacokinetics in goats. The goats were subject to intravenous administration of spectinomycin at 20 mg/kg body weight. For the microbiological assay was used test microorganism Sarcina lutea ATCC 9341. Limit of quantification in the microbiological assay was 6.25 μg/mL and in the HPLC method was 0.1 μg/mL. Spectinomycin concentrations following microbiological assay were initially higher than HPLC-determined and gradually the differences decreased. During HPLC analysis spectinomycin was found until 12 h and during microbiological assay until 4 h. As a result in HPLC analysis the values of Vd(area (0.527 L/kg , t1/2β (1.74 h and ClB (3.512 mL/kg/min were considerably higher in comparison with microbiological method (Vd(area - 0.147 L/kg , t1/2β - 0.8 h and ClB - 2.174 mL/kg/min. The data from method validation also showed the advantage of HPLC method. Because of that can be concluded that HPLC is more sensitive and accurate method for spectinomycin determination. Regarding the allometric equation for elimination half-life (t1/2 = 1.19.W0.02 the values are showing lack of correlation to body weight. Volume of distribution allometric equation (Vd(area = 0.37.W0.96 and total body clearance allometric equation (ClB = 1.92.W1.09 have high level of correlation to body weight (<0.001 and therefore can be used.

  11. 21 CFR 520.2123c - Spectinomycin solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spectinomycin solution. 520.2123c Section 520.2123c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains spectinomycin dihydrochloride...

  12. Bactericidal Action of Streptomycin and Comparison with Spectinomycin in Heterozygotes of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, P. Frederick; Davis, Bernard D.

    1972-01-01

    Strs/strr heterozygotes of Escherichia coli K-12 are shown to be sensitive to the lethal as well as the inhibitory action of streptomycin. The rate of killing was lower in heterozygotes than in sensitive homozygotes, and among heterozygotes it was lower in those with a higher proportion of resistant ribosomes. These strains also differed, in a parallel manner, in the kinetics of inhibition of growth and protein synthesis by streptomycin. Similar results were obtained with spectinomycin and corresponding merodiploid strains. Since spectinomycin is purely bacteriostatic and stabilizes polysomes, it must block resistant ribosomes behind inhibited sensitive ribosomes; hence, these results are consistent with an initial similar polysomal blockade by streptomycin. However, since streptomycin causes gradual polysome breakdown, its dominant lethal action must involve some mechanism other than a permanent polysomal blockade. PMID:4261554

  13. 21 CFR 520.2123a - Spectinomycin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2123a Spectinomycin tablets... use in dogs—(1) Amount. Administer orally to provide 10 mg per pound (lb) of body weight twice daily...

  14. An innovation resistance factor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Salwa Mohd Ishak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The process and implementation strategy of information technology in construction is generally considered through the limiting prism of theoretical contexts generated from innovation diffusion and acceptance. This research argues that more attention should be given to understanding the positive effects of resistance. The study develops a theoretical framing for the Integrated Resistance Factor Model (IRFM. The framing uses a combination of diffusion of innovation theory, technology acceptance model and social network perspective. The model is tested to identify the most significant resistance factors using Partial Least Square (PLS technique. All constructs proposed in the model are found to be significant, valid and consistent with the theoretical framework. IRFM is shown to be an effective and appropriate model of user resistance factors. The most critical factors to influence technology resistance in the online project information management system (OPIMS context are: support from leaders and peers, complexity of the technology, compatibility with key work practices; and pre-trial of the technology before it is actually deployed. The study provides a new model for further research in technology innovation specific to the construction industry.

  15. Behavioral and socioeconomic risk factors associated with probable resistance to ceftriaxone and resistance to penicillin and tetracycline in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Shanghai.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly A Trecker

    Full Text Available Globally, incidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is once again the highest of the bacterial sexually transmitted infections. The bacterium can produce serious complications in those infected, and emerging resistance to third generation cephalosporins could usher in an era of potentially untreatable gonorrhea. This research aimed to identify risk factors for antibiotic resistant gonorrhea infection among clients at a Shanghai sexually transmitted infection clinic over two time periods, 2004-2005 and 2008-2011. Demographic and risk factor behavior data, and biological samples for antimicrobial resistance analysis, were collected. Statistical models were built to identify risk factors associated with probable resistance to ceftriaxone and resistance to penicillin and tetracycline. High levels of ciprofloxacin resistance (98% in our sample precluded examining its risk factors; all isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin. Overall (P<0.001, chromosomal (P<0.001, and plasmid-mediated (P = 0.01 penicillin resistance decreased from the first to second period of the study. For tetracycline, chromosomal resistance decreased (P = 0.01 and plasmid-mediated resistance increased (P<0.001 between the first and second periods of study. In multi-level multivariable regression models, male gender (P = 0.03 and older age (P = 0.01 were associated with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations to ceftriaxone. Male gender (P = 0.03 and alcohol use (P = 0.02 were associated with increased odds of overall tetracycline resistance. Male gender was associated with increased odds of chromosomally-mediated tetracycline resistance (P = 0.04, and alcohol use was associated with increased odds of plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance (P = 0.02. Additionally, individuals in middle-salary categories were found to have lower odds of plasmid-mediated resistance to tetracycline compared with those in the lowest salary category (P≤0

  16. Enhancement of resistance to aphids by introducing the snowdrop ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ... there is a spectinomycin-resistance gene (SpecR) for the selection of the Agrobacterium tumefa- ciens by spectinomycin. CAT-1 is a modified version of the castor bean catalase gene intron; NOS is a nopaline synthase terminator sequence; LB and RB mean the left and right T-. DNA border sequences respectively. *Apa I ...

  17. Review of resistance factor for steel: resistance distributions and resistance factor calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, B.J.; Bartlett, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the Canadian steel industry warrant a review of the steel resistance factor in CSA Standard S16 (formerly S16.1) 'Limit states design of steel structures', originally calibrated in the landmark study by Kennedy and Gad Aly in 1980. This paper presents statistical parameters for the bending, compression, and tension resistances of W, WWF, and HSS components produced since 1999 that have been derived from geometric and material properties presented in a companion paper. The resistance factor for steel was recalibrated for the live and dead load combination in the 1995 National Building Code of Canada. A resistance factor of 0.95 is suitable for laterally supported beams, stocky columns, and tension members failing by yield of the gross section, whereas the current value of 0.90 is appropriate for intermediate columns and tension members failing by fracture of the net section. (author)

  18. Staphylococcus aureus: resistance pattern and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized and once when they were discharged. Almost 48 h after admission, when patients were discharged, social and medical histories were acquired. Acquired samples were examined. Results: During the present study of 475 patients, 108 patients (22.8% had S. aureus. About frequency of antibiotic resistance among collected S. aureus colonies, erythromycin resistance, was the most frequent antibiotic resistance, also resistance to vancomycin was 0.4% that was the least. Only hospitalization duration had statistically significant correlation with antibiotic resistance, also resistance to erythromycin had statistically significant relation with history of surgery and alcohol consumption. Of all 34 MRSA species, 22 (64.7% samples were resistant to erythromycin, 17 (50.0% resistant to cefoxitin, 5 (14.7% resistant to mupirocin, 1 (2.9% resistant to vancomycin and 1 (2.9% resistant to linezolid. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that among hospitalized patients, there is resistance against methicillin. Since based on results of the study there is resistance against oxacillin and erythromycin in most cases, administering appropriate antibiotics have an important role in minimizing the resistance burden among bacterial species.

  19. R plasmid with carbadox resistance from Escherichia coli of porcine origin.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmae, K; Yonezawa, S; Terakado, N

    1981-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates of porcine fecal origin from a farm where the antibacterial agent carbadox was used were examined for resistance to carbadox (Cdxr). Of 72 strains examined, 24 showed resistance to this drug. All 24 Cdxr strains, except one, were also resistant to tetracycline (Tcr), streptomycin (Smr), spectinomycin (Spcr), sulfadimethoxine (Sur), kanamycin (Kmr), ampicillin (Apcr), or a combination of tetracycline, streptomycin, spectinomycin, sulfadimethoxine, and ampicillin. The ...

  20. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    and Gram-positive bacteria. KEY WORDS: Antenatal women, antibiotic resistance, asymptomatic bacteriuria, prevalence, risk factors. INTRODUCTION. Urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy is classified as either symptomatic or asymptomatic. Symptomatic UTI are divided into lower tract (acute cystitis) and upper ...

  1. Risk Factors for Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopas Martin Rumende

    2018-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been a well-known risk factor for TB in the past. The global convergence of the accelerating type 2 DM pandemic, high TB prevalence and drug-resistant TB during the past couple of decades has become a serious challenge to clinicians worldwide. Over the past few years, some studies have shown that the treatment failure rate is higher in TB patients with DM as comorbidity. Moreover, there is significant association between DM an MDR-TB. There is higher chance of TB bacilli persistence to be present in sputum of pulmonary TB patient with DM than TB-only patient after 5 months treatment, and this persistence made it necessary for more longer treatment. Presence of DM in TB patients cause a longer period for sputum conversion, therefore it may become a major cause of poor treatment outcome in TB patients. Previous studies showed that a major mechanism for the emergence of drugs resistance in TB bacilli is random mutation in the bacterial genome and the pressure of selection by anti-TB drugs. Pulmonary TB in diabetic patients usually show higher mycobacterial loads at the initiation of treatment, hence they may have higher chance of bacillary mutation and the emergence of MDR-TB with the presenting of higher bacterial loads, longer treatment is needed to clear the bacteria. Therefore, it is not suprising that a higher chance of MDR-TB patients could be find in those patients. A pharmacokinetic study noted that plasma levels of rifampicin were 53% lower in TB patients with diabetes, which might affect treatment outcomes. Inadequate immune respons of the host may also be important in this negative effect of diabetes. Depressed production of IFN-γ in diabetic patients is related to decreasing immune response to TB infection. Reduction of IL-12 response to mycobacterial stimulation in leukocytes from TB with diabetic patients suggest a compromise of innate immune response.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among emergency department workers and bacterial contamination on touch surfaces in Erciyes University Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey.

  3. Antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity factors in Staphylococcus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious problem in dairy animals suffering from mastitis. In the present study, the distribution of mastitic MRSA and antibiotic resistance was studied in 107 strains of. S. aureus isolated from milk samples from 195 infected udders. The characterizations pathogenic ...

  4. Antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity factors in Staphylococcus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious problem in dairy animals suffering from mastitis. In the present study, the distribution of mastitic MRSA and antibiotic resistance was studied in 107 strains of S. aureus isolated from milk samples from 195 infected udders. The characterizations pathogenic ...

  5. Risk factors for cefotaxime resistance in children with pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Made Sucipta; Ida Bagus Subanada; Samik Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is a health problem in developing countries, often caused by bacterial agents. The widespread use of cefotaxime, a third-generation of cephalosporin to increased incidence of resistance to this antibiotic. Several studies have reported on risk factors associated with resistance to cefotaxime. Objective To oidentify risk factors for cefoxime resistence in children with pneumonia. Methods We performed a case-control study at Sanglah Hospital between January 2006-Dec...

  6. Resistance profiles and risk factors of resistant microorganisms in bacteraemia of abdominal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Jaramago, J; Armero Ibáñez, R; Camarena Miñana, J J; Morales Suárez-Varela, M

    2017-11-01

    The presence of resistant microorganisms is a major cause of failure in initial empirical antimicrobial therapy. The objectives of this study are to determine the resistance profile of microorganisms that cause bacteraemia of abdominal origin and to identify whether the previous use of antibiotics and the place of acquisition of bacteraemia are risk factors associated with the presence of resistant organisms. A clinical, observational, epidemiological, retrospective cohort study was conducted with all the adult patients admitted to a university hospital from 2011-2013. Antimicrobial resistance profiles were described and a 95% confidence interval chi-square test was used to determine whether the variables studied were risk factors in the isolation of resistant microorganisms. Of the 1245 patients with bacteraemia, 212 (17%) presented bacteraemia of abdominal origin. The resistance profile highlights the incidence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (50%), coagulase-negative staphylococci resistant to linezolid (20.58%), enterococci resistant to vancomycin (3.12%), Escherichia coli resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (9.9%) and fluoroquinolones (35.64%), Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (8.33%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to fluoroquinolones and carbapenem (25% and 25% respectively) and Acinetobacter baumanii resistant to fluoroquinolones and carbapenem (100% and 100% respectively), Candida albicans resistant to fluconazole (11.11%), single Candida krusei isolate resistant to fluconazole and Candida parapsilosis resistant to echinocandins (12.5%). In our study, previous use of antibiotics had a statistically significant association with the isolation of resistant microorganisms (P=.013) but not the place of acquisition of bacteraemia (P=.239). Establishing the incidence of resistant organisms can improve empirical antimicrobial therapy in patients with bacteraemia of abdominal origin. Previous use of

  7. Factors that cause trimethoprim resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, René; van der Linden, Mark; Chhatwal, Gursharan S; Nitsche-Schmitz, D Patric

    2014-01-01

    The use of trimethoprim in treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes infections has long been discouraged because it has been widely believed that this pathogen is resistant to this antibiotic. To gain more insight into the extent and molecular basis of trimethoprim resistance in S. pyogenes, we tested isolates from India and Germany and sought the factors that conferred the resistance. Resistant isolates were identified in tests for trimethoprim or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) susceptibility. Resistant isolates were screened for the known horizontally transferable trimethoprim-insensitive dihydrofolate reductase (dfr) genes dfrG, dfrF, dfrA, dfrD, and dfrK. The nucleotide sequence of the intrinsic dfr gene was determined for resistant isolates lacking the horizontally transferable genes. Based on tentative criteria, 69 out of 268 isolates (25.7%) from India were resistant to trimethoprim. Occurring in 42 of the 69 resistant isolates (60.9%), dfrF appeared more frequently than dfrG (23 isolates; 33.3%) in India. The dfrF gene was also present in a collection of SXT-resistant isolates from Germany, in which it was the only detected trimethoprim resistance factor. The dfrF gene caused resistance in 4 out of 5 trimethoprim-resistant isolates from the German collection. An amino acid substitution in the intrinsic dihydrofolate reductase known from trimethoprim-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae conferred resistance to S. pyogenes isolates of emm type 102.2, which lacked other aforementioned dfr genes. Trimethoprim may be more useful in treatment of S. pyogenes infections than previously thought. However, the factors described herein may lead to the rapid development and spread of resistance of S. pyogenes to this antibiotic agent.

  8. Environmental factors influencing the development and spread of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance and its wider implications present us with a growing healthcare crisis. Recent research points to the environment as an important component for the transmission of resistant bacteria and in the emergence of resistant pathogens. However, a deeper understanding of the evolutionary and ecological processes that lead to clinical appearance of resistance genes is still lacking, as is knowledge of environmental dispersal barriers. This calls for better models of how resistance genes evolve, are mobilized, transferred and disseminated in the environment. Here, we attempt to define the ecological and evolutionary environmental factors that contribute to resistance development and transmission. Although mobilization of resistance genes likely occurs continuously, the great majority of such genetic events do not lead to the establishment of novel resistance factors in bacterial populations, unless there is a selection pressure for maintaining them or their fitness costs are negligible. To enable preventative measures it is therefore critical to investigate under what conditions and to what extent environmental selection for resistance takes place. In addition, understanding dispersal barriers is not only key to evaluate risks, but also to prevent resistant pathogens, as well as novel resistance genes, from reaching humans. © FEMS 2017.

  9. Environmental factors influencing the development and spread of antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Antibiotic resistance and its wider implications present us with a growing healthcare crisis. Recent research points to the environment as an important component for the transmission of resistant bacteria and in the emergence of resistant pathogens. However, a deeper understanding of the evolutionary and ecological processes that lead to clinical appearance of resistance genes is still lacking, as is knowledge of environmental dispersal barriers. This calls for better models of how resistance genes evolve, are mobilized, transferred and disseminated in the environment. Here, we attempt to define the ecological and evolutionary environmental factors that contribute to resistance development and transmission. Although mobilization of resistance genes likely occurs continuously, the great majority of such genetic events do not lead to the establishment of novel resistance factors in bacterial populations, unless there is a selection pressure for maintaining them or their fitness costs are negligible. To enable preventative measures it is therefore critical to investigate under what conditions and to what extent environmental selection for resistance takes place. In addition, understanding dispersal barriers is not only key to evaluate risks, but also to prevent resistant pathogens, as well as novel resistance genes, from reaching humans. PMID:29069382

  10. Community factors in the development of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    The global impact of antibiotic resistance is potentially devastating, threatening to set back progress against certain infectious diseases to the pre-antibiotic era. Although most antibiotic-resistant bacteria originally emerged in hospitals, drug-resistant strains are becoming more common in the community. Factors that facilitate the development of resistance within the community can be categorized as behavioral or environmental/policy. Behavioral factors include inappropriate use of antibiotics and ineffective infection control and hygiene practices. Environmental/policy factors include the continued use of antibiotics in agriculture and the lack of new drug development. A multifaceted approach that includes behavioral strategies in the community and the political will to make difficult regulatory decisions will help to minimize the problem of antimicrobial resistance globally.

  11. Risk factors for multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients in Amhara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis(MDR-TB) is becoming a major threat to tuberculosis control programs in Ethiopia. Objectives: To determine risk factors of MDR-TB patients in Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods: Case-control study was conducted from May 2013 to January 2014. Resistance to ...

  12. Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçüközer, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A).…

  13. E. coli Resistance to Ciprofloxacin and Common Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoon, Raheel Jahangir; Jalal-ud-Din, Mir; Khan, Sher Ali

    2015-11-01

    To determine the frequency of E. coli resistance to ciprofloxacin and common factors leading to it among patients presenting with urinary tract infection. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Department of Medicine, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, from December 2011 to June 2012. A total of 166 patients, > 18 years of age of both gender, who presented with features of UTI and had urine culture positive for E.coli were included in the study. The urine samples were further tested for ciprofloxacin resistance and the patients were further checked for the common factors leading to E.coli resistance to ciprofloxacin. Among 166 patients, 41 were male and 125 were female patients. Sixty-six (39.8%) E. coli isolates showed ciprofloxacin resistance. Male gender (p-value 0.001), previous history of recurrent UTI (p = 0.008, OR = 2.37), history of prior use of ciprofloxacin (p = 0.018, OR = 2.16) and history of catheterization (p = 0.005, OR = 4.80) were independent risk factors found in this study for the development of ciprofloxacin resistant UTIs. Ciprofloxacin resistance rates of E.coli were high at over 39.8%. The risk factors that affected the ciprofloxacin resistance rates of E.coli were prior use of ciprofloxacin, recurrent UTI, previous catheterization and male gender. Ciprofloxacin should be prescribed cautiously in patients with these risk factors and urine culture and sensitivity test should be performed for optimal treatment.

  14. Water vapour diffusion resistance factor of Phyllostachys edulis (Moso bamboo)

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, P.; Latif, E.; Chang, W.-S.; Ansell, M.P.; Lawrence, M.

    2017-01-01

    This study measured the water vapour diffusion resistance factor of the Moso bamboo specimens in all directions of the cylindrical coordinate system at both internode parts and node parts. The measurement was conducted by the dry cup method. Major findings included three aspects. The water vapour diffusion resistance factor results of Moso bamboo specimens present a decreasing trend from the external surface to the internal surface in the radial directions. This fact may be attributed to the ...

  15. Aluminum resistance transcription factor 1 (ART1) contributes to natural variation in rice aluminum resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcription factors (TFs) mediate stress resistance indirectly via physiological mechanisms driven by the array of genes they regulate. Therefore, when studying TF-mediated stress resistance, it is important to understand how TFs interact with different genetic backgrounds. Here, we fine-mapped th...

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in Swiss laying hens, prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harisberger, M; Gobeli, S; Hoop, R; Dewulf, J; Perreten, V; Regula, G

    2011-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging concern to public health, and food-producing animals are known to be a potential source for transmission of resistant bacteria to humans. As legislation of the European Union requires to ban conventional cages for the housing of laying hens on the one hand, and a high food safety standard for eggs on the other hand, further investigations about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in alternative housing types are required. In this study, we determined antimicrobial resistance in indicator bacteria from 396 cloacal swabs from 99 Swiss laying hen farms among four alternative housing types during a cross-sectional study. On each farm, four hens were sampled and exposure to potential risk factors was identified with a questionnaire. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined using broth microdilution in Escherichia coli (n=371) for 18 antimicrobials and in Enterococcus faecalis (n=138) and Enterococcus faecium (n=153) for 16 antimicrobials. All antimicrobial classes recommended by the European Food Safety Authority for E. coli and enterococci were included in the resistance profile. Sixty per cent of the E. coli isolates were susceptible to all of the considered antimicrobials and 30% were resistant to at least two antimicrobials. In E. faecalis, 33% of the strains were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials and 40% were resistant to two or more antimicrobials, whereas in E. faecium these figures were 14% and 39% respectively. Risk factor analyses were carried out for bacteria species and antimicrobials with a prevalence of resistance between 15% and 85%. In these analyses, none of the considered housing and management factors showed a consistent association with the prevalence of resistance for more than two combinations of bacteria and antimicrobial. Therefore we conclude that the impact of the considered housing and management practices on the egg producing farms on resistance in laying hens is low. © 2010

  17. Formation factor determinations by in-situ resistivity logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, M.; Ohlsson, Y.; Neretnieks, I.

    2001-01-01

    Matrix diffusion in bedrock is traditionally studied by laboratory liquid diffusion experiments, which are time consuming and expensive. A new way of studying matrix diffusion is to measure the electrical resistivity of the rock. This could be done either in laboratories or in-situ. A fast method of obtaining a formation factor log, later used in matrix diffusion calculations, for an entire borehole is proposed. It is a standard procedure in geophysical well logging to measure rock resistivity and there are well-developed tools for this in the oil industry. The SKB, Sweden, uses boreholes with a small diameter (56 mm) and this reduces the options in choosing resistivity tools. Therefore they have so far relied on the Normal log that only gives quantitative measurements in special cases, after corrections are made. Modern tools, such as the slimhole Dual-Laterolog, are accurate with a high vertical resolution. The pore fluid resistivity is required when obtaining a formation factor log. In previous work the borehole fluid resistivity has been used. A new method measures the resistivity in groundwater from local fractures. These values seem more appropriate to use as new in-situ measurements show that there may be local groundwater resistivity differences. A preliminary study shows that the conductivity could be obtained in saline Swedish groundwater by measuring the chloride concentration only. Anomalies in the formation factor log have to be sorted out by using supporting core logging and non-electrical in-situ methods. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  18. Recessive Resistance to Plant Viruses: Potential Resistance Genes Beyond Translation Initiation Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Hashimoto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of plant viruses to propagate their genomes in host cells depends on many host factors. In the absence of an agrochemical that specifically targets plant viral infection cycles, one of the most effective methods for controlling viral diseases in plants is taking advantage of the host plant’s resistance machinery. Recessive resistance is conferred by a recessive gene mutation that encodes a host factor critical for viral infection. It is a branch of the resistance machinery and, as an inherited characteristic, is very durable. Moreover, recessive resistance may be acquired by a deficiency in a negative regulator of plant defense responses, possibly due to the autoactivation of defense signaling. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF 4E and eIF4G and their isoforms are the most widely exploited recessive resistance genes in several crop species, and they are effective against a subset of viral species. However, the establishment of efficient, recessive resistance-type antiviral control strategies against a wider range of plant viral diseases requires genetic resources other than eIF4Es. In this review, we focus on recent advances related to antiviral recessive resistance genes evaluated in model plants and several crop species. We also address the roles of next-generation sequencing and genome editing technologies in improving plant genetic resources for recessive resistance-based antiviral breeding in various crop species.

  19. In vitro susceptibilities of field isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae to oxytetracycline, tylosin, enrofloxacin, spiramycin and lincomycin-spectinomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, G R; Sammartino, C; Nicholas, R A J; Ayling, R D

    2003-08-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of tetracycline, enrofloxacin, tylosin, spiramycin and a lincomycin:spectinomycin 1:2 combination, against 24 Sicilian isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae, the causative organism of contagious agalactia were determined in vitro by a broth dilution method. Enrofloxacin was the most effective antimicrobial in vitro with a range of MIC values from 0.125 to 0.500 microg/ml and an MIC(50) of 0.203 and MIC(90) of 0.365 microg/ml. Using the MIC(50) and MIC(90) values the remaining four antimicrobials are ranked in order of in vitro effectiveness as follows: tylosin (MIC(50)0.292; MIC(90)0.525 microg/ml) was slightly more effective than tetracycline (MIC(50)0.296; MIC(90)0.533 microg/ml), followed by lincomycin:spectinomycin (MIC(50)0.521; MIC(90)0.938 microg/ml) and spiramycin (MIC(50)1.583; MIC(90)2.850 microg/ml). MIC values above 1.000 microg/ml were obtained using tetracycline, tylosin and spiramycin for some M. agalactiae isolates.

  20. Risk factor analysis of equine strongyle resistance to anthelmintics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sallé

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal strongyles are the most problematic endoparasites of equids as a result of their wide distribution and the spread of resistant isolates throughout the world. While abundant literature can be found on the extent of anthelmintic resistance across continents, empirical knowledge about associated risk factors is missing. This study brought together results from anthelmintic efficacy testing and risk factor analysis to provide evidence-based guidelines in the field. It involved 688 horses from 39 French horse farms and riding schools to both estimate Faecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR after anthelmintic treatment and to interview farm and riding school managers about their practices. Risk factors associated with reduced anthelmintic efficacy in equine strongyles were estimated across drugs using a marginal modelling approach. Results demonstrated ivermectin efficacy (96.3% ± 14.5% FECR, the inefficacy of fenbendazole (42.8% ± 33.4% FECR and an intermediate profile for pyrantel (90.3% ± 19.6% FECR. Risk factor analysis provided support to advocate for FEC-based treatment regimens combined with individual anthelmintic dosage and the enforcement of tighter biosecurity around horse introduction. The combination of these measures resulted in a decreased risk of drug resistance (relative risk of 0.57, p = 0.02. Premises falling under this typology also relied more on their veterinarians suggesting practitionners play an important role in the sustainability of anthelmintic usage. Similarly, drug resistance risk was halved in premises with frequent pasture rotation and with stocking rate below five horses/ha (relative risk of 0.53, p < 0.01. This is the first empirical risk factor analysis for anthelmintic resistance in equids. Our findings should guide the implementation of more sustained strongyle management in the field. Keywords: Horse, Nematode, Anthelmintic resistance, Strongyle, Cyathostomin

  1. Activated protein C resistance testing for factor V Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadauke, Stephan; Khor, Bernard; Van Cott, Elizabeth M

    2014-12-01

    Activated protein C resistance assays can detect factor V Leiden with high accuracy, depending on the method used. Factor Xa inhibitors such as rivaroxaban and direct thrombin inhibitors including dabigatran, argatroban, and bivalirudin can cause falsely normal results. Lupus anticoagulants can cause incorrect results in most current assays. Assays that include dilution into factor V-deficient plasma are needed to avoid interference from factor deficiencies or elevations, which can arise from a wide variety of conditions such as warfarin, liver dysfunction, or pregnancy. The pros and cons of the currently available assays are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Risk factors associated with multidrug resistant tuberculosis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains is an important public health problem in developing world. We conducted this study to determine risk factors associated with MDR-TB and drug susceptibility pattern to second line drug among MDR TB patients in Tanzania. Methods: Unmatched case control ...

  3. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in

  4. Risk factor analysis of equine strongyle resistance to anthelmintics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallé, G; Cortet, J; Bois, I; Dubès, C; Guyot-Sionest, Q; Larrieu, C; Landrin, V; Majorel, G; Wittreck, S; Woringer, E; Couroucé, A; Guillot, J; Jacquiet, P; Guégnard, F; Blanchard, A; Leblond, A

    2017-12-01

    Intestinal strongyles are the most problematic endoparasites of equids as a result of their wide distribution and the spread of resistant isolates throughout the world. While abundant literature can be found on the extent of anthelmintic resistance across continents, empirical knowledge about associated risk factors is missing. This study brought together results from anthelmintic efficacy testing and risk factor analysis to provide evidence-based guidelines in the field. It involved 688 horses from 39 French horse farms and riding schools to both estimate Faecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR) after anthelmintic treatment and to interview farm and riding school managers about their practices. Risk factors associated with reduced anthelmintic efficacy in equine strongyles were estimated across drugs using a marginal modelling approach. Results demonstrated ivermectin efficacy (96.3% ± 14.5% FECR), the inefficacy of fenbendazole (42.8% ± 33.4% FECR) and an intermediate profile for pyrantel (90.3% ± 19.6% FECR). Risk factor analysis provided support to advocate for FEC-based treatment regimens combined with individual anthelmintic dosage and the enforcement of tighter biosecurity around horse introduction. The combination of these measures resulted in a decreased risk of drug resistance (relative risk of 0.57, p = 0.02). Premises falling under this typology also relied more on their veterinarians suggesting practitionners play an important role in the sustainability of anthelmintic usage. Similarly, drug resistance risk was halved in premises with frequent pasture rotation and with stocking rate below five horses/ha (relative risk of 0.53, p risk factor analysis for anthelmintic resistance in equids. Our findings should guide the implementation of more sustained strongyle management in the field. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Acetylsalicylic acid resistance risk factors in patients with myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarek, Wioleta; Kasprzak, Michał; Obońska, Karolina; Ostrowska, Małgorzata; Wiciński, Michał; Kubica, Aldona; Kubica, Jacek; Grześk, Grzegorz

    2015-10-01

    Despite its commonly recognized benefits in the cardiovascular disease setting, an issue of resistance to this drug has lately emerged. The aim of this research was assessment of the phenomenon of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) resistance and its risk factors in patients treated for myocardial infarction. This study is a post-hoc analysis of a previous prospective study with approximately 200 patients treated for myocardial infarction with a coated formulation of ASA. The population was divided into two subgroups according to the response to ASA. ASA responsiveness was assessed using the arachidonic acid-dependent platelet aggregation (ASPI-test). The measurements were performed using the technique of impedance aggregometry. The prevalence of aspirin resistance among the study population was 6.2%. All analyzed aggregometric parameters (including ASPI-test, adenosine diphosphate dependent platelet aggregation - ADP-test, bleeding time measurement) showed significant differences between both subgroups. ASA resistant patients had higher concentrations of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), leukocytes (WBC) and platelets (PLT) but lower concentrations of hemoglobin (HGB). The temporal point analysis for both subgroups showed aspirin resistance incidence peak in patients at 9 months after myocardial infarction. The prevalence of aspirin resistance in our study population is comparable with rates reported in literature among patients with cardiovascular diseases. There is a possible relation between aspirin resistance and clopidogrel resistance. Presence did not affect the incidence of the clinical end-points. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Aspirin resistance: effect of clinical, biochemical and genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Richard; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2011-05-01

    Aspirin is one of the cornerstones of treatment for cardiovascular disease. However, some patients may be 'resistant' to its effect: this is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes and increased mortality. Measuring response to aspirin is often difficult and there is no accepted definition of aspirin resistance. Many assays are available to test aspirin sensitivity but most are not specific to aspirin and the degree of agreement between different assays is poor. Each assay has its own advantages and disadvantages, and there is currently no one assay that can be recommended for routine clinical practise. There are also many potential modifiers of aspirin response including aspirin dose, non-compliance, disease severity, genetic factors, inflammation, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, smoking and interacting drugs. Treating the underlying cause may improve aspirin sensitivity but current data are contradictory with no large clinical trials that have addressed this. Further work is required in this area to determine whether and how aspirin resistance is important clinically, what the best measurement is phenotypically and how this should be used in clinical practise, and whether there are any genetic predisposing factors. This will require well designed prospective studies which take into account the numerous confounding factors that can modify aspirin resistance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Patient age as a factor of antibiotic resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alexander; Delorme, Thierry; Nasr, Payman

    2017-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. A thorough understanding of the epidemiology and distribution of MRSA allows the development of better preventive measures and helps to control or reduce the rate of infection among the general population. A retrospective survey was performed on 511 cases of MRSA infections from inpatient, outpatient and nursing home populations over a 12-month period. To study the relationships between two continuous quantitative variables (patient age vs resistance percentage), a simple linear regression was calculated for each antibiotic to predict the antibiotic resistance percentage with respect to patient age.Results/Key findings. The pattern of antibiotic resistance with respect to the age of patients depended on the antibiotic mode of action. Antibiotics that target DNA synthesis (i.e. fluoroquinolones) display a direct correlation with the age of patients, with higher rates of resistance among the older population, while antibiotics that target ribosomal functions (i.e. aminoglycosides) or cell wall synthesis (i.e. cephalosporin) do not display an age-dependent pattern and have a consistent degree of resistance across all age classes. Antibiotics that target DNA synthesis result in a progressively higher number of resistant isolates among the older population. The results emphasize the importance of patient age on antibiotic selection as a preventive measure to reduce the rate of resistant infections in each susceptible population. This pattern suggests that physicians should take into consideration patient age as another factor in determining the best antibiotic regiment with the aim of curtailing the emergence of newer resistant phenotypes in the future.

  8. Prevalence of Aspirin Resistance in Diabetic Patients and its Associated Factors

    OpenAIRE

    HABIZAL, Nor Halwani; ABDUL HALIM, Sanihah; BHASKAR, Shalini; WAN BEBAKAR, Wan Mohamed; ABDULLAH, Jafri Malin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aspirin resistance has posed a major dilemma in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and stroke. There have been many factors that have been associated with aspirin resistance. Among these factors, the inflammatory processes of diabetes and glycaemic control have been significantly associated with aspirin resistance. Our study evaluated the prevalence of aspirin resistance and its associated factors.

  9. Risk factors for fluoroquinolone resistance in ocular cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junsung; Choi, Sangkyung

    2015-02-01

    To identify the risk factors associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in patients undergoing cataract surgery. A total of 1,125 patients (1,125 eyes) who underwent cataract surgery at Veterans Health Service Medical Center from May 2011 to July 2012 were enrolled in this study. Conjunctival cultures were obtained from the patients on the day of surgery before instillation of any ophthalmic solutions. The medical records of patients with positive coagulase negative staphylococcus (CNS) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) cultures were reviewed to determine factors associated with fluoroquinolone resistance. Of 734 CNS and S. aureus cultures, 175 (23.8%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, or moxifloxacin. Use of fluoroquinolone within 3 months and within 1 year before surgery, topical antibiotic use other than fluoroquinolone, systemic antibiotic use, recent hospitalization, ocular surgery, intravitreal injection and use of eyedrops containing benzalkonium chloride were significantly more frequent in resistant isolates than in susceptible isolates. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, ocular surgery (odds ratio [OR], 8.457), recent hospitalization (OR, 6.646) and use of fluoroquinolone within 3 months before surgery (OR, 4.918) were significant predictors of fluoroquinolone resistance, along with intravitreal injection (OR, 2.976), systemic antibiotic use (OR, 2.665), use of eyedrops containing benzalkonium chloride (OR, 2.323), use of fluoroquinolone within 1 year before surgery (OR, 1.943) and topical antibiotic use other than fluoroquinolone (OR, 1.673). Recent topical fluoroquinolone use, hospitalization and ocular surgery were significantly associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in CNS and S. aureus isolates from ocular culture.

  10. Macrophage-secreted factors induce adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Paska A.; Menge, Christopher; Reaven, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue increases with obesity, a condition associated with low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. We investigated the direct effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance. 3T3-L1 adipocytes incubated with media conditioned by RAW264.7 macrophages (RAW-CM) showed dramatically increased transcription of several inflammation-related genes, greater nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity, and enhanced binding of U937 monocytes. All of these effects were prevented by co-incubation with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, an NF-κB inhibitor. Adipocytes incubated with RAW-CM also released more non-esterified fatty acids and this increased lipolysis was not suppressed by insulin. In addition, RAW-CM treatment decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that macrophage-secreted factors induce inflammatory responses and reduce insulin responsiveness in adipocytes. These effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocytes may contribute significantly to the systemic inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity

  11. Factors associated with acquisition of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Silva Lavagnoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify possible risk factors for acquisition of Enterobacterial strains with a marker for resistance to carbapenems. Methods: exploratory case-control study performed in hospital settings. The study sample consisted of patients with biological specimens that tested positive for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (cases, with the disk diffusion test and Etest, and controls with biological samples testing negative for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. In all, 65 patients were included: 13 (20% cases and 52 (80% controls. Results: the microorganisms isolated were Serratia marcescens (6, Klebsiella pneumoniae (4, and Enterobacter cloacae (3. Univariate analysis revealed that length of hospitalization prior to sample collection (p=0.002 and having a surgical procedure (p=0.006 were statistically significant. In the multivariable logistic regression model, both were still significant, with odds ratios of 0.93 (p = 0.009; 95% CI: 0.89 to 0.98 for length of hospitalization prior to sample collection, and 9.28 (p = 0.05; 95% CI: 1.01 to 85.14 for having a surgical procedure. Conclusion: shorter hospitalization times and increased surveillance of patients undergoing surgery could play a decisive role in reducing the spread of carbapenem-resistant microorganisms in hospital settings.

  12. [Presence of resistance factors to antibiotics in multiresistant enterobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, J L; De Nardo, J; Rebollo, M; Marcenac, F; Fernández, A

    1977-01-01

    The present study was carried out with 111 multiresistant pathogenic strains of enterobacterias isolated from different sources with increased resistance to three or more antibiotics. Among the identified species are included E. coli, Shigella sp., Salmonella oranienburg, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Citrobacter freundii. In general, the minimal inhibitory concentration of antibiotics was above 100 microgram/ml and in some cases it was superior to 1000 microgram/ml. Resistance transfer factors were detected in 72% of the strains; 33% movilized the complete pattern of resistance and 67% did it partially because some of the determinants were not transfered. The Citrobacter strains show a high frequency of transference (10(-1)), while for the others species it was in the order of 10(-2)--10(-3). The use of a multi-inoculator allows to perform in a simple way the preliminar evaluation about the presence or absence of R transfer factors in multiresistant strains. This technique has shown good correlation with the data obtained by the usual dilution and plating method.

  13. Localization of Five Antibiotic Resistances at the Subunit Level in Chloroplast Ribosomes of Chlamydomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlanger, Gladys; Sager, Ruth

    1974-01-01

    The chloroplast ribosomes from five antibiotic resistant strains of Chlamydomonas, each carrying one mutant gene mapping in chloroplast DNA, have been shown to be resistant to the corresponding antibiotic in a poly(U)-directed amino-acid incorporating assay system. The alteration conferring resistance was localized to the 30S subunit in ribosomes from streptomycin, neamine, and spectinomycin resistant strains, and to the 50S subunit in ribosomes from cleocin and carbomycin resistant strains. Spectinomycin resistant ribosomes showed no cross-resistance to any other drugs, but limited cross-resistance was noted with the other mutant ribosomes. The similarity between these findings and results reported by others with bacterial ribosomes supports our hypothesis that at least some chloroplast ribosomal proteins are coded by genes in chloroplast DNA. Images PMID:4275942

  14. Resistance factors for 100% dynamic testing, with and without static load tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Current department of transportation (DOT) and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) practice has highly : variable load and resistance factor design (LRFD) resistance factors, , for driven piles from design (e.g., Standard : Penetration Tests (SPT...

  15. [Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: epidemiology and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaoui Fourati, S; Mzid, H; Marouane, C; Kammoun, S; Messadi-Akrout, F

    2015-08-01

    Despite the availability of potent drugs and the availability of vaccine, tuberculosis remains until today one of the most worrying infectious diseases because of both its morbidity and mortality. This serious health problem is further complicated by the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant strains (XDR). The number of MDR and XDR strains has continued to increase in recent years. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the risk factors leading to the emergence of MDR-TB strains to improve its overall management. Most studies indicate that the irregular previous treatment of tuberculosis with poor adherence is the main risk factor found. Other risk factors such as digestive issues, age, sex, and immunosuppression have been reported by several studies. In Tunisia, MDR-TB prevalence remains low with 0.8% among new cases and 12% among the restatements but control of this disease is necessary and remains essentially preventive. It is based on real preventive strategies planned according to local and updated regional data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors associated with participation in resistance training: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Lubans, David R; Karunamuni, Nandini; Kennedy, Sarah; Plotnikoff, Ronald

    2017-10-01

    Regular participation in resistance training (RT) is critical to health and recommended in most international physical activity guidelines. Few people, however, participate in RT. The purpose of this review was to assess the demographic, behavioural, intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental factors associated with participating in RT. Eligible studies were from English peer-reviewed published articles that examined correlates or determinants of RT in adult samples. Searches were performed from August 2015 to April 2016 in six databases. We identified 51 independent data sets, from nine countries, primarily of moderate to high quality, and 23 factors related to participating in RT. Education, perceived health status, quality of life, affective judgements, self-efficacy, intention, self-regulation behaviours, subjective norm and programme leadership were associated with RT. Low education levels and poor health status were associated with low participation rates in RT. Intrapersonal factors including affective judgements, self-efficacy, and self-regulation behaviours, and interpersonal factors including subjective norms and programme leadership may be important for promoting RT behaviours. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. [Activated protein C resistance and factor V Leiden: clinical interest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guermazi, S; Znazen, R

    2011-10-01

    Activated protein C resistance (APCR) is a coagulation abnormality often linked to FV Leiden mutation, a single nucleotide G1691A substitution resulting in arginine 506→glutamine missense factor V mutation. FV Leiden has a frequency of 20 to 30% in groups of patients with venous thrombosis while it is of 4 to 10% in normal subjects. FV Leiden is considered as a weak risk factor of thrombosis except in homozygote. FV Leiden is implicated in deep venous thrombosis occurrence. Duration of oral anticoagulant treatment is six months in patients developing a first venous thrombosis except in patients with combined defects or a clinical context suggesting a high risk of severe relapse. Detection of APCR by coagulation methods is often used in first intention with a high specificity if plasmas tested are diluted in factor V deficient plasma. Genotyping study is essential to establish the heterozygote or homozygote statute and certain teams perform it directly. Nevertheless, APCR not related to FV Leiden could be an independent thrombosis risk factor. APCR and FV Leiden are included in laboratory investigations of thrombophilic markers in patients less than 50 years with venous thrombosis. In arterial thrombosis, FV Leiden implication is weak or absent. FV Leiden increases the risk of thrombosis in other situations as in patients with cancer. An association with recurrent miscarriages and other vasculoplacental complications is also reported in many studies but the data concerning the efficacy of antithrombotic treatment to prevent recurrence are currently insufficient. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Nationwide surveillance of drug-resistant tuberculosis in The Netherlands: rates, risk factors and treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambregts-van Weezenbeek, C. S.; Jansen, H. M.; Nagelkerke, N. J.; van Klingeren, B.; Veen, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Netherlands, 1993 and 1994. To determine 1) rates of drug resistance in relation to nationality and country of birth, 2) risk factors for drug resistance, 3) treatment outcome of drug-resistant cases, and 4) rates of primary and acquired drug resistance. Retrospective study of all cases notified

  19. Effect of operating current dependent series resistance on the fill factor of a solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadu, Meena; Kapoor, A.; Tripathi, K.N. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi, South Campus, Benito Juarez road, -110 021 New Delhi (India)

    2002-02-01

    The fill factor of a solar cell depends upon the series resistance, reverse saturation current, diode quality factor, operating current and voltage. Since the series resistance itself depends upon the operating current (or voltage), it makes the evaluation of fill factor very complicated. In this paper, we have evaluated the fill factor of a solar cell, taking into account operating current dependence of the series resistance.

  20. Load and resistance factor design calibration to determine a resistance factor for the modification of the Kansas Department of Transportation-Engineering News Record formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report contains the results of a study describing the development of resistance factors for use : with the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) Engineering News Record (ENR) formula for driven : piles. KDOT has verified driven pile resista...

  1. Related Factors of Insulin Resistance in Korean Children: Adiposity and Maternal Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Sook Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased adiposity and unhealthy lifestyle augment the risk for type 2 diabetes in children with familial predisposition. Insulin resistance (IR is an excellent clinical marker for identifying children at high risk for type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to investigate parental, physiological, behavioral and socio-economic factors related to IR in Korean children. This study is a cross-sectional study using data from 111 children aged 7 years and their parents. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated using fasting glucose and insulin level as a marker of IR. All children’s adiposity indices (r = 0.309–0.318, all P-value = 0.001 and maternal levels of fasting insulin (r = 0.285, P-value = 0.003 and HOMA-IR (r = 0.290, P-value = 0.002 were positively correlated with children’s HOMA-IR level. There was no statistical difference of children’s HOMA-IR level according to children’s lifestyle habits and socioeconomic status of families. An increase of 1 percentage point in body fat was related to 2.7% increase in children’s HOMA-IR (P-value < 0.001 and an increase of 1% of maternal level of HOMA-IR was related to 0.2% increase in children’s HOMA-IR (P-value = 0.002. This study shows that children’s adiposity and maternal IR are positively associated with children’s IR.

  2. Cloacael Carriage and Multidrug Resistance Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Poultry Farms, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mude Shecho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine antimicrobial drug resistance patterns of E. coli O157:H7 isolates and estimate the level of the pathogen. A total of 194 cloacae swab samples were collected randomly in two poultry farms. Standard cultural, biochemical, and serological (latex agglutination methods were used to isolate E. coli O157:H7. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using disc diffusion method. Out of 194 cloacae samples examined, 13.4% (n=26 were found to be positive for E. coli O157:H7. The finding indicated differences in E. coli O157:H7 infection among the different risk factors. Chicken from Adele Poultry Farm showed higher E. coli O157:H7 infection (OR = 3.89 than Haramaya University poultry farm and young birds had more infection (OR = 4.62 than adult birds. Of the total 14 antimicrobials included in the panel of study, the susceptibility results were varied with 96.15% and 0% E. coli O157:H7 isolates expressing resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, spectinomycin, and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Multidrug resistance to more than two antimicrobial agents was detected in 24 (92.30% of the isolates. The study showed high presence of antimicrobial resistant isolates of E. coli O157:H7. Further study is required to better understand the ecology and evolution of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents.

  3. Risk Factors for Acquisition of Drug Resistance during Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershova, Julia; Vlasova, Natalia; Nikishova, Elena; Tarasova, Irina; Eliseev, Platon; Maryandyshev, Andrey O.; Shemyakin, Igor G.; Kurbatova, Ekaterina; Cegielski, J. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Acquired resistance to antituberculosis drugs decreases effective treatment options and the likelihood of treatment success. We identified risk factors for acquisition of drug resistance during treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) and evaluated the effect on treatment outcomes. Data were collected prospectively from adults from Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, who had pulmonary MDR TB during 2005–2008. Acquisition of resistance to capreomycin and of extensively drug-resistant TB were more likely among patients who received 3 effective drugs (9.4% vs. 0% and 8.6% vs. 0.8%, respectively). Poor outcomes were more likely among patients with acquired capreomycin resistance (100% vs. 25.9%), acquired ofloxacin resistance (83.6% vs. 22.7%), or acquired extensive drug resistance (100% vs. 24.4%). To prevent acquired drug resistance and poor outcomes, baseline susceptibility to first- and second-line drugs should be determined quickly, and treatment should be adjusted to contain >3 effective drugs. PMID:25988954

  4. Expression analysis of OsbZIP transcription factors in resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They have been shown to regulate diverse plant specific phenomena, including germination, floral induction and development, seed maturation, photomorphogenesis, biotic and abiotic stresses. Resistance response mediated by the rice blast resistance gene Pi36 is a typical signal transduction, in which 12 OsbZIP genes ...

  5. Risk Factors for Emergence of Resistance to Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporins among Enterobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Keith S.; Cosgrove, Sara; Harris, Anthony; Eliopoulos, George M.; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2001-01-01

    Among 477 patients with susceptible Enterobacter spp., 49 subsequently harbored third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacter spp. Broad-spectrum cephalosporins were independent risk factors for resistance (relative risk [OR] = 2.3, P = 0.01); quinolone therapy was protective (OR = 0.4, P = 0.03). There were trends toward decreased risk for resistance among patients receiving broad-spectrum cephalosporins and either aminoglycosides or imipenem. Of the patients receiving broad-spectrum cephalosporins, 19% developed resistance. PMID:11502540

  6. Factors underlying the natural resistance of animals against snake venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moussatché

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of mammals and reptilia with a natural resistance to snake venoms is known since a long time. This fact has been subjected to the study by several research workers. Our experiments showed us that in the marsupial Didelphis marsupialis, a mammal highly resistant to the venom of Bothrops jararaca, and other Bothrops venoms, has a genetically origin protein, a alpha-1, acid glycoprotein, now highly purified, with protective action in mice against the jararaca snake venom.

  7. Chloroplast genes in Chlamydomonas affecting organelle ribosomes. Genetic and biochemical analysis of analysis of antibiotic-resistant mutants at several gene loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, M F; Boynton, J E; Gillham, N W; Harris, E H; Tingle, C L; Wang, W L

    1975-10-03

    Six chloroplast gene mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii resistant to spectinomycin, erythromycin, or streptomycin have been assessed for antibiotic resistance of their chloroplast ribosomes. Four of these mutations clearly confer high levels of antibiotic resistance on the chloroplast ribosomes both in vivo. Although one mutant resistant to streptomycin and one resistant to spectinomycin have chloroplast ribosomes as sensitive to antibiotics as those of wild type in vivo, these mutations can be shown to alter the wildtype sensitivity of chloroplast ribosomes in polynucleotide-directed amino acid incorporation in vitro. Genetic analysis of these six chloroplast mutants and three similar mutants (Sager, 1972), two of which have been shown to affect chloroplast ribosomes (Mets and Bogorad, 1972; Schlanger and Sager, 1974), indicates that in Chlamydomonas at least three chloroplast gene loci can affect streptomycin resistance of chloroplast ribosomes and that two can affect erythromycin resistance. The three spectinomycin-resistant mutants examined appear to be alleles at a single chloroplast gene locus, but may represent mutations at two different sites within the same gene. Unlike wild type, the streptomycin and spectinomycin resistant mutants which have chloroplast ribosomes sensitive to antibiotics in vivo, grow well in the presence of antibiotic by respiring exogenously supplied acetate as a carbon source, and have normal levels of cytochrome oxidase activity and cyanide-sensitive respiration. We conclude that mitochondrial protein synthesis in these mutants is resistant to these antibiotics, whereas in wild type it is sensitive. To explain the behavior of these two chloroplast gene mutants as well as other one-step mutants which are resistant both photosynthetically and when respiring acetate in the dark, we have postulated that a mutation in a single chloroplast gene may result in alteration of both chloroplast and mitochondrial ribosomes. Mitochondrial

  8. Biochemical factors associated with cassava resistance to whitefly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) an important food security crop, is inflicted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) worldwide, causing direct damage of up to 80% of yield loss. Although resistance to the pest has been associated with antibiosis, changes that occur in metabolite activity, and their effect on the pest have not been ...

  9. Biochemical factors associated with cassava resistance to whitefly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-08-17

    Aug 17, 2017 ... Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) an important food security crop, is inflicted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) worldwide, causing direct damage of up to 80% of yield loss. Although resistance to the pest has been associated with antibiosis, changes that occur in metabolite activity, and their effect on the pest ...

  10. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Iranian hospitals: virulence factors and antibiotic resistance properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Momtaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important opportunistic pathogen responsible for a variety of diseases. Indiscriminate prescription of antibiotics caused severe antibiotic resistance especially against commonly used drugs. The present investigation was carried out to study the distribution of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin gene, SCCmec types and antibiotic resistance properties of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Iranian hospitals. A total of 132 clinical specimens were collected from two major Iranian hospitals. Samples were cultured and their positive results were subjected to several PCR methods. The patterns of antibiotic resistance were studied using the disk diffusion method. We found that 66 out of 132 samples (50% were positive for Staphylococcus aureus. The most commonly infected samples were superficial and surgical wounds (66.12%. The incidence of mecA, tetK, ermA, ermC, tetM, aacA-D, linA, msrA, vatA, vatC and vatB antibiotic resistance genes were 80.30%, 34.84%, 30.30%, 25.75%, 24.24%, 19.69%, 7.57%, 7.57%, 6.06%, 3.03% and 1.51%, respectively. Totally, 40.90% of isolates harbored the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin gene. Of 53 mec positive strains, the distribution of SCCmec V, SCCmec III, SCCmec IVa, SCCmec IVc and SCCmec IVb were 28 (52.83%, 13 (24.52%, 6 (11.32%, 4 (7.54% and 2 (3.77%, respectively. All isolates were resistant to penicillin, cephalothin, cefazoline and ceftriaxone. The high levels of Staphylococcus aureus resistance against commonly used antibiotics as well as high presence of SCCmec types of meticillin-resistant virulent strains of Staphylococcus aureus suggest that infections with these strains require more advanced hospital care with emerging demand for novel antibiotics.

  11. Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Haemophilus parasuis Isolates Exhibit More Putative Virulence Factors than Their Susceptible Counterparts

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Jiantao; Yan, Shuxian; Yang, Yujie; Zhang, Anding; Jin, Meilin

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of 23 putative virulence factors among fluoroquinolone-susceptible and -resistant Haemophilus parasuis isolates was analyzed. Putative hemolysin precursor, fimbrial assembly chaperone, and type I site-specific restriction modification system R subunit genes were more prevalent among fluoroquinolone-resistant H. parasuis isolates than among fluoroquinolone-susceptible H. parasuis isolates. Fluoroquinolone resistance may be associated with an increase in the presence of some viru...

  12. Omics Approach to Identify Factors Involved in Brassica Disease Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Marta; Soengas, Pilar; Velasco, Pablo; Bhadauria, Vijai; Cartea, Maria E; Rodríguez, Victor M

    2016-01-01

    Understanding plant's defense mechanisms and their response to biotic stresses is of fundamental meaning for the development of resistant crop varieties and more productive agriculture. The Brassica genus involves a large variety of economically important species and cultivars used as vegetable source, oilseeds, forage and ornamental. Damage caused by pathogens attack affects negatively various aspects of plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Over the last few decades, advances in plant physiology, genetics, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of plant responses to biotic stress conditions. In this regard, various 'omics' technologies enable qualitative and quantitative monitoring of the abundance of various biological molecules in a high-throughput manner, and thus allow determination of their variation between different biological states on a genomic scale. In this review, we have described advances in 'omic' tools (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in the view of conventional and modern approaches being used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie Brassica disease resistance.

  13. Simultaneous determination of lincomycin and spectinomycin residues in animal tissues by gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with accelerated solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y; Chen, D; Yu, G; Yu, H; Pan, Y; Wang, Y; Huang, L; Yuan, Z

    2011-02-01

    A new multi-dimensional analytical method using gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC-NPD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for qualitative and quantitative measurement of lincomycin and spectinomycin residues in food animal tissues. This method is based on a new extraction procedure using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The analytes were extracted by phosphate buffer with trichloroacetic acid deproteinization and clean-up by C₁₈ solid-phase extraction (SPE) adding dodecanesulfonic acid sodium salt as an ion-pair reagent. The eluted fraction was evaporated and derivatised with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) for GC-NPD analysis and GC-MS confirmation. Parameters for extraction pressure, temperature and cycle of ASE, clean-up, derivatisation and analysis procedure were optimised. The method was validated in muscle, kidney and liver of swine, bovine with a low concentration (limit of quantification) of 16.4 and 21.4 µg kg⁻¹ for these two analytes using GC-NPD. For GC-MS, the limits of quantification were 4.1 and 5.6 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. Spiked recoveries from levels of 20 to 200 µg kg⁻¹ were found to be between 73% and 99% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 17% in GC-NPD. For GC-MS, levels from 5 to 20 µg kg⁻¹ had between 70% and 93% with an RSD of less than 21%. This rapid and reliable method can be used for the characterisation and quantification of residues of lincomycin and spectinomycin in animal tissues.

  14. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Russian Varroa-Resistant Honey Bees

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seon-Ae; Westra, John V.; Gillespie, Jeffrey M.

    2006-01-01

    Factors influencing the adoption of Russian Varroa-Resistant honey bees were assessed. Logit results indicate factors associated with the adoption include sales, internet use, and contact with other beekeepers. Negatively associated factors are age and income. Future adoption depends upon previous use and perception.

  15. Factors associated with use of slip-resistant shoes in US limited-service restaurant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh K; Courtney, Theodore K; Corns, Helen L; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melanye J; Perry, Melissa J

    2012-06-01

    Slips and falls are a leading cause of injury at work. Several studies have indicated that slip-resistant shoes can reduce the risk of occupational slips and falls. Few studies, however, have examined the determinants of slip-resistant shoe use. This study examined the individual and workplace factors associated with slip-resistant shoe use. 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants in the USA participated in a study of workplace slipping. Demographic and job characteristic information about each participant was collected. Restaurant managers provided information on whether slip-resistant shoes were provided and paid for by the employer and whether any guidance was given regarding slip-resistant shoe use when they were not provided. Kitchen floor coefficient of friction was measured. Slip-resistant status of the shoes was determined by noting the presence of a 'slip-resistant' marking on the sole. Poisson regression with robust SE was used to calculate prevalence ratios. 320 participants wore slip-resistant shoes (67%). In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of slip-resistant shoe use was lowest in 15-19-year age group. Women were more likely to wear slip-resistant shoes (prevalence ratio 1.18, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.31). The prevalence of slip-resistant shoe use was lower when no guidance regarding slip-resistant shoes was given as compared to when they were provided by the employer (prevalence ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.79). Education level, job tenure and the mean coefficient of friction had no significant effects on the use of slip-resistant shoes. Provision of slip-resistant shoes was the strongest predictor of their use. Given their effectiveness and low cost, employers should consider providing slip-resistant shoes at work.

  16. Load and resistance factor rating (LRFR) in New York State : volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report develops a Load and Resistance Factor Rating (NYS-LRFR) methodology : for New York bridges. The methodology is applicable for the rating of existing : bridges, the posting of under-strength bridges, and checking Permit trucks. The : propo...

  17. Load and resistance factor rating (LRFR) in New York State : volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report develops a Load and Resistance Factor Rating (NYS-LRFR) methodology : for New York bridges. The methodology is applicable for the rating of existing : bridges, the posting of under-strength bridges, and checking Permit trucks. The : propo...

  18. Development of LRFD resistance factors for mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Bridge approach embankments and many other : transportation-related applications make use of : reinforced earth retaining structures. Mechanically : Stabilized Earth (MSE) walls are designed under : the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) : meth...

  19. Calibration of resistance factors for drilled shafts for the new FHWA design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) calibration of deep foundation in Louisiana was first completed for driven piles (LTRC Final Report 449) in May 2009 and then for drilled shafts using 1999 FHWA design method (ONeill and Reese method) (...

  20. Calibration of Resistance Factors for Drilled Shafts for the New FHWA Design Method : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and American Association of State : Highway and Transportation Offi cials (AASHTO) require that all federally funded : bridges including substructures be designed using the load and resistance : factor design...

  1. Orchard factors associated with resistance and cross resistance to sterol demethylation inhibitor fungicides in populations of Venturia inaequalis from Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeufer, Emily E; Ngugi, Henry K

    2012-03-01

    Orchard management practices, such as destroying of overwintered inoculum and limiting the number of fungicide applications, are often recommended as tactics for slowing the development of resistance to sterol demethylation-inhibitor (DMI) fungicides in populations of Venturia inaequalis. However, there is little quantitative evidence relating the use of such practices to levels of resistance in orchards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of V. inaequalis isolates from Pennsylvania to DMI fungicides, and to identify orchard management factors related to the incidence of resistant isolates. In total, 644 single-spore V. inaequalis cultures obtained from 20 apple orchards in 2008 or 2009 were tested for sensitivity to myclobutanil, fenbuconazole, or difenoconazole. Growers provided management history of the sampled plots. Widespread shifts toward resistance to the three fungicides were noted, with mean effective concentration for 50% inhibition (EC(50)) values of 2.136, 0.786, and 0.187 μg/ml for myclobutanil, fenbuconazole, and difenoconazole, respectively. Cross resistance to the three fungicides was documented in high correlation (Spearman's r > 0.6) between mean EC(50) values for 14 orchards. Based on a 0.5-μg/ml threshold, 66 and 26% of isolates were resistant to myclobutanil and fenbuconazole, respectively, and 22% were cross resistant to the two fungicides. A significant between-year shift toward increased resistance was noted in two of three orchards surveyed in both years. Failure to use dormant copper sprays, older trees, larger orchards, orchards with ≤10 cultivars, and application of >4 DMI sprays were positively correlated (0.0001 4 DMI sprays were four times as likely to be resistant to fenbuconazole (odds ratio = 4.57; P = 0.015). Isolates from orchards without dormant copper sprays were twice as likely to be cross-shifted toward resistance to all three fungicides (odds ratio = 1.76; P = 0.048). Results identify management

  2. An investigation of correlation factors linking footing resistance on sand with cone penetration test results

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin, Kenneth; Tolooiyan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Significant research effort has led to improvements in our ability to estimate the ultimate bearing resistance of footings in sand. These techniques often estimate the footing resistance at relatively large displacements, typically 10% of the footing width, qb0.1. Cone Penetration Test (CPT) design methods typically link qb0.1 and qc through a constant reduction factor, a. A range of a factors for shallow footings have been proposed, some methods suggest that a is constant and while ...

  3. Influence of selected factors on bovine spermatozoa cold shock resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk Stádník

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of sire, extender, and addition of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL to extenders used on the percentage rate of spermatozoa survival after cold shock. Two groups of extenders were compared: without LDL addition (control variants and LDL enriched (experimental variants. Three extenders were used: AndroMed®, Bioxcell®, and Triladyl®. Experimental variants included 4–8% LDL addition into the AndroMed® and Bioxcell® extenders, and 6–10% LDL addition into the Triladyl® extender. In total, 12 samples of fresh semen were collected from 4 bulls during a period of 8 weeks. Bovine spermatozoa cold shock resistance (1 ± 1 °C, 10 min was evaluated by the percentage rate of live sperm using eosin-nigrosine staining immediately and after heat incubation (37 ± 1 °C, 120 min. The results showed the effect of sire as important and individual differences between selected sires in their sperm resistance against cold shock were confirmed. AndroMed® and Bioxcell® were found to be providing better protection of bull semen to cold shock compared to Triladyl® due to lower decline of live sperm proportion. Our results detected a positive effect of LDL addition on sperm resistance against cold shock, especially on lower decrease of live sperm percentage rate after 120 min of the heat test (P < 0.05. Further studies are needed to assess the optimal concentration of LDL in various kinds of extenders as well to state ideal time and temperature conditions for ensuring LDL reaction with sperm.

  4. Numerous risk factors for Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance revealed by extended anamnesis: a Bulgarian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Ilieva, Juliana; Gergova, Galina; Davidkov, Lubomir; Spassova, Zoya; Kamburov, Victor; Katsarov, Nikolai; Mitov, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for primary Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance by an extended anamnesis. In total, 519 H. pylori strains from untreated symptomatic adults who answered a questionnaire were evaluated. Strain susceptibility was assessed by a breakpoint susceptibility test. Primary resistance rates were 29.5 % for metronidazole, 17.9 % for clarithromycin, 7.3 % for metronidazole+clarithromycin, 4.0 % for tetracycline and 10.8 % for ciprofloxacin. On multivariate analysis, younger (≤65 years) age was an independent predictor for metronidazole resistance. To our knowledge, for the first time, being a member of the health-care profession was revealed as a risk factor for H. pylori resistance to metronidazole and both metronidazole and clarithromycin. Respiratory and urinary tract infections were independent predictors of clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin resistance, respectively. The presence of co-infections was an independent risk factor for clarithromycin, metronidazole and ciprofloxacin resistance. Surprisingly, female sex was the only predictor for tetracycline resistance. The antibiotic resistance rates were not associated with disease type, place of residence, birthplace, educational level, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug or proton pump inhibitor use, smoking or dietary factors, such as consumption of coffee, yogurt, green tea, raw garlic, raw onion, honey or meat. There was a trend for higher metronidazole resistance in strains from diabetic patients. In conclusion, the extended anamnesis of H. pylori-positive patients should include data on patient age, sex, whether they are in the health-care profession, co-infections and possibly diabetes to improve the choice of empiric therapy. Tailored treatment based on the extended anamnesis is suggested, and susceptibility testing of the strains is recommended for patients at risk for antibiotic resistance, especially to clarithromycin, fluoroquinolones or both metronidazole

  5. Antibiotic resistance, phylogenetic grouping and virulence potential of Escherichia coli isolated from the faeces of intensively farmed and free range poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Akua Serwaah; Rickard, Heather; Ndi, Olasumbo; Sexton, Margaret; Barton, Mary

    2012-01-27

    Antibiotic use in poultry production is a risk factor for promoting the emergence of resistant Escherichia coli. To ascertain differences in different classes of chickens, the resistance profile, some virulence genes and phylogenetic grouping on 251 E. coli isolates from intensive meat (free range and indoor commercial) and free range egg layer chickens collected between December 2008 and June 2009 in South Australia were performed. Among the 251 strains, 102 (40.6%) and 67 (26.7%) were found to be resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin respectively. Resistance was also observed to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (12.4%), streptomycin (10.8%), spectinomycin (9.6%), neomycin (6.0%) and florfenicol (2.0%) but no resistance was found to ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin or gentamicin. Amplification of DNA of the isolates by polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of genes that code for resistant determinants: tetracycline (tet(A), tet(B) and tet(C)), ampicillin (bla(TEM) and bla(SHV)), trimethoprim (dhfrV and dhfrXIII), sulphonamide (sulI and sulII), neomycin (aph(3)-Ia(aphA1)), and spectinomycin-streptinomycin (aadA2). In addition, 32.3-39.4% of the isolates were found to belong to commensal groups (A and B1) and 11.2-17.1% belonged to the virulent groups (B2 and D). Among the 251 E. coli isolates, 25 (10.0%) carried two or more virulence genes typical of Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Furthermore, 17 of the isolates with multi-resistance were identified to be groups B2 and D. Although no significant difference was observed between isolates from free range and indoor commercial meat chickens (P>0.05), significant differences was observed between the different classes of meat chickens (free range and indoor commercial) and egg layers (P<0.05). While this study assessed the presence of a limited number of virulence genes, our study re emphasises the zoonotic potential of poultry E. coli isolates. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli from preweaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duse, Anna; Waller, Karin Persson; Emanuelson, Ulf; Unnerstad, Helle Ericsson; Persson, Ylva; Bengtsson, Björn

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate calf and farm factors associated with antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in the feces of preweaned dairy calves in Sweden. In particular, we investigated the effects of feeding calves colostrum and milk from cows treated with antimicrobials. The secondary objective was to describe the prevalence of resistant E. coli in feces of preweaned dairy calves in Sweden. Fecal samples from 3 calves, aged 7 to 28d, from 243 farms were analyzed for the within-sample prevalence of E. coli resistant to nalidixic acid, streptomycin, and cefotaxime using selective agars supplemented with antimicrobials. In addition, resistance to 12 antimicrobials was tested in one randomly selected E. coli isolate per calf. Information was collected from the farmers via questionnaires regarding the use of colostrum and milk from cows treated with antimicrobials as calf feed and other uses of antimicrobials in the herd. Multivariable zero-inflated negative binomial and logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of various risk factors for shedding of resistant E. coli. Escherichia coli resistant to streptomycin, nalidixic acid, or cefotaxime were isolated from 90, 49, and 11% of the calves, respectively. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial was found in a random isolate of E. coli from 48% of the calves. Feeding colostrum from cows treated with antimicrobials at drying off did not affect the prevalence of resistant E. coli. In contrast, feeding milk from cows treated with antimicrobials during lactation resulted in significantly more nalidixic acid- and streptomycin-resistant E. coli than when such milk was discarded; no significant effect was seen for other resistance traits. Furthermore, an interaction was found between feeding milk from cows treated with antimicrobials and use of fluoroquinolones in cows. In general, the prevalence of resistance was lower for older calves and calves on small farms. Other factors

  7. Antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in South America: history, current dissemination status and associated socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Raquel Regina; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer; Picão, Renata Cristina

    2014-04-01

    South America exhibits some of the higher rates of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobactericeae worldwide. This continent includes 12 independent countries with huge socioeconomic differences, where the ample access to antimicrobials, including counterfeit ones, coexists with ineffective health systems and sanitation problems, favoring the emergence and dissemination of resistant strains. This work presents a literature review concerning the evolution and current status of antimicrobial resistance threats found among Enterobacteriaceae in South America. Resistance to β-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides was emphasized along with description of key epidemiological studies that highlight the success of specific resistance determinants in different parts of the continent. In addition, a discussion regarding political and socioeconomic factors possibly related to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains in clinical settings and at the community is presented. Finally, in order to assess the possible sources of resistant bacteria, we compile the current knowledge about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in isolates in South American' food, food-producing animals and off-hospitals environments. By addressing that intensive intercontinental commerce and tourism neutralizes the protective effect of geographic barriers, we provide arguments reinforcing that globally integrated efforts are needed to decelerate the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identifying patients with therapy-resistant depression by using factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, K; Liest, V; Lunde, M

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attempts to identify the factor structure in patients with treatment-resistant depression have been very limited. METHODS: Principal component analysis was performed using the baseline datasets from 3 add-on studies [2 with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and one...... with transcranial pulsed electromagnetic fields (T-PEMF)], in which the relative effect as percentage of improvement during the treatment period was analysed. RESULTS: We identified 2 major factors, the first of which was a general factor. The second was a dual factor consisting of a depression subscale comprising...... the negatively loaded items (covering the pure depression items) and a treatment resistant subscale comprising the positively loaded items (covering lassitude, concentration difficulties and sleep problems). These 2 dual subscales were used as outcome measures. Improvement on the treatment resistant subscale...

  9. Investigation into the effect of common factors on rolling resistance of belt conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since indentation rolling resistance accounts for the major part of total resistance of belt conveyor, it is important to compute it using a proper method during the design and application study of the belt conveyor. First, an approximate formula for computing the indentation rolling resistance is offered. In this formula, a one-dimensional Winkler foundation and a three-parameter viscoelastic Maxwell solid model of the belt backing material are used to determine the resistance to motion of a conveyor belt over idlers. With the help of this formula, the authors analyze the effect of common factors on the rolling resistance. Finally, experiments are carried out under certain condition compared with theoretical analysis. A reasonable correlation exists between the experimental results and the theoretical formulae.

  10. Analysis of the Factors Affecting Resistance to Changes in Management Accounting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Angonese

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite changes in the environment and management accounting practices, studies indicate that management accounting systems do not change or change at a much slower rate than expected. The stability of the management accounting systems used by companies may relate to resistance to changing these systems. This study analyzes the factors that contribute to resistance to implementing an integrated management system from the perspective of institutional theory, grounded in the old institutional economics. Methodologically, this study provides a qualitative assessment of the problem and a descriptive analysis of the resistance factors through a case-study approach. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed through content analysis. Two companies were selected for this study due to their differing characteristics. The following seven factors were analyzed for resistance to implementing integrated management systems: institutional power, ontological insecurity, trust, inertia, lack of knowledge, acceptance of routines and decoupling. However, there was no evidence to characterize hierarchical power. The research findings indicate that changing management accounting systems, through the implementation of an integrated management system, faces internal resistance in these organizations. Each factor varies in intensity but is permanently present in these companies, such as ontological insecurity, trust, inertia, lack of knowledge, acceptance of routines and decoupling. These factors are awakened when the change process begins and, if they gather enough force, can stop the change.

  11. Nuclear respiratory factor-1 and bioenergetics in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radde, Brandie N.; Ivanova, Margarita M.; Mai, Huy Xuan; Alizadeh-Rad, Negin; Piell, Kellianne; Van Hoose, Patrick; Cole, Marsha P.; Muluhngwi, Penn; Kalbfleisch, Ted S. [Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Genetics, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Rouchka, Eric C. [Bioinformatics and Biomedical Computing Laboratory, Department of Computer Engineering and Computer Science, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Hill, Bradford G. [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Klinge, Carolyn M., E-mail: carolyn.klinge@louisville.edu [Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Genetics, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States)

    2016-09-10

    Acquired tamoxifen (TAM) resistance is a significant clinical problem in treating patients with estrogen receptor α (ERα)+ breast cancer. We reported that ERα increases nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), which regulates nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene transcription, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and NRF-1 knockdown stimulates apoptosis. Whether NRF-1 and target gene expression is altered in endocrine resistant breast cancer cells is unknown. We measured NRF-1and metabolic features in a cell model of progressive TAM-resistance. NRF-1 and its target mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) were higher in TAM-resistant LCC2 and LCC9 cells than TAM-sensitive MCF-7 cells. Using extracellular flux assays we observed that LCC1, LCC2, and LCC9 cells showed similar oxygen consumption rate (OCR), but lower mitochondrial reserve capacity which was correlated with lower Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit B in LCC1 and LCC2 cells. Complex III activity was lower in LCC9 than MCF-7 cells. LCC1, LCC2, and LCC9 cells had higher basal extracellular acidification (ECAR), indicating higher aerobic glycolysis, relative to MCF-7 cells. Mitochondrial bioenergetic responses to estradiol and 4-hydroxytamoxifen were reduced in the endocrine-resistant cells compared to MCF-7 cells. These results suggest the acquisition of altered metabolic phenotypes in response to long term antiestrogen treatment may increase vulnerability to metabolic stress. - Highlights: • NRF-1 and TFAM expression are higher in endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells. • Oxygen consumption rate is similar in endocrine-sensitive and resistant cells. • Mitochondrial reserve capacity is lower in endocrine-resistant cells. • Endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells have increased glycolysis. • Bioenergetic responses to E2 and tamoxifen are lower in endocrine-resistant cells.

  12. Analysis of the Factors Affecting Resistance to Changes in Management Accounting Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Angonese; Carlos Eduardo Facin Lavarda

    2014-01-01

    Despite changes in the environment and management accounting practices, studies indicate that management accounting systems do not change or change at a much slower rate than expected. The stability of the management accounting systems used by companies may relate to resistance to changing these systems. This study analyzes the factors that contribute to resistance to implementing an integrated management system from the perspective of institutional theory, grounded in the old institutional e...

  13. Use of radioisotopes in studying factors responsible for alfalfa resistance to bacterial wiltxng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanker, I.; Kudelova, A.

    1980-01-01

    Studies are summarized dealing with possible causes of vascular dysfunction and resistance of alfalfa to bacterial wilting caused by Corynebacterium insidiosum (McCull.) H.L. Jens from the physiological and biochemical points of view. Using 32 P, 35 S, 54 Mn, 45 Ca, 65 Zn, and 86 Rb the uptake, distribution, translocation, and metabolism of these elements in plants with a different resistance against diseases were investigated. The possible use is discussed of 86 Rb as a tracer of potassium. The results suggest that the resistance of alfalfa to bacterial wilting is probably determined by several factors. (author)

  14. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolates from Chicken Carcasses in Retail Markets in Yangon, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Aung Zaw; Paulsen, Peter; Pichpol, Duangporn; Fries, Reinhard; Irsigler, Herlinde; Baumann, Maximilian P O; Oo, Kyaw Naing

    2017-06-01

    A cross-sectional investigation was conducted concerning prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, multidrug resistance patterns, and serovar diversity of Salmonella in chicken meat sold at retail in Yangon, Myanmar. The 141 chicken meat samples were collected at 141 retail markets in the Yangon Region, Myanmar, 1 November 2014 to 31 March 2015. Information on hygienic practices (potential risk factors) was retrieved via checklists. Salmonella was isolated and identified according to International Organization for Standardization methods (ISO 6579:2002) with minor modifications. Twelve antimicrobial agents belonging to eight pharmacological groups were used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (disk diffusion method). Salmonella was recovered from 138 (97.9%) of the 141 samples. The isolates were most frequently resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (70.3% of isolates), tetracycline (54.3%), streptomycin (49.3%), and ampicillin (47.1%). Resistance was also found to chloramphenicol (29.7%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (17.4%), ciprofloxacin (9.4%), tobramycin (8.7%), gentamicin (8%), cefazolin (7.2%), lincomycin-spectinomycin (5.8%), and norfloxacin (0.7%). Among the 138 Salmonella isolates, 72 (52.2%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobial agents. Twenty-four serovars were identified among the 138 Salmonella-positive samples; serovars Albany, Kentucky, Braenderup, and Indiana were found in 38, 11, 10, and 8% of samples, respectively. None of the potential risk factors were significantly related to Salmonella contamination of chicken carcasses. This study provides new information regarding prevalence and antimicrobial resistance and Salmonella serovar diversity in retail markets in Yangon, Myanmar.

  15. Risk factors for antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from raw poultry meat in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuser Jürg

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The world-wide increase of foodborne infections with antibiotic resistant pathogens is of growing concern and is designated by the World Health Organization as an emerging public health problem. Thermophilic Campylobacter have been recognised as a major cause of foodborne bacterial gastrointestinal human infections in Switzerland and in many other countries throughout the world. Poultry meat is the most common source for foodborne cases caused by Campylobacter. Because all classes of antibiotics recommended for treatment of human campylobacteriosis are also used in veterinary medicine, in view of food safety, the resistance status of Campylobacter isolated from poultry meat is of special interest. Methods Raw poultry meat samples were collected throughout Switzerland and Liechtenstein at retail level and examined for Campylobacter spp. One strain from each Campylobacter-positive sample was selected for susceptibility testing with the disc diffusion and the E-test method. Risk factors associated with resistance to the tested antibiotics were analysed by multiple logistic regression. Results In total, 91 Campylobacter spp. strains were isolated from 415 raw poultry meat samples. Fifty-one strains (59% were sensitive to all tested antibiotics. Nineteen strains (22% were resistant to a single, nine strains to two antibiotics, and eight strains showed at least three antibiotic resistances. Resistance was observed most frequently to ciprofloxacin (28.7%, tetracycline (12.6%, sulphonamide (11.8%, and ampicillin (10.3%. One multiple resistant strain exhibited resistance to five antibiotics including ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. These are the most important antibiotics for treatment of human campylobacteriosis. A significant risk factor associated with multiple resistance in Campylobacter was foreign meat production compared to Swiss meat production (odds ratio = 5.7. Conclusion Compared to the situation in other

  16. Ertapenem resistance in 2 tertiary-care hospitals: Microbiology, epidemiology, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Natalia; Castro, Bibiana; Berrio, Indira; Manjarrés, Miguel; Robledo, Carlos; Robledo, Jaime

    2017-10-01

    Carbapenems resistance is a growing phenomenon and a threat to public health because of the reduced therapeutic options for resistant infections. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in 2 tertiary-care hospitals in Medellín, Colombia. Fifty patients infected with ertapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae were compared with a control group consisting of 100 patients with infections caused by ertapenem susceptible enterobacteriaceae. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors that best explain ertapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae infections. The factors associated with ertapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae infections were prior exposure to carbapenems (adjusted OR 3.43; 95% IC 1.08-10.87) and prior exposure to cefepime (adjusted OR 6.46; 95% IC 1.08-38.38). Prior exposure to antibiotics is the factor that best explains the ertapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae infection in this population, highlighting the importance of antimicrobial stewardship programs in hospitals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolation and characterization of mink lung epithelial cell mutants resistant to transforming growth factor β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinkers, M.

    1987-01-01

    Mink lung epithelial cells resistant to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) have been isolated by chemical mutagenesis and growth in the presence of platelet extracts enriched in TGF-β. Several resistant clones were isolated, at least one of which stably retained its resistance to TGF-β when grown in the absence of the factor. The cells of this clone were similar to the parent cells in morphology and growth properties. However, unlike the parent cells, the resistant cells did not show any of the following responses to 125 I TGF-β: (1) inhibition of DNA synthesis and proliferation; (2) morphological changes involving increased cell spreading; or (3) stimulation of synthesis of a 48-kilodalton secreted 35 S-protein. The resistant cells do, however, retain a functional TGF-β receptor. The TGF-β resistant cell lines may be useful in genetic studies designed to identify the biochemical events required for inhibition of epithelial cell growth by this factor

  18. The effect of environmental factors and migration dynamics on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in estuary environments

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Guangshui; Lu, Zihao; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Linxiao; Li, Qianwei; Li, Ruijing; Yang, Fan; Huo, Chuanlin; Yao, Ziwei

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the antibiotic resistance transmission mechanisms and migration dynamics of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in the natural environment is critical given the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to examine the fate of sulfonamide-resistant fecal bacteria (E. coli) in an estuary ecosystem and to explore the role and contribution of environmental factors in this process. The prevalence of sulfonamide-resistance status of E. coli was analyzed...

  19. Low back pain characterized by muscle resistance and occupational factors associated with nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Souza Petersen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the occupational factors associated with low back pain using a surveillance tool and to characterize the low back pain by the resistance of the extensor muscles of the vertebral column among nursing professionals at an Intensive Care Unit.METHODS: Cross-sectional study. The workers answered a questionnaire about occupational factors and participated in a resistance test of the extensor muscles of the vertebral column. Associations were established through Student's T-test or Mann-Whitney's U-test and correlations using Pearson's test.RESULTS: Out of 48 participants, 32 (67% suffered from low pain. For the resistance test, the subjects suffering from low back pain endured less time in comparison with asymptomatic subjects, but without significant differences (p=0.147. The duration of the pain episode showed a significant negative correlation (p=0.016 with the results of the resistance test though. The main factors identified as causes of low back pain were biomechanical and postural elements, conditions of the muscle structure and physical and organizational conditions.CONCLUSIONS: the main occupational factors associated with the low back pain were the posture and the characteristics of the physical and organizational conditions. In addition, the extensor muscles of the column showed a trend towards lesser resistance for workers in pain. This evidence is important when considering prevention and treatment strategies.

  20. Assessment of clinical risk factors for drug-resistant epilepsy in children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kasprzyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological illnesses occurring in children. In approximately 20–30% of cases it is drug-resistant. Aim of the research: To assess the already-known risk factors, analyse the rarely described ones, and find new causes of epilepsy drug resistance in children, taking into account the level of impact of each factor. Material and methods : The study comprised 152 of all 383 children hospitalised in 2012 at the Neurology Department of the Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital in Lodz due to epilepsy. Based on medical documentation, neurological examination, and our own questionnaire, we divided patients into two groups: drug-resistant epilepsy or drug-sensitive epilepsy. We compared the type, level of influence, and prevalence of different factors. For statistical analysis, the 2 test was used. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Drug-resistant epilepsy was found in 64 patients (42.1%, and drug-sensitive epilepsy was found in 88 patients (57.9%. Factors that were most probable to cause drug resistance included: high prevalence of seizures (Cramer’s V = 0.66, type of epileptic syndrome (V = 0.62, psychomotor developmental delay (V = 0.62, and occurrence of status epilepticus (V = 0.6. Factors such as infections of CNS in early childhood, repeated severe infections of airways in childhood, and mother’s infectious diseases with high fever during pregnancy were rare or non occurring (Cramer’s V = 0.41, 0.32, and 0.31, respectively. Conclusions : The study confirmed the previously known causes of drug resistance and indicated the significance of underestimated inflammatory and infectious factors involving pyrexia, in children and also in mothers during pregnancy.

  1. pncA gene expression and prediction factors on pyrazinamide resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Patricia; Lozano, Katherine; Gilman, Robert H; Valencia, Hugo J; Loli, Sebastian; Fuentes, Patricia; Grandjean, Louis; Zimic, Mirko

    2013-09-01

    Mutations in the pyrazinamidase (PZAse) coding gene, pncA, have been considered as the main cause of pyrazinamide (PZA) resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, recent studies suggest there is no single mechanism of resistance to PZA. The pyrazinoic acid (POA) efflux rate is the basis of the PZA susceptibility Wayne test, and its quantitative measurement has been found to be a highly sensitive and specific predictor of PZA resistance. Based on biological considerations, the POA efflux rate is directly determined by the PZAse activity, the level of pncA expression, and the efficiency of the POA efflux pump system. This study analyzes the individual and the adjusted contribution of PZAse activity, pncA expression and POA efflux rate on PZA resistance. Thirty M. tuberculosis strains with known microbiological PZA susceptibility or resistance were analyzed. For each strain, PZAse was recombinantly produced and its enzymatic activity measured. The level of pncA mRNA was estimated by quantitative RT-PCR, and the POA efflux rate was determined. Mutations in the pncA promoter were detected by DNA sequencing. All factors were evaluated by multiple regression analysis to determine their adjusted effects on the level of PZA resistance. Low level of pncA expression associated to mutations in the pncA promoter region was observed in pncA wild type resistant strains. POA efflux rate was the best predictor after adjusting for the other factors, followed by PZAse activity. These results suggest that tests which rely on pncA mutations or PZAse activity are likely to be less predictive of real PZA resistance than tests which measure the rate of POA efflux. This should be further analyzed in light of the development of alternate assays to determine PZA resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Topical fluoroquinolone use as a risk factor for in vitro fluoroquinolone resistance in ocular cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintelmann, Robert E; Hoskins, Eliza N; Lietman, Thomas M; Keenan, Jeremy D; Gaynor, Bruce D; Cevallos, Vicky; Acharya, Nisha R

    2011-04-01

    To determine whether recent use of topical fluoroquinolones is a risk factor for in vitro fluoroquinolone resistance in Staphylococcus aureus ocular isolates. Disk diffusion susceptibility testing for ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin was performed for all ocular isolates of S aureus at the Francis I. Proctor Foundation microbiology laboratory from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2008. The medical records of patients with positive S aureus cultures were reviewed to determine topical or systemic fluoroquinolone use within the 3 months prior to culture. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the proportion of patients who used topical fluoroquinolones in the past 3 months among fluoroquinolone-sensitive and -resistant cases. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for fluoroquinolone resistance. Of 200 S aureus cultures, 41 were resistant to ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin (20.5%). Fluoroquinolone-resistant S aureus isolates were from older patients (mean [SD] age, 65.5 [25.0] years) compared with fluoroquinolone-susceptible isolates (mean [SD] patient age, 52.1 [22.1] years) (P = .003). Use of fluoroquinolones within the 3 months before testing was more frequent in resistant isolates (29%) than in susceptible isolates (11%) (P = .005), as was recent hospitalization (22% of resistant isolates, 0% of susceptible isolates) (P fluoroquinolone use within 3 months was a significant predictor of fluoroquinolone resistance (P = .046), along with age, systemic immunosuppression, and topical fluoroquinolone use between 3 and 6 months before testing. Recent topical fluoroquinolone use is significantly associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in S aureus isolates from ocular cultures.

  3. OBESITY-RELATED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AFTER LONG- TERM RESISTANCE TRAINING AND GINGER SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvan Atashak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its metabolic consequences are major risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, lifestyle interventions, including exercise training and dietary components may decrease cardiovascular risk. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger supplementation and progressive resistance training on some cardiovascular risk factors in obese men. In a randomized double-blind design, 32 obese Iranian men (BMI > 30 were assigned in to one of four groups: Placebo (PL, n = 8; ginger group (GI, n = 8 that consumed 1 gr ginger/d for 10 wk; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL, n = 8; and 1gr ginger plus resistance exercise (RTGI, n = 8. Progressive resistance training was performed three days per week for 10 weeks and included eight exercises. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition and anthropometric indices were measured. To identify other risk factors, venous blood samples were obtained before and 48-72 hours after the last training session for measurement of blood lipids (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, systemic inflammation (CRP, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. After 10 weeks both RTGI and RTPL groups showed significant decreases in waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, body fat percent, body fat mass, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance (p < 0.05 and a significant increase in fat free mass (FFM (p < 0.05, while it remained unchanged in PL and GI. Further, significant decreases in the mean values of CRP were observed in all groups except PL (p < 0.05. Our results reveal that resistance training is an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk in obese Iranian men. Further, ginger supplementation alone or in combination with resistance training, also reduces chronic inflammation. However more research on the efficacy of this supplement to reduce cardiovascular risk in humans is required.

  4. Liver-derived systemic factors drive β-cell hyperplasia in insulin resistant states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Kawamori, Dan; Dirice, Ercument; Liew, Chong Wee; Shadrach, Jennifer L.; Hu, Jiang; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Qian, Weijun; Wagers, Amy J.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.

    2013-02-21

    Integrative organ cross-talk regulates key aspects of energy homeostasis and its dysregulation may underlie metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. To test the hypothesis that cross-talk between the liver and pancreatic islets modulates β-cell growth in response to insulin resistance, we used the Liver-specific Insulin Receptor Knockout (LIRKO) mouse, a unique model that exhibits dramatic islet hyperplasia. Using complementary in vivo parabiosis and transplantation assays, and in vitro islet culture approaches, we demonstrate that humoral, non-neural, non-cell autonomous factor(s) induce β-cell proliferation in LIRKO mice. Furthermore, we report that a hepatocyte-derived factor(s) stimulates mouse and human β-cell proliferation in ex vivo assays, independent of ambient glucose and insulin levels. These data implicate the liver as a critical source of β-cell growth factors in insulin resistant states.

  5. Virulence factors and antibiotic resistance in children with Helicobacter pylori gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabiber, Hamza; Selimoglu, Mukadder A; Otlu, Baris; Yildirim, Ozge; Ozer, Ali

    2014-05-01

    There are limited data regarding the pattern of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) antibiotic resistance and virulence factors in children. Evaluation of prevalence of drug resistance and virulence-factor genotype in children with Hp gastritis and to investigate whether there is any relation between drug resistance and genotype were our aims in this study. Ninety-eight children with polymerase chain reaction-positive Hp gastritis were included. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disc diffusion method and polymerase chain reaction assays were used for the determination of virulence factors. The resistance rates to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin were 23.5%, 11.7%, and 3.9%, respectively. All strains carried vacA genotype, and 51%, 70.4%, 49%, 34.7%, and 25.5% were cagA-, cagE-, babA2-, iceA1-, and iceA2-positive, respectively. Of those 98 specimens, 81.6%, 19.4%, 38.8%, and 63.3% carried vacAs1, vacAs2, vacAm1, and vacAm2, respectively. Dominant vacA type was s1am2 (32.7%), followed by s1am1 (14.3%) and s2m2 (12.2%). Significant rates of clarithromycin resistance were observed in cagE-, iceA1-, babA2-, and vacAs1c-positive groups. In those with metronidazole resistance, vacAs1 and vacAs1c were more common (P < 0.05). The cagE-positive and vacA s1a/m2 genotypes, which are correlated with increased antibiotic resistance, were predominant in our population. In countries where Hp infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  6. Insulin resistance and associated factors: a cross-sectional study of bank employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaroli, Luciane Bresciani; Cattafesta, Monica; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Zandonade, Eliana; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2017-04-01

    Insulin resistance is characterized by the failure of target cells to respond to normal levels of circulating insulin, and this condition is related to cardiovascular disease. This study sought to evaluate the prevalence of insulin resistance and its association with markers of metabolic abnormalities and metabolic syndrome in bank employees. A cross-sectional study was performed on 498 working men and women aged ≥20 years old. The Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) was used to determine the presence of insulin resistance based on cut-off values of ≤2.71 for normal insulin levels and >2.71 for insulin resistance, as established for the adult Brazilian population. It was observed that the 52 (10.4%) overweight individuals with insulin resistance were 4.97 times (95%CI 1.31-18.83) more likely to have high HOMA-IR values than the normal-weight participants; among those who were obese, the likelihood increased to 17.87 (95%CI 4.36-73.21). Individuals with large waist circumferences were 3.27 times (95%CI 1.03-10.38) more likely to develop insulin resistance than those who were within normal parameters. The HOMA-IR values differed between subjects with and without metabolic syndrome, with values of 2.83±2.5 and 1.10±0.81 (p=0.001), respectively. The levels of insulin, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein and uric acid were also associated with insulin resistance. The prevalence of insulin resistance among bank employees is high, and insulin resistance is associated with and serves as a marker of metabolic syndrome. Cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome-associated metabolic abnormalities were observed, and insulin resistance may be a risk factor in this group of professionals.

  7. Engineered reversal of drug resistance in cancer cells--metastases suppressor factors as change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Akinchan; Mann, Anita; Aggarwal, Suruchi; Kumar, Maneesh; Roy, Sumitabho Deb; Pore, Subrata Kumar; Banerjee, Rajkumar; Mahesh Kumar, Jerald; Thakur, Ram Krishna; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2014-01-01

    Building molecular correlates of drug resistance in cancer and exploiting them for therapeutic intervention remains a pressing clinical need. To identify factors that impact drug resistance herein we built a model that couples inherent cell-based response toward drugs with transcriptomes of resistant/sensitive cells. To test this model, we focused on a group of genes called metastasis suppressor genes (MSGs) that influence aggressiveness and metastatic potential of cancers. Interestingly, modeling of 84 000 drug response transcriptome combinations predicted multiple MSGs to be associated with resistance of different cell types and drugs. As a case study, on inducing MSG levels in a drug resistant breast cancer line resistance to anticancer drugs caerulomycin, camptothecin and topotecan decreased by more than 50-60%, in both culture conditions and also in tumors generated in mice, in contrast to control un-induced cells. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of engineered reversal of drug resistance in cancer cells based on a model that exploits inherent cellular response profiles.

  8. Appendectomy as a Risk Factor for Bacteremic Biliary Tract Infection Caused by Antibiotic-Resistant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki Kawanishi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Recent evidence has suggested that appendix plays a pivotal role in the development and preservation of intestinal immune system. The aim of this study is to examine whether prior appendectomy is associated with an increased risk for the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in bacteremia from biliary tract infection (BTI. Methods. Charts from 174 consecutive cases of bacteremia derived from BTI were retrospectively reviewed. Using multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were identified among the clinical parameters, including a history of appendectomy. Results. In total, 221 bacteria strains were identified from 174 BTI events. Of those, 42 antibiotic-resistant bacteria were identified in 34 patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that prior appendectomy (Odds ratio (OR, 3.02; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.15–7.87; p=0.026, antibiotic use within the preceding three months (OR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.26–7.64; p=0.013, and bilioenteric anastomosis or sphincterotomy (OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.51–9.66; p=0.0046 were independent risk factors for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Conclusions. Prior appendectomy was an independent risk factor for the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in bacteremia from BTI.

  9. Assessment of seismic response reduction factor for moment resisting RC frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishanth, M.; Visuvasam, J.; Simon, J.; Packiaraj, J. S.

    2017-11-01

    The response reduction factor or response modification factor (R) plays an important role in the non-linear response of the moment resisting reinforced concrete (RC) frames. Implementing this factor in the design, accounts for the non-linear response of a structure. The study emphasizes on evaluating the actual values of the response reduction factor for moment resisting RC frames. The estimation of this factor is carried out by performing a detailed non-linear static pushover analysis of 2D framed structures of both ductile and ordinary moment resisting frames.Different parameters considered for the study includes variation of height of the structure, the zone factor and considering the effect of geometric non-linearity of the structure in the analysis. The results indicate that the values of R as given by the codes are of higher degree. From the analysis, arelationship between R-T-Z has been studied. It is found that the values of over-strength, ductility and response reduction factors are highly affected by seismic zones and time period of the structure.

  10. Obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors after long- term resistance training and ginger supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashak, Sirvan; Peeri, Maghsoud; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Stannard, Stephen Robert; Haghighi, Marjan Mosalman

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and its metabolic consequences are major risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, lifestyle interventions, including exercise training and dietary components may decrease cardiovascular risk. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger supplementation and progressive resistance training on some cardiovascular risk factors in obese men. In a randomized double-blind design, 32 obese Iranian men (BMI ≥ 30) were assigned in to one of four groups: Placebo (PL, n = 8); ginger group (GI, n = 8) that consumed 1 gr ginger/d for 10 wk; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL, n = 8); and 1gr ginger plus resistance exercise (RTGI, n = 8). Progressive resistance training was performed three days per week for 10 weeks and included eight exercises. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition and anthropometric indices were measured. To identify other risk factors, venous blood samples were obtained before and 48-72 hours after the last training session for measurement of blood lipids (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG), systemic inflammation (CRP), and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). After 10 weeks both RTGI and RTPL groups showed significant decreases in waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body fat percent, body fat mass, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in fat free mass (FFM) (p < 0.05), while it remained unchanged in PL and GI. Further, significant decreases in the mean values of CRP were observed in all groups except PL (p < 0.05). Our results reveal that resistance training is an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk in obese Iranian men. Further, ginger supplementation alone or in combination with resistance training, also reduces chronic inflammation. However more research on the efficacy of this supplement to reduce cardiovascular risk in humans is required. Key points Long- term resistance training reduced cardiovascular risk factors in obese men

  11. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α induces multidrug resistance protein in colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Y

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Yingqian Lv, Shan Zhao, Jinzhu Han, Likang Zheng, Zixin Yang, Li Zhao Department of Oncology, The Second Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Multidrug resistance is the major cause of chemotherapy failure in many solid tumors, including colon cancer. Hypoxic environment is a feature for all solid tumors and is important for the development of tumor resistance to chemotherapy. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α is the key transcription factor that mediates cellular response to hypoxia. HIF-1α has been shown to play an important role in tumor resistance; however, the mechanism is still not fully understood. Here, we found that HIF-1α and the drug resistance-associated gene multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1 were induced by treatment of colon cancer cells with the hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride. Inhibition of HIF-1α by RNA interference and dominant-negative protein can significantly reduce the induction of MRP1 by hypoxia. Bioinformatics analysis showed that a hypoxia response element is located at -378 to -373 bp upstream of the transcription start site of MRP1 gene. Luciferase reporter assay combined with mutation analysis confirmed that this element is essential for hypoxia-mediated activation of MRP gene. Furthermore, RNA interference revealed that HIF-1α is necessary for this hypoxia-driven activation of MRP1 promoter. Importantly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that HIF-1α could directly bind to this HRE site in vivo. Together, these data suggest that MRP1 is a downstream target gene of HIF-1α, which provides a potential novel mechanism for HIF-1α-mediated drug resistance in colon cancer and maybe other solid tumors as well. Keywords: hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, multidrug resistance associated protein, transcriptional regulation, chemotherapy tolerance

  12. Carriage of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in dogs: Prevalence, associated risk factors and molecular characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedley, Amy L; Dawson, Susan; Maddox, Thomas W; Coyne, Karen P; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Clegg, Peter; Nuttall, Tim; Kirchner, Miranda; Williams, Nicola J

    2017-02-01

    Resistance to antimicrobials, in particular that mediated by extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamases are frequently reported in bacteria causing canine disease as well as in commensal bacteria, which could be a potential health risk for humans they come into contact with. This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence and investigate the molecular characteristics of ESBL and plasmid encoded AmpC (pAmpC)-producing E. coli in the mainland UK vet-visiting canine population and, using responses from detailed questionnaires identify factors associated with their carriage. Faecal samples were cultured for antimicrobial resistant (AMR), ESBL and pAmpC-producing E. coli. A subset of ESBL and pAmpC-producing isolates were subjected to multi-locus sequence typing and DNA microarray analyses. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to construct models to identify risk factors associated with multidrug resistant (MDR, resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes), fluoroquinolone resistant, ESBL and AmpC-producing E. coli. AMR E.coli were isolated from 44.8% (n=260) of samples, with 1.9% and 7.1% of samples carrying ESBL and pAmpC-producing E. coli, respectively. MDR E. coli were identified in 18.3% of samples. Recent use of antimicrobials and being fed raw poultry were both identified as risk factors in the outcomes investigated. A number of virulence and resistance genes were identified, including genes associated with extra-intestinal and enteropathogenic E. coli genotypes. Considering the close contact that people have with dogs, the high levels of AMR E. coli in canine faeces may be a potential reservoir of AMR bacteria or resistance determinants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Risk factors for antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae and characteristics of patients infected with gonorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes de Vega, Irene; Baliu-Piqué, Carola; Bosch Mestres, Jordi; Vergara Gómez, Andrea; Vallés, Xavier; Alsina Gibert, Mercè

    2018-03-01

    There are very few data available regarding risk factors associated with antibiotic resistant-Neisseria gonorrhoeae. A study was conducted on 110 samples from 101 patients with gonococcal infection, in order to describe their characteristics and compare them with the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of their samples. An association was observed between resistant infections and heterosexual men, older age, concurrent sexually transmitted infection, and unsafe sexual behaviors. There is a need for improved data on the risk factors associated with antibiotic resistant gonococcal infection in order to identify risk groups, and to propose public health strategies to control this infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. Complexity of Complement Resistance Factors Expressed by Acinetobacter baumannii Needed for Survival in Human Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Larrayoz, Amaro F; Elhosseiny, Noha M; Chevrette, Marc G; Fu, Yang; Giunta, Peter; Spallanzani, Raúl G; Ravi, Keerthikka; Pier, Gerald B; Lory, Stephen; Maira-Litrán, Tomás

    2017-10-15

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a bacterial pathogen with increasing impact in healthcare settings, due in part to this organism's resistance to many antimicrobial agents, with pneumonia and bacteremia as the most common manifestations of disease. A significant proportion of clinically relevant A. baumannii strains are resistant to killing by normal human serum (NHS), an observation supported in this study by showing that 12 out of 15 genetically diverse strains of A. baumannii are resistant to NHS killing. To expand our understanding of the genetic basis of A. baumannii serum resistance, a transposon (Tn) sequencing (Tn-seq) approach was used to identify genes contributing to this trait. An ordered Tn library in strain AB5075 with insertions in every nonessential gene was subjected to selection in NHS. We identified 50 genes essential for the survival of A. baumannii in NHS, including already known serum resistance factors, and many novel genes not previously associated with serum resistance. This latter group included the maintenance of lipid asymmetry genetic pathway as a key determinant in protecting A. baumannii from the bactericidal activity of NHS via the alternative complement pathway. Follow-up studies validated the role of eight additional genes identified by Tn-seq in A. baumannii resistance to killing by NHS but not by normal mouse serum, highlighting the human species specificity of A. baumannii serum resistance. The identification of a large number of genes essential for serum resistance in A. baumannii indicates the degree of complexity needed for this phenotype, which might reflect a general pattern that pathogens rely on to cause serious infections. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs - prevalence, risk factors and transmission dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, an association between human carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and contact with pigs was found. To assess the implications of this finding for veterinary and public health more insight into the prevalence, risk factors and transmission dynamics of this so-called

  16. Load and resistance factor rating (LRFR) in NYS : volume I final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report develops a Load and Resistance Factor Rating (NYS-LRFR) methodology for New York bridges. The methodology is applicable for the rating of existing bridges, the posting of under-strength bridges, and checking Permit trucks. The proposed LR...

  17. Load and resistance factor rating (LRFR) in NYS : volume II final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report develops a Load and Resistance Factor Rating (NYS-LRFR) methodology for New York bridges. The methodology is applicable for the rating of existing bridges, the posting of under-strength bridges, and checking Permit trucks. The proposed LR...

  18. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: critical role in obesity, insulin resistance, and associated comorbidities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemann, R.; Bucala, R.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, disturbed glucose homeostasis, low grade inflammation, and comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an ubiquitously expressed protein that plays a crucial role in many

  19. Risk Factors for Nosocomial Bacterremia Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pujol (Miquel); C. Pena; R. Pallares (Roman); J. Ayats (Josefina); J. Ariza (Javier); F. Gudiol (Francesc)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn a prospective surveillance study (February 1990–December 1991) performed at a 1000-bed teaching hospital to identify risk factors for nosocomial methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia, 309 patients were found to be colonized (n=103; 33 %) or infected (n=206; 67

  20. Livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs - prevalence, risk factors and transmission dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, an association between human carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and contact with pigs was found. To assess the implications of this finding for veterinary and public health more insight into the prevalence, risk factors and transmission dynamics of

  1. Genetic, environmental and cultural factors influencing the resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola) in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simón, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    KeyWord:Genetic, environmental and cultural factors influencing the resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella

  2. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance and quinolone resistance factors in high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates obtained from fresh produce and fecal samples of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Chan; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2017-07-01

    The emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococci is worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance was characterized and the effect of quinolone-resistance factors was analyzed in high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant (HLCR) Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from fresh produce and fecal samples of patients. Among the 81 ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterococcus isolates, 46 showed high levels of ciprofloxacin resistance, resistance to other quinolone antibiotics, and multidrug resistance profiles. The virulence factors esp and hyl were identified in 27 (58.7%) and 25 (54.3%) of isolates, respectively. Sequence type analysis showed that 35 strains of HLCR E. faecium were clonal complex 17. Eleven strains of HLCR E. faecalis were confirmed as sequence type (ST) 28, ST 64 and ST 125. Quinolone resistance-determining region mutation was identified in HLCR Enterococcus isolates; with serine being changed in gyrA83, gyrA87 and parC80. This result shows that gyrA and parC mutations could be important factors for high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones. No significant differences were observed in antimicrobial resistance patterns and genetic characteristics among the isolates from fresh produce and fecal samples. Therefore, good agricultural practices in farming and continuous monitoring of patients, food and the environment for Enterococcus spp. should be performed to prevent antimicrobial resistance and enable reduction of resistance rates. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. The Composition and Spatial Patterns of Bacterial Virulence Factors and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in 19 Wastewater Treatment Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bing; Xia, Yu; Wen, Xianghua; Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance are of concern for environmental safety and public health. Accumulating evidence suggests that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are as an important sink and source of pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Virulence genes (encoding virulence factors) are good indicators for bacterial pathogenic potentials. To achieve a comprehensive understanding of bacterial pathogenic potentials and antibiotic resistance in WWTPs, bacterial vir...

  4. Antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in Escherichia coli from poultry farms, southwest Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelowo, Olawale O.; Fagade, Obasola E.; Agersø, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the mechanisms of resistance in 36 E. coli isolated from waste, litter, soil and water samples collected from poultry farms in Southwestern Nigeria. Methodology: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions of the isolates were determined using...... the methods of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute and resistance genes detected by PCR. Results: A total of 30 isolates (94%) showed resistance to more than one antimicrobial. Percentage resistance was: tetracycline 81%, sulphamethoxazole 67%, streptomycin 56%, trimethoprim 47 %, ciprofloxacin 42......%, ampicillin 36%, spectinomycin 28%, nalidixic acid 25%, chloramphenicol 22%, neomycin 14%, gentamicin 8%, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, colistin, florfenicol and apramycin 0%. Resistance genes found among the isolates include bla-TEM (85%), sul2 (67%), sul3 (17%), aadA (65%), strA (70%), str...

  5. Resistance to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerman, Peter S; Jänne, Pasi A; Johnson, Bruce E

    2009-12-15

    Gefitinib and erlotinib are ATP competitive inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase and are approved around the world for the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Somatic mutations in the EGFR are found in 10 to 40% of patients with NSCLC. Patients with sensitizing somatic mutations of EGFR treated with gefitinib or erlotinib have an initial clinical response of 60 to 80%, approximately twice as high as the responses associated with the administration of conventional platinum-based chemotherapy. However, the efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) is limited by either primary (de novo) or acquired resistance after therapy and investigations to define the mechanisms of resistance are active areas of ongoing preclinical and clinical studies. Primary resistance is typically caused by other somatic mutations in genes such as KRAS, which also have an impact on the EGFR signaling pathway or by mutations in the EGFR gene that are not associated with sensitivity to EGFR-TKIs. Two established mechanisms of acquired resistance are caused by additional mutations in the EGFR gene acquired during the course of treatment that change the protein-coding sequence or by amplification of another oncogene signaling pathway driven by the MET oncogene. This review focuses on characterized mechanisms of resistance to the EGFR TKIs and efforts to overcome the problem of resistance aimed at improving the therapy of patients with NSCLC. (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(24):7502-9).

  6. Tcf3 and cell cycle factors contribute to butyrate resistance in colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaro, Christopher; Lazarova, Darina L.; Bordonaro, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate mechanisms responsible for butyrate resistance in colon cancer cells. ► Tcf3 modulates butyrate’s effects on Wnt activity and cell growth in resistant cells. ► Tcf3 modulation of butyrate’s effects differ by cell context. ► Cell cycle factors are overexpressed in the resistant cells. ► Reversal of altered gene expression can enhance the anti-cancer effects of butyrate. -- Abstract: Butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, inhibits clonal growth in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells dependent upon the fold induction of Wnt activity. We have developed a CRC cell line (HCT-R) that, unlike its parental cell line, HCT-116, does not respond to butyrate exposure with hyperactivation of Wnt signaling and suppressed clonal growth. PCR array analyses revealed Wnt pathway-related genes, the expression of which differs between butyrate-sensitive HCT-116 CRC cells and their butyrate-resistant HCT-R cell counterparts. We identified overexpression of Tcf3 as being partially responsible for the butyrate-resistant phenotype, as this DNA-binding protein suppresses the hyperinduction of Wnt activity by butyrate. Consequently, Tcf3 knockdown in HCT-R cells restores their sensitivity to the effects of butyrate on Wnt activity and clonal cell growth. Interestingly, the effects of overexpressed Tcf3 differ between HCT-116 and HCT-R cells; thus, in HCT-116 cells Tcf3 suppresses proliferation without rendering the cells resistant to butyrate. In HCT-R cells, however, the overexpression of Tcf3 inhibits Wnt activity, and the cells are still able to proliferate due to the higher expression levels of cell cycle factors, particularly those driving the G 1 to S transition. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms determining the variable sensitivity of CRC cells to butyrate may assist in developing approaches that prevent or reverse butyrate resistance.

  7. Tcf3 and cell cycle factors contribute to butyrate resistance in colorectal cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiaro, Christopher, E-mail: cchiaro@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States); Lazarova, Darina L., E-mail: dlazarova@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States); Bordonaro, Michael, E-mail: mbordonaro@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States)

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate mechanisms responsible for butyrate resistance in colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulates butyrate's effects on Wnt activity and cell growth in resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulation of butyrate's effects differ by cell context. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell cycle factors are overexpressed in the resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversal of altered gene expression can enhance the anti-cancer effects of butyrate. -- Abstract: Butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, inhibits clonal growth in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells dependent upon the fold induction of Wnt activity. We have developed a CRC cell line (HCT-R) that, unlike its parental cell line, HCT-116, does not respond to butyrate exposure with hyperactivation of Wnt signaling and suppressed clonal growth. PCR array analyses revealed Wnt pathway-related genes, the expression of which differs between butyrate-sensitive HCT-116 CRC cells and their butyrate-resistant HCT-R cell counterparts. We identified overexpression of Tcf3 as being partially responsible for the butyrate-resistant phenotype, as this DNA-binding protein suppresses the hyperinduction of Wnt activity by butyrate. Consequently, Tcf3 knockdown in HCT-R cells restores their sensitivity to the effects of butyrate on Wnt activity and clonal cell growth. Interestingly, the effects of overexpressed Tcf3 differ between HCT-116 and HCT-R cells; thus, in HCT-116 cells Tcf3 suppresses proliferation without rendering the cells resistant to butyrate. In HCT-R cells, however, the overexpression of Tcf3 inhibits Wnt activity, and the cells are still able to proliferate due to the higher expression levels of cell cycle factors, particularly those driving the G{sub 1} to S transition. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms determining the variable sensitivity of CRC cells to butyrate may assist in developing approaches that

  8. The risk factors, etiology, and drug resistance of infection after plastic surgery, and corresponding measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangning; Zhang, Suhong

    2017-12-01

    Explore the risk factors, etiology, and drug resistance of infection after plastic surgery, and present corresponding measures. We retrospectively analyzed 980 patients who underwent head and facial plastic surgery from January 2013 to December 2015. Postoperative infection occurred in 169 patients. We analyzed the distribution of pathogenic bacteria in patients undergoing plastic surgery, reviewed the drug resistance of Gram negative (G-) bacteria and Gram positive (G+) bacteria, and analyzed the effects of surgical duration, prophylactic use of antibacterial agents, length of stay (LOS), and preoperative hair removal on infection after plastic surgery. G+ bacteria (mainly Staphylococcus aureus) accounted for 45.6%, while G- bacteria (mainly Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae) accounted for 54.4% of total pathogenic bacteria in patients undergoing plastic surgery. The most commonly resistant antibacterial agents of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and cefotaxime; the most commonly resistant antibacterial agents of Klebsiella pneumoniae were sulfamethoxazole and gentamicin. The most commonly resistant antibacterial agents of Staphylococcus aureus were penicillin G, ampicillin, and sulfamethoxazole; for coagulase-negative staphylococcus, the most commonly resistant antibacterial agents were also penicillin G, ampicillin, and sulfamethoxazole. Both Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcus were sensitive to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Multi-factor logistic regression analysis showed that surgical duration >3 hours, no prophylactic use of antibacterial agents, and LOS>7 days were independent risk factors for postoperative infection. G- bacteria were more prevalent in infections after plastic surgery, and most bacteria were sensitive to imipenem and meropenem. Strict control of surgical duration, short LOS, intraoperative prophylactic use of antibacterial agents, and no preoperative hair removal were important

  9. Role of Transcription Factor Modifications in the Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is characterized by fat accumulation in the liver not due to alcohol abuse. NAFLD is accompanied by variety of symptoms related to metabolic syndrome. Although the metabolic link between NAFLD and insulin resistance is not fully understood, it is clear that NAFLD is one of the main cause of insulin resistance. NAFLD is shown to affect the functions of other organs, including pancreas, adipose tissue, muscle and inflammatory systems. Currently efforts are being made to understand molecular mechanism of interrelationship between NAFLD and insulin resistance at the transcriptional level with specific focus on post-translational modification (PTM of transcription factors. PTM of transcription factors plays a key role in controlling numerous biological events, including cellular energy metabolism, cell-cycle progression, and organ development. Cell type- and tissue-specific reversible modifications include lysine acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, and SUMOylation. Moreover, phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation on serine and threonine residues have been shown to affect protein stability, subcellular distribution, DNA-binding affinity, and transcriptional activity. PTMs of transcription factors involved in insulin-sensitive tissues confer specific adaptive mechanisms in response to internal or external stimuli. Our understanding of the interplay between these modifications and their effects on transcriptional regulation is growing. Here, we summarize the diverse roles of PTMs in insulin-sensitive tissues and their involvement in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.

  10. Induction of tumor necrosis factor expression and resistance in a human breast tumor cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Spriggs, D; Imamura, K; Rodriguez, C; Horiguchi, J; Kufe, D W

    1987-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a polypeptide cytokine that is cytotoxic to some but not all tumor cells. The basis for resistance to the cytotoxic effects of this agent remains unclear. We have studied the development of TNF resistance in human ZR-75-1 breast carcinoma cells. ZR-75-1 cells have undetectable levels of TNF RNA and protein. However, TNF transcripts are transiently induced in these cells by exposure to recombinant human TNF. This induction of TNF RNA is associated with production...

  11. First nationwide study regarding ceftriaxone resistance and molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Chun; Yin, Yue-Ping; Dai, Xiu-Qin; Unemo, Magnus; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major public health concern worldwide. This is the first nationwide study, performed within the China Gonococcal Antimicrobial Susceptibility Programme (China-GASP), regarding AMR, including ceftriaxone genetic resistance determinants, and molecular epidemiology of gonococci in China. Gonococcal isolates (n = 1257) from consecutive patients were collected at 11 sentinel sites distributed across China during 2012-13. Susceptibility to ceftriaxone, spectinomycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline was determined using the agar dilution method. Ceftriaxone resistance determinants penA and penB were examined using sequencing. N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) was performed for molecular epidemiology. Among isolates, 0.2% were resistant to spectinomycin, 4.4% to ceftriaxone, 42.9% to tetracyclines (high-level resistance) and 99.8% to ciprofloxacin. Among 890 sequenced isolates, 16 (1.8%) possessed a penA mosaic allele; 4 of these isolates belonged to the MDR internationally spread NG-MAST genogroup G1407 (first description in China). Non-mosaic penA alleles with an A501T mutation and an A102D alteration in porB1b were statistically associated with decreased susceptibility/resistance to ceftriaxone. NG-MAST G10339, G1424 and G1053 were associated with decreased susceptibility/resistance to ceftriaxone. In China, ceftriaxone and spectinomycin can continue to be recommended for gonorrhoea treatment, with the possible exception of Hainan and Sichuan provinces where ceftriaxone resistance exceeded 5% and AMR surveillance needs to be strengthened. Molecular approaches including genotyping and AMR determinant analysis can be valuable to supplement and enhance conventional surveillance of gonococcal AMR in China. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Factors Affecting Dissolution Resistance of AC Anodizing Al in Sodium Carbonate Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Krisha, M.

    2001-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine the effect of different factors on the properties and so the dissolution resistance of the anodic film of Al. Conductance and thermometric measurements were applied to evaluate the dissolution rate. The effect of applied AC voltage concentration of sodium carbonate solution, the anodization time and the temperature of sodium carbonate solutions show a parallel increase in the dissolution resistance of studied Al in hydrochloride acid. The results show that films formed by sodium carbonate solution were of porous type and have pronounced high resistance. Scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction further examined the films. The anodic and cathodic behavior and the effect of the scanning rate on the polarization of Al in sodium carbonate solution were studied. The regression analysis was applied to all results. (Author)

  13. Relationship between increased serum tumor necrosis factor levels and insulin resistance in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weimin; Li Jinliang; Huang Yongqiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels and insulin resistance (IR) in patients with essential by pertension. Methods: Serum TNF-α and free insulin (fINS)levels were measured with RIA in 41 patients with essential hypertension and 38 controls. Insulin resistance was calculated with insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Results: The serum TNF-α levels were significantly higher in patients with essential hypertension than those in the controls (P<0.001). The HOMA-IR was also significantly higher in hypertension group than that in controls (P<0.001). Serum TNF-α levels was positively correlated with BMI, HOMA-IR and SBP both in hypertension group and control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum TNF-α level was increased in hypertensive patients and positively correlated with obesity and IR. (authors)

  14. Risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisa Fregona

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study of cases of tuberculosis tested for first-line drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin in Espírito Santo between 2002 and 2012. We have used laboratory data and registration of cases of tuberculosis – from the Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação and Sistema para Tratamentos Especiais de Tuberculose. Individuals have been classified as resistant and non-resistant and compared in relation to the sociodemographic, clinical, and epidemiological variables. Some variables have been included in a logistic regression model to establish the factors associated with resistance. RESULTS In the study period, 1,669 individuals underwent anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing. Of these individuals, 10.6% showed resistance to any anti-tuberculosis drug. The rate of multidrug resistance observed, that is, to rifampicin and isoniazid, has been 5%. After multiple analysis, we have identified as independent factors associated with resistant tuberculosis: history of previous treatment of tuberculosis [recurrence (OR = 7.72; 95%CI 4.24–14.05 and re-entry after abandonment (OR = 3.91; 95%CI 1.81–8.43], smoking (OR = 3.93; 95%CI 1.98–7.79, and positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the time of notification of the case (OR = 3.22; 95%CI 1.15–8.99. CONCLUSIONS The partnership between tuberculosis control programs and health teams working in the network of Primary Health Care needs to be strengthened. This would allow the identification and monitoring of individuals with a history of previous treatment of tuberculosis and smoking. Moreover, the expansion of the offer of the culture of tuberculosis and anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing would provide greater diagnostic capacity for the resistant types in Espírito Santo.

  15. Vitamin C deficiency aggravates tumor necrosis factor α-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Zhou; Xiao-Hui, Wu; Xi-Mei, Wu; Chao-Chun, Zou

    2018-04-03

    Chronic low-grade inflammation plays a major role in the development of insulin resistance. The potential role and underlying mechanism of vitamin C, an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, was investigated in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced insulin resistance. Gulonolactone oxidase knockout (Gulo -/- ) mice genetically unable to synthesize vitamin C were used to induce insulin resistance by continuously pumping small doses of TNF-α for seven days, and human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2 cells) were used to induce insulin resistance by treatment with TNF-α. Vitamin C deficiency aggravated TNF-α-induced insulin resistance in Gulo -/- mice, resulting in worse glucose tolerance test (GTT) results, higher fasting plasma insulin level, and the inactivation of the protein kinase B (AKT)/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) pathway in the liver. Vitamin C deficiency also worsened liver lipid accumulation and inflammation in TNF-α-treated Gulo -/- mice. In HepG2 cells, vitamin C reversed the TNF-α-induced reduction of glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, which were mediated by increasing GLUT2 levels and the activation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1)/AKT/GSK3β pathway. Furthermore, vitamin C inhibited the TNF-α-induced activation of not only the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), but also nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. Taken together, vitamin C is essential for preventing and improving insulin resistance, and the supplementing with vitamin C may be an effective therapeutic intervention for metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Searching for factors associated with resistance to acetylsalicylic acid used for secondary prevention of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łabuz-Roszak, Beata; Pierzchała, Krystyna; Niewiadomska, Ewa; Skrzypek, Michał; Machowska-Majchrzak, Agnieszka

    2015-03-16

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of resistance to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), used for secondary prevention of stroke, including the assessment of risk factors associated with the lack of ASA anti-aggregatory action. Patients after a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or ischaemic stroke in the acute (n = 111) and chronic phase (n = 87) were enrolled in the study. The assessment of platelet function was performed by whole blood impedance aggregometry using a multi-channel platelet function analyser (Multiplate). A proper response to ASA was found in 121 patients (61.1%) (ASA responders), a partial response to ASA in 59 patients (29.8%) (ASA partial responders), and ASA resistance in 18 patients (9.1%) (ASA non-responders). Acetylsalicylic acid resistance was observed more frequently in the chronic phase. The mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration was higher in ASA non-responders (p = 0.02). The mean heart rate (p = 0.03) and the mean haematocrit (p = 0.03) were higher in the group of ASA partial responders and ASA non-responders. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists were more often used in the group of ASA partial responders and ASA non-responders (p = 0.04). Diuretics were more rarely used by ASA non-responders, whereas fibrates were more rarely used by ASA partial responders. The method enabled the detection of ASA resistance in some patients with cerebrovascular disease. The study revealed some possible risk factors of ASA resistance: long ASA therapy, increased heart rate, higher LDL concentration, and higher haematocrit value. The relationship between the effect of ASA and other medications (angiotensin II receptor blockers, fibrates, diuretics) requires further study. Platelet function monitoring should be considered in patients at a greater risk of ASA resistance.

  17. Risk factors and timing of default from treatment for non-multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, H E; Ciobanu, A; Plesca, V; Crudu, V; Galusca, I; Soltan, V; Cohen, T

    2013-03-01

    The Republic of Moldova, in Eastern Europe, has among the highest reported nationwide proportions of tuberculosis (TB) patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) worldwide. Default has been associated with increased mortality and amplification of drug resistance, and may contribute to the high MDR-TB rates in Moldova. To assess risk factors and timing of default from treatment for non-MDR-TB from 2007 to 2010. A retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data on all non-MDR-TB patients reported. A total of 14.7% of non-MDR-TB patients defaulted from treatment during the study period. Independent risk factors for default included sociodemographic factors, such as homelessness, living alone, less formal education and spending substantial time outside Moldova in the year prior to diagnosis; and health-related factors such as human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, greater lung pathology and increasing TB drug resistance. Anti-tuberculosis treatment is usually initiated within an institutional setting in Moldova, and the default risk was highest in the month following the phase of hospitalized treatment (among civilians) and after leaving prison (among those diagnosed while incarcerated). Targeted interventions to increase treatment adherence for patients at highest risk of default, and improving the continuity of care for patients transitioning from institutional to community care may substantially reduce risk of default.

  18. ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE AND PUTATIVE VIRULENCE FACTORS OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA ISOLATED FROM ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aim to investigate antibiotics resistance profile and putative virulence factors of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from estuary. Bacteria used for this study were isolated from water and sediment samples obtained from Sungai Melayu, Johor, Malaysia. Serially diluted 100 µL water and 1g sediment were inoculated on modified Rimler - Shott (mRS agar. Colonies with distinct cultural characteristics were picked for further studies. Isolates were tested for biofilm productions, protease enzyme and antibiotics resistance profile using agar well diffusion method against 10 commercial antibiotics. Congo Red Agar (CRA, Microplate and Standard Tube (ST methods were used for assessment of biofilm formation among the isolates while Skim Milk Agar was used for protease production. Sw.KMJ 3 and Sw.KMJ 9 produced black crystalline colonies on CRA. Six of the isolates were biofilm producers in ST method. Result of Microplate method, helped in grouping the isolates into weak (n = 8, moderate (n = 3 and strong producers (n = 4 at 540 nm wavelength. All the isolates were classified as weak ODc  ODi 0.1, moderate ODi = 0.1  0.12 and strong producers ODi  0.12 respectively at 540 nm wavelength. Antibiotics susceptibility test also revealed that all the isolates were resistant to between 6 and 10 antibiotics. Two isolates each were resistant to 6 (60 %, 7 (70 % and 9 (90 % antibiotics respectively. Eight of the isolates showed resistance to 8 (80 % antibiotics while only isolate Sw.KMJ-7 showed resistance to all the tested antibiotics. Sw.KMJ-3, Sw.KMJ-8 and Sw.KMJ-9 produced protease enzyme on SMA. The isolates were also found to be resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  19. Virulence factors and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Shigella strains from periurban areas of Lima (Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluque, Angela; Mosquito, Susan; Gomes, Cláudia; Riveros, Maribel; Durand, David; Tilley, Drake H; Bernal, María; Prada, Ana; Ochoa, Theresa J; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed to describe the serotype, mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance, and virulence determinants in Shigella spp. isolated from Peruvian children. Eighty three Shigella spp. were serogrouped and serotyped being established the antibiotic susceptibility. The presence of 12 virulence factors (VF) and integrase 1 and 2, along with commonly found antibiotic resistance genes was established by PCR. S. flexneri was the most relevant serogroup (55 isolates, 66%), with serotype 2a most frequently detected (27 of 55, 49%), followed by S. boydii and S. sonnei at 12 isolates each (14%) and S. dysenteriae (four isolates, 5%). Fifty isolates (60%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR) including 100% of S. sonnei and 64% of S. flexneri. Resistance levels were high to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (86%), tetracycline (74%), ampicillin (67%), and chloramphenicol (65%). Six isolates showed decreased azithromycin susceptibility. No isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, or ceftriaxone. The most frequent resistance genes were sul2 (95%), tet(B) (92%), cat (80%), dfrA1 (47%), blaOXA-1like (40%), with intl1 and intl2 detected in 51 and 52% of the isolates, respectively. Thirty-one different VF profiles were observed, being the ipaH (100%), sen (77%), virA and icsA (75%) genes the most frequently found. Differences in the prevalence of VF were observed between species with S. flexneri isolates, particularly serotype 2a, possessing high numbers of VF. In conclusion, this study highlights the high heterogeneity of Shigella VF and resistance genes, and prevalence of MDR organisms within this geographic region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Function of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in cancer resistance to chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jingsheng; Yin, Zhijie; Tao, Kaixiong; Wang, Guobing; Gao, Jinbo

    2018-01-01

    Drug resistance is a primary cause of chemotherapeutic failure; however, how this resistance develops is complex. A comprehensive understanding of chemotherapeutic resistance mechanisms may aid in identifying more effective drugs and improve the survival rates of patients with cancer. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), a member of the insulin receptor family, has been extensively assessed for biological activity, and its putative contribution to tumor cell development and progression. Furthermore, researchers have attended to drugs that target IGF1R since IGF1R functions as a membrane receptor. However, how IGF1R participates in chemotherapeutic resistance remains unclear. Therefore, the present study described the IGF1R gene and its associated signaling pathways, and offered details of IGF1R-induced tumor chemoresistance associated with promoting cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, regulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins and interactions with the extracellular matrix. The present study offered additional explanations for tumor chemotherapy resistance and provided a theoretical basis of IGF1R and its downstream pathways for future possible chemotherapy treatment options.

  1. Lifestyle and environmental factors associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Mirghaffari, Nourollah; Poursafa, Parinaz; Gidding, Samuel S

    2009-03-01

    Reaching a better understanding of the modifiable factors associated with inflammatory and oxidative biomarkers in children would be relevant to the design of further investigation and prevention strategies. To determine the association of air pollution as well as dietary and physical activity habits with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance for the first time in a population-based sample of children. We conducted a population-based study of 374 children, aged 10-18 years, and assessed the exposure of participants to air pollutants as well as their dietary and physical activity habits. In addition to anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, we determined the fasting serum levels of lipid profile, insulin and markers of inflammation and oxidation. We found independent associations between improper air quality and plasma markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. The Pollutant Standard Index (PSI) and the level of fine particulate matter were significantly associated to all biomarkers studied. The associations between different markers of air pollutants and markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, waist circumference, healthy eating index and physical activity level. The association of healthy eating score with CRP and insulin resistance was mediated through anthropometric indices, and physical activity had independent association with insulin resistance. The independent influence of inflammatory/oxidative mechanisms of air pollution effects on surrogate markers of atherosclerosis from early life should be highlighted.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus in dogs with keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPinto, Alexander J; Mohammed, Hussni O; Ledbetter, Eric C

    2015-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS) isolation in dogs with naturally acquired bacterial keratitis. All Staphylococcus spp. isolated from corneal samples of dogs with keratitis during a 2-year period were evaluated for methicillin resistance by bacteriologic methods. Each MRS isolate was subjected to in vitro susceptibility testing for systemic and ocular antimicrobials. Nasal swabs for culture were collected from all dogs with MRS corneal isolation to evaluate for nasal carrier status. Potential risk factors for MRS isolation were investigated by medical record review and administration of an epidemiological survey to dog owners. Collected information characterizing animal, client, and environmental variables was analyzed for association with MRS isolation. Seventy-one Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from seventy individual dogs with keratitis during the study period. Seventeen of the Staphylococcus isolates (23.9%) were methicillin resistant. The MRS isolates included Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 10), Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (n = 6), and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 1). The MRS corneal isolates displayed extensive antimicrobial resistance. Four dogs (23.5%) with MRS corneal isolates had positive nasal cultures for MRS. Client occupation was significantly (P = 0.01) associated with MRS isolation, and dogs belonging to owners employed in veterinary or human healthcare fields were four times more likely to have MRS keratitis than dogs owned by clients with different professions. There were no significant associations between the other evaluated animal, client, and environmental factors. Methicillin resistance is relatively common in Staphylococcus isolates from dogs with corneal infections, particularly among dogs belonging to healthcare workers. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. Drug use and antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulianne, Martine; Arsenault, Julie; Daignault, Danielle; Archambault, Marie; Letellier, Ann; Dutil, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted of chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered at federal processing plants in the province of Quebec, Canada. The objectives were to estimate prevalence of drug use at hatchery and on farm and to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in cecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates and factors associated with AMR. Eighty-two chicken flocks and 59 turkey flocks were sampled. At the hatchery, the most used antimicrobial was ceftiofur in chickens (76% of flocks) and spectinomycin in turkeys (42% of flocks). Virginiamycin was the antimicrobial most frequently added to the feed in both chicken and turkey flocks. At least 1 E. coli isolate resistant to third-generation cephalosporins was present in all chicken flocks and in a third of turkey flocks. Resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole was detected in > 90% of flocks for E. coli isolates. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was observed to bacitracin, erythromycin, lincomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and tetracycline in both chicken and turkey flocks for Enterococcus spp. isolates. No resistance to vancomycin was observed. The use of ceftiofur at hatchery was significantly associated with the proportion of ceftiofur-resistant E. coli isolates in chicken flocks. In turkey flocks, ceftiofur resistance was more frequent when turkeys were placed on litter previously used by chickens. Associations between drug use and resistance were observed with tetracycline (turkey) in E. coli isolates and with bacitracin (chicken and turkey), gentamicin (turkey), and tylosin (chicken) in Enterococcus spp. isolates. Further studies are needed to provide producers and veterinarians with alternative management practices and tools in order to reduce the use of antimicrobial feed additives in poultry.

  4. IQGAP1 Protein Binds Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) and Modulates Trastuzumab Resistance*

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Colin D.; Li, Zhigang; Dillon, Deborah A.; Sacks, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in 20–25% of breast cancers. Increased HER2 expression is an adverse prognostic factor and correlates with decreased patient survival. HER2-positive (HER2(+)) breast cancer is treated with trastuzumab. Unfortunately, some patients are intrinsically refractory to therapy, and many who do respond initially become resistant within 1 year. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying HER2 signaling and trastuzumab resistance is essential to reduce breast cancer mortality. IQGAP1 is a ubiquitously expressed scaffold protein that contains multiple protein interaction domains. By regulating its binding partners IQGAP1 integrates signaling pathways, several of which contribute to breast tumorigenesis. We show here that IQGAP1 is overexpressed in HER2(+) breast cancer tissue and binds directly to HER2. Knockdown of IQGAP1 decreases HER2 expression, phosphorylation, signaling, and HER2-stimulated cell proliferation, effects that are all reversed by reconstituting cells with IQGAP1. Reducing IQGAP1 up-regulates p27, and blocking this increase attenuates the growth inhibitory effects of IQGAP1 knockdown. Importantly, IQGAP1 is overexpressed in trastuzumab-resistant breast epithelial cells, and reducing IQGAP1 both augments the inhibitory effects of trastuzumab and restores trastuzumab sensitivity to trastuzumab-resistant SkBR3 cells. These data suggest that inhibiting IQGAP1 function may represent a rational strategy for treating HER2(+) breast carcinoma. PMID:21724847

  5. The effect of environmental factors and migration dynamics on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in estuary environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Guangshui; Lu, Zihao; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Linxiao; Li, Qianwei; Li, Ruijing; Yang, Fan; Huo, Chuanlin; Yao, Ziwei

    2018-01-26

    Understanding the antibiotic resistance transmission mechanisms and migration dynamics of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in the natural environment is critical given the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to examine the fate of sulfonamide-resistant fecal bacteria (E. coli) in an estuary ecosystem and to explore the role and contribution of environmental factors in this process. The prevalence of sulfonamide-resistance status of E. coli was analyzed over different seasons in two estuary systems. Environmental factors and disturbance indices of anthropogenic activities were evaluated by detecting antibiotic concentrations, heavy metal abundance and other physicochemical parameters. The abundances of antibiotic-resistant E. coli were significantly attenuated during land-sea migration suggesting that estuary environments play a natural mitigation role in the contamination of freshwaters by antibiotic-resistant E. coli. Additionally, environmental factors and disturbance indices of anthropogenic activities significantly correlated with the distribution and migration of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in the estuaries. Lastly, simulation experiments suggested differential adaptability between antibiotic-resistant and non-resistant E. coli towards environmental changes in estuary environments. Meanwhile, our results indicate that low concentrations of antibiotics will not increase the competitive advantage of resistant E. coli in estuaries.

  6. Virulence factors, antimicrobial resistance, and plasmid content of Escherichia coli isolated in swine commercial farms

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,M.M.; Drescher,G.; Maboni,F; Weber,S.S.; Schrank,A.; Vainstein,M.H.; Schrank,I.S.; Vargas,A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolates were evaluated. A total of 80 E. coli isolates were evaluated, being 64 from clinical samples (intestinal content and fragments of organs from diarrheic piglets), seven from feces of clinically healthy piglets and sows, and nine environmental samples (five from facilities, two from feed, one from insect, and one from waste). Molecular characterization was performed by PCR detection of fimbriae and toxin genes...

  7. Risk factors associated with the antimicrobial resistance of staphylococci in canine pyoderma

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta, Belén; Maldonado, Alfonso; Ginel, Pedro J.; Tarradas, Carmen; Gómez-Gascón, Lidia; Astorga, Rafael J.; Luque, Inmaculada

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study reports the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of staphylococci (n=105) isolated from dogs, and the factors associated with this resistance. The study animals were 23 healthy dogs (group A), 24 with first-time pyoderma (group B), and 27 with recurrent pyoderma that had undergone long-term antibiotic treatment (group C). Staphylococci were more commonly isolated from the pyoderma-affected than the healthy dogs (p , Spain.--> - (Huerta, Be...

  8. Risk factors for drug-resistant pathogens in immunocompetent patients with pneumonia: Evaluation of PES pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Tadashi; Ito, Akihiro; Washio, Yasuyoshi; Yamazaki, Akio; Noyama, Maki; Tokioka, Fumiaki; Arita, Machiko

    2017-01-01

    The new acronym, PES pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-positive, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), was recently proposed to identify drug-resistant pathogens associated with community-acquired pneumonia. To evaluate the risk factors for antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in immunocompetent patients with pneumonia and to validate the role of PES pathogens. A retrospective analysis of a prospective observational study of immunocompetent patients with pneumonia between March 2009 and June 2015 was conducted. We clarified the risk factors for PES pathogens. Of the total 1559 patients, an etiological diagnosis was made in 705 (45.2%) patients. PES pathogens were identified in 51 (7.2%) patients, with 53 PES pathogens (P. aeruginosa, 34; ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae, 6; and MRSA, 13). Patients with PES pathogens had tendencies toward initial treatment failure, readmission within 30 days, and a prolonged hospital stay. Using multivariate analysis, female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.998, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.047-3.810), admission within 90 days (AOR 2.827, 95% CI 1.250-6.397), poor performance status (AOR 2.380, 95% CI 1.047-5.413), and enteral feeding (AOR 5.808, 95% CI 1.813-18.613) were independent risk factors for infection with PES pathogens. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the risk factors was 0.66 (95% CI 0.577-0.744). We believe the definition of PES pathogens is an appropriate description of drug-resistant pathogens associated with pneumonia in immunocompetent patients. The frequency of PES pathogens is quite low. However, recognition is critical because they can cause refractory pneumonia and different antimicrobial treatment is required. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk factors for drug-resistant pathogens in community-acquired and healthcare-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Yuichiro; Ito, Ryota; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Ando, Masahiko; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Shiraki, Akira; Goto, Yasuhiro; Fukui, Yasutaka; Iwaki, Mai; Okumura, Junya; Yamaguchi, Ikuo; Yagi, Tetsuya; Tanikawa, Yoshimasa; Sugino, Yasuteru; Shindoh, Joe; Ogasawara, Tomohiko; Nomura, Fumio; Saka, Hideo; Yamamoto, Masashi; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Ryujiro; Saito, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Takashi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2013-10-15

    Identification of patients with drug-resistant pathogens at initial diagnosis is essential for treatment of pneumonia. To elucidate clinical features of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP), and to clarify risk factors for drug-resistant pathogens in patients with CAP and HCAP. A prospective observational study was conducted in hospitalized patients with pneumonia at 10 institutions in Japan. Pathogens identified as not susceptible to ceftriaxone, ampicillin-sulbactam, macrolides, and respiratory fluoroquinolones were defined as CAP drug-resistant pathogens (CAP-DRPs). In total, 1,413 patients (887 CAP and 526 HCAP) were analyzed. CAP-DRPs were more frequently found in patients with HCAP (26.6%) than in patients with CAP (8.6%). Independent risk factors for CAP-DRPs were almost identical in patients with CAP and HCAP. These included prior hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-3.43), immunosuppression (AOR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.05-5.11), previous antibiotic use (AOR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.51-3.98), use of gastric acid-suppressive agents (AOR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.39-3.57), tube feeding (AOR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.18-5.00), and nonambulatory status (AOR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.40-4.30) in the combined patients with CAP and HCAP. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for counting the number of risk factors was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.74-0.84). The clinical profile of HCAP was different from that of CAP. However, physicians can predict drug resistance in patients with either CAP or HCAP by taking account of the cumulative number of the risk factors. Clinical trial registered with https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr.cgi?function=brows&action=brows&type=summary&recptno=R000004001&language=E ; number UMIN000003306.

  10. Accelerating the Diffusion of Wind Power: An Analysis of Resistance Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a combination of learning-by-doing (LBD) and benefitcost analysis (BCA) using a Dynamic Programming method with stochastic assumption analysis to identify factors of resistance to the diffusion of wind turbine generators. To do so, we must take into consideration that there is a "waiting option" while -- assuming the LBD concept in operation -- the price comes down in a competitive market. The application of the stochastic and dynamic programming model usi...

  11. Vigilants Factor of Childhood Urinary Tract Infections and Antibiotic Resistance in One Tourism Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Aydemir

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Nowadays, it has become quite difficult to set on empiric treatment of the urinary tract infections (UTI due to the levels of antibiotic resistance showing local differences. In our study, we aimed to find out what the antibiotic resistance, the region factors of UTI and we also wanted to observe wheather this resistance shows differences betwen diffirent age groups. METHOD: In this study we made inquiry of six questions with patient parents about region factors effects of UTI. Two hundred children who applied to pediatrics policlinic of Ahu Hetman Hospital with urinary system complaints or diagnosed to have (UTI while hospitalizing and with positive urinary culture results were included in the study. There were no known chronic disorders or no frequent recurrence of UTI history in the patients. The subjects were divided into three groups as 1 under 1 year old; 2 between 1-6 years old; 3 over 6 years old. Then the frequency of the pathogens was examined in terms of the resistance levels occurring against the antibiotics. RESULTS: The range of age the patients was between 1 and 192 months. The reproducing pathogens were Escherichiacoli 86% (n=172, Klebsiella pneumoniae 8% (n=16, Proteus mirabilis 4% (n=8 and Enterococcus spp 2% (n=4 respectively. While there was high resistance to amoxycilline (75.8%, ureidopenicillines (%46.4, 1st generation cephalosporin, (48.4% and cotrimaksazole (43.1%; there was low resistance to imipenem (1.7%, amicasin (5.6% and 3rd generation cephalosporins (14.7%. According to thes age groups, in Group 1 (¡U12 months the most effective agents were netilmicine (13%, gentamicine (13% and ceftriakson (17%; in addition to these, we can add cefuroxim-axetil (22.7% in Group 2 (12-72 months and nitrofrantoin (11% in Group 3. Under 1 year old groups didn't include this inquiry about UTL in tourism region. We made this study with a hundred seventy pation's parents ( upper of one year children than we observed some of

  12. Moving Aerospace Structural Design Practice to a Load and Resistance Factor Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Curtis E.; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2016-01-01

    Aerospace structures are traditionally designed using the factor of safety (FOS) approach. The limit load on the structure is determined and the structure is then designed for FOS times the limit load - the ultimate load. Probabilistic approaches utilize distributions for loads and strengths. Failures are predicted to occur in the region of intersection of the two distributions. The load and resistance factor design (LRFD) approach judiciously combines these two approaches by intensive calibration studies on loads and strength to result in structures that are efficient and reliable. This paper discusses these three approaches.

  13. Factors influencing overweight children's commencement of and continuation in a resistance training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuigan Michael R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In light of the child overweight and obesity problem in Australia, resistance training programs have been trialled as an innovative way of assisting children increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing overweight children's participation in a resistance training trial program. Method Parent-child pairs who participated in the trial program were invited to take part in a follow-up individual interview to discuss their program experiences. In total, 22 semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 parent-child pairs. Results The factors found to be most relevant to program commencement among parents were a desire for their child to lose weight and gain confidence, the proximity of the venue, and no cost for participation. For children, the most relevant factors were the opportunity to build strength and improve fitness and having supportive parents who facilitated program initiation. The factors most relevant to continuation for parents were the quality of the program management, being able to stay for the sessions, the child's improved weight status, coordination, and confidence, and no cost for participation. Weight loss and improved confidence were also motivators for continuation among the children, along with pleasant social interaction with peers and trainers and ongoing parental support. Conclusion Different factors variably influence program commencement and program continuation in both parents and children. This has important implications for future interventions that aim to successfully recruit and retain intervention participants.

  14. Proposed risk factors for infection with multidrug-resistant pathogens in hemodialysis patients hospitalized with pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Uk; Park, Hye Kyeong; Kang, Hyung Koo; Lee, Jonghoo

    2017-10-12

    In patients with hemodialysis-associated pneumonia (HDAP), information on both microbiologic features and antimicrobial strategies is limited. The aim of this study is to investigate predictive factors of infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens in HDAP patients. This was a multicenter, retrospective, and observational study. Enrolled patients were classified into MDR or non-MDR pathogens groups according to culture results. We examined risk factors of infection with MDR pathogens and created a decision support tool using these risk factors. MDR pathogens were identified in 24 (22.8%) out of a total of 105 HDAP patients. The most common MDR pathogens were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (10 patients, 9.5%) and the isolation rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 6.6%. Logistic regression showed two variables were associated with the isolation of MDR pathogens: recent hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.951, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.022-8.518) and PSI (Pneumonia Severity Index) score (adjusted OR: 1.023, 95% CI: 1.005-1.041). The optimal cut-off value for PSI score using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was 147. According to the presence of 0, 1, or 2 of the identified risk factors, the prevalence of MDR pathogens was 7.6, 28.2 and 64.2%, respectively (p  147 are risk factors of infection with MDR pathogens in HDAP patients. This simple proposed tool would facilitate more accurate identification of MDR pathogens in these patients.

  15. High prevalence of primary multidrug resistant tuberculosis in persons with no known risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Otero

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In high multidrug resistant (MDR tuberculosis (TB prevalence areas, drug susceptibility testing (DST at diagnosis is recommended for patients with risk factors for MDR. However, this approach might miss a substantial proportion of MDR-TB in the general population. We studied primary MDR in patients considered to be at low risk of MDR-TB in Lima, Peru. METHODS: We enrolled new sputum smear-positive TB patients who did not report any MDR-TB risk factor: known exposure to a TB patient whose treatment failed or who died or who was known to have MDR-TB; immunosuppressive co-morbidities, ex prison inmates; prison and health care workers; and alcohol or drug abuse. A structured questionnaire was applied to all enrolled participants to confirm the absence of these factors and thus minimize underreporting. Sputum from all participants was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen media and DST for first line drugs was performed using the 7H10 agar method. RESULTS: Of 875 participants with complete data, 23.2% (203 had risk factors for MDR-TB elicited after enrolment. Among the group with no reported risk factors who had a positive culture, we found a 6.3% (95%CI 4.4-8.3 (37/584 rate of MDR-TB. In this group no epidemiological characteristics were associated with MDR-TB. Thus, in this group, multidrug resistance occurred in patients with no identifiable risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high rate of primary MDR-TB in a general population with no identifiable risk factors for MDR-TB. This suggests that in a high endemic area targeting patients for MDR-TB based on the presence of risk factors is an insufficient intervention.

  16. DETERMINATION OF THE ISSUE CONCERNING THE LIFT RESISTANCE FACTOR OF LIGHTWEIGHT CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The analytical study of the connection between the longitudinal force, acting on the light-weight car, lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail» with the lift resistance factor value is to provide a simple relationships between them. Methodology. Research was conducted by the method of mathematical modeling of loading the freight car when driving at different speeds on straight and curved sections of a track. Findings. Even in the absence of «lift» accordingly the classical train stability theory, as the hinge-rod system, the presence of the longitudinal compressive forces may become a factor provoking cars derailment. The main reason of wheel climbing on rails is the combination of processes of dynamic interaction between the hunting vehicle and the track with simultaneous action of longitudinal compressive forces, and not the destabilization of train as a hingedrod system. To assess the impact of the longitudinal forces value on the lift resistance factor there are presented the calculation results for the empty gondola car motion, model No. 12-532, on 250 m radius curve with 150 mm rise and cross starting of car underframe relating to the track axis in 50 mm guiding section. The calculations were made in such a curve excluding the inertial forces from outstanding acceleration and taking into account the unbalanced acceleration with the permissible speed of 65 km/h. Originality. This study provides the technique of determining the lift resistance factor by longitudinal forces, which is somewhat different from the standard one, as well as evaluates impact of rolling stock speed on this factor. Practical value. The authors clarify the current method of determining the lift resistance factor by longitudinal forces and assess the impact of rolling stock speed on the value of this factor. From these studies one can conclude that because of cars hunting their lift is possible even when the train as

  17. Gene blaCTX-M Mutation as Risk Factor of Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinna Kang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are more than half from all antibiotics used in the world which is belong to β lactam group, but clinical effectiveness of the antibiotics are limited by antibiotic resistance of microorganisms as causative agents from infectious diseases. Several resistance mechanisms for Enterobacteriaceae are mostly caused by enzymatic hydrolysis of antibiotics specific enzymes, called β lactamases. β lactamases represent a large group of enzyme which is genetically and functionally different as extended‑spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL and known as greatest threat of resistence. Plasmid localization from the encoded gene and enzyme distribution among the pathogen increases every year. Most widespread and clinically relevant ESBL are class A ESBL of Temoniera (TEM, Sulphydryl variable (SHV and Cefotaxime (CTX-M types. The purpose of this review was to analyze variant of blaCTX-M gene which cause the most increase incidence of antibiotic resistance. The methods of this review were data-based searching based on Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar, without limitation of index factor by using the keyword “blaCTX-M”, “Extended-spectrum β-lactamase”, and “antibiotic resistance”. The conclusion of the review is CTX-M type ESBL have replaced TEM and SHV type as dominant enzyme in last decade. ESBL produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae have emerged as one of major nosocomial pathogens. Nosocomial infection caused by CTX-M-15 in Klebsiella pneumoniae dramatically increased in recent years.

  18. Phylogenetic group, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli associated with bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongxia; Liu, Gang; Liu, Wenjun; Liu, Yong; Ali, Tariq; Chen, Wei; Yin, Jinhua; Han, Bo

    2014-05-01

    Escherichia coli is an important pathogen involved in the etiology of bovine mastitis. A total of 70 E. coli isolates recovered from clinical and subclinical mastitis samples were characterized with respect to their phylogenic group, virulence factors and antimicrobial susceptibility. Based on the presence of the specific genes chuA, yjaA and TspE4.C2, these isolates were found to belong to three different groups: group A(25), group B1(41) and group D(4). Twenty-five (35.7%) isolates harbored at least one virulence gene, and the most prevalent virulence genes were f17A, irp2, astA, iucD and colV. The irp2-coding gene was more often detected in group A than in group B1 isolates; in contrast, colV was identified more often in group B1 isolates. The majority of isolates (87.1%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial compound. Forty-seven isolates (67.1%) were resistant to streptomycin, and those from group B1 were more resistant to streptomycin than isolates from group A. The latter feature was supported by the distribution of streptomycin resistance genes observed in group B1 compared to group A. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonization in pediatric and neonatal intensive care units: risk factors for progression to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Hacer; Sutcu, Murat; Somer, Ayper; Aydın, Derya; Cihan, Rukiye; Ozdemir, Aslı; Coban, Asuman; Ince, Zeynep; Citak, Agop; Salman, Nuran

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about factors associated with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections in pediatric patients, who are initally colonized with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. A retrospective case-control study was conducted involving pediatric and neonatal intensive care units throughout a five-year period (January 2010-December 2014). Clinical and microbiological data were extracted from Hospital Infection Control Committee reports and patients' medical records. Risk factors were assessed in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonized patients who developed subsequent systemic infection (cases) and compared to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonized patients who did not develop infection (controls). Throughout the study period, 2.6% of patients admitted to neonatal intensive care units and 3.6% of patients admitted to pediatric intensive care units had become colonized with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. After a mean of 10.6±1.9 days (median: 7 days, range: 2-38 days) following detection of colonization, 39.0% of the carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonized patients in pediatric intensive care units and 18.1% of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonized patients in neonatal intensive care units developed systemic carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Types of systemic carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections included bacteremia (n=15, 62.5%), ventilator-associated pneumonia (n=4, 16.6%), ventriculitis (n=2, 8.3%), intraabdominal infections (n=2, 8.3%), and urinary tract infection (n=1, 4.1%). A logistic regression model including parameters found significant in univariate analysis of carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonization and carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection groups revealed underlying metabolic disease (OR: 10.1; 95% CI: 2.7-37.2), previous carbapenem use (OR: 10.1; 95% CI: 2.2-40.1), neutropenia (OR: 13.8; 95% CI: 3

  20. Risk factors for incident type 2 diabetes in individuals with a BMI of Resistance Syndrome (DESIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, A; Balkau, B; Lange, C; Tichet, J; Bonnet, F

    2010-02-01

    Risk factors for incident type 2 diabetes, in particular, hepatic markers, have rarely been studied in leaner individuals. We aimed to identify the metabolic and hepatic markers associated with incident diabetes in men and women with a BMI of or=27 kg/m(2). Risk factors for 9 year incident diabetes were compared in the French Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) cohort. Comparisons were made between the 2,947 participants with a BMI of or=27 kg/m(2). There were 92 incident cases of diabetes in individuals with a BMI of or=27 kg/m(2). Among those who were not markedly overweight, classical biological markers were associated with 9 year incident diabetes, glycaemia being the strongest predictor. gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), either considered as a continuous variable or at levels >or=20 U/l, was associated with incident diabetes, with a stronger effect in the BMI or=27 kg/m(2) (results after adjustment for alcohol intake, alanine aminotransferase, waist circumference and the HOMA insulin resistance index). In individuals with a BMI of resistance, suggesting potential interactions between GGT, enhanced hepatic neoglucogenesis and/or early alterations of insulin secretion.

  1. Distinctive Risk Factors and Phenotype of Younger Patients With Resistant Hypertension: Age Is Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Lama; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A; Lin, Chee Paul; Dudenbostel, Tanja

    2017-05-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure >140/90 mm Hg despite using ≥3 antihypertensive medications, is a well-recognized clinical entity. Patients with resistant hypertension are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those with more easily controlled hypertension. Coronary heart disease mortality rates of younger adults are stagnating or on the rise. The purpose of our study was to characterize the phenotype and risk factors of younger patients with resistant hypertension, given the dearth of data on cardiovascular risk profile in this cohort. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis with predefined age groups of a large, ethnically diverse cohort of 2170 patients referred to the Hypertension Clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Patients (n=2068) met the inclusion criteria and were classified by age groups, that is, ≤40 years (12.7% of total cohort), 41 to 55 years (32.1%), 56 to 70 years (36.1%), and ≥71 years (19.1%). Patients aged ≤40 years compared with those aged ≥71 years had significantly earlier onset of hypertension (24.7±7.4 versus 55.0±14.1 years; P hypertension, younger individuals have a distinct phenotype characterized by overlapping risk factors and comorbidities, including obesity, high aldosterone, and high dietary sodium intake compared with elderly. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Changes of plasma angiogenic factors during chronic resistance exercise in type 1 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esfahani, S.P.; Gharakhanlou, R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Exercise has several beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. However, the exact mechanism is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic resistance exercise on some plasma angiogenic factors in type 1 diabetic rats. Methodology: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of control, diabetic and diabetic trained (n = 10 each). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The rats in the trained group undertook one training session per day, 3 days/week, for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken and the concentrations of plasma glucose, lipid profile, nitric oxide (NO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and soluble form of VEGF receptor-1 (sFlt-1) were determined. Results: We found a significant reduction in plasma NO concentrations in diabetic rats compared to the controls (p 0.05). There were no significant differences in plasma VEGF and sFlt-1 concentrations between diabetic sedentary and trained groups (p > 0.05). Moreover, VEGF/sFlt-1 ratios in diabetic animals were lower than the control group and resistance exercise could not increase this ratio in diabetic animals (p > 0.05) Conclusion: Resistance exercise could not change plasma VEGF, sFlt-1 and VEGF/sFlt-1 ratio. However, it increased plasma NO concentrations in diabetic animals. More studies are needed to determine the effects of this type of exercise on the angiogenesis process. (author)

  3. Molecular Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections in Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP poses an immediate threat to treatment worldwide. This retrospective study assessed the molecular epidemiology and determined the risk factors for and outcomes of CRKP infections in a general teaching hospital in Shanghai, China.Methods: From January 2013 to July 2015, 100 consecutive unique CRKP isolates isolated from hospitalized patients were collected. Isolates were screened for antibiotic resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction and molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Patients infected with CRKP comprised the case group and were compared to the control group of patients infected with carbapenem-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae. Therapeutic effects were compared in the CRKP infection group.Results: Among the 100 CRKP isolates, the percentages of multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant (XDR, and pandrug-resistant were 50.0, 50.0, and 0%, respectively. All the CRKP isolates produced KPC-2 and could be divided into 18 PFGE clusters (A–O and 70 subtypes. No dominant intra-hospital PFGE type was detected using a cutoff of 80% similarity. The ratio of CRKP infection to colonization was 51 to 49. Risk factors correlated with CRKP infection included pulmonary disease (p = 0.038, ICU stay (p = 0.002, invasive ventilation (p = 0.009, blood transfusion (p = 0.028, parenteral nutrition (p = 0.004, sputum suction (p = 0.006, medical history of previous hospitalization (p = 0.022, exposure to antibiotics 90 days before infection (p = 0.030, and antibiotic exposure during hospital stay including carbapenems (p = 0.013, enzyme inhibitors (p = 0.021, nitroimidazoles (p = 0.029, and glycopeptides (p = 0.000. Multivariable analysis showed that sputum suction (odds ratio 3.090, 95% confidence intervals 1.004–9.518, p = 0.049 was an independent risk factor for CRKP infections. Patients infected with CRKP with longer

  4. Chemical plant factors affecting resistance in sugarcane in against Scirpophaga Nivella f

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, M.; Khan, A.; Ali, A.

    2003-01-01

    The study was conducted during 2000 to determine the role of various chemical plant factors viz., total minerals, nitrogen, fat contents, carbohydrate, macro an micro nutrients in the leaves of five genotypes of sugarcane i.e., BF-162, SPSG-26, L-118, CP-43/33 and CP-72/2086 by correlating the infestation of top borer, Scirpophaga Nivella F. at tillering stage. None of the genotype was found completely resistant to the pest. CP-43/33 and BF-162 proved susceptible and resistant varieties, respectively. Total mineral, manganese and copper contents did not show significant correlation with the pest infestation, whereas nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium and ferrous contents played a positive and significant role. Phosphorous, carbohydrates, fats and zinc contents played a significant and negative effect on the pest infestation at tillering stage. (author)

  5. Low temperature resistivity, thermoelectricity, and power factor of Nb doped anatase TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaćimović, J.; Gaál, R.; Magrez, A.; Piatek, J.; Forró, L.; Nakao, S.; Hirose, Y.; Hasegawa, T.

    2013-01-01

    The resistivity of a very high quality anatase TiO2 doped with 6% of Nb was measured from 300 K down to 40 mK. No sign of superconductivity was detected. Instead, a minute quantity of cation vacancies resulted in a Kondo scattering. Measurements of thermo-electric power and resistivity were extended up to 600 K. The calculated power factor has a peak value of 14 μW/(K2cm) at 350 K, which is comparable to that of Bi2Te3 [Venkatasubramanian et al., Nature 413, 597 (2001)], the archetype thermolectrics. Taking the literature value for the thermal conductivity of Nb doped TiO2 thin films, the calculated figure of merit (ZT) is in the range of 0.1 above 300 K. This value is encouraging for further engineering of the material in order to reach ZT of 1 suitable for high temperature thermoelectrics.

  6. Cardiac Development and Transcription Factors: Insulin Signalling, Insulin Resistance, and Intrauterine Nutritional Programming of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindsamy, Annelene; Naidoo, Strinivasen

    2018-01-01

    Programming with an insult or stimulus during critical developmental life stages shapes metabolic disease through divergent mechanisms. Cardiovascular disease increasingly contributes to global morbidity and mortality, and the heart as an insulin-sensitive organ may become insulin resistant, which manifests as micro- and/or macrovascular complications due to diabetic complications. Cardiogenesis is a sequential process during which the heart develops into a mature organ and is regulated by several cardiac-specific transcription factors. Disrupted cardiac insulin signalling contributes to cardiac insulin resistance. Intrauterine under- or overnutrition alters offspring cardiac structure and function, notably cardiac hypertrophy, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and hypertension that precede the onset of cardiovascular disease. Optimal intrauterine nutrition and oxygen saturation are required for normal cardiac development in offspring and the maintenance of their cardiovascular physiology. PMID:29484207

  7. Survivin plays as a resistant factor against tamoxifen-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriai, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Naoki; Moriai, Mikako; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Watanabe, Naoki

    2009-09-01

    Tamoxifen has been the mainstay of endocrine therapy for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. However, approximately 40% of breast cancer patients do not respond to tamoxifen treatment. Further, most tumors eventually acquire tamoxifen resistance. Therefore, it is necessary to develop effective modalities to enhance the efficacy of tamoxifen in breast cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which breast cancer cells develop resistance against tamoxifen from the viewpoint of tamoxifen-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic molecule survivin rendered the human breast cancer cells MCF-7 resistant to tamoxifen-induced apoptosis. To examine whether the down-regulation of survivin can enhance tamoxifen-induced apoptosis, we introduced siRNA targeting the survivin gene (survivin-siRNA) into MCF-7 cells. Survivin-siRNA transfection not only induced apoptosis without tamoxifen treatment but also augmented the tamoxifen-induced apoptosis. We have previously demonstrated that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (HRIs), which are widely used to reduce the serum cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemia patients, decreases survivin expression in colon cancer cells. To develop a pharmacological approach for improving the efficacy of tamoxifen treatment, we determined whether HRIs can enhance tamoxifen-induced apoptosis. Lovastatin, an HRI, down-regulated the expression of survivin protein in MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the proportion of apoptotic cells induced by the tamoxifen and lovastatin combination was greater than the theoretical additive effect. These results suggest that survivin may function as a factor inducing resistance against tamoxifen-induced apoptosis, and the combined use of tamoxifen and HRI may be a novel approach to overcome tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer.

  8. Contribution of SecDF to Staphylococcus aureus resistance and expression of virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger-Bächi Brigitte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SecDF is an accessory factor of the conserved Sec protein translocation machinery and belongs to the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND family of multidrug exporters. SecDF has been shown in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to be involved in the export of proteins. RND proteins can mediate resistance against various substances and might be of relevance in antimicrobial therapy. The role of RND proteins in Staphylococcus aureus has not yet been determined. Results Markerless deletion mutants were constructed to analyze the impact of the so far uncharacterized RND proteins in S. aureus. While the lack of Sa2056 and Sa2339 caused no phenotype regarding growth and resistance, the secDF mutant resulted in a pleiotropic phenotype. The secDF mutant was cold sensitive, but grew normally in rich medium at 37°C. Resistance to beta-lactams, glycopeptides and the RND substrates acriflavine, ethidium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate was reduced. The secDF mutant showed an aberrant cell separation and increased spontaneous and Triton X-100 induced autolysis, although the amounts of penicillin-binding proteins in the membrane were unchanged. The impact of secDF deletion on transcription and expression of specific virulence determinants varied: While coagulase transcription and activity were reduced, the opposite was observed for the autolysin Atl. A reduction of the transcription of the cell wall anchored protein A (spa was also found. The accumulation of SpA in the membrane and lowered amounts in the cell wall pointed to an impaired translocation. Conclusions The combination of different effects of secDF deletion on transcription, regulation and translocation lead to impaired cell division, reduced resistance and altered expression of virulence determinants suggesting SecDF to be of major relevance in S. aureus. Thus SecDF could be a potential target for the control and eradication of S. aureus in the future.

  9. EMT transcription factors snail and slug directly contribute to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslehurst, Alexandria M; Weberpals, Johanne; Davey, Scott; Squire, Jeremy; Park, Paul C; Feilotter, Harriet; Koti, Madhuri; Dharsee, Moyez; Nuin, Paulo; Evans, Ken; Geraci, Joseph; Childs, Timothy; Chen, Jian; Li, Jieran

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a molecular process through which an epithelial cell undergoes transdifferentiation into a mesenchymal phenotype. The role of EMT in embryogenesis is well-characterized and increasing evidence suggests that elements of the transition may be important in other processes, including metastasis and drug resistance in various different cancers. Agilent 4 × 44 K whole human genome arrays and selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry were used to investigate mRNA and protein expression in A2780 cisplatin sensitive and resistant cell lines. Invasion and migration were assessed using Boyden chamber assays. Gene knockdown of snail and slug was done using targeted siRNA. Clinical relevance of the EMT pathway was assessed in a cohort of primary ovarian tumours using data from Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133 plus 2.0 arrays. Morphological and phenotypic hallmarks of EMT were identified in the chemoresistant cells. Subsequent gene expression profiling revealed upregulation of EMT-related transcription factors including snail, slug, twist2 and zeb2. Proteomic analysis demonstrated up regulation of Snail and Slug as well as the mesenchymal marker Vimentin, and down regulation of E-cadherin, an epithelial marker. By reducing expression of snail and slug, the mesenchymal phenotype was largely reversed and cells were resensitized to cisplatin. Finally, gene expression data from primary tumours mirrored the finding that an EMT-like pathway is activated in resistant tumours relative to sensitive tumours, suggesting that the involvement of this transition may not be limited to in vitro drug effects. This work strongly suggests that genes associated with EMT may play a significant role in cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer, therefore potentially leading to the development of predictive biomarkers of drug response or novel therapeutic strategies for overcoming drug resistance

  10. Vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance as risk factors for dyslipidemia in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Meltem; Bostan Gayret, Özlem; Hamilçıkan, Şahin; Can, Emrah; Yiğit, Özgu L

    2017-04-01

    Dyslipidemia is one of the major complications of obesity; vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance are attending metabolic complications in dyslipidemic obese children. Objective. To determine if vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance are risk factors for dyslipidemia in obese children. This study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics at Bagcilar Training and Research Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey between 2014 and 2015. Obese patients whose age range was 8-14 were included in the study. The serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, insulin, alanine aminotransferase, vitamin D levels were measured; a liver ultrasonography was performed. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR), was used to calculate insulin resistance. 108 obese children were included; 39 (36.11%) had dyslipidemia. The average fasting blood glucose (88.74 ± 7.58 vs. 95.31 ± 6.82; p= 0.0001), insulin level (14.71 ± 12.44 vs. 24.39 ± 15.02; p= 0.0001) and alanine aminotransferase level (23.45 ± 11.18 vs. 30.4 ± 18.95; p= 0.018) were significantly higher in the children with dyslipidemia. In the dyslipidemic obese children, the average hepatosteatosis rate and HOMA-IR level were higher; 28 (71.9%) had hepatosteatosis, 37 (94.87%) had insulin resistance; the vitamin D levels were dyslipidemia. Obese children in our region exhibit low vitamin D and increased HOMA-IR levels, which are efficient risk factors of dyslipidemia.

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING VARIABILITY OF RESISTANCE IN GAROLE SHEEP NATURALLY INFECTED WITH HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoranjan Roy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistance status against natural infection to Haemonchus contortus as well as influence of season, sex, body weight, and haemoglobin type on resistance levels were evaluated in 309 numbers of Garole sheep. In adult Garole sheep, egg per gram(EPG of faeces for Haemonchus contortus was varied from 300 to 1600, but overall EPG in Garole have been recorded as 829.96 ± 20.60. The effects of season, sex, and body weight and haemoglobin type on EPG were all found to be highly significant (P < 0.01. EPG count was highest during monsoon (986.27 ± 28.26, followed by summer (832.88 ± 28.26 and lowest during winter (670.74 ± 28.26 which indicated the existence of a seasonal variation of EPG. Rams had higher EPG (954.32 ± 57.93 than ewes (705.60 ± 45.79 which reflected that males appeared to be more susceptible to Haemonchus contortus infection compared to females. Animals with lower body weight (upto 10 kg showed higher EPG (1017.20 ± 54.82, then the infection level decreased as body weight increased (886.79 ± 56.23 for 10 kg to 12 kg and 737.18 ± 50.29 for 12 kg to 14 kg and lowest EPG was recorded in animals with above 14 kg body weight (678.68 ± 54.49. This study reveals Hb-BB type animals had higher EPG count (983.81 ± 18.22 in comparison to Hb-AB type animals (676.12 ± 33.96 indicating that Haemoglobin-A locus has some relation with resistance. From our study it can be concluded that resistant level of Garole sheep against Haemonchus contortus is influenced by some intrinsic factors like sex, body weight, and haemoglobin type of the sheep and also by extrinsic factor like season.

  12. Factors determining sensitivity or resistance of tumor cell lines towards artesunate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertel, Serkan; Eichhorn, Tolga; Sieber, Sebastian; Sauer, Alexandra; Weiss, Johanna; Plinkert, Peter K; Efferth, Thomas

    2010-04-15

    Clinical oncology is still challenged by the development of drug resistance of tumors that result in poor prognosis for patients. There is an urgent necessity to understand the molecular mechanisms of resistance and to develop novel therapy strategies. Artesunate (ART) is an anti-malarial drug, which also exerts profound cytotoxic activity towards cancer cells. We first applied a gene-hunting approach using cluster and COMPARE analyses of microarray-based transcriptome-wide mRNA expression profiles. Among the genes identified by this approach were genes from diverse functional groups such as structural constituents of ribosomes (RPL6, RPL7, RPS12, RPS15A), kinases (CABC1, CCT2, RPL41), transcriptional and translational regulators (SFRS2, TUFM, ZBTB4), signal transducers (FLNA), control of cell growth and proliferation (RPS6), angiogenesis promoting factors (ITGB1), and others (SLC25A19, NCKAP1, BST1, DBH, FZD7, NACA, MTHFD2). Furthermore, we applied a candidate gene approach and tested the role of resistance mechanisms towards established anti-cancer drugs for ART resistance. By using transfected or knockout cell models we found that the tumor suppressor p16(INK4A) and the anti-oxidant protein, catalase, conferred resistance towards ART, while the oncogene HPV-E6 conferred sensitivity towards ART. The tumor suppressor p53 and its downstream protein, p21, as well as the anti-oxidant manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase did not affect cellular response to ART. In conclusion, our pharmacogenomic approach revealed that response of tumor cells towards ART is multi-factorial and is determined by gene expression associated with either ART sensitivity or resistance. At least some of the functional groups of genes (e.g. angiogenesis promoting factors, cell growth and proliferation-associated genes signal transducers and kinases) are also implicated in clinical responsiveness of tumors towards chemotherapy. It merits further investigation, whether ART is responsive in

  13. Correlation models between environmental factors and bacterial resistance to antimony and copper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunji Shi

    Full Text Available Antimony (Sb and copper (Cu are toxic heavy metals that are associated with a wide variety of minerals. Sb(III-oxidizing bacteria that convert the toxic Sb(III to the less toxic Sb(V are potentially useful for environmental Sb bioremediation. A total of 125 culturable Sb(III/Cu(II-resistant bacteria from 11 different types of mining soils were isolated. Four strains identified as Arthrobacter, Acinetobacter and Janibacter exhibited notably high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs for Sb(III (>10 mM,making them the most highly Sb(III-resistant bacteria to date. Thirty-six strains were able to oxidize Sb(III, including Pseudomonas-, Comamonas-, Acinetobacter-, Sphingopyxis-, Paracoccus- Aminobacter-, Arthrobacter-, Bacillus-, Janibacter- and Variovorax-like isolates. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA revealed that the soil concentrations of Sb and Cu were the most obvious environmental factors affecting the culturable bacterial population structures. Stepwise linear regression was used to create two predictive models for the correlation between soil characteristics and the bacterial Sb(III or Cu(II resistance. The concentrations of Sb and Cu in the soil was the significant factors affecting the bacterial Sb(III resistance, whereas the concentrations of S and P in the soil greatly affected the bacterial Cu(II resistance. The two stepwise linear regression models that we derived are as follows: MIC(Sb(III=606.605+0.14533 x C(Sb+0.4128 x C(Cu and MIC((Cu(II=58.3844+0.02119 x C(S+0.00199 x CP [where the MIC(Sb(III and MIC(Cu(II represent the average bacterial MIC for the metal of each soil (μM, and the C(Sb, C(Cu, C(S and C(P represent concentrations for Sb, Cu, S and P (mg/kg in soil, respectively, p<0.01]. The stepwise linear regression models we developed suggest that metals as well as other soil physicochemical parameters can contribute to bacterial resistance to metals.

  14. Presence of virulence factors in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium susceptible and resistant to vancomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Baldisserotto Comerlato

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing importance of Enterococcus as opportunistic pathogens, their virulence factors are still poorly understood. This study determines the frequency of virulence factors in clinical and commensal Enterococcus isolates from inpatients in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Fifty Enterococcus isolates were analysed and the presence of the gelE, asa1 and esp genes was determined. Gelatinase activity and biofilm formation were also tested. The clonal relationships among the isolates were evaluated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The asa1, gelE and esp genes were identified in 38%, 60% and 76% of all isolates, respectively. The first two genes were more prevalent in Enterococcus faecalis than in Enterococcus faecium, as was biofilm formation, which was associated with gelE and asa1 genes, but not with the esp gene. The presence of gelE and the activity of gelatinase were not fully concordant. No relationship was observed among any virulence factors and specific subclones of E. faecalis or E. faecium resistant to vancomycin. In conclusion, E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates showed significantly different patterns of virulence determinants. Neither the source of isolation nor the clonal relationship or vancomycin resistance influenced their distribution.

  15. Risk factors for anthelmintic resistance development in cattle gastrointestinal nematodes in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Humberto Suarez

    Full Text Available Risk factors for anthelmintic resistance (AR on bovine ranches were studied. Data were derived from a survey made to 50 ranch owners, who had conducted a faecal egg-count-reduction test. The questionnaire contained descriptors of bovine ranch management and nematode control. A case-control design study was undertaken and AR cases were present in 26 herds. Associations between the binary outcome variable (AR versus not AR and risk factors recorded in the questionnaire were evaluated. Variables associated with the presence of AR at P 2 were subjected to a multivariable logistic regression model. The main effects contributing to general AR (avermectin AVM and/or benzimidazole in the final model were total number of annual treatments (OR 7.68; 95% CI 2.4 to 28.3 and use of more than 75% of AVM in the past (OR= 18.6; 95% CI 1.3 to 97.3, whereas for AVM resistance alone were total number of AVM annual treatments (OR= 11.5; 95% CI 2.9 to 45.5 and number of AVM Nov-Jan treatments (OR= 5.8; 95% CI 1.71 to 47.9. The results showed that treatment frequency, date of treatment and frequency of treatment in the past with a single drug were the main risk factors involved in AR development.

  16. Macrolide resistance mechanisms and virulence factors in erythromycin-resistant Campylobacter species isolated from chicken and swine feces and carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Suk-Kyung; Moon, Dong-Chan; Chae, Myung Hwa; Kim, Hae Ji; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Kim, Su-Ran; Jang, Gum-Chan; Lee, Kichan; Jung, Suk-Chan; Lee, Hee-Soo

    2017-01-10

    Resistance to antimicrobials was measured in 73 isolates of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and 121 isolates of Campylobacter coli (C. coli) from chicken and swine feces and carcasses in Korea. Both bacterial species showed the highest resistance to (fluoro) quinolones (ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid) out of the nine antimicrobials tested. Erythromycin resistance was much higher in C. coli (19.0%, 23/121) than in C. jejuni (6.8%, 5/73). The mutation in the 23S rRNA gene was primarily responsible for macrolide resistance in Campylobacter isolates. Several amino acid substitutions in the L4 and L22 ribosomal proteins may play a role in the mechanism of resistance, but the role requires further evaluation. A total of eight virulence genes were detected in 28 erythromycin-resistant Campylobacter isolates. All C. jejuni isolates carried more than four such genes, while C. coli isolates carried fewer than three such genes. The high rate of resistance highlights the need to employ more prudent use of critically important antimicrobials, such as fluoroquinolones and macrolides, in swine and poultry production, and to more carefully monitor antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter isolates in food animals.

  17. Detection of Methicillin Resistance and Various Virulence Factors in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Nasal Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Türk Dağı

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococus aureus can be found as a commensal on skin and nasal flora or it may cause local and invasive infections. S. aureus has a large number of virulence factors. Aims: To investigate the methicillin resistance and frequency of various virulence factors in S. aureus nasal isolates. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: Nasal samples collected from university students were cultured in media. S. aureus was identified by conventional methods and the Staphyloslide latex test (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, USA. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were conducted, and the methicillin resistance was determined. The mecA, nuc, pvl and staphylococcal toxin genes were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: S. aureus was isolated in 104 of 600 (17.3% nasal samples. In total, 101 (97.1% S. aureus isolates were methicillin-sensitive and the remaining 3 (2.9% were methicillin-resistant. Furthermore, all but five isolates carried at least one staphylococcal enterotoxin gene, with seg being predominant. The tst and eta genes were determined in 29 (27.9%, and 3 (2.9% isolates, respectively. None of the S. aureus isolates harbored see, etb, and pvl genes. Conclusion: A moderate rate of S. aureus carriage and low frequency of MRSA were detected in healthy students. S. aureus isolates had a high prevalence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes and the tst gene. In this study, a large number of virulence factors were examined in S. aureus nasal isolates, and the data obtained from this study can be used for monitoring the prevalence of virulence genes in S. aureus strains isolated from nasal carriers.

  18. Risk factors associated with fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococcal urinary tract infections in a tertiary care university hospital in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tuhina; Anupurba, Shampa

    2016-10-01

    Fluoroquinolone resistance in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria has increased with the widespread use of fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Gram-negative bacilli has been widely studied, though staphylococci and enterococci are also notably resistant. Enterococci being the second most common cause of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs) fluoroquinolones are often the drug of choice. This study was undertaken to assess the risk factors associated with fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococcal UTI in a tertiary level health facility in north India. A total of 365 patients with UTI caused by enterococci were studied over a period of two years. Patients with ciprofloxacin-resistant and susceptible UTI were considered as cases and controls, respectively. Resistance profile of the isolates against common antibiotics was studied by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. Mechanisms for fluoroquinolone resistance was studied by efflux pump inhibitor activity and multiplex PCR targeting the qnr genes. A total of 204 (55.89%) cases and 161 (44.1%) controls were identified. The fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were significantly resistant to ampicillin, high strength aminoglycosides and vancomycin. The majority (78%) of the resistant isolates showed efflux pump activity. Treatment in indoor locations, presence of urinary catheters and pregnancy along with recent exposure to antibiotics especially fluoroquinolones, third generation cephalosporins and piperacillin-tazobactam were identified as independent risk factors. Our results showed that fluoroquinolone resistance in enterococcal UTI was largely associated with indoor usage of antibiotics and use of indwelling devices. Knowledge of risk factors is important to curb this emergence of resistance.

  19. Development of recommended resistance factors for drilled shafts in weak rocks based on o-cell tests : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Since October 1st 2007, federal-funded projects including new bridges have been mandated to be designed to meet American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Bridge Design Specifi...

  20. Development of recommended resistance factors for drilled shafts in weak rocks based on o-cell tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    From October 1, 2007, the new bridges on federal-aid funded projects are mandated to be designed to meet : American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Load and Resistance Factor Design : (LRFD) Bridge Design Specificat...

  1. Variation of over strength factor for mid-rise R.C. moment resisting frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnimi, A. A.; Mahmoodi Sahebi, M.

    2001-01-01

    The over strength of a multi-storey structure (as a multi-degree of freedom system) is one of the parameters playing the evaluation of the behaviour factor. This is an important property when the structure exhibits inelastic behaviour and is described by over strength factor. The over strength factor and strength reduction factor due to ductility are considered in most seismic design codes of practice to reduce the elastic strength demand of the structure. In spite the importance of the over strength, its influence has not yet been quantified. This paper is a part of an investigation from which the first part was published in Amirkabir Journal No.36/Winter 1998, entitled as E stimation of over strength of low-ri sed flexural R.C. frames using nonlinear analysis . This paper investigates the variation of over strength factor for reinforced concrete moment resisting frames, having several stories (5 to 15) with various spans (3 to 5) and located in high seismicity regions using non-linear inelastic analysis. The results indicate that the over strength factor of these systems efforts 25 to 40 percent reduction in the elastic strength demand of such frames

  2. Adipose Expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α: Direct Role in Obesity-Linked Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotamisligil, Gokhan S.; Shargill, Narinder S.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    1993-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has been shown to have certain catabolic effects on fat cells and whole animals. An induction of TNF-α messenger RNA expression was observed in adipose tissue from four different rodent models of obesity and diabetes. TNF-α protein was also elevated locally and systemically. Neutralization of TNF-α in obese fa/fa rats caused a significant increase in the peripheral uptake of glucose in response to insulin. These results indicate a role for TNF-α in obesity and particularly in the insulin resistance and diabetes that often accompany obesity.

  3. Role of patient factors in therapy resistance to antiproteinuric intervention in nondiabetic and diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, H; Andersen, S; Rossing, P

    2000-01-01

    patients, obtained in prior studies comparing the efficacy of various pharmacological regimens. The individual antiproteinuric response to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition positively correlated to the response to angiotensin type I (AT1) receptor blockade in diabetic (r = 0.67, P ... for individual patient factors in responsiveness or resistance to antiproteinuric intervention. In the search for strategies to improve response in these high risk patients, combination-treatment (combining different drugs, and combining drugs with dietary measures like sodium and protein restriction...

  4. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor: Critical Role in Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Associated Comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kleemann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, disturbed glucose homeostasis, low grade inflammation, and comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is an ubiquitously expressed protein that plays a crucial role in many inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that MIF also controls metabolic and inflammatory processes underlying the development of metabolic pathologies associated with obesity. This is a comprehensive summary of our current knowledge on the role of MIF in obesity and obesity-associated comorbidities, based on human clinical data as well as animal models of disease.

  5. DETERMINATION THE PERMISSIBLE FORCES IN ASSESSING THE LIFT RESISTANT FACTOR OF FREIGHT CARS IN TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the analytical research are considered: 1 relationships between the longitudinal force acting on the car in the train; 2 lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail»; 3 dynamic indicators of cars with the magnitude of the car lift resistance factor; 4 obtaining of the dependencies between them. Methodology. The study was conducted by an analytical method assessing the sustainability of the freight car when driving at different speeds on the straight and curved track sections. Findings. In the process of studying the motion of the train, in the investigation of transport events, as well as during the training on the simulator operator, to assess the actions of the driver, the values of the longitudinal forces in the inter car connections are used. To calculate the longitudinal compressive forces, acting on the car, in which car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value (critical force. To assess the impact on the value of the longitudinal force speed, coefficients of the vertical and horizontal dynamics, as well as the wind load on the side surface of the car body are the results of calculations of motion of the empty gondola car, model № 12-532 curve radius of 250 m with a rise of 150 mm and a transverse run of body of car frame relative to the track axis of the guide section 50 mm. Originality. In this study, the technique of determining the longitudinal compressive force was shown, that is somewhat different from the standard. So, as well as assessing the impact on it the speed of rolling coefficients of vertical and horizontal dynamics and wind load on the side surface of the car body. Practical value. The authors developed proposals on the enhancement of existing methods for determining the value of the longitudinal compressive forces acting on the car in which the safety value of the car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value. It will evaluate the

  6. Antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with bronchiectasis: prevalence, risk factors and prognostic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao YH

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Yong-hua Gao,1,* Wei-jie Guan,2,* Ya-nan Zhu,3 Rong-chang Chen,2 Guo-jun Zhang1 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, 2State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 3Department of Emergency Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and aims: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA is the most common pathogen in bronchiectasis and frequently develops resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, but little is known about the clinical impacts of PA-resistant (PA-R isolates on bronchiectasis. We, therefore, investigated the prevalence, risk factors and prognostic implications of PA-R isolates in hospitalized bronchiectasis patients.Patients and methods: Between June 2011 and July 2016, data from adult bronchiectasis patients isolated with PA at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were retrospectively analyzed. PA was classified as PA-R in case antibiogram demonstrated resistance on at least one occasion.Results: Seven hundred forty-seven bronchiectasis patients were assessed. Of these, 147 (19.7% had PA isolate in the sputum or bronchoscopic culture. PA-R and PA-sensitive accounted for 88 (59.9% and 59 (31.1% patients, respectively. In multivariate model, factors associated with PA-R isolate in bronchiectasis included prior exposure to antibiotics (odds ratio [OR] =6.18, three or more exacerbations in the previous year (OR =2.81, higher modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scores (OR =1.93 and greater radiologic severity (OR =1.15. During follow-up (median: 26 months; interquartile range: 6–59 months, 36 patients died, of whom 24 (66

  7. Factors Affecting the Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking Resistance of an AL-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, G A; Scully, J R

    2002-04-09

    Precipitation hardenable Al-Zn-Mg alloys are susceptible to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) when exposed to aqueous environments. In Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, overaged tempers are used to increase HEAC resistance at the expense of strength but overaging has little benefit in low copper alloys. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which overaging imparts HEAC resistance is poorly understood. The present research investigated hydrogen uptake, diffusion, and crack growth rate in 90% relative humidity (RH) air for both a commercial copper bearing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (AA 7050) and a low copper variant of this alloy in order to better understand the factors which affect HEAC resistance. Experimental methods used to evaluate hydrogen concentrations local to a surface and near a crack tip include nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), focused ion beam, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (FIB/SIMS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Results show that overaging the copper bearing alloys both inhibits hydrogen ingress from oxide covered surfaces and decreases the apparent hydrogen diffusion rates in the metal.

  8. DEWAX Transcription Factor Is Involved in Resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seulgi Ju

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The cuticle of land plants is the first physical barrier to protect their aerial parts from biotic and abiotic stresses. DEWAX, an AP2/ERF-type transcription factor, negatively regulates cuticular wax biosynthesis. In this study, we investigated the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa overexpressing DEWAX and in Arabidopsis dewax mutant. Compared to wild type (WT leaves, Arabidopsis DEWAX OX and dewax leaves were more and less permeable to toluidine blue dye, respectively. The ROS levels increased in DEWAX OX leaves, but decreased in dewax relative to WT leaves. Compared to WT, DEWAX OX was more resistant, while dewax was more sensitive to B. cinerea; however, defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000:GFP were inversely modulated. Microarray and RT-PCR analyses indicated that the expression of defense-related genes was upregulated in DEWAX OX, but downregulated in dewax relative to WT. Transactivation assay showed that DEWAX upregulated the expression of PDF1.2a, IGMT1, and PRX37. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that DEWAX directly interacts with the GCC-box motifs of PDF1.2a promoter. In addition, ectopic expression of DEWAX increased the tolerance to B. cinerea in C. sativa. Taken together, we suggest that increased ROS accumulation and DEWAX-mediated upregulation of defense-related genes are closely associated with enhanced resistance to B. cinerea in Arabidopsis and C. sativa.

  9. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter colonising dogs and cats in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lazou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter colonising dogs and cats in Greece. Faecal specimens were collected from 181 dogs and 132 cats. Culture methods were applied to detect Campylobacter spp. and a multiplex PCR assay to identify the isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 3.8% in dogs and 12.1% in cats. The most frequently identified Campylobacter species in dogs was C. jejuni (57.1% followed by C. coli (42.9%. All feline isolates were identified as C. jejuni apart from one isolate that was characterised as Campylobacter-like organism. Gender, age, breed, life style, diarrhoea and type of diet of dogs and cats did not significantly correlate (P>0.05 with Campylobacter isolation. Possible predictors regarding Campylobacter presence in dogs and cats were assessed by binary logistic regression. A tendency towards higher risk for Campylobacter contamination was observed in dogs consuming a homemade diet and in outdoor cats. Disk diffusion method revealed that all Campylobacter isolates exhibited susceptibility to erythromycin, gentamicin and streptomycin. Contrariwise, 66.7% of canine isolates were resistant concurrently to tetracycline and quinolones and 59.0%, 13.6% and 4.5% of feline isolates were resistant to quinolones, quinolones along with tetracycline and tetracycline alone, respectively

  10. Virulence factors, serogroups and antimicrobial resistance properties of Escherichia coli strains in fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Farhad Safarpoor; Yazdani, Farshad; Mozafari, Jalal; Valizadeh, Yousef

    2014-04-07

    From a clinical perspective, it is essential to know the microbial safety of fermented dairy products. Doogh and kashk are fermented dairies. These products are used by millions of people but their microbial qualities are unknown. Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the most commonly detected pathogens in the cases of food poisoning and food-borne illnesses. The present investigation was carried out in order to study the molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance properties of STEC strains isolated from fermented dairy products. Six hundred fermented dairy samples were collected and immediately transferred to the laboratory. All samples were cultured immediately and those that were E. coli-positive were analyzed for the presence of O157 , O26, O103, O111, O145, O45, O91, O113, O121 and O128 STEC serogroups, tetA, tetB, blaSHV, CITM, cmlA, cat1, aadA1, dfrA1, qnr, aac (3)-IV, sul1 and ereA antibiotic resistance genes and stx1, stx2, eaeA, ehly, cnf1, cnf2, iutA, cdtB, papA, traT, sfaS and fyuA virulence factors using PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed also using disk diffusion methodology with Mueller-Hinton agar. Fifty out of 600 (8.33%) dairy samples harbored E. coli. In addition, yoghurt was the most commonly contaminated dairy. O157 (26%) and O26 (12%) were the most commonly detected serogroups. A significant difference was found between the frequency of Attaching and Effacing E. coli and Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (P resistance against tetracycline (tetA and tetB) (76% and 70%, respectively), cephalothin (blaSHV) (38%), ampicillin (CITM) (36%) and gentamicin (aac (3)-IV) (32%) were the most commonly detected. High resistance levels to tetracycline (84%), penicillin (46%), ampicillin (38%) and streptomycin (36%) were observed. Fermented dairy products can easily become contaminated by antibiotic resistant STEC strains. Our findings should raise awareness about antibiotic resistance in Iran. Clinicians should

  11. Insulin resistance: an additional risk factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tushar P; Rawal, Komal; Bagchi, Ashim K; Akolkar, Gauri; Bernardes, Nathalia; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Gupta, Sarita; Singal, Pawan K

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary life style and high calorie dietary habits are prominent leading cause of metabolic syndrome in modern world. Obesity plays a central role in occurrence of various diseases like hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, which lead to insulin resistance and metabolic derangements like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) mediated by oxidative stress. The mortality rate due to CVDs is on the rise in developing countries. Insulin resistance (IR) leads to micro or macro angiopathy, peripheral arterial dysfunction, hampered blood flow, hypertension, as well as the cardiomyocyte and the endothelial cell dysfunctions, thus increasing risk factors for coronary artery blockage, stroke and heart failure suggesting that there is a strong association between IR and CVDs. The plausible linkages between these two pathophysiological conditions are altered levels of insulin signaling proteins such as IR-β, IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, Glut4 and PGC-1α that hamper insulin-mediated glucose uptake as well as other functions of insulin in the cardiomyocytes and the endothelial cells of the heart. Reduced AMPK, PFK-2 and elevated levels of NADP(H)-dependent oxidases produced by activated M1 macrophages of the adipose tissue and elevated levels of circulating angiotensin are also cause of CVD in diabetes mellitus condition. Insulin sensitizers, angiotensin blockers, superoxide scavengers are used as therapeutics in the amelioration of CVD. It evidently becomes important to unravel the mechanisms of the association between IR and CVDs in order to formulate novel efficient drugs to treat patients suffering from insulin resistance-mediated cardiovascular diseases. The possible associations between insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed here.

  12. Association between prostatic resistive index and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykam, Mehmet Murat; Aktas, Binhan Kagan; Bulut, Suleyman; Ozden, Cuneyt; Deren, Tagmac; Tagci, Suleyman; Gokkaya, Cevdet Serkan; Memis, Ali

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated the relationship between prostatic resistive index (RI) and cardiovascular system (CVS) risk factors in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The study included 120 patients who were attending our outpatient clinic with lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The clinical, laboratory, anthropometric data, and CVS risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, history of CVS events, and smoking) of the patients were evaluated regarding the association between prostate RI level by regression analyses. The prostatic RI levels of the patients were measured using power Doppler imaging. In univariate regression analysis, there were statistically significant relationships between prostatic RI levels and the patients' age, International Prostate Symptom Score, hip circumference, fasting blood glucose, prostate specific antigen, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total prostate volume, uroflowmetric maximal flow rate, and all investigated CVS risk factors (p prostatic RI levels were found to be associated with fasting blood glucose and total prostate volume, and also with CVS risk factors including only metabolic syndrome and cigarette smoking in the multivariate regression analysis. Our results showed that prostatic RI level is significantly related to metabolic syndrome and smoking among the investigated CVS risk factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  13. Crystal Structure of the Protease-Resistant Core Domain of Yersinia Pestis Virulence Factor Yopr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubot,F.; Cherry, S.; Austin, B.; Tropea, J.; Waugh, D.

    2005-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of the plague, employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) to secrete and translocate virulence factors into the cytoplasm of mammalian host cells. One of the secreted virulence factors is YopR. Little is known about the function of YopR other than that it is secreted into the extracellular milieu during the early stages of infection and that it contributes to virulence. Hoping to gain some insight into the function of YopR, we determined the crystal structure of its protease-resistant core domain, which consists of residues 38--149 out of 165 amino acids. The core domain is composed of five {alpha}-helices that display unexpected structural similarity with one domain of YopN, a central regulator of type III secretion in Y. pestis. This finding raises the possibility that YopR may play a role in the regulation of type III secretion.

  14. Prognostic factors for treatment success in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y-M; Ding, S-P; Bao, Z-J; Wu, L-M; Zhen, L-B; Xia, Q; Zhu, M

    2018-03-01

    To examine the clinical outcomes and associated prognostic factors among patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in China. This retrospective study involved 243 patients with MDR-TB. All patients received standard regimens containing para-amino salicylic acid (PAS) and/or cycloserine (CS). The demographic, social and clinical characteristics of patients were recorded and the patients were followed up for 24 months. Treatment success was closely associated with young age, non-farming occupations, shorter history or smoking, normal urine results, initial MDR-TB treatment regimen, increased haemoglobin, direct bilirubin, uric acid and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, and lower white blood cell, neutrophil and blood platelet counts (all P factors for treatment success in MDR-TB. Higher haemoglobin and TSH levels, normal urine results and initial MDR-TB treatment regimen might predict successful treatment of MDR-TB.

  15. Risk factors associated with the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele C. Beuron

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate herd management practices and mastitis treatment procedures as risk factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance. For this study, 13 herds were selected to participate in the study to evaluate the association between their management practices and mastitis treatment procedures and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 1069 composite milk samples were collected aseptically from the selected cows in four different periods over two years. The samples were used for microbiological culturing of S. aureus isolates and evaluation of their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 756 samples (70.7% were culture-positive, and S. aureus comprised 27.77% (n=210 of the isolates. The S. aureus isolates were tested using the disk-diffusion susceptibility assay with the following antimicrobials: ampicillin 10mg; clindamycin 2μg; penicillin 1mg; ceftiofur 30μg; gentamicin 10mg; sulfa-trimethoprim 25μg; enrofloxacin 5μg; sulfonamide 300μg; tetracycline 30μg; oxacillin 1mg; cephalothin 30μg and erythromycin 5μg. The variables that were significantly associated with S. aureus resistance were as follows: the treatment of clinical mastitis for ampicillin (OR=2.18, dry cow treatment for enrofloxacin (OR=2.11 and not sending milk samples for microbiological culture and susceptibility tests, for ampicillin (OR=2.57 and penicillin (OR=4.69. In conclusion, the identification of risk factors for S. aureus resistance against various mastitis antimicrobials is an important information that may help in practical recommendations for prudent use of antimicrobial in milk production.

  16. Effects of operational and environmental factors on evolution of resistance to pyriproxyfen in the sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, David W; Ellsworth, Peter C; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Carriére, Yves

    2008-12-01

    Pyriproxyfen has been an important insecticide used as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) program for the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (B biotype), in Arizona cotton. We used a simulation model to examine the effects of pyriproxyfen concentration, insecticide action thresholds, crop diversity, planting date, and pyriproxyfen decay on evolution of resistance to pyriproxyfen in B. tabaci. In the model, pyriproxyfen use was restricted to cotton with a limit of one application per season. Other model parameters were based on data from laboratory and field experiments. Whitefly population densities and the number of insecticide applications per year increased as resistance evolved. Resistance evolved slowest with a low pyriproxyfen concentration. Lower action thresholds for pyriproxyfen and higher action thresholds for insecticides other than pyriproxyfen also slowed the evolution of resistance. However, lower action thresholds for pyriproxyfen resulted in more insecticide sprays per year with a high pyriproxyfen concentration. Resistance to pyriproxyfen evolved fastest in cotton-intensive regions and slowest in multicrop regions. In regions with noncotton crops, increasing immigration to cotton slowed resistance. Resistance evolved faster with earlier planting dates, although fewer insecticide sprays were needed compared with fields planted later in the year. Faster rates of pyriproxyfen decay slowed resistance. In some cases, strategies that delayed resistance were effective from an IPM perspective. However, some strategies that delayed resistance resulted in higher population densities. Results suggest that modification of operational and environmental factors, which can be controlled by growers, could prolong the efficacy of pyriproxyfen.

  17. Associations between heart rate variability, metabolic syndrome risk factors, and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Melanie I; Kiviniemi, Antti; Gill, Dawn P; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Petrella, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in heart rate variability (HRV) in metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to determine associations between HRV parameters, MetS risk factors, and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)). Participants (n = 220; aged 23-70 years) were assessed for MetS risk factors (waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and 5-min supine HRV (time and frequency domain and nonlinear). HRV was compared between those with 3 or more (MetS+) and those with 2 or fewer MetS risk factors (MetS-). Multiple linear regression models were built for each HRV parameter to investigate associations with MetS risk factors and HOMA-IR. Data with normal distribution are presented as means ± SD and those without as median [interquartile range]. In women, standard deviation of R-R intervals 38.0 [27.0] ms, 44.5 [29.3] ms; p = 0.020), low-frequency power (5.73 ± 1.06 ln ms(2), 6.13 ± 1.05 ln ms(2); p = 0.022), and the standard deviation of the length of the Poincaré plot (46.8 [31.6] ms, 58.4 [29.9] ms; p = 0.014) were lower and heart rate was higher (68 [13] beats/min, 64 [12] beats/min; p = 0. 018) in MetS+ compared with MetS-, with no differences in men. Waist circumference was most commonly associated with HRV, especially frequency domain parameters. HOMA-IR was associated with heart rate. In conclusion, MetS+ women had a less favourable HRV profile than MetS- women, but there were no differences in men. HOMA-IR was associated with heart rate, not HRV.

  18. Risk factors to predict drug-resistant pathogens in hemodialysis-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping-Huai; Wang, Hao-Chien

    2016-08-08

    After the concept of healthcare associated pneumonia (HCAP) was introduced in 2005 by the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Disease Society of America (ATS/IDSA), pneumonia in hemodialysis patients has been classified as HCAP. Even though there are several risk factors and scoring systems of drug-resistant pathogens (DRPs) in HCAP, the risk factors for DRPs in hemodialysis-associated pneumonia are unclear. Patients who were admitted to our tertiary care hospital from January 2005 to December 2010 were screened by a discharge diagnosis of pneumonia. Patients were enrolled if they fulfilled the definition of HCAP according to the 2005 ATS/IDSA guidelines. A total of 530 subjects were diagnosed with HCAP, of whom 48 (9.1 %) received regular hemodialysis (HD group) and the other 482 did not (non-HD group). The most common pathogens in HD group were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There was a similar distribution of Gram-negative bacilli infections between the two groups except for Haemophilus influenzae and Citrobacter species. The incidence of DRPs was not significantly different between the two groups (HD vs. non-HD, 35.4 vs. 39.2 %, p = 0.607). Wound care, severe pneumonia and an age of more than 70 years were significant risk factors for DRPs. The area under the operating cure of predicting DRPs was 0.727 (0.575-0.879, p = 0.01). P. aeruginosa and MRSA were the most important pathogens in hemodialysis-associated pneumonia. Wound care, severe pneumonia and old age were significant risk factors for DRPs.

  19. Risk factors related to resistance to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and weight gain of heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of age and genetics in dairy heifers on resistance to the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and correlate these parameters with weight gain. Twenty-two heifers were evaluated from birth up to two years of age. Resistance to the cattle tick was evaluated by counting the number of engorged female ticks and subjective qualification of the larvae and nymph infestation. The animals were weighted in the first 24 hours after birth and at six, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The average tick count and weight gain were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% significance. Subsequently, linear regression was performed to verify the strength of the association between the risk factors age and genetics and infestation by R. (B. microplus. Age and genetics were both significant risk factors for R. (B. microplus infestation in heifers. Between the third and sixth months of age, the animals showed a window of susceptibility to R. (B. microplus. Regardless of age, Bos taurus heifers had higher infestations than Bos indicus, crossbred F1 (½ B. taurus x ½ B. indicus and crossbred Gir-Holstein (Girolando (? B. taurus x ? B. indicus heifers. B. taurus heifers were heavier than B. indicus heifers at birth and had significantly greater weight gain (p < 0.01.

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections: factors relating to mortality with emphasis on resistance pattern and antimicrobial treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millena R.S. Pinheiro

    Full Text Available A retrospective case-control study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for death among intensive care unit patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Out of 131 patients investigated, 67 (51.1% died within 30 days of being diagnosed with this infection. The mean duration of hospital stay before this diagnosis was 28.5 ± 26.5 days. No association was found between bacterial resistance and death in this study (multiresistant p= 0.26; panresistant p= 0.42, but the adequacy of the initial treatment was inversely proportional to the degree of resistance. There was a tendency towards greater mortality among patients who received combination therapy (empirical p= 0.09; definitive p= 0.08, despite the greater frequency of appropriate treatment in these patients and the similar degree of severity in the two groups. This finding may be explained by pharmacodynamic parameters that were not studied or by the extensive use of aminoglycosides in the combination therapy, which play a controversial role in combination therapy due to their potential for renal toxicity. The multivariate analysis in our study demonstrated that age [odds ratio (OR 1.04], septic shock (OR 15.4 and hypoalbuminemia (OR 0.32 were independent risk factors for death.

  1. Parathyroid cell resistance to fibroblast growth factor 23 in secondary hyperparathyroidism of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitzer, H; Ben-Dov, I Z; Silver, Justin; Naveh-Many, Tally

    2010-02-01

    Although fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) acting through its receptor Klotho-FGFR1c decreases parathyroid hormone expression, this hormone is increased in chronic kidney disease despite an elevated serum FGF23. We measured possible factors that might contribute to the resistance of parathyroid glands to FGF23 in rats with the dietary adenine-induced model of chronic kidney disease. Quantitative immunohistochemical and reverse transcription-PCR analysis using laser capture microscopy showed that both Klotho and FGFR1 protein and mRNA levels were decreased in histological sections of the parathyroid glands. Recombinant FGF23 failed to decrease serum parathyroid hormone levels or activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in the glands of rats with advanced experimental chronic kidney disease. In parathyroid gland organ culture, the addition of FGF23 decreased parathyroid hormone secretion and mRNA levels in control animals or rats with early but not advanced chronic kidney disease. Our results show that because of a downregulation of the Klotho-FGFR1c receptor complex, an increase of circulating FGF23 does not decrease parathyroid hormone levels in established chronic kidney disease. This in vivo resistance is sustained in parathyroid organ culture in vitro.

  2. Risk factors associated with potentially antibiotic-resistant pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prina, Elena; Ranzani, Otavio T; Polverino, Eva; Cillóniz, Catia; Ferrer, Miquel; Fernandez, Laia; Puig de la Bellacasa, Jorge; Menéndez, Rosario; Mensa, Josep; Torres, Antoni

    2015-02-01

    To identify pathogens that require different treatments in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), we propose an acronym, "PES" (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). To compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes between patients with CAP caused by PES versus other pathogens, and to identify the risk factors associated with infection caused by PES. We conducted an observational prospective study evaluating only immunocompetent patients with CAP and an established etiological diagnosis. We included patients from nursing homes. We computed a score to identify patients at risk of PES pathogens. Of the 4,549 patients evaluated, we analyzed 1,597 who presented an etiological diagnosis. Pneumonia caused by PES was identified in 94 (6%) patients, with 108 PES pathogens isolated (n = 72 P. aeruginosa, n = 15 Enterobacteriaceae extended-spectrum β-lactamase positive, and n = 21 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). These patients were older (P = 0.001), had received prior antibiotic treatment more frequently (P associated with increased risk of 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio = 2.51; 95% confidence interval = 1.20-5.25; P = 0.015). The area under the curve for the score we computed was 0.759 (95% confidence interval, 0.713-0.806; P risk factors could help to identify these microbial etiologies.

  3. RESISTANCE OF KARST CAVERNS NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA TO EXTREME FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashyrev O. B.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the studied bacteria resistance quantitative parameters of extreme factors such as toxic metals (Cu2+, organic xenobiotics (p-nitrochlorobenzene and UV-irradiation were the aim of the research. Six strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from clays of two caverns Mushkarova Yama (Podolia, Ukraine and Kuybyshevskaya (Western Caucasus, Abkhazia and Azotobacter vinelandii УКМ В-6017 as a reference strain have been tested. For this purpose the maximum permissible concentration of Cu2+ and p-nitrochlorobenzene in the concentration gradient and lethal doses of UV by the survival caverns have been determined. Maximum permissible concentrations for strains were as 10 ppm Cu2+, 70–120 ppm of p-nitrochlorobenzene. The maximum doses of UV-irradiation varied in the range of 55–85 J/m2 (LD99.99. It is shown that three classes of extreme factors resistance parameters of karst caverns strains are similar to the strain of terrestrial soil ecosystems. The most active studied strains reduce the concentration of p-nitrochlorobenzene in the medium in 13 times. The ability of nitrogen-fixing bacteria to degrade p-nitrochlorobenzene could be used in creation new environmental biotechnology for industrial wastewater treatment from nitrochloroaromatic xenobiotics. Isolated strains could be used as destructors for soils bioremediation in agrobiotechnologies and to optimize plants nitrogen nutrition in terrestrial ecosystems.

  4. A Somatically Diversified Defense Factor, FREP3, Is a Determinant of Snail Resistance to Schistosome Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanington, Patrick C.; Forys, Michelle A.; Loker, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease, owes its continued success to freshwater snails that support production of prolific numbers of human-infective cercariae. Encounters between schistosomes and snails do not always result in the snail becoming infected, in part because snails can mount immune responses that prevent schistosome development. Fibrinogen-related protein 3 (FREP3) has been previously associated with snail defense against digenetic trematode infection. It is a member of a large family of immune molecules with a unique structure consisting of one or two immunoglobulin superfamily domains connected to a fibrinogen domain; to date fibrinogen containing proteins with this arrangement are found only in gastropod molluscs. Furthermore, specific gastropod FREPs have been shown to undergo somatic diversification. Here we demonstrate that siRNA mediated knockdown of FREP3 results in a phenotypic loss of resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in 15 of 70 (21.4%) snails of the resistant BS-90 strain of Biomphalaria glabrata. In contrast, none of the 64 control BS-90 snails receiving a GFP siRNA construct and then exposed to S. mansoni became infected. Furthermore, resistance to S. mansoni was overcome in 22 of 48 snails (46%) by pre-exposure to another digenetic trematode, Echinostoma paraensei. Loss of resistance in this case was shown by microarray analysis to be associated with strong down-regulation of FREP3, and other candidate immune molecules. Although many factors are certainly involved in snail defense from trematode infection, this study identifies for the first time the involvement of a specific snail gene, FREP3, in the phenotype of resistance to the medically important parasite, S. mansoni. The results have implications for revealing the underlying mechanisms involved in dictating the range of snail strains used by S. mansoni, and, more generally, for better understanding the phenomena of host specificity and host switching. It also

  5. Risk Factors and Outcomes of Ganciclovir-Resistant Cytomegalovirus Infection in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Cynthia E; Knudsen, Janine L; Lease, Erika D; Jerome, Keith R; Rakita, Robert M; Boeckh, Michael; Limaye, Ajit P

    2017-07-01

    Ganciclovir-resistant (ganR) cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an emerging and important problem in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Only through direct comparison of ganR- and ganciclovir-sensitive (ganS) CMV infection can risk factors and outcomes attributable specifically to ganciclovir resistance appropriately be determined. We performed a retrospective, case-control (1:3) study of SOT recipients with genotypically confirmed ganR-CMV (n = 37) and ganS-CMV infection (n = 109), matched by donor/recipient CMV serostatus, year and organ transplanted, and clinical manifestation. We used χ2 (categorical) and Mann-Whitney (continuous) tests to determine predisposing factors and morbidity attributable to resistance, and Kaplan-Meier plots to analyze survival differences. The rate of ganR-CMV was 1% (37/3467) overall and 4.1% (32/777) among CMV donor-positive, recipient-negative patients, and was stable over the study period. GanR-CMV was associated with increased prior exposure to ganciclovir (median, 153 vs 91 days, P < .001). Eighteen percent (3/17) of lung transplant recipients with ganR-CMV had received <6 weeks of prior ganciclovir (current guideline-recommended resistance testing threshold), and all non-lung recipients had received ≥90 days (median, 160 [range, 90-284 days]) prior to diagnosis of ganR-CMV. GanR-CMV was associated with higher mortality (11% vs 1%, P = .004), fewer days alive and nonhospitalized (73 vs 81, P = .039), and decreased renal function (42% vs 19%, P = .008) by 3 months after diagnosis. GanR-CMV is associated with longer prior antiviral duration and higher attributable morbidity and mortality than ganS-CMV. Upcoming revised CMV guidelines should incorporate organ transplant-specific thresholds of prior drug exposure to guide rational ganR-CMV testing in SOT recipients. Improved strategies for prevention and treatment of ganR-CMV are warranted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society

  6. aadA Confers Streptomycin Resistance in Borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Kristi L.; Bundle, Sharyl F.; Kresge, Michele E.; Eggers, Christian H.; Samuels, D. Scott

    2003-01-01

    To enhance genetic manipulation of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, we assayed the aadA gene for the ability to confer resistance to the antibiotics spectinomycin and streptomycin. Using the previously described pBSV2 as a backbone, a shuttle vector, termed pKFSS1, which carries the aadA open reading frame fused to the B. burgdorferi flgB promoter was constructed. The hybrid flgB promoter-aadA cassette confers resistance to spectinomycin and streptomycin in both B. burgdorferi and Escherichia coli. pKFSS1 has a replication origin derived from the 9-kb circular plasmid and can be comaintained in B. burgdorferi with extant shuttle vector pCE320, which has a replication origin derived from a 32-kb circular plasmid, or pBSV2, despite the fact that pKFSS1 and pBSV2 have the same replication origin. Our results demonstrate the availability of a new selectable marker and shuttle vector for genetically dissecting B. burgdorferi at the molecular level. PMID:14594849

  7. Low openness on the revised NEO personality inventory as a risk factor for treatment-resistant depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Takahashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, we reported that low reward dependence, and to a lesser extent, low cooperativeness in the Temperature and Character Inventory (TCI may be risk factors for treatment-resistant depression. Here, we analyzed additional psychological traits in these patients. METHODS: We administered Costa and McCrae's five-factor model personality inventory, NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R, to antidepressant-treatment resistant depressed patients (n=35, remitted depressed patients (n=27, and healthy controls (n=66. We also evaluated the relationships between scores on NEO and TCI, using the same cohort of patients with treatment-resistant depression, as our previous study. RESULTS: Patients with treatment-resistant depression showed high scores for neuroticism, low scores for extraversion, openness and conscientiousness, without changes in agreeableness, on the NEO. However, patients in remitted depression showed no significant scores on NEO. Patients with treatment-resistant depression and low openness on NEO showed positive relationships with reward dependence and cooperativeness on the TCI. CONCLUSIONS: Many studies have reported that depressed patients show high neuroticism, low extraversion and low conscientiousness on the NEO. Our study highlights low openness on the NEO, as a risk mediator in treatment-resistant depression. This newly identified trait should be included as a risk factor in treatment-resistant depression.

  8. Human host defense peptide LL-37 stimulates virulence factor production and adaptive resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Strempel

    Full Text Available A multitude of different virulence factors as well as the ability to rapidly adapt to adverse environmental conditions are important features for the high pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both virulence and adaptive resistance are tightly controlled by a complex regulatory network and respond to external stimuli, such as host signals or antibiotic stress, in a highly specific manner. Here, we demonstrate that physiological concentrations of the human host defense peptide LL-37 promote virulence factor production as well as an adaptive resistance against fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside antibiotics in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Microarray analyses of P. aeruginosa cells exposed to LL-37 revealed an upregulation of gene clusters involved in the production of quorum sensing molecules and secreted virulence factors (PQS, phenazine, hydrogen cyanide (HCN, elastase and rhamnolipids and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS modification as well as an induction of genes encoding multidrug efflux pumps MexCD-OprJ and MexGHI-OpmD. Accordingly, we detected significantly elevated levels of toxic metabolites and proteases in bacterial supernatants after LL-37 treatment. Pre-incubation of bacteria with LL-37 for 2 h led to a decreased susceptibility towards gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Quantitative Realtime PCR results using a PAO1-pqsE mutant strain present evidence that the quinolone response protein and virulence regulator PqsE may be implicated in the regulation of the observed phenotype in response to LL-37. Further experiments with synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptides IDR-1018, 1037 and HHC-36 showed no induction of pqsE expression, suggesting a new role of PqsE as highly specific host stress sensor.

  9. Converging risk factors but no association between HIV infection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hof, S; Tursynbayeva, A; Abildaev, T; Adenov, M; Pak, S; Bekembayeva, G; Ismailov, S

    2013-04-01

    Kazakhstan is a country with a low HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome) burden, but a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We describe the epidemiology of multidrug resistance and HIV among TB patients, using the 2007-2011 national electronic TB register. HIV test results were available for 97.2% of TB patients. HIV prevalence among TB patients increased from 0.6% in 2007 to 1.5% in 2011. Overall, 41.6% of patients had a positive smear at diagnosis, 38.6% a positive culture and 51.7% either a positive smear or culture. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) results were available for 92.7% of culture-positive cases. Socio-economic factors independently associated with both HIV and MDR-TB were urban residency, drug use, homelessness and a history of incarceration. In adjusted analysis, HIV positivity was not associated with MDR-TB (OR 1.0, 95%CI 0.86-1.2). Overall, among TB patients with DST and HIV test results available, 65.0% were positive for neither HIV nor MDR-TB, 33.5% only for MDR-TB, 0.9% only for HIV and 0.6% for both HIV and MDR-TB. Among injection drug users, 12.5% were positive for HIV and MDR-TB. We showed increasing HIV prevalence among TB patients in Kazakhstan. HIV was not an independent risk factor for MDR-TB, but risk factors were largely overlapping and we did identify subgroups at particular risk of HIV-MDR-TB co-infection, notably drug users. Enhanced efforts are necessary to provide care to these socially vulnerable populations.

  10. Development of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Bangladesh: a case-control study on risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfuza Rifat

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors for developing multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Bangladesh. METHODS: This case-control study was set in central, district and sub-district level hospitals of rural and urban Bangladesh. Included were 250 multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patients as cases and 750 drug susceptible tuberculosis patients as controls. We recruited cases from all three government hospitals treating MDR-TB in Bangladesh during the study period. Controls were selected randomly from those local treatment units that had referred the cases. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews and record reviews. Unadjusted and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Previous treatment history was shown to be the major contributing factor to MDR-TB in univariate analysis. After adjusting for other factors in multivariable analysis, age group "18-25" (OR 1.77, CI 1.07-2.93 and "26-45" (OR 1.72, CI 1.12-2.66, some level of education (OR 1.94, CI 1.32-2.85, service and business as occupation (OR 2.88, CI 1.29-6.44; OR 3.71, CI 1.59-8.66, respectively, smoking history (OR 1.58, CI 0.99-2.5, and type 2 diabetes (OR 2.56 CI 1.51-4.34 were associated with MDR-TB. Previous treatment was not included in the multivariable analysis as it was correlated with multiple predictors. CONCLUSION: Previous tuberculosis treatment was found to be the major risk factor for MDR-TB. This study also identified age 18 to 45 years, some education up to secondary level, service and business as occupation, past smoking status, and type 2 diabetes as comorbid illness as risk factors. National Tuberculosis programme should address these risk factors in MDR-TB control strategy. The integration of MDR-TB control activities with diabetes and tobacco control programmes is needed in Bangladesh.

  11. Risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregona, Geisa; Cosme, Lorrayne Belique; Moreira, Cláudia Maria Marques; Bussular, José Luis; Dettoni, Valdério do Valle; Dalcolmo, Margareth Pretti; Zandonade, Eliana; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2017-04-27

    To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study of cases of tuberculosis tested for first-line drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin) in Espírito Santo between 2002 and 2012. We have used laboratory data and registration of cases of tuberculosis - from the Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação and Sistema para Tratamentos Especiais de Tuberculose. Individuals have been classified as resistant and non-resistant and compared in relation to the sociodemographic, clinical, and epidemiological variables. Some variables have been included in a logistic regression model to establish the factors associated with resistance. In the study period, 1,669 individuals underwent anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing. Of these individuals, 10.6% showed resistance to any anti-tuberculosis drug. The rate of multidrug resistance observed, that is, to rifampicin and isoniazid, has been 5%. After multiple analysis, we have identified as independent factors associated with resistant tuberculosis: history of previous treatment of tuberculosis [recurrence (OR = 7.72; 95%CI 4.24-14.05) and re-entry after abandonment (OR = 3.91; 95%CI 1.81-8.43)], smoking (OR = 3.93; 95%CI 1.98-7.79), and positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the time of notification of the case (OR = 3.22; 95%CI 1.15-8.99). The partnership between tuberculosis control programs and health teams working in the network of Primary Health Care needs to be strengthened. This would allow the identification and monitoring of individuals with a history of previous treatment of tuberculosis and smoking. Moreover, the expansion of the offer of the culture of tuberculosis and anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing would provide greater diagnostic capacity for the resistant types in Espírito Santo. Analisar a prevalência e fatores associados à tuberculose resistente

  12. Risk factors for enterococcal infection and colonization by vancomycin-resistant enterococci in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, M; Drougka, E; Fligou, F; Kolonitsiou, F; Liakopoulos, A; Dodou, V; Anastassiou, E D; Petinaki, E; Marangos, M; Filos, K S; Spiliopoulou, I

    2014-12-01

    Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) are important causes of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) infections. Our goal was to identify the prevalence and risk factors for VRE colonization upon ICU admission and during ICU stay, as well as, their impact in enterococcal infection including vancomycin-susceptible cases (VSE). A prospective study regarding patients admitted in ICU (n = 497) was conducted during a 24-month period. Rectal swabs were collected upon admission and during hospitalization and inoculated onto selective medium. Enterococci were phenotypically characterized. van genes were investigated by PCR and clones were identified by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multilocus Sequence Typing. Epidemiologic data were collected from the ICU database. Risk factors for VRE carriage upon ICU admission (71/497) were: duration of previous hospitalization, glycopeptide administration, chronic heart failure, malignancy, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and previous enterococcal infection (VRE and/or VSE). Risk factors for VRE colonization during ICU stay (36/250) were: quinolone administration, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic renal failure, and number of VRE-positive patients in nearby beds. Risk factors for enterococcal infection during ICU stay (15/284), including VRE and VSE cases, were: administration of third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins, cortisone use before ICU admission and VRE colonization, whereas, enteral nutrition was a protective factor. Previous VRE colonization and antibiotic usage are essential parameters for enterococcal infection (by VRE or VSE) during ICU stay. Previous enterococcal infection, co-morbidities and antibiotic usage are associated with VRE colonization upon ICU admission, whereas, patient to patient transmission, co-morbidities and antibiotic usage constitute risk factors for VRE colonization during ICU hospitalization.

  13. Farm level risk factors for fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. on poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N M; Wales, A D; Ridley, A M; Davies, R H

    2016-10-01

    Data on husbandry practices, performance, disease and drug use were collected during a cross-sectional survey of 89 poultry meat farms in England and Wales to provide information on possible risk factors for the occurrence of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant bacteria. Faeces samples were used to classify farms as "affected" or "not affected" by FQ-resistant (FQr) Escherichia coli or Campylobacter spp. Risk factor analysis identified the use of FQ on the farms as having by far the strongest association, among the factors considered, with the occurrence of FQr bacteria. Resistant E. coli and/or Campylobacter spp. were found on 86% of the farms with a history of FQ use. However, a substantial proportion of farms with no history of FQ use also yielded FQr organisms, suggesting that resistant bacteria may transfer between farms. Further analysis suggested that for Campylobacter spp., on-farm hygiene, cleaning and disinfection between batches of birds and wildlife control were of most significance. By contrast, for E. coli biosecurity from external contamination was of particular importance, although the modelling indicated that other factors were likely to be involved. Detailed studies on a small number of sites showed that FQr E. coli can survive routine cleaning and disinfection. It appears difficult to avoid the occurrence of resistant bacteria when FQ are used on a farm, but the present findings provide evidence to support recommendations to reduce the substantial risk of the incidental acquisition of such resistance by farms where FQ are not used.

  14. Strategies to overcome resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woo-Jeong; Cha, Pu-Hyeon; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2014-08-07

    Administration of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) such as cetuximab and panitumumab in combination with conventional chemotherapy substantially prolongs survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, the efficacy of these mAbs is limited due to genetic variation among patients, in particular K-ras mutations. The discovery of K-ras mutation as a predictor of non-responsiveness to EGFR mAb therapy has caused a major change in the treatment of mCRC. Drugs that inhibit transformation caused by oncogenic alterations of Ras and its downstream components such as BRAF, MEK and AKT seem to be promising cancer therapeutics as single agents or when given with EGFR inhibitors. Although multiple therapeutic strategies to overcome EGFR mAb-resistance are under investigation, our understanding of their mode of action is limited. Rational drug development based on stringent preclinical data, biomarker validation, and proper selection of patients is of paramount importance in the treatment of mCRC. In this review, we will discuss diverse approaches to overcome the problem of resistance to existing anti-EGFR therapies and potential future directions for cancer therapies related to the mutational status of genes associated with EGFR-Ras-ERK and PI3K signalings.

  15. The diphthamide modification on elongation factor-2 renders mammalian cells resistant to ricin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pradeep K; Liu, Shihui; Batavia, Mariska P; Leppla, Stephen H

    2008-08-01

    Diphthamide is a post-translational derivative of histidine in protein synthesis elongation factor-2 (eEF-2) that is present in all eukaryotes with no known normal physiological role. Five proteins Dph1-Dph5 are required for the biosynthesis of diphthamide. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells mutated in the biosynthetic genes lack diphthamide and are resistant to bacterial toxins such as diphtheria toxin. We found that diphthamide-deficient cultured cells were threefold more sensitive than their parental cells towards ricin, a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP). RIPs bind to ribosomes at the same site as eEF-2 and cleave the large ribosomal RNA, inhibiting translation and causing cell death. We hypothesized that one role of diphthamide may be to protect ribosomes, and therefore all eukaryotic life forms, from RIPs, which are widely distributed in nature. A protective role of diphthamide against ricin was further demonstrated by complementation where dph mutant CHO cells transfected with the corresponding DPH gene acquired increased resistance to ricin in comparison with the control-transfected cells, and resembled the parental CHO cells in their response to the toxin. These data show that the presence of diphthamide in eEF-2 provides protection against ricin and suggest the hypothesis that diphthamide may have evolved to provide protection against RIPs.

  16. The same allele of translation initiation factor 4E mediates resistance against two Potyvirus spp. in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Rasmussen, M.; Møller, I.S.; Tulinius, G.

    2007-01-01

    was overcome, and virus from these plants had a codon change causing an Arg to His change at position 116 of the predicted viral genome-linked protein (VPg). Accordingly, plants carrying the wlv resistance gene were infected upon inoculation with BYMV-W derived from cDNA with a His codon at position 116......Pathogenicity of two sequenced isolates of Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) was established on genotypes of Pisum sativum L. reported to carry resistance genes to BYMV and other potyviruses. Resistance to the white lupin strain of BYMV (BYMV-W) is inherited as a recessive gene named wlv that maps...... to linkage group VI together with other Potyvirus resistances. One of these, sbm1, confers resistance to strains of Pea seedborne mosaic virus and previously has been identified as a mutant allele of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E gene (eIF4E). Sequence comparison of eIF4E from BYMV...

  17. Searching for Factors that Distinguish Disease-Prone and Disease-Resistant Prions via Sequence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Kurgan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The exact mechanisms of prion misfolding and factors that predispose an individual to prion diseases are largely unknown. Our approach to identifying candidate factors in-silico relies on contrasting the C-terminal domain of PrPC sequences from two groups of vertebrate species: those that have been found to suffer from prion diseases, and those that have not. We propose that any significant differences between the two groups are candidate factors that may predispose individuals to develop prion disease, which should be further analyzed by wet-lab investigations. Using an array of computational methods we identified possible point mutations that could predispose PrPC to misfold into PrPSc. Our results include confirmatory findings such as the V210I mutation, and new findings including P137M, G142D, G142N, D144P, K185T, V189I, H187Y and T191P mutations, which could impact structural stability. We also propose new hypotheses that give insights into the stability of helix-2 and -3. These include destabilizing effects of Histidine and T188-T193 segment in helix-2 in the disease-prone prions, and a stabilizing effect of Leucine on helix-3 in the disease-resistant prions.

  18. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Insulin Resistance in Adults from Maracaibo City, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmore Bermudez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Insulin resistance (IR is a prominent pathophysiologic component in a myriad of metabolic disorders, including obesity, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which are common in our locality. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of IR and factors associated with this condition in an adult population from Maracaibo city, Venezuela. Methodology. A cross-sectional, descriptive study with multistaged randomized sampling was carried out in 2026 adults. IR was defined as HOMA2-IR ≥ 2. A multiple logistic regression model was constructed in order to evaluate factors associated with IR. Results. The prevalence of IR was 46.5% (n=943, with 46.7% (n=450 in the general population, 46.4% (n=493 in females, and 47.90% (n=970 in males (p=0.895. IR prevalence tended to increase with age and was significantly greater in subjects aged ≥30 years (χ2=16.726; p=2.33×10-4. Employment, alcohol consumption, obesity, high triacylglycerides, low HDL-C, and dysglycemia were associated with greater odds of IR, whereas a high level of physical activity appeared to be weak protective factor against IR. Conclusions. The prevalence of IR is elevated in our locality. The main determinants of this condition appear to be the presence of obesity, high triacylglycerides, low HDL-C, dysglycemia, and alcohol intake.

  19. The GATA Transcription Factor egl-27 Delays Aging by Promoting Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Kim, Stuart K.

    2012-01-01

    Stress is a fundamental aspect of aging, as accumulated damage from a lifetime of stress can limit lifespan and protective responses to stress can extend lifespan. In this study, we identify a conserved Caenorhabditis elegans GATA transcription factor, egl-27, that is involved in several stress responses and aging. We found that overexpression of egl-27 extends the lifespan of wild-type animals. Furthermore, egl-27 is required for the pro-longevity effects from impaired insulin/IGF-1 like signaling (IIS), as reduced egl-27 activity fully suppresses the longevity of worms that are mutant for the IIS receptor, daf-2. egl-27 expression is inhibited by daf-2 and activated by pro-longevity factors daf-16/FOXO and elt-3/GATA, suggesting that egl-27 acts at the intersection of IIS and GATA pathways to extend lifespan. Consistent with its role in IIS signaling, we found that egl-27 is involved in stress response pathways. egl-27 expression is induced in the presence of multiple stresses, its targets are significantly enriched for many types of stress genes, and altering levels of egl-27 itself affects survival to heat and oxidative stress. Finally, we found that egl-27 expression increases between young and old animals, suggesting that increased levels of egl-27 in aged animals may act to promote stress resistance. These results identify egl-27 as a novel factor that links stress and aging pathways. PMID:23271974

  20. A retrospective study of risk factors for carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae acquisition among ICU patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yangmin; Ping, Yanting; Li, Leiqing; Xu, Huimin; Yan, Xiaofeng; Dai, Haibin

    2016-03-31

    Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is rapidly emerging as a life-threatening nosocomial infection. In this study, we aim to identify risk factors, especially antibiotic use, for CRKP infection among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This was a matched case-control study of a 67-bed ICU in a tertiary care teaching hospital from 1 January 2011 through 30 June 2013. The control cases were selected among the patients with carbapenem-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (CSKP) and were matched with CRKP cases for year of ICU admission and site of infection. The clinical outcomes and antibiotic treatments were analyzed. One hundred and thirty patients were included in the study (65 cases and 65 controls). Bivariable analysis showed that age of patients (p = 0.044), number of antibiotic groups (p = 0.001), and exposure to carbapenems (p carbapenems, previous carbapenem exposure (p carbapenems is an independent risk factor for CRKP infection. Patients with this clinical factor should be targeted for interventions to reduce the subsequent risk of infection.

  1. [Prevalence and predisposing factors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in long-term care facilities. An international view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Rita

    2016-07-03

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens of healthcare and long-term care-associated infections over the world, resulting high morbidity, mortality and extra costs in these settings. The authors analyze the prevalence and predisposing factors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in long-term care facilities. Systematic review using PubMed, ScienceDirect and Cochrane Library CENTRAL databases between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2015 was performed. In the past ten years methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in European long-term care facilities (12.6%) was lower than in North America (33.9%). The most frequent predisposing factor was previous antimicrobial therapy, hospital admission and infection/colonisation, chronic wounds, and high care need. Based on the results, the prevention and control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an important public health priority in the European and Hungarian long-term care facilities.

  2. An improved algorithm for activated protein C resistance and factor V Leiden screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovits, Adrianna Z; Morgan, Elizabeth A; Lemire, Susan J; Lindeman, Neal I; Dorfman, David M

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the performance of a Russell viper venom-based activated protein C resistance (APCR) screening test relative to DNA analysis for the factor V Leiden mutation. We evaluated the concordance between Pefakit APCR screening results and DNA analysis for 435 patients homozygous (n = 11), heterozygous (n = 310), or wild-type (n =114) for the G1691A allele. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, we found that a cutoff of 1.89 for the APCR ratio yields a sensitivity and specificity of 99.1%. In patients with discrepant genotype-phenotype correlation, their APCR may provide a more clinically relevant result. We compared several strategies for employing reflex testing and found that performing initial APCR screening followed by confirmatory molecular analysis on a subset of cases in the borderline regions between the diagnostic groups can reduce unnecessary testing by approximately 80% without compromising diagnostic accuracy.

  3. Development of reliability-based load and resistance factor design methods for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyub, Bilal M.; Hill, Ralph S. III; Balkey, Kenneth R.

    2003-01-01

    Current American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) nuclear codes and standards rely primarily on deterministic and mechanistic approaches to design. The American Institute of Steel Construction and the American Concrete Institute, among other organizations, have incorporated probabilistic methodologies into their design codes. ASME nuclear codes and standards could benefit from developing a probabilistic, reliability-based, design methodology. This paper provides a plan to develop the technical basis for reliability-based, load and resistance factor design of ASME Section III, Class 2/3 piping for primary loading, i.e., pressure, deadweight and seismic. The plan provides a proof of concept in that LRFD can be used in the design of piping, and could achieve consistent reliability levels. Also, the results from future projects in this area could form the basis for code cases, and additional research for piping secondary loads. (author)

  4. MAJOR RISK FACTORS OF THE DISEASE IN THE FOCI OF DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sh. Abildaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes contamination factors in children and adolescents from the foci of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The analysis of a study of these disease sources, the people who discontinued treatment and contacted with the children and adolescents in the foci demonstrated that these were mainly male alcoholics, as well as unemployed, intensive-phase therapy non-compliant inpatients, patients who went home without permission; 16% of them had convictions. The contacted children and adolescents from a group of patients who discontinued treatment were significantly more frequently stated to have a hyperergic response to tuberculin (10.8% than those who continued treatment (3.4% (p ≤ 0.05. Two children and 3 adolescents (15% fell ill in the treatment discontinuation group. One (3.0% adolescent did in the treatment continuation group (p ≤ 0.05.

  5. Genotypes, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated in Bovine Subclinical Mastitis from Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Memon§, Yongchun Yang§, Jam Kashifa, Muhammad Yaqoob, Rehana Buriroa, Jamila Soomroa, Wang Liping and Fan Hongjie*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the genotypes, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance traits of 34 Staphylococcus aureus isolated from subclinical mastitis in Eastern China. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC results showed resistance to erythromycin in all isolates. A high frequency of Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA; 29% was observed and these isolates were also highly resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol than methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA isolates. Thirteen pathogenic factors and seven resistance genes including mecA and blaZ gene were checked through PCR. The spaX gene was found in all isolates, whereas cna, spaIg, nuc, clfA, fnbpB, hlA, hlB and seA were present in 35, 79, 85, 59, 35, 85, 71 and 38% isolates, respectively. Nine isolates carried a group of 8 different virulence genes. Moreover, macrolide resistance genes ermB and ermC were present in all isolates. High resistance rate against methicillin was found but no isolate was positive for mecA gene, whereas blaZ and tetK were detected in 82 and 56% isolates, respectively. Genes; fnbpA, seB, seC, seD, dfrK and tetM were not found in any isolate. The statistical association between phenotypic resistance and virulence genes showed, clfA, fnbpB, hlB and seA, were potentially associated with penicillin G, ciprofloxacin, methicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim and oxytetracycline resistance (P≤0.05. REP-PCR based genotyping showed seven distinct genotypes (A-G prevalent in this region. This study reports the presence of multidrug resistant S. aureus in sub-clinical mastitis which were also highly virulent that could be a major obstacle in the treatment of mastitis in this region of China.

  6. Factors Affecting the Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking Resistance of an Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.A. Young; J.R. Scully

    2001-09-12

    It is well established that Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) aluminum alloys are susceptible to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) when exposed to aqueous environments. In Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, overaged tempers are commonly used to increase HEAC resistance at the expense of strength. Overaging has little benefit in low copper alloys. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which overaging imparts HEAC resistance is poorly understood. The present research investigated hydrogen uptake, diffusion, and crack growth rate in 90% relative humidity (RH) air for both a commercial copper bearing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (AA 7050) and a low copper variant of this alloy in order to better understand the factors which affect HEAC resistance. Experimental methods used to evaluate hydrogen concentrations local to a surface and near a crack tip include nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), focused ion beam, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (FIB/SIMS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). When freshly bared coupons of AA 7050 are exposed to 90 C, 90% RH air, hydrogen ingress follows inverse-logarithmic-type kinetics and is equivalent for underaged (HEAC susceptible) and overaged (HEAC resistant) tempers. However, when the native oxide is allowed to form (24 hrs in 25 C, 40% RH lab air) prior to exposure to 90 C, 90% RH air, underaged alloy shows significantly greater hydrogen ingress than the overaged alloy. Humid air is a very aggressive environment producing local ({approx}1{micro}m) hydrogen concentrations in excess of 10,000 wt. ppm at 90 C. In the copper bearing alloy, overaging also effects the apparent diffusivity of hydrogen. As AA 7050 is aged from underaged {yields} peak aged {yields} overaged, the activation energy for hydrogen diffusion increases and the apparent diffusivity for hydrogen decreases, In the low copper alloy, overaging has little effect on hydrogen diffusion. Comparison of the apparent activation energies for hydrogen diffusion and for K independent (stage II) crack growth

  7. Risk factors of multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ventilator-associated pneumonia in a Medical Intensive Care Unit of University Hospital in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchai, Juthamas; Liwsrisakun, Chalerm; Theerakittikul, Theerakorn; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Khositsakulchai, Weerayut; Pothirat, Chaicharn

    2015-08-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by Acinetobacter baumannii remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Increasing antimicrobial resistance influences the selection of antibiotic treatment especially pandrug-resistant A. baumannii. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Medical Intensive Care Unit to identify the risk factors of VAP caused by multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-AB), extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii (XDR-AB) and pandrug-resistant A. baumannii (PDR-AB). All 337 adult patients with confirmed A. baumannii VAP were included. The incidence of MDR-AB, XDR-AB and PDR-AB were 72 (21.4%), 220 (65.3%) and 12 (3.6%), respectively. The risk factor for MDR-AB was prior use of carbapenems (OR 5.20; 95% CI 1.41-19.17). Risk factors for XDR-AB were the prior use of carbapenems (OR, 6.30; 95% CI, 1.80-21.97) and a high Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.07-1.71). In PDR-AB, the risk factors were the prior use of colistin (OR, 155.95; 95% CI, 8.00-3041.98), carbapenems (OR, 12.84; 95% CI, 1.60-103.20) and a high Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) (OR 1.10; 95% CI 1.01-1.22). In conclusion, previous exposure to antibiotics and severity of VAP were risk factors of drug-resistant A. baumannii. Judicious use of carbapenems and colistin is recommended to prevent the antimicrobial-resistant strains of this organism. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Binding of complement factor H to PorB3 and NspA enhances resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to anti-factor H binding protein bactericidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-04-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 contributes to resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor drugs in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Roberto; Rosa, Roberta; Damiano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Gennaro; Gelardi, Teresa; Garofalo, Sonia; Tarallo, Valeria; De Falco, Sandro; Melisi, Davide; Benelli, Roberto; Albini, Adriana; Ryan, Anderson; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2008-08-15

    The resistance to selective EGFR inhibitors involves the activation of alternative signaling pathways, and Akt activation and VEGF induction have been described in EGFR inhibitor-resistant tumors. Combined inhibition of EGFR and other signaling proteins has become a successful therapeutic approach, stimulating the search for further determinants of resistance as basis for novel therapeutic strategies. We established human cancer cell lines with various degrees of EGFR expression and sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors and analyzed signal transducers under the control of EGFR-dependent and EGFR-independent pathways. Multitargeted inhibitor vandetanib (ZD6474) inhibited the growth and the phosphorylation of Akt and its effector p70S6 kinase in both wild-type and EGFR inhibitor-resistant human colon, prostate, and breast cancer cells. We found that the resistant cell lines exhibit, as common feature, VEGFR-1/Flt-1 overexpression, increased secretion of VEGF and placental growth factor, and augmented migration capabilities and that vandetanib is able to antagonize them. Accordingly, a new kinase assay revealed that in addition to VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2, RET, and EGFR, vandetanib efficiently inhibits also VEGFR-1. The contribution of VEGFR-1 to the resistant phenotype was further supported by the demonstration that VEGFR-1 silencing in resistant cells restored sensitivity to anti-EGFR drugs and impaired migration capabilities, whereas exogenous VEGFR-1 overexpression in wild-type cells conferred resistance to these agents. This study shows that VEGFR-1 contributes to anti-EGFR drug resistance in different human cancer cells. Moreover, vandetanib inhibits VEGFR-1 activation, cell proliferation, and migration, suggesting its potential utility in patients resistant to EGFR inhibitors.

  10. Clinical and Microbiological Features and Factors Associated with Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Men with Community-Acquired Acute Bacterial Prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Gu; Cho, Min Chul; Cho, Sung Yong; Lee, Jeong Woo

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the clinical and microbiological features in the patients with community-acquired acute bacterial prostatitis (CA-ABP), as well as factors that affect fluoroquinolone resistance. A retrospective analysis was performed of 209 patients hospitalized for antibiotic treatment of CA-ABP. We investigated patient age, body mass index, underlying diseases, recurrence, prostate-related factors and results of urine culture examination and antibiotic sensitivity tests. Seventeen patients (8.1%) had fluoroquinolone-resistant bacterial colonies. When we divided the subjects into groups according to the fluoroquinolone resistance, the group with resistant bacteria was significantly older, had larger prostates and had greater residual urine volumes. Bacteria were identified in 127 of 209 patients (60.8%), and the most commonly cultured included Escherichia coli (43.5%). The sensitivity of the cultured bacteria to fluoroquinolones was high compared to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and gentamicin, but similar to cefotaxime. The bacteria were more sensitive to amikacin and imipenem than to fluoroquinolone. The multivariate analysis revealed that prostate volume ≥40 ml (p = 0.024) and residual urine volume >100 ml (p = 0.004) were independent predictive factors for fluoroquinolone resistance. Fluoroquinolone monotherapy might be an effective treatment in CA-ABP. However, combination antibiotic therapy is recommended in cases with prostate volume ≥40 ml or residual urine volume >100 ml, because fluoroquinolone resistance can occur. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Alterations of plasma nitric oxide, vascular endothelial growth factor, and soluble form of its receptor (sFlt-1 after resistance exercise: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Shekarchizadeh Esfahanni

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Resistance training does not alter plasma angiogenic factors (NO, VEGF, and sFlt-1, at least in normal rats. More studies are needed to show the effect of resistance training on angiogenesis process.

  12. Patient Factors Associated With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Septic Arthritis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Derek T; Haruno, Lee S; Daram, Shiva; Dawson, John R; Zhang, Wei; Rosenfeld, Scott B

    2018-02-16

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causative organism in pediatric septic arthritis, with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) being responsible for a significant portion of these infections. Early identification and initiation of proper treatment may improve outcomes by minimizing potential morbidity. The purpose of this study was to identify variables obtained on initial patient presentation associated with MRSA septic arthritis. Sixteen factors were retrospectively evaluated in 109 consecutive pediatric patients diagnosed with culture-confirmed septic arthritis. Graphical and logistical regression analyses were employed to determine factors independently predictive of MRSA septic arthritis. Twenty-seven (25%) patients had MRSA and 82 (75%) had non-MRSA septic arthritis. C-reactive protein of 13.7 mg/L or greater, duration of symptoms of 4 days or more, heart rate of 126 beats per minute or greater, and absolute neutrophil count of 8.72×10 3 cells/µL or greater were associated with MRSA septic arthritis. Ultimately, 98% of patients with 1 or no risk factors had non-MRSA and 96% of patients with MRSA septic arthritis had 2 or more positive risk factors. Elevated C-reactive protein, duration of symptoms, heart rate, and absolute neutrophil count are predictive of MRSA infection in the setting of pediatric septic arthritis and can be obtained on initial evaluation. In patients for whom there is concern for MRSA infection, this may guide more expedient treatment, such as early initiation of contact precautions and appropriate antibiotic therapy before culture results become available. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Insecticide resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti from Martinique: distribution, mechanisms and relations with environmental factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Marcombe

    Full Text Available Dengue is an important mosquito borne viral disease in Martinique Island (French West Indies. The viruses responsible for dengue are transmitted by Aedes aegypti, an indoor day-biting mosquito. The most effective proven method for disease prevention has been by vector control by various chemical or biological means. Unfortunately insecticide resistance has already been observed on the Island and recently showed to significantly reduce the efficacy of vector control interventions. In this study, we investigated the distribution of resistance and the underlying mechanisms in nine Ae. aegypti populations. Statistical multifactorial approach was used to investigate the correlations between insecticide resistance levels, associated mechanisms and environmental factors characterizing the mosquito populations. Bioassays revealed high levels of resistance to temephos and deltamethrin and susceptibility to Bti in the 9 populations tested. Biochemical assays showed elevated detoxification enzyme activities of monooxygenases, carboxylesterases and glutathione S-tranferases in most of the populations. Molecular screening for common insecticide target-site mutations, revealed the presence of the "knock-down resistance" V1016I Kdr mutation at high frequency (>87%. Real time quantitative RT-PCR showed the potential involvement of several candidate detoxification genes in insecticide resistance. Principal Component Analysis (PCA performed with variables characterizing Ae. aegypti from Martinique permitted to underline potential links existing between resistance distribution and other variables such as agriculture practices, vector control interventions and urbanization. Insecticide resistance is widespread but not homogeneously distributed across Martinique. The influence of environmental and operational factors on the evolution of the resistance and mechanisms are discussed.

  14. Health system factors influencing management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in four European Union countries - learning from country experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Gerard; Tsolova, Svetla; Anderson, Laura F; Gebhard, Agnes C; Heldal, Einar; Hollo, Vahur; Cejudo, Laura Sánchez-Cambronero; Schmid, Daniela; Schreuder, Bert; Varleva, Tonka; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2017-04-19

    In the European Union and European Economic Area only 38% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients notified in 2011 completed treatment successfully at 24 months' evaluation. Socio-economic factors and patient factors such as demographic characteristics, behaviour and attitudes are associated with treatment outcomes. Characteristics of healthcare systems also affect health outcomes. This study was conducted to identify and better understand the contribution of health system components to successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. We selected four European Union countries to provide for a broad range of geographical locations and levels of treatment success rates of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cohort in 2009. We conducted semi-structured interviews following a conceptual framework with representatives from policy and planning authorities, healthcare providers and civil society organisations. Responses were organised according to the six building blocks of the World Health Organization health systems framework. In the four included countries, Austria, Bulgaria, Spain, and the United Kingdom, the following healthcare system factors were perceived as key to achieving good treatment results for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: timely diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis; financial systems that ensure access to a full course of treatment and support for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients; patient-centred approaches with strong intersectoral collaboration that address patients' emotional and social needs; motivated and dedicated healthcare workers with sufficient mandate and means to support patients; and cross-border management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to secure continuum of care between countries. We suggest that the following actions may improve the success of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients: deployment of rapid molecular diagnostic tests; development of context-specific treatment

  15. Development of a bioassay system for investigating insulin resistance factors of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausman, D.B.; Singh, R.; Martin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    To determine if late-term pregnant serum and/or placenta could induce insulin resistance in normal adipose cells, the authors have developed an insulin sensitive bioassay system. Cells isolated from epididymal fat pads of 250-275 g Sprague Dawley rats are preincubated for 3 hours at 37 0 in media 199 and serum or placental extract. The cells are washed free of serum and tested for metabolic activity in a 2 hour incubation which measures the conversion of U- 14 C-glucose to 14 CO 2 and to 14 C-triglyceride fatty acids under basal and insulin stimulated conditions. Maximal insulin responsiveness (350-450% basal for CO 2 and 1400-1700% basal for fatty acids) is achieved using Worthington Type II collagenase and a 45-60 minute digestion period for cell isolations and Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 0.5 mM glucose, 2% Armour bovine serum albumin (CRG-7), 1000 μU/ml insulin and 110,000 to 120,000 cells in the 2 hour incubations. Using this bioasssay system the authors have found that insulin responsiveness, in terms of glucose conversion to fatty acids, is unchanged when cells are preincubated with 5% control pig serum but reduced following preincubation with late pregnant (110 day) pig serum. In future experiments the authors hope to further characterize the factor(s) in pregnant serum responsible for inducing this metabolic effect

  16. Social support a key factor for adherence to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, R D; Dhande, D J; Sachdeva, K S; Sreenivas, A N; Kumar, A M V; Parmar, M

    2018-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is emerging as a major public health problem globally. Treatment success rates in MDR-TB across the globe are not encouraging as completing MDR-TB treatment successfully is challenging due to high proportion of lost to follow up. Using qualitative methods and grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with MDR-TB patients and treatment providers. The social cognitive framework was explored as a way to guide understanding of the factors affecting treatment adherence among MDR-TB patients. Multiple factors influenced patient's decision to adhere to MDR-TB treatment. Self-motivation, awareness about disease and treatment, counselling support, family support, nutritional support and social support were important drivers for successful treatment. Providers related that motivational counselling, nutritional support, family support and social support encouraged treatment adherence. To improve MDR-TB treatment adherence, a patient-centric approach should be considered at the programmatic level. There is a need to formulate strategy that includes motivational counselling, nutritional supplementation and social support mobilisation for treatment adherence. Participants suggested a Patient Support Group led treatment care model for better adherence and treatment success rates in MDR-TB treatment. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cryptococcal phosphoglucose isomerase is required for virulence factor production, cell wall integrity and stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wei, Dongsheng; Li, Zhongming; Sun, Zhixiong; Pan, Jiao; Zhu, Xudong

    2015-11-01

    Regulation of virulence factor production in the pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans remains to be fully illustrated. We present here a finding that a gene, encoding the glycolysis enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi1), is critical for the biosynthesis of melanin and capsule, cell wall integrity and resistance to stress conditions. A leaky mutant of the yeast, LZM19, resulted from an insertion of T-DNA in the PGI1 promoter region, expressed PGI1 at a level only 1.9% of the wild type. LZM19 could synthesize the pigment melanin in the presence of 2% glucose, suggesting a status of LAC1 derepression. Phenotypically, capsule biosynthesis in LZM19 was remarkably reduced. Integrity of the cell wall and plasma membrane of LZM19 were impaired based on its sensitivity to Congo red and SDS. Also, LZM19 exhibited hypersensitivity to osmotic stress generated by 2 M NaCl or 1 M KCl, indicating possible impairment in the HOG signaling pathway. Furthermore, LZM19 failed to utilize mannose and fructose, suggesting a possible involvement of Pgi1 in the breakdown of these two sugars. Our results revealed a crucial role of PGI1 in coordination of the production of virulence factors, cell wall integrity and stress response in C. neoformans. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Are hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL causal factors in the development of insulin resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Naishi; Fu, Jingyuan; Koonen, Debby P.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Snieder, Harold; Hofker, Marten H.

    Insulin resistance often occurs with dyslipidemia as part of the metabolic syndrome and the current dominant paradigm is that insulin resistance leads to dyslipidemia. However, dyslipidemia may also cause insulin resistance; this was postulated 30 years ago, but has never been substantiated.

  19. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Treatment Outcomes of Isoniazid- and Rifampicin-Mono-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Leonela; Otero, Larissa; Sterling, Timothy R; Huaman, Moises A; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Seas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Isoniazid and rifampicin are the two most efficacious first-line agents for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. We assessed the prevalence of isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance, associated risk factors, and the association of mono-resistance on treatment outcomes. A prospective, observational cohort study enrolled adults with a first episode of smear-positive pulmonary TB from 34 health facilities in a northern district of Lima, Peru, from March 2010 through December 2011. Participants were interviewed and a sputum sample was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) media. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using the proportion method. Medication regimens were documented for each patient. Our primary outcomes were treatment outcome at the end of treatment. The secondary outcome included recurrent episodes among cured patients within two years after completion of the treatment. Of 1292 patients enrolled, 1039 (80%) were culture-positive. From this subpopulation, isoniazid mono-resistance was present in 85 (8%) patients and rifampicin mono-resistance was present in 24 (2%) patients. In the multivariate logistic regression model, isoniazid mono-resistance was associated with illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-4.1), and rifampicin mono-resistance was associated with HIV infection (aOR = 9.43; 95%CI: 1.9-47.8). Isoniazid mono-resistant patients had a higher risk of poor treatment outcomes including treatment failure (2/85, 2%, p-valuemono-resistant patients had a higher risk of death (2/24, 8%, pmono-resistance was found among TB patients in our low HIV burden setting which were similar to regions with high HIV burden. Patients with isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance had an increased risk of poor treatment outcomes.

  20. Risk factors for healthcare-acquired urinary tract infections caused by multi-drug resistant microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Zorana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Healthcare-acquired urinary tract infections (HAUTI make up to 40% of all healthcareacquired infections and contribute significantly to hospital morbidity, mortality, and overall cost of treatment. Objective. The aim of our study was to investigate possible risk factors for development of HAUTI caused by multi-drug resistant pathogens. Methods. The prospective case-control study in a large tertiary-care hospital was conducted during a five-year period. The cases were patients with HAUTI caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR pathogens, and the controls were patients with HAUTI caused by non-MDR pathogens. Results. There were 562 (62.6% patients with MDR isolates and 336 (37.4% patients with non-MDR isolates in the study. There were four significant predictors of HAUTI caused by MDR pathogens: hospitalization before insertion of urinary catheter for more than eight days (ORadjusted = 2.763; 95% CI = 1.352-5.647; p = 0.005, hospitalization for more than 15 days (ORadjusted = 2.144; 95% CI = 1.547-2.970; p < 0.001, previous stay in another department (intensive care units, other wards or hospitals (ORadjusted = 2.147; 95% CI = 1.585-2.908; p < 0.001, and cancer of various localizations (ORadjusted = 2.313; 95% CI = 1.255-4.262; p = 0.007. Conclusion. Early removal of urinary catheter and reduction of time spent in a hospital or in an ICU could contribute to a decrease in the rate of HAUTI caused by MDR pathogens.

  1. Iron and Obesity Status-Associated Insulin Resistance Influence Circulating Fibroblast-Growth Factor-23 Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Puig, Josep; Serrano, Marta; Sabater, Mónica; Rubió, Antoni; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Fontan, Marina; Casamitjana, Roser; Xifra, Gemma; Ortega, Francisco José; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema; Ricart, Wifredo

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is known to be produced by the bone and linked to metabolic risk. We aimed to explore circulating FGF-23 in association with fatness and insulin sensitivity, atherosclerosis and bone mineral density (BMD). Circulating intact FGF-23 (iFGF-23) and C-terminal (CtFGF-23) concentrations (ELISA) were measured in 133 middle aged men from the general population in association with insulin sensitivity (Cohort 1); and in association with fat mass and bone mineral density (DEXA) and atherosclerosis (intima media thickness, IMT) in 78 subjects (52 women) with a wide range of adiposity (Cohort 2). Circulating iFGF-23 was also measured before and after weight loss. In all subjects as a whole, serum intact and C-terminal concentrations were linearly and positively associated with BMI. In cohort 1, both serum iFGF-23 and CtFGF-23 concentrations increased with insulin resistance. Serum creatinine contributed to iFGF-23 variance, while serum ferritin and insulin sensitivity (but not BMI, age or serum creatinine) contributed to 17% of CtFGF-23 variance. In cohort 2, CtFGF-23 levels were higher in women vs. men, and increased with BMI, fat mass, fasting and post-load serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and PTH, being negatively associated with circulating vitamin D and ferritin levels. The associations of CtFGF-23 with bone density in the radius, lumbar spine and carotid IMT were no longer significant after controlling for BMI. Weight loss led to decreased iFGF-23 concentrations. In summary, the associations of circulating FGF-23 concentration with parameters of glucose metabolism, bone density and atherosclerosis are dependent on iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance. PMID:23555610

  2. Iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance influence circulating fibroblast-growth factor-23 concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Fernández-Real

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23 is known to be produced by the bone and linked to metabolic risk. We aimed to explore circulating FGF-23 in association with fatness and insulin sensitivity, atherosclerosis and bone mineral density (BMD. Circulating intact FGF-23 (iFGF-23 and C-terminal (CtFGF-23 concentrations (ELISA were measured in 133 middle aged men from the general population in association with insulin sensitivity (Cohort 1; and in association with fat mass and bone mineral density (DEXA and atherosclerosis (intima media thickness, IMT in 78 subjects (52 women with a wide range of adiposity (Cohort 2. Circulating iFGF-23 was also measured before and after weight loss. In all subjects as a whole, serum intact and C-terminal concentrations were linearly and positively associated with BMI. In cohort 1, both serum iFGF-23 and CtFGF-23 concentrations increased with insulin resistance. Serum creatinine contributed to iFGF-23 variance, while serum ferritin and insulin sensitivity (but not BMI, age or serum creatinine contributed to 17% of CtFGF-23 variance. In cohort 2, CtFGF-23 levels were higher in women vs. men, and increased with BMI, fat mass, fasting and post-load serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and PTH, being negatively associated with circulating vitamin D and ferritin levels. The associations of CtFGF-23 with bone density in the radius, lumbar spine and carotid IMT were no longer significant after controlling for BMI. Weight loss led to decreased iFGF-23 concentrations. In summary, the associations of circulating FGF-23 concentration with parameters of glucose metabolism, bone density and atherosclerosis are dependent on iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance.

  3. A comparison of the motivational factors between CrossFit participants and other resistance exercise modalities: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James; Sales, Adele; Carlson, Luke; Steele, James

    2017-09-01

    Understanding resistance exercise motives and participation is essential in increasing exercise adherence and reducing comorbidities. CrossFit is a fitness movement that has seen an explosive growth in popularity worldwide; however, little research has investigated the motivational factors within this "niche" resistance exercise environment. The aim of this study was to explore the motivational factors of CrossFit participants in comparison to other resistance exercise participants. Using an independent-group design, quantitative data was collected using exercise motivations inventory-2 (EMI-2) questionnaire, for a total of 314 male and female participants (CrossFit: N.=68, group resistance exercise: N.=55, alone: N.=125, personal trainer: N.=66). The present study suggest that CrossFit participants were more likely to report higher levels of intrinsic motives, such as enjoyment, challenge and affiliation, whereas personal training clients reported higher values for health related motives such as positive health, ill-health avoidance and weight management. The findings suggest that the motivations for engaging in CrossFit may be similar to those seen in sport participation, and therefore may have an influence on facilitating long-term adherence in comparison with other resistance exercise modalities. This article also discusses health related motives as being extrinsic in nature but reflecting intrinsic characteristics, potentially also facilitating long term adherence. The present research helps develop further understanding of motivational variables within differing resistance exercise modalities.

  4. The effect of resistance training on quadriceps muscle volume and some growth factors in elderly and young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negaresh, R; Ranjbar, R; Habibi, A; Mokhtarzade, M; Fokin, A; Gharibvand, M M

    2017-01-01

    Aging process is associated with loss of muscle mass, strength and growth factors dysfunction. Resistance training is one of the effective methods to overcome a decline in muscle mass, strength and also can modulate the level of myostatin, follistatin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 week resistance training on different anabolic factors which influence muscle hypertrophy in elderly and young men. Fifteen elderly and sixteen young men volunteered and participated in a periodized 3-day per week progressive resistance training program for a total of 8 weeks. Daily calorie intake, muscle volume, cross-sectional area (by computed tomography) and myostatin, follistatin, IGF-1, growth hormone (GH) and testosterone were calculated before and after the training protocol. At the end of the training period, the strength in the elderly group increased significantly compared to the young group (p0,05). Quadriceps muscle volume and cross-sectional area increased more in the younger group (pchange was not different in either groups (p>0,05). Follistatin and testosterone increased in both groups (pResistance training improved hypertrophy and lead to anabolic conditions in elder and young subjects, but in different ways. In this regard, GH-IGF-1 axis and growth factors profile at the baseline had an important role in different age-related hypertrophy.

  5. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in faecal enterococci from vet-visiting pets and assessment of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite-Martins, L; Mahú, M I; Costa, A L; Bessa, L J; Vaz-Pires, P; Loureiro, L; Niza-Ribeiro, J; de Matos, A J F; Martins da Costa, P

    2015-06-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) exhibited by enterococci isolated from faeces of pets and its underlying risk factors. From September 2009 to May 2012, rectal swabs were collected from 74 dogs and 17 cats, selected from the population of animals visiting the Veterinary Hospital of University of Porto, UPVet, through a systematic random procedure. Animal owners answered a questionnaire about the risk factors that could influence the presence of AMR in faecal enterococci. Enterococci isolation, identification and antimicrobial (AM) susceptibility testing were performed. Data analyses of multilevel, univariable and multivariable generalised linear mixed models were conducted. From all enterococci isolated (n=315), 61 per cent were considered multidrug-resistant, whereas only 9.2 per cent were susceptible to all AMs tested. Highest resistance was found to tetracycline (67.0 per cent), rifampicin (60.3 per cent), azithromycin (58.4 per cent), quinupristin/dalfopristin (54.0 per cent) and erythromycin (53.0 per cent). Previous fluoroquinolone treatments and coprophagic habits were the features more consistently associated with the presence of AMR for three (chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin) and seven (tetracycline, rifampicin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and azithromycin), respectively, out of nine AMs assessed. Evaluating risk factors that determine the presence of drug-resistant bacteria in pets, a possible source of resistance determinants to human beings, is crucial for the selection of appropriate treatment guidelines by veterinary practitioners. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Mutation in elongation factor G confers resistance to the antibiotic argyrin in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecki, Piotr; Lukat, Peer; Hüsecken, Kristina; Dötsch, Andreas; Steinmetz, Heinrich; Hartmann, Rolf W; Müller, Rolf; Häussler, Susanne

    2012-11-05

    The natural myxobacterial product argyrin is a cyclic peptide exhibiting immunosuppressive activity as well as antibacterial activity directed against the highly intrinsically resistant opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, we used whole-genome sequencing technology as a powerful tool to determine the mode of action of argyrin. Sequencing of argyrin-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates selected in vitro uncovered six point mutations that distinguished the resistant mutants from their susceptible parental strain. All six mutations were localized within one gene: fusA1, which encodes for the elongation factor EF-G. After the reintroduction of selected mutations into the susceptible wild type, the strain became resistant to argyrin. Surface plasmon resonance experiments confirmed the interaction of argyrin A with FusA1. Interestingly, EF-G has been previously shown to be the target of the anti-Staphylococcus antibiotic fusidic acid. Mapping of the mutations onto a structural model of EF-G revealed that the mutations conveying resistance against argyrin were clustered within domain III on the side opposite to that involved in fusidic acid binding, thus indicating that argyrin exhibits a new mode of protein synthesis inhibition. Although no mutations causing argyrin resistance have been found in other genes of P. aeruginosa, analysis of the sequence identity in EF-G and its correlation with argyrin resistance in different bacteria imply that additional factors such as uptake of argyrin play a role in the argyrin resistance of other organisms. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. ICESag37, a Novel Integrative and Conjugative Element Carrying Antimicrobial Resistance Genes and Potential Virulence Factors in Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaixin Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ICESag37, a novel integrative and conjugative element carrying multidrug resistance and potential virulence factors, was characterized in a clinical isolate of Streptococcus agalactiae. Two clinical strains of S. agalactiae, Sag37 and Sag158, were isolated from blood samples of new-borns with bacteremia. Sag37 was highly resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline, and susceptible to levofloxacin and penicillin, while Sag158 was resistant to tetracycline and levofloxacin, and susceptible to erythromycin. Transfer experiments were performed and selection was carried out with suitable antibiotic concentrations. Through mating experiments, the erythromycin resistance gene was found to be transferable from Sag37 to Sag158. SmaI-PFGE revealed a new SmaI fragment, confirming the transfer of the fragment containing the erythromycin resistance gene. Whole genome sequencing and sequence analysis revealed a mobile element, ICESag37, which was characterized using several molecular methods and in silico analyses. ICESag37 was excised to generate a covalent circular intermediate, which was transferable to S. agalactiae. Inverse PCR was performed to detect the circular form. A serine family integrase mediated its chromosomal integration into rumA, which is a known hotspot for the integration of streptococcal ICEs. The integration site was confirmed using PCR. ICESag37 carried genes for resistance to multiple antibiotics, including erythromycin [erm(B], tetracycline [tet(O], and aminoglycosides [aadE, aphA, and ant(6]. Potential virulence factors, including a two-component signal transduction system (nisK/nisR, were also observed in ICESag37. S1-PFGE analysis ruled out the existence of plasmids. ICESag37 is the first ICESa2603 family-like element identified in S. agalactiae carrying both resistance and potential virulence determinants. It might act as a vehicle for the dissemination of multidrug resistance and pathogenicity among S. agalactiae.

  8. ICESag37, a Novel Integrative and Conjugative Element Carrying Antimicrobial Resistance Genes and Potential Virulence Factors in Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kaixin; Xie, Lianyan; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Wang, Yong; Sun, Jingyong

    2017-01-01

    ICESag37, a novel integrative and conjugative element carrying multidrug resistance and potential virulence factors, was characterized in a clinical isolate of Streptococcus agalactiae. Two clinical strains of S. agalactiae, Sag37 and Sag158, were isolated from blood samples of new-borns with bacteremia. Sag37 was highly resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline, and susceptible to levofloxacin and penicillin, while Sag158 was resistant to tetracycline and levofloxacin, and susceptible to erythromycin. Transfer experiments were performed and selection was carried out with suitable antibiotic concentrations. Through mating experiments, the erythromycin resistance gene was found to be transferable from Sag37 to Sag158. SmaI-PFGE revealed a new SmaI fragment, confirming the transfer of the fragment containing the erythromycin resistance gene. Whole genome sequencing and sequence analysis revealed a mobile element, ICESag37, which was characterized using several molecular methods and in silico analyses. ICESag37 was excised to generate a covalent circular intermediate, which was transferable to S. agalactiae. Inverse PCR was performed to detect the circular form. A serine family integrase mediated its chromosomal integration into rumA, which is a known hotspot for the integration of streptococcal ICEs. The integration site was confirmed using PCR. ICESag37 carried genes for resistance to multiple antibiotics, including erythromycin [erm(B)], tetracycline [tet(O)], and aminoglycosides [aadE, aphA, and ant(6)]. Potential virulence factors, including a two-component signal transduction system (nisK/nisR), were also observed in ICESag37. S1-PFGE analysis ruled out the existence of plasmids. ICESag37 is the first ICESa2603 family-like element identified in S. agalactiae carrying both resistance and potential virulence determinants. It might act as a vehicle for the dissemination of multidrug resistance and pathogenicity among S. agalactiae. PMID:29051752

  9. Amphiregulin triggered epidermal growth factor receptor activation confers in vivo crizotinib-resistance of EML4-ALK lung cancer and circumvention by epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Takeuchi, Shinji; Fukuda, Koji; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Arai, Sachiko; Nanjo, Shigeki; Yamada, Tadaaki; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Mukae, Hiroshi; Yano, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Crizotinib, a first-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, is known to be effective against echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancers. Nonetheless, the tumors subsequently become resistant to crizotinib and recur in almost every case. The mechanism of the acquired resistance needs to be deciphered. In this study, we established crizotinib-resistant cells (A925LPE3-CR) via long-term administration of crizotinib to a mouse model of pleural carcinomatous effusions; this model involved implantation of the A925LPE3 cell line, which harbors the EML4-ALK gene rearrangement. The resistant cells did not have the secondary ALK mutations frequently occurring in crizotinib-resistant cells, and these cells were cross-resistant to alectinib and ceritinib as well. In cell clone #2, which is one of the clones of A925LPE3-CR, crizotinib sensitivity was restored via the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by means of an EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (erlotinib) or an anti-EGFR antibody (cetuximab) in vitro and in the murine xenograft model. Cell clone #2 did not have an EGFR mutation, but the expression of amphiregulin (AREG), one of EGFR ligands, was significantly increased. A knockdown of AREG with small interfering RNAs restored the sensitivity to crizotinib. These data suggest that overexpression of EGFR ligands such as AREG can cause resistance to crizotinib, and that inhibition of EGFR signaling may be a promising strategy to overcome crizotinib resistance in EML4-ALK lung cancer. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  10. Diagnostic Evasion of Highly-Resistant Microorganisms: A Critical Factor in Nosocomial Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuewei; Friedrich, Alexander W; Bathoorn, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Highly resistant microorganisms (HRMOs) may evade screening strategies used in routine diagnostics. Bacteria that have evolved to evade diagnostic tests may have a selective advantage in the nosocomial environment. Evasion of resistance detection can result from the following mechanisms: low-level expression of resistance genes not resulting in detectable resistance, slow growing variants, mimicry of wild-type-resistance, and resistance mechanisms that are only detected if induced by antibiotic pressure. We reviewed reports on hospital outbreaks in the Netherlands over the past 5 years. Remarkably, many outbreaks including major nation-wide outbreaks were caused by microorganisms able to evade resistance detection by diagnostic screening tests. We describe various examples of diagnostic evasion by several HRMOs and discuss this in a broad and international perspective. The epidemiology of hospital-associated bacteria may strongly be affected by diagnostic screening strategies. This may result in an increasing reservoir of resistance genes in hospital populations that is unnoticed. The resistance elements may horizontally transfer to hosts with systems for high-level expression, resulting in a clinically significant resistance problem. We advise to communicate the identification of HRMOs that evade diagnostics within national and regional networks. Such signaling networks may prevent inter-hospital outbreaks, and allow collaborative development of adapted diagnostic tests.

  11. Overexpression of the OsERF71 Transcription Factor Alters Rice Root Structure and Drought Resistance1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Geupil; Jeong, Jin Seo; Kim, Youn Shic; Ha, Sun-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Plant responses to drought stress require the regulation of transcriptional networks via drought-responsive transcription factors, which mediate a range of morphological and physiological changes. AP2/ERF transcription factors are known to act as key regulators of drought resistance transcriptional networks; however, little is known about the associated molecular mechanisms that give rise to specific morphological and physiological adaptations. In this study, we functionally characterized the rice (Oryza sativa) drought-responsive AP2/ERF transcription factor OsERF71, which is expressed predominantly in the root meristem, pericycle, and endodermis. Overexpression of OsERF71, either throughout the entire plant or specifically in roots, resulted in a drought resistance phenotype at the vegetative growth stage, indicating that overexpression in roots was sufficient to confer drought resistance. The root-specific overexpression was more effective in conferring drought resistance at the reproductive stage, such that grain yield was increased by 23% to 42% over wild-type plants or whole-body overexpressing transgenic lines under drought conditions. OsERF71 overexpression in roots elevated the expression levels of genes related to cell wall loosening and lignin biosynthetic genes, which correlated with changes in root structure, the formation of enlarged aerenchyma, and high lignification levels. Furthermore, OsERF71 was found to directly bind to the promoter of OsCINNAMOYL-COENZYME A REDUCTASE1, a key gene in lignin biosynthesis. These results indicate that the OsERF71-mediated drought resistance pathway recruits factors involved in cell wall modification to enable root morphological adaptations, thereby providing a mechanism for enhancing drought resistance. PMID:27382137

  12. The Composition and Spatial Patterns of Bacterial Virulence Factors and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in 19 Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Xia, Yu; Wen, Xianghua; Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance are of concern for environmental safety and public health. Accumulating evidence suggests that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are as an important sink and source of pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Virulence genes (encoding virulence factors) are good indicators for bacterial pathogenic potentials. To achieve a comprehensive understanding of bacterial pathogenic potentials and antibiotic resistance in WWTPs, bacterial virulence genes and ARGs in 19 WWTPs covering a majority of latitudinal zones of China were surveyed by using GeoChip 4.2. A total of 1610 genes covering 13 virulence factors and 1903 genes belonging to 11 ARG families were detected respectively. The bacterial virulence genes exhibited significant spatial distribution patterns of a latitudinal biodiversity gradient and a distance-decay relationship across China. Moreover, virulence genes tended to coexist with ARGs as shown by their strongly positive associations. In addition, key environmental factors shaping the overall virulence gene structure were identified. This study profiles the occurrence, composition and distribution of virulence genes and ARGs in current WWTPs in China, and uncovers spatial patterns and important environmental variables shaping their structure, which may provide the basis for further studies of bacterial virulence factors and antibiotic resistance in WWTPs.

  13. Comparison of Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Factors among Escherichia coli Isolated from Conventional and Free-Range Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L. Koga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological contamination in commercial poultry production has caused concerns for human health because of both the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and the increase in antimicrobial resistance in bacterial strains that can cause treatment failure of human infections. The aim of our study was to analyze the profile of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of E. coli isolates from chicken carcasses obtained from different farming systems (conventional and free-range poultry. A total of 156 E. coli strains were isolated and characterized for genes encoding virulence factors described in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for 15 antimicrobials, and strains were confirmed as extended spectrum of β-lactamases- (ESBLs- producing E. coli by phenotypic and genotypic tests. The results indicated that strains from free-range poultry have fewer virulence factors than strains from conventional poultry. Strains from conventionally raised chickens had a higher frequency of antimicrobial resistance for all antibiotics tested and also exhibited genes encoding ESBL and AmpC, unlike free-range poultry isolates, which did not. Group 2 CTX-M and CIT were the most prevalent ESBL and AmpC genes, respectively. The farming systems of poultries can be related with the frequency of virulence factors and resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria.

  14. Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in 3-to 5-Year-Old Overweight or Obese Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, Gianni; Ongering, Eva C.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: The increasing rate of overweight and obesity is alarming. The complications of overweight and obesity at a young age are largely unknown. We aimed to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese children aged 3-5 years.

  15. Diabetes mellitus in itself is not a risk factor for antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from patients with bacteriuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiland, R.; Geerlings, S. E.; de Neeling, A. J.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from patients with bacteriuria. METHODS: Data were obtained from a multicentre study. A clean-voided midstream urine culture was collected from 636 women with diabetes, who were between 18 and

  16. Colonization With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Upon Intensive Care Unit Admission: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Since earlier identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA-colonized patients could be helpful for reducing the overall frequency of S. aureus infections, the investigation of persons colonized with MRSA is considered to be a key component of MRSA infection prevention programs, particularly among ICU patients. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of nasal and extra-nasal carriers of MRSA and risk factors associated with MRSA colonization among adult patients admitted to the ICU. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 164 adult patients who were admitted to the ICU of a teaching hospital were screened for nasal and extra-nasal carriage of MRSA. In addition, the ICU-hospitalized patients were evaluated for MRSA acquisition during their ICU stay. Results Out of the 164 patients admitted to the ICU, 12 (7.3% patients were methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA carriers, and 12 (7.3% patients carried MRSA. Four (16.6% patients were colonized at single or multiple extra-nasal sites based on negative nares screening. Of the 15 remaining patients hospitalized at the ICU, one (6.7% patient acquired MRSA. The patients colonized with MRSA had more advanced ages (P = 0.008, longer hospital stays before being transferred to the ICU (P > 0.001, more underlying diseases with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (P = 0.028, and had undergone surgery (P = 0.003. Patients transferred from the surgical wards to the ICU were found to have significantly higher carriage rates of MRSA (P = 0.041. Conclusions The prevalence of MRSA colonization upon ICU admission at our hospital was relatively high, and routine MRSA screening is suggested, especially for patients who have certain risk factors. In addition, extra-nasal MRSA screenings upon ICU admission will help in the early detection of MRSA.

  17. Insights into the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in obesity and insulin resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Finucane, Orla M

    2012-11-01

    High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has emerged as a state of chronic low-grade inflammation characterised by a progressive infiltration of immune cells, particularly macrophages, into obese adipose tissue. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) present immense plasticity. In early obesity, M2 anti-inflammatory macrophages acquire an M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β produced by M1 ATM exacerbate local inflammation promoting insulin resistance (IR), which consequently, can lead to type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the triggers responsible for ATM recruitment and activation are not fully understood. Adipose tissue-derived chemokines are significant players in driving ATM recruitment during obesity. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a chemokine-like inflammatory regulator, is enhanced during obesity and is directly associated with the degree of peripheral IR. This review focuses on the functional role of macrophages in obesity-induced IR and highlights the importance of the unique inflammatory cytokine MIF in propagating obesity-induced inflammation and IR. Given MIF chemotactic properties, MIF may be a primary candidate promoting ATM recruitment during obesity. Manipulating MIF inflammatory activities in obesity, using pharmacological agents or functional foods, may be therapeutically beneficial for the treatment and prevention of obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  18. Geometric correction factor for transepithelial electrical resistance measurements in transwell and microfluidic cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, J.; Illa, X.; Gutiérrez, C.; Solé, M.; Guimerà, A.; Villa, R.

    2016-09-01

    Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements are regularly used in in vitro models to quantitatively evaluate the cell barrier function. Although it would be expected that TEER values obtained with the same cell type and experimental setup were comparable, values reported in the literature show a large dispersion for unclear reasons. This work highlights a possible error in a widely used formula to calculate the TEER, in which it may be erroneously assumed that the entire cell culture area contributes equally to the measurement. In this study, we have numerically calculated this error in some cell cultures previously reported. In particular, we evidence that some TEER measurements resulted in errors when measuring low TEERs, especially when using Transwell inserts 12 mm in diameter or microfluidic systems that have small chamber heights. To correct this error, we propose the use of a geometric correction factor (GCF) for calculating the TEER. In addition, we describe a simple method to determine the GCF of a particular measurement system, so that it can be applied retrospectively. We have also experimentally validated an interdigitated electrodes (IDE) configuration where the entire cell culture area contributes equally to the measurement, and it also implements minimal electrode coverage so that the cells can be visualized alongside TEER analysis.

  19. Effect of meteorological factors and geographic location on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci colonization in the US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Blanco

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effect of meteorological conditions and geographical location on bacterial colonization rates particularly of antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. We aimed to evaluate the effect of season, meteorological factors, and geographic location on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE colonization.The prospective cohort included all adults admitted to 20 geographically-dispersed ICUs across the US from September 1, 2011 to October 4, 2012. Nasal and perianal swabs were collected at admission and tested for MRSA and VRE colonization respectively. Poisson regression models using monthly aggregated colonization counts as the outcome and mean temperature, relative humidity, total precipitation, season, and/or latitude as predictors were constructed for each pathogen.A total of 24,704 ICU-admitted patients were tested for MRSA and 24,468 for VRE. On admission, 10% of patients were colonized with MRSA and 12% with VRE. For MRSA and VRE, a 10% increase in relative humidity was associated with approximately a 9% increase in prevalence rate. Southerly latitudes in the US were associated with higher MRSA colonization, while northerly latitudes were associated with higher VRE colonization. In contrast to MRSA, the association between VRE colonization and latitude was observed only after adjusting for relative humidity, which demonstrates how this effect is highly driven by this meteorological factor.To our knowledge, we are the first to study the effect of meteorological factors and geographical location/latitude on MRSA and VRE colonization in adults. Increasing humidity was associated with greater MRSA and VRE colonization. Southerly latitudes in the US were associated with greater MRSA and less VRE. The effect of these factors on MRSA and VRE rates has the potential not only to inform patient management and treatment, but also infection prevention interventions.

  20. Identification of Chlorogenic Acid as a Resistance Factor for Thrips in Chrysanthemum[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiss, Kirsten A.; Maltese, Federica; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert; Klinkhamer, Peter G.L.

    2009-01-01

    Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) has become a key insect pest of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. Little is known about host plant resistance to thrips. In this study, we investigated thrips resistance in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora). We identified thrips-resistant chrysanthemums applying bioassays. Subsequently, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was applied to compare the metabolome of thrips-resistant and -susceptible chrysanthemums. NMR facilitates wide-range coverage of the metabolome. We show that thrips-resistant and -susceptible chrysanthemums can be discriminated on basis of their metabolomic profiles. Thrips-resistant chrysanthemums contained higher amounts of the phenylpropanoids chlorogenic acid and feruloyl quinic acid. Both phenylpropanoids are known for their inhibitory effect on herbivores as well as pathogens. Thus, chlorogenic and feruloyl quinic acid are the compounds of choice to improve host plants resistance to thrips in ornamentals and crops. The effect of chlorogenic acid on thrips was further studied in bioassays with artificial diets. These experiments confirmed the negative effects on thrips. Our results prove NMR to be an important tool to identify different metabolites involved in herbivore resistance. It constitutes a significant advance in the study of plant-insect relationships, providing key information on the implementation of herbivore resistance breeding strategies in plants. PMID:19448039

  1. Phenotypic Assays to Determine Virulence Factors of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) Isolates and their Correlation with Antibiotic Resistance Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasi, Mohsen; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Habibi, Mehri; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-08-01

    Urinary tract infection caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains is one of the most important infections in the world. UPEC encode widespread virulence factors closely related with pathogenesis of the bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of different phenotypic virulence markers in UPEC isolates and determine their correlation with antibiotic resistance pattern. UPEC isolates from patients with different clinical symptoms of UTI were collected and screened for biofilm and hemolysin production, mannose resistant, and mannose sensitive hemagglutination (MRHA and MSHA, respectively). In addition, antimicrobial resistance pattern and ESBL-producing isolates were recorded. Of the 156 UPEC isolates, biofilm and hemolysin formation was seen in 133 (85.3%) and 53 (34%) isolates, respectively. Moreover, 98 (62.8%) and 58 (37.2%) isolates showed the presence of Types 1 fimbriae (MSHA) and P fimbriae (MRHA), respectively. Our results also showed a relationship between biofilm formation in UPEC isolated from acute cystitis patients and recurrent UTI cases. Occurrence of UTI was dramatically correlated with the patients' profiles. We observed that the difference in antimicrobial susceptibilities of the biofilm and nonbiofilm former isolates was statistically significant. The UPEC isolates showed the highest resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, and cotrimoxazole. Moreover, 26.9% of isolates were ESBL producers. This study indicated that there is a relationship between the phenotypic virulence traits of the UPEC isolates, patients' profiles, and antibiotic resistance. Detection of the phenotypic virulence factors could help to improve understanding of pathogenesis of UPEC isolates and better medical intervention.

  2. Cefditoren: Comparative efficacy with other antimicrobials and risk factors for resistance in clinical isolates causing UTIs in outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzaki Despina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate a possible role of Cefditoren, a recently marketed in Greece third-generation oral cephalosporin in urinary infections of outpatients. Methods During a multicenter survey of Enterobacteriaceae causing UTIs in outpatients during 2005–2007, Cefditoren MICs were determined by agar dilution method in a randomly selected sample of uropathogens. Susceptibility against 18 other oral/parenteral antimicrobials was determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology. Results A total of 563 isolates (330 Escherichia coli, 142 Proteus mirabilis and 91 Klebsiella spp was studied; MIC50/MIC90 of Cefditoren was 0.25/0.5 mg/L respectively, with 97.1% of the isolates being inhibited at 1 mg/L. All 12 strains producing ESBLs or AmpC enzymes were resistant to cefditoren. Susceptibility rates (% for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime axetil, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and fosfomycin were 93.1- 94.1- 96.8-93.1-71.9 and 92.8% respectively. Cefditoren MIC was significantly higher in nalidixic/ciprofloxacin non-susceptible strains; resistance to cefditoren was not associated with resistance to mecillinam, fosfomycin nitrofurantoin and aminoglycosides. Multivariate analysis demonstrated history of urinary infection in the last two weeks or three months as risk factors for cefditoren resistance. Conclusions Cefditoren exhibited enhanced in vitro activity against the most common uropathogens in the outpatient setting, representing an alternative oral treatment option in patients with risk factors for resistance to first-line antibiotics.

  3. Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Signaling Pathway in Cisplatin-Resistant Lung Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yunguang; Zheng Siyuan; Torossian, Artour; Speirs, Christina K.; Schleicher, Stephen; Giacalone, Nicholas J.; Carbone, David P.; Zhao Zhongming; Lu Bo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The development of drug-resistant phenotypes has been a major obstacle to cisplatin use in non–small-cell lung cancer. We aimed to identify some of the molecular mechanisms that underlie cisplatin resistance using microarray expression analysis. Methods and Materials: H460 cells were treated with cisplatin. The differences between cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells and parental H460 cells were studied using Western blot, MTS, and clonogenic assays, in vivo tumor implantation, and microarray analysis. The cisplatin-R cells were treated with human recombinant insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3 and siRNA targeting IGF-1 receptor. Results: Cisplatin-R cells illustrated greater expression of the markers CD133 and aldehyde dehydrogenase, more rapid in vivo tumor growth, more resistance to cisplatin- and etoposide-induced apoptosis, and greater survival after treatment with cisplatin or radiation than the parental H460 cells. Also, cisplatin-R demonstrated decreased expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and increased activation of IGF-1 receptor signaling compared with parental H460 cells in the presence of IGF-1. Human recombinant IGF binding protein-3 reversed cisplatin resistance in cisplatin-R cells and targeting of IGF-1 receptor using siRNA resulted in sensitization of cisplatin-R-cells to cisplatin and radiation. Conclusions: The IGF-1 signaling pathway contributes to cisplatin-R to cisplatin and radiation. Thus, this pathway represents a potential target for improved lung cancer response to treatment.

  4. Emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella spp. infections in a Turkish university hospital: epidemiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizbay, Murat; Guzel Tunccan, Ozlem; Karasahin, Omer; Aktas, Firdevs

    2014-01-15

    Risk factors for nosocomial carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella spp. (CRK) infections were analyzed in this study. The incidence, clinical characteristics, risk factors, antimicrobial susceptibility, and outcomes of CRK infections during a seven-year period (2004-2010) were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 720 patients were included in the study. Carbapenem resistance among Klebsiella spp. were significantly increased between 2003 and 2007 (pKlebsiella spp. infections. In a multivariate analysis, prior use of imipenem (OR 3.35; CI 1.675-6.726, p<0.001), stay in ICU (OR 3.36; 95% CI 1.193-9.508; p=0.022), receiving H2 receptor antagonist (OR 4.49; 95% CI 1.011-19.951; p=0.048) were independently associated with carbapenem resistance. Respiratory tract infections were the most seen nosocomial infection. Attack mortality rate was significantly higher in patients infected with CRK strains (p<0.001). CRK strains showed significantly higher resistance rates to other antibiotics. In conclusion, the emergence and rapid spread of CRK strains in our hospital is worrisome. The patients in ICU are most important risk group for the acquisition of CRK strains. High resistant rates to other antibiotics except than colistin and tigecycline limits therapeutic options, and increases mortality rates.

  5. Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Signaling Pathway in Cisplatin-Resistant Lung Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Yunguang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Zheng Siyuan [Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Torossian, Artour; Speirs, Christina K.; Schleicher, Stephen; Giacalone, Nicholas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Carbone, David P. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Zhao Zhongming, E-mail: zhongming.zhao@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Lu Bo, E-mail: bo.lu@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: The development of drug-resistant phenotypes has been a major obstacle to cisplatin use in non-small-cell lung cancer. We aimed to identify some of the molecular mechanisms that underlie cisplatin resistance using microarray expression analysis. Methods and Materials: H460 cells were treated with cisplatin. The differences between cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells and parental H460 cells were studied using Western blot, MTS, and clonogenic assays, in vivo tumor implantation, and microarray analysis. The cisplatin-R cells were treated with human recombinant insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3 and siRNA targeting IGF-1 receptor. Results: Cisplatin-R cells illustrated greater expression of the markers CD133 and aldehyde dehydrogenase, more rapid in vivo tumor growth, more resistance to cisplatin- and etoposide-induced apoptosis, and greater survival after treatment with cisplatin or radiation than the parental H460 cells. Also, cisplatin-R demonstrated decreased expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and increased activation of IGF-1 receptor signaling compared with parental H460 cells in the presence of IGF-1. Human recombinant IGF binding protein-3 reversed cisplatin resistance in cisplatin-R cells and targeting of IGF-1 receptor using siRNA resulted in sensitization of cisplatin-R-cells to cisplatin and radiation. Conclusions: The IGF-1 signaling pathway contributes to cisplatin-R to cisplatin and radiation. Thus, this pathway represents a potential target for improved lung cancer response to treatment.

  6. Risk factors and outcomes of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Pistella

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the nosocomial setting, antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a growing challenge, and alarming trends in resistance are currently reported all over the world. Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae producing ampC β-lactamases and extended spectrum β-lactamases are endemic in many hospitals, and are frequently resistant also to other classes of antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. The risk of infections due to multi-drug resistant strains should be considered also for outpatients who have had recent contact with the health system. Both nosocomial and health-care associated infections should be treated with a combination of antibiotics active against multi-drug resistant Gram negative and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In the absence of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs, this aggressive therapeutic approach might lead to abuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics, with consequent increase in resistances. To contain the possible antibiotic overuse, several decisional strategies, often based on risk-score systems supporting the clinical decisions, have been proposed. In this context of high antibiotic selection pressure, carbapenem-resistant pathogens recently began to spread in many hospitals. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, as well as carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and P. aeruginosa, represent the new major challenges to patient safety. Against these organisms the initial empiric treatment is generally ineffective. The poor clinical outcome associated with carbapenem- resistant K. pneumoniae infections is probably due to the delete in the beginning of an appropriate antibiotic treatment, rather than to the increased virulence of pathogens. Only few therapeutic options are available, including colistin, tigecycline, aminoglycosides and carbapenems in selected cases. Several combinations of these antibiotics have been used, but no ideal regimen has been currently established.

  7. Molecular clonality and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Infantis from broilers in three Northern regions of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahmani, Maral; Peighambari, Seyed Mostafa; Svendsen, Christina Aaby

    2013-01-01

    ) were resistant to tetracycline, spectinomycin, streptomycin, and sulfamethoxazole and harbored the associated resistance genes; tetA, dfrA14, aadA1, and sulI together with class 1 integrons. The isolates revealed highly similar PFGE patterns indicating clonal relatedness across different geographical......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains are frequently encountered problems worldwide with considerable increased occurrences in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and frequency of antimicrobial resistance and associated resistance genes......, and characterized for antimicrobial resistance genes associated to the phenotype. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was applied for comparison of genetic relatedness.Two serovars were detected among the isolates; Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis (75%) and S. Enteritidis (25%). Thirty-four (94...

  8. Psychological factors and treatment effectiveness in resistant anxiety disorders in highly comorbid inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociskova, Marie; Prasko, Jan; Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Grambal, Ales

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are a group of various mental syndromes that have been related with generally poor treatment response. Several psychological factors may improve or hinder treatment effectiveness. Hope has a direct impact on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Also, dissociation is a significant factor influencing treatment efficiency in this group of disorders. Development of self-stigma could decrease treatment effectiveness, as well as several temperamental and character traits. The aim of this study was to explore a relationship between selected psychological factors and treatment efficacy in anxiety disorders. A total of 109 inpatients suffering from anxiety disorders with high frequency of comorbidity with depression and/or personality disorder were evaluated at the start of the treatment by the following scales: the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory - revised. The participants, who sought treatment for anxiety disorders, completed the following scales at the beginning and end of an inpatient-therapy program: Clinical Global Impression (objective and subjective) the Beck Depression Inventory - second edition, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The treatment consisted of 25 group sessions and five individual sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy in combination with pharmacotherapy. There was no randomization to the type of group-therapy program. Greater improvement in psychopathology, assessed by relative change in objective Clinical Global Impression score, was connected with low initial dissociation level, harm avoidance, and self-stigma, and higher amounts of hope and self-directedness. Also, individuals without a comorbid personality disorder improved considerably more than comorbid patients. According to backward-stepwise multiple regression, the best

  9. Psychological factors and treatment effectiveness in resistant anxiety disorders in highly comorbid inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ociskova M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marie Ociskova, Jan Prasko, Klara Latalova, Dana Kamaradova, Ales Grambal Department of Psychiatry, Olomouc University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic Background: Anxiety disorders are a group of various mental syndromes that have been related with generally poor treatment response. Several psychological factors may improve or hinder treatment effectiveness. Hope has a direct impact on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Also, dissociation is a significant factor influencing treatment efficiency in this group of disorders. Development of self-stigma could decrease treatment effectiveness, as well as several temperamental and character traits. The aim of this study was to explore a relationship between selected psychological factors and treatment efficacy in anxiety disorders. Subjects and methods: A total of 109 inpatients suffering from anxiety disorders with high frequency of comorbidity with depression and/or personality disorder were evaluated at the start of the treatment by the following scales: the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory – revised. The participants, who sought treatment for anxiety disorders, completed the following scales at the beginning and end of an inpatient-therapy program: Clinical Global Impression (objective and subjective the Beck Depression Inventory – second edition, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The treatment consisted of 25 group sessions and five individual sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy in combination with pharmacotherapy. There was no randomization to the type of group-therapy program. Results: Greater improvement in psychopathology, assessed by relative change in objective Clinical Global Impression score, was connected with low initial

  10. Factors Associated with Loss to Follow-up during Treatment for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, the Philippines, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Anna Marie Celina G.; Kurbatova, Ekaterina V.; Mangan, Joan M.; Orillaza-Chi, Ruth; Naval, Leilani C.; Balane, Glenn I.; Basilio, Ramon; Golubkov, Alexander; Joson, Evelyn S.; Lew, Woo-jin; Lofranco, Vivian; Mantala, Mariquita; Pancho, Stuart; Sarol, Jesus N.

    2016-01-01

    To identify factors associated with loss to follow-up during treatment for multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) in the Philippines, we conducted a case–control study of adult patients who began receiving treatment for rifampin-resistant TB during July 1–December 31, 2012. Among 91 case-patients (those lost to follow-up) and 182 control-patients (those who adhered to treatment), independent factors associated with loss to follow-up included patients’ higher self-rating of the severity of vomiting as an adverse drug reaction and alcohol abuse. Protective factors included receiving any type of assistance from the TB program, better TB knowledge, and higher levels of trust in and support from physicians and nurses. These results provide insights for designing interventions aimed at reducing patient loss to follow-up during treatment for MDR TB. PMID:26889786

  11. Ventilator-associated pneumonia due to extensive drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Eylem Sercan; Horasan, Elif Sahin; Karaca, Kerem; Ersöz, Gülden; Naycı Atış, Sibel; Kaya, Ali

    2014-02-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is characterized by a rapid development of resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. We investigated the risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by extensive drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB). Clinical parameters and overall in-hospital mortality rates were compared between the VAP with and without XDRAB infection groups. This study showed that VAP caused by XDRAB was not associated with in-hospital mortality. However, it was related to high Simplified Acute Physiology Score II scores and increasing durations of hospital stays. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Importance of sigma factor mutations in increased triclosan resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gantzhorn, Mette Rørbæk; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Thomsen, Line Elnif

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica is the second most common foodborne pathogen. The use of biocides is crucial to prevent spread of foodborne pathogens, and it would be devastating for food safety if Salmonella would become resistant to the disinfectants used. Another concern is that exposure...... to disinfectants might lead to decreased susceptibility to antibiotics. The current study aimed to identify genetic changes causing high level triclosan resistance in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and evaluate how these affected antibiotic resistance and efflux pump activity. RESULTS: Wild type strains S....... Typhimurium 4/74 and DTU3 were adapted to increasing concentrations of the biocide triclosan by serial passage. High level triclosan resistant isolates (MIC > 1000 μg/ml) were obtained. Strains were genome sequenced, and SNPs in fabI, rpoS and rpoD were found to be associated with high level resistance...

  13. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and effects on survival of patients in a specialist palliative care unit: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Aoife; Larkin, Philip; Walsh, Cathal; O'Sullivan, Niamh

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in palliative care settings. To date, the clinical impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in palliative care is unknown. To determine prevalence and incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in a specialist palliative care setting, to identify risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation, to determine the eradication success rate and to determine the impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on survival. Prospective cohort study. Data were collected for consecutive admissions to an inpatient palliative care service. Patients were screened for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation on admission and 1 week post admission. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus eradication was attempted in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus positive patients. Data were collected from 609 admissions for 466 individual patients. Admission screening data were available in 95.5%. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation was 11.59% (54 patients). One week incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation was 1.2%. Risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation were determined using Chi-Squared test and included high Waterlow score (p resistant Staphylococcus aureus status prior to admission (p resistant Staphylococcus aureus was eradicated in 8.1% of admissions, while 46 patients commenced on the protocol (62.2%) died before completing it. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus did not significantly impact survival but was significantly associated with having infection episodes and longer length of stay. This study identified risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in palliative care patients. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was eradicated in 8.1% of patients. Hence

  14. Eosinophil resistance to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis is mediated by the transcription factor NFIL3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazdrak, Konrad; Moon, Young; Straub, Christof; Stafford, Susan; Kurosky, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The mainstay of asthma therapy, glucocorticoids (GCs) exert their therapeutic effects through the inhibition of inflammatory signaling and induction of eosinophil apoptosis. However, laboratory and clinical observations of GC-resistant asthma suggest that GCs' effects on eosinophil viability may depend on the state of eosinophil activation. In the present study we demonstrate that eosinophils stimulated with IL-5 show impaired pro-apoptotic response to GCs. We sought to determine the contribution of GC-mediated transactivating (TA) and transrepressing (TR) pathways in modulation of activated eosinophils' response to GC by comparing their response to the selective GC receptor (GR) agonist Compound A (CpdA) devoid of TA activity to that upon treatment with Dexamethasone (Dex). IL-5-activated eosinophils showed contrasting responses to CpdA and Dex, as IL-5-treated eosinophils showed no increase in apoptosis compared to cells treated with Dex alone, while CpdA elicited an apoptotic response regardless of IL-5 stimulation. Proteomic analysis revealed that both Nuclear Factor IL-3 (NFIL3) and Map Kinase Phosphatase 1 (MKP1) were inducible by IL-5 and enhanced by Dex; however, CpdA had no effect on NFIL3 and MKP1 expression. We found that inhibiting NFIL3 with specific siRNA or by blocking the IL-5-inducible Pim-1 kinase abrogated the protective effect of IL-5 on Dex-induced apoptosis, indicating crosstalk between IL-5 anti-apoptotic pathways and GR-mediated TA signaling occurring via the NFIL3 molecule. Collectively, these results indicate that (1) GCs' TA pathway may support eosinophil viability in IL-5-stimulated cells through synergistic upregulation of NFIL3; and (2) functional inhibition of IL-5 signaling (anti-Pim1) or the use of selective GR agonists that don't upregulate NFIL3 may be effective strategies for the restoring pro-apoptotic effect of GCs on IL-5-activated eosinophils.

  15. Antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in Escherichia coli from poultry farms, southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelowo, Olawale O; Fagade, Obasola E; Agersø, Yvonne

    2014-09-12

    This study investigated the mechanisms of resistance in 36 E. coli isolated from waste, litter, soil and water samples collected from poultry farms in Southwestern Nigeria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions of the isolates were determined using the methods of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute and resistance genes detected by PCR. A total of 30 isolates (94%) showed resistance to more than one antimicrobial. Percentage resistance was: tetracycline 81%, sulphamethoxazole 67%, streptomycin 56%, trimethoprim 47 %, ciprofloxacin 42%, ampicillin 36%, spectinomycin 28%, nalidixic acid 25%, chloramphenicol 22%, neomycin 14%, gentamicin 8%, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, colistin, florfenicol and apramycin 0%. Resistance genes found among the isolates include bla-TEM (85%), sul2 (67%), sul3 (17%), aadA (65%), strA (70%), strB (61%), catA1 (25%), cmlA1 (13%), tetA (21%) and tetB (17%). Class 1 and 2 integrons were found in five (14%) and six (17%) isolates, respectively, while one isolate was positive for both classes of integrons. Seven out of eight isolates with resistance to ciprofloxacin and MIC ≤ 32 mg/L to nalidixic acid contained qnrS genes. Our findings provided additional evidence that the poultry production environment in Nigeria represents an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes such as qnrS that may spread from livestock production farms to human populations via manure and water.

  16. Carbapenem-Resistant E. cloacae in Southwest China: Molecular Analysis of Resistance and Risk Factors for Infections Caused by NDM-1-Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojiong Jia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE has been considered a serious global threat, but carbapenem resistance remains relatively uncommon in E. cloacae, especially in China. The aim of this study was to characterize carbapenem-resistant E. cloacae (CR-ECL isolates from 2012 to 2016 in Southwest China. Our study revealed that 20 (15.2% of the 132 CR-ECL isolates obtained from patients were identified as NDM-1, with most isolates carrying the IncFIIA plasmids. Notably, we initially observed that the E. cloacae strain co-harbored NDM-1 and IMP-8 carbapenemases simultaneously. Analysis of the genetic environment of these two genes has revealed that the highly conserved regions (blaNDM-1-bleMBL-trpF-tat are associated with the dissemination of NDM-1, while IS26, intI1, and tniC could be involved in the spread of IMP-8. Molecular epidemiology studies showed the nosocomial outbreak caused by NDM-1-producing E. cloacae ST88. Transferring from another hospital and previous carbapenem exposure were identified as independent risk factors for the acquisition of NDM-1-producing E. cloacae. These findings emphasize the need for intensive surveillance and precautions to monitor the further spread of NDM-1 in China.

  17. Regulatory Lymphocytes Are Key Factors in MHC-Independent Resistance to EAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Marín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Resistant and susceptible mouse strains to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an inducible demyelinating experimental disease serving as animal model for multiple sclerosis, have been described. We aimed to explore MHC-independent mechanisms inducing resistance to EAE. Methods. For EAE induction, female C57BL/6 (susceptible strain and CD1 (resistant outbred strain showing heterogeneous MHC antigens mice were immunized with the 35–55 peptide of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35−55. We studied T cell proliferation, regulatory and effector cell subpopulations, intracellular and serum cytokine patterns, and titers of anti-MOG serum antibodies. Results. Upon immunization with MOG35−55, T lymphocytes from susceptible mice but not that of resistant strain were capable of proliferating when stimulated with MOG35−55. Accordingly, resistant mice experienced a rise in regulatory B cells (P=0.001 and, to a lower extent, in regulatory T cells (P=0.02 compared with C57BL/6 susceptible mice. As a consequence, MOG35−55-immunized C57BL/6 mice showed higher percentages of CD4+ T cells producing both IFN-gamma (P=0.02 and IL-17 (P=0.009 and higher serum levels of IL-17 (P=0.04 than resistant mice. Conclusions. Expansion of regulatory B and T cells contributes to the induction of resistance to EAE by an MHC-independent mechanism.

  18. Regulatory Lymphocytes Are Key Factors in MHC-Independent Resistance to EAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Nieves; Mecha, Miriam; Espejo, Carmen; Mestre, Leyre; Eixarch, Herena; Montalban, Xavier; Álvarez-Cermeño, José C.; Guaza, Carmen; Villar, Luisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Resistant and susceptible mouse strains to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an inducible demyelinating experimental disease serving as animal model for multiple sclerosis, have been described. We aimed to explore MHC-independent mechanisms inducing resistance to EAE. Methods. For EAE induction, female C57BL/6 (susceptible strain) and CD1 (resistant outbred strain showing heterogeneous MHC antigens) mice were immunized with the 35–55 peptide of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35−55). We studied T cell proliferation, regulatory and effector cell subpopulations, intracellular and serum cytokine patterns, and titers of anti-MOG serum antibodies. Results. Upon immunization with MOG35−55, T lymphocytes from susceptible mice but not that of resistant strain were capable of proliferating when stimulated with MOG35−55. Accordingly, resistant mice experienced a rise in regulatory B cells (P = 0.001) and, to a lower extent, in regulatory T cells (P = 0.02) compared with C57BL/6 susceptible mice. As a consequence, MOG35−55-immunized C57BL/6 mice showed higher percentages of CD4+ T cells producing both IFN-gamma (P = 0.02) and IL-17 (P = 0.009) and higher serum levels of IL-17 (P = 0.04) than resistant mice. Conclusions. Expansion of regulatory B and T cells contributes to the induction of resistance to EAE by an MHC-independent mechanism. PMID:24868560

  19. New treatment options for infections caused by increasingly antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyukmin; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of high-level resistance to ceftriaxone is giving rise to serious concern about absence of effective treatment options to cure gonococcal infections. Increasing the dosage regimen can be applied to ceftriaxone and azithromycin, but the emergence of high-level resistance has already been reported. Spectinomycin is another active drug but has low efficacy in the treatment of pharyngeal gonorrhoea. Conventional antibiotics could be introduced for gonococcal treatment, but they have some limitations, such as the absence of clinical trials and breakpoint. Combining antibiotics is another promising method to cure patients and to prevent the emergence of resistance. The most important strategy to maintain the efficacy of antibiotics is rapid detection and dissemination control of novel resistant isolate.

  20. Resistance in gram-negative bacilli in a cardiac intensive care unit in India: Risk factors and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawar Mandakini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the risk factors and outcome of patients with preexisting resistant gram-negative bacilli (GNB with those who develop sensitive GNB in the cardiac intensive care unit (ICU. Of the 3161 patients ( n = 3,161 admitted to the ICU during the study period, 130 (4.11% developed health care-associated infections (HAIs with GNB and were included in the cohort study. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (37.8% was the most common organism isolated followed by Klebsiella species (24.2%, E. coli (22.0%, Enterobacter species (6.1%, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (5.7%, Acinetobacter species (1.3%, Serratia marcescens (0.8%, Weeksella virosa (0.4% and Burkholderia cepacia (0.4%. Univariate analysis revealed that the following variables were significantly associated with the antibiotic-resistant GNB: females ( P = 0.018, re-exploration ( P = 0.004, valve surgery ( P = 0.003, duration of central venous catheter ( P < 0.001, duration of mechanical ventilation ( P < 0.001, duration of intra-aortic balloon counter-pulsation ( P = 0.018, duration of urinary catheter ( P < 0.001, total number of antibiotic exposures prior to the development of resistance ( P < 0.001, duration of antibiotic use prior to the development of resistance ( P = 0.014, acute physiology and age chronic health evaluation score (APACHE II, receipt of anti-pseudomonal penicillins (piperacillin-tazobactam ( P = 0.002 and carbapenems ( P < 0.001. On multivariate analysis, valve surgery (adjusted OR = 2.033; 95% CI = 1.052-3.928; P = 0.035, duration of mechanical ventilation (adjusted OR = 1.265; 95% CI = 1.055-1.517; P = 0.011 and total number of antibiotic exposure prior to the development of resistance (adjusted OR = 1.381; 95% CI = 1.030-1.853; P = 0.031 were identified as independent risk factors for HAIs in resistant GNB. The mortality rate in patients with resistant GNB was significantly higher than those with sensitive GNB (13.9% vs. 1.8%; P = 0.03. HAI with

  1. Risk factors associated with default from multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment, Uzbekistan: a retrospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Maeve K; Greig, Jane; Allamuratova, Sholpan; Althomsons, Sandy; Tigay, Zinaida; Khaemraev, Atadjan; Braker, Kai; Telnov, Oleksander; du Cros, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    The Médecins Sans Frontières project of Uzbekistan has provided multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in the Karakalpakstan region since 2003. Rates of default from treatment have been high, despite psychosocial support, increasing particularly since programme scale-up in 2007. We aimed to determine factors associated with default in multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis patients who started treatment between 2003 and 2008 and thus had finished approximately 2 years of treatment by the end of 2010. A retrospective cohort analysis of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis patients enrolled in treatment between 2003 and 2008 compared baseline demographic characteristics and possible risk factors for default. Default was defined as missing ≥60 consecutive days of treatment (all drugs). Data were routinely collected during treatment and entered in a database. Potential risk factors for default were assessed in univariate analysis using chi-square test and in multivariate analysis with logistic regression. 20% (142/710) of patients defaulted after a median of 6 months treatment (IQR 2.6-9.9). Factors associated with default included severity of resistance patterns (pre-extensively drug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis adjusted odds ratio 0.52, 95%CI: 0.31-0.86), previous default (2.38, 1.09-5.24) and age >45 years (1.77, 1.10-2.87). The default rate was 14% (42/294) for patients enrolled 2003-2006 and 24% (100/416) for 2007-2008 enrolments (p = 0.001). Default from treatment was high and increased with programme scale-up. It is essential to ensure scale-up of treatment is accompanied with scale-up of staff and patient support. A successful first course of tuberculosis treatment is important; patients who had previously defaulted were at increased risk of default and death. The protective effect of severe resistance profiles suggests that understanding disease severity or fear may motivate against default. Targeted

  2. Presence of environmental coagulase-positive staphylococci, their clonal relationship, resistance factors and ability to form biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Guadarrama, Norma; Olivares-Cervantes, Alma L; Salinas, Eva; Martínez, Leticia; Escorcia, Magdalena; Oropeza, Ricardo; Rosas, Irma

    Coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) are opportunistic pathogens carrying various mechanisms of resistance that have a large number of virulence factors, and whose ability to induce illness is associated with the host. This study aimed to investigate the presence of environmental coagulase-positive staphylococci, their susceptibility profile, clonal relationship and ability to form biofilm. The 16S rRNA genes from CoPS isolates were analyzed, and their antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated using the agar dilution method in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The clonal profile was obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and biofilm formation was measured by a crystal violet retention assay. A total of 72 Staphylococcus spp. strains were isolated from air, metal surfaces, and nostrils from humans, dogs, cats, and birds. Three species were identified: Staphylococcus aureus (17%), Staphylococcus intermedius (63%), and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (21%). Ninety three percent (93%) of the strains were resistant to at least one of 13 tested antibiotics. S. pseudintermedius strains were the only resistant ones to methicillin while most of these isolates were multidrug-resistant, had significantly higher ability to form biofilm and PFGE grouped into seven different patterns, without showing clonal dispersion among animals and environmental isolates. This study suggests that dogs, cat, and air are environmental sources potentially carrying multidrug-resistant S. pseudintermedius, which survives in different environments through biofilm formation and multidrug resistance, characteristics that can be transmitted horizontally to other bacteria and exacerbate the problem of antibiotic resistance in humans. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic effects analysis of myeloid leukemia factor 2 and T cell receptor-beta on resistance to coccidiosis in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E-S; Hong, Y H; Lillehoj, H S

    2010-01-01

    Associations between the parameters of resistance to coccidiosis and SNP in 3 candidate genes located on chromosome 1 [T cell receptor-beta (TCR-beta), myeloid leukemia factor 2 (MLF2), and lymphotactin] were determined. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in 24 F1 generation and 290 F2 generation birds. Four SNP were identified in the lymphotactin gene, 12 were located in the TCR-beta gene, and 4 in the MLF2 gene. At various times after experimental infection of the F2 generation with Eimeria maxima, BW, fecal oocyst shedding, and biochemical parameters were measured as parameters of coccidiosis resistance. Single marker association test was applied to determine the associations between the 20 SNP and the parameters of coccidiosis resistance. The maximum additive genetic effect on disease resistance of an SNP in MLF2 was explained by BW (P = 0.0002). The SNP in MLF2 significantly associated with BW was also associated with fecal oocyst shedding (P = 0.001). Four SNP associated with oocyst shedding were found within the coding region of TCR-beta (P coccidiosis resistance in chickens.

  4. Embedded data collector (EDC) phase II load and resistance factor design (LRFD) : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Piles that support bridge structures are designed for the specific site characteristics and loads : that the piles are expected to bear. In Florida, driven piles are monitored during installation : (dynamically tested) to assess resistance, com...

  5. Resistance to activated protein C is a risk factor for fibrostenosis in Crohn’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Novacek, Gottfried; Miehsler, Wolfgang; Palkovits, Julia; Reinisch, Walter; Waldhör, Thomas; Kapiotis, Stylianos; Gangl, Alfred; Vogelsang, Harald

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of resistance to activated protein C (aPCR), the most common known inherited thrombophilic disorder, on the risk of intestinal operation of fibrostenosis in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD).

  6. Dietary risk factors for the development of insulin resistance in adolescent girls: a 3-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James; Jago, Russell; Thompson, Janice L

    2014-02-01

    Identifying risk factors for insulin resistance in adolescence could provide valuable information for early prevention. The study sought to identify risk factors for changes in insulin resistance and fasting blood glucose levels. Prospective cohort of girls participating in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. Adolescent girls (n 774) assessed at the ages of 16-17 and 18-19 years. Over a 3-year period, measurements of fasting blood glucose and insulin and serum cotinine were taken, and dietary intake (3 d food diary), smoking status and physical activity levels were self-reported. Improvements in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were associated with increases in the percentage of energy intake from polyunsaturated fats (β = -3·33, 95% CI -6·28, -0·39, P = 0·03) and grams of soluble fibre (β = -5·20, 95% CI -9·81, -0·59, P = 0·03) between the ages of 16-17 and 18-19 years; with similar findings for insulin. Transitioning into obesity was associated with an increase in insulin (β = 6·34, 95% CI 2·78, 9·91, P insulin resistance in late adolescence.

  7. Theoretical Research on Thermal Shock Resistance of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics Focusing on the Adjustment of Stress Reduction Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daining Fang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermal shock resistance of ceramics depends on not only the mechanical and thermal properties of materials, but also the external constraint and thermal condition. So, in order to study the actual situation in its service process, a temperature-dependent thermal shock resistance model for ultra-high temperature ceramics considering the effects of the thermal environment and external constraint was established based on the existing theory. The present work mainly focused on the adjustment of the stress reduction factor according to different thermal shock situations. The influences of external constraint on both critical rupture temperature difference and the second thermal shock resistance parameter in either case of rapid heating or cooling conditions had been studied based on this model. The results show the necessity of adjustment of the stress reduction factor in different thermal shock situations and the limitations of the applicable range of the second thermal shock resistance parameter. Furthermore, the model was validated by the finite element method.

  8. Contributing Factors of Temozolomide Resistance in MCF-7 Tumor Xenograft Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Yoshinori; Okollie, Baasil; Raman, Venu; Vesuna, Farhad; Zhao, Ming; Baker, Sharyn D.; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.; Artemov, Dmitri

    2007-01-01

    Vasculature mediated drug resistance in tumors was studied in female SCID mice bearing wild type MCF-7 and adriamycin resistant MCF-7/ADR xenograft using temozolomide (TMZ). A strong tumor growth inhibitory effect of TMZ treatment was observed in MCF-7 tumors during the initial treatment phase with subsequent relapse, but not in MCF-7/ADR tumors. Non-invasive MRI measurements of tumor vascular volume and vascular permeability-surface area product (PS) demonstrated significant reduction of PS ...

  9. R factor-mediated and chromosomal resistance to ampicillin in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roupas, A; Pitton, J S

    1974-02-01

    Sixty-four ampicillin-resistant strains of Escherichia coli were studied. Six characters were examined: (i) resistance to ampicillin, cephalothin, and carbenicillin, (ii) synergy between ampicillin and cloxacillin, (iii) level of beta-lactamase activity after osmotic shock, (iv) transferability of ampicillin resistance, (v) immunological characterization of the enzyme, and (vi) determination of substrate profiles. One class of strains was found in which synthesis of beta-lactamase is inferred to be plasmid mediated; these strains are highly resistant to ampicillin and carbenicillin, sensitive to cephalothin, do not show synergism between ampicillin and cloxacillin, and reveal a high enzymatic activity after osmotic shock. A second class is formed by strains for which beta-lactamase synthesis is inferred to be chromosomal; these strains present a low resistance level to ampicillin, are sensitive to carbenicillin and resistant to cephalothin, show a synergism between ampicillin and cloxacillin, and reveal a very low enzymatic activity after osmotic shock. These characters may be used to differentiate periplasmic and cell-bound beta-lactamases.

  10. Emergence of decreased susceptibility and resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyukmin; Unemo, Magnus; Kim, Hyo Jin; Seo, Younghee; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

    2015-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major concern globally; however, no comprehensive AMR data for gonococcal isolates cultured after 2006 in Korea have been published internationally. We determined the susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae isolates cultured in 2011-13, the mechanism of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC) resistance and the molecular epidemiology of gonococcal strains in Korea. In 2011-13, 210 gonococcal isolates were collected in Korea and their AMR profiles were examined by the agar dilution method. The penA, mtrR, penB, ponA and pilQ genes were sequenced in 25 isolates that were resistant to ESCs and 70 randomly selected isolates stratified by year. For molecular epidemiology, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing and MLST were performed. None of the N. gonorrhoeae isolates was susceptible to penicillin G and most were resistant to tetracycline (50%) and ciprofloxacin (97%). The rates of resistance to ceftriaxone, azithromycin, cefpodoxime and cefixime were 3%, 5%, 8% and 9%, respectively. However, all isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin. Twenty-one (84%) of the 25 ESC-resistant isolates contained the non-mosaic PBP2 XIII allele; however, the remaining 4 (16%) possessed the mosaic PBP2 X allele, which has been previously associated with ESC resistance including treatment failures. In Korea, susceptibility to spectinomycin remains high. However, the recent emergence of ESC-resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains, including strains possessing the PBP2 mosaic X and non-mosaic XIII alleles, is a major concern and enhanced AMR surveillance is necessary to prevent transmission of these strains. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Human pathogenic Borrelia spielmanii sp. nov. resists complement-mediated killing by direct binding of immune regulators factor H and factor H-like protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberger, Pia; Siegel, Corinna; Skerka, Christine; Fingerle, Volker; Schulte-Spechtel, Ulrike; van Dam, Alje; Wilske, Bettina; Brade, Volker; Zipfel, Peter F; Wallich, Reinhard; Kraiczy, Peter

    2007-10-01

    Borrelia spielmanii sp. nov. has recently been shown to be a novel human pathogenic genospecies that causes Lyme disease in Europe. In order to elucidate the immune evasion mechanisms of B. spielmanii, we compared the abilities of isolates obtained from Lyme disease patients and tick isolate PC-Eq17 to escape from complement-mediated bacteriolysis. Using a growth inhibition assay, we show that four B. spielmanii isolates, including PC-Eq17, are serum resistant, whereas a single isolate, PMew, was more sensitive to complement-mediated lysis. All isolates activated complement in vitro, as demonstrated by covalent attachment of C3 fragments; however, deposition of the later activation products C6 and C5b-9 was restricted to the moderately serum-resistant isolate PMew and the serum-sensitive B. garinii isolate G1. Furthermore, serum adsorption experiments revealed that all B. spielmanii isolates acquired the host alternative pathway regulators factor H and factor H-like protein (FHL-1) from human serum. Both complement regulators retained their factor I-mediated C3b inactivation activities when bound to spirochetes. In addition, two distinct factor H and FHL-1 binding proteins, BsCRASP-1 and BsCRASP-2, were identified, which we estimated to be approximately 23 to 25 kDa in mass. A further factor H binding protein, BsCRASP-3, was found exclusively in the tick isolate, PC-Eq17. This is the first report describing an immune evasion mechanism utilized by B. spielmanii sp. nov., and it demonstrates the capture of human immune regulators to resist complement-mediated killing.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance risk factors and characterisation of faecal E. coli isolated from healthy Labrador retrievers in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Vanessa M; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Nuttall, Tim; McEwan, Neil; Dawson, Susan; Williams, Nicola J

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistant bacteria are increasingly detected from canine samples but few studies have examined commensal isolates in healthy community dogs. We aimed to characterise faecal Escherichia coli from 73 healthy non-veterinarian-visiting and non-antimicrobial treated Labrador retrievers, recruited from dog shows in the North West United Kingdom between November 2010 and June 2011. Each enrolled dog provided one faecal sample for our study. E. coli were isolated from 72/73 (99%) faecal samples. Disc diffusion susceptibility tests were determined for a range of antimicrobials, including phenotypic extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC-production. PCR assay detected phylogenetic groups and resistance genes (blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaCIT, qnr), and conjugation experiments were performed to investigate potential transfer of mobile genetic elements. Multivariable logistic regression examined potential risk factors from owner-questionnaires for the presence of antimicrobial resistant faecal E. coli. Antimicrobial resistant, multi-drug resistant (≥3 antimicrobial classes; MDR) and AmpC-producing E. coli were detected in 63%, 30% and 16% of samples, respectively. ESBL-producing E. coli was detected from only one sample and conjugation experiments found that blaCTX-M and blaCIT were transferred from commensal E. coli to a recipient strain. Most isolates were phylogenetic groups B1 and A. Group B2 isolates were associated with lower prevalence of resistance to at least one antimicrobial (Presistance (3GCR) (OR: 10.9; 95% CI: 2.2-54.0). AMR E. coli were surprisingly prevalent in this group of non-antimicrobial treated and non-veterinarian-visiting dogs and consumption of raw meat was a significant risk factor for antimicrobial resistance. These findings are of concern due to the increasing popularity of raw-meat canine diets, and the potential for opportunistic infection, zoonotic transmission and transmission of antimicrobial resistant

  13. The barley HvNAC6 transcription factor affects ABA accumulation and promotes basal resistance against powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yan-Jun; Perera, Venura; Christiansen, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Barley HvNAC6 is a member of the plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1,2, CUC2) transcription factor family and we have shown previously that it acts as a positive regulator of basal resistance in barley against the biotrophic pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). In this study, we use...

  14. Risk factors for carbapenem resistant bacteraemia and mortality due to gram negative bacteraemia in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalam, K.; Kumar, S.; Ali, S.; Baqi, S.; Qamar, F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the risk factors for carbapenem resistant bacteraemia and mortality due to gram negative bacteraemia in a developing country. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) from June to October 2012. Hospitalized patients > 15 years of age with gram negative bacteraemia were included and followed for a period of 2 weeks for in hospital mortality. Data was collected and analyzed for 243 subjects. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the risk factors for carbapenem resistant bacteraemia and mortality due to gram negative bacteraemia. Crude and adjusted odds ratio and 95% CI are reported. Results: A total of 729 out of 1535 (47.5%) cultures were positive for gram negative isolates. Out of 243 subjects, 117 (48%) had an MDR isolate. Having an MDR isolate on culture (AOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.35 -4.0), having multiple positive cultures (AOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 0.94 -3.4) and stay in ICU >48 hours (AOR, 2.0 ; 95% CI, 1.12 -3.78) were identified as significant risk factors for mortality due to gram negative organisms. Risk factors for carbapenem resistant bacteraemia were age >50 years (AOR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.0-3.5), septic shock on presentation (AOR 2.53; 95% CI, 1.03 -6.2) , ICU stay of >72 hours (AOR 2.40; 95% CI, 1.14-5.0) and receiving immunosuppressant medications (AOR 2.23; 95% CI, 0.74 - 6.7). Conclusion: There is a high burden of MDR and carbapenem resistant gram negative bacteraemia, with a high mortality rate. (author)

  15. Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from hen egg shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande Burgos, María José; Fernández Márquez, Maria Luisa; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas López, Rosario

    2016-12-05

    Eggs may contain extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) and diarrheogenic (DEC) Escherichia coli which in addition may carry antibiotic resistance. The wide use of biocides and disinfectants in the food industry may induce biocide tolerance in bacteria. The aim of the present study was to evaluate biocide tolerance and antibiotic resistance in E. coli from hen egg shells. A total of 27 isolates obtained from a screening of 180 eggs were studied. Seven isolates carried both eae and bfpA genes of typical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains, while 14 isolates only carried eae associated with atypical EPEC strains. Shiga toxin genes stx and stx2 were detected in four isolates. Heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxin genes as well as aggR were also detected. Several isolates had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) that were higher than the wild-type for the biocide hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HDP, 18.52%) or the commercial disinfectant P3 oxonia (OX, 14.81%). Antibiotic resistance was detected for ampicillin (37.03%), streptomycin (37.03%), tetracycline (37.03%), chloramphenicol (11.11%), nalidixic acid (18.51%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (14.81%). Eight isolates (29.63%) were biocide tolerant and antibiotic resistant. Efflux pump genes detected included acrB (96.29%), mdfA (85.18%) and oxqA (37.03%), in addition to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) resistance genes qacA/B (11.11%) and qacE (7.40%). Antibiotic resistance genes detected included bla CTX-M-2 (22.22%), bla TEM (3.70%), bla PSE (3.70%), tet(A) (29.63%), tet(B) (29.63%), tet(C) (7.40%), tet(E) (11.11%), aac(6')-Ib (3.70%), sul1 (14.81%), dfrA12 (3.70%) and dfrA15 (3.70%). Most isolates (96.30%) carried more than one genetic determinant of resistance. The most frequent combinations were efflux pump components acrB and mdfA with tetracycline resistance genes (33.33% of isolates). Isolates carrying QAC resistance genes also carried between 4 and 8 of the additional antimicrobial resistance genes

  16. Previous treatment, sputum-smear nonconversion, and suburban living: The risk factors of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shariff, Noorsuzana; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Kamaludin, Fadzilah

    2016-03-01

    The number of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients is increasing each year in many countries all around the globe. Malaysia has no exception in facing this burdensome health problem. We aimed to investigate the factors that contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among Malaysian tuberculosis patients. An unmatched case-control study was conducted among tuberculosis patients who received antituberculosis treatments from April 2013 until April 2014. Cases are those diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis patients clinically, radiologically, and/or bacteriologically, and who were confirmed to be resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin through drug-sensitivity testing. On the other hand, pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were sensitive to all first-line antituberculosis drugs and were treated during the same time period served as controls. A total of 150 tuberculosis patients were studied, of which the susceptible cases were 120. Factors found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are being Indian or Chinese (odds ratio 3.17, 95% confidence interval 1.04-9.68; and odds ratio 6.23, 95% confidence interval 2.24-17.35, respectively), unmarried (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.09-6.09), living in suburban areas (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.08-6.19), are noncompliant (odds ratio 4.50, 95% confidence interval 1.71-11.82), were treated previously (odds ratio 8.91, 95% confidence interval 3.66-21.67), and showed positive sputum smears at the 2nd (odds ratio 7.00, 95% confidence interval 2.46-19.89) and 6th months of treatment (odds ratio 17.96, 95% confidence interval 3.51-91.99). Living in suburban areas, positive sputum smears in the 2nd month of treatment, and was treated previously are factors that independently contribute to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Those with positive smears in the second month of treatment, have a history of previous

  17. Sedentary lifestyle and its relation to cardiovascular risk factors, insulin resistance and inflammatory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Latre, Montserrat; Moreno-Franco, Belén; Andrés-Esteban, Eva M; Ledesma, Marta; Laclaustra, Martín; Alcalde, Víctor; Peñalvo, José L; Ordovás, José M; Casasnovas, José A

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the association between sitting time and biomarkers of insulin resistance and inflammation in a sample of healthy male workers. Cross-sectional study carried out in a sample of 929 volunteers belonging to the Aragon Workers' Health Study cohort. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, pharmacological and laboratory data were collected: lipids-total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoproteins A-1 and B-100, lipoprotein (a)-, insulin resistance-glucose, glycated hemoglobin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, insulin, and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio-, and inflammatory profile-C-reactive protein and leukocytes. Information on sitting time and physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire. Sedentary behavior was analyzed in terms of prevalences and medians, according to tertiles, using a multivariate model (crude and adjusted linear regression) with biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance. The most sedentary individuals had higher body mass index, greater waist circumference, and higher systolic blood pressure, with a significant upward trend in each tertile. Likewise, they had a worse lipid profile with a higher C-reactive protein level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and insulin concentration. In the multivariate analysis, we observed a significant association between the latter parameters and sitting time in hours (log C-reactive protein [β = 0.07], log homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index [β = 0.05], triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio [β = 0.23], and insulin [β = 0.44]), which remained after adjustment for metabolic equivalents-h/week. Workers who spend more time sitting show a worse inflammatory and insulin resistance profile independently of the physical activity performed. Copyright © 2013

  18. Transcriptional changes associated with resistance to inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor revealed using metaanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, Sidra; Javed, Qamar; Blumenberg, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    EGFR is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis in healthy cells, but in tumors it activates downstream signaling pathways, causing proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Consequently, EGFR is targeted in cancers using reversible, irreversible or antibody inhibitors. Unfortunately, tumors develop inhibitor resistance by mutations or overexpressing EGFR, or its ligand, or activating secondary, EGFR-independent pathways. Here we present a global metaanalysis comparing transcriptional profiles from matched pairs of EGFR inhibitor-sensitive vs. -resistant cell lines, using 15 datasets comprising 274 microarrays. We also analyzed separately pairs of cell lines derived using reversible, irreversible or antibody inhibitors. The metaanalysis identifies commonalities in cell lines resistant to EGFR inhibitors: in sensitive cell lines, the ontological categories involving the ErbB receptors pathways, cell adhesion and lipid metabolism are overexpressed; however, resistance to EGFR inhibitors is associated with overexpression of genes for ErbB receptors-independent oncogenic pathways, regulation of cell motility, energy metabolism, immunity especially inflammatory cytokines biosynthesis, cell cycle and responses to exogenous and endogenous stimuli. Specifically in Gefitinib-resistant cell lines, the immunity-associated genes are overexpressed, whereas in Erlotinib-resistant ones so are the mitochondrial genes and processes. Unexpectedly, lines selected using EGFR-targeting antibodies overexpress different gene ontologies from ones selected using kinase inhibitors. Specifically, they have reduced expression of genes for proliferation, chemotaxis, immunity and angiogenesis. This metaanalysis suggests that ‘combination therapies’ can improve cancer treatment outcomes. Potentially, use of mitochondrial blockers with Erlotinib, immunity blockers with Gefitinib, tyrosine kinase inhibitors with antibody inhibitors, may have better chance of avoiding

  19. Cyclic Rhamnosylated Elongation Factor P Establishes Antibiotic Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkovic, Andrei; Erickson, Sarah; Witzky, Anne; Branson, Owen E; Seo, Jin; Gafken, Philip R; Frietas, Michael A; Whitelegge, Julian P; Faull, Kym F; Navarre, William; Darwin, Andrew J; Ibba, Michael

    2015-06-09

    Elongation factor P (EF-P) is a ubiquitous bacterial protein that is required for the synthesis of poly-proline motifs during translation. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, the posttranslational β-lysylation of Lys34 by the PoxA protein is critical for EF-P activity. PoxA is absent from many bacterial species such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, prompting a search for alternative EF-P posttranslation modification pathways. Structural analyses of P. aeruginosa EF-P revealed the attachment of a single cyclic rhamnose moiety to an Arg residue at a position equivalent to that at which β-Lys is attached to E. coli EF-P. Analysis of the genomes of organisms that both lack poxA and encode an Arg32-containing EF-P revealed a highly conserved glycosyltransferase (EarP) encoded at a position adjacent to efp. EF-P proteins isolated from P. aeruginosa ΔearP, or from a ΔrmlC::acc1 strain deficient in dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthesis, were unmodified. In vitro assays confirmed the ability of EarP to use dTDP-L-rhamnose as a substrate for the posttranslational glycosylation of EF-P. The role of rhamnosylated EF-P in translational control was investigated in P. aeruginosa using a Pro4-green fluorescent protein (Pro4GFP) in vivo reporter assay, and the fluorescence was significantly reduced in Δefp, ΔearP, and ΔrmlC::acc1 strains. ΔrmlC::acc1, ΔearP, and Δefp strains also displayed significant increases in their sensitivities to a range of antibiotics, including ertapenem, polymyxin B, cefotaxim, and piperacillin. Taken together, our findings indicate that posttranslational rhamnosylation of EF-P plays a key role in P. aeruginosa gene expression and survival. Infections with pathogenic Salmonella, E. coli, and Pseudomonas isolates can all lead to infectious disease with potentially fatal sequelae. EF-P proteins contribute to the pathogenicity of the causative agents of these and other diseases by controlling the translation of proteins critical for modulating antibiotic

  20. Detection of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance patterns in shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates from sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R.A. Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In order to detect virulence factors in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC isolates and investigate the antimicrobial resistance profile, rectal swabs were collected from healthy sheep of the races Santa Inês and Dorper. Of the 115 E. coli isolates obtained, 78.3% (90/115 were characterized as STEC, of which 52.2% (47/90 carried stx1 gene, 33.3% (30/90 stx2 and 14.5% (13/90 both genes. In search of virulence factors, 47.7% and 32.2% of the isolates carried the genes saa and cnf1. According to the analysis of the antimicrobial resistance profile, 83.3% (75/90 were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested. In phylogenetic classification grouped 24.4% (22/90 in group D (pathogenic, 32.2% (29/90 in group B1 (commensal and 43.3% (39/90 in group A (commensal. The presence of several virulence factors as well as the high number of multiresistant isolates found in this study support the statement that sheep are potential carriers of pathogens threatening public health.

  1. Geometric factor and influence of sensors in the establishment of a resistivity-moisture relation in soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, M.; Mansilla-Plaza, L.; Sánchez-de-laOrden, M.

    2017-10-01

    Prior to field scale research, soil samples are analysed on a laboratory scale for electrical resistivity calibrations. Currently, there are a variety of field instruments to estimate the water content in soils using different physical phenomena. These instruments can be used to develop moisture-resistivity relationships on the same soil samples. This assures that measurements are performed on the same material and under the same conditions (e.g., humidity and temperature). A geometric factor is applied to the location of electrodes, in order to calculate the apparent electrical resistivity of the laboratory test cells. This geometric factor can be determined in three different ways: by means of the use of an analytical approximation, laboratory trials (experimental approximation), or by the analysis of a numerical model. The first case, the analytical approximation, is not appropriate for complex cells or arrays. And both, the experimental and numerical approximation can lead to inaccurate results. Therefore, we propose a novel approach to obtain a compromise solution between both techniques, providing a more precise determination of the geometrical factor.

  2. The Path to High Q-Factors in Superconducting Accelerating Cavities: Flux Expulsion and Surface Resistance Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinello, Martina [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Accelerating cavities are devices resonating in the radio-frequency (RF) range used to accelerate charged particles in accelerators. Superconducting accelerating cavities are made out of niobium and operate at the liquid helium temperature. Even if superconducting, these resonating structures have some RF driven surface resistance that causes power dissipation. In order to decrease as much as possible the power losses, the cavity quality factor must be increased by decreasing the surface resistance. In this dissertation, the RF surface resistance is analyzed for a large variety of cavities made with different state-of-the-art surface treatments, with the goal of finding the surface treatment capable to return the highest Q-factor values in a cryomodule-like environment. This study analyzes not only the superconducting properties described by the BCS surface resistance, which is the contribution that takes into account dissipation due to quasi-particle excitations, but also the increasing of the surface resistance due to trapped flux. When cavities are cooled down below their critical temperature inside a cryomodule, there is always some remnant magnetic field that may be trapped increasing the global RF surface resistance. This thesis also analyzes how the fraction of external magnetic field, which is actually trapped in the cavity during the cooldown, can be minimized. This study is performed on an elliptical single-cell horizontally cooled cavity, resembling the geometry of cavities cooled in accelerator cryomodules. The horizontal cooldown study reveals that, as in case of the vertical cooldown, when the cooling is performed fast, large thermal gradients are created along the cavity helping magnetic flux expulsion. However, for this geometry the complete magnetic flux expulsion from the cavity equator is more difficult to achieve. This becomes even more challenging in presence of orthogonal magnetic field, that is easily trapped on top of the cavity equator

  3. The Effect of Resistance Training on Cardio-Metabolic Factors in Males with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalavand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes is one of the most important metabolic diseases in the world and exercise is a common advice to manage diabetes and reduce its complications. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training on blood glucose, blood pressure and resting heart rate in males with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods In this semi-experimental study, 20 males with type 2 diabetes with mean age of 46 ± 3.4 years old who met the inclusion criteria were selected. The participants were randomly assigned into resistance training (n = 10 and control (n = 10 groups. Resistance exercise training program was performed for eight weeks, three sessions per week. Cardiovascular and biochemical parameters were measured before and after the intervention. To analyze the measured parameters changes t-test was used at P ≤ 0.05 significance level. Results After eight weeks, a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar (P = 0.002, glycosylated hemoglobin (P = 0.025 and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.022 was observed in the resistance group. In addition, there was a significant difference in blood sugar (P = 0.003 and glycosylated hemoglobin (P = 0.031 between the two groups. Conclusions Findings of this study confirmed the positive influence of resistance training to control blood glucose and blood pressure in males with type 2 diabetes.

  4. Fecal carriage of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and risk factor analysis in hospitalised patients: A single centre study from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balvinder Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE have emerged and disseminated widely causing a variety of infections. In India, the carriage of CRE in hospitalised patients has not been well-studied. Therefore, we conducted the present study to observe gut carriage rate of CRE in patients admitted to our tertiary care hospital. Methods: A total of 232 faecal swabs collected from consecutive stool samples from admitted patients were inoculated on ChromID extended spectrum β-lactamase plates and members of Enterobacteriaceae family were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility as per the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Polymerase chain reaction for blaVIM, blaKPC, blaIMPand blaNDM-1 genes was performed. CRE was identified if the isolates showed resistance to either imipenem or meropenem or showed the presence of resistant genes. Risk factors of patients with or without CRE colonisation were also analysed. Results: A total of 232 faecal swabs yielded 252 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, of which 49 isolates from 42 patients showed the presence of CRE (occurrence 42/232; 18.1%; 27 isolates from 22 patients carried blaNDM-1, whereas 20 isolates from 17 patients possessed blaVIMgene. No isolate was positive for blaKPCand blaIMPgenes. The CRE was common in both intensive care units (38.4% and wards (46% which may reflect the excessive use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in both these settings. The CRE was also found to have a significantly higher antimicrobial resistance as compared to non-CRE isolates. The logistic regression analysis of significance showed the presence of any indwelling device (P = 0.049 and nasogastric tube (P = 0.043 as independent risk factors for acquiring gut colonisation. Conclusions: The study is the first from India to show high CRE carriage in patients admitted to a tertiary care centre and emphasises the need of strict antimicrobial stewardship implementation in hospitals to prevent dissemination of

  5. Risk factors for hospital-acquired bacteremia due to carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Colombian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Sandra Liliana; González, Pedro Felipe; Caro, María Alejandra; Ardila, Natalia; Ariza, Beatriz; Gil, Fabián; Álvarez, Carlos

    2016-02-23

    Bacteremia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to carbapenems is a public health problem due to the limitations it places on therapeutic options, as well as the increased time patients must spend in hospital, costs and the risk of mortality.  To evaluate the risk factors for presentation of bacteremia due to carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa acquired in the Hospital Universitario San Ignacio between January 2008 and June 2014.  This was a case control study in which the case patients presented bacteremia due to P. aeruginosa resistant to carbapenems and the control group included patients with P. aeruginosa susceptible to this group of antibiotics. Variables such as the previous use of meropenem and ertapenem, immunosuppression and neoplasia were measured. Mortality and duration of hospital were also described.  In all, 168 patients were evaluated, of which 42 were cases and 126 controls. Using a multivariate model, the risk factors related to bacteremia due to carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa acquired in hospital were the following: use of parenteral nutrition (OR=8.28; 95% CI: 2.56-26.79; p=0); use of meropenem (OR=1.15; 95% CI: 1.03-1.28; p=0.01); and use of ciprofloxacin (OR=81.99; 95% CI: 1.14-5884; p=0.043).  In order to prevent the emergence of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, antimicrobial control programs should be strengthened by promoting the prudent administration of carbapenems and quinolones. The correct use of parenteral nutrition should also be monitored.

  6. Risk factors and outcomes of bacteremia caused by drug-resistant ESKAPE pathogens in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodro, Marta; Sabé, Núria; Tubau, Fe; Lladó, Laura; Baliellas, Carme; Roca, Josep; Cruzado, Josep Maria; Carratalà, Jordi

    2013-11-15

    Although infections due to the six ESKAPE pathogens have recently been identified as a serious emerging problem, information regarding bacteremia caused by these organisms in solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients is lacking. We sought to determine the frequency, risk factors, and outcomes of bacteremia due to drug-resistant ESKAPE (rESKAPE) organisms in liver, kidney, and heart adult transplant recipients. All episodes of bacteremia prospectively documented in hospitalized SOT recipients from 2007 to 2012 were analyzed. Of 276 episodes of bacteremia, 54 (19.6%) were due to rESKAPE strains (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium [0], methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [5], extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae [10], carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii [8], carbapenem- and quinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa [26], and derepressed chromosomal β-lactam and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacter species [5]). Factors independently associated with rESKAPE bacteremia were prior transplantation, septic shock, and prior antibiotic therapy. Patients with rESKAPE bacteremia more often received inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy than the others (41% vs. 21.6%; P=0.01). Overall case-fatality rate (30 days) was higher in patients with rESKAPE bacteremia (35.2% vs. 14.4%; P=0.001). Bacteremia due to rESKAPE pathogens is frequent in SOT recipients and causes significant morbidity and mortality. rESKAPE organisms should be considered when selecting empirical antibiotic therapy for hospitalized SOT recipients presenting with septic shock, particularly those with prior transplantation and antibiotic use.

  7. Genetic architecture of factors underlying partial resistance to Alternaria leaf blight in carrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Clerc, Valérie; Pawelec, Anna; Birolleau-Touchard, Christelle; Suel, Anita; Briard, Mathilde

    2009-05-01

    In most production areas, Alternaria leaf blight (ALB) is recognized as the most common and destructive foliage disease in carrot. To assess the genetic architecture of carrot ALB resistance, two parental coupling maps were developed with similar number of dominant markers (around 70), sizes (around 650 cM), densities (around 9.5 cM), and marker composition. The F(2:3) progenies were evaluated in field and tunnel for two scoring dates. The continuous distribution of the disease severity value indicated that ALB resistance is under polygenic control. Three QTLs regions were found on three linkage groups. Two of them were tunnel or field specific and were detected only at the second screening date suggesting that the expression of these two QTLs regions involved in resistance to Alternaria dauci might depend on environment and delay after infection.

  8. Drug resistance-associated markers P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, and lung resistance protein as prognostic factors in ovarian carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, H. J.; Katsaros, D.; de Vries, E. G.; Massobrio, M.; Genta, F.; Danese, S.; Arisio, R.; Scheper, R. J.; Kool, M.; Scheffer, G. L.; Willemse, P. H.; van der Zee, A. G.; Suurmeijer, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    Intrinsic and/or acquired resistance to chemotherapy is the major obstacle to overcome in the treatment of patients with ovarian carcinoma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of drug resistance-associated proteins P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug

  9. Several Virulence Factors of Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates From Hospitalized Patients in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmajid Ghasemian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biofilm formation plays an important role in resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates; especially multidrug-resistant isolates are a threat to healthcare settings. Objectives: The aims of this study were to detect biofilm formation and presence of several related genes among multidrug-resistant (MDR isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Patients and Methods: A total Of 209 S. aureus strains were isolated from patients and identified by conventional diagnostic tests. The multidrug-resistant MRSA isolates were detected by antibiotic susceptibility test. The phenotypic biofilm formation was detected by micro-titre tissue plate assay. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed to detect the mecA, Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec types, accessory gene regulatory (agr genes, the icaADBC and several genes encoding staphylococcal surface proteins including clfAB, fnbAB, fib, eno, can, ebps and bbp genes with specific primers. Results: Sixty-four (30.6% isolates were methicillin-resistant, among which thirty-six (56.2% were MDR. These isolates were resistant to amoxicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (except to 6 isolates. All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. All the MDR-MRSA harbored SCCmec type III. All the MDR- MRSA isolates were strong biofilm producers in the phenotypic test. The majority of MDR- MRSA was belonged to agrI (67%, n = 24, followed by agr II (17%, n = 6, agrIV (11%, n = 4 and agrIII (5.5%, n = 2. The frequency of icaADBC genes were 75% (n = 27, 61% (n = 22, 72% (n = 26 and 72% (n = 26, respectively. Furthermore, the prevalence of clfA, clfB, fnbA, fnbB, fib, can, eno, ebps and bbp genes was 100%, 100%, 67%, 56%, 80%, 63%, 78%, 7% and 0%, respectively. Furthermore, approximately all the MRSA was strong biofilm producers. Conclusions: Multidrug-resistant isolates produced biofilm strongly and the majority harbored most

  10. Adaptation in Response of Excitation and Inhibition Factors of Angiogenesis after 4 Weeks of Progressive Resistant Training in Sedentary Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s. Karami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The sport activity is an important factor affecting the capillary density and angiogenesis. Nitric oxide (NO and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF are the most important stimulative regulators in the angiogenesis. In addition, endostatin is one of the inhibitors of angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptation in the responses of the angiogenesis inhibition and stimulating factors after 4-week increasing resistive exercises in the sedentary men. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 20 healthy and inactive male students, aged between 20 and 25 years, who were residents of Tehran University Dormitory, were studied in the first semester of the academic year 2015-16. The subjects, selected via available sampling method, were divided into two groups including experimental and control groups (n=10 per group. 4-week resistive exercises were done three sessions per week. Blood-sampling was done before and 48 hours after the last exercise session. VEGF, NO, and endostatin were then measured. Data was analyzed by SPSS 18 software using independent and dependent T tests, as well as Pearson correlation coefficient test. Findings: In experimental group, VEGF and No significantly increased at the posttest stage than the pretest (p=0.001. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in control group (p>0.05. In both experimental and control groups, endostatin level did not significantly increase at the posttest stage than the pretest (p>0.05. In addition, VEGF and NO were the only variables that were significantly correlated (p=0.016; r=0.82. Conclusion: 4-week increasing resistive exercises in the sedentary men significantly affect the angiogenes stimulating factors, i. e. VEGF and NO, while such exercises do not significantly affect the angiogenesis inhibition factor, i. e. endostatin.

  11. A prospective study of treatment of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections and risk factors associated with outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. D. de Maio Carrilho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe the clinical and microbiological data of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE infections, the treatment used, hospital- and infection-related mortality, and risk factors for death. Methods A prospective cohort conducted from March 2011 to December 2012. Clinical, demographic, and microbiological data such as in vitro sensitivity, clonality, carbapenemase gene mortality related to infection, and overall mortality were evaluated. Data were analyzed using Epi Info version 7.0 (CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA and SPSS (Chicago, IL, USA. Results One hundred and twenty-seven patients were evaluated. Pneumonia, 52 (42 %, and urinary tract infections (UTI, 51 (40.2 %, were the most frequent sites of infection. The isolates were polyclonal; the BlaKPC gene was found in 75.6 % of isolates, and 27 % of isolates were resistant to colistin. Mortality related to infection was 34.6 %, and was higher among patients with pneumonia (61.4 %. Combination therapy was used in 98 (77.2 %, and monotherapy in 22.8 %; 96.5 % of them were UTI patients. Shock, age, and dialysis were independent risk factors for death. There was no difference in infection-related death comparing colistin-susceptible and colistin-resistant infections (p = 0.46; neither in survival rate comparing the use of combination therapy with two drugs or more than two drugs (p = 0.32. Conclusions CRE infection mortality was higher among patients with pneumonia. Infections caused by colistin-resistant isolates did not increase mortality. The use of more than two drugs on combination therapy did not show a protective effect on outcome. The isolates were polyclonal, and the blaKPC gene was the only carbapenemase found. Shock, dialysis, and age over 60 years were independent risk factors for death.

  12. Risk factors and outcome for colistin-resistant Acinetobacter nosocomialis bacteraemia in patients without previous colistin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-C; Lee, Y-T; Yang, Y-S; Chen, C-T; Chiu, C-H; Yin, T; Kuo, S-C; Chen, T-L; Lin, J-C; Wang, F-D; Fung, C-P; Chang, F-Y

    2015-08-01

    The clinical characteristics of patients with colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii bacteraemia have been documented, but those of patients with bacteraemia caused by other Acinetobacter species remain unknown. Previous exposure to colistin has been shown to be associated with the emergence of colistin resistance, but may be not the only predisposing factor. In the current study, we highlight the risk and outcome of patients without previous exposure to colistin who acquired colistin-resistant Acinetobacter nosocomialis (ColRAN) bacteraemia. This 11-year single-centre retrospective study analysed 58 patients with ColRAN bacteraemia and 213 patients with colistin-susceptible A. nosocomialis (ColSAN) bacteraemia. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined with an agar dilution method. The clonal relationship of ColRAN isolates was determined with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A conjugation mating-out assay was conducted to delineate the potential transfer of colistin resistance genes. Multivariable analysis was performed to evaluate the risk factors for ColRAN bacteraemia. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was independently associated with ColRAN bacteraemia (OR 3.04; 95% CI 1.45-6.37; p 0.003). Patients with ColRAN bacteraemia had higher APACHE II scores, but the two groups showed no significant differences in 14-day mortality (10.3% vs. 10.3%) or 28-day mortality (15.5% vs. 15.0%). ColRAN isolates had greater resistance than ColSAN isolates to all antimicrobial agents except for ciprofloxacin (0% vs. 6.6%). There were 16 different ColRAN pulsotypes, and two major clones were found. Colistin resistance did not transfer to colistin-susceptible A. baumannii or A. nosocomialis. These results show that COPD is an independent risk factor for acquisition of ColRAN bacteraemia. The mortality rates were similar between patients with ColRAN and ColSAN bacteraemia. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

  13. Pneumonia caused by extensive drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii among hospitalized patients: genetic relationships, risk factors and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu Jun; Pan, Chu Zhi; Fang, Chang Quan; Zhao, Zhu Xiang; Chen, Hui Ling; Guo, Peng Hao; Zhao, Zi Wen

    2017-05-30

    The clonal spread of multiple drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging problem in China. We analysed the molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumanni isolates at three teaching hospitals and investigated the risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes of hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by extensive drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB) infection in Guangzhou, China. Fifty-two A. baumannii isolates were collected. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to assess the genetic relationships among the isolates. The bla OXA-51-like gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. The resistance phenotypes were determined using the disc diffusion method. A retrospective case-control study was performed to determine factors associated with XDRAB pneumonia. Most of the 52 A. baumannii isolates (N = 37, 71.2%) were collected from intensive care units (ICUs). The respiratory system was the most common bodily site from which A. baumannii was recovered (N = 45, 86.5%). Disc diffusion classified the isolates into 17 multidrug-resistant (MDR) and 35 extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains. MLST grouped the A. baumannii isolates into 5 existing sequence types (STs) and 7 new STs. ST195 and ST208 accounted for 69.2% (36/52) of the isolates. The clonal relationship analysis showed that ST195 and ST208 belonged to clonal complex (CC) 92. According to the sequence-based typing (SBT) of the bla OXA-51-like gene, 51 A. baumannii isolates carried OXA-66 and the rest carried OXA-199. There were no significant differences with respect to the resistance phenotype between the CC92 and non-CC92 strains (P = 0.767). The multivariate analysis showed that the APACHE II score, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiac disease were independent risk factors for XDRAB pneumonia (P < 0.05). The mortality rate of XDRAB pneumonia was high (up to 42.8%), but pneumonia caused by XDRAB was not associated with in

  14. Computational design of heat resistant steels with evolving and time-independent strengthening factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Alloy design by the traditional trial and error approach is known to be a time consuming and a highly cost procedure, especially for the design of heat resistant steel where the feedback time is intrinsically long. The significant developments in computational simulation techniques in the last

  15. Translation quality control is maintained by the penicillin resistance factor MurM in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Jennifer; Ibba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a causative agent of nosocomial infections such as pneumonia, meningitis and septicaemia. Penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae depends in part upon MurM, an aminoacyl-tRNA-ligase that attaches L-serine or L-alanine to the stem peptide lysine of Lipid II in cell wall...

  16. The Hv NAC6 transcription factor: a positive regulator of penetration resistance in barley and Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Krogh; Rung, Jesper Henrik; Gregersen, Per Langkjaer

    2007-01-01

    powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh). The full-length cDNA clone was obtained using 5'-RACE and termed HvNAC6, due to its high similarity to the rice homologue, OsNAC6. Gene silencing of HvNAC6 during Bgh inoculation compromises penetration resistance in barley epidermal cells...

  17. Sedentary lifestyle and its relation to cardiovascular risk factors, insulin resistance and inflammatory profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to analyze the association between sitting time and biomarkers of insulin resistance and inflammation in a sample of healthy male workers. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 929 volunteers belonging to the Aragon Workers' Health Study cohort. Sociod...

  18. Hospitalization, a risk factor for antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in the community?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, N; Filius, PMG; van den Bogaard, AE; Nys, S; Degener, J; Endtz, HP; Stobberingh, EE

    Objective: The impact of hospitalization on the prevalence of resistant Escherichia coli in the intestinal flora of patients admitted to the surgical wards of three Dutch university-affiliated hospitals was analysed prospectively. Methods: Faecal samples were obtained on admission to the hospital,

  19. Usage of antimicrobials and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria from mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Sørensen, Charlotte Mark

    2009-01-01

    The usage of antimicrobials for treatment of mink and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among the most important bacterial pathogens in mink was investigated. The aim of the study was to provide data, which may serve as a basis for the formulation of recommendations for prudent Use...... of antimicrobial's for mink. A total of 164 haemolytic staphylococci. 49 haemolytic streptococci. 39 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 13 Pasteurella multocida. and 1093 Escherichia coli isolates front Danish mink were included in the Study. A high frequency of resistance among S. intermedius was found for tetracyclines (54.......7%). followed by penicillin (21.7%), lincosamides (20.4%), macrolides (19.1%), and spectinomycin (18.5%). Very low frequencies of resistance were recorded for other antimicrobials. The highest frequency among the E. coli isolates was recorded for ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides, and tetracyclines...

  20. Characterisation of integrons and antibiotic resistance genes in Danish multiresistant Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvang, Dorthe; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    1997-01-01

    The presence and genetic content of integrons was investigated in eight Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104 isolates from different pig herds in Denmark. Two different integrons were identified using PCR and sequencing. Each of the integrons carried a single resistance cassette in addition...... to the sul1 and qacE Delta 1 genes characteristic of integrons. The first integron encoded the ant (3 ")-Ia gene that specified resistance to spectinomycin and streptomycin. The second contained the pse-l beta-lactamase gene. All the multiresistant strains contained both integrons. The presence of these two...... integrons did not account for the total phenotypic resistance of all the isolates and does not exclude the presence of other mobile DNA elements....

  1. Characterisation of integrons and antibiotic resistance genes in Danish multiresistant Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvang, Dorthe; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    1998-01-01

    The presence and genetic content of integrons was investigated in eight Salmonella enteritica Typhimurium DT104 isolates from different pig herds in Denmark. Two different integrons were identified using PCR and sequencing. Each of the integrons carried a single resistance cassette in addition...... to the sul1 and qacE Delta 1 genes characteristic of integrons. The first integron encoded the ant (3")-Ia gene that specified resistance to spectinomycin and streptomycin. The second contained the pse-1 beta-lactamase gene. All the multiresistant strains contained both integrons. The presence of these two...... integrons did not account for the total phenotypic resistance of all the isolates and does not exclude the presence of other mobile DNA elements....

  2. Virulence Factors of Geminivirus Interact with MYC2 to Subvert Plant Resistance and Promote Vector Performance[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; Li, Jie; Jung, Choonkyun; Qu, Jing; Sun, Yanwei; Qian, Hongmei; Tee, ChuanSia; van Loon, Joop J.A.; Dicke, Marcel; Chua, Nam-Hai; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    A pathogen may cause infected plants to promote the performance of its transmitting vector, which accelerates the spread of the pathogen. This positive effect of a pathogen on its vector via their shared host plant is termed indirect mutualism. For example, terpene biosynthesis is suppressed in begomovirus-infected plants, leading to reduced plant resistance and enhanced performance of the whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) that transmit these viruses. Although begomovirus-whitefly mutualism has been known, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. Here, we identified βC1 of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus, a monopartite begomovirus, as the viral genetic factor that suppresses plant terpene biosynthesis. βC1 directly interacts with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MYC2 to compromise the activation of MYC2-regulated terpene synthase genes, thereby reducing whitefly resistance. MYC2 associates with the bipartite begomoviral protein BV1, suggesting that MYC2 is an evolutionarily conserved target of begomoviruses for the suppression of terpene-based resistance and the promotion of vector performance. Our findings describe how this viral pathogen regulates host plant metabolism to establish mutualism with its insect vector. PMID:25490915

  3. Incidence and associated factors of HIV drug resistance in Chinese HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xing

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A critical indicator of the future success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is the incidence of HIV drug resistance, which has not been studied in China on the national scale. METHODS: HIV drug resistance baseline survey was conducted in the eight provinces with the largest numbers of patients on HAART in 2009, and a prospective cohort study with 12-month follow-up was completed in 2010. Patients completed an interviewer-administrated questionnaire and provided blood for CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (CD4 count, HIV viral load (VL, and HIV drug resistance genotyping. Factors associated with incidence of HIVDR were identified by Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of HIV RNA ≥ 1000 copies/ml and HIVDR at baseline was 12.4% and 5.6%, respectively. Incidence of HIVDR in the one year follow-up was 3.5 per 100 person years. Independently associated factors were started treatment with a didanosine-based regimen, received care at township hospital or village clinic, low baseline CD4 counts, and high baseline VL. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of HIVDR in China was higher than that of some developed countries. China urgently needs to provide comprehensive education and training to doctors at village clinics and township hospitals to improve quality community-based care and treatment.

  4. Incidence and associated factors of HIV drug resistance in Chinese HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Hui; Wang, Xia; Liao, Lingjie; Ma, Yanling; Su, Bin; Fu, Jihua; He, Jianmei; Chen, Lin; Pan, Xiaohong; Dong, Yonghui; Liu, Wei; Hsi, Jenny H; Yang, Liting; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    A critical indicator of the future success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the incidence of HIV drug resistance, which has not been studied in China on the national scale. HIV drug resistance baseline survey was conducted in the eight provinces with the largest numbers of patients on HAART in 2009, and a prospective cohort study with 12-month follow-up was completed in 2010. Patients completed an interviewer-administrated questionnaire and provided blood for CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (CD4 count), HIV viral load (VL), and HIV drug resistance genotyping. Factors associated with incidence of HIVDR were identified by Cox regression analysis. The overall prevalence of HIV RNA ≥ 1000 copies/ml and HIVDR at baseline was 12.4% and 5.6%, respectively. Incidence of HIVDR in the one year follow-up was 3.5 per 100 person years. Independently associated factors were started treatment with a didanosine-based regimen, received care at township hospital or village clinic, low baseline CD4 counts, and high baseline VL. The incidence of HIVDR in China was higher than that of some developed countries. China urgently needs to provide comprehensive education and training to doctors at village clinics and township hospitals to improve quality community-based care and treatment.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance, genetic resistance determinants for ceftriaxone and molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Chun; Yin, Yue-Ping; Dai, Xiu-Qin; Unemo, Magnus; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2014-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major problem worldwide. This study investigated the AMR, genetic ceftriaxone resistance determinants and molecular epidemiology of N. gonorrhoeae in Nanjing, China. N. gonorrhoeae isolates were collected in 2007 (n = 198) and 2012 (n = 80). The susceptibility to ceftriaxone, spectinomycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline was determined using an agar-dilution method. The ceftriaxone resistance determinants penA, mtrR and penB were examined using sequencing. N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) was performed for molecular epidemiology. All isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 42.4% produced β-lactamase and 34.9% showed high-level resistance to tetracycline (MIC ≥16 mg/L). In total, 5.4% of isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone; however, all of these isolates were obtained in 2007 and the susceptibility to ceftriaxone appeared to have increased. All isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin. No penA mosaic alleles were found. Non-mosaic penA alleles with A501T and G542S alterations, an H105Y alteration in mtrR and an A102D/N alteration in porB1b were statistically associated with decreased susceptibility or resistance to ceftriaxone. The most prevalent NG-MAST sequence types (STs) were ST568 (n = 13), ST270 (n = 9) and ST421 (n = 7). ST270 was the most common ST in isolates with decreased susceptibility or resistance to ceftriaxone. Ceftriaxone, ideally 500 mg and together with azithromycin (1-2 g), should be recommended for treatment of gonorrhoea in Nanjing, China. However, N. gonorrhoeae strains with resistance to ceftriaxone have been found in Nanjing. NG-MAST and ceftriaxone resistance determinant analysis can be valuable to supplement the antimicrobial resistance surveillance in China, which needs to be further strengthened. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights

  6. Endogenous growth factor stimulation of hemocyte proliferation induces resistance to Schistosoma mansoni challenge in the snail host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Emmanuel A; Gordy, Michelle A; Phillips, Valerie K; Kabore, Alethe L; Rudko, Sydney P; Hanington, Patrick C

    2016-05-10

    Digenean trematodes are a large, complex group of parasitic flatworms that infect an incredible diversity of organisms, including humans. Larval development of most digeneans takes place within a snail (Gastropoda). Compatibility between snails and digeneans is often very specific, such that suitable snail hosts define the geographical ranges of diseases caused by these worms. The immune cells (hemocytes) of a snail are sentinels that act as a crucial barrier to infection by larval digeneans. Hemocytes coordinate a robust and specific immunological response, participating directly in parasite killing by encapsulating and clearing the infection. Hemocyte proliferation and differentiation are influenced by unknown digenean-specific exogenous factors. However, we know nothing about the endogenous control of hemocyte development in any gastropod model. Here, we identify and functionally characterize a progranulin [Biomphalaria glabrata granulin (BgGRN)] from the snail B. glabrata, a natural host for the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni Granulins are growth factors that drive proliferation of immune cells in organisms, spanning the animal kingdom. We demonstrate that BgGRN induces proliferation of B. glabrata hemocytes, and specifically drives the production of an adherent hemocyte subset that participates centrally in the anti-digenean defense response. Additionally, we demonstrate that susceptible B. glabrata snails can be made resistant to infection with S. mansoni by first inducing hemocyte proliferation with BgGRN. This marks the functional characterization of an endogenous growth factor of a gastropod mollusc, and provides direct evidence of gain of resistance in a snail-digenean infection model using a defined factor to induce snail resistance to infection.

  7. Prevalence, Antimicrobial Resistance and Risk Factors for Thermophilic Campylobacter Infections in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Humans in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komba, E V G; Mdegela, R H; Msoffe, P L M; Nielsen, L N; Ingmer, H

    2015-11-01

    The genus Campylobacter comprises members known to be a leading cause of foodborne gastrointestinal illness worldwide. A study was conducted to determine the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in humans in Morogoro, Eastern Tanzania. Isolation of Campylobacter from stool specimens adopted the Cape Town protocol. Campylobacter isolates were preliminarily identified by conventional phenotypic tests and subsequently confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrobial resistance testing employed the disc diffusion method. A small proportion of the test isolates was also subjected to agar dilution method. Risk factors for human illness were determined in an unmatched case-control study. Thermophilic Campylobacter were isolated from 11.4% of the screened individuals (n = 1195). The agreement between PCR and MALDI-TOF was perfect (κ = 1.0). Symptomatics and young individuals were infected with higher numbers than asymptomatic and adults, respectively. The majority (84.6%) of the isolates were C. jejuni and the remaining were C. coli. Isolates had highest resistance (95.6%) for colistin sulphate and lowest for ciprofloxacin (22.1%). The rates of resistance for other antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, cephalothin, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, amoxycillin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol) ranged from 44.1% to 89%. Comparison between disc diffusion and agar dilution methods indicated a good correlation, and the tests were in agreement to each other (κ ≥ 0.75). Human illness was found to be associated with young age and consumption of chicken meat and pre-prepared salad. Our data indicate the presence of antibiotic-resistant thermophilic Campylobacter in humans in the study area. There is a need for routine investigation of the presence of the organisms in gastroenteritis aetiology, including determination of their antibiotic

  8. The ethylene response factor Pti5 contributes to potato aphid resistance in tomato independent of ethylene signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengjun; Avila, Carlos A.; Goggin, Fiona L.

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene response factors (ERFs) comprise a large family of transcription factors that regulate numerous biological processes including growth, development, and response to environmental stresses. Here, we report that Pti5, an ERF in tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (Linnaeus)] was transcriptionally upregulated in response to the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), and contributed to plant defences that limited the population growth of this phloem-feeding insect. Virus-induced gene silencing of Pti5 enhanced aphid population growth on tomato, both on an aphid-susceptible cultivar and on a near-isogenic genotype that carried the Mi-1.2 resistance (R) gene. These results indicate that Pti5 contributes to basal resistance in susceptible plants and also can synergize with other R gene-mediated defences to limit aphid survival and reproduction. Although Pti5 contains the ERF motif, induction of this gene by aphids was independent of ethylene, since the ACC deaminase (ACD) transgene, which inhibits ethylene synthesis, did not diminish the responsiveness of Pti5 to aphid infestation. Furthermore, experiments with inhibitors of ethylene synthesis revealed that Pti5 and ethylene have distinctly different roles in plant responses to aphids. Whereas Pti5 contributed to antibiotic plant defences that limited aphid survival and reproduction on both resistant (Mi-1.2+) and susceptible (Mi-1.2–) genotypes, ethylene signalling promoted aphid infestation on susceptible plants but contributed to antixenotic defences that deterred the early stages of aphid host selection on resistant plants. These findings suggest that the antixenotic defences that inhibit aphid settling and the antibiotic defences that depress fecundity and promote mortality are regulated through different signalling pathways. PMID:25504643

  9. Muscle fibre capillarization is a critical factor in muscle fibre hypertrophy during resistance exercise training in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; Joanisse, Sophie; Leenders, Marika; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2017-04-01

    Adequate muscle fibre perfusion is critical for the maintenance of muscle mass; it is essential in the rapid delivery of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to the muscle, stimulating muscle fibre growth. Muscle fibre capillarization is known to decrease substantially with advancing age. However, whether (relative) low muscle fibre capillarization negatively impacts the muscle hypertrophic response following resistance exercise training in older adults is unknown. Twenty-two healthy older men (71 ± 1 years) performed 24 weeks of progressive resistance type exercise training. To assess the change in muscle fibre characteristics, percutaneous biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken before and following 12 and 24 weeks of the intervention programme. A comparison was made between participants who had a relatively low type II muscle fibre capillary-to-fibre perimeter exchange index (CFPE; LOW group) and high type II muscle fibre CFPE (HIGH group) at baseline. Type I and type II muscle fibre size, satellite cell, capillary content and distance between satellite cells to the nearest capillary were determined by immunohistochemistry. Overall, type II muscle fibre size (from 5150 ± 234 to 6719 ± 446 µm 2 , P muscle fibre, P muscle fibre capillarization, whereas muscle fibre size (from 5170 ± 390 to 7133 ± 314 µm 2 , P muscle fibre, P muscle fibre capillarization were observed in response to 12 and 24 weeks of resistance exercise training in both the LOW and HIGH group. Type II muscle fibre capillarization at baseline may be a critical factor for allowing muscle fibre hypertrophy to occur during prolonged resistance exercise training in older men. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  10. The ethylene response factor Pti5 contributes to potato aphid resistance in tomato independent of ethylene signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengjun; Avila, Carlos A; Goggin, Fiona L

    2015-02-01

    Ethylene response factors (ERFs) comprise a large family of transcription factors that regulate numerous biological processes including growth, development, and response to environmental stresses. Here, we report that Pti5, an ERF in tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (Linnaeus)] was transcriptionally upregulated in response to the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), and contributed to plant defences that limited the population growth of this phloem-feeding insect. Virus-induced gene silencing of Pti5 enhanced aphid population growth on tomato, both on an aphid-susceptible cultivar and on a near-isogenic genotype that carried the Mi-1.2 resistance (R) gene. These results indicate that Pti5 contributes to basal resistance in susceptible plants and also can synergize with other R gene-mediated defences to limit aphid survival and reproduction. Although Pti5 contains the ERF motif, induction of this gene by aphids was independent of ethylene, since the ACC deaminase (ACD) transgene, which inhibits ethylene synthesis, did not diminish the responsiveness of Pti5 to aphid infestation. Furthermore, experiments with inhibitors of ethylene synthesis revealed that Pti5 and ethylene have distinctly different roles in plant responses to aphids. Whereas Pti5 contributed to antibiotic plant defences that limited aphid survival and reproduction on both resistant (Mi-1.2+) and susceptible (Mi-1.2-) genotypes, ethylene signalling promoted aphid infestation on susceptible plants but contributed to antixenotic defences that deterred the early stages of aphid host selection on resistant plants. These findings suggest that the antixenotic defences that inhibit aphid settling and the antibiotic defences that depress fecundity and promote mortality are regulated through different signalling pathways. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Clinical implications of adipocytokines and newly emerging metabolic factors with relation to insulin resistance and cardiovascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hee eChoi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is known to secrete hormones actively and produces many biologically active proteins called adipocytokines. Typically, obesity is followed by low-grade inflammation, which is characterized by increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Macrophages play a role in the inflammatory process by secreting many cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, resistin and retinol binding protein-4. These cytokines and chemokines participate in low grade pro-inflammatory processes leading to insulin resistance, metabolic impairment and cardiovascular diseases. More metabolic regulators, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF21, FGF19, FGF1, vaspin and visfatin have now been discovered but their exact roles in human diseases are still unclear. This review focuses on recent research regarding the role of adipokines and new metabolic factors in metabolic derangement or cardiovascular disease.

  12. Improved understanding of factors driving methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidemic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Som S; Otto, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Since the global spread of MRSA in the 1960s, MRSA strains have evolved with increased pathogenic potential. Notably, some strains are now capable of causing persistent infections not only in hospitalized patients but also in healthy individuals in the community. Furthermore, MRSA is increasingly associated with infections among livestock-associated workers, primarily because of transmission from animals to humans. Moreover, many MRSA strains have gained resistance to most available antibiotics. In this review, we will present current knowledge on MRSA epidemiology and discuss new endeavors being undertaken to understand better the molecular and epidemiological underpinnings of MRSA outbreaks. PMID:23861600

  13. Travel – a risk factor for disease and spread of antibiotic resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Angelin, Martin

    2015-01-01

    As international travel is rapidly increasing, more people are being exposed to potentially more antibiotic resistant bacteria, a changed infectious disease epidemiology, and an increased risk of accidents and crime. Research-based advice is needed to adequately inform travellers about these risks. We studied travellers who sought advice from the Travel Medicine Clinic at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Umeå University Hospital, as well as university students from Umeå, Stockholm, and ...

  14. Quantitative and qualitative stem rust resistance factors in barley are associated with transcriptional suppression of defense regulons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscou, Matthew J; Lauter, Nick; Steffenson, Brian; Wise, Roger P

    2011-07-01

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt) is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99) is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known source of qualitative resistance to this aggressive Pgt race. Segregation for resistance observed on seedlings of the Q21861 × SM89010 (QSM) doubled-haploid (DH) population was found to be predominantly qualitative, with little of the remaining variance explained by loci other than Rpg-TTKSK. In contrast, analysis of adult QSM DH plants infected by field inoculum of Pgt race TTKSK in Njoro, Kenya, revealed several additional quantitative trait loci that contribute to resistance. To molecularly characterize these loci, Barley1 GeneChips were used to measure the expression of 22,792 genes in the QSM population after inoculation with Pgt race TTKSK or mock-inoculation. Comparison of expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) between treatments revealed an inoculation-dependent expression polymorphism implicating Actin depolymerizing factor3 (within the Rpg-TTKSK locus) as a candidate susceptibility gene. In parallel, we identified a chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that co-segregates with an enhancer of Rpg-TTKSK-mediated, adult plant resistance discovered through the Njoro field trials. Our genome-wide eQTL studies demonstrate that transcript accumulation of 25% of barley genes is altered following challenge by Pgt race TTKSK, but that few of these genes are regulated by the qualitative Rpg-TTKSK on chromosome 5H. It is instead the chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that orchestrates the largest inoculation-specific responses, where enhanced resistance is associated with transcriptional suppression of hundreds of genes scattered throughout the genome. Hence, the present study associates the early suppression of genes expressed in this host-pathogen interaction with enhancement

  15. Quantitative and qualitative stem rust resistance factors in barley are associated with transcriptional suppression of defense regulons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Moscou

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99 is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known source of qualitative resistance to this aggressive Pgt race. Segregation for resistance observed on seedlings of the Q21861 × SM89010 (QSM doubled-haploid (DH population was found to be predominantly qualitative, with little of the remaining variance explained by loci other than Rpg-TTKSK. In contrast, analysis of adult QSM DH plants infected by field inoculum of Pgt race TTKSK in Njoro, Kenya, revealed several additional quantitative trait loci that contribute to resistance. To molecularly characterize these loci, Barley1 GeneChips were used to measure the expression of 22,792 genes in the QSM population after inoculation with Pgt race TTKSK or mock-inoculation. Comparison of expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL between treatments revealed an inoculation-dependent expression polymorphism implicating Actin depolymerizing factor3 (within the Rpg-TTKSK locus as a candidate susceptibility gene. In parallel, we identified a chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that co-segregates with an enhancer of Rpg-TTKSK-mediated, adult plant resistance discovered through the Njoro field trials. Our genome-wide eQTL studies demonstrate that transcript accumulation of 25% of barley genes is altered following challenge by Pgt race TTKSK, but that few of these genes are regulated by the qualitative Rpg-TTKSK on chromosome 5H. It is instead the chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that orchestrates the largest inoculation-specific responses, where enhanced resistance is associated with transcriptional suppression of hundreds of genes scattered throughout the genome. Hence, the present study associates the early suppression of genes expressed in this host-pathogen interaction with

  16. Escherichia coli with virulence factors and multidrug resistance in the Plankenburg River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corne Lamprecht

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is a natural inhabitant of the gut and E. coli levels in water are considered internationally to be an indication of faecal contamination. Although not usually pathogenic, E. coli has been linked to numerous foodborne disease outbreaks, especially those associated with fresh produce. One of the most common ways through which E. coli can be transferred onto fresh produce is if contaminated water is used for irrigation. In this study, a total of 81 confirmed E. coli strains were isolated from the Plankenburg River as part of three separate studies over 3 years. During sampling, E. coli levels in the river were above the accepted levels set by the World Health Organization and the South African Department of Water Affairs and Forestry for safe irrigation of fresh produce, which indicates that transfer of E. coli during irrigation is highly probable. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction screening for pathogenic gene sequences revealed one enteroaggregative positive strain and four enteropathogenic positive strains. The four enteropathogenic strains were also found to be resistant to three or more critically and highly important antibiotics and were therefore classified as multidrug resistant strains. These results show that E. coli with enteropathogenic potential and multiple antimicrobial resistance properties has persisted over time in the Plankenburg River.

  17. The incidence and risk factors of resistant E. coli infections after prostate biopsy under fluoroquinolone prophylaxis: a single-centre experience with 2215 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandemir, Özlem; Bozlu, Murat; Efesoy, Ozan; Güntekin, Onur; Tek, Mesut; Akbay, Erdem

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of resistant Escherichia coli infections after the prostate biopsy under flouroquinolone prophylaxis. From January 2003 to December 2012, we retrospectively evaluated the records of 2215 patients. The risk factors were described for infective complications and resistant E. coli in positive cultures was calculated. Of 2215 patients, 153 had positive urine cultures, such as 129 (84·3%) E. coli, 8 (5·2%) Enterococcus spp., 6 (3·9%) Enterobacter spp., 5 (3·2%) Pseudomonas spp., 3 (1·9%) MRCNS, and 2 (1·3%) Klebsiella spp. Of the positive urine cultures which yielded E. coli, 99 (76·7%) were evaluated for fluoroquinolone resistance. Of those, 83 (83·8%) were fluoroquinolone-resistant and composed of 51 (61·4%) extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive. Fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli ratios were 73·4 and 95·9% before 2008 and after 2008, respectively (P = 0·002). The most sensitive antibiotics for fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains were imipenem (100%), amikacin (84%) and cefoperazone (83%). The use of quinolones in the last 6 months and a history of hospitalization in the last 30 days were found to be significant risk factors. We found that resistant E. coli strains might be a common microorganism in patients with this kind of complication. The risk factors for development of infection with these resistant strains were history of the use of fluoroquinolones and hospitalization.

  18. Combined cytotoxic effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha with various cytotoxic agents in tumor cell lines that are drug resistant due to mutated p53

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleijfer, S; Le, T. K. P.; de Jong, S.; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Withoff, S; Mulder, NH

    Several studies suggest that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is able to overcome drug resistance in tumors. Whether TNF is able to do so in tumor cell lines that are drug resistant due to a mutation in the tumor suppressor gene p53 is unclear. Therefore, we studied the in vitro cytotoxic effects

  19. Antibiotic resistance, virulence factors and biofilm formation ability in Escherichia coli strains isolated from chicken meat and wildlife in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlickova, Silvie; Klancnik, Anja; Dolezalova, Magda; Mozina, Sonja Smole; Holko, Ivan

    2017-08-03

    Attachment of pathogenic bacteria to food contact surfaces and the subsequent biofilm formation represent a serious threat for the food industry, since these bacteria are more resistant to antimicrobials or possess more virulence factors. The main aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between antibiotic resistance against 13 antibiotics, distribution of 10 virulence factors and biofilm formation in 105 Escherichia coli strains according to their origin. The high prevalence of antibiotic resistance that we have found in wildlife isolates could be acquired by horizontal transfer of resistance genes from human or domestic or farm animals. Consequently, these commensal bacteria might serve as indicator of antimicrobial usage for human and veterinary purposes in the Czech Republic. Further, 46 out of 66 resistant isolates (70%) were able to form biofilm and we found out statistically significant correlation between prevalence of antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation ability. The highest prevalence of antibiotic resistance was observed in weak biofilm producers. Biofilm formation was not statistically associated with any virulence determinant. However, we confirmed the correlation between prevalence of virulence factors and host origin. Chicken isolates possessed more virulence factors (66%), than isolates from wildlife (37%). We can conclude that the potential spread of antibiotic resistance pattern via the food chain is of high concern for public health. Even more, alarming is that E. coli isolates remain pathogenic potential with ability to form biofilm and these bacteria may persist during food processing and consequently lead to greater risks of food contamination.

  20. Association between Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Risk Factors in China: Applying Partial Least Squares Path Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Xia Liu

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB resulting from various factors has raised serious public health concerns worldwide. Identifying the ecological risk factors associated with MDR-TB is critical to its prevention and control. This study aimed to explore the association between the development of MDR-TB and the risk factors at the group-level (ecological risk factors in China.Data on MDR-TB in 120 counties were obtained from the National Tuberculosis Information Management System, and data on risk-factor variables were extracted from the Health Statistical Yearbook, provincial databases, and the meteorological bureau of each province (municipality. Partial Least Square Path Modeling was used to detect the associations.The median proportion of MDR-TB in new TB cases was 3.96% (range, 0-39.39%. Six latent factors were extracted from the ecological risk factors, which explained 27.60% of the total variance overall in the prevalence of MDR-TB. Based on the results of PLS-PM, TB prevention, health resources, health services, TB treatment, TB detection, geography and climate factors were all associated with the risk of MDR-TB, but socioeconomic factors were not significant.The development of MDR-TB was influenced by TB prevention, health resources, health services, TB treatment, TB detection, geography and climate factors. Such information may help us to establish appropriate public health intervention strategies to prevent and control MDR-TB and yield benefits to the entire public health system in China.

  1. [Peculiarities of constellation of parental pairs as risk factors and resistance-factors in the formation of gastroduodenal pathology in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychkovs'ka, O L; Hnateĭko, O Z; Kulachkovs'ka, I Iu; Semen, V D

    2014-01-01

    Current study is dedicated to determination of psychosocial factors of predisposition and resistance to the formation of upper gastrointestinal pathology in children. For the examination of parental pairs Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire and genealogical method Family Study were used. There were revealed following risk-factors of the formation of gastroduodenal pathology in children: the dominant mother's position; passive and shun father's behavior; protracted conflicts; hidden hostility between the parents; poor support, emotional warmth, and unity in the family; available external control of the family. Described family constellation can promote basic conflict in patients with gastroduodenal pathology by F. Alexander. This could be an indication for the family psychological counselling, which can be regarded as a "reserve" for increasing of the effectiveness of treatment and prevention of gastroduodenal pathology in children.

  2. The MYST family histone acetyltransferase complex regulates stress resistance and longevity through transcriptional control of DAF-16/FOXO transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takako; Uno, Masaharu; Honjoh, Sakiko; Nishida, Eisuke

    2017-08-09

    The well-known link between longevity and the Sir2 histone deacetylase family suggests that histone deacetylation, a modification associated with repressed chromatin, is beneficial to longevity. However, the molecular links between histone acetylation and longevity remain unclear. Here, we report an unexpected finding that the MYST family histone acetyltransferase complex (MYS-1/TRR-1 complex) promotes rather than inhibits stress resistance and longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans Our results show that these beneficial effects are largely mediated through transcriptional up-regulation of the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16. MYS-1 and TRR-1 are recruited to the promoter regions of the daf-16 gene, where they play a role in histone acetylation, including H4K16 acetylation. Remarkably, we also find that the human MYST family Tip60/TRRAP complex promotes oxidative stress resistance by up-regulating the expression of FOXO transcription factors in human cells. Tip60 is recruited to the promoter regions of the foxo1 gene, where it increases H4K16 acetylation levels. Our results thus identify the evolutionarily conserved role of the MYST family acetyltransferase as a key epigenetic regulator of DAF-16/FOXO transcription factors. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Acquired genetic and functional alterations associated with transforming growth factor beta type I resistance in Hep3B human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zimonjic, D. B.; Zhou, X. L.; Lee, J. S.; Ullmannová-Benson, Veronika; Tripathi, V.; Thorgeirsson,, S. S.; Popescu,, N. C.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 9 (2009), s. 3985-3992 ISSN 1582-1838 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : expression profiling * hcc * resistance Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2009

  4. Development of LRFD procedures for bridge pile foundations in Iowa - volume III : recommended resistance factors with consideration of construction control and setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) mandated utilizing the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) approach for all new bridges initiated in the United States after October 1, 2007. As a result, there has been a progressive move among state De...

  5. Therapy of spinal wound infections using vacuum-assisted wound closure: risk factors leading to resistance to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploumis, Avraam; Mehbod, Amir A; Dressel, Thomas D; Dykes, Daryll C; Transfeldt, Ensor E; Lonstein, John E

    2008-07-01

    This study retrospectively reviewed spine surgical procedures complicated by wound infection and managed by a protocol including the use of vacuum-assisted wound closure (VAC). To define factors influencing the number of debridements needed before the final wound closure by applying VAC for patients with postoperative spinal wound infections. VAC has been suggested as a safe and probably effective method for the treatment of spinal wound infections. The risk factors for infection resistance and need for debridement revisions after VAC placement are unknown. Seventy-three consecutive patients with 79 wound infections after undergoing spine surgery were studied (6 of them had recurrence of infection). All patients were taken to the operating room for irrigation and debridement under general anesthesia followed by placement of the VAC with subsequent delayed closure of the wound. Linear regression and t test were used to identify if the following variables were risk factors for the resistance of infection to VAC treatment: timing of clinical appearance of infection, depth of infection (deep or superficial), presence of instrumentation, positive culture for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or more than 1 microorganism, age of the patient, and presence of other comorbidities. There were 34 males and 39 females with an average age of 58.4 years (21 to 82). Once the VAC was initiated, there was an average of 1.4 procedures until and including closure of the wound. The wound was closed an average of 7 days (range 5 to 14) after the placement of the initial VAC on the wound. The average follow-up was 14 months (range 12 to 28). All of the patients but 2 achieved a clean, closed wound without removal of instrumentation at a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Sixty patients had implants (instrumentation or allograft) within the site of wound infection. Thirteen patients had a decompression with exposed dura. Sixty-four infections (81%) presented with a draining

  6. Characterisation of recently emerged multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 and other multiresistant phage types from Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1998-01-01

    electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme Xba I, Overall, 66 per cent of the 670 isolates were sensitive to all the antimicrobial agents tested. Eleven isolates of S typhimurium were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and also resistant to other antibiotics in different resistance......A total of 670 isolates of Salmonella enterica were isolated from Danish pig herds, phage typed and tested for susceptibility to amoxycillin + clavulanate, ampicillin, colistin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim + sulphadiazine. S...... enterica serovar typhimurium (S typhimurium) isolates resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and three isolates of S typhimurium DT104, two from 1994 and one from 1995, were further tested for resistance against chloramphenicol and sulphonamide and analysed by pulsed-field gel...

  7. prediction of shear resistance factor in flat slabs design using critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The relationship of β-factor to the ratio of critical perimeter to the control perimeter of an internal column have been plotted as a simplified approach and additional approximate factors have been found for an internal corner column and various locations of cantilevered edge, corner and internal corner columns encountered ...

  8. Immunosuppression during viral oncogenesis. V. Resistance to virus-induced immunosuppressive factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, D S; Dombrowski, J

    1988-07-01

    Rabbits given malignant rabbit fibroma virus (MV) develop severe immunologic dysfunction during the course of infection. Splenic T lymphocytes from these rabbits elaborate a soluble non-specific immunosuppressive factor (virus-induced suppressor factor (VISF]. As malignant rabbit fibroma virus infection progresses, normal immunologic responsiveness returns. This recovery is multi-factorial and involves production by T lymphocytes of a soluble factor capable of antagonizing the activity of VISF. This soluble anti-suppressor factor (ASF) is not a generalized immunologic potentiator. Its sole apparent effect on immune function appears to be to antagonize the activity of VISF. The protective effects of ASF are evident only when suppressor factors and ASF are simultaneously present in culture. Pre-treatment of target cells with ASF-containing culture supernatants does not render them insensitive to the immunosuppressive effects of subsequent treatment with VISF. In addition, ASF appears to be directly responsible for antagonizing VISF activity. That is, ASF does not appear to initiate an anti-suppressive cascade by activating a population of cells that in turn generate secondary protective factors. ASF-producing cells do not bind Vicia villosa lectin, as do contra-suppressor cells described by others. In almost all of these features, the system we describe herein differs from systems in which other investigators have described factors that antagonize the effects of suppressor factors.

  9. Identification of MupP as a New Peptidoglycan Recycling Factor and Antibiotic Resistance Determinant in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Fumeaux

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Peptidoglycan (PG is an essential cross-linked polymer that surrounds most bacterial cells to prevent osmotic rupture of the cytoplasmic membrane. Its synthesis relies on penicillin-binding proteins, the targets of beta-lactam antibiotics. Many Gram-negative bacteria, including the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are resistant to beta-lactams because of a chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase called AmpC. In P. aeruginosa, expression of the ampC gene is tightly regulated and its induction is linked to cell wall stress. We reasoned that a reporter gene fusion to the ampC promoter would allow us to identify mutants defective in maintaining cell wall homeostasis and thereby uncover new factors involved in the process. A library of transposon-mutagenized P. aeruginosa was therefore screened for mutants with elevated ampC promoter activity. As an indication that the screen was working as expected, mutants with transposons disrupting the dacB gene were isolated. Defects in DacB have previously been implicated in ampC induction and clinical resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. The screen also uncovered murU and PA3172 mutants that, upon further characterization, displayed nearly identical drug resistance and sensitivity profiles. We present genetic evidence that PA3172, renamed mupP, encodes the missing phosphatase predicted to function in the MurU PG recycling pathway that is widely distributed among Gram-negative bacteria.

  10. The WRKY transcription factors PtrWRKY18 and PtrWRKY35 promote Melampsora resistance in Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuanzhong; Guo, Li; Ma, Xiaodong; Zhao, Xin; Jiao, Bo; Li, Chaofeng; Luo, Keming

    2017-05-01

    WRKY transcription factors play important roles in response to diverse environmental stresses, but exact functions of these proteins in poplar defense are still largely unknown. In a previous study, we have shown that poplar WRKY89 is induced by salicylic acid (SA) treatment and plays an important role in resistance against fungi in transgenic poplars. Here, we determined an increase in transcript levels of Group IIa WRKY members in transgenic poplars overexpressing WRKY89 using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that PtrWRKY18 and PtrWRKY35 were potential target genes of WRKY89. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PtrWRKY18 and PtrWRKY35 were localized in the nucleus, and exhibited no transcription activation activity. Constitutive overexpression of PtrWRKY18 and PtrWRKY35 in poplars activated pathogenesis-related genes, and increased resistance to the biotrophic pathogen Melampsora. The results also provided support for the involvement of SA-mediated signaling in Melampsora resistance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Prevalence, virulence factor genes and antibiotic resistance of Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolated from dairy farms and traditional dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owusu-Kwarteng, James; Wuni, Alhassan; Akabanda, Fortune

    2017-01-01

    Background: B. cereus are of particular interest in food safety and public health because of their capacity to cause food spoilage and disease through the production of various toxins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, virulence factor genes and antibiotic resistance profile...... from 54 positive samples were screened by PCR for the presence of 8 enterotoxigenic genes (hblA, hblC, hblD, nheA, nheB, nheC, cytK and entFM), and one emetic gene (ces). Phenotypic resistance to 15 antibiotics were also determined for 96 B. cereus sensu lato isolates. Results: About 72% (18 of 25 soil...... in 60% (57/96) isolates, 14% (13/96) harboured only one gene, 19% (18/96) whereas 8% possessed none of the NHE genes. The detection rates of cytk, entFM, and ces genes were 75, 67 and 9% respectively. Bacillus cereus s. l. isolates were generally resistant to β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin (98...

  12. Factors contributing to the development of anaemia in Plasmodium falciparum malaria: what about drug-resistant parasites?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quashie, Neils Ben; Akanmori, Bartholomew D; Ofori-Adjei, David

    2006-01-01

    A major manifestation of complicated malaria especially among children is severe anaemia, the pathogenesis of which is not well understood. Among other factors, suppression of the bone marrow's response to erythropoietin, which is rapidly reversed after successful treatment of the malaria, has be......-treatment blood levels of chloroquine did not differ much between the two groups. Findings from this study could not therefore implicate drug-resistant parasites in the pathogenesis of severe malarial anaemia....... compared the prevalence of drug-resistant malaria between severe malarial anaemia SA and non-anaemic malaria NAM patients. Assessment of treatment outcome using the WHO in vivo criteria showed no significant difference in parasite resistance between the two groups. The mean parasite clearance time was also...... comparable. Treatment failures of about 14 per cent and 12 per cent were observed between SA and NAM patients respectively. The in vitro drug susceptibility test showed overall mean IC50 values of 0.41x10(-6) mol/l and 0.32x10(-6) mol/l blood for SA and NAM groups respectively. Geometric mean pre...

  13. Beyond resistance: social factors in the general public response to pandemic influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark D M; Stephenson, Niamh; Lohm, Davina; Waller, Emily; Flowers, Paul

    2015-04-29

    Influencing the general public response to pandemics is a public health priority. There is a prevailing view, however, that the general public is resistant to communications on pandemic influenza and that behavioural responses to the 2009/10 H1N1 pandemic were not sufficient. Using qualitative methods, this paper investigates how members of the general public respond to pandemic influenza and the hygiene, social isolation and other measures proposed by public health. Going beyond the commonly deployed notion that the general public is resistant to public health communications, this paper examines how health individualism, gender and real world constraints enable and limit individual action. In-depth interviews (n = 57) and focus groups (ten focus groups; 59 individuals) were conducted with community samples in Melbourne, Sydney and Glasgow. Participants were selected according to maximum variation sampling using purposive criteria, including: 1) pregnancy in 2009/2010; 2) chronic illness; 3) aged 70 years and over; 4) no disclosed health problems. Verbatim transcripts were subjected to inductive, thematic analysis. Respondents did not express resistance to public health communications, but gave insight into how they interpreted and implemented guidance. An individualistic approach to pandemic risk predominated. The uptake of hygiene, social isolation and vaccine strategies was constrained by seeing oneself 'at risk' but not 'a risk' to others. Gender norms shape how members of the general public enact hygiene and social isolation. Other challenges pertained to over-reliance on perceived remoteness from risk, expectation of recovery from infection and practical constraints on the uptake of vaccination. Overall, respondents were engaged with public health advice regarding pandemic influenza, indicating that the idea of public resistance has limited explanatory power. Public communications are endorsed, but challenges persist. Individualistic approaches to pandemic

  14. Assessment of the Resistance to External Factors of Low-Density Polyethylene Modified with Natural Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Głogowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study reports the results of investigation of basic processing and thermal properties of low-density polyethylene modified with two types of natural filler: wheat bran and pumpkin seed hulls, their content ranging from 5% to 15% relative to the matrix. In addition, the physical properties of the produced granulates are determined, i.e. the relationship between their density and the applied contents of the tested fillers. Furthermore, the study reports the results concerning the longitudinal shrinkage, abrasion resistance and cold water absorption of injection molded tensile specimens.

  15. Contribution to surface physicochemical factors to stress corrosion resistance in stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, Jean-Marie

    1974-01-01

    The author of this research thesis first presents and discusses the various aspects of stress corrosion cracking of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys of high purity: experimental conditions (alloy elaboration, sample preparation), corrosion results (Schaeffer diagram, crack morphology, intergranular corrosion), influence of addition elements in ferritic alloys. He reports an electrochemical study of stainless steels in magnesium chloride (experimental conditions, influence of metallurgic and environmental parameters on polarization resistance, current-voltage curves), and an analytical study of layers formed in the magnesium chloride

  16. Laboratory assessment of Activated Protein C Resistance/Factor V-Leiden and performance characteristics of a new quantitative assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiral, Jean; Vissac, Anne Marie; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2017-12-01

    Activated Protein C Resistance is mainly associated to a factor V mutation (RQ506), which induces a deficient inactivation of activated factor V by activated protein C, and is associated to an increased risk of venous and arterial thrombosis in affected individuals, caused by the prolonged activated factor V survival. Its prevalence is mainly in Caucasians (about 5%), and this mutation is absent in Africans and Asians. Presence of Factor V-Leiden is usually evidenced with clotting methods, using a two-step APTT assay performed without or with APC: prolongation of blood coagulation time is decreased if this factor is present. The R506Q Factor V-Leiden mutation is now usually characterized using molecular biology, and this technique tends to become the first intention assay for characterization of patients. Both techniques are qualitative, and allow classifying tested individuals as heterozygotes or homozygotes for the mutation, when present. A new quantitative assay for Factor V-Leiden, using a one-step clotting method, has been developed, and designed with highly purified human coagulation proteins. Clotting is triggered with human Factor Xa, in presence of calcium and phospholipids (mixture which favours APC action over clotting process). Diluted tested plasma, is supplemented with a clotting mixture containing human fibrinogen, prothrombin, and protein S at a constant concentration. APC is added, and clotting is initiated with calcium. Calibration is performed with a pool of plasmas from patients carrying the R506Q Factor V mutation, and its mixtures with normal plasma. Homozygous patients have clotting times of about 70sec. Factor V-Leiden concentration is usually >75% in homozygous patients, 30-60% in heterozygous patients and below 5% in normal. The assay is insensitive to clotting factor deficiencies (II, VII, VIII: C, IX, X), dicoumarol or heparin therapies, and has no interference with lupus anticoagulant (LA). This new assay for Factor V-Leiden can be

  17. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat in Iran: serogroups, virulence factors, and antimicrobial resistance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Hassan; Jamshidi, Alireza

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the virulence factors, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat samples. A total of 422 chicken meat samples were collected from 5 townships of Iran. Specimens were immediately transferred to the laboratory in a cooler with an ice pack. Samples were cultured, and the positive culture samples were analyzed by PCR assays. Finally, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the disk diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton agar. According to the results, out of 422 samples, 146 (34.59%) were confirmed to be E. coli positive and among E. coli-positive samples, 51 (34.93%) and 31 (21.23%) were from attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) subgroups, respectively. All of the EHEC-positive samples had all stx1, eaeA, and ehly virulence genes, whereas only 5 (9.80%) of AEEC subgroup had all stx1, stx2, and eaeA genes. As the data revealed, O157 was the most prevalent and O111 was the least prevalent strains in the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) population. Among STEC strains, sulI and blaSHV had the highest and lowest incidence rate, respectively. There was a high resistance to tetracycline (76.82%), followed by chloramphenicol (73.17%) and nitrofurantoin (63.41%), but there was low resistance to cephalotine (7.31%) antibiotics in isolated strains. Results shows that the PCR technique has a high performance for detection of serogroups, virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance genes in STEC strains. This study is the first prevalence report of detection of virulence genes, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties of STEC strains isolated from chicken meat samples in Iran. Based on the results, chicken meat is one of the main sources of STEC strains and its virulence factors in Iran, so an accurate meat inspection would reduce disease outbreaks.

  18. Elucidating the Molecular Factors Implicated in the Persistence and Evolution of Transferable Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, Andreas

    Being the most diverse and abundant domain of life, bacteria exemplify the remarkable ability of evolution to fit organisms into almost any imaginable niche on the planet. Although the capacity of bacteria to diversify and adapt is fundamental to natural ecosystems and modern biotechnology, the s...... and in situ. The conclusions shed light on fundamental evolutionary questions of genome dynamics and bacterial adaptation, which may ultimately improve our ability to predict and prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance and guide the engineering of robust biological systems.......Being the most diverse and abundant domain of life, bacteria exemplify the remarkable ability of evolution to fit organisms into almost any imaginable niche on the planet. Although the capacity of bacteria to diversify and adapt is fundamental to natural ecosystems and modern biotechnology...... mechanisms governing the dynamics of bacterial gene-sharing. Specifically, the focus has been on antibiotic resistance genes and their genetic vectors due to the profound implications of these genetic elements in human health. To observe the extend and impact of gene transfer events in a highly relevant...

  19. Environmental factors responsible for the incidence of antibiotic resistance genes in pristine Crassostrea virginica reefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkovskii, Andrei L.; Thomas, Michael; Hurley, Dorset; Teems, Clifford

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Estuary was the major source of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) for tidal creeks. ► Watersheds were the secondary source of ARG for tidal creeks. ► Watershed contribution corresponded to the degree of its anthropogenic disturbance. ► ARG in tidal creeks were carried by native hosts preferring low termohaline niches. ► ARG incidence was the highest in oysters implying ARG bioaccumulation/proliferation. - Abstract: The occurrence of tetracycline resistance (TRG) and integrase (INT) genes were monitored in Crassostrea virginica oyster reefs of three pristine creeks (SINERR, Georgia, USA). Their profiles revealed 85% similarity with the TRG/INT profiles observed in the adjacent to the SINERR and contaminated Altamaha River estuary (Barkovskii et al., 2010). The TRG/INT spectra and incidence frequencies corresponded to the source of oceanic input and to run-offs from creeks’ watersheds. The highest incidence frequencies and concentrations were observed in oysters. TRG/INT incidences correlated positively (Spearman Rank = 0.88), and negatively correlated (−0.63 to −0.79) with creek salinity, conductivity, dissolved solids, and temperature. Coliform incidence positively correlated with temperature, and not with the TRG/INT incidence. The Altamaha River estuary was the primary TRG/INT source for the reefs with contributions from creek’s watersheds. TRG/INT were carried by non-coliforms with a preference for low-to-temperate thermohaline environments coupled with bioaccumulation by oysters.

  20. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha infusion produced insulin resistance but no change in the incretin effect in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Louise; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Solomon, Thomas P J; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Lars; Holst, Jens Juul; Møller, Kirsten

    2013-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with peripheral insulin resistance, impaired incretin effect, and increased plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Although TNF-α infusion at a dose that induces systemic inflammation in healthy volunteers has been demonstrated to induce peripheral insulin resistance, the influence of this cytokine on the incretin effect is unknown. We investigated whether systemic inflammation induced by TNF-α infusion in healthy volunteers alters the incretin hormone response to oral and intravenous glucose loads in a crossover study design with ten healthy male volunteers (mean age 24 years, mean body mass index 23.7 kg/m(2) ). The study consisted of four study days: days 1 and 2, 6-h infusion of saline; days 3 and 4, 6-h infusion of TNF-α; days 1 and 3, 4-h oral glucose tolerance test; and days 2 and 4, 4-h corresponding intravenous isoglycaemic glucose tolerance test. Glucose tolerance tests were initiated after 2 h of saline/TNF-α infusion. Plasma concentrations of TNF-α, interleukin 6, glucose, incretin hormones, and cortisol, and serum concentrations of C-peptide and insulin were measured throughout the study days. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by the Matsuda index and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Prehepatic insulin secretion rates were calculated. TNF-α infusion induced symptoms of systemic inflammation; increased plasma levels of cortisol, TNF-α, and interleukin 6; and increased the HOMA-IR. The secretion of incretin hormones as well as the incretin effect remained unchanged. In healthy young male volunteers, acute systemic inflammation induced by infusion of TNF-α is associated with insulin resistance with no change in the incretin effect. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Virulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes and genetic relatedness of commensal Escherichia coli isolates from dogs and their owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshandeh, Abdollah; Eraghi, Vida; Boroojeni, Azar Motamedi; Niaki, Malihe Akbarzadeh; Zare, Sahar; Naziri, Zahra

    2018-03-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a normal flora of gastrointestinal tracts of humans and warm-blooded animals including dogs that has close vicinity with humans. Because the inter-species transmission of E. coli between pets and human beings, within a household, obtaining more information about the epidemiology, genetics, virulence factors, and antibiotic resistance of E. coli from dogs and their owners will help to control the inter-species transmission and treatment of E. coli infections. In this study we characterize and compare the antibiotic resistance and virulence profiles of fecal E. coli isolates from dogs and their owners. A total of 149 commensal E. coli isolates comprised 62 isolates from dogs, 56 isolates from their owners and 31 isolates from humans with no pet as control were collected. Extracted DNA was assessed for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes cmlA (chloramphenicol), sulI (sulfamethoxazole), floR (florfenicol) and blaCTX-M1 (cefotaxime) and virulence genes (papA, ompT, hlyD, traT, tsh and cnf1). To determine the extent of genetic relatedness of isolates, RAPD-PCR was performed. sulI and traT genes were the most dominant resistance profile and the most prevalent virulence gene in all groups, respectively, while hlyD had the lowest frequency among investigated virulence genes. Based on RAPD-PCR analysis clonal sharing between dogs and their owners were observed in 2/28 (7.1%) potential within-household clone-sharing pairs. Allowing dog to lick on owner's face, dog sex (female dogs), dog's sexual status (intact dogs) and times of disposing the feces (≥twice a day) were associated with a higher percentage of RAPD profile similarity (P E. coli from dogs to their owners. But in two households, there were relationship between isolates from dogs and their owners. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tumors initiated by constitutive Cdk2 activation exhibit transforming growth factor beta resistance and acquire paracrine mitogenic stimulation during progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsino, P.; Davis, B.; Law, M.

    2007-01-01

    ) promoter results in mammary gland hyperplasia and fibrosis, and mammary tumors. Cell lines isolated from MMTV-cyclin D1-Cdk2 (MMTV-D1K2) tumors exhibit Rb and p130 hyperphosphorylation and up-regulation of the protein products of E2F-dependent genes. These results suggest that cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes may...... mediate some of the transforming effects that result from cyclin D1 overexpression in human breast cancers. MMTV-DIK2 cancer cells express the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor, c-Met. MMTV-D1K2 cancer cells also secrete transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), but are relatively resistant to TGF...

  3. [Risk factors for predicting severe leukopenia induced by docetaxel plus prednisolone in patients with Castration-Resistant Prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shinya; Tamaki, Shinya; Nagamori, Satoshi; Endou, Masayuki

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to extract the risk factors for GradeB3 leukopenia induced by docetaxel plus prednisolone (DP)therapy administered to patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Rates of 59% for GradeB3 leukopenia and 11% for FN were observed. On multivariate analysis, the pretreatment white blood cell count(OR=0.502, 95%CI: 0.292- 0.862, p=0.01)was significantly associated with severe leukopenia induced by DP therapy. In addition, on univariate analysis, the pretreatment platelet count, disease extent, and bilirubin level were significant factors. We consider it necessary to immediately treat patients with these risks with G-CSF.

  4. Risk factors associated with the A2C resistance pattern among E. coli isolates from broiler flocks in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Niamh; Nekouei, Omid; Gow, Sheryl; Agunos, Agnes; Checkley, Sylvia

    2017-12-01

    The extra-label use of ceftiofur in Canadian hatcheries was cause for concern due to an increased prevalence of ceftiofur resistant Salmonella Heidelberg in chickens and humans in Québec. Due to on-going concerns related to human health the use of ceftiofur was eventually phased out of the poultry production industry in 2014-2015. Simultaneous resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur and cefoxitin, a pattern known as A2C, caused by the presence of bla CMY-2 has become increasingly prevalent in broiler flocks worldwide. This study used data from the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) broiler farm surveillance program to examine the risk factors for A2C resistant Escherichia coli isolates (A2C-REI) from 1482 samples taken from 371 broiler flocks in Canada, between 2013 and 2015. Results of a mixed effects Poisson model with fixed effects at the flock level and random effects at the hatchery level indicated that the in ovo use of ceftiofur (Prevalence Ratio (PR): 1.91, 95% CI: 1.43-2.57), and the use of hydrogen peroxide to disinfect water lines during the growing period (PR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.11-2.07), were risk factors for increased expected prevalence of A2C-REI, compared to farms not using these strategies. Controlling for wild birds (PR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.48-0.84), use of avilamycin in feed (PR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.41-0.98), and storage of manure on the farm (PR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.51-0.89) were associated with a lower expected prevalence of A2C-REI, than farms that did not use these strategies. This study identified important management factors that were associated with the prevalence of A2C-REI on Canadian broiler farms. The findings of this study can be used as a baseline for the monitoring of the effects of the removal of ceftiofur from poultry production in Canada. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. PFA-100-measured aspirin resistance is the predominant risk factor for hospitalized cardiovascular events in aspirin-treated patients: A 5-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H Y; Chou, P

    2018-04-01

    Aspirin therapy is the clinical gold standard for the prevention of cardiovascular events. However, cardiovascular events still develop in some patients undergoing aspirin therapy. Many laboratory methods exist for measuring aspirin resistance. Using the platelet Function Analyzer (PFA)-100 system, we aimed to determine the effect of aspirin resistance on hospitalized cardiovascular events (hCVE) in a 5-year follow-up cohort. We also sought to determine the impact of aspirin resistance on the relationship between common cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular hospitalization. Aspirin resistance was evaluated in aspirin-treated patients from the outpatient department. A total of 465 patients during a 5-year follow-up period were included in this study. The primary endpoint of the study was hospitalization for any acute cardiovascular event. The prevalence and associated risk factors of acute cardiovascular events were evaluated. Aspirin resistance was prevalent in 91 (20.0%) of 465 patients. Prior hospitalization history of cardiovascular events was highly associated with aspirin resistance (P = .001). At the 5-year follow-up, cardiovascular events were found to have developed in 11 patients (8 stroke and 3 myocardial infarction) who exhibited aspirin resistance (12.1%) and in 9 (4 stroke and 5 myocardial infarction) patients who did not exhibit aspirin resistance (2.4%) (P resistance and cardiovascular events (adjusted odds ratio 4.28; 95% CI: 1.64-11.20; P = .03). PFA-100 measurements of aspirin resistance correlate with hCVE, as evidenced by both the past medical history and the 5-year follow-up. The logistic regression analysis results showed that aspirin resistance plays a larger role in hospitalized cardiovascular disease than do other cardiovascular risk factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Resistance training concomitant to radiotherapy of spinal bone metastases - survival and prognostic factors of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, Harald; Bruckner, Thomas; Schlampp, Ingmar; Bostel, Tilman; Welzel, Thomas; Debus, Jürgen; Förster, Robert

    2016-07-27

    To compare the effects of resistance training versus passive physical therapy on bone survival in the metastatic bone during radiation therapy (RT) as combined treatment in patients with spinal bone metastases. Secondly, to evaluate overall survival and progression-free-survival (PFS) as well as to quantify prognostic factors of bone survival after combined treatment. In this randomized trial 60 patients were allocated from September 2011 until March 2013 into one of the two groups: resistance training (group A) or passive physical therapy (group B) with thirty patients in each group during RT. We estimated patient survival using Kaplan-Meier survival method. The Wald-test was used to evaluate the prognostic importance of pathological fracture, primary site, Karnofsky performance status, localization of metastases, number of metastases, and cerebral metastases. Median follow-up was 10 months (range 2-35). Bone survival showed no significant difference between groups (p = .303). Additionally no difference between groups could be detected in overall survival (p = .688) and PFS (p = .295). Local bone progression was detected in 16.7 % in group B, no irradiated bone in group A showed a local progression over the course (p = 0.019). In univariate analysis breast cancer, prostate cancer, and the presence of cerebral metastases had a significant impact on bone survival in group B, while no impact could be demonstrated in group A. In this group of patients with spinal bone metastases we were able to show that guided resistance training of the paravertebral muscles had no essential impact on survival concomitant to RT. Importantly, no local bone progression in group A was detected, nevertheless no prognostic factor for combined treatment could be evaluated. Clinical trial identifier NCT 01409720 . Registered 8 February 2011.

  7. RAV transcription factors are essential for disease resistance against cassava bacterial blight via activation of melatonin biosynthesis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunxie; Chang, Yanli; Zeng, Hongqiu; Liu, Guoyin; He, Chaozu; Shi, Haitao

    2018-01-01

    With 1 AP2 domain and 1 B3 domain, 7 MeRAVs in apetala2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) gene family have been identified in cassava. However, the in vivo roles of these remain unknown. Gene expression assays showed that the transcripts of MeRAVs were commonly regulated after Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis (Xam) and MeRAVs were specifically located in plant cell nuclei. Through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in cassava, we found that MeRAV1 and MeRAV2 are essential for plant disease resistance against cassava bacterial blight, as shown by the bacterial propagation of Xam in plant leaves. Through VIGS in cassava leaves and overexpression in cassava leave protoplasts, we found that MeRAV1 and MeRAV2 positively regulated melatonin biosynthesis genes and the endogenous melatonin level. Further investigation showed that MeRAV1 and MeRAV2 are direct transcriptional activators of 3 melatonin biosynthesis genes in cassava, as evidenced by chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR in cassava leaf protoplasts and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Moreover, cassava melatonin biosynthesis genes also positively regulated plant disease resistance. Taken together, this study identified MeRAV1 and MeRAV2 as common and upstream transcription factors of melatonin synthesis genes in cassava and revealed a model of MeRAV1 and MeRAV2-melatonin biosynthesis genes-melatonin level in plant disease resistance against cassava bacterial blight. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Effect of a Resistance Training Course on Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Females with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Salesi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is considered as a risk factor for many chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The syndrome is caused by such factors as poor nutrition, sedentary lifestyle, and genetic predisposition, while higher muscle strength levels are associated with a lower metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the response of some cardiovascular risk factors in females with metabolic syndrome after 10 weeks of resistance training (RT. Methods: In this study, 26 postmenopausal sedentary women without any diseases participated, who were selected via voluntary purposive sampling and randomly divided into two experimental and control groups. The subjects participated in anthropometric tests, including height, waist and hip ratios, weight, subcutaneous fat and blood sampling. The experimental group performed the RT for 3sessions in 10weeks with 40 to 50 percent of maximum repetition. Results: The study results suggested that after 10 weeks of RT in the experimental group, weight (p<0.001, total cholesterol (p<0.03 and triglyceride (p<0.001 indices were significantly decreased in comparison with those of the control group. BMI, waist ratio, fat percentage, systolic blood pressure and HDL significantly changed between pre and post-test of the experimental group, though these changes were not reported to be significant between the experimental and control groups. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed that a regular resistance training program could improve the cardiovascular risk factor in females with metabolic syndrome. However, the effective mechanisms in improving metabolic syndrome symptoms subsequent to exercise are not clearly recognized yet.

  9. Hepatic leukemia factor promotes resistance to cell death: Implications for therapeutics and chronotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, Katrina M.; Sontag, Ryan L.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Physiological variation related to circadian rhythms and aberrant gene expression patterns are believed to modulate therapeutic efficacy, but the precise molecular determinants remain unclear. Here we examine the regulation of cell death by hepatic leukemia factor (HLF), which is an output regulator of circadian rhythms and is aberrantly expressed in human cancers, using an ectopic expression strategy in JB6 mouse epidermal cells and human keratinocytes. Ectopic HLF expression inhibited cell death in both JB6 cells and human keratinocytes, as induced by serum-starvation, tumor necrosis factor alpha and ionizing radiation. Microarray analysis indicates that HLF regulates a complex multi-gene transcriptional program encompassing upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes, downregulation of pro-apoptotic genes, and many additional changes that are consistent with an anti-death program. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ectopic expression of HLF, an established transcription factor that cycles with circadian rhythms, can recapitulate many features associated with circadian-dependent physiological variation. - Highlights: ► Circadian-dependent physiological variation impacts therapeutic efficacy. ► Hepatic leukemia factor inhibits cell death and is a candidate circadian factor. ► Hepatic leukemia factor anti-death program is conserved in murine and human cells. ► Transcriptomics indicates the anti-death program results from a systems response

  10. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and its relation to virulence-related factors in Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, N; Kumar, M; Virdi, J S

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that the virulence factors (VFs) were detected more frequently in amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC) susceptible clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Here, we have evaluated the relationship between VFs and AMC-resistance phenotype in clinical isolates of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A. The presence/absence of VFs was compared with their minimum inhibitory concentrations for AMC in strains of two serovars. We observed that the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 showed a similar relationship between the number of VFs and resistance to clavulanic acid as in E. coli but not of serovar O: 6, 30. Variations in the promoters/complete coding sequences (CCDSs) of β-lactamase gene (bla A) or the serological characteristics could not account for unusual susceptibility to AMC displayed by the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30. Therefore, we speculate that since the clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 originated from the environment they were less exposed to antibiotics compared to clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30. Thus, AMC susceptibility seems to be influenced by factors other than serotypes or promoters/CCDS of β-lactamase genes.

  11. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and its relation to virulence-related factors in Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Singhal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported that the virulence factors (VFs were detected more frequently in amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC susceptible clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Here, we have evaluated the relationship between VFs and AMC-resistance phenotype in clinical isolates of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A. The presence/absence of VFs was compared with their minimum inhibitory concentrations for AMC in strains of two serovars. We observed that the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 showed a similar relationship between the number of VFs and resistance to clavulanic acid as in E. coli but not of serovar O: 6, 30. Variations in the promoters/complete coding sequences (CCDSs of β-lactamase gene (bla A or the serological characteristics could not account for unusual susceptibility to AMC displayed by the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30. Therefore, we speculate that since the clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 originated from the environment they were less exposed to antibiotics compared to clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30. Thus, AMC susceptibility seems to be influenced by factors other than serotypes or promoters/CCDS of β-lactamase genes.

  12. Adaptation to toxic hosts as a factor in the evolution of insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyokhin, Andrei; Chen, Yolanda H

    2017-06-01

    Insecticide resistance is a serious economic problem that jeopardizes sustainability of chemical control of herbivorous insects and related arthropods. It can be viewed as a specific case of adaptation to toxic chemicals, which has been driven in large part, but not exclusively, by the necessity for insect pests to tolerate defensive compounds produced by their host plants. Synthetic insecticides may simply change expression of specific sets of detoxification genes that have evolved due to ancestral associations with host plants. Feeding on host plants with more abundant or novel secondary metabolites has even been shown to prime insect herbivores to tolerate pesticides. Clear understanding of basic evolutionary processes is important for achieving lasting success in managing herbivorous arthropods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation on some factors affecting crack formation in high resistance aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Brotzu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum alloys having good mechanical properties are Al-ZnMg alloys (7xxx and Al-Cu-Li alloys (Weldalite. These alloys may be subjected to stress corrosion cracking. In order to overcome this problem the Al 7050 alloy has been developed and it is widely used for aerospace applications. Despite that, some components made of this alloy cracked during the manufacturing process including machining and chemical anodization. In a previous work cracked Al 7050 components have been analyzed in order to identify possible causes of crack formation. In this work the susceptibility of this alloy to intergranular corrosion has been analysed and compared with that of other high resistance aluminum alloys

  14. Anti - microbial resistance stratified by risk factor among Escherichia coli strains isolated from the urinary tract at a rural clinic in Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The failure of empirical therapy is frequently observed, even in community-acquired urinary tract infections. We, therefore, conducted a prospective, clinic-based study in 2004-2005 to document anti-microbial resistance rates and correlate them with possible risk factors to assist empirical decision-making. Materials and Methods: Symptomatic patients with pyuria underwent urine culture. Isolates were identified using standard methods and anti-microbial resistance was determined by disk-diffusion. Ultrasonography was used to detect complicating factors. Patients were stratified by the presence of complicating factors and history of invasive procedures for comparison of resistance rates. Statistical Method Used: Chi-square or Fisher exact tests, as appropriate. Results: There were 156 E. coli isolates, of which 105 were community-acquired. Twenty-three community-acquired isolates were from patients with complicating factors while 82 were from patients without any. Fifty-one isolates were from patients who had recently undergone invasive procedures on the urinary tract. Thirty-two community-acquired isolates from reproductive-age women without apparent complicating factors had resistance rates of 50% or above against tetracyclines, Co-trimoxazole, aminopenicillins, Nalidixic acid, Ciprofloxacin and 1 st generation cephalosporins. Resistance rates were significantly higher among isolates from patients subjected to invasive procedures, except against Co-trimoxazole, tetracyclines and Amikacin. Conclusion: High rates of anti-microbial resistance in community-acquired uropathogens have made antimicrobial sensitivity testing necessary even in a rural, primary-care setting.

  15. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ACTIVATED PROTEIN C RESISTANCE AND FACTOR V LEIDEN MUTATION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrez Mehrez M. Jadaon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolic disorders (VTE are serious disorders with high morbidity and mortality rates. Many genetic and acquired risk factors were identified to cause VTE The most common genetic risk factor is Factor V Leiden mutation (FVL. FVL was found in high percentage of populations of Caucasian origin but was almost absent in non-Caucasians. It was also reported in populations living in North Africa and the Middle East.  This review article briefly explains FVL and how it causes VTE, the distribution of FVL worldwide, and then it elaborates on the epidemiology of FVL in the Mediterranean Region and how this brought speculations that FVL might have originated in the Eastern Mediterranean area.

  16. Epidemiology of Activated Protein C Resistance and Factor V Leiden Mutation in the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadaon, Mehrez M.

    2011-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic disorders (VTE) are serious disorders with high morbidity and mortality rates. Many genetic and acquired risk factors were identified to cause VTE. The most common genetic risk factor is Factor V Leiden mutation (FVL). FVL was found in high percentage of populations of Caucasian origin but was almost absent in non-Caucasians. It was also reported in populations living in North Africa and the Middle East. This review article briefly explains FVL and how it causes VTE, the distribution of FVL worldwide, and then it elaborates on the epidemiology of FVL in the Mediterranean Region and how this brought speculations that FVL might have originated in the Eastern Mediterranean area. PMID:22224194

  17. Psycholosocial factors associated with psychological insulin resistance in primary care patients in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Pui Lee

    2015-12-01

    Results: There was no relationship between the presence of depression and PIR. Furthermore, the prevalence of PIR was 47.2% in insulin-naive patients but only 8.7% in current insulin users. Tools such as the C-ITAS may help clinicians understand the etiology of PIR, which this study suggests is likely the result of multiple risk factors. Factors associated with a lower prevalence of PIR included current insulin use, a family history of insulin use, a high education level, male sex, and having received counseling from a physician about insulin within the previous 6 months.

  18. Risk Factors for Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli in Pigs Receiving Oral Antimicrobial Treatment: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Elke; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this literature review was to identify risk factors in addition to antimicrobial treatment for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurrence in commensal Escherichia coli in pigs. A variety of studies were searched in 2014 and 2015. Studies identified as potentially relevant were assessed against eligibility criteria such as observation or experiment (no review), presentation of risk factors in addition to (single dosage) antimicrobial use, risk factors for but not resulting from AMR, and the same antimicrobial used and tested. Thirteen articles (nine on observational, four on experimental studies) were finally selected as relevant. It was reported that space allowance, production size/stage, cleanliness, entry of animals and humans into herds, dosage/frequency/route of administration, time span between treatment and sampling date, herd size, distance to another farm, coldness, and season had an impact on AMR occurrence. Associations were shown by one to four studies per factor and differed in magnitude, direction, and level of significance. The risk of bias was unclear in nearly half of the information of observational studies and in most of the information from experimental studies. Further research on the effects of specific management practices is needed to develop well-founded management advice.

  19. Risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: data from a nation-wide surveillance study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarolis, Ioannis; Poulakou, Garyphallia; Analitis, Antonios; Matthaiopoulou, Irini; Roilides, Emmanuel; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Kafetzis, Dimitrios A; Daikos, Georgios L; Vorou, Regina; Koubaniou, Christina; Pneumatikos, Ioannis; Samonis, Georgios; Syriopoulou, Vasiliki; Giamarellou, Helen; Kanellakopoulou, Kyriaki

    2009-07-29

    A nation-wide surveillance study was conducted in Greece in order to provide a representative depiction of pneumococcal carriage in the pre-vaccination era and to evaluate potential risk factors for carriage of resistant strains in healthy preschool children attending daycare centers. A study group was organized with the responsibility to collect nasopharyngeal samples from children. Questionnaires provided demographic data, data on antibiotic consumption, family and household data, and medical history data. Pneumococcal isolates were tested for their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents and resistant strains were serotyped. Between February and May 2004, from a total population of 2536 healthy children, a yield of 746 pneumococci was isolated (carriage rate 29.41%). Resistance rates differed among geographic regions. Recent antibiotic use in the last month was strongly associated with the isolation of resistant pneumococci to a single or multiple antibiotics. Serotypes 19F, 14, 9V, 23F and 6B formed 70.6% of the total number of resistant strains serotyped. Recent antibiotic use is a significant risk factor for the colonization of otherwise healthy children's nasopharynx by resistant strains of S pneumoniae. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could provide coverage for a significant proportion of resistant strains in the Greek community. A combined strategy of vaccination and prudent antibiotic use could provide a means for combating pneumococcal resistance.

  20. Risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: data from a nation-wide surveillance study in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background A nation-wide surveillance study was conducted in Greece in order to provide a representative depiction of pneumococcal carriage in the pre-vaccination era and to evaluate potential risk factors for carriage of resistant strains in healthy preschool children attending daycare centers. Methods A study group was organized with the responsibility to collect nasopharyngeal samples from children. Questionnaires provided demographic data, data on antibiotic consumption, family and household data, and medical history data. Pneumococcal isolates were tested for their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents and resistant strains were serotyped. Results Between February and May 2004, from a total population of 2536 healthy children, a yield of 746 pneumococci was isolated (carriage rate 29.41%). Resistance rates differed among geographic regions. Recent antibiotic use in the last month was strongly associated with the isolation of resistant pneumococci to a single or multiple antibiotics. Serotypes 19F, 14, 9V, 23F and 6B formed 70.6% of the total number of resistant strains serotyped. Conclusion Recent antibiotic use is a significant risk factor for the colonization of otherwise healthy children's nasopharynx by resistant strains of S pneumoniae. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could provide coverage for a significant proportion of resistant strains in the Greek community. A combined strategy of vaccination and prudent antibiotic use could provide a means for combating pneumococcal resistance. PMID:19640285

  1. Risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: data from a nation-wide surveillance study in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samonis Georgios

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A nation-wide surveillance study was conducted in Greece in order to provide a representative depiction of pneumococcal carriage in the pre-vaccination era and to evaluate potential risk factors for carriage of resistant strains in healthy preschool children attending daycare centers. Methods A study group was organized with the responsibility to collect nasopharyngeal samples from children. Questionnaires provided demographic data, data on antibiotic consumption, family and household data, and medical history data. Pneumococcal isolates were tested for their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents and resistant strains were serotyped. Results Between February and May 2004, from a total population of 2536 healthy children, a yield of 746 pneumococci was isolated (carriage rate 29.41%. Resistance rates differed among geographic regions. Recent antibiotic use in the last month was strongly associated with the isolation of resistant pneumococci to a single or multiple antibiotics. Serotypes 19F, 14, 9V, 23F and 6B formed 70.6% of the total number of resistant strains serotyped. Conclusion Recent antibiotic use is a significant risk factor for the colonization of otherwise healthy children's nasopharynx by resistant strains of S pneumoniae. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could provide coverage for a significant proportion of resistant strains in the Greek community. A combined strategy of vaccination and prudent antibiotic use could provide a means for combating pneumococcal resistance.

  2. Factors influencing creep resistance in discontinuously reinforced magnesium metal matrix composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklenička, Václav; Kuchařová, Květa; Kvapilová, Marie; Svoboda, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2015), s. 221-229 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : magnesium alloys * composites * creep properties testing * structure * fibres * interfaces Subject RIV: JG - Metal lurgy Impact factor: 0.365, year: 2015

  3. Resisting Smoking when a Best Friend Smokes: Do Intrapersonal and Contextual Factors Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Go, Myung-Hyun; Pollard, Michael S.; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Kennedy, David P.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines individual differences in the tendency to initiate (N = 4,612) and escalate (N = 2,837) smoking when adolescents gain a best friend who smokes. Potential moderating factors include self-esteem, depression, problem behavior, school and family bonds, and household access to cigarettes. In addition to acquiring a…

  4. Skeletal unloading causes resistance of osteoprogenitor cells to parathyroid hormone and to insulin-like growth factor-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenuik, P. J.; Harris, J.; Halloran, B. P.; Turner, R. T.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Bikle, D. D.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal unloading decreases bone formation and osteoblast number in vivo and decreases the number and proliferation of bone marrow osteoprogenitor (BMOp) cells in vitro. We tested the ability of parathyroid hormone (PTH) to stimulate BMOp cells in vivo by treating Sprague Dawley rats (n = 32) with intermittent PTH(1-34) (1 h/day at 8 microg/100 g of body weight), or with vehicle via osmotic minipumps during 7 days of normal weight bearing or hind limb unloading. Marrow cells were flushed from the femur and cultured at the same initial density for up to 21 days. PTH treatment of normally loaded rats caused a 2.5-fold increase in the number of BMOp cells, with similar increases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization, compared with cultures from vehicle-treated rats. PTH treatment of hind limb unloaded rats failed to stimulate BMOp cell number, ALP activity, or mineralization. Hind limb unloading had no significant effect on PTH receptor mRNA or protein levels in the tibia. Direct in vitro PTH challenge of BMOp cells isolated from normally loaded bone failed to stimulate their proliferation and inhibited their differentiation, suggesting that the in vivo anabolic effect of intermittent PTH on BMOp cells was mediated indirectly by a PTH-induced factor. We hypothesize that this factor is insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), which stimulated the in vitro proliferation and differentiation of BMOp cells isolated from normally loaded bone, but not from unloaded bone. These results suggest that IGF-I mediates the ability of PTH to stimulate BMOp cell proliferation in normally loaded bone, and that BMOp cells in unloaded bone are resistant to the anabolic effect of intermittent PTH therapy due to their resistance to IGF-I.

  5. Colistin exposure as a risk factor for infections caused by inherently colistin resistant Enterobacteriaceae-a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdinsky, G; Ben-Zvi, H; Kushnir, S; Leibovici, L; Yahav, D

    2017-12-05

    Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between increased colistin use and selection for inherently colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (ICRE). We aimed to evaluate whether colistin exposure is a risk factor for ICRE infection. A matched 1:1 case-control study including patients recently hospitalized for ≥14 days with ICRE infection as cases matched with similar patients with a clinical isolate of a colistin-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae as controls was performed. Univariate analysis using McNemar test and multivariate analysis were conducted to explore risk factors for ICRE isolation, including colistin exposure 90 days before the positive culture. We included 446 patients, 223 cases and 223 controls matched for gender, age, department, year, source of culture and duration of hospitalization before positive culture. Colistin exposure was significantly associated with ICRE isolation in both univariate (14/223, 6.3% of cases versus 4/223, 1.8% of controls, p 0.031) and multivariate analyses (odds ratio 4.415, 95% CI 1.078-18.082). Curtailed functional capacity was a significant risk factor for ICRE as well. Exposure to other broad-spectrum antibiotics was associated with isolation of a colistin-susceptible pathogen. Exposure to colistin is associated with an increased risk of isolating an inherently colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in patients with prolonged hospitalization. This should be taken into account while considering empirical therapy for such patients. Use of colistin should be judicious. The correlation between duration and magnitude of exposure and ICRE infection should be investigated in further studies. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Higher HOMA-IR index and correlated factors of insulin resistance in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wei, Ri-Bao; Wang, Yuan-da; Zhang, Xue-Guang; Rong, Na; Tang, Li; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the index of homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients, and to explore the possible correlated factors contributing to insulin resistance (IR) within these patients. There were 255 IgAN patients and 45 membranous nephropathy (MN) patients in our database. We identified 89 IgAN subjects and 21 MN subjects without diabetes and undergoing glucocorticoid therapy for at least 6 months. Data regarding physical examination, blood chemistry and renal pathology were collected from 89 IgAN subjects and 21 MN subjects. Then 62 IgAN patients and 19 MN patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) Stage 1 - 2 were selected for the comparison of HOMA-IR index, 89 IgAN patients were selected for multiple regression analysis to test for correlated factors of HOMA-IR index with IgAN patients. Comparison between IgAN and MN show that HOMA-IR index was significantly higher in IgAN patients with CKD Stage 1 - 2. After logarithmic transformation with urine protein (UPr), Ln(UPr) (b = 0.186, p = 0.008), eGFR (b = -0.005, p = 0.014), > 50% of glomeruli with mesangial hypercellularity (b = 0.285, p = 0.027) and body mass index (BMI) (b = 0.039, p = 0.008) were correlated factors of HOMA-IR index in the multiple regression analysis. IgAN patients had higher HOMA-IR index compared with MN in the stages of CKD 1 - 2. For IgAN patients, more UPr, lower eGFR, > 50% of glomeruli with mesangial hypercellularity and higher BMI were correlated with IR.

  7. Risk factors for infection with multidrug-resistant bacteria in non-ventilated patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Seligman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for the development of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria in non-ventilated patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational cohort study conducted over a three-year period at a tertiary-care teaching hospital. We included only non-ventilated patients diagnosed with HAP and presenting with positive bacterial cultures. Categorical variables were compared with chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for HAP caused by MDR bacteria. RESULTS: Of the 140 patients diagnosed with HAP, 59 (42.1% were infected with MDR strains. Among the patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and those infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, mortality was 45.9% and 50.0%, respectively (p = 0.763. Among the patients infected with MDR and those infected with non-MDR gram-negative bacilli, mortality was 45.8% and 38.3%, respectively (p = 0.527. Univariate analysis identified the following risk factors for infection with MDR bacteria: COPD; congestive heart failure; chronic renal failure; dialysis; urinary catheterization; extrapulmonary infection; and use of antimicrobial therapy within the last 10 days before the diagnosis of HAP. Multivariate analysis showed that the use of antibiotics within the last 10 days before the diagnosis of HAP was the only independent predictor of infection with MDR bacteria (OR = 3.45; 95% CI: 1.56-7.61; p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: In this single-center study, the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics within the last 10 days before the diagnosis of HAP was the only independent predictor of infection with MDR bacteria in non-ventilated patients with HAP.

  8. The use of an electric field in increasing the resistance of plants to the action of unfavorable space flight factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, G.; Gordeev, A.

    2004-01-01

    The key role in increasing the resistance of plants to unfavorable space flight factors is assigned to biomembranes of root cells. It is these biomembranes in which numerous biochemical and biophysical processes determining the adaptive capacity of plant organisms occur. In the initial period of exposure to unfavorable space flight factors the adaptation reactions of the plant organism undoubtedly increase its resistance. But the intensification of removal of H + ions through the plasmalemma with an increase of the external influence sharply raises the quantity of cations leaving the cell, which leads to the accumulation of a considerable quantity of intracellular negative charges. These charges together with negative charges built in the membrane force protons to concentrate on the external surface of the membrane. Since protons have a very strong electric field, they form such a charge of which the electric field is about from several to hundreds of V/cm. The concentration of positive charges of protons entails the formation of a double electric field which extremely impedes the diffusion of other ions. Thus, a proton barrier is formed. Its length can be very considerable due to which the whole process of transmembrane energy and mass-transfer is disturbed. The proton barrier is easily destroyed by a weak electric field created in the root zone. In experiments on electrostimulation of different plants under space flight conditions at the orbital station MIR the absorption of nutrient elements by the root system increased to the optimal level, the ratio of physiologically active substances in the rhizosphere was normalized, the content of chlorophyll, carotin, and ascorbic acid in leaves corresponded to the ground-based control. Understanding of the mechanism of formation of a proton barrier on the plasmalemma of root cells as a result of the response of plants to the negative action of external factors (microgravity) is of great importance. It allows the

  9. Factors that affect transfer of the IncI1 β-lactam resistance plasmid pESBL-283 between E. coli strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Nadine; Otte, Sarah; Jonker, Martijs; Brul, Stanley; ter Kuile, Benno H

    2015-01-01

    The spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria worldwide presents a major health threat to human health care that results in therapy failure and increasing costs. The transfer of resistance conferring plasmids by conjugation is a major route by which resistance genes disseminate at the intra- and interspecies level. High similarities between resistance genes identified in foodborne and hospital-acquired pathogens suggest transmission of resistance conferring and transferrable mobile elements through the food chain, either as part of intact strains, or through transfer of plasmids from foodborne to human strains. To study the factors that affect the rate of plasmid transfer, the transmission of an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) plasmid from a foodborne Escherichia coli strain to the β-lactam sensitive E. coli MG1655 strain was documented as a function of simulated environmental factors. The foodborne E. coli isolate used as donor carried a CTX-M-1 harboring IncI1 plasmid that confers resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Cell density, energy availability and growth rate were identified as factors that affect plasmid transfer efficiency. Transfer rates were highest in the absence of the antibiotic, with almost every acceptor cell picking up the plasmid. Raising the antibiotic concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) resulted in reduced transfer rates, but also selected for the plasmid carrying donor and recombinant strains. Based on the mutational pattern of transconjugant cells, a common mechanism is proposed which compensates for fitness costs due to plasmid carriage by reducing other cell functions. Reducing potential fitness costs due to maintenance and expression of the plasmid could contribute to persistence of resistance genes in the environment even without antibiotic pressure. Taken together, the results identify factors that drive the spread and persistence of resistance conferring plasmids in natural isolates and shows how these

  10. Socioeconomic Factors Explain Racial Disparities in Invasive Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Disease Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Isaac; Wesson, Paul; Gualandi, Nicole; Dumyati, Ghinwa; Harrison, Lee H; Lesher, Lindsey; Nadle, Joelle; Petit, Susan; Reisenauer, Claire; Schaffner, William; Tunali, Amy; Mu, Yi; Ahern, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Invasive community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) incidence in the United States is higher among black persons than white persons. We explored the extent to which socioeconomic factors might explain this racial disparity. A retrospective cohort was based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infections Program surveillance data for invasive community-associated MRSA cases (isolated from a normally sterile site of an outpatient or on hospital admission day ≤3 in a patient without specified major healthcare exposures) from 2009 to 2011 in 33 counties of 9 states. We used generalized estimating equations to determine census tract-level factors associated with differences in MRSA incidence and inverse odds ratio-weighted mediation analysis to determine the proportion of racial disparity mediated by socioeconomic factors. Annual invasive community-associated MRSA incidence was 4.59 per 100000 among whites and 7.60 per 100000 among blacks (rate ratio [RR], 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52-1.80). In the mediation analysis, after accounting for census tract-level measures of federally designated medically underserved areas, education, income, housing value, and rural status, 91% of the original racial disparity was explained; no significant association of black race with community-associated MRSA remained (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, .92-1.20). The racial disparity in invasive community-associated MRSA rates was largely explained by socioeconomic factors. The specific factors that underlie the association between census tract-level socioeconomic measures and MRSA incidence, which may include modifiable social (eg, poverty, crowding) and biological factors (not explored in this analysis), should be elucidated to define strategies for reducing racial disparities in community-associated MRSA rates.

  11. Detection of Genes that Determine Maize Grain Quality Characteristics and Resistance to Stress Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovskyi, O.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 200 experimental maize samples (Maize Company were examined for the presence of genes that determine the quality characteristics of grain (wx and fl-2 genes, herbicide (bar (pat, epsps genes and insect (cry-genes resistance. The total DNA was extracted from maize living plant tissue. Primers to detect wx, fl-2, bar (pat, mepsps, CP4 epsps, cry1A(b, cry1F, cry1A.105, mcry3A, cry2Ab2, cry3Bb1, cry34Ab1, cry35Ab1 genes were designed and selected. Multiplex and Touchdown PCR were worked out. PCR amplification of certain sequences was carried out. No transgenes (bar (pat, mepsps, CP4 epsps, cry1A(b, cry1F, cry1A.105, mcry3A, cry2Ab2, cry3Bb1, cry34Ab1, cry35Ab1 were found among 200 analyzed experimental maize samples. At the same time, fl-2 gene was found in 41 samples, wx gene was found in 192 analyzed samples.

  12. Impact of acute psychological stress on cardiovascular risk factors in face of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristian T; Shelton, Richard C; Wan, Jun; Li, Li

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with insulin resistance (IR) are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Psychological stress may contribute to develop CVD in IR, although mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that individuals with IR have enhanced emotional and physiological responses to acute psychological stress, leading to increased CVD risk. Sixty participants were enrolled into the study, and classified into IR group (n = 31) and insulin sensitive group (n = 29) according to the Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, which was calculated based on an oral glucose tolerance test. The Trier social stress test, a standardized experimental stress paradigm, was performed on each participant, and emotional and physiological responses were examined. Blood was collected from each subject for insulin, cytokines, and cortisol measurements. Compared with the insulin-sensitive group, individuals with IR had significantly lower ratings of energy and calm, but higher fatigue levels in response to acute stressors. Individuals with IR also showed blunted heart rate reactivity following stress. In addition, the IR status was worsened by acute psychological stress as demonstrated by further increased insulin secretion. Furthermore, individuals with IR showed significantly increased levels of leptin and interleukin-6, but decreased levels of adiponectin, at baseline, stress test, and post-stress period. Our findings in individuals with IR under acute stress would allow a better understanding of the risks for developing CVD and to tailor the interventions for better outcomes.

  13. Identification and characterization of integron-mediated antibiotic resistance in the phytopathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xu

    Full Text Available Four streptomycin-resistant isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (YNA7-1, YNA10-2, YNA11-2, and YNA12-2 were examined via PCR amplification for the presence of class 1, class 2, and class 3 integrons and aadA1 and aadA2 genes, which confer resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin. The class 1 integrase gene intI1 and the aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase gene aadA1 were identified in all four resistant isolates but not in 25 sensitive isolates. PCR amplifications showed that 7790-bp, 7162-bp, 7790-bp, and 7240-bp resistance integrons with transposition gene modules (tni module in 3' conserved segments existed in YNA7-1, YNA10-2, YNA11-2, and YNA12-2, respectively. Subsequent analysis of sequences indicated that the integrons of YNA7-1 and YNA11-2 carried three gene cassettes in the order |aacA3|arr3|aadA1|. The integron of YNA10-2 carried only |arr3|aadA1| gene cassettes. The integron of YNA12-2 lacked a 550-bp sequence including part of intI1 but it still carried |aacA3|arr3|aadA1| gene cassettes. The analysis of inactive mutants and complementation tests confirmed that the aacA3 gene conferred resistance to tobramycin, kanamycin, gentamicin and netilmicin; the arr3 gene conferred resistance to rifampicin; and the aadA1 gene conferred resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin. The resistance phenotypes of the four isolates corresponded with their resistance gene cassettes, except that YNA7-1 and YNA12-2 did not show rifampicin resistance. Sequence comparison revealed that no gene cassette array in GenBank was in the same order as in the integrons of the four resistant isolates in this study and the aadA1, which was identical in the four resistant isolates, showed 99% identity with aadA1 sequences in GenBank. The result of a stability test showed that the resistance phenotype, the aadA1 gene, and the intI1 gene were completely stable in YNA7-1 and YNA12-2 but unstable in YNA10-2 and YNA11-2. To our knowledge, this is the first

  14. Identification and Characterization of Integron-Mediated Antibiotic Resistance in the Phytopathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming-guo

    2013-01-01

    Four streptomycin-resistant isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (YNA7-1, YNA10-2, YNA11-2, and YNA12-2) were examined via PCR amplification for the presence of class 1, class 2, and class 3 integrons and aadA1 and aadA2 genes, which confer resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin. The class 1 integrase gene intI1 and the aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase gene aadA1 were identified in all four resistant isolates but not in 25 sensitive isolates. PCR amplifications showed that 7790-bp, 7162-bp, 7790-bp, and 7240-bp resistance integrons with transposition gene modules (tni module) in 3′ conserved segments existed in YNA7-1, YNA10-2, YNA11-2, and YNA12-2, respectively. Subsequent analysis of sequences indicated that the integrons of YNA7-1 and YNA11-2 carried three gene cassettes in the order |aacA3|arr3|aadA1|. The integron of YNA10-2 carried only |arr3|aadA1| gene cassettes. The integron of YNA12-2 lacked a 550-bp sequence including part of intI1 but it still carried |aacA3|arr3|aadA1| gene cassettes. The analysis of inactive mutants and complementation tests confirmed that the aacA3 gene conferred resistance to tobramycin, kanamycin, gentamicin and netilmicin; the arr3 gene conferred resistance to rifampicin; and the aadA1 gene conferred resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin. The resistance phenotypes of the four isolates corresponded with their resistance gene cassettes, except that YNA7-1 and YNA12-2 did not show rifampicin resistance. Sequence comparison revealed that no gene cassette array in GenBank was in the same order as in the integrons of the four resistant isolates in this study and the aadA1, which was identical in the four resistant isolates, showed 99% identity with aadA1 sequences in GenBank. The result of a stability test showed that the resistance phenotype, the aadA1 gene, and the intI1 gene were completely stable in YNA7-1 and YNA12-2 but unstable in YNA10-2 and YNA11-2. To our knowledge, this is the first report of resistance

  15. Characterisation of recently emerged multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 and other multiresistant phage types from Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1998-01-01

    electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme Xba I, Overall, 66 per cent of the 670 isolates were sensitive to all the antimicrobial agents tested. Eleven isolates of S typhimurium were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and also resistant to other antibiotics in different resistance...... patterns. Seven different multiresistant clones were identified, The most common clones were four isolates of DT104 and three isolates of DT193, TWO Of the three S typhimurium DT104 from 1994 and 1995 were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested whereas the remaining isolate from 1994 was resistant......A total of 670 isolates of Salmonella enterica were isolated from Danish pig herds, phage typed and tested for susceptibility to amoxycillin + clavulanate, ampicillin, colistin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim + sulphadiazine. S...

  16. Alteration of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha level in gestational diabetes mellitus and correlation with insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Gang; Li Cuiyin; Shao Hao; Lu Zeyuan; Lai Liping; Liu Lan; Hu Xiaorong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the dynamic of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)and its correlation with insulin resistance (IR)during different stages of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: Thirty-two subjects with GDM and 31 cases of normal pregnant women nonnal glucose tolerance, NGT were enrolled in the study, serum TNF-α and insulin were determined by radioimmunoassay. The plasma glucose was measured by using glucose oxidase. Tests repeated for each group according different stages of prenatal 25-28 weeks, 29-32 weeks, 37-38 weeks and postpartum 6-8 weeks. IR was assessed by the homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Results: (1)Serum TNF-α levels in CDM and NGT group rose with gestational age, and both significantly decreased at postpartum. (2) Serum TNF-α levels in GDM of above-mentioned four stages respectively were (7.05±0.67) ng/L, (7.11± 0.75) ng/L, (7.36±0.79) ng/L, (5.46±0.37) ng/L respectively. All significantly increased than those in the same stage group (t=7.81, 7.05, 7.15, P<0.01). (3) Maternal serum TNF-α levels were in positive correlation with HOMA-IR in GDM (r=0.571, P<0.05). Conclusions: Serum TNF-α levels in GDM rose with gestational age, but significantly decreased at postpartum. The dynamic changes of serum TNF-α contribute to occurrence of insulin resistance. (authors)

  17. The antibiotic resistance and virulence factors of Escherichia coli of serogroup O1 isolated from Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Eslami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect several virulence genes among Escherichia coli (E. coli isolates of serogroup O1 collected in Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this study, 100 clinical isolates of E. coli were collected in Tehran, Iran. The antibiotic susceptibility test was done for 14 antibiotics according to CLSI guidelines. Phylogenetic grouping was performed by PCR according to the chuA, yjaA and TspE4.C2 genes. Serogroup typing was performed using the 12 O-antigens. The virulence genes were detected by PCR. Results: A total of 37 isolates belonged to serogroup O1. All of E. coli isolates were sensitive to phosphomycin. Phylogroups A (30%, B1 (21%, B2 (39%, and D (10% were detected. The prevalence rates of cnf, cdt, iutA, csgA, kpsMII, ibeA, vat, traT, TcpC, sat, hlyA and pic were 19%, 8%, 78%, 84%, 43%, 8%, 16%, 81%, 0%, 38%, 92% and 8%, respectively. Also, the vat gene was the most dominant gene in A phylogroup, and the genes of sat and pic were the most dominant virulence genes in the B2 phylogroup. Conclusions: The phosphomycin, imipenem, and meropenem were the most effective antibiotics. Half of the isolates were multidrug resistant. The predominant virulence factors of E. coli isolates were the genes hlyA, iutA, traT, and csgA. Detection of virulent strains which exhibit wide antibiotic resistance can help the control programs in order to prevent the spread of infections. According to the results, the B2 phylogroup was the most common phylogroup and strains belonging to B1 phylogroup were the most resistant strains in O1 serogroup E. coli strains.

  18. Genetic characterization of antibiotic resistance and virulence factors in Enterococcus spp. from Japanese retail ready-to-eat raw fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Ahmed M; Shimamoto, Toshi; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2014-04-01

    Little information is available on the diversity and distribution of resistance and virulence factors in enterococci isolated from retail fish. In this study, 200 samples of retail ready-to-eat raw fish (sashimi) collected from the Japanese prefecture of Hiroshima were analyzed for incidence of Enterococcus spp. We recovered 96 enterococcal isolates from 90 (45%, 90/200) samples. Fifty-six strains were identified at the species level: E. faecalis (n = 31), E. faecium (n = 7), E. casseliflavus (n = 7), E. gallinarum (n = 3), E. phoeniculicola (n = 4), E. raffinosus (n = 2), E. saccharolyticus (n = 1), and E. gilvus (n = 1). Twenty-five (26%, 25/96) strains carried antibiotic resistance genes. These included the tet(M), tet(L), tet(K), erm(B), msr(A/B), aph(3'), and blaZ genes, which were detected in 12.5%, 9.3%, 2%, 14.5%, 1%, 1%, and 2% of isolates, respectively. The virulence genes gelE and asa1 were detected in 31 and 24 E. faecalis strains, respectively. Both genes were detected in one E. faecium strain. In conclusion, this is the first study to underscore the importance of sashimi as not only a reservoir of Enterococcus spp. carrying resistance and virulence genes, but also a reservoir for unusual Enterococcus spp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 as the causative factor and marker of vascular injury related to insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Majerczyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of adipokines involved in the development of insulin resistance is retinol-binding protein 4(RBP4. The physiological role of RBP4 is transport of retinol from the liver to peripheral tissues. One of the first events related to the excessive visceral fat accumulation is the development of inflammation followed by hormonal adipose tissue dysfunction, including excessive RBP4 production. Reduced density of the membrane-type glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 is considered as a direct cause for the stimulation of RBP4 release to the circulation by adipocytes. Circulating RBP4 inhibits the signal pathways stimulated by insulin in skeletal muscle cells, resulting in the development of insulin resistance. Drugs stimulating receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma (PPARγ – thiazolidinediones – inhibit the production of RBP4 by adipose tissue and increase the insulin sensitivity of the tissues. Increased secretion of RBP4 stimulates the expression of adhesion molecules in the endothelial cells, promoting development of atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension. Population studies demonstrated an association between serum RBP4 in the circulation, and the severity of atherosclerosis and risk of the cardiovascular events and type 2 diabetes. It also appears that the rbp4 gene functional polymorphisms may influence the risk of metabolic complications of obesity, including vascular injury. Therefore, the concentration of RBP4 in the circulation may be considered both as the causative factor and marker of chronic vascular injury. This article summarizes the current state of knowledge on the potential role of RBP4 in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, particularly related to insulin resistance.

  20. Factors Related to Increasing Prevalence of Resistance to Ciprofloxacin and Other Antimicrobial Drugs in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, Robert D.; Reshef, David; Berman, Stuart; Weinstock, Hillard; Sabeti, Pardis; Del Rio, Carlos; Hall, Geraldine; Hook, Edward W.; Lipsitch, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project, we studied changes in ciprofloxacin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in the United States during 2002–2007. Compared with prevalence in heterosexual men, prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae infections showed a more pronounced increase in men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly through an increase in prevalence of strains also resistant to tetracycline and penicillin. Moreover, that multidrug resistance profile among MSM was negatively associated with recent travel. Across the surveillance project sites, first appearance of ciprofloxacin resistance in heterosexual men was positively correlated with such resistance for MSM. The increase in prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance may have been facilitated by use of fluoroquinolones for treating gonorrhea and other conditions. The prominence of multidrug resistance suggests that using other classes of antimicrobial drugs for purposes other than treating gonorrhea helped increase the prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant strains that are also resistant to those drugs. PMID:22840274

  1. Factors affecting gas migration and contaminant redistribution in heterogeneous porous media subject to electrical resistance heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munholland, Jonah L; Mumford, Kevin G; Kueper, Bernard H

    2016-01-01

    A series of intermediate-scale laboratory experiments were completed in a two-dimensional flow cell to investigate gas production and migration during the application of electrical resistance heating (ERH) for the removal of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Experiments consisted of heating water in homogeneous silica sand and heating 270 mL of trichloroethene (TCE) and chloroform (CF) DNAPL pools in heterogeneous silica sands, both under flowing groundwater conditions. Spatial and temporal distributions of temperature were measured using thermocouples and observations of gas production and migration were collected using front-face image capture throughout the experiments. Post-treatment soil samples were collected and analyzed to assess DNAPL removal. Results of experiments performed in homogeneous sand subject to different groundwater flow rates showed that high groundwater velocities can limit subsurface heating rates. In the DNAPL pool experiments, temperatures increased to achieve DNAPL-water co-boiling, creating estimated gas volumes of 131 and 114 L that originated from the TCE and CF pools, respectively. Produced gas migrated vertically, entered a coarse sand lens and subsequently migrated laterally beneath an overlying capillary barrier to outside the heated treatment zone where 31-56% of the original DNAPL condensed back into a DNAPL phase. These findings demonstrate that layered heterogeneity can potentially facilitate the transport of contaminants outside the treatment zone by mobilization and condensation of gas phases during ERH applications. This underscores the need for vapor phase recovery and/or control mechanisms below the water table during application of ERH in heterogeneous porous media during the co-boiling stage, which occurs prior to reaching the boiling point of water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transforming growth factor β signaling overcomes dasatinib resistance in lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Gordian

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the second most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Despite recent advances in the development of targeted therapies, patients with advanced disease remain incurable, mostly because metastatic non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC eventually become resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs. Kinase inhibitors have the potential for target promiscuity because the kinase super family is the largest family of druggable genes that binds to a common substrate (ATP. As a result, TKIs often developed for a specific purpose have been found to act on other targets. Drug affinity chromatography has been used to show that dasatinib interacts with the TGFβ type I receptor (TβR-I, a serine-threonine kinase. To determine the potential biological relevance of this association, we studied the combined effects of dasatinib and TGFβ on lung cancer cell lines. We found that dasatinib treatment alone had very little effect; however, when NSCLC cell lines were treated with a combination of TGFβ and dasatinib, apoptosis was induced. Combined TGFβ-1 + dasatinib treatment had no effect on the activity of Smad2 or other non-canonical TGFβ intracellular mediators. Interestingly, combined TGFβ and dasatinib treatment resulted in a transient increase in p-Smad3 (seen after 3 hours. In addition, when NSCLC cells were treated with this combination, the pro-apoptotic protein BIM was up-regulated. Knockdown of the expression of Smad3 using Smad3 siRNA also resulted in a decrease in BIM protein, suggesting that TGFβ-1 + dasatinib-induced apoptosis is mediated by Smad3 regulation of BIM. Dasatinib is only effective in killing EGFR mutant cells, which is shown in only 10% of NSCLCs. Therefore, the observation that wild-type EGFR lung cancers can be manipulated to render them sensitive to killing by dasatinib could have important implications for devising innovative and potentially more efficacious treatment strategies for this

  3. Prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus Aureus and associated risk factors on admission to a specialist care eye hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Sara I.; Moore, C.

    2002-01-01

    Staphyloccocus aureus is known to be a frequent pathogen in hospital settings, with its well-known and resistant forms to the anti-staphylococcal penicillins. Reports on community carriage outside hospital settings have been feared to be on the increase due to the due to the frequency of reported cases on admission to hospitals. We undertook this study to determine the prevalence of and to establish predictors for, nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA) at the time of admission to a specialist care eye hospital. A prospective survey was conducted at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH), Riyadh during the three differing weeks randomly selected from the year 1999. The first 100 patients admitted during those three weeks were selected according to inclusion criteria. The hospital is a 220-bed tertiary ophthalmic care facility, with an average 7,500admission per year. Nasal bacterial swabs were taken within 48 hours of admission and tested for all strains of S.aureus and sensitivity to methicillin. Detailed interviews were conducted about medical history and habitual environment. Of 306 nasal cultures tested, none was isolated for MRSA and 102 (33%) were sensitive to methicillin (MSSA).We found 0% nasal carriage rate for MRSA. Respondents have difficulty with questions related to antibiotic administration. No identifiable medical or environmental risk factors could be found. Nasal swabs of patients admitted to KKESH did not reveal MRSA colonization, indicating that MRSA may not be prevalent in the community at present. (author)

  4. The Role of Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 (IRF1) in Overcoming Antiestrogen Resistance in the Treatment of Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.L.; Shajahan, A.N.; Clarke, R.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to endocrine therapy is common among breast cancer patients with estrogen receptor alpha-positive (ER+) tumors and limits the success of this therapeutic strategy. While the mechanisms that regulate endocrine responsiveness and cell fate are not fully understood, interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF1) is strongly implicated as a key regulatory node in the underlying signaling network. IRF1 is a tumor suppressor that mediates cell fate by facilitating apoptosis and can do so with or without functional p53. Expression of IRF1 is down regulated in endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells, protecting these cells from IRF1-induced inhibition of proliferation and/or induction of cell death. Nonetheless, when IRF1 expression is induced following IFN treatment, antiestrogen sensitivity is restored by a process that includes the inhibition of pro survival BCL2 family members and caspase activation. These data suggest that a combination of endocrine therapy and compounds that effectively induce IRF1 expression may be useful for the treatment of many ER+ breast cancers. By understanding IRF1 signaling in the context of endocrine responsiveness, we may be able to develop novel therapeutic strategies and better predict how patients will respond to endocrine therapy

  5. Characterization of a Staphylococcus aureus Surface Virulence Factor That Promotes Resistance to Oxidative Killing and Infectious Endocarditis▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malachowa, Natalia; Kohler, Petra L.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Chuang, Olivia N.; Dunny, Gary M.; Kobayashi, Scott D.; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek; Bohach, Gregory A.; Seo, Keun Seok

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a prominent human pathogen and a leading cause of community- and hospital-acquired bacterial infections worldwide. Herein, we describe the identification and characterization of the S. aureus 67.6-kDa hypothetical protein, named for the surface factor promoting resistance to oxidative killing (SOK) in this study. Sequence analysis showed that the SOK gene is conserved in all sequenced S. aureus strains and homologous to the myosin cross-reactive antigen of Streptococcus pyogenes. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analysis showed that SOK was copurified with membrane fractions and was exposed on the surface of S. aureus Newman and RN4220. Comparative analysis of wild-type S. aureus and an isogenic deletion strain indicated that SOK contributes to both resistance to killing by human neutrophils and to oxidative stress. In addition, the S. aureus sok deletion strain showed dramatically reduced aortic valve vegetation and bacterial cell number in a rabbit endocarditis model. These results, plus the suspected role of the streptococcal homologue in certain diseases such as acute rheumatic fever, suggest that SOK plays an important role in cardiovascular and other staphylococcal infections. PMID:20937760

  6. Resistance trends and risk factors of extended spectrum β-lactamases in Escherichia coli infections in Aleppo, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Assil, Bodour; Mahfoud, Maysa; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak

    2013-07-01

    Recently, there has been a notable surge in urinary tract infections (UTIs) by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, which considerably limits treatment options. This study aimed to determine prevalence, phenotypic patterns, and ESBL-production status of E coli in isolates from UTI patients along with uncovering locally relevant risk factors for contracting ESBL-producing E coli infections. One hundred four nonrepetitive urine samples were collected from 3 major hospitals in Aleppo, Syria. Antibiotic susceptibility and ESBL production were studied by disc diffusion and double disk synergy tests according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Epidemiologic analysis was done using χ(2) and multivariate logistic regression tests. This study revealed high prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) E coli reaching 63%, whereas ESBL-producing E coli exceeded 52%. The latter exhibited alarmingly elevated levels of coresistance to non-β-lactam antibiotics leading to vast increase in MDR rates in comparison with non-ESBL-producing E coli (83.6% vs 12.2%, respectively). We found previous exposure to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones to be a significant risk factor for ESBL-producing E coli infections, in addition to other known factors such as hospitalization and catheterization. Tigecycline and carbapenems demonstrated near perfect efficacy against tested E coli, so they rank high among treatment options. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical features, outcomes, and survival factor in patients with vertebral osteomyelitis infected by methicillin-resistant staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Hirokazu; Urakawa, Takaaki; Watanabe, Kei; Hirano, Toru; Katsumi, Keiichi; Ohashi, Masayuki; Sato, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Akiyoshi; Yajiri, Yoichi; Kikuchi, Ren; Hosaka, Noboru; Sawakami, Kimihiko; Miura, Kazuto; Nakamura, Ichiro; Fujikawa, Ryuta; Wakasugi, Masashi; Endo, Naoto

    2016-05-01

    To elucidate clinico-radiological features, therapeutic outcomes, and survival factors of vertebral osteomyelitis patients infected by methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS). Vertebral osteomyelitis patients admitted to the orthopaedic department between 2007 and 2011 (n = 248) were selected for this multicenter study. We compared patients' backgrounds, therapeutic course, and in-hospital mortality between MRS and methicillin-susceptible staphylococci (MSS). We also examined survival factors of vertebral osteomyelitis due to MRS. Sixteen patients of MRS vertebral osteomyelitis and 55 patients of MSS were included in this study. In MRS vertebral osteomyelitis, the rates of comorbid diabetes mellitus, involvement of >2 vertebral bodies, in-hospital mortality, and operation of surgical debridement were higher compared to those in MSS vertebral osteomyelitis. Univariate analysis showed that operation of surgical debridement was a factor related to survival in MRS patients. Higher rate of comorbid diabetes mellitus, involvement of >2 vertebral bodies, in-hospital mortality, and performing surgical debridement are peculiar features of MRS vertebral osteomyelitis compared to MSS vertebral osteomyelitis. If patients with MRS vertebral osteomyelitis respond poorly to antibiotic therapy, it might be better to consider surgical debridement not to lose an opportunity of operation due to exacerbation of systemic conditions. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of patient factors in therapy resistance to antiproteinuric intervention in nondiabetic and diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, H; Andersen, S; Rossing, P

    2000-01-01

    Reduction of proteinuria is a prerequisite for successful long-term renoprotection. To investigate whether individual patient factors are determinants of antiproteinuric efficacy, we analyzed individual responses to different modes of antiproteinuric intervention in nondiabetic and diabetic...... patients, obtained in prior studies comparing the efficacy of various pharmacological regimens. The individual antiproteinuric response to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition positively correlated to the response to angiotensin type I (AT1) receptor blockade in diabetic (r = 0.67, P ... = 16) as well as nondiabetic patients (r = 0.75, P 1 receptor blockade in diabetic (r = 0.73, P

  9. Risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance and Primary Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Hydrie, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of the study was to identify the extent of metabolic syndrome on the basis of ATP III and IDF definition in subjects aged 25 years and above from an urban population of Karachi. Also to see the association of risk factors related to diabetes and metabolic syndrome in this population. And finally to prove the hypothesis of intervention effect on the onset of type 2 diabetes in a high risk urban population and evaluate the rate of conversion of IGT to diabetes by these interve...

  10. Risk factors for carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli in pet dogs from volunteer households in Ontario, Canada, in 2005 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Erin K; Pearl, David L; Janecko, Nicol; Finley, Rita L; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Weese, J Scott; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine pet-related management factors associated with the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli in a population of pet dogs. SAMPLE 138 dogs from 84 households in Ontario, Canada. PROCEDURES From October 2005 through May 2006, dogs and households in Ontario, Canada, were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Fecal samples were submitted for culture of Salmonella spp and E coli, which provided 515 bacterial isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for household and dog were created to identify pet-related management factors associated with antimicrobial resistance. RESULTS Bacterial species, feeding a homemade diet or adding homemade food to the diet, feeding a raw diet or adding anything raw to the diet, feeding a homemade raw food diet, and feeding raw chicken in the past week were significant risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in this population of dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, several potentially important pet-related risk factors for the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and E coli in pet dogs were identified. Further evaluation of risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in dogs may lead to development of evidence-based guidelines for safe and responsible dog ownership and management to protect the public, especially pet owners who are immunocompromised.

  11. Inactivation of Rac1 reduces Trastuzumab resistance in PTEN deficient and insulin-like growth factor I receptor overexpressing human breast cancer SKBR3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Wang, Zhishan; Jiang, Yiguo; Yang, Chengfeng

    2011-12-26

    Drug resistance remains to be a big challenge in applying anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody Trastuzumab for treating breast cancer with HER2 overexpression. Amplification of insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) and deletion of tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) are implicated in Trastuzumab resistance, however, the underlying mechanisms have not been clearly defined. Activation of Rac1, a member of Rho GTPase family, is capable of causing cytoskeleton reorganization, regulating gene expression and promoting cell proliferation. To investigate the mechanism of Trastuzumab resistance, PTEN knockdown and IGF-IR overexpressing stable cell lines were generated in HER2 overexpression human breast cancer SKBR3 cells. Rac1 was highly activated in PTEN deficient and IGF-IR overexpressing Trastuzumab-resistant cells in a HER2-independent manner. Inactivation of Rac1 by using a Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 or siRNA knocking down the expression of Tiam1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac, significantly reduced Trastuzumab resistance in SKBR3 cells. Inhibition of Rac1 had no effect on the levels of phosphor-HER2 and phosphor-Akt, but significantly decreased the levels of cyclin D1 in Trastuzumab-resistant cells. Inhibition of Akt with an Akt inhibitor also significantly reduced Trastuzumab resistance. However, simultaneous inhibition of both Rac1 and Akt resulted in a significantly more decrease of Trastuzumab resistance than inactivation of Rac1 or Akt alone. These results suggest that Rac1 activation is critically involved in Trastuzumab resistance caused by PTEN deletion or IGF-IR overexpression. Simultaneous inhibition of Rac1 and Akt may represent a promising strategy in reducing Trastuzumab resistance in HER2 overexpression breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Occurrence Of Virulence Factors And Antimicrobial Resistance In Pasteurella Multocida Strains Isolated From Slaughter Cattle In Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faham eKhamesipour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 30 Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from 333 pneumonic and apparently health slaughter cattle were examined for capsule biosynthesis genes and 23 virulence associated genes by polymerase chain reaction. The disc diffusion technique was used to determine antimicrobial resistance profiles among the isolates. Of the isolates, 23 belonged to capsular type A, 5 to capsular type D and two isolates were untypeable. The distribution of the capsular types in pneumonic lungs and in apparently health lungs was statistically similar. All virulence genes tested were detected among the isolates derived from pneumonic lungs; whereas isolates derived from apparently health lungs carried 16 of the 23 genes. The frequently detected genes among isolates from pneumonic lungs were exbD, hgbA, hgbB, ompA, ompH, oma87 and sodC; whereas tadD, toxA and pmHAS genes occurred less frequently. Most of the adhesins and superoxide dismutases; and all of the iron acquisition and protectin proteins occurred at significantly (p≤0.05 higher frequencies in isolates from pneumonic lungs. Isolates from apparently healthy lungs didn’t carry the following genes; hsf-1, hsf-2, tadD, toxA, nanB, nanH and pmHAS. One adhesion (hsf-1 and two iron acquisition (exbD and tonB genes occurred at significantly (p≤0.05 higher frequencies among capA isolates. All the P. multocida isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, nitrofurantoin and tetracyclines. Different proportions of the isolates were however resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, lincomycin, penicillin, rifampin, streptomycin and florfenicol. Our results reveal presence of virulence factors in P. multocida strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic bovids. A higher frequency of the factors among isolates from symptomatic study animals may suggest their role in pathogenesis of P. multocida-associated bovine respiratory disease. The results further

  13. Expression of Drug-Resistant Factor Genes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy with Platinum Complex by Arterial Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Ueda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated gene expression of drug resistance factors in biopsy tissue samples from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients undergoing chemotherapy by platinum complex. Liver biopsy was performed to collect tissue from the tumor site (T and the non-tumor site (NT prior to the start of treatment. For drug-resistant factors, drug excretion transporters cMOAT and MDR-1, intracellular metal binding protein MT2, DNA repair enzyme ERCC-l and inter-nucleic cell transport protein MVP, were investigated. The comparison of the expression between T and NT indicated a significant decrease of MT2 and MDR-1 in T while a significant increase in ERCC-1 was noted in T. Further, expression was compared between the response cases and non-response cases using the ratios of expression in T to those in NT. The response rate was significantly low in the high expression group when the cutoff value of cMOAT and MT2 was set at 1.5 and 1.0, respectively. Furthermore, when the patients were classified into A group (cMOAT ≧ 1.5 or MT2 ≧ 1.0 and B group (cMOAT < 1.5 and MT2 < 1.0, the response rate of A group was significantly lower than B group when we combined the cutoff values of cMOAT and MT2. It is considered possible to estimate the therapeutic effect of platinum complex at a high probability by combining the expression condition of these two genes.

  14. Relationship between virulence factors, resistance to antibiotics and phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in two locations in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Estrada, Laura Iveth; Ruíz-Rosas, María; Molina-López, José; Parra-Rojas, Isela; González-Villalobos, Edgar; Castro-Alarcón, Natividad

    Escherichia coli is the major causative agent of urinary tract infections (UTI), and virulence factors are responsible for the severity of these emerging infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between virulence determinants and antibiotic susceptibility with phylogenetic groups of E.coli isolates of UTI in two locations in Mexico. An analysis was performed on 50 isolates of E.coli from the centre of the country and 57 from a town in the southwest. The isolates were characterized by phenotype (serotyping assays, in vitro adhesion, biofilm formation, production of haemolysin, and antibiotic susceptibility) and genotype (phylogenetic groups and virulence genes). In the centre of the country location the phylogenetic group B2 (60%) and F (12%) were significantly more prevalent and had a higher frequency of genes, fimH (96%), iutA (66%), sat (36%), compared to the southwest location, where the group A (35%) and B1 (21%) were significantly predominant and had fewer virulence genes. About one-fifth (21.5%) of all isolates belonged to the O25-ST131 group. Haemolysin and biofilm producing strains were significantly higher in the southwest location. Resistance to ampicillin (92.5%), tetracycline (76.6%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (70.1%) were the most common in both groups. The phylogenetic group, virulence factors, and antibiotic susceptibility of the E.coli that causes UTI in the community, varies significantly among the Mexican populations studied. Phylogenetic groups A and B1 may be multidrug resistant and have the ability to produce UTI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. Resistance-resistant antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-12-01

    New antibiotics are needed because drug resistance is increasing while the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. We discuss here six possible approaches to develop 'resistance-resistant' antibiotics. First, multitarget inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy owing to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, repurposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multitarget therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and, in some cases, suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored in otherwise drug-resistant organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Occurrence of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamesipour, Faham; Momtaz, Hassan; Azhdary Mamoreh, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    A total of 30 Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from 333 pneumonic and apparently health slaughter cattle were examined for capsule biosynthesis genes and 23 virulence-associated genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The disc diffusion technique was used to determine antimicrobial resistance profiles among the isolates. Of the isolates, 23 belonged to capsular type A, 5 to capsular type D and two isolates were untypeable. The distribution of the capsular types in pneumonic lungs and in apparently health lungs was statistically similar. All virulence genes tested were detected among the isolates derived from pneumonic lungs; whereas isolates derived from apparently health lungs carried 16 of the 23 genes. The frequently detected genes among isolates from pneumonic lungs were exbD, hgbA, hgbB, ompA, ompH, oma87, and sodC; whereas tadD, toxA, and pmHAS genes occurred less frequently. Most of the adhesins and superoxide dismutases; and all of the iron acquisition and protectin proteins occurred at significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher frequencies in isolates from pneumonic lungs. Isolates from apparently healthy lungs didn't carry the following genes; hsf-1, hsf-2, tadD, toxA, nanB, nanH, and pmHAS. One adhesion (hsf-1) and two iron acquisition (exbD and tonB) genes occurred at significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher frequencies among capA isolates. All the P. multocida isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and tetracyclines. Different proportions of the isolates were however resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, lincomycin, penicillin, rifampin, streptomycin, and florfenicol. Our results reveal presence of virulence factors (VFs) in P. multocida strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic bovids. A higher frequency of the factors among isolates from symptomatic study animals may suggest their role in pathogenesis of P. multocida-associated bovine respiratory disease (BRD). The results

  17. Rapid screening of pyogenic Staphylococcus aureus for confirmation of genus and species, methicillin resistance and virulence factors by using two novel multiplex PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Abdul; Haque, Asma; Saeed, Muhammad; Azhar, Aysha; Rasool, Samreen; Shan, Sidra; Ehsan, Beenish; Nisar, Zohaib

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Emergence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major medical problem of current era. These bacteria are resistant to most drugs and rapid diagnosis can provide a clear guideline to clinicians. They possess specific virulence factors and relevant information can be very useful. We designed this study to develop multiplex PCRs to provide rapid information. Methods: We studied 60 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and detected methicillin resistance by cefoxitin sensitivity and targeting of mecA gene. After initial studies with uniplex PCRs we optimized two multiplex PCRs with highly reproducible results. The first multiplex PCR was developed to confirm genus, species and methicillin resistance simultaneously, and the second multiplex PCR was for screening of virulence factors. Results: We found 38.33% isolates as methicillin resistant. α -toxin, the major cytotoxic factor, was detected in 40% whereas β-hemolysin was found in 25% cases. Panton Valentine leucocidin was detected in 8.33% and toxic shock syndrome toxin in5% cases. The results of uniplex and multiplex PCRs were highly compatible. Conclusions: These two multiplex PCRs when run simultaneously can provide vital information about methicillin resistance and virulence status of the isolate within a few hours as compared to several days needed by routine procedures. PMID:29142545

  18. On-farm starling populations and other environmental and management factors associated with the presence of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli among dairy cattle in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhanie, Genet A; Pearl, David L; McEwen, Scott A; Guerin, Michele T; Jardine, Claire M; Schrock, Jennifer; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2016-11-01

    Wild birds that forage around livestock facilities have been implicated as vectors of antimicrobial resistant organisms. Although antimicrobial resistant bacteria have been isolated from European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), their role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant elements in livestock facilities needs further investigation. To determine whether on-farm starling density and other factors were associated with the presence of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli among dairy cows in Ohio, bovine fecal pats from 150 farms were tested for the presence of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli. Each farm was visited twice (during the summer and fall of 2007-2009). Multi-level logistic regression models with a random intercept to account for fecal pats collected within a specific visit to a farm were used to assess the associations. The percentage of samples with cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli was 13.4% and 13.6%, respectively. The percentage of farms having at least one sample testing positive for cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli was 56.7% and 48.7%, respectively. The odds of detecting cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli in the samples was significantly higher in 2007 compared to 2008 and 2009, in fall compared to summer, and from farms closer than 60km to starling night roost sites compared to the farms further than 60km. The presence of starlings during the day had a negative association with the likelihood of detecting cefotaxime resistant E. coli. Presence of calves also had a negative association with the likelihood of detecting both cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli. European starlings might play a role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant agents in livestock facilities related to their daily population movements rather than the specific density of birds on farm during the day. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The over-expression of a chrysanthemum WRKY transcription factor enhances aphid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiling; Song, Aiping; Gao, Chunyan; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Fang, Weimin; Zhang, Fei; Chen, Fadi

    2015-10-01

    Members of the large WRKY transcription factor family are responsible for the regulation of plant growth, development and the stress response. Here, five WRKY members were isolated from chrysanthemum. They each contained a single WRKY domain and a C2H2 zinc finger motif, so were classified into group II. Transient expression experiments demonstrated that all five were expressed in the nucleus, although CmWRKY42 was also expressed in the cytoplasm. When expressed heterologously in yeast, the products of CmWRKY22 and CmWRKY48 exhibited transactivation activity, while those of CmWRKY21, CmWRKY40 and CmWRKY42 did not. The transcription of the five CmWRKY genes was profiled when the plants were challenged with a variety of abiotic and biotic stress agents, as well as being treated with various phytohormones. CmWRKY21 proved to be markedly induced by salinity stress, and suppressed by high temperature exposure; CmWRKY22 was induced by high temperature exposure; CmWRKY40 was highly induced by salinity stress, and treatment with either abscisic acid (ABA) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA); CmWRKY42 was up-regulated by salinity stress, low temperature, ABA and MeJA treatment and aphid infestation; CmWRKY48 was induced by drought stress, ABA and MeJA treatment and aphid infestation. The function of CmWRKY48 was further investigated by over-expressing it transgenically. The constitutive expression of this transcription factor inhibited the aphids' population growth capacity, suggesting that it may represent an important component of the plant's defense machinery against aphids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among Swiss veterinary health care providers: detection of livestock- and healthcare-associated clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein Rosenkranz, K; Rothenanger, E; Brodard, I; Collaud, A; Overesch, G; Bigler, B; Marschall, J; Perreten, V

    2014-07-01

    We screened a total of 340 veterinarians (including general practitioners, small animal practitioners, large animal practitioners, veterinarians working in different veterinary services or industry), and 29 veterinary assistants for nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) at the 2012 Swiss veterinary annual meeting. MRSA isolates (n = 14) were detected in 3.8 % (95 % CI 2.1 - 6.3 %) of the participants whereas MRSP was not detected. Large animal practitioners were carriers of livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) ST398-t011-V (n = 2), ST398-t011-IV (n = 4), and ST398-t034-V (n = 1). On the other hand, participants working with small animals harbored human healthcare-associated MRSA (HCA-MRSA) which belonged to epidemic lineages ST225-t003-II (n = 2), ST225-t014-II (n = 1), ST5-t002-II (n = 2), ST5-t283-IV (n = 1), and ST88-t186-IV (n = 1). HCA-MRSA harbored virulence factors such as enterotoxins, β-hemolysin converting phage and leukocidins. None of the MRSA isolates carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). In addition to the methicillin resistance gene mecA, LA-MRSA ST398 isolates generally contained additional antibiotic resistance genes conferring resistance to tetracycline [tet(M) and tet(K)], trimethoprim [dfrK, dfrG], and the aminoglycosides gentamicin and kanamycin [aac(6')-Ie - aph(2')-Ia]. On the other hand, HCA-MRSA ST5 and ST225 mainly contained genes conferring resistance to the macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B antibiotics [erm(A)], to spectinomycin [ant(9)-Ia], amikacin and tobramycin [ant(4')-Ia], and to fluoroquinolones [amino acid substitutions in GrlA (S84L) and GyrA (S80F and S81P)]. MRSA carriage may represent an occupational risk and veterinarians should be aware of possible MRSA colonization and potential for developing infection or for transmitting these strains. Professional exposure to animals should be reported upon hospitalization and before medical

  1. Doxorubicin resistance mediated by cytoplasmic macrophage colony-stimulating factor is associated with switch from apoptosis to autophagic cell death in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengxia; Zhang, Hailiang; Tang, Fan; Wang, Yuhua; Mo, Zhongcheng; Lei, Xiaoyong

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor is a vital factor in maintaining the biological function of monocyte–macrophage lineage. It is expressed in many tumor tissues and cancer cells. Recent findings indicate that macrophage colony-stimulating factor might contribute to chemoresistance, but the precise mechanisms are unclear. This study was to explore the effect of macrophage colony-stimulating factor on doxorubicin resistance in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and the possible mechanism. In the study, the human breast cancer cells, MCF-7, were transfected with macrophage colony-stimulating factor. We document that cytoplasmic macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces doxorubicin resistance and inhibits apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Further studies demonstrated that cytoplasmic macrophage colony-stimulating factor-mediated apoptosis inhibition was dependent on the activation of PI3K/Akt/Survivin pathway. More importantly, we found that macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced autophagic cell death in doxorubicin-treated MCF-7 cells. Taken together, we show for the first time that macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced doxorubicin resistance is associated with the changes in cell death response with defective apoptosis and promotion of autophagic cell death. PMID:27439542

  2. Activated Protein C-Resistance Determination and Vascular Access Thrombosis in Populations with High Prevalence of Factor V Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis, Nikolaos E; Tzenakis, Nikolaos; Nioti, Eleni; Spatharaki, Paraskevi; Vyzoukaki, Rodanthi; Papadopoulou, Anastasia; Kokonozaki, Maria; Alexandrakis, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Factor V Leiden heterozygosity occurs in 3-8% of the general European and US populations. Activated protein C resistance (APC-R)--a non-molecular laboratory test--can efficiently demonstrate the presence of this mutation and can be performed on most coagulation analyzers. On the other hand, fistula or graft thrombosis is a common and costly complication in hemodialysis patients. Our aim was to establish the value of APC-R determination in hemodialysis patients by assessing the risk of access thrombosis in patients with increased APC-R. A total of 133 patients (81 men, mean age 64.5 ± 14.9 years and 52 women, mean age 63.6 ± 15 years) were selected. Participants were divided into 2 groups: those with access thrombosis (54 patients, 40.6%) and those with no access thrombosis (79 patients, 59.4%), and they were tested for the most common congenital or acquired thrombophilia risk factors. Overall, 12 patients (9%) had an increased APC-R and 10 of them had at least 1 episode of access thrombosis (83.3%). Univariate analysis to estimate crude odds ratio (OR) showed an OR of 8.8 (95% CI 1.8-41.8) times higher risk for access thrombosis in these patients. No significant differences were found after adjusting for age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and malignancy. Sex was also a factor influencing thrombosis, presenting a higher OR for women (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.4). This study revealed a significant association between access thrombosis and increased APC-R in hemodialysis patients. This indicates that the determination of APC-R should be considered--especially, in populations with a high prevalence of Factor V Leiden--as proper anticoagulant therapy in these patients may reduce the risk of access thrombosis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Assessment of virulence factors, antibiotic resistance and amino-decarboxylase activity in Enterococcus faecium MXVK29 isolated from Mexican chorizo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Cisneros, Y M; Fernández, F J; Sainz-Espuñez, T; Ponce-Alquicira, E

    2017-02-01

    Enterococcus faecium MXVK29 has the ability to produce an antimicrobial compound that belongs to Class IIa of the Klaenhammer classification, and could be used as part of a biopreservation technology through direct inoculation of the strain as a starter or protective culture. However, Enterococcus is considered as an opportunistic pathogen, hence, the purpose of this work was to study the food safety determinants of E. faecium MXVK29. The strain was sensitive to all of the antibiotics tested (penicillin, tetracycline, vancomycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, kanamycin and netilmicin) and did not demonstrate histamine, cadaverine or putrescine formation. Furthermore, tyrosine-decarboxylase activity was detected by qualitative assays and PCR. Among the virulence factors analysed for the strain, only the genes encoding the sexual pheromone cCF10 precursor lipoprotein (ccf) and cell-wall adhesion (efaA fm ) were amplified. The presence of these genes has low impact on pathogenesis, as there are no other genes encoding for virulence factors, such as aggregation proteins. Therefore, Enterococcus faecium could be employed as part of a bioconservation method, because it does not produce risk factors for consumer's health; in addition, it could be used as part of the hurdle technology in foods. The use of molecular techniques has allowed, in recent years, to detect pathogenicity genes present in the genome of starter cultures used in food processing and preservation. The presence of these genes is undesirable, because horizontal transfer may occur with the natural biota of consumers. For this reason, it is important to analyse the presence of pathogenicity genes in such cultures. In this work, virulence factors and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus faecium strain MXVK29, producing an antimicrobial compound with high antilisterial activity, were analysed. The results indicate that the strain is safe to be used in food processing as starter

  4. Prevalence, outcome and risk factor associated with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, A; Shukla, S K; Singh, A; Prasad, K N

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, genotype, risk factors and mortality in patients having vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VR E. faecalis) and Enterococcus faecium (VR E. faecium) infection or colonisation. A total of 1488 clinical isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium were tested for vancomycin resistance by phenotypic (disk diffusion, E-test and broth micro-dilution test) and genotypic polymerase chain reaction methods. Records of all 1488 patients who had E. faecalis or E. faecium infection or colonisation were reviewed for the identification of host, hospital and medication related risk factors associated with VR E. faecalis and VR E. faecium. Of 1488 isolates, 118 (7.9%) were vancomycin-resistant and their distributions were as follows: E. faecalis=72 (61%) and E. faecium=46 (39%). All 118 vancomycin-resistant isolates were vanA genotype (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] to vancomycin ≥64 μg/ml and MIC to teicoplanin≥32 μg/ml) and none of the isolates was vanB genotype. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified ventilator support and hospital stay for ≥48 h as independent risk factors associated with VR E. faecalis and VR E. faecium infection or colonisation. Hospital stay≥48 h was the only independent risk factor for mortality in patients infected with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Strategies to limit the nosocomial infection especially in patients on ventilator support can reduce VRE incidence and related mortality.

  5. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Slone

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children’s externalizing symptoms. Fathers’ parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children’s mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict.

  6. Analysis of the risk factors relating to cows' resistance to Rhipicephalus microplus ticks during the peripartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Rangel, Charles Passos; de Azevedo Baêta, Bruna; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate season, breed, number of lactations and milk production as risk factors relating to Rhipicephalus microplus infestation in dairy cows during the peripartum. Eighty-four animals were randomly selected through proportional stratified sampling. All engorged and partially engorged female R. microplus specimens measuring 4.5-8.0 mm were counted during the 5 weeks before calving, calving week and 5 weeks after calving. The peripartum had a significant effect [calving (p Girolando (p < 0.05; PR = 1.39). The average R. microplus count was significantly higher (p < 0.05; PR = 0.97) in first-lactation animals, followed by those at the second, third and, fourth or subsequent lactation. Milk production showed a negative correlation with R. microplus count, such that high-production animals were significantly (p = 0.003; PR = 2.04) more vulnerable to infestation than were low-production animals. First-lactation and high-production B. taurus animals had greatest vulnerability to R. microplus infestation over the peripartum period, and constituted the at-risk group in the dairy herd.

  7. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12-14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children's externalizing symptoms. Fathers' parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children's mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict.

  8. Risk Factors for the Development of Gastrointestinal Colonization With Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli in Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jennifer H.; Maslow, Joel; Han, Xiaoyan; Xie, Sharon X.; Tolomeo, Pam; Santana, Evelyn; Carson, Lesley; Lautenbach, Ebbing

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to assess risk factors for the development of fluoroquinolone (FQ)–resistant Escherichia coli gastrointestinal tract colonization in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents. Methods. A prospective cohort study was conducted from 2006 to 2008 at 3 LTCFs. Residents initially colonized with FQ-susceptible E. coli were followed by means of serial fecal sampling for new FQ-resistant E. coli colonization for up to 12 months or until discharge or death. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was developed to identify risk factors for new FQ-resistant E. coli colonization, with antibiotic and device exposures modeled as time-varying covariates. Results. Fifty-seven (47.5%) of 120 residents became newly colonized with FQ-resistant E. coli, with a median time to colonization of 57 days. Fecal incontinence (hazard ratio [HR], 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–3.06; P = .04) was significantly associated with FQ-resistant E. coli acquisition. Receipt of amoxicillin-clavulanate (HR, 6.48; 95% CI, 1.43–29.4; P = .02) and the presence of a urinary catheter (HR, 3.81; 95% CI, 1.06–13.8; P = .04) during LTCF stay increased the risk of new FQ-resistant E. coli colonization. Conclusions. Acquisition of FQ-resistant E. coli was common, with nearly half of LTCF residents developing new FQ-resistant E. coli colonization. Further studies are needed on interventions to limit the emergence of FQ-resistant E. coli in LTCFs. PMID:23986544

  9. Steroid-resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children: long-term follow-up and risk factors for end-stage renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Zagury

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUTION: Steroid resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (SRINS in children is one of the leading causes of progression to chronic kidney disease stage V (CKD V/end stage renal disease (ESRD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the efficacy of immunosuppressive drugs (IS and to identify risk factors for progression to ESRD in this population. METHODS: Clinical and biochemical variables at presentation, early or late steroid resistance, histological pattern and response to cyclosporine A (CsA and cyclophosfamide (CP were reviewed in 136 children with SRINS. The analyzed outcome was the progression to ESRD. Univariate as well as multivariate Cox-regression analysis were performed. RESULTS: Median age at onset was 5.54 years (0.67-17.22 and median follow up time was 6.1 years (0.25-30.83. Early steroid-resistance was observed in 114 patients and late resistance in 22. Resistance to CP and CsA was 62.9% and 35% respectively. At last follow-up 57 patients reached ESRD. The renal survival rate was 71.5%, 58.4%, 55.3%, 35.6% and 28.5% at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 years respectively. Univariate analysis demonstrated that older age at onset, early steroid-resistance, hematuria, hypertension, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, and resistance to IS were risk factors for ESRD. The Cox proportional-hazards regression identified CsAresistance and FSGS as the only predictors for ESRD. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that CsA-resistance and FSGS were risk factors for ESRD.

  10. Tumors initiated by constitutive Cdk2 activation exhibit transforming growth factor beta resistance and acquire paracrine mitogenic stimulation during progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsino, P.; Davis, B.; Law, M.

    2007-01-01

    Cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) complexes are present at high frequency in human breast cancer cell lines, but the significance of this observation is unknown. This report shows that expression of a cyclin D1-Cdk2 fusion protein under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMITV......) promoter results in mammary gland hyperplasia and fibrosis, and mammary tumors. Cell lines isolated from MMTV-cyclin D1-Cdk2 (MMTV-D1K2) tumors exhibit Rb and p130 hyperphosphorylation and up-regulation of the protein products of E2F-dependent genes. These results suggest that cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes may...... mediate some of the transforming effects that result from cyclin D1 overexpression in human breast cancers. MMTV-DIK2 cancer cells express the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor, c-Met. MMTV-D1K2 cancer cells also secrete transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), but are relatively resistant to TGF...

  11. Epidemiology, risk factor, species distribution, antifungal resistance and outcome of Candidemia at a single French hospital: a 7-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadec, Laurent; Talarmin, Jean-Philippe; Gastinne, Thomas; Bretonnière, Cédric; Miegeville, Michel; Le Pape, Patrice; Morio, Florent

    2016-05-01

    Candidemia remains a major cause of disease worldwide and is associated with a high mortality rate. We conducted a retrospective study of candidemia at Nantes Hospital, France, between 2004 and 2010. A total of 191 episodes (n = 188 patients) were reviewed. Incidence, demographics, risk factors, antifungal management, species identification, in vitro susceptibility and 12 weeks survival were analysed. Global incidence of candidemia was 0.37‰ admissions. Higher incidences were observed in haematology (6.65‰) and intensive care units (2‰). Central venous catheter and antibiotic exposure were the most frequent risk factors (77% and 76% respectively). Candida albicans was the predominant species (51.8%) followed by C. parapsilosis (14.5%), C. glabrata (9.8%), C. tropicalis (9.8%) and C. krusei (4.1%). However, species distribution differed significantly between medical units with frequency of C. tropicalis being higher in haematology compared to other medical units. Fluconazole and caspofungin were the main antifungals given as first-line therapy. Although not significant, 12 weeks mortality rate was 30.9%, being higher for C. tropicalis (44.4%) than for C. parapsilosis (16%). Acquired azole or echinocandin resistance was noted in some isolates, underlining the need for systematic antifungal susceptibility testing in patients with candidemia. These epidemiological findings will be of interest for antifungal stewardship at our hospital. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Spatial patterns of multidrug resistant tuberculosis and relationships to socio-economic, demographic and household factors in northwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefyalew Addis Alene

    Full Text Available Understanding the geographical distribution of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in high TB burden countries such as Ethiopia is crucial for effective control of TB epidemics in these countries, and thus globally. We present the first spatial analysis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis, and its relationship to socio-economic, demographic and household factors in northwest Ethiopia.An ecological study was conducted using data on patients diagnosed with MDR-TB at the University of Gondar Hospital MDR-TB treatment centre, for the period 2010 to 2015. District level population data were extracted from the Ethiopia National and Regional Census Report. Spatial autocorrelation was explored using Moran's I statistic, Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA, and the Getis-Ord statistics. A multivariate Poisson regression model was developed with a conditional autoregressive (CAR prior structure, and with posterior parameters estimated using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulation approach with Gibbs sampling, in WinBUGS.A total of 264 MDR-TB patients were included in the analysis. The overall crude incidence rate of MDR-TB for the six-year period was 3.0 cases per 100,000 population. The highest incidence rate was observed in Metema (21 cases per 100,000 population and Humera (18 cases per 100,000 population districts; whereas nine districts had zero cases. Spatial clustering of MDR-TB was observed in districts located in the Ethiopia-Sudan and Ethiopia-Eritrea border regions, where large numbers of seasonal migrants live. Spatial clustering of MDR-TB was positively associated with urbanization (RR: 1.02; 95%CI: 1.01, 1.04 and the percentage of men (RR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.26, 1.99 in the districts; after accounting for these factors there was no residual spatial clustering.Spatial clustering of MDR-TB, fully explained by demographic factors (urbanization and percent male, was detected in the border regions of northwest Ethiopia

  13. Variation and risk factors of drug resistant tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukoye, Deus; Ssengooba, Willy; Musisi, Kenneth; Kasule, George W.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.; Joloba, Moses; Gomez, Gabriela B.

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), defined as in vitro resistance to both rifampicin and isoniazid with or without resistance to other TB drugs, in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is reportedly low compared to other regions. These estimates are based on data reported to the World

  14. Adipocyte expression of PU.1 transcription factor causes insulin resistance through upregulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression and ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ligen; Pang, Weijun; Chen, Keyun; Wang, Fei; Gengler, Jon; Sun, Yuxiang; Tong, Qiang

    2012-06-15

    We have reported previously that ETS family transcription factor PU.1 is expressed in mature adipocytes of white adipose tissue. PU.1 expression is increased greatly in mouse models of genetic or diet-induced obesity. Here, we show that PU.1 expression is increased only in visceral but not subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese mice, and the adipocytes are responsible for this increase in PU.1 expression. To further address PU.1's physiological function in mature adipocytes, PU.1 was knocked down in 3T3-L1 cells using retroviral-mediated expression of PU.1-targeting shRNA. Consistent with previous findings that PU.1 regulates its target genes, such as NADPH oxidase subunits and proinflammatory cytokines in myeloid cells, the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6) and cytosolic components of NADPH oxidase (p47phox and p40phox) were downregulated significantly in PU.1-silenced adipocytes. NADPH oxidase is a main source for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Indeed, silencing PU.1 suppressed NADPH oxidase activity and attenuated ROS in basal or hydrogen peroxide-treated adipocytes. Silencing PU.1 in adipocytes suppressed JNK1 activation and IRS-1 phosphorylation at Ser(307). Consequently, PU.1 knockdown improved insulin signaling and increased glucose uptake in basal and insulin-stimulated conditions. Furthermore, knocking down PU.1 suppressed basal lipolysis but activated stimulated lipolysis. Collectively, these findings indicate that obesity induces PU.1 expression in adipocytes to upregulate the production of ROS and proinflammatory cytokines, both of which lead to JNK1 activation, insulin resistance, and dysregulation of lipolysis. Therefore, PU.1 might be a mediator for obesity-induced adipose inflammation and insulin resistance.

  15. Effect of tedizolid on clinical Enterococcus isolates: in vitro activity, distribution of virulence factor, resistance genes and multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bing; Hu, Kaitao; Li, Hui; Yao, Weiming; Li, Duoyun; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hang; Zheng, Jinxin; Pan, Weiguang; Deng, Minggui; Liu, Xiaojun; Lin, Zhiwei; Deng, Qiwen; Yu, Zhijian

    2018-02-01

    Enterococcal infections have become one of the most challenging nosocomial problems. Tedizolid, the second oxazolidinone, is 4-fold to 8-fold more potent in vivo and in vitro than linezolid against enterococci. However, the characteristics of tedizolid related to enterococci isolates in China remain elusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro activity of tedizolid against enterococcal isolates from patients with infections at a teaching hospital in China and to investigate the correlations between in vitro tedizolid activity against enterococci and the distribution of multilocus sequence types (MLST), resistance genes and virulence factors. A total of 289 non-duplicate Enterococcus faecalis strains and 68 E. faecium strains were isolated. Tedizolid inhibited 95.24% of all enterococcal isolates with an MIC ≤ 0.5μg/ml. Seventeen E. faecalis strains had an MIC > 0.5 μg/ml, and all E. faecium were inhibited at MIC ≤ 0.5 μg/ml. The proportion of tedizolid non-susceptible E. faecalis strains with optrA genes was higher than that among tedizolid-susceptible strains. Tedizolid exhibited good in vitro activity against all E. faecium strains, including multidrug-resistant E. faecium carrying tet(M), tet(L), tet(U),erm(A), erm(B) and erm(C) genes. In summary, tedizolid has an advantage (higher sensitivity rate) compared to linezolid among enterococci, except for isolates expressing the plasmid-encoded optrA gene. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Rivaroxaban Causes Missed Diagnosis of Protein S Deficiency but Not of Activated Protein C Resistance (Factor V Leiden).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryamchik, Elena; Rosenbaum, Matthew W; Van Cott, Elizabeth M

    2018-01-01

    - Rivaroxaban causes a false increase in activated protein C resistance (APCR) ratios and protein S activity. - To investigate whether this increase masks a diagnosis of factor V Leiden (FVL) or protein S deficiency in a "real-world" population of patients undergoing rivaroxaban treatment and hypercoagulation testing. - During a 2.5-year period, we compared 4 groups of patients (n = 60): FVL heterozygous (FVL-HET)/taking rivaroxaban, wild-type/taking rivaroxaban, FVL-HET/no rivaroxaban, and normal APCR/no rivaroxaban. Patients taking rivaroxaban were tested for protein S functional activity and free antigen (n = 32). - The FVL-HET patients taking rivaroxaban had lower APCR ratios than wild-type patients ( P < .001). For FVL-HET patients taking rivaroxaban, mean APCR was 1.75 ± 0.12, versus 1.64 ± 0.3 in FVL-HET patients not taking rivaroxaban ( P = .005). Activated protein C resistance in FVL-HET patients fell more than 3 SDs below the cutoff of 2.2 at which the laboratory reflexes FVL DNA testing. No cases of FVL were missed despite rivaroxaban. In contrast, rivaroxaban falsely elevated functional protein S activity, regardless of the presence or absence of FVL ( P < .001). A total of 4 of 32 patients (12.5%) had low free protein S antigen (range, 58%-67%), whereas their functional protein S activity appeared normal (range 75%-130%). Rivaroxaban would have caused a missed diagnosis of all cases of protein S deficiency during the study if testing relied on the protein S activity assay alone. - Despite rivaroxaban treatment, APCR testing can distinguish FVL-HET from normal patients, rendering indiscriminate FVL DNA testing of all patients on rivaroxaban unnecessary. Free protein S should be tested in patients taking rivaroxaban to exclude hereditary protein S deficiency.

  17. Case-control risk factor study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) infection in dogs and cats in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Georg; Linek, Monika; Bond, Ross; Lloyd, David H; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Thom, Nina; Straube, Iris; Verheyen, Kristien; Loeffler, Anette

    2014-01-10

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) has emerged as a highly drug-resistant small animal veterinary pathogen. Although often isolated from outpatients in veterinary clinics, there is concern that MRSP follows a veterinary-hospital-associated epidemiology. This study's objective was to identify risk factors for MRSP infections in dogs and cats in Germany. Clinical isolates of MRSP cases (n=150) and methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MSSP) controls (n=133) and their corresponding host signalment and medical data covering the six months prior to staphylococcal isolation were analysed by multivariable logistic regression. The identity of all MRSP isolates was confirmed through demonstration of S. intermedius-group specific nuc and mecA. In the final model, cats (compared to dogs, OR 18.5, 95% CI 1.8-188.0, P=0.01), animals that had been hospitalised (OR 104.4, 95% CI 21.3-511.6, Pveterinary clinics more frequently (>10 visits OR 7.3, 95% CI 1.0-52.6, P=0.049) and those that had received topical ear medication (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.8-14.9, P=0.003) or glucocorticoids (OR 22.5, 95% CI 7.0-72.6, Prisk of MRSP infection, whereas S. pseudintermedius isolates from ears were more likely to belong to the MSSP-group (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.03-0.34, Pveterinary clinic/hospital settings and possibly with chronic skin disease. There was an unexpected lack of association between MRSP and antimicrobial therapy; this requires further investigation but may indicate that MRSP is well adapted to canine skin with little need for selective pressure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased Energy Expenditure, Ucp1 Expression, and Resistance to Diet-induced Obesity in Mice Lacking Nuclear Factor-Erythroid-2-related Transcription Factor-2 (Nrf2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kevin; Valdez, Joshua; Nguyen, Janice; Vawter, Marquis; Galke, Brandi; Kurtz, Theodore W; Chan, Jefferson Y

    2016-04-01

    The NRF2 (also known as NFE2L2) transcription factor is a critical regulator of genes involved in defense against oxidative stress. Previous studies suggest thatNrf2plays a role in adipogenesisin vitro, and deletion of theNrf2gene protects against diet-induced obesity in mice. Here, we demonstrate that resistance to diet-induced obesity inNrf2(-/-)mice is associated with a 20-30% increase in energy expenditure. Analysis of bioenergetics revealed thatNrf2(-/-)white adipose tissues exhibit greater oxygen consumption. White adipose tissue showed a >2-fold increase inUcp1gene expression. Oxygen consumption is also increased nearly 2.5-fold inNrf2-deficient fibroblasts. Oxidative stress induced by glucose oxidase resulted in increasedUcp1expression. Conversely, antioxidant chemicals (such asN-acetylcysteine and Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin chloride) and SB203580 (a known suppressor ofUcp1expression) decreasedUcp1and oxygen consumption inNrf2-deficient fibroblasts. These findings suggest that increasing oxidative stress by limitingNrf2function in white adipocytes may be a novel means to modulate energy balance as a treatment of obesity and related clinical disorders. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Increased tolerance and resistance to virus infections: a possible factor in the survival of Varroa destructor-resistant honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Barbara; Forsgren, Eva; de Miranda, Joachim R

    2014-01-01

    The honey bee ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, has a world-wide distribution and inflicts more damage than all other known apicultural diseases. However, Varroa-induced colony mortality is more accurately a result of secondary virus infections vectored by the mite. This means that honey bee resistance to Varroa may include resistance or tolerance to virus infections. The aim of this study was to see if this is the case for a unique population of mite-resistant (MR) European honey bees on the island of Gotland, Sweden. This population has survived uncontrolled mite infestation for over a decade, developing specific mite-related resistance traits to do so. Using RT-qPCR techniques, we monitored late season virus infections, Varroa mite infestation and honey bee colony population dynamics in the Gotland MR population and compared this to mite-susceptible (MS) colonies in a close by apiary. From summer to autumn the deformed wing virus (DWV) titres increased similarly between the MR and MS populations, while the black queen cell virus (BQCV) and sacbrood virus (SBV) titres decreased substantially in the MR population compared to the MS population by several orders of magnitude. The MR colonies all survived the following winter with high mite infestation, high DWV infection, small colony size and low proportions of autumn brood, while the MS colonies all perished. Possible explanations for these changes in virus titres and their relevance to Varroa resistance and colony winter survival are discussed.

  20. Increased tolerance and resistance to virus infections: a possible factor in the survival of Varroa destructor-resistant honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Locke

    Full Text Available The honey bee ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, has a world-wide distribution and inflicts more damage than all other known apicultural diseases. However, Varroa-induced colony mortality is more accurately a result of secondary virus infections vectored by the mite. This means that honey bee resistance to Varroa may include resistance or tolerance to virus infections. The aim of this study was to see if this is the case for a unique population of mite-resistant (MR European honey bees on the island of Gotland, Sweden. This population has survived uncontrolled mite infestation for over a decade, developing specific mite-related resistance traits to do so. Using RT-qPCR techniques, we monitored late season virus infections, Varroa mite infestation and honey bee colony population dynamics in the Gotland MR population and compared this to mite-susceptible (MS colonies in a close by apiary. From summer to autumn the deformed wing virus (DWV titres increased similarly between the MR and MS populations, while the black queen cell virus (BQCV and sacbrood virus (SBV titres decreased substantially in the MR population compared to the MS population by several orders of magnitude. The MR colonies all survived the following winter with high mite infestation, high DWV infection, small colony size and low proportions of autumn brood, while the MS colonies all perished. Possible explanations for these changes in virus titres and their relevance to Varroa resistance and colony winter survival are discussed.

  1. Risk factors and treatment outcomes of bloodstream infection caused by extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacter species in adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Kyungmin; Kang, Cheol-In; Kim, Jungok; Cho, Sun Young; Ha, Young Eun; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lee, Nam Yong; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2014-02-01

    Treatment of Enterobacter infection is complicated due to its intrinsic resistance to cephalosporins. Medical records of 192 adults with cancer who had Enterobacter bacteremia were analyzed retrospectively to evaluate the risk factors for and the treatment outcomes in extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Enterobacter bacteremia in adults with cancer. The main outcome measure was 30-day mortality. Of the 192 patients, 53 (27.6%) had bloodstream infections caused by ESC-resistant Enterobacter species. Recent use of a third-generation cephalosporin, older age, tumor progression at last evaluation, recent surgery, and nosocomial acquisition were associated with ESC-resistant Enterobacter bacteremia. The 30-day mortality rate was significantly higher in the resistant group. Multivariate analysis showed that respiratory tract infection, tumor progression, septic shock at presentation, Enterobacter aerogenes as the culprit pathogen, and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for mortality. ESC resistance was significantly associated with mortality in patients with E. aerogenes bacteremia, although not in the overall patient population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased anaerobic metabolism is a distinctive signature in a colorectal cancer cellular model of resistance to antiepidermal growth factor receptor antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Francesca; Rosa, Roberta; Vitale, Monica; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Succoio, Mariangela; Formisano, Luigi; Nappi, Lucia; Romano, Maria Fiammetta; Scaloni, Andrea; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bianco, Roberto; Zambrano, Nicola

    2013-03-01

    Cetuximab is a chimeric antibody approved for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer that selectively targets epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Treatment efficacy with this drug is often impaired by acquired resistance and poor information has been accumulated on the mechanisms underlying such a phenomenon. By taking advantage of a syngenic cellular system of sensitivity and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR therapy in the colorectal carcinoma GEO cell line, we profiled protein expression differences between Cetuximab-sensitive and -resistant cells. Combined 2D DIGE and MS analyses revealed a main proteomic signature resulting from selective deregulation of various metabolic enzymes, including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, transketolase, lactate dehydrogenase B, and pyruvate dehydrogenase E1, which was also confirmed by Western blotting experiments. Lactate dehydrogenase B downregulation has been already related to an increased anaerobic utilization of glucose by tumor cells; accordingly, we verified that Cetuximab-resistant cells have a significantly higher production of lactate. Resistant cells also showed decreased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) levels. Observed protein deregulations were not related to functional alterations of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1-associated pathways. Our data demonstrate that increased anaerobic metabolism is a prominent feature observed in the GEO syngenic model of acquired resistance to anti-EGFR therapy in colorectal cancer. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Incidence and risk factors for community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in New York City, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P; Cohen, B; Liu, J; Larson, E

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to describe changes in incidence and risk factors for community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections upon admission to two New York City hospitals from 2006 to 2012. We examined the first hospitalization for adult patients using electronic health record and administrative data and determined the annual incidence/1000 admissions of total S. aureus, total MRSA, and CA-MRSA (within 48 h of admission) in clinical specimens over the study period. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with CA-MRSA in 2006 and 2012. In 137 350 admissions, the incidence of S. aureus, MRSA, and CA-MRSA/1000 admissions were 15·6, 7·0, and 3·5, respectively. The total S. aureus and MRSA isolations decreased significantly over the study period (27% and 25%, respectively) while CA-MRSA incidence was unchanged. CA-MRSA increased as a proportion of all MRSA between 2006 (46%) and 2012 (62%), and was most frequently isolated from respiratory (1·5/1000) and blood (0·7/1000) cultures. Logistic regression analysis of factors associated with isolation of CA-MRSA showed that age ⩾65 years [odds ratio (OR) 2·3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·2-4·5], male gender (OR 1·8, 95% CI 1·2-2·8) and history of renal failure (OR 2·6, 95% CI 1·6-4·2) were significant predictors of infection in 2006. No predictors were identified in 2012.

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factor Analysis for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization in Children Attending Child Care Centers▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa B.; Weber, David J.; Goodrich, Jennifer S.; Popowitch, Elena B.; Poe, Michele D.; Nyugen, Viet; Shope, Timothy R.; Foster, David T.; Miller, James R.; Kotch, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Children attending child care centers (CCCs) are at increased risk for infections, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Nasal colonization often precedes infection, and MRSA colonization has been associated with increased infection risk. Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) has caused increased MRSA infections in the general population, including children. Little is known about the frequency of MRSA nasal colonization in young children, particularly in those attending CCCs where disease transmission is common. We sampled the nares of 1,163 children in 200 classrooms from 24 CCCs in North Carolina and Virginia to assess S. aureus colonization. MRSA strains were molecularly analyzed for staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type, Panton-Valentine leukocidin status, and multilocus sequence type. A case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for MRSA colonization. We found that 18.1% children were colonized with S. aureus and 1.3% with MRSA. Molecular analysis of the MRSA strains identified 47% as CA-MRSA and 53% as health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). Although two centers had multiple children colonized with MRSA, genotyping indicated that no transmission had occurred within classrooms. The case-control study did not detect statistically significant risk factors for MRSA colonization. However, MRSA-colonized children were more likely to be nonwhite and to have increased exposure to antibiotics and skin infections in the home. Both CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA strains were found colonizing the nares of children attending CCCs. The low frequency of colonization observed highlights the need for a large multicenter study to determine risk factors for MRSA colonization and subsequent infection in this highly susceptible population. PMID:21191058

  5. Do Behavioral Risk Factors for Prediabetes and Insulin Resistance Differ across the Socioeconomic Gradient? Results from a Community-Based Epidemiologic Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May H. Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine whether behavioral risk factors associated with diabetes (diet, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, and sleep duration are also related to both prediabetes and insulin resistance (IR, we used data from Boston Area Community Health (BACH Survey (2010–2012, n=3155. Logistic and linear regression models were used to test the association of lifestyle factors with prediabetes status, insulin resistance, and prediabetes or insulin resistance. All regression models were stratified by education and income levels (to examine whether risk factors had differential effects across socioeconomic factors and adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, and smoking status. We found that large waist circumference was consistently associated with higher levels of insulin resistance (IR and increased odds of prediabetes. While the association between large waist circumference and IR was consistent across all levels of SES (P<0.001, the association between large waist circumference and prediabetes was only statistically significant in the highest socioeconomic strata with odds ratios of 1.68 (95% CI 1.07–2.62 and 1.88 (95% CI 1.22–2.92 for postgraduate degree and income strata, respectively. There was no association between diet, physical activity, sleep duration, and the presence of multiple risk factors and prediabetes or IR within SES strata.

  6. Third generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae and multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria causing bacteremia in febrile neutropenia adult cancer patients in Lebanon, broad spectrum antibiotics use as a major risk factor, and correlation with poor prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima eMoghnieh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia remains a major cause of life-threatening complications in patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy. The spectrum and susceptibility profiles of causative microorganisms differ with time and place. Data from Lebanon are scarce. We aim at evaluating the epidemiology of bacteremia in cancer patients in a university hospital in Lebanon, emphasizing antibiotic resistance and risk factors of multi-drug resistant organism (MDRO-associated bacteremia.This is a retrospective study of 75 episodes of bacteremia occurring in febrile neutropenic patients admitted to the hematology-oncology unit at Makassed General Hospital, Lebanon, from October 2009-January 2012.It corresponds to epidemiological data on bacteremia episodes in febrile neutropenic cancer patients including antimicrobial resistance and identification of risk factors associated with third generation cephalosporin resistance (3GCR and MDRO-associated bacteremia. Out of 75 bacteremias, 42.7% were gram-positive (GP, and 57.3% were gram-negative (GN. GP bacteremias were mostly due to methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (28% of total bacteremias and 66% of GP bacteremias. Among the GN bacteremias, Escherichia coli (22.7% of total, 39.5% of GN organisms and Klebsiellapneumoniae(13.3% of total, 23.3% of GN organisms were the most important causative agents. GN bacteremia due to 3GC sensitive (3GCS bacteria represented 28% of total bacteremias, while 29% were due to 3GCR bacteria and 9% were due to carbapenem-resistant organisms. There was a significant correlation between bacteremia with MDRO and subsequent intubation, sepsis and mortality. Among potential risk factors, only broad spectrum antibiotic intake >4 days before bacteremia was found to be statistically significant for acquisition of 3GCR bacteria. Using carbapenems or piperacillin/ tazobactam>4 days before bacteremia was significantly associated with the emergence of MDRO (p value<0.05.

  7. Acquired resistance mechanisms to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung cancer with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutation--diversity, ductility, and destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Kenichi; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2012-12-01

    Lung cancers that harbor somatic activating mutations in the gene for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) depend on mutant EGFR for their proliferation and survival; therefore, lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations often dramatically respond to orally available EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, emergence of acquired resistance is virtually inevitable, thus limiting improvement in patient outcomes. To elucidate and overcome this acquired resistance, multidisciplinary basic and clinical investigational approaches have been applied, using in vitro cell line models or samples obtained from lung cancer patients treated with EGFR-TKIs. These efforts have revealed several acquired resistance mechanisms and candidates, including EGFR secondary mutations (T790M and other rare mutations), MET amplification, PTEN downregulation, CRKL amplification, high-level HGF expression, FAS-NFκB pathway activation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and conversion to small cell lung cancer. Interestingly, cancer cells harbor potential destiny and ductility together in acquiring resistance to EGFR-TKIs, as shown in in vitro acquired resistance models. Molecular mechanisms of "reversible EGFR-TKI tolerance" that occur in early phase EGFR-TKI exposure have been identified in cell line models. Furthermore, others have reported molecular markers that can predict response to EGFR-TKIs in clinical settings. Deeper understanding of acquired resistance mechanisms to EGFR-TKIs, followed by the development of molecular target drugs that can overcome the resistance, might turn this fatal disease into a chronic disorder.

  8. The BIM deletion polymorphism: A paradigm of a permissive interaction between germline and acquired TKI resistance factors in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Tun Kiat; Chin, Hui San; Chuah, Charles T H; Huang, John W J; Ng, King-Pan; Khaw, Seong Lin; Huang, David C S; Ong, S Tiong

    2016-01-19

    Both germline polymorphisms and tumor-specific genetic alterations can determine the response of a cancer to a given therapy. We previously reported a germline deletion polymorphism in the BIM gene that was sufficient to mediate intrinsic resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), as well as other cancers [1]. The deletion polymorphism favored the generation of BIM splice forms lacking the pro-apoptotic BH3 domain, conferring a relative resistance to the TKI imatinib (IM). However, CML patients with the BIM deletion polymorphism developed both partial and complete IM resistance. To understand the mechanisms underlying the latter, we grew CML cells either with or without the BIM deletion polymorphism in increasing IM concentrations. Under these conditions, the BIM deletion polymorphism enhanced the emergence of populations with complete IM resistance, mimicking the situation in patients. Importantly, the combined use of TKIs with the BH3 mimetic ABT-737 overcame the BCR-ABL1-dependent and -independent resistance mechanisms found in these cells. Our results illustrate the interplay between germline and acquired genetic factors in confering TKI resistance, and suggest a therapeutic strategy for patients with complete TKI resistance associated with the BIM deletion polymorphism.

  9. 21 CFR 522.2121 - Spectinomycin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...) Amount. 10 to 15 mg per kilogram of body weight at 24-hour intervals for 3 to 5 consecutive days. (2... last treatment. Do not use in female dairy cattle 20 months of age or older. Use in this class of...

  10. Bacteriophage Resistance Mechanisms in the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum: Linking Genomic Mutations to Changes in Bacterial Virulence Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Daniel; Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2015-01-01

    requires overcoming the selection for phage resistance in the bacterial populations. Here, we analyzed resistance mechanisms in F. psychrophilum after phage exposure using whole-genome sequencing of the ancestral phage-sensitive strain 950106-1/1 and six phage-resistant isolates. The phage-resistant...... resistance and the genetic modifications were supported by direct measurements of bacteriophage adsorption rates, biofilm formation, and secretion of extracellular enzymes, which were all impaired in the resistant strains, probably due to superficial structural changes. The clustered regularly interspaced...... were associated with a number of derived effects on the physiological properties of the pathogen, including reduced virulence under in vitro conditions. Consequently, phage-driven physiological changes associated with resistance may have implications for the impact of the pathogen in aquaculture...

  11. Simultaneous analysis of residual stress and stress intensity factor in a resist after UV-nanoimprint lithography based on electron moiré fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qinghua; Kishimoto, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the residual stress in a resist (PAK01) film and the stress intensity factor (SIF) of an induced crack are simultaneously estimated during ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) based on electron moiré fringes. A micro grid in a triangular arrangement on the resist film fabricated by UV-NIL is directly used as the model grid. Electron moiré fringes formed by the interference between the fabricated grid and the electron scan beam are used to measure the displacement distribution around the tip of a crack induced by the residual stress in the resist. The SIF of the crack is estimated using a displacement extrapolation method. The residual strain fields and the corresponding residual stress in the resist film far from the crack are determined and analyzed. This method is effective for evaluating the grid quality fabricated by the UV-NIL technique. (paper)

  12. Insulinaemia and insulin resistance in Caucasian general paediatric population aged 2 to 10 years: Associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alías-Hernández, Irene; Galera-Martínez, Rafael; García-García, Emilio; Muñoz-Vico, Francisco Javier; Vázquez Lopez, María Ángeles; Olvera-Porcel, María Carmen; Bonillo Perales, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine values of insulinaemia, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) among a population of prepubertal Caucasian children, to analyse factors associated with insulin resistance (IR), and to study its association with cardiovascular risk factors. Population-based study conducted on a randomly selected sample of prepubescent Caucasian subjects aged 2.00 to 9.99 years old. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and fasting blood samples were obtained, including fasting glucose, triglycerides, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and insulin. In addition, QUICKI and HOMA indices were calculated. Generalised additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) was used to calculate centiles curves and multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess factors associated with IR. A total of 654 subjects were included. Mean values obtained for insulinaemia, HOMA index, and QUICKI were 3.74 μIU/mL, 0.73, and 0.44, respectively, in the overall population and 3.32 μIU/mL, 0.64 and 0.46, respectively, in normal weight subjects. The main factor associated with IR was abdominal obesity (odds ratio [OR] 3.38 [95% CI 1.44-7.94] in the subgroup aged 2.00-5.99 years and OR 9.14 [3.42-24.41] for those aged 6.00-9.99 years). An increased risk of hyperglycaemia (P = 0.043), hypertriglyceridaemia (P < .001), and HDL < p10 (P = 0.021) was described among children aged 2.00 to 5.99 years with IR, and among those aged 6.00 to 9.99 years, IR was associated with an increased risk of hypertriglyceridaemia (P < .001). Abdominal obesity was the main factor associated with IR. Metabolic changes associated with IR seem to be present from early stages of life, which highlights the importance of the prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of obesity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The DAF-16 FOXO transcription factor regulates natc-1 to modulate stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans, linking insulin/IGF-1 signaling to protein N-terminal acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnhoff, Kurt; Murphy, John T; Kumar, Sandeep; Schneider, Daniel L; Peterson, Michelle; Hsu, Simon; Guthrie, James; Robertson, J David; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2014-10-01

    The insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway plays a critical role in stress resistance and longevity, but the mechanisms are not fully characterized. To identify genes that mediate stress resistance, we screened for C. elegans mutants that can tolerate high levels of dietary zinc. We identified natc-1, which encodes an evolutionarily conserved subunit of